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Sample records for 2m faulkes telescopes

  1. The Faulkes Telescope Optical Spectrographs and Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul

    The Faulkes Telescope project funded primarily by the Dill Faulkes Educational Trust is currently constructing two 2-m robotic telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Australia. These will be the largest and most powerful telescopes ever built dedicated for use by schools and colleges. We have been awarded funding to build two optical spectrographs to be permanently mounted on these telescopes by the end of 2003. At this time an astronomical satellite called Swift will be launched by NASA. Swift is dedicated to the study of gamma-ray bursts the most powerful explosive events in the Universe. The Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Leicester has provided the X-ray camera for Swift and is a partner in the Faulkes Telescopes project. To enhance both projects we intend to use the Faulkes Telescope optical spectrographs to study the gamma-ray bursts identified by Swift. These data will also be made available to schools thereby raising the profile of physics and astronomy in the educational community.

  2. Hunting Spinning Asteroids with the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The Faulkes telescopes are proving a dab hand at allowing schools and amateurs to do real science. The author discusses the latest Faulkes research project, and his record-breaking discovery that was pert of it.

  3. The Faulkes Telescope Project at school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    The Faulkes Telescope Project [1] was started in 2000 and is currently managed by the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) [2]. Allows student access to two remote telescopes (in Hawaii and in Australia), allowing you to capture images of the sky. Since January 2012 I conduct monthly observations with students: first with students from Escola Secundária de Loulé (ESL) [3] and starting from September 2013 with students from Agrupamento de Escolas Dra Laura Ayres [4], in Quarteira. Each session is previously prepared in order to make the best of the time available. For that we use a virtual planetarium that allows us to see the sky in place and time of the scheduled session. After the start of each session a student takes control in real time of one of the telescopes from a computer connected to the internet. This project is a tool that gives the students the feeling of doing science and meet the sky step by step. The observations made by my students can be found at www.miguelneta.pt/faulkestelescope. [1] http://www.faulkes-telescope.com [2] http://lcogt.net [3] https://www.es-loule.edu.pt [4] http://www.esla.edu.pt

  4. Remote secure observing for the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert J.; Steele, Iain A.; Marchant, Jonathan M.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Mucke-Herzberg, Dorothea

    2004-09-01

    Since the Faulkes Telescopes are to be used by a wide variety of audiences, both powerful engineering level and simple graphical interfaces exist giving complete remote and robotic control of the telescope over the internet. Security is extremely important to protect the health of both humans and equipment. Data integrity must also be carefully guarded for images being delivered directly into the classroom. The adopted network architecture is described along with the variety of security and intrusion detection software. We use a combination of SSL, proxies, IPSec, and both Linux iptables and Cisco IOS firewalls to ensure only authenticated and safe commands are sent to the telescopes. With an eye to a possible future global network of robotic telescopes, the system implemented is capable of scaling linearly to any moderate (of order ten) number of telescopes.

  5. Monitoring LMXBs with the Faulkes Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Fraser; Russell, D. M.; Fender, R. P.; Roche, P.

    The Faulkes Telescope Project is the educational arm of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT). It currently has two 2-metre robotic telescopes, located at Haleakala on Maui (FT North) and Siding Spring in Australia (FT South). It is planned to increase this to six 2-metre telescopes in the future, complemented by a network of 30-40 smaller (0.4 - 1 metre) telescopes providing 24 hour coverage of both northern and southern hemispheres. We are undertaking a monitoring project of 10 low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) using FT North to study the optical continuum behaviour of X-ray transients in quiescence. The introduction of FT South in September 2006 allows us to extend this monitoring to include 17 southern hemisphere LMXBs. With new instrumentation, we also intend to expand this monitoring to include both infrared wavelengths and spectroscopy.

  6. Spectroscopic classification for PSN J03175245-0718021 with FLOYDS at Faulkes Telescope South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, S.; Graham, M. L.; Howell, D. A.; Sand, D.; Parrent, J. T.

    2013-07-01

    We report a spectroscopic observation of PSN J03175245-0718021, located at RA= 03:17:52.45, DEC = -07:18:02.1 (J2000). A spectrum (range 320-1000 nm) obtained robotically on July 13.72 UT with the FLOYDS spectrograph at "Faulkes Telescope South" at Siding Spring shows a blue continuum with He I features with a P-cygni profile. No Hydrogen lines are visible.

  7. Mutual Events of the Uranian Satellites Observed with the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Apostolos; Lewis, F.; Hidas, M. G.; Brown, T. M.; Roche, P.

    2008-09-01

    The 2007 Uranian Equinox allowed unique observations of the planet, its rings and satellites, possible only twice during the planet's 84 year orbit. Among these were mutual eclipses and occultations between the 5 classical satellites Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon and Miranda. These ``mutual'' events are extremely useful as reality checks of satellite ephemerides. In addition, they provide an opportunity to improve our knowledge of the satellite orbits and the system constants. We observed several mutual events in 2007 using the 2m Faulkes Telescopes North (FTN) and South (FTS) located in Haleakala, Maui and Siding Spring, Australia respectively, operated by the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network. To mitigate against Uranus' glare, we utilized wide-band imaging in the near-IR, a small image scale and a posteriori subtraction of the planet's PSF. We obtained positive detections of six mutual events, three occultations and three eclipses, among these satellites. Three of these events involved Miranda, a difficult target due to its proximity to Uranus. Furthermore, we recorded at least two events that were predicted to occur with high confidence but did not, in fact, occur. During this presentation we will describe our observing strategy, operational setup and data reduction techniques and present examples of obtained lightcurves. Our observational results have been compared with predictions based on ephemerides by Laskar and Jacobson (1987; GUST86), by Lainey and Arlot (2006; LA06) and by Rush and Jacobson (2007; RJ07). Offsets with respect to the Voyager-era GUST86 are quite significant, of the order of minutes in the event midtimes. Smaller, yet significant trends in the data also appear with respect to LA06 and RJ07. We will discuss the nature of these trends and how they can be interpreted in terms of potential improvements in our knowledge of the Uranian system.

  8. Spectroscopic classification for PSN J01364816+1545310 in M74 with FLOYDS at Faulkes Telescope South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, S.; Sand, D.; Howell, D. A.; Graham, M. L.; Parrent, J. T.; Zheng, W.; Cenko, B.

    2013-07-01

    We report a spectroscopic observation of PSN J01364816+1545310 in M74, obtained robotically with the FLOYDS spectrograph at Faulkes Telescope South at Siding Spring on July 27.73 UT. The spectrum (range 320-1000nm) shows a blue continuum with balmer lines typical of a young SN type II. Fits to a library of spectra using superfit, gelato, and SNID shows best match with early spectra of SN 1999gi (Nakano, S., and Kushida, R.

  9. Pro-am collaborations with the Faulkes Telescopes, and the benefit to education, science and outreach awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, N.; Miles, R.; Roche, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Faulkes Telescope Project is an educational and research arm of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGTN). It has two 2-metre robotic telescopes, located at Haleakala on Maui (FT North) and Siding Spring in Australia (FT South). It is planned for these telescopes to be complemented by a research network of multiple 1-metre telescopes, along with an educational network of multiple 0.4-metre telescopes, providing 24-hour coverage of both northern and southern hemispheres. The telescope network is unique in that it provides school students with access to research grade instrumentation in the United Kingdom and several other countries across Europe as well as in Hawaii. Over the past few years, amateur astronomers have increasingly been working with schools suggesting projects which have provided valuable scientific input to professional astronomers. This poster aims to present several of the key results and observations where professional astronomers have cited and used this data obtained with the Faulkes Telescope, notably - Observations and results from the global campaign on Comet C/2007 Q3 ; Ref.[2] - Observations of the fragmentation of Comet 168P; Ref.[3] - Observations relating to the evolution of Comet C/2012 S1; Ref.[4] - Observations and imaging of the Jupiter-family comet, P/2010 TO20; Ref.[5

  10. 2m class telescope project at Lijiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Bai-Rong; Luo, Guo-Quan; Liu, Zhong; Tan, Hui-Song

    Supported by the ministry of science and technology, government of Yunnan Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, a 2m class telescope project was granted. In this paper, we will first review the site, Gaomeigu, briefly, then give the details of 2m class telescope project, and finally discuss the future plans of this new telescope.

  11. TOPS and Beyond: Training Master Teachers to Mentor Student Astronomy Projects Using the Faulkes Telescope-North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedient, J.; Meech, K. J.; Kadooka, M. A.; Mattei, J. A.; Hamai, J.; Hemphill, R.; Hu, S.

    2003-05-01

    2003 was the fifth and final year of the NSF-funded ``Towards Other Planetary Systems'' (TOPS) secondary school teacher training program conducted by the Institute for Astronomy in Hawai'i. While previous years concentrated on basic astronomy skills, cultural astronomy and astrobiology, TOPS 2003 focused on training master teachers and prior TOPS participants in the requisite skills to mentor student projects using the Faulkes Telescope-North (FTN), a 2-meter telescope under construction at the Haleakala High Altitude Observatory. The FTN and a twin in Australia will be the world's largest telescopes dedicated solely to education. This poster presentation describes the teacher's experiences with several prototype astrobiology projects suitable for a 2-meter-class telescope, including monitoring variable stars in star-forming regions, detecting extrasolar planet transits, and observing objects in the Kuiper Belt. Plans for partnering teachers with amateur astronomers proficient in observational techniques are also discussed; the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) is a likely reservoir of such individuals. The recent selection of a University of Hawai'i group led by the TOPS Director as a NASA Astrobiology Institute Lead Team will provide a framework for development of teacher-student-amateur astronomer teams advised by professional astronomers and conducting astrobiology research. This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, ESI-9731083, and through University of Maryland and University of Hawaii subcontract Z667702, which was awarded under prime contract NASW-00004 from NASA.

  12. Taming the 1.2 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Edwards, M.; Greenwald, D.; Kono, D.; Liang, D.; Lohnes, K.; Wright, V.; Spillar, E.

    2013-09-01

    Achievable residual jitter on the 1.2 m telescope at MSSS shown in Figure 1 has historically been limited to 10-20 arc-sec. peak in moderate wind conditions due to the combination of the dynamics associated with the twin telescopes on the common declination axis shaft, and the related control system behavior. Figure 1 1.2 m Telescope The lightly damped, low frequency fundamental vibration mode shape of the telescopes rotating out of phase on the common declination axis shaft severely degraded the performance of the prior controllers. This vibration mode is easily excited by external forces such as wind loading and internal torque commands from the mount control system. The relatively poor historic performance was due to a combination of the low error rejection of external disturbances, and the controller exciting the mode. A radical new approach has been implemented that has resulted in a decrease of jitter to less than 1 arcsec under most conditions. The new approach includes minor hardware modifications to provide active damping with accelerometers as feedback sensors. This architecture has allowed a bandwidth increase of almost an order of magnitude and eliminated the large amplitude motions at the mode natural frequency, resulting in much improved pointing and jitter performance. A representative comparison of historical versus new architecture performance is shown in Figure 2 for the declination axis.

  13. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  14. The mini-array of ASTRI SST-2M telescopes, precursors for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Vercellone, Stefano; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site on the slopes of Mount Etna, a large field of view (FoV, ~ 9.6°) dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes (SST). The CTA plans to install about 70 SST in the southern site to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach, since it includes the entire system of structure, mirrors optics (primary and secondary mirrors), camera, and control/acquisition software. A remarkable performance improvement could come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa). The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of nine ASTRI SST-2M units and it is proposed as a precursor and initial seed of the CTA to be installed at the final CTA southern site. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to the CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will, if compared for instance to H.E.S.S., extend the point source sensitivity up to ~ 100 TeV, also improving it above 5-10 TeV. Moreover, the unprecedented width of the FoV, with its homogeneous acceptance and angular resolution, will significantly contribute to the achievement of original results during the early CTA science phase.

  15. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: camera DAQ software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, Vito; Trifoglio, Massimo; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tacchini, Alessandro; Zoli, Andrea; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Capalbi, Milvia; Catalano, Osvaldo

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a Flagship Project financed by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, and led by INAF, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing an end-to-end prototype of a Small Size dual-mirror Telescope. In a second phase the ASTRI project foresees the installation of the first elements of the array at CTA southern site, a mini-array of 7 telescopes. The ASTRI Camera DAQ Software is aimed at the Camera data acquisition, storage and display during Camera development as well as during commissioning and operations on the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype that will operate at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on the Mount Etna (Sicily). The Camera DAQ configuration and operations will be sequenced either through local operator commands or through remote commands received from the Instrument Controller System that commands and controls the Camera. The Camera DAQ software will acquire data packets through a direct one-way socket connection with the Camera Back End Electronics. In near real time, the data will be stored in both raw and FITS format. The DAQ Quick Look component will allow the operator to display in near real time the Camera data packets. We are developing the DAQ software adopting the iterative and incremental model in order to maximize the software reuse and to implement a system which is easily adaptable to changes. This contribution presents the Camera DAQ Software architecture with particular emphasis on its potential reuse for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  16. The telescope control of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov telescope Array: hardware and software design architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, Elisa; Cascone, Enrico; Schwarz, Joseph; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Aisa, Damiano; Aisa, Simone; Bagaglia, Marco; Busatta, Andrea; Campeggi, Carlo; Cefala, Marco; Farnesini, Lucio; Giacomel, Stefano; Marchiori, Gianpiero; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Nucciarelli, Giuliano; Piluso, Antonfranco

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF). One of its aims is to develop, within the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) framework, an end-to-end small-sized telescope prototype in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) in order to investigate the energy range E ~ 1-100 TeV. A long-term goal of the ASTRI program is the production of an ASTRI/CTA mini-array composed of seven SST-2M telescopes. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, is seen as a standalone system that needs only network and power connections to work. The software system that is being developed to control the prototype is the base for the Mini-Array Software System (MASS), which has the task to make possible the operation of both the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and the ASTRI/CTA mini-array. The scope of this contribution is to give an overview of the hardware and software architecture adopted for the ASTRI SST- 2M prototype, showing how to apply state of the art industrial technologies to telescope control and monitoring systems.

  17. Operation of the University of Hawaii 2.2M Telescope on Mauna Kea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaren, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a final report from March 1, 1997-February 28, 1999 on the Operation of the University of Hawaii 2.2M Telescope on Mauna Kea. The topics include: 1) Telescope and Instrumentation (Newsletter and Documentation, Scheduling Periods); and 2) Scientific Highlights (The Outer Solar System-Trans-Neptunian Objects and the Kuiper Belt, Comet Hale-Bopp, Near-Earth Asteroids, Asteroid Families, and Galileo Mission Support).

  18. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, F.; Tacchini, A.; Leto, G.; Martinetti, E.; Bruno, P.; Bellassai, G.; Conforti, V.; Gallozzi, S.; Mastropietro, M.; Tanci, C.; Malaguti, G.; Trifoglio, M.

    2016-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) represents the next generation of ground-based observatories for very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. The CTA will consist of two arrays at two different sites, one in the northern and one in the southern hemisphere. The current CTA design foresees, in the southern site, the installation of many tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes of three different classes, namely large, medium and small, so defined in relation to their mirror area; the northern hemisphere array would consist of few tens of the two larger telescope types. The Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) is developing the Cherenkov Small Size Telescope ASTRI SST- 2M end-to-end prototype telescope within the framework of the International Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project. The ASTRI prototype has been installed at the INAF observing station located in Serra La Nave on Mt. Etna, Italy. Furthermore a mini-array, composed of nine of ASTRI telescopes, has been proposed to be installed at the Southern CTA site. Among the several different infrastructures belonging the ASTRI project, the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment is dedicated to operations of computing and data storage, as well as the control of the entire telescope, and it is designed to achieve the maximum efficiency for all performance requirements. Thus a complete and stand-alone computer centre has been designed and implemented. The goal is to obtain optimal ICT equipment, with an adequate level of redundancy, that might be scaled up for the ASTRI mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. In this contribution we present the ICT equipment currently installed at the Serra La Nave observing station where the ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be operated. The computer centre and the control room are described with particular emphasis on the Local Area Network scheme, the computing and data storage system, and the

  19. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: opto-mechanical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canestrari, Rodolfo; Giro, Enrico; Sironi, Giorgia; Antolini, Elisa; Fugazza, Dino; Scuderi, Salvatore; Tosti, Gino; Tanci, Claudio; Russo, Federico; Gardiol, Daniele; Fermino, Carlos Eduardo; Stringhetti, Luca; Pareschi, Giovanni; Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Marcuzzi, E.; Folla, I.

    2016-08-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is an end-to-end telescope prototype developed by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The CTA observatory, with a combination of large-, medium-, and small-sized telescopes (LST, MST and SST, respectively), will represent the next generation of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. It will explore the very high-energy domain from a few tens of GeV up to few hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope structure and mirrors have been installed at the INAF observing station at Serra La Nave, on Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) in September 2014. Its performance verification phase began in autumn 2015. Part of the scheduled activities foresees the study and characterization of the optical and opto-mechanical performance of the telescope prototype. In this contribution we report the results achieved in terms of kinematic model analysis, mirrors reflectivity evolution, telescopes positioning, flexures and pointing model and the thermal behavior.

  20. Mount control system of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, Elisa; Tosti, Gino; Tanci, Claudio; Bagaglia, Marco; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Cascone, Enrico; Gambini, Giorgio; Nucciarelli, Giuliano; Pareschi, Giovanni; Scuderi, Salvo; Stringhetti, Luca; Busatta, Andrea; Giacomel, Stefano; Marchiori, Gianpietro; Manfrin, Cristiana; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Di Michele, Daniele; Grigolon, Carlo; Guarise, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The ASTRI SST-2M telescope is an end-to-end prototype proposed for the Small Size class of Telescopes (SST) of the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype is installed in Italy at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna (Sicily) and it was inaugurated in September 2014. This paper presents the software and hardware architecture and development of the system dedicated to the control of the mount, health, safety and monitoring systems of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype. The mount control system installed on the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype makes use of standard and widely deployed industrial hardware and software. State of the art of the control and automation industries was selected in order to fulfill the mount related functional and safety requirements with assembly compactness, high reliability, and reduced maintenance. The software package was implemented with the Beckhoff TwinCAT version 3 environment for the software Programmable Logical Controller (PLC), while the control electronics have been chosen in order to maximize the homogeneity and the real time performance of the system. The integration with the high level controller (Telescope Control System) has been carried out by choosing the open platform communications Unified Architecture (UA) protocol, supporting rich data model while offering compatibility with the PLC platform. In this contribution we show how the ASTRI approach for the design and implementation of the mount control system has made the ASTRI SST-2M prototype a standalone intelligent machine, able to fulfill requirements and easy to be integrated in an array configuration such as the future ASTRI mini-array proposed to be installed at the southern site of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).

  1. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: primary mirror characterization by deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Giorgia; Canestrari, Rodolfo

    2015-09-01

    In 2014 the ASTRI Collaboration, led by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics, has constructed an end-to-end prototype of a dual-mirror imaging air Cherenkov telescope, proposed for the small size class of telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, has been installed at the observing station located at Serra La Nave (Italy). In this project the Brera Astronomical Observatory was responsible for the production and the testing of the primary mirror. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope's primary mirror has an aperture of ~ 4 m, a polynomial design, and consists of 18 individual hexagonal facets. These characteristics require the production and testing of panels with a typical size of ~1 m vertex-to-vertex and with an aspheric component of up to several millimetres. The mirror segments were produced assembling a sandwich of thin glass foils bent at room temperature to reach the desired shape. For the characterization of the mirrors we developed an ad-hoc deflectometry facility that works as an inverse Ronchi test in combination with a ray-tracing code. In this contribution we report the results of the deflectometric measurements performed on the primary mirror segments of the ASTRI SST-2M dual mirror telescope. The expected point spread function and the contributions to the degradation of the image quality are studied.

  2. The compact, low scattered-light 2m Wendelstein Fraunhofer Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Ulrich; Bender, Ralf; Grupp, Frank; Barwig, Heinz; Gössl, Claus; Lang-Bardl, Florian; Mitsch, Wolfgang; Thiele, Hans; Aniol, Peter; Schmidt, Markus; Hartl, Michael; Kampf, Dirk; Schöggl, Roland

    2010-07-01

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen operates an astrophysical observatory on the summit of Mt. Wendelstein1 which will be equipped with a modern 2m-class, robotic telescope. The plan is to operate one of the most efficient robotic 2m telescopes in Europe in order to offer optimal scientific opportunities for our researchers and maintain highest standards for the education of students. The 2m Fraunhofer telescope in its new 8.5m dome has a modern, very compact alt.-azimuth design. Two Nasmyth ports will harbor a wide-field camera (WWFI2), a medium field multi-channel camera (3kk3), a low resolution IFU spectrograph (VIRUSW4) and a high resolution spectrograph (upgraded FOCES5). All instruments will be simultaneously ready for remote or robotic observations. The telescope is designed as a 3-mirror f/7.8 system and should maintain the excellent (< 0.8" median) seeing of the site1 over a field of view (f.o.v.) of 0.7 deg diameter with a field corrector for the wide field port at optical wavelength. The second port provides a f.o.v. of 60 arcmin2 without any corrector optics. It is optimized for simultaneous optical and NIR imaging as well as field spectroscopy and echelle high resolution spectroscopy over the full optical wavelength regime.6 Here we present the design of the telescope as well as the scope and projected time line of the overall project.

  3. An observatory control system for the University of Hawai'i 2.2m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Luke; Erickson, Christopher; Mukensnable, Donn; Stearman, Anthony; Straight, Brad

    2016-07-01

    The University of Hawai'i 2.2m telescope at Maunakea has operated since 1970, and has had several controls upgrades to date. The newest system will operate as a distributed hierarchy of GNU/Linux central server, networked single-board computers, microcontrollers, and a modular motion control processor for the main axes. Rather than just a telescope control system, this new effort is towards a cohesive, modular, and robust whole observatory control system, with design goals of fully robotic unattended operation, high reliability, and ease of maintenance and upgrade.

  4. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype and mini-array for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site (on the slopes of Mount Etna), a dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes. It is planned to install up to 70 small size telescopes in the southern CTA site, in order to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach. According to this philosophy, the telescope includes structure, primary and secondary mirrors, camera, software and hardware for control/acquisition and data handling. The camera, almost completed, has been designed to cover a field of view of 9.6 degrees. After the full implementation of the prototype, a remarkable improvement in terms of technology advancement and performance will come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led within the CTA collaboration by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa). The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of at least 9 ASTRI SST-2M units and it is proposed to be installed at the CTA southern site as part of its pre-production phase. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will extend and improve the flux sensitivity compared with the current experiments (HESS, MAGIC and VERITAS) in the 5 - 300 TeV energy range.

  5. The design and analysis of 2m telescope's K Mirror system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peng; Zhang, Jingxu; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    During the alt-azimuth telescope tracking, due to the frame structure of tracking support and relative movement of each mirror in Coude optical path, image plane is rotating. To eliminate the effects of image rotation for imaging and subsequent image processing, dove prism or K mirror are generally used. A set of K mirror system designed for 2m telescope. Affected by various errors in the alignment process, the rotating axis K, the optical axis of the K mirror, and the optical axis of the telescope's optical system can't be fully coincide. This causes the track optical axis drawn on the image is not a point, but a Pascal's limacon. The impact caused by the various sources of error were analyzed in this paper and simulation results have important guiding significance for the alignment error distribution.

  6. The 3.2m all SiC Telescope for SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castel, Didier; Sein, Emmanuel; Lopez, Sebastien; Nakagawa, Takao; Bougoin, Michel

    2012-09-01

    Placed on the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point, SPICA will operate in the 5 to 210 μm wavelength range. Astrium has been contracted by ESA/ JAXA to update the study of the SPICA telescope from a 3.5 m design (compatible to the Japanese HIIB launcher) to a 3.2 m design (compatible to the HII-A with the short 5S fairing): despite a similar fairing diameter, the shorter length of the fairing envelope results in a reduction of the M1-M2 distance and an associated diameter reduction of M1. Maximization of the M1-M2 distance within the constraints is important to maintain a reasonable polishing criteria of the main reflector. Therefore the M2 assembly sizing and the back focal length become main parameters for the telescope optical design. The main constraints are driven by the telescope requirements such as focal length, maximizing the diameter of M1 (3.2 m) and, M1 f-number (critical for the manufacturing aspects). The WFE must be below 350 nm rms, and operational temperature below 6K. . The main issues addressed in this paper are: - an improved telescope design based on the Astrium background in Silicon Carbide technology which has been tried-an-tested for mirrors and structural parts on several space projects, including HERSCHEL and Gaia (brazing, polishing, assembling, iso-static mountings). - performances which are taking advantage of the SiC properties ,such as homogeneity of the single-phase material inside the structure, and structural stability from ambient to the operational temperature range. Our study shows that the SiC telescope design can fulfil all the mechanical and optical requirements for SPICA. - the verification and optical tests definition which will be key elements in the qualification of the telescope to be incorporated in the logic of the satellite verification activity to be conducted in Japan.

  7. New instrumentation for the 1.2m Southern Millimeter Wave Telescope (SMWT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, P.; Astudillo, P.; Rodriguez, R.; Monasterio, D.; Reyes, N.; Finger, R.; Mena, F. P.; Bronfman, L.

    2016-07-01

    Here we describe the status of the upgrade program that is being performed to modernize the Southern 1.2m Wave Telescope. The Telescope was built during early ´80 to complete the first Galactic survey of Molecular Clouds in the CO(1-0) line. After a fruitful operation in CTIO the telescope was relocated to the Universidad de Chile, Cerro Calán Observatory. The new site has an altitude of 850m and allows observations in the millimeter range throughout the year. The telescope was upgraded, including a new building to house operations, new control system, and new receiver and back-end technologies. The new front end is a sideband-separating receiver based on a HEMT amplifier and sub-harmonic mixers. It is cooled with Liquid Nitrogen to diminish its noise temperature. The back-end is a digital spectrometer, based on the Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH). The new spectrometer includes IF hybridization capabilities to avoid analog hybrids and, therefore, improve the sideband rejection ratio of the receiver.

  8. The M2&M3 positioning control systems of a 2.5m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yu; Pei, Chong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Gu, Bozhong

    2012-09-01

    The 2.5m optical/infrared telescope is an F/8 telescope comprising one Cassegrain foci, two Nasmyth foci and two student Nasmyth foci. This paper presents a brief description of the physical structure, conceptual design, hardware implementing measure and software structure in the positioning control system of M2&M3. The graphical user interface application (Qt) is adopted to design the software. During the full working range the M2 focus and decenter achieve the positioning repeatability is better than +/-4μm and the M2 tilt is better than 10 μrad. The M3 angular positioning and locking accuracy is better than 10 arcsec and repeatability is better than 2 arcsec RMS.

  9. ASTRI SST-2M archive system: a prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carosi, Alessandro; Gallozzi, Stefano; Lucarelli, Fabrizio; Lombardi, Saverio; Mastropietro, Michele; Antonelli, Lucio A.; Costa, Alessandro; Madonna, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    The ASTRI project of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) is developing, in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), an end-to-end prototype system based on a dual-mirror small-sized Cherenkov telescope. Data preservation and accessibility are guaranteed by means of the ASTRI Archive System (AAS) that is responsible for both the on-site and off-site archiving of all data produced by the different sub- systems of the so-called ASTRI SST-2M prototype. Science, calibration, and Monte Carlo data together with the dedicated Instrument Response Functions (IRFs) (and corresponding metadata) will be properly stored and organized in different branches of the archive. A dedicated technical data archive (TECH archive) will store the engineering and auxiliary data and will be organized under a parallel database system. Through the use of a physical system archive and a few logical user archives that reflect the different archive use-cases, the AAS has been designed to be independent from any specific data model and storage technology. A dedicated framework to access, browse and download the telescope data has been identified within the proposal handling utility that stores and arranges the information of the observational proposals. The development of the whole archive system follows the requirements of the CTA data archive and is currently carried out by the INAF-OAR & ASI-Science Data Center (ASDC) team. The AAS is fully adaptable and ready for the ASTRI mini-array that, formed of at least nine ASTRI SST-2M telescopes, is proposed to be installed at the CTA southern site.

  10. RoboNet-1.0: A Prototype Global Network of Large Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, M. F.; Cardiff U. Collaboration; U. Hertfordshire Collaboration; U. Leicester Collaboration; St Andrews U. Collaboration; Queens U., Belfast Collaboration; Mullard Space Science Lab. Collaboration; U. Exeter Collaboration; U. Southampton Collaboration; U. Manchester Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    Involving a consortium of 10 UK universities, RoboNet-1.0 comprises the Liverpool Telescope (LT, La Palma), plus specially allocated time on the Faulkes Telescope North (FTN, Maui) and Faulkes Telescope South (FTS, Siding Spring, Australia). All three are essentially identical 2m telescopes equipped for both optical photometry and spectroscopy and operated from a common centre in Liverpool. The LT is primarily for research use whereas the FTs are mainly dedicated to education. Software developed by the eSTAR GRID project is being applied and enhanced to enable efficient and effective operation of the network. The primary scientific projects being addressed by RoboNet-1.0 are (a) rapid follow-up of Gamma Ray Burst sources detected by missions such as Swift, and (b) the detection of extra-solar planets via microlensing. Observations with the network began in August 2004. This is a pre-cursor project to the establishment of the full RoboNet global network of six dedicated telescopes which would greatly enhance work in several important branches of time domain astrophysics. Operation of the Liverpool Telescope and RoboNet-1.0 are funded by the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. The Faulkes Telescopes are funded by the Dill Faulkes Educational Trust.

  11. Two color satellite laser ranging upgrades at Goddard's 1.2m telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Mcgarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Varghese, Thomas K.

    1993-01-01

    The ranging laboratory at Goddard's 1.2 m telescope tracking facility has recently been upgraded to include a single photoelectron sensitive Hamamatsu streak camera-based range receiver which uses doubled and tripled Nd:YAG frequencies for satellite laser ranging. Other ranging system upgrades include a new continuum laser, which will deliver up to 30 millijoules (mJ) at both 532 and 355 nm at a pulsewidth of 30 picoseconds (FWHM), and replacement of both ranging and tracking computers with COMPAQ 386 based systems. Preliminary results using a photomultiplier-tube based receiver and waveform digitizer indicate agreement within the accuracy of the measurement with the theoretical Marini and Murray model for atmospheric refraction. Two color streak camera measurements are used to further analyze the accuracy of these and other atmospheric refraction models.

  12. Investigation of the 2-m telescope optics and seeing at the Terskol Peak Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butenko, G. Z.; Kuznetsov, V. I.; Snezhko, L. I.; Andruk, V. M.; Parusimov, V. G.; Sergeev, A. V.; Ivanov, Yu. S.

    2000-09-01

    We present the Hartmann images to attestate the Cassegrain focus optics of the 2-m telescope of the Peak Terskol Observatory of the International Center for Astronomical and Medico-Ecological Research of the NASU/RAS. The Cassegrain focus optics is a classical Ritchey-Chretien system with compensated coma and spherical aberration. The astigmatism corrector compensates for the system field astigmatism. Star images formed by the system with the astigmatism corrector are characterized by d0.8=1.''3, which does not meet the present-day requirements. The constant coma followed by the spherical aberration are dominating. The astigmatism is the least distortion of the image. Eliminating the Zeidel aberrations gives d0.8=0.''7, which coincides with manufacturer attestation. An additional adjustment should be made to achieve this image quality. Local wavefront errors including triangular astigmatism are small, which testifies that the unloading and fastening of the mirrors are of a high quality.

  13. Support optimization of the ring primary mirror of a 2m solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dehua; Jin, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    A special 2-m Ring Solar Telescope (2-m RST) is to be built by YNAO-Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Kunming, China. Its distinct primary mirror is distinctively shaped in a ring with an outer diameter of 2.02 m and a ring width of 0.35 m. Careful calculation and optimization of the mirror support pattern have been carried out first of all to define optimum blank parameters in view of performance balance of support design, fabrication and cost. This paper is to review the special consideration and optimization of the support design for the unique ring mirror. Schott zerodur is the prevailing candidate for the primary mirror blank. Diverse support patterns with various blank thicknesses have been discussed by extensive calculation of axial support pattern of the mirror. We reached an optimum design of 36 axial supports for a blank thickness of 0.15 m with surface error of 5 nm RMS. Afterwards, lateral support scheme was figured out for the mirror with settled parameters. A classical push-and-pull scheme was used. Seeing the relative flexibility of the ring mirror, special consideration was taken to unusually set the acting direction of the support forces not in the mirror gravity plane, but along the gravity of the local virtual slices of the mirror blank. Nine couples of the lateral push-pull force are considered. When pointing to horizon, the mirror surface exhibits RMS error of 5 nm with three additional small force couples used to compensate for the predominant astigmatism introduced by lateral supports. Finally, error estimation has been performed to evaluate the surface degradation with introduced errors in support force and support position, respectively, for both axial and lateral supports. Monte Carlo approach was applied using unit seeds for amplitude and position of support forces. The comprehensive optimization and calculation suggests the support systems design meet the technic requirements of the ring mirror of the 2-m RST.

  14. Investigation into the Potential of Investigative Projects Involving Powerful Robotic Telescopes to Inspire Interest in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Faulkes Telescope Project and its educational aims are briefly summarised. Research to evaluate its impact in inspiring excitement and interest among students is described. The Faulkes Telescope in Hawaii was used to provide images for assessed coursework based on two of the Faulkes "education/research" projects on galaxies.…

  15. The absolute calibration strategy of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array and its external ground-based illumination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segreto, A.; Maccarone, M. C.; Catalano, O.; Biondo, B.; Gargano, C.; La Rosa, G.; Russo, F.; Sottile, G.; Fiorini, M.; Incorvaia, S.; Toso, G.

    2016-07-01

    ASTRI is the end-to-end prototype for the CTA small-size class of telescopes in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) proposed by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. ASTRI SST-2M has been installed at the Serra La Nave Astrophysical Observatory on Mount Etna (Sicily) and its Performance Verification Phase will start in autumn 2016. For the relative pixel calibration and gain monitoring, the ASTRI SST-2M camera is equipped with an internal illumination device, while an external, portable, illumination system, placed at a few km distance from the telescope, will be used for the absolute end-to-end calibration of the telescope spectral response. Moreover analysis of signals induced in the camera pixels by the night sky background (diffuse emission and reference stars) will be used to monitor the long term evolution of the telescope calibration. We present an overview of the ASTRI SST-2M absolute calibration strategy and the external illuminating device that will be used for its spectral calibration

  16. The ICT monitoring system of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, F.; Bruno, P.; Tacchini, A.; Conforti, V.; Fioretti, V.; Tanci, C.; Grillo, A.; Leto, G.; Malaguti, G.; Trifoglio, M.

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of the international Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory, the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) has developed a dual mirror, small sized, telescope prototype (ASTRI SST-2M), installed in Italy at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave, Mt. Etna. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype is the basis of the ASTRI telescopes that will form the mini-array proposed to be installed at the CTA southern site during its preproduction phase. This contribution presents the solutions implemented to realize the monitoring system for the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype. The ASTRI ICT monitoring system has been implemented by integrating traditional tools used in computer centers, with specific custom tools which interface via Open Platform Communication Unified Architecture (OPC UA) to the Alma Common Software (ACS) that is used to operate the ASTRI SST-2M prototype. The traditional monitoring tools are based on Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and commercial solutions and features embedded in the devices themselves. They generate alerts by email and SMS. The specific custom tools convert the SNMP protocol into the OPC UA protocol and implement an OPC UA server. The server interacts with an OPC UA client implemented in an ACS component that, through the ACS Notification Channel, sends monitor data and alerts to the central console of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype. The same approach has been proposed also for the monitoring of the CTA onsite ICT infrastructures.

  17. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: prototype technologies goals and strategies for the future SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Busatta, Andrea; Giacomel, Stefano; Folla, Ivan; Valsecchi, Marco; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Cascone, Enrico; Conconi, Paolo; Fiorini, Mauro; Giro, Enrico; La Palombara, Nicola; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Sironi, Giorgia; Stringhetti, Luca; Toso, Giorgio; Tosti, Gino; Pellicciari, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will represent the next generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope. Using a combination of large-, medium-, and small-scale telescopes (LST, MST, SST, respectively), it will explore the Very High Energy domain from a few tens of GeVup to about few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging quality. In this framework, the Italian ASTRI program, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) developed a 4-meter class telescope, which will adopt an aplanatic, wide-field, double-reflection optical layout in a Schwarzschild- Couder configuration. Within this program INAF assigned to the consortium between Galbiati Group and EIE Group the construction, assembly and tests activities of the prototype named ASTRI SST-2M. On the basis of the lesson learnt from the prototype, other telescopes will be produced, starting from a re-design phase, in order to optimize performances and the overall costs and production schedule for the CTA-SST telescope. This paper will firstly give an overview of the concept for the SST prototype mount structure. In this contest, the technologies adopted for the design, manufacturing and tests of the entire system will be presented. Moreover, a specific focus on the challenges of the prototype and the strategies associated with it will be provided, in order to outline the near future performance goals for this type of Cherenkov telescopes employed for Gamma ray science.

  18. Robust control system for the new 1.2-m telescopes of the Geneva Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russiniello, Giovanni B.; Huguenin, Daniel; Wildi, Francois P.

    2000-06-01

    This paper presents the distributed hardware and software architecture of this 1.2-meter telescope control system, entirely designed and built by the Geneva Observatory. The modular concept and the choices of hardware tested in industrial automation made it possible to obtain great operational robustness and guarantee for long-term maintenance. The adopted solution is based on a transputer tree-network. The interactions between telescope and observer are transparent and completely integrated in the observation software of the attached instrument.

  19. Operation of the University of Hawaii 2.2M telescope on Mauna Kea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Donald N. B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's planetary astronomy program provides part of the funding for the 2.2 meter telescope. The parameters for time on the telescope are laid out. A major instrumental highlight has been the commissioning of a 256 x 256 near infrared camera which uses a Rockwell NICMOS-3 array. At the f/10 focus, image scales of 0.37 and 0.75 arcsec/pixel are available. A new, high quantum efficiency Tektronix 1024 x 1024 CCD saw first light on the telescope in 1991, and was available regularly from April 1991. Data from both of these detectors are transmitted directly to the Sun workstation for immediate analysis by the observers. The autoguider software was enhanced to permit guided tracking on objects have nonsideral motions (i.e., solar system objects).

  20. The software architecture of the camera for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangiorgi, Pierluca; Capalbi, Milvia; Gimenes, Renato; La Rosa, Giovanni; Russo, Francesco; Segreto, Alberto; Sottile, Giuseppe; Catalano, Osvaldo

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to present the current status of the software architecture of the ASTRI SST-2M Cherenkov Camera. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope is an end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI camera is an innovative instrument based on SiPM detectors and has several internal hardware components. In this contribution we will give a brief description of the hardware components of the camera of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and of their interconnections. Then we will present the outcome of the software architectural design process that we carried out in order to identify the main structural components of the camera software system and the relationships among them. We will analyze the architectural model that describes how the camera software is organized as a set of communicating blocks. Finally, we will show where these blocks are deployed in the hardware components and how they interact. We will describe in some detail, the physical communication ports and external ancillary devices management, the high precision time-tag management, the fast data collection and the fast data exchange between different camera subsystems, and the interfacing with the external systems.

  1. ATLAST-9.2m: a Large-Aperture Deployable Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oergerle, William; Feinberg, Lee D.; Purves, Lloyd R.; Hyde, T. Tupper; Thronson, Harley A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Postman, Marc; Bolear, Matthew R.; Budinoff, Jason G.; Dean, Bruce H.; Clampin, Mark C.; Ebbets, Dennis C.; Gong, Qian; Gull, Theodore R.; Howard, Joseph M.; Jones, Andrew L.; Lyon, Richard G.; Pasquale, Bert A.; Perrygo, Charles; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), designed to operate in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit. The primary mirror of the segmented 9.2-meter aperture has 36 hexagonal 1.315 m (flat to flat) glass mirrors. The architecture and folding of the telescope is similar to JWST, allowing it to fit into the 6.5 m fairing of a modest upgrade to the Delta-IV Heavy version of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). We discuss the overall observatory design, optical design, instruments, stray light, wavefront sensing and control, pointing and thermal control, and in-space servicing options.

  2. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  3. Coronagraphic Wavefront Control for the ATLAST-9.2m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, RIchard G.; Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Dean, Bruce H.; Mosier, Gary E.; Postman, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology for Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) concept was assessed as one of the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concepts (ASMC) studies. Herein we discuss the 9.2-meter diameter segmented aperture version and its wavefront sensing and control (WFSC) with regards to coronagraphic detection and spectroscopic characterization of exoplanets. The WFSC would consist of at least two levels of sensing and control: (i) an outer coarser level of sensing and control to phase and control the segments and secondary mirror in a manner similar to the James Webb Space Telescope but operating at higher temporal bandwidth, and (ii) an inner, coronagraphic instrument based, fine level of sensing and control for both amplitude and wavefront errors operating at higher temporal bandwidths. The outer loop would control rigid-body actuators on the primary and secondary mirrors while the inner loop would control one or more segmented deformable mirror to suppress the starlight within the coronagraphic field-of view. Herein we discuss the visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) and the requirements it levies on wavefront sensing and control and show the results of closed-loop simulations to assess performance and evaluate the trade space of system level stability versus control bandwidth.

  4. Design and development of an optical-fibre-based Integral Field Unit (IFU) on the IUCAA 2-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Das, Hillol K.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Kohok, Abhay A.; Rajarshi, Chaitanya V.

    2011-12-01

    An optical-fibre-based Integral Field Unit (IFU) has been developed for the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) Faint Object Spectrometer and Camera (IFOSC), the main back-end instrument on the IUCAA 2-m telescope at Girawali, Pune, India. This IFU enables IFOSC to perform two-dimensional spectroscopy of extended astronomical objects and is being used as one of the modes of IFOSC. Based on the concept of coupling the telescope focal plane with the spectrograph slit using a fibre bundle, the IFU (named the Fibre-based Integral Field Unit for IFOSC, hereafter FIFUI) uses 100 optical fibres, each associated with a tiny lenslet on its tip, to sample the incoming field of view spatially. In addition, FIFUI uses some coupling optics to realize this two-dimensional interface. FIFUI offers three different spatial sampling scales of 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 arcsec fibre-1. It is optimized for the visible spectrum and for a field of view of ˜13 × 6 arcsec2 on the sky for the nominal 1-arcsec sampling mode. FIFUI was commissioned on the IUCAA 2-m telescope during 2010 February-March after a series of sky tests and science-verification observations and a data-analysis pipeline was developed to extract the spectra and reconstruct the sky maps. Here we report on the development of FIFUI, including its opto-mechanical design and commissioning observations.

  5. Operation of the University of Hawaii 2.2 M Telescope on Mauna KEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Donald N. B.

    1997-01-01

    During the period October 5, 1993-October 31, 1997, operation of the University of Hawaii's 2.2-meter telescope was partially funded by NASA Planetary Astronomy Program. During the grant period, the fraction of observing time devoted to studies of solar system objects (e.g., planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, and comets) was approximately 24% (i.e., it exceeded the fractional funding provided by this NASA grant). The number of nights allocated to planetary observing time is summarized. Proposals for use of the solar system observing time coming from within and outside the University of Hawaii competed for this observing time on an equal basis; applications were judged on scientific merit by a time allocation committee at the University of Hawaii.

  6. A large size ion beam figuring system for 1.2m astronomical telescopes fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xuhui; Yang, Bing; Zhou, Lin; Song, Ci; Hu, Hao

    2016-07-01

    An ion beam figuring system (KDIBF2000) for final figuring of large size optics has been designed and built by National University of Defense Technology in China. It can figure optics up to the maximum dimensions of 2.0m×2.0m×0.4m with five axes of servo-motion used to control ion source movement. For operational facility, there are two vacuum chambers with main work chamber and a small supplementary chamber isolated by a flapper valve. The main chamber has two work zones, which can meantime hold a large optics with Φ1.5m and a small optics with 0.4m. The small optics can be transferred through supplementary chamber with a moving vehicle. By this way, it is very convenient and economical to gain the material removal function and check the system's process performance. Now, this system has been gone into running to figure large SiC off-axis aspheric optics. Next step, a 1.2m SiC aspheric primary mirror will be figure by this system.

  7. EURONEAR—Recovery, follow-up and discovery of NEAs and MBAs using large field 1-2 m telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Birlan, M.; Tudorica, A.; Sonka, A.; Pozo, F. N.; Barr, A. D.; Asher, D. J.; Licandro, J.; Ortiz, J. L.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Popescu, M.; Nedelcu, A.; Dumitru, D.; Toma, R.; Comsa, I.; Vancea, C.; Vidican, D.; Opriseanu, C.; Badescu, T.; Badea, M.; Constantinescu, M.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the follow-up and recovery of 100 program NEAs, PHAs and VIs using the ESO/MPG 2.2 m, Swope 1 m and INT 2.5 m telescopes equipped with large field cameras. The 127 fields observed during 11 nights covered 29 square degrees. Using these data, we present the incidental survey work which includes 558 known MBAs and 628 unknown moving objects mostly consistent with MBAs from which 58 objects became official discoveries. We planned the runs using six criteria and four servers which focus mostly on faint and poorly observed objects in need of confirmation, follow-up and recovery. We followed 62 faint NEAs within one month after discovery and we recovered 10 faint NEAs having big uncertainties at their second or later opposition. Using the INT we eliminated four PHA candidates and VIs. We observed in total 1286 moving objects and we reported more than 10,000 positions. All data were reduced by the members of our network in a team effort, and reported promptly to the MPC. The positions of the program NEAs were published in 27 MPC and MPEC references and used to improve their orbits. The O-C residuals for known MBAs and program NEAs are smallest for the ESO/MPG and Swope and about four times larger for the INT whose field is more distorted. For the astrometric reduction, the UCAC-2 catalog is recommended instead of USNO-B1. The incidental survey allowed us to study statistics of the MBA and NEA populations observable today with 1-2 m facilities. We calculate preliminary orbits for all unknown objects, classifying them as official discoveries, later identifications and unknown outstanding objects. The orbital elements a, e, i calculated by FIND_ORB software for the official discoveries and later identified objects are very similar with the published elements which take into account longer observational arcs; thus preliminary orbits were used in statistics for the whole unknown dataset. We present a basic model which can be used to distinguish between MBAs and

  8. Manufacturing process for the WEAVE prime focus corrector optics for the 4.2m William Hershel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomé, Emilie; Agócs, Tibor; Abrams, Don Carlos; Dee, Kevin M.; Middleton, Kevin F.; Tosh, Ian A.; Jaskó, Attila; Connor, Peter; Cochrane, Dave; Gers, Luke; Jonas, Graeme; Rakich, Andrew; Benn, Chris R.; Balcells, Marc; Trager, Scott C.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Carrasco, Esperanza; Vallenari, Antonella; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we detail the manufacturing process for the lenses that will constitute the new two-degree field-of-view Prime Focus Corrector (PFC) for the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) optimised for the upcoming WEAVE Multi-Object Spectroscopy (MOS) facility. The corrector, including an Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector (ADC), is made of six large lenses, the largest being 1.1-meter diameter. We describe how the prescriptions of the optical design were translated into manufacturing specifications for the blanks and lenses. We explain how the as-built glass blank parameters were fed back into the optical design and how the specifications for the lenses were subsequently modified. We review the critical issues for the challenging manufacturing process and discuss the trade-offs that were necessary to deliver the lenses while maintaining the optimal optical performance. A short description of the lens optical testing is also presented. Finally, the subsequent manufacturing steps, including assembly, integration, and alignment are outlined.

  9. Fabrication and testing of 4.2m off-axis aspheric primary mirror of Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chang Jin; Lowman, Andrew E.; Smith, Greg A.; Su, Peng; Huang, Run; Su, Tianquan; Kim, Daewook; Zhao, Chunyu; Zhou, Ping; Burge, James H.

    2016-07-01

    Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (formerly known as Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) will be the largest optical solar telescope ever built to provide greatly improved image, spatial and spectral resolution and to collect sufficient light flux of Sun. To meet the requirements of the telescope the design adopted a 4m aperture off-axis parabolic primary mirror with challenging specifications of the surface quality including the surface figure, irregularity and BRDF. The mirror has been completed at the College of Optical Sciences in the University of Arizona and it meets every aspect of requirement with margin. In fact this mirror may be the smoothest large mirror ever made. This paper presents the detail fabrication process and metrology applied to the mirror from the grinding to finish, that include extremely stable hydraulic support, IR and Visible deflectometry, Interferometry and Computer Controlled fabrication process developed at the University of Arizona.

  10. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste; Xilouris, Manolis; Boumis, Panos; Bellas-Velidis, Ioannis; Maroussis, Athanasios; Dapergolas, Anastasios; Fytsilis, Anastasios; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Tsinganos, Kanaris

    2015-08-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects (NEOs) via lunar monitoring. The project involves upgrading the 1.2m Kryoneri telescope at the National Observatory of Athens, procuring two fast-frame cameras, and developing a software system, which will control the telescope and the cameras, process the images and automatically detect NEO impacts. NELIOTA will provide a web-based user interface, where the impact events will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The impact events will be verified, characterised and reported. The 1.2m telescope will be capable of detecting flashes much fainter than current, small-aperture, lunar monitoring telescopes. NELIOTA is therefore expected to characterise the frequency and distribution of NEOs weighing as little as a few grams.

  11. Software design and code generation for the engineering graphical user interface of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Antolini, Elisa; Gambini, Giorgio F.; Bruno, Pietro; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Conforti, Vito; Lombardi, Saverio; Russo, Federico; Sangiorgi, Pierluca; Scuderi, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    ASTRI is an on-going project developed in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). An end- to-end prototype of a dual-mirror small-size telescope (SST-2M) has been installed at the INAF observing station on Mt. Etna, Italy. The next step is the development of the ASTRI mini-array composed of nine ASTRI SST-2M telescopes proposed to be installed at the CTA southern site. The ASTRI mini-array is a collaborative and international effort carried on by Italy, Brazil and South-Africa and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. To control the ASTRI telescopes, a specific ASTRI Mini-Array Software System (MASS) was designed using a scalable and distributed architecture to monitor all the hardware devices for the telescopes. Using code generation we built automatically from the ASTRI Interface Control Documents a set of communication libraries and extensive Graphical User Interfaces that provide full access to the capabilities offered by the telescope hardware subsystems for testing and maintenance. Leveraging these generated libraries and components we then implemented a human designed, integrated, Engineering GUI for MASS to perform the verification of the whole prototype and test shared services such as the alarms, configurations, control systems, and scientific on-line outcomes. In our experience the use of code generation dramatically reduced the amount of effort in development, integration and testing of the more basic software components and resulted in a fast software release life cycle. This approach could be valuable for the whole CTA project, characterized by a large diversity of hardware components.

  12. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste; Liakos, Alexios; Xilouris, Manolis; Boumis, Panayotis; Bellas-Velidis, Ioannis; Marousis, Athanassios; Dapergolas, Anastasios; Fytsilis, Anastasios; Noutsopoulos, Andreas; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Els, Sebastian; Koschny, Detlef; Lock, Tim; Navarro, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects via lunar monitoring. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years, starting in the Summer 2016, in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The project involves: (i) a complete refurbishment of the 40 year old 1.2m Kryoneri telescope of the National Observatory of Athens, (ii) development of a Lunar imager for the prime focus with two fast-frame sCMOS cameras, and (iii) procurement of servers for data processing and storage. Furthermore, we have developed a software system that controls the telescope and the cameras, processes the images and automatically detects lunar flashes. NELIOTA provides a web-based user interface, where the impact events, after their verification and characterization, will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The novelty of this project is the dedication of a large, 1.2m telescope for lunar monitoring, which is expected to characterize the frequency and distribution of NEOs weighing as little as a few grams.

  13. ASTRI SST-2M prototype and mini-array data reconstruction and scientific analysis software in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, Saverio; Antonelli, Lucio A.; Bastieri, Denis; Donnarumma, Imma; Lucarelli, Fabrizio; Madonna, Alberto; Mastropietro, Michele

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of the international Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) gamma-ray observatory, the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) is developing a dual-mirror, small-sized, end-to-end prototype (ASTRI SST-2M), inaugurated on September 2014 at Mt. Etna (Italy), and a mini-array composed of nine ASTRI telescopes, proposed to be installed at the southern CTA site. The ASTRI mini-array is a collaborative effort led by INAF and carried out by institutes from Italy, Brazil, and South-Africa. The project is also including the full data handling chain from raw data up to final scientific products. To this end, a dedicated software for the online/ on-site/off-site data reconstruction and scientific analysis is under development for both the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and mini-array. The software is designed following a modular approach in which each single component and the entire pipeline are developed in compliance with the CTA requirements. Data reduction is conceived to be run on parallel computing architectures, as multi-core CPUs and graphic accelerators (GPUs), and new hardware architectures based on low-power consumption processors (e.g. ARM). The software components are coded in C++/Python/CUDA and wrapped by efficient pipelines written in Python. The final scientific products are then achieved by means of either science tools currently being used in the CTA Consortium (e.g. ctools) or specifically developed ones. In this contribution, we present the framework and the main software components of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and mini-array data reconstruction and scientific analysis software package, and report the status of its development.

  14. VLT-style observing with the Wide Field Imager at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, C.; Paz, T.; Robledo, E.; Gutierrez, F.; Baade, D.; Selman, F.; Sanchez, F.; Brewer, J.; Scodeggio, M.

    2001-06-01

    The Wide Field Imager instrument of the MPG/ESO 2.2-m Telescope has been operating with the VLT-style Observing Software (OS) since the beginning of the year. Users can now prepare Observation Blocks in the same manner as for the VLT and other La Silla instruments. This uniformity of the user interface will make the system even more easy to use than before. This work is the result of the efforts of a large number of people: the sequencer scripts were written with extensive help from Paul Lesaux of the NTT team, and Emilio Barrios of the 3.6 team at La Silla. Figure 1 shows the control room with the new system in place.

  15. High Resolution Spectroscopy at the 2.7-m H J Smith and 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescopes, 1969-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tull, R. G.

    2000-05-01

    The twentieth century has seen the greatest advances in science and technology in the history of the world. These advances spawned a golden age in astronomy and in the astronomical instrumentation that fueled it. This paper will summarize 31 years of development of high-resolution spectroscopic instrumentation at McDonald Observatory, from the construction of the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith Telescope and its coudé spectrograph through the completion of the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope with its high-resolution fiber-fed spectrograph. We begin with photographic spectroscopy and advance through rapid-scanning photon counting spectrometry under computer control, addition of echelle gratings, Reticon and self-scanned Digicon solid-state imaging detectors, and innovative cross-dispersed echelle spectrometers with large-format CCDs. Funding for all these projects by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is gratefully acknowledged, as are additional support from University of Texas matching grants and from the Texas state legislature. Thanks also to the many colleagues who have shared this adventure with me: Ed Nather, who taught me computer interfacing techniques; Johnnie Floyd, Don Wells, Steve Vogt, Phil Kelton, Richard Stover, Brenda Young, Phillip MacQueen, David Doss, John Good, Harland Epps, and Mark Cornell, who were involved in various phases of instrument development; and Hans Dekker, who shared ideas developed at ESO. The users developed the observing and data reduction techniques; among these are David Lambert, Chris Sneden, Ed Barker, Larry Trafton, Joc Tomkin, and many others. Tom Barnes and Frank Bash provided moral and logistical support, and Joyce Sampson spent many hours in fund-raising efforts. Finally, I wish to dedicate this work to the memory of Harlan J. Smith who gave unswerving encouragement and support over a period of many years.

  16. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the next generation of Cherenkov telescopes: a single framework approach from requirement analysis to integration and verification strategy definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Mauro; La Palombara, Nicola; Stringhetti, Luca; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Giro, Enrico; Leto, Giuseppe; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Pareschi, Giovanni; Tosti, Gino; Vercellone, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    ASTRI is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, which aims to develop an endto- end prototype of one of the three types of telescopes to be part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), an observatory which will be the main representative of the next generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. The ASTRI project, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF), has proposed an original design for the Small Size Telescope, which is aimed to explore the uppermost end of the Very High Energy domain up to about few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging quality. It is characterized by challenging and innovative technological solutions which will be adopted for the first time in a Cherenkov telescope: a dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder configuration, a modular, light and compact camera based on silicon photomultipliers, and a front-end electronic based on a specifically designed ASIC. The end-to-end project is also including all the data-analysis software and the data archive. In this paper we describe the process followed to derive the ASTRI specifications from the CTA general requirements, a process which had to take into proper account the impact on the telescope design of the different types of the CTA requirements (performance, environment, reliability-availability-maintenance, etc.). We also describe the strategy adopted to perform the specification verification, which will be based on different methods (inspection, analysis, certification, and test) in order to demonstrate the telescope compliance with the CTA requirements. Finally we describe the integration planning of the prototype assemblies (structure, mirrors, camera, control software, auxiliary items) and the test planning of the end-to-end telescope. The approach followed by the ASTRI project is to have all the information needed to report the verification process along all project stages in a single

  17. ASTRI SST-2M camera electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sottile, G.; Catalano, O.; La Rosa, G.; Capalbi, M.; Gargano, C.; Giarrusso, S.; Impiombato, D.; Russo, F.; Sangiorgi, P.; Segreto, A.; Bonanno, G.; Garozzo, S.; Marano, D.; Romeo, G.; Scuderi, S.; Stringhetti, L.; Canestrari, R.; Gimenes, R.

    2016-07-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is an Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) developed by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. It is the prototype of the ASTRI telescopes proposed to be installed at the southern site of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The optical system of the ASTRI telescopes is based on a dual mirror configuration, an innovative solution for IACTs, and the focal plane of the camera is composed of silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM), a recently developed technology for light detection, that exhibit very fast response and an excellent single photoelectron resolution. The ASTRI camera electronics is specifically designed to directly interface the SiPM sensors, detecting the fast pulses produced by the Cherenkov flashes, managing the trigger generation, the digital conversion of the signals and the transmission of the data to an external camera server connected through a LAN. In this contribution we present the general architecture of the camera electronics developed for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype, with special emphasis to some innovative solutions.

  18. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype: camera design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caprio, V.; Belluso, M.; Bonanno, G.; Canestrari, R.; Cascone, E.; Catalano, O.; La Rosa, G.; Pareschi, G.; Rodeghiero, G.; Sottile, G.

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is an Flagship Project led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF, strictly linked to the development of the ambitious Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. Primary goal of the ASTRI project is the design, production, installation and calibration of an end-to-end Small Size Telescope prototype, devoted to the investigation of the highest gamma-ray energy band, from a fraction of TeV up to 100 TeV and beyond. The telescope, named ASTRI SST-2M, is mainly characterized by an optical system in dual-mirror configuration and by a modular camera at the curved focal surface composed of a matrix of Silicon Photo-Multipliers photo-sensors. In this paper we present an overview of the mechanical, thermal and electrical concept design of the camera and of the related technological solutions adopted for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype.

  19. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  20. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  1. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  2. SNAP Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, Carl W.; Aldering, Greg; Amanullah, R.; Astier, Pierre; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, Christopher; Bergstrom, Lars; Bercovitz, John; Bernstein, G.; Bester, Manfred; Bonissent, Alain; Bower, C. R.; Carithers, William C., Jr.; Commins, Eugene D.; Day, C.; Deustua, Susana E.; DiGennaro, Richard S.; Ealet, Anne; Ellis, Richard S.; Eriksson, Mikael; Fruchter, Andrew; Genat, Jean-Francois; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goobar, Ariel; Groom, Donald E.; Harris, Stewart E.; Harvey, Peter R.; Heetderks, Henry D.; Holland, Steven E.; Huterer, Dragan; Karcher, Armin; Kim, Alex G.; Kolbe, William F.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, Michael E.; Levin, Daniel S.; Linder, Eric V.; Loken, Stewart C.; Malina, Roger; Massey, R.; McKay, Timothy; McKee, Shawn P.; Miquel, Ramon; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, Stuart; Musser, J. A.; Nugent, Peter E.; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Pain, Reynald; Palaio, Nicholas P.; Pankow, David H.; Perlmutter, Saul; Pratt, R.; Prieto, Eric; Refregier, Alexandre; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, Kem E.; Roe, N.; Sholl, Michael; Schubnell, Michael S.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, George F.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, Gregory; Tomasch, Andrew D.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, Guobin

    2002-12-01

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  3. SNAP telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  4. Teaching Telescopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John S.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses experience of teaching optical experiments with emphasis upon the student's design and construction of refracting and reflecting telescopes. Concludes that the student's interest and acquired knowledge are greatly enhanced through the use of realistic experiments. (CC)

  5. Space Telescopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    the Kirkpatrick–Baez type systems and the focussing colli- mator or ‘ lobster -eye’ systems. 1http://henke.lbl.gov/optical constants/ 176 9. Space...mirror requires a longer telescope. Focussing collimator or ‘ lobster -eye’ telescopes The Wolter and the Kirkpatrick–Baez systems have in common a...9.13: Flat-mirror two-dimensional focussing collimator or detached lobster - eye configuration (Schmidt 1975). within one tube but from adjacent walls a

  6. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  7. The Liverpool Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert J.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, Neil R.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Steele, I. A.; Tomlinson, M. D.

    2011-03-01

    The Liverpool Telescope (LT) is a fully robotic 2m optical telescope at a world-class observatory site. It runs autonomously without direct human control either on site or remotely. It is not operated primarily for a single science project, but rather is a common-user facility, time allocated by an open, peer-review process and conducting a variety of optical and IR imaging, spectroscopic and polarimetric programs. This paper describes some of aspects of the site infrastructure and instrument suite designed specifically to support robust and reliable unsupervised operations. Aside from the telescope hardware, the other aspect of robotic operations is the mechanisms whereby users interact with the telescope and its automated scheduler. We describe how these have been implemented for the LT. Observing routinely since 2004, the LT has demonstrated it is possible to operate a large, common-user robotic observatory. Making the most of the flexibility afforded by fully robotic operations, development continues in collaboration with both observers and other observatories to develop observing modes to enable new science across the broad discipline of time-domain astrophysics.

  8. Present and Future of M2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Satoru; Watanabe, Takashi

    In recent years, the rapid progress in the development of hardware and software technologies enables tiny and low cost information devices hereinafter referred to as Machine to be widely available. M2M (Machine to Machine) has been of much attention where many tiny machines are connected to each other through networks with minimal human intervention to provide smooth and intelligent management. M2M is a promising core technology providing timely, flexible, efficient and comprehensive service at low cost. M2M has wide variety of applications including energy management system, environmental monitoring system, intelligent transport system, industrial automation system and other applications. M2M consists of terminals and networks that connect them. In this paper, we mainly focus on M2M networking and mention the future direction of the technology.

  9. B2M — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    B2M, a secreted protein belonging to the beta-2-microglobulin family, is a component of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the surface of nearly all nucleated cells and involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to the immune system. A mutation in this gene has been shown to result in hypercatabolic hypoproteinemia. B2M is detected in serum and urine.

  10. Telescopic hindsight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Cosmic blunders that have held back science" (2 June, http://ow.ly/xwC7C), about an essay by the astronomer Avi Loeb in which he criticized, among others, his Harvard University predecessor Edward Pickering, who claimed in 1909 that telescopes had reached their optimal size.

  11. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  12. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  13. Concept Design for SOAR Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebring, T.; Cecil, G.; Krabbendam, V.; Moretto, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope is a \\$28M collaboration between Brazil, NOAO, Michigan State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. NOAO will operate the telescope for 20 years in exchange for 30 astronomers.) The project is now fully funded. This f/16 telescope is optimized for high-quality images across the isokinetic field (0."17 FWHM degradation from the telescope+facility over a field of 7.5' diameter.) It is being designed to take up to 2 Gemini-class (2100 kg) instruments, or a combination of lighter instruments at 7 Nasmyth and bent Cassegrain foci. The facility is now under construction atop Cerro Pachon, 400m from Gemini-S. First light is currently scheduled for early 2002. Corning Inc. is preparing to fabricate the 4.2m-diameter, 7.5-10 cm thick primary mirror from ULE glass. In early 1999 contacts will be awarded for 2 major subsystems: active optics (which includes optics polishing), and the alt.-az. telescope mount. We will outline the novel strategies that are being used to control project costs while optimizing telescope performance. Instrumentation plans will also be summarized.

  14. ASTRI SST-2M data reduction and reconstruction software on low-power and parallel architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastropietro, Michele; Madonna, Alberto; Antonelli, Lucio A.; Bastieri, Denis; Lombardi, Saverio

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of the international Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) gamma-ray observatory, a mini-array of nine small-sized, dual-mirror (SST-2M) telescopes developed by the ASTRI Collaboration has been proposed to be installed at the future CTA southern site. In such a location, the capability of each telescope to process its own data before sending them to a central acquisition system provides a key advantage. We implemented the complete analysis chain required by a single telescope on a NVIDIA® Jetson™ TK1 development board, exceeding the nominal required real-time processing speed by more than a factor two, while staying within a very small power budget.

  15. C(2)M: configurable chemical middleware.

    PubMed

    van der Vet, P; Roosendaal, H E; Geurts, P A

    2001-01-01

    One of the vexing problems that besets concurrent use of multiple, heterogeneous resources is format multiplicity. C(2)M aims to equip scientists with a wrapper generator on their desktop. The wrapper generator can build wrappers, or converters that can convert data from or into different formats, from a high-level description of the formats. The language in which such a high-level description is expressed is easy enough for scientists to be able to write format descriptions at minimal cost. In C(2)M, wrappers and documentation for human reading are automatically obtained from the same user-supplied specifications. Initial experiments demonstrate that the idea can, indeed, lead to the advent of usergoverned wrapper generators. Future research will consolidate the code and extend the approach to a realistic variety of formats.

  16. Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, C. W.

    2001-05-01

    Since the discovery of gamma-ray bursts, a number of groups have attempted to detect correlated optical transients from these elusive objects. Following the flight of the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in 1991, a prompt burst coordinate alert service, BACODINE (now GCN) became available to ground-based telescopes. Several instruments were built to take advantage of this facility, culminating in the discovery of a bright optical flash associated with GRB990123. To date, that single observation remains unique - no other prompt flashes have been seen for a dozen or so other bursts observed with comparably short response times. Thus, GRB prompt optical luminosities may be considerably dimmer than observed for the GRB990123 event or even absent altogether. A new generation of instruments is prepared to explore these possibilties using burst coordinates provided by HETE-2, Swift, Ballerina, Agile and other satellite missions. These telescopes have response times as short as a few seconds and reach limiting magnitudes, m_v 20, guaranteeing a sensitivity sufficient to detect the afterglow many hours later. Results from these experiments should provide important new data about the dynamics and locale of GRBs.

  17. Holographic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhner, Jefferson E.

    2016-07-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) work on the principal of diffraction and can in some cases replace conventional optical elements that work on the principal of refraction. An HOE can be thinner, lighter, can have more functionality, and can be lower cost than conventional optics. An HOE can serve as a beam splitter, spectral filter, mirror, and lens all at the same time. For a single wavelength system, an HOE can be an ideal solution but they have not been widely accepted for multispectral systems because they suffer from severe chromatic aberration. A refractive optical system also suffers from chromatic aberration but it is generally not as severe. To color correct a conventional refractive optical system, a flint glass and a crown glass are placed together such that the color dispersion of the flint and the crown cancel each other out making an achromatic lens (achromat) and the wavelengths all focus to the same point. The color dispersion of refractive lenses and holographic lenses are opposite from each other. In a diffractive optical system, long wavelengths focus closer (remember for HOEs: RBM "red bends more") than nominal focus while shorter wavelengths focus further out. In a refractive optical system, it is just the opposite. For this reason, diffractives can be incorporated into a refractive system to do the color correction and often cut down on the number of optical elements used [1.]. Color correction can also be achieved with an all-diffractive system by combining a holographic optical element with its conjugate. In this way the color dispersion of the first holographic optical element can be cancelled by the color dispersion of the second holographic optic. It is this technique that will be exploited in this paper to design a telescope made entirely of holographic optical elements. This telescope could be more portable (for field operations) the same technique could be used to make optics light enough for incorporation into a UAV.

  18. The CCAT Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Jason; CCAT

    2013-01-01

    CCAT will be a 25 m diameter on-axis Gregory telescope operating in the 0.2 to 2.1 mm wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude of 5600 m on Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. CCAT will support cameras and spectrometers with up to 1 field of view at its f/6 Nasmyth foci. The key performance requirements for the telescope are a half wavefront error <12.5 μm rms and pointing error <0.35"/350 μm). CCAT will have an f/0.4 primary with an active surface to compensate gravitational and thermal deformations. The primary will be made of 2 m keystone-shaped segments, each with 16 machined aluminum tiles mounted on a carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastic (CFRP) subframe. The segments will be supported by a CFRP spaceframe truss on an elevation over azimuth mount made of steel. CCAT will be inside an enclosure to reduce wavefront and pointing errors due to wind forces and thermal deformation due to solar illumination.

  19. GISOT: a giant solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; von der Lühe, Oskar F.; Bettonvil, Felix C.; Jägers, Aswin P.; Snik, Frans

    2004-10-01

    A concept is presented for an extremely large high-resolution solar telescope with an aperture of 11 m and diffraction limited for visual wavelengths. The structure of GISOT will be transparent to wind and placed on a transparent stiff tower. For efficient wind flushing, all optics, including the primary mirror, will be located above the elevation axis. The aperture will be of the order of 11 m, not rotatively symmetrical, but of an elongated shape with dimensions 11 x 4 m. It consists of a central on-axis 4 m mirror with on both sides 3 pieces of 2 m mirrors. The optical layout will be kept simple to guarantee quality and minimize stray light. A Coudé room for instruments is planned below the telescope. The telescope will not be housed in a dome-like construction, which interferes with the open principle. Instead the telescope will be protected by a foldable tent construction with a diameter of the order of 30 m, which doesn"t form any obstruction during observations, but can withstand the severe weather circumstances on mountain sites. Because of the nature of the solar scene, extremely high resolution in only one dimension is sufficient to solve many exciting problems in solar physics and in this respect the concept of GISOT is very promising.

  20. Arrays vs. single telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. L.

    The question of the relative efficiencies of telescope arrays versus an equivalent mirror-area very large telescope is re-examined and summarized. Four separate investigations by Bowen, Johnson and Richards, Code, and Disney all came to the same conclusion: that an array of telescopes is superior, both scientifically and economically, to a single very large telescope. The costs of recently completed telescopes are compared. The costs of arrays of telescopes are shown to be significantly lower than that of a single, very large telescope, with the further advantage that because existing, proven, designs can be used, no engineering 'break-throughs' are needed.

  1. Kinetics of the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, S. P.; Peterson, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The flash photolysis/ultraviolet absorption technique was used to measure the rate constants for the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M over the pressure range 50-700 torr and temperature range 229-362 K using He, O2, and N2 as diluent gases. The data were fit to the expression derived by Troe (1979) and co-workers for describing the pressure and temperature dependence of reactions in the falloff region. By combining these data with recent measurements of the rate constant for HO2NO2 thermal decomposition values of 73.8 + or - 2 eu for the standard entropy and -12.6 + or - kcal/mol for the standard enthalpy of formation of HO2NO2 were obtained. A significant enhancement in the rate constant was observed when water vapor was added to the system.

  2. X-ray fading and optical/X-ray flaring in the current faint outburst of MAXI J0556-332

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, David M.; Udrescu, Silviu-Marian; Lewis, Fraser

    2016-03-01

    The neutron star X-ray binary transient, MAXI J0556-332 began a new outburst at the start of this year (ATel #8513, #8517). Since 7 January (MJD 57394) we have been monitoring the optical activity of the source regularly in Bessel B, V, R, I filters with the 2-m Faulkes Telescopes and the 1-m Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network telescopes.

  3. Telescope performance at the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.; Rothberg, Barry; Christou, Julian C.; Summers, Kellee R.; Summers, Douglas M.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory is a collaboration between institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio and Virginia. The telescope uses two 8.4-m diameter primary mirrors mounted sideby- side on the same AZ-EL mount to produce a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8-meter aperture. Adaptive optics loops are routinely closed with natural stars on both sides for sided and combined beam observations. Rayleigh laser guide stars provide GLAO seeing improvement. With the telescope now in operation for 10 years, we report on various statistics of telescope performance and seeing-limited image quality. Statistics of telescope performance are reported in the areas of off-axis guiding, open-loop mount tracking, active optics and vibration. Delivered image quality is reported as measured by the DIMM and several guide cameras as a function of other parameters such as temperature and wind velocity. Projects to improve image quality and dome seeing are underway.

  4. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network: Keeping Citizen Scientists in the Dark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. J.

    2012-08-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) is creating a network of telescopes at excellent sites around the world providing 24/7 all sky coverage for astronomical observations. The network of telescopes, ranging in size from 0.4 m to 2.0 m, will be available for both scientific and education users. The LCOGT telescopes are being built quickly and will be deployed soon. The two 2.0 m Faulkes Telescopes, one on Haleakala, Maui (FTN), the other at Siding Spring Observatory, Australia (FTS), are currently in operation. There is also a 0.8 m telescope in the Santa Ynez Valley, California (BOS), which is being used for commissioning and for many local outreach programs. The first 1.0 m telescopes will be heading to Chile and South Africa in 2011 and will each be accompanied by a 0.4 m telescope. Other sites, including Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), McDonald Observatory (Texas), Siding Spring (Australia), and Haleakala (Hawaii) will follow, with the possibility of up to two additional sites yet to be selected. The LCOGT education and public outreach effort is transforming into a "Citizen Science" program. Several projects will encompass taking observations through the network, analyzing the data, and sharing the results with other citizen scientists from around the world. The first of these projects, "Agent Exoplanet," will be launched in mid-2011, and will involve analyzing brand-new data to create a light curve of an exoplanet. As the network is not yet complete, this test project will not include actual observing as future ones will. More information about LCOGT and its Citizen Science program can be found online (http://www.lcogt.net). In addition to material to get started in the Citizen Science program, the website also includes resources and content for more hands-on activities using archived data, general astronomy pages, network information, complete access to the public data archive, current news, and recent publications. And don't forget to

  5. The space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers concerning the development of the Space Telescope which were presented at the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American Astronautical Society in August, 1975 are included. Mission planning, telescope performance, optical detectors, mirror construction, pointing and control systems, data management, and maintenance of the telescope are discussed.

  6. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Maria; Eichorn, William; Hill, Michael; Hylan, Jason; Marsh, James; Ohl, Raymond; Sampler, Henry; Wright, Geraldine; Crane, Allen; Herrera, Acey; Quigley, Robert; Jetten, Mark; Young, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approx.40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The ISIM optical metering structure is a roughly 2.2x1.7x2.2mY, asymmetric frame that is composed of carbon fiber and resin tubes bonded to invar end fittings and composite gussets and clips. The structure supports the SIs, isolates the SIs from the OTE, and supports thermal and electrical subsystems. The structure is attached to the OTE structure via strut-like kinematic mounts. The ISM structure must meet its requirements at the approx.40K cryogenic operating temperature. The SIs are aligned to the structure s coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. The ISM structure is thermally cycled for stress relief and in order to measure temperature-induced mechanical, structural changes. These ambient-to-cryogenic changes in the alignment of SI and OTE-related interfaces are an important component in the JWST Observatory alignment plan and must be verified.

  8. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  9. Telescope Bernard Lyot: operation, instrumentation, perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanac, R.

    2016-12-01

    This talk is the TBL director report at the 3rd French national telescopes Users Meeting of 2016. Telescope Bernard Lyot, the 2-m at Pic du midi (2870m), is dedicated to spectro-polarimetric studies since 2007 with the instrument Narval. This paper presents TBL operation, science highlights and statistics of the past 10 years of operation. It also opens perspectives for the coming 10 years with the funding of Neo-Narval (Narval stabilized to v_r < 3m/s) and SPIrou at Pic du midi (aka SPIP) for the study of the young exoplanetary systems.

  10. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schember, Helene; Manhart, Paul; Guiar, Cecilia; Stevens, James H.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will be the first true infrared observatory in space, building upon the technical and scientific experience gained through its two NASA survey-oriented predecessors: the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer. During its minimum five year lifetime, the SIRTF will perform pointed scientific observations at wavelengths from 1.8 to 1200 microns with an increase in sensitivity over previous missions of several orders of magnitude. This paper discusses a candidate design for the SIRTF telescope, encompassing optics, cryostat, and instrument accommodation, which has been undertaken to provide a fulcrum for the development of functional requirements, interface definition, risk assessment and cost. The telescope optics employ a baffled Ritchey-Chretien Cassegrain system with a 1-m class primary mirror, an active secondary mirror, and a stationary facetted tertiary mirror. The optics are embedded in a large superfluid He cryostat designed to maintain the entire telescope-instrument system at temperatures below 3 K.

  11. Grid-Observing: Creating a Global Network of Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessman, F. V.; Gelderman, R.; Naylor, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Steele, I.

    2004-12-01

    With the increasing switch from classical observing campaigns to service observations, the decreasing pressure on a large number of 1 - 2m telescopes, and the rapid growth in the number of robotic, autonomous telescopes, it has become possible to create a truly global network of telescopes - what we call ``Grid-Observing." Such a network would permit a variety of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring and temporal survey projects which cannot be performed either with current or proposed larger telescopes (e.g. LSST) or with individual telescopes operated by a single institution. Participating observatories can be ``paid" for the services they provide to the network by being able to extract an equivalent amount of time on other telescopes, scaled by aperture, spectral resolution, atmospheric conditions, and the costs of operation or willingness to provide such a service. An XML interface - Remote Telescope Markup Language - insures that communications within the network are simple and relatively easily adapted to existent observatory software and procedures. An eBay-like mechanism for the automatic scheduling of telescopes can provide the necessary flexibility needed to perform time-critical projects as well as insure that the participating institutions retain full control over their telescopes. We are planning on networking several robotic telescope in the near future and expect that many other robotic and non-robotic telescopes will follow.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This image illustrates the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA). One of the three major elements of the HST, the OTA consists of two mirrors (a primary mirror and a secondary mirror), support trusses, and the focal plane structure. The mirrors collect and focus light from selected celestial objects and are housed near the center of the telescope. The primary mirror captures light from objects in space and focuses it toward the secondary mirror. The secondary mirror redirects the light to a focal plane where the Scientific Instruments are located. The primary mirror is 94.5 inches (2.4 meters) in diameter and the secondary mirror is 12.2 inches (0.3 meters) in diameter. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth Orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from the Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The spacecraft is 42.5 feet (13 meters) long and weighs 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  13. Liverpool Telescope and Liverpool Telescope 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Steele, I. A.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Jermak, H.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Piascik, A.; Smith, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic optical/near-infrared telescope with a 2-metre clear aperture, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University, with financial support from the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004 and is a common-user facility with time available through a variety of committees via an open, peer reviewed process. Seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient follow-up and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Development has also begun on a successor facility, with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2', to capitalise on the new era of time domain astronomy which will be brought about by the next generation of survey facilities such as LSST. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time. In this paper we provide an overview of the current status of both facilities.

  14. Adaptive-optics performance of Antarctic telescopes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Jon S

    2004-02-20

    The performance of natural guide star adaptive-optics systems for telescopes located on the Antarctic plateau is evaluated and compared with adaptive-optics systems operated with the characteristic mid-latitude atmosphere found at Mauna Kea. A 2-m telescope with tip-tilt correction and an 8-m telescope equipped with a high-order adaptive-optics system are considered. Because of the large isoplanatic angle of the South Pole atmosphere, the anisoplanatic error associated with an adaptive-optics correction is negligible, and the achievable resolution is determined only by the fitting error associated with the number of corrected wave-front modes, which depends on the number of actuators on the deformable mirror. The usable field of view of an adaptive-optics equipped Antarctic telescope is thus orders of magnitude larger than for a similar telescope located at a mid-latitude site; this large field of view obviates the necessity for multiconjugate adaptive-optics systems that use multiple laser guide stars. These results, combined with the low infrared sky backgrounds, indicate that the Antarctic plateau is the best site on Earth at which to perform high-resolution imaging with large telescopes, either over large fields of view or with appreciable sky coverage. Preliminary site-testing results obtained recently from the Dome Concordia station indicate that this site is far superior to even the South Pole.

  15. First Steps Toward K-12 Teacher Professional Development Using Internet-based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Gershun, D.; Slater, T. F.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    .skytitan.org), Faulkes Telescope North (FTN—part of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network—www.lcogt.net), and the MicroObservatory Robotic Telescope Network (http://mo-www.cfa.harvard.edu/MicroObservatory). As is common in astronomy observation, the class experienced setbacks to observing plans from a variety of sources, including clouds, dust storms, wind, instrument malfunctions, and light pollution from a nearby rodeo. Participants requested observations on robotic telescopes and directly controlled remote telescopes (FTN and Sky Titan). Data from the surveys suggest the theme that the ability to control telescopes in real time is of significant educational value, despite 6 of 10 participants citing frustrations due to equipment malfunctions and weather. Future courses will need backup plans or dates to account for the possibility of lost observing time. Participants used a variety of software tools to analyze data. Survey data showed the LCOGT Agent Exoplanet citizen science exercise to be an important learning event in the progression toward using SalsaJ to create exoplanet light curves from FTN data. Much of the data from FTN and Sky Titan used by participants was not collected during the observing runs due to issues noted above. The telescope operators provided previous data for analysis. None of the evidence we collected indicates that this lack of direct linkage is a problem.

  16. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  17. The Solar Telescope GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, R.

    2008-09-01

    During the last years the new 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR was assembled at Izania on Tenerife, Spain. The telescope is designed for high-precision measurements of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere and chromosphere with a resolution of 70km on the Sun. The telescope concept offers also high resolution stellar spectroscopy. The telescope is build by a consortium of the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, the Astrophysikalische Institut Potsdam, the Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Max-Plank-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung and additional international Partners. The telescope is a complete open structure with active cooled main mirror. High performance post-focus instruments in the visible and near IR wavelength acquire high resolution spectra with 2 dimensional spatial resolution and polarimetric information. The commissioning of the telescope will start in 2008 to allow first science observations at the end of 2009.

  18. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  19. Airborne Infrared Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.

    2017-01-01

    A unique program of infrared astronomical observations from aircraft evolved at NASA’s Ames Research Center, beginning in the 1960s. Telescopes were flown on a Convair 990, a Lear Jet, and a Lockheed C-141 - the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) - leading to the planning and development of SOFIA: a 2.7 m telescope now flying on a Boeing 747SP. The poster describes these telescopes and highlights of some of the scientific results obtained from them.

  20. Evaluating SLOOH Robotic Telescopes for Formal Educational Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, D.; Berryhill, K. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    has shown a slight increase in the class average from 55% to 69% +/- 21% and has not been determined to be statistically significant. Analysis of transcripts and surveys finds categories relating to "Images" and "Interface" as contributing to both the strengths and limitations of SLOOH. Even though there is a limit on how many images a user may capture during a single mission, images are more than adequate in quality, and do not need to be processed. This tends to be appealing for students who are starting out in astronomy and may be motivated more by capturing their own pictures rather than looking at archived photos. Although robotic in nature, SLOOH does allow users the option to view and capture images in real-time, giving users more of a personal connection than other robotic telescopes. However, if a class does not meet when SLOOH is active, then students will not be able to witness this process. The ability to join other user's missions creates a friendly community atmosphere, essential to the process of learning science at any level. Such analysis has provided evidence indicating that SLOOH Space Camera merits further investigation in an undergraduate introductory astronomy setting. 1. SLOOH Space Camera—www.slooh.com 2. MicroObservatory— http://mo-www.cfa.harvard.edu/MicroObservatory 3. Sky Titan Observatory—www.skytitan.org 4. Faulkes North Telescope—www.lcogt.net

  1. The ASTRI prototype and mini-array: precursor telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site on the slopes of Mount Etna, a large field of view (9.6 degrees) dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes. CTA plans to install about 70 small size telescopes in the southern site to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach, since it includes the entire system of structure, mirror's optics (primary and secondary mirrors), camera, and control/acquisition software. Although it is a technological prototype, the ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be able to perform systematic monitoring of bright TeV sources. A remarkable improvement in terms of performance could come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa) and with also a contribution by INFN. The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of at least nine ASTRI SST-2M units. It is proposed as one of the CTA mini-array of telescope precursors and initial seeds of CTA, to be installed at the final CTA southern site. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will extend and improve the sensitivity, similar to the H.E.S.S. one in the 1-10 TeV energy range, up to about 100 TeV.

  2. Productivity and Impact of Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia; Zaich, Paul; Bosler, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, about 2100 papers appearing in 18 journals reported and/or analyzed data collected with ground-based optical and infrared telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope. About 250 telescopes were represented, including 25 with primary mirror diameters of 3 m or larger. The subjects covered in the papers divide reasonably cleanly into 20 areas, from solar system to cosmology. These papers were cited 24,354 times in 2002 and 2003, for a mean rate of 11.56 citations per paper, or 5.78 citations per paper per year (sometimes called impact or impact factor). We analyze here the distributions of the papers, citations, and impact factors among the telescopes and subject areas and compare the results with those of a very similar study of papers published in 1990-1991 and cited in 1993. Some of the results are exactly as expected. Big telescopes produce more papers and more citations per paper than small ones. There are fashionable topics (cosmology and exoplanets) and less fashionable ones (binary stars and planetary nebulae). And the Hubble Space Telescope has changed the landscape a great deal. Some other results surprised us but are explicable in retrospect. Small telescopes on well-supported sites (La Silla and Cerro Tololo, for instance) produce papers with larger impact factors than similar sized telescopes in relative isolation. Not just the fraction of all papers, but the absolute numbers of papers coming out of the most productive 4 m telescopes of a decade ago have gone down. The average number of citations per paper per year resulting from the 38 telescopes (2 m and larger) considered in 1993 has gone up 38%, from 3.48 to 4.81, a form, perhaps, of grade inflation. And 53% of the 2100 papers and 38% of the citations (including 44% of the papers and 31% of the citations from mirrors of 3 m and larger) pertain to topics often not regarded as major drivers for the next generation of still larger ground-based telescopes.

  3. Secure Data Aggregation Protocol for M2M Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-24

    smart grid communications, which precisely meets the requirement of periodically collecting users’ electricity consumption while preserving privacy...address: rxlu@ntu.edu.sg - Institution: School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University - Mailing Address: 50...surveillance, smart metering, environmental monitoring, industrial automation and military scenarios [1][2]. Despite various M2M applications, the basic M2M

  4. Paper Productivity of Ground-based Large Optical Telescopes from 2000 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Chul

    2011-08-01

    We present an analysis of the scientific (refereed) paper productivity of the current largest (diameter>8m) ground-based optical (and infrared) telescopes during the ten-year period from 2000 to 2009. The telescopes for which we have gathered and analysed the scientific publication data are the two 10-m Keck telescopes, the four 8.2-m Very Large Telescopes (VLT), the two 8.1-m Gemini telescopes, the 8.2-m Subaru telescope, and the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). We have analysed the numbers of papers published in various astronomical journals produced by using these telescopes. While the total numbers of papers from these observatories are largest for the VLT, followed by Keck, Gemini, Subaru, and HET, the number of papers produced by each component of the telescopes is largest for Keck, followed by VLT, Subaru, Gemini, and HET. In 2009, each telescope of the Keck, VLT, Gemini, Subaru, and HET observatories produced 135, 109, 93, 107, and 5 refereed papers, respectively. We have shown that each telescope of the Keck, VLT, Gemini, and Subaru observatories is producing 2.1+/-0.9 Nature and Science papers annually and these papers make up 1.7+/-0.8% of all refereed papers produced by using each of those telescopes. Extending this relation, we propose that this ratio of the number of Nature and Science papers to the total number of refereed papers that will be produced by future extremely large telescopes (ELTs) will remain similar. From a comparison of the publication trends of the above telescopes, we suggest that (i) having more than one telescope of the same kind at the same location and (ii) increasing the number of instruments available at the telescope are good ways to maximize the paper productivity.

  5. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  6. Video Telescope Operating Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Exotic pet veterinarians frequently have to operate on small animals, and magnification is commonly used. Existing endoscopy equipment can be used with a mechanical arm and telescope to enable video telescope operating microscopy. The additional equipment items and their specifics are described, and several case examples are provided.

  7. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-25

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'x20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  8. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  9. The solar optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Objectives of the Solar Optical Telescope are to study the physics of the Sun on the scale at which many of the important physical processes occur and to attain a resolution of 73km on the Sun or 0.1 arc seconds of angular resolution. Topics discussed in this overview of the Solar Optical Telescope include: why is the Solar Optical Telescope needed; current picture of the Sun's atmosphere and convection zone; scientific problems for the Solar Optical Telescope; a description of the telescope; the facility - science management, contamination control, and accessibility to the instruments; the scientific instruments - a coordinated instrument package for unlocking the Sun's secrets; parameters of the coordinated instrument package; science operations from the Space Shuttle; and the dynamic solar atmosphere.

  10. Networked Automatic Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2000-05-01

    Many groups around the world are developing automated or robotic optical observatories. The coordinated operation of automated optical telescopes at diverse sites could provide observing prospects which are not otherwise available, e.g., continuous optical photometry without diurnal interruption. Computer control and scheduling also offers the prospect of effective response to transient events such as γ -ray bursts. These telescopes could also serve science education by providing high-quality CCD data for educators and students. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) project has been undertaken to promote networking of automated telescopes. A web site is maintained at http://gamma.bu.edu/atn/. The development of such networks will be facilitated by the existence of standards. A set of standard commands for instrument and telescope control systems will allow for the creation of software for an ``observatory control system'' which can be used at any facility which complies with the TCS and ICS standards. Also, there is a strong need for standards for the specification of observations to be done, and reports on the results and status of observations. A proposed standard for this is the Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML), which is expected to be described in another poster in this session. It may thus be feasible for amateur-astronomers to soon buy all necessary equipment and software to field an automatic telescope. The owner/operator could make otherwise unused telescope time available to the network in exchange for the utilization of other telescopes in the network --- including occasional utilization of meter-class telescopes with research-grade CCD detectors at good sites.

  11. All Sky Camera, LIDAR and Electric Field Meter: Auxiliary instruments for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leto, Giuseppe; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo; Bellassai, Giancarlo; Bruno, Pietro; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Martinetti, Eugenio

    2015-03-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is the end-to-end prototype telescope of the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF, designed to investigate the 10-100 TeV band in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope has been installed in Italy in September 2014, at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna. The telescope is foreseen to be completed and fully operative in spring 2015 including auxiliary instrumentation needed to support both operations and data analysis. In this contribution we present the current status of a sub-set of the auxiliary instruments that are being used at the Serra La Nave site, namely an All Sky Camera, an Electric Field Meter and a Raman Lidar devoted, together with further instrumentation, to the monitoring of the atmospheric and environmental conditions. The data analysis techniques under development for these instruments could be applied at the CTA sites, where similar auxiliary instrumentation will be installed.

  12. FalconSAT-7: A Photon Sieve Solar Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    technology has only incrementally improved in areal mass since the beginning of space -based imagery. For example, the Hubble Space Telescope has a mirror... space -based photon sieve telescope from a CubeSat platform. Fig. 1: Solid Works picture of Peregrine, a 0.2m photon sieve deployed from a 3U...with 180 kg/m2 while the James Webb Space Telescope has reduced this to just 25 kg/m2 over a quarter of a century later. Not only is size an issue

  13. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  14. The Mercator telescope: relevance, status, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Gert; Pessemier, Wim; Merges, Florian; Pérez Padilla, Jesus; Prins, Saskia; Van Winckel, Hans

    2014-07-01

    In todays era of ever growing telescope apertures, there remains a specific niche for meter-class telescopes, provided they are equipped with efficient and dedicated instruments. In case these telescopes have permanent and long-term availability, they turn out very useful for intensive monitoring campaigns over a large range of time-scales. Flexible scheduling and time allocation allow small telescopes to rapidly seize new opportunities or provide immediate follow-up observations to complement data from large ground-based or space-borne facilities. The Mercator telescope, a 1.2-m telescope, installed at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain), successfully targets this niche of intensive monitoring and flexible scheduling. Mercator is already in operation since 2001 and has seen several upgrades in the mean time. In this contribution we give an update about the actual telescope status and its performance. We also present the Mercator instrument suite that currently consists of two instruments. The workhorse instrument is HERMES, a very efficient and stable fibre-fed high-resolution spectrograph. Recently, the MAIA imager was commissioned. This is a three- channel photometric instrument that observes a large field simultaneously in the different color bands. The MAIA detectors are unique 6k x 2k frame transfer devices which also allow for fast and continuous monitoring of variable phenomena.We discuss two important upcoming upgrades: a long-awaited automatic mirror cover and, more importantly, an entirely new telescope control system (TCS). This TCS is based on modern PLC technology, and relies on OPC UA and EtherCAT communication. Only commercially off-the-shelve hardware will be used for controlling the telescope. As a test case and as a precursor of the full TCS, such PLC systems are already deployed at Mercator to steer the Nasmyth mirror mechanism and to control the MAIA instrument. Finally, we also give an overview of the

  15. The large binocular telescope.

    PubMed

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.

  16. The GREGOR Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Lagg, A.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Luehe, O.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.

    2012-12-01

    The 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope is a new facility for high-resolution observations of the Sun. The telescope is located at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide on Tenerife. The telescope incorporates advanced designs for a foldable-tent dome, an open steel-truss telescope structure, and active and passive means to minimize telescope and mirror seeing. Solar fine structure can be observed with a dedicated suite of instruments: a broad-band imaging system, the "GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer", and the "Grating Infrared Spectrograph". All post-focus instruments benefit from a high-order (multi-conjugate) adaptive optics system, which enables observations close to the diffraction limit of the telescope. The inclusion of a spectrograph for stellar activity studies and the search for solar twins expands the scientific usage of the GREGOR to the nighttime domain. We report on the successful commissioning of the telescope until the end of 2011 and the first steps towards science verification in 2012.

  17. Gemini telescope structure design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybould, Keith; Gillett, Paul E.; Hatton, Peter; Pentland, Gordon; Sheehan, Mike; Warner, Mark

    1994-06-01

    The Gemini project is an international collaboration to design, fabricate, and assemble two 8 M telescopes, one on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the other on Cerro Pachon in Chile. The telescopes will be national facilities designed to meet the Gemini Science Requirements (GSR), a document developed by the Gemini Science Committee (GSC) and the national project scientists. The Gemini telescope group, based on Tucson, has developed a telescope structure to meet the GSR. This paper describes the science requirements that have technically driven the design, and the features that have been incorporated to meet these requirements. This is followed by a brief description of the telescope design. Finally, analyses that have been performed and development programs that have been undertaken are described briefly. Only the designs that have been performed by the Gemini Telescope Structure, Building and Enclosure Group are presented here; control, optical systems, acquisition and guiding, active and adaptive optics, Cassegrain rotator and instrumentation issues are designed and managed by others and will not be discussed here, except for a brief description of the telescope configurations to aid subsequent discussions.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  19. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  20. Wind-flow measurement over the Subaru Telescope.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Hirofumi; Baba, Naoshi; Ohtsubo, Masashi; Norimoto, Yuji; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Miura, Noriaki

    2004-05-20

    Wind flows over the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea in Hawaii were analyzed with a correlation method. Three or four wind flows were detected from our measurements. Spatial and temporal resolution of the wind-flow analysis across the 8.2 m pupil were investigated experimentally. A three-dimensional spatiotemporal-frequency analysis was also applied to the wind-flow data.

  1. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler; Genet, Russell; Genet, David; Talent, David; Boyd, Louis; Trueblood, Mark; Filippenko, Alexei V. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  2. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Genet, David R.; Talent, David L.; Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler P.; Boyd, Louis J.; Trueblood, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  3. Webb Telescope: Planetary Evolution

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stars and planets form in the dark, inside vast, cold clouds of gas and dust. The James Webb Space Telescope's large mirror and infrared sensitivity will let astronomers peer inside dusty knots whe...

  4. Holographic telescope arrays.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, A W; Sauer, F

    1988-07-15

    A typical job in optical computing is to illuminate an array of small nonlinear optical components, separated by wide gaps to avoid crosstalk. We do this by letting a wide uniform beam fall onto a densely packed array of minifying telescopes. Each telescope produces a narrow bundle of parallel rays which illuminates one of the nonlinear optical components. The holographic telescopes can do more than change the width of the bundles of parallel rays. Their image forming capability allows the transmission of many pixels per channel in parallel. The pair of lenslets of a single holographic telescope (Kepler or Galilean) is produced in rigid coupling. The monolithic production avoids adjusting the two lenslets later on.

  5. Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John; Stockman, H. S.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), planned for launch in 2009, will be an 8-m class radiatively cooled infrared telescope at the Lagrange point L2. It will cover the wavelength range from 0.6 to 28 microns with cameras and spectrometers, to observe the first luminous objects after the Big Bang, and the formation, growth, clustering, and evolution of galaxies, stars, and protoplanetary clouds, leading to better understanding of our own Origins. It will seek evidence of the cosmic dark matter through its gravitational effects. With an aperture three times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope, it will provide extraordinary advances in capabilities and enable the discovery of many new phenomena. It is a joint project of the NASA, ESA, and CSA, and scientific operations will be provided by the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  6. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in contemporary astronomy and astrophysics is shown to depend on complementary investigations with sensitive telescopes operating in several wavelength regions, some of which can be on the Earth's surface and others of which must be in space.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) flight article assembly with multilayer insulation, high gain anterna, and solar arrays in a clean room of the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  8. Composite Space Telescope Truss

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers are recycling an idea for a lightweight, compact space telescope structure from the early 1990s. The 315 struts and 84 nodes were originally designed to enable spacewalking astronaut...

  9. New catadioptric telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Acme telescope is a compound telescope that resembles the familiar Cassegrain type except that the main mirror is spherical and the secondary is an achromatic doublet mangin mirror. Three 6-in. aperture f/15 telescope designs are described. With a cemented, all spherical surface achromangin mirror, there is a small amount of coma which can be eliminated by redesigning with an air space between the crown and flint elements of the achromangin mirror, or by cementing them with one of the concave external surfaces of achromangin figured to an hyperboloid. In the examples, the spherical aberration is nil and the chromatic residual is roughly half that of an achromatic objective of the same speed, aperture, and glass types. Readily available crown and flint glasses such as Schott BK-7 and F-2 are entirely satisfactory for the achromangin mirror. Also considered are two examples of Acme-like telescopes with paraboloidal instead of spherical main mirrors.

  10. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.

    1997-03-01

    The large binocular telescope (LBT) project have evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 by 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson, Arizona. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train -- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in the fall of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1996 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia

  11. Classification of ASASSN-17dj (AT2017cav) with the Liverpool Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersier, David

    2017-03-01

    We obtained a spectrum of the candidate supernova ASASSN-17dj/AT 2017cav (ATEL #10155) with the SPRAT spectrograph mounted on the robotic 2m Liverpool Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory (La Palma).

  12. Heinrich Hertz Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, Jacob W.; Martin, Robert N.

    1998-07-01

    The Heinrich Hertz Telescope is a radio telescope dedicated to the observation of submillimeter wavelength radiation from celestial sources. It is a Cassegrain telescope with a diameter of 10 m and a reflector accuracy of about 17 micrometer, yielding an excellent performance at 350 micrometer, the shortest wavelength transmitted through the atmosphere. The reflector panels and the backup structure employ carbon-fiber reinforced plastic as basic material to achieve a lightweight, stiff construction with a very small coefficient of thermal expansion. This enables us to maintain full performance of the telescope in day time under solar illumination of the structure. In this paper, we describe the structural and material characteristics of the telescope. We also describe the holographic method which enables a measurement and setting of the reflector panels to an accuracy of 10 micrometer. The telescope is located on Mt. Graham in Eastern Arizona at an altitude of 3250 m, providing good submillimeter observing conditions, especially in the winter months. This is a collaborative effort of the Max-Planck- Institut fur Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

  13. A project of a two meter telescope in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair

    2015-03-01

    Site testing undertaken during the last 20 years by Moroccan researchers through international studies have shown that the Atlas mountains in Morocco has potentialities similar to those sites which host the largest telescopes in world. Given the quality of the sites and opportunities to conduct modern research, we believe that the installation of a 2m diameter telescope will open new horizons for Astronomy in Morocco and north Africa allowing our region to enter definitively into the very exclusive club of countries possessing an instrument of that size. A state of the art astrophysical observatory on any good astronomical observation site should be equipped with a modern 2m-class, robotic telescope and some smaller telescopes. Our plan should be to operate one of the most efficient robotic 2m class telescopes worldwide in order to offer optimal scientific opportunities for researchers and maintain highest standards for the education of students. Beside all categories of astronomical research fields, students will have the possibility to be educated intensively on the design, manufacturing and operating of modern state of the art computer controlled instruments. In the frame of such education and observation studies several PhD and dissertational work packages are possible. Many of the observations will be published in articles worldwide and a number of guest observers from other countries will have the possibility to take part in collaborations. This could be a starting point of an international reputation of our region in the field of modern astronomy.

  14. The Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Nathaniel P.; Hoffmann, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the basic design and principle of operating an optical-infrared telescope, the MMT. This third largest telescope in the world represents a new stage in telescope design; it uses a cluster of six reflecting telescopes, and relies on an automatic sensing and control system. (GA)

  15. Telescopes in education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yessayian, Rick

    Imagine sitting in your classroom with your students and controlling a Research Grade 24 inch telescope. You control where it points, you control the duration of the exposure of a high grade CCD camera, and you control all of this within your school day, on a camera half way around the globe, in real time. You can hear the telescope moving, talk to the operator sitting atop historic Mt. Wilson Observatory in California. You might be looking at comets, asteroids, galaxies, nebulas or a host of other interesting celestial objects. Perhaps you have students that are up to a real challenge -- doing real science! Students in our program have contributed the discovery of a new variable star, to the Pluto Express project, to the search for supernovas, and the collection of images of intersecting galaxies. These are among the many possible projects you might choose from. The age and ability of your students are taken into account when you choose your project. Students from Kindergarten through Grade 12 have participated in this free program. A new robotic telescope was added at Mount Wilson in 1999. The telescope is a Celestron 14" SCT mounted on a Bisque Paramount GT-1100 with an Apogee AP-7 CCD camera (512X512 pixels). In the Spring of 2001, we duplicated the 14" robotic telescope configuration and placed it at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile (operated by the Carnegie Observatories). I installed the system in late September, 2001, and we began testing. The system requires one more upgrade and some hardware adjustments, which I will complete in June, 2002. We duplicated another 14" robotic telescope, and sent it to Brisbane Australia in January, 2002. The grand opening of the telescope will be in August 2002.

  16. Gemini 8.2-m primary mirror no. 1 polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayrel, Marc; Beraud, P.; Paseri, Jacques; Dromas, E.

    1998-08-01

    The 8-m class primary mirrors of the GEMINI Telescopes are thin ULE menisci actively supported. The two mirror blanks are produced by CORNING, the optical figuring, manufacturing and assembling of interfaces are done by REOSC. REOSC is as well in charge of the transportation of the mirror blanks from CORNING to REOSC, and of the shipment of the finished optics to Hawaii and to Chile. The mirror assembly requirements are summarized, the manufacturing and testing methods are addressed. REOSC had to design and manufacture a dedicated active supporting system, representative of the one used at the telescope level. Its design and performance are presented. The manufacturing steps undertaken at REOSC and the results achieved are then detailed: mirror blank surface generating and grinding, polishing, testing. The current status of the mirrors is finally presented.

  17. Monolithic afocal telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An afocal monolithic optical element formed of a shallow cylinder of optical material (glass, polymer, etc.) with fast aspheric surfaces, nominally confocal paraboloids, configured on the front and back surfaces. The front surface is substantially planar, and this lends itself to deposition of multi-layer stacks of thin dielectric and metal films to create a filter for rejecting out-of-band light. However, an aspheric section (for example, a paraboloid) can either be ground into a small area of this surface (for a Cassegrain-type telescope) or attached to the planar surface (for a Gregorian-type telescope). This aspheric section of the surface is then silvered to create the telescope's secondary mirror. The rear surface of the cylinder is figured into a steep, convex asphere (again, a paraboloid in the examples), and also made reflective to form the telescope's primary mirror. A small section of the rear surface (approximately the size of the secondary obscuration, depending on the required field of the telescope) is ground flat to provide an unpowered surface through which the collimated light beam can exit the optical element. This portion of the rear surface is made to transmit the light concentrated by the reflective surfaces, and can support the deposition of a spectral filter.

  18. Spectroradiometry with space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Colina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Radiometry, i.e. measuring the power of electromagnetic radiation—hitherto often referred to as "photometry"—is of fundamental importance in astronomy. We provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration of space telescopes and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. A lot of effort has been, and still is going into radiometric "calibration" of telescopes once they are in space; these methods use celestial primary and transfer standards and are based in part on stellar models. The history of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope serves as a platform to review these methods. However, we insist that a true calibration of spectroscopic space telescopes must directly be based on and traceable to laboratory standards, and thus be independent of the observations. This has recently become a well-supported aim, following the discovery of the acceleration of the cosmic expansion by use of type-Ia supernovae, and has led to plans for launching calibration rockets for the visible and infrared spectral range. This is timely, too, because an adequate exploitation of data from present space missions, such as Gaia, and from many current astronomical projects like Euclid and WFIRST demands higher radiometric accuracy than is generally available today. A survey of the calibration of instruments observing from the X-ray to the infrared spectral domains that include instrument- or mission-specific estimates of radiometric accuracies rounds off this review.

  19. Towers for Antarctic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, R. H.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Nielsen, G.

    To take advantage of the exceptional seeing above the boundary layer on Antarctic sites, a high-resolution telescope must be mounted on a support tower. An open transparent tower of framework minimizes the upward temperature-disturbed airflow. A typical minimum height is 30m. The tower platform has to be extremely stable against wind-induced rotational motions, which have to be less than fractions of an arc second, unusually small from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. In a traditional structure, structural deflections result in angular deflections of the telescope platform, which introduce tip and tilt motions in the telescope. However, a structure that is designed to deflect with parallel motion relative to the horizontal plane will undergo solely translation deflections in the telescope platform and thus will not degrade the image. The use of a parallel motion structure has been effectively demonstrated in the design of the 15-m tower for the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma. Special framework geometries are developed, which make it possible to construct high towers in stories having platforms with extreme stability against wind-induced tilt. These geometric solutions lead to constructions, being no more massive than a normal steel framework carrying the same load. Consequently, these lightweight towers are well suited to difficult sites as on Antarctica. A geometry with 4 stories has been worked out.

  20. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  1. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  2. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  3. CH2M Hill cleared in tunnel explosion case

    SciTech Connect

    Krizan, W.G.; Bradford, H.; Schriener, J.

    1993-09-06

    One of the most critical issues in industry is whether architects and engineers should be held responsible for construction safety on jobsites. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration says yes under certain conditions. But the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission has overturned one application of that view on appeal in a controversial case. It involves a unit of Denver-based CH2M Hill Cos.'s role as program manager for the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) on its $2.2-billion water pollution abatement program. On May 5, 1989, OSHA cited CH2M Hill Central Inc. for 46 willful safety violations in connection with a 1988 methane tunnel explosion that killed three supervisors of contractor S.A. Healy Co., Chicago, Healy was charged with 68 violations. Healy encountered methane while boring CT-7, a two-mile crosstown tunnel. It evacuated the site, but didn't follow the evacuation plan. It failed to shut down all nonessential equipment and the supervisors returned after waiting only 17 minutes instead of the one hour minimum. CH2M Hill's citations and proposed $460,000 fine for violating OSHA's construction standards were for having 45 pieces of unapproved electrical equipment in the tunnel and improper ventilation equipment. CH2M Hill claimed the standards did not apply to it because the firm did not engage in construction work, exercise substantial supervision over the construction work performed by the contractor or create or control the hazardous condition.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    the way for other space-based observatories. How the mission was named Hubble Space Telescope is named after Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953), who was one of the great pioneers of modern astronomy. Industrial Involvement The ESA contribution to HST included the Solar Panels and the Faint Object Camera (FOC). Prime contractors for the FOC were Dornier (now DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, Germany), and Matra (France); for the Solar Panels British Aerospace (UK). Launch date: April 25, 1990 Launcher: Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31) Launch mass: 11 110 kg Dimensions Length: 15.9 m, diameter: 4.2 m. In addition two solar panels each 2.4 x 12.1 m. Payload (current) A 2.4 m f/24 Ritchey-Chretien telescope with four main instruments, currently WFPC2, STIS, NICMOS and FOC. In addition the three fine-guidance sensors are used for astrometric observations (positional astronomy). WFPC2 - Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 is an electronic camera working at two magnifications. It has four CCD detectors with 800 x 800 pixels. One of these (called Planetary Camera) has a higher resolution (<0.1 arcsecond). STIS - Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph uses so-called MAMAs and CCDs to provide images and spectra. It is sensitive to a wide range of light from UV to Infrared. NICMOS - Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer provides images and spectra in the infrared. NICMOS uses cooled HgCdTe detectors. Currently NICMOS is dormant and awaits a new cooler to be provided during Servicing Mission 3B. FOC - Faint Object Camera - a very high resolution camera built by ESA. FOC is no longer in use and will be replaced by the new Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) during Servicing Mission 3B. Orbit Circular, 593 km with a 28.5 degree inclination. Operations Science operations are co-ordinated and conducted by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore. Overall management of daily on-orbit operations is carried out by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt. Ground

  5. The Nuclear Compton Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Steven E.; NCT Collaboration

    2011-09-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray (0.2-10 MeV) telescope designed to perform wide-field imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and novel polarization analysis of astrophysical sources. NCT employs a novel Compton telescope design, utilizing 12 high spectral resolution germanium detectors, with the ability to localize photon interaction in three dimensions. NCT underwent its first science flight from Fort Sumner, NM in Spring 2009, and was partially destroyed during a second launch attempt from Alice Spring, Australia in Spring 2010. We will present an overview of the NCT program, including results from the Spring 2009 flight, as well as status and plans for the NCT program.

  6. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Vassigh, Kenny; Bendek, Selman; Young, Zion W; Lynch, Dana H.

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide strawman mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible andor UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST.

  7. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  8. LSST telescope modeling overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebag, J.; Andrew, J.; Angeli, G.; Araujo, C.; Barr, J.; Callahan, S.; Cho, M.; Claver, C.; Daruich, F.; Gressler, W.; Hileman, E.; Liang, M.; Muller, G.; Neill, D.; Schoening, W.; Warner, M.; Wiecha, O.; Xin, B.; Orden Martinez, Alfredo; Perezagua Aguado, Manuel; García Marchena, Luis; Ruiz de Argandoña, Ismael

    2016-08-01

    During this early stage of construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), modeling has become a crucial system engineering process to ensure that the final detailed design of all the sub-systems that compose the telescope meet requirements and interfaces. Modeling includes multiple tools and types of analyses that are performed to address specific technical issues. Three-dimensional (3D) Computeraided Design (CAD) modeling has become central for controlling interfaces between subsystems and identifying potential interferences. The LSST Telescope dynamic requirements are challenging because of the nature of the LSST survey which requires a high cadence of rapid slews and short settling times. The combination of finite element methods (FEM), coupled with control system dynamic analysis, provides a method to validate these specifications. An overview of these modeling activities is reported in this paper including specific cases that illustrate its impact.

  9. Ultrathin zoom telescopic objective.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-08-08

    We report an ultrathin zoom telescopic objective that can achieve continuous zoom change and has reduced compact volume. The objective consists of an annular folded lens and three electrowetting liquid lenses. The annular folded lens undertakes the main part of the focal power of the lens system. Due to a multiple-fold design, the optical path is folded in a lens with the thickness of ~1.98mm. The electrowetting liquid lenses constitute a zoom part. Based on the proposed objective, an ultrathin zoom telescopic camera is demonstrated. We analyze the properties of the proposed objective. The aperture of the proposed objective is ~15mm. The total length of the system is ~18mm with a tunable focal length ~48mm to ~65mm. Compared with the conventional zoom telescopic objective, the total length has been largely reduced.

  10. Reflective and antireflective coatings for the optical chain of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Stringhetti, Luca

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. One of the main aims of the ASTRI Project is the design, construction and on-field verification of a dual mirror (2M) end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype is designed according to the Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, and adopts a camera based on Silicon Photo Multipliers (SiPM); it will be assembled at the INAF astronomical site of Serra La Nave on mount Etna (Catania, Italy) in the second half of 2014, and will start scientific validation phase soon after. With its 4m wide primary dish, the telescope will be sensitive to multi-TeV Very High Energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV and above, with a point spread function of ~2 arcminutes and a wide (semiaperture 4.8°) corrected field of view. The peculiarities of the optical design and of the SiPM bandpass pushed towards specifically optimized choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. Fully dielectric multi-layer coatings have been developed and tested as an option for the primary mirror, aiming to filter out the large Night Sky Background contamination at wavelengths λ>~700 nm. On the other hand, for the large monolithic secondary mirror a simpler design with quartz-overcoated aluminium has been optimized for incidences far from normality. The conformation of the ASTRI camera in turn pushed towards the design of a reimaging system based on thin pyramidal light guides, that could be optionally integrated in the focal surface, aiming to increase the fill factor. An anti-reflective coating optimized for a wide range of incident angles faraway from normality was specifically developed to enhance the UV-optical transparency of these elements. The issues, strategy, simulations and experimental results are thoroughly

  11. The ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, Carla

    The ANTARES collaboration has completed in 2008 the construction of an underwater high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, located 40 km off the French coast at a depth of 2500 m. The detector consists of 885 optical modules, which are distributed in 12 detector lines, various calibration systems and devices for environmental measurements. With an instrumented volume of about 0.05 km3, ANTARES is the largest Cherenkov neutrino detector currently operating in the Northern hemisphere. A general overview on the ANTARES telescope is given. The preliminary results from the various physics analyses on the collected data will be presented.

  12. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister with callouts and characteristics. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  13. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister with callouts. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  16. The Falcon Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  17. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  18. Wearable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Schuster, Glenn M; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Groisman, Alex; Legerton, Jerry; Meyers, William; Amigo, Goretty Alonso; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-08-20

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a 1.6 mm thick scleral contact lens providing both 1× and 2.8× magnified vision paths, intended for use as a switchable eye-borne telescopic low-vision aid. The F/9.7 telescopic vision path uses an 8.2 mm diameter annular entrance pupil and 4 internal reflections in a polymethyl methacrylate precision optic. This gas-impermeable insert is contained inside a smooth outer casing of rigid gas-permeable polymer, which also provides achromatic correction for refraction at the curved lens face. The unmagnified F/4.1 vision path is through the central aperture of the lens, with additional transmission between the annular telescope rings to enable peripheral vision. We discuss potential solutions for providing oxygenation for an extended wear version of the lens. The prototype lenses were characterized using a scale-model human eye, and telescope functionality was confirmed in a small-scale clinical (nondispensed) demonstration.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineers and technicians conduct a fit check of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Array flight article in a clean room of the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The Solar Array is 40- feet (12.1-meters) long and 8.2-feet (2.5-meters) wide, and provides power to the spacecraft. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  20. Membrane photon sieve telescopes.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Geoff

    2010-11-20

    We present results of research into the design and construction of membrane photon sieves as primaries for next-generation lightweight space telescopes. We have created prototypes in electroformed nickel as well as diazo and CP-1 polymer films. In two such cases, diffraction-limited imaging performance was demonstrated over a narrow bandwidth.

  1. Transitive Lie groups on S^1\\times S^{2m}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatsevich, Vladimir V.

    2007-10-01

    The structure of Lie groups acting transitively on the direct product of a circle and an even-dimensional sphere is described. For products of two spheres of dimension >1 a similar problem has already been solved by other authors. The minimal transitive Lie groups on S^1 and S^{2m} are also indicated. As an application of these results, the structure of the automorphism group of one class of geometric structures, generalized quadrangles (a special case of Tits buildings) is considered. A conjecture put forward by Kramer is proved: the automorphism group of a connected generalized quadrangle of type (1,2m) always contains a transitive subgroup that is the direct product of a compact simple Lie group and a one-dimensional Lie group. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  2. Design and performance of the Douglas Mawson telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Jon S.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Burton, Michael G.; Storey, John W. V.

    2002-12-01

    The Douglas Mawson Telescope (DMT) is a proposed 2 m telescope to be situated on the Antarctic plateau. The proposal comes from Australia, and invites participation by other nations, especially those already active in Antarctic astronomy; such as Italy, France and the United States. The DMT will be equipped with instrumentation to perform wide-field imaging from the near to far infrared. Results from an extensive site testing campaign over the last decade indicates that an Antarctic infrared telescope can be one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than any other ground based telescope of the same size. The DMT will be an important tool for astrophysical research. It will also be beneficial as a technological test bed for future large (8-10 m class) Antarctic telescopes and interferometers, and for space-based telescopes. This paper analyses the performance of the DMT in terms of the achievable resolution, field-of-view, sensitivity and survey depth and compares it to a similar sized telescope located with the characteristic mid-latitude atmosphere of Mauna Kea.

  3. Transit telescope designs optimized for multiple object spectroscopy with fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Instruments to simultaneously study the spectra of many objects in the field of view of a telescope can be made using fused silica fibers. The spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the University of Arizona has been modified for such operation, and is used routinely to study the dynamics of galaxy clusters. Consideration has been given to how the multifiber technique can best be used to obtain spectra of the many faint objects identified by deep transit survey instruments and new space and radio telescopes. A transit survey such as that planned by McGraw et al. (1980), with CCDs at the focus of a 2m transit telescope, will identify objects down to 24th magnitude, and down to 22nd magnitude will give very complete data on variability and optical energy distribution. A telescope with much larger aperture is required for spectroscopic follow up. It is suggested that large telescopes dedicated to this type of work can be made and operated for only a fraction of the cost of a general-purpose telescope.

  4. A Novel Dust Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, E.; Srama, R.; Krüger, H.; Kempf, S.; Harris, D.; Conlon, T.; Auer, S.

    2001-11-01

    Dust particles in space, like photons, are born at remote sites in space and time. From knowledge of the dust particles' birthplace and the particles' bulk properties, we can learn about the remote environment out of which the particles were formed. This approach is carried out by means of a dust telescope on a dust observatory in space. A dust telescope is a combination of a dust trajectory sensor together with a chemical composition analyzer for dust particles. A novel dust telescope is described. It consists of a highly sensitive dust trajectory sensor, and a large area chemical dust analyzer. It can provide valuable information about the particles' birthplace which may not be accessible by other techniques. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of the electric signals that are induced when a charged grain flies through an appropriately configured electrode systems. After the successful identification of a few charged micron-sized dust grains in space by the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer, this dust telescope has a ten fold increased sensitivity of charge detection (10-16 Coulombs) and will be able to obtain trajectories for sub-micron sized dust grains. State-of-the art dust chemical analyzers have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass numbers above 100. However, since their impact areas are small they can analyze statistically meaningful numbers of grains only in the dust-rich environments of comets or ringed planets. Therefore, this dust telescope includes a large area (0.1 m2) chemical dust analyzer of mass resolution > 100 that will allow us to obtain statistically significant measurements of interplanetary and interstellar dust grains in space.

  5. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  6. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. The development of telescope optical requirements and potential optical design configurations is reported.

  7. Uzaybimer Radio Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbay, R.; Öz, G. K.; Arslan, Ö.; Özeren, F. F.; Küçük, İ.

    2016-12-01

    A 13 meters former NATO radar is being converted into a radio telescope. The radio telescope is controlled by a system which has been developed at UZAYBİMER. The Telescope Control System(TCS) has been designed using modern industrial systems. TCS has been developed in LabView platform in which works Windows embedded OS. The position feedback used on radio telescopes is an industrial EtherCAT standard. ASCOM library is used for astronomical calculations.

  8. The Primeval Structure Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. B.; Pen, U. L.; Wu, X. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Primeval Structure Telescope (PaST) will be used to study early ionization of the universe. The telescope will image and spectrally resolve hyperfine emission of neutral hydrogen at redshifts from about 6 to 20. Recently released data, obtained with the WMAP satellite, indicate that the universe was ionized very early, at around redshift 15. Right now, there is very little information on this ionization, since the WMAP data do not tell us the ionization history or the energy source. If the energy source was emission from collapsed objects, perhaps ultraviolet radiation from the first stars, the ionization did not occur homogenously. Earlier star formation in high-density regions causes these to be ionized first. Just when the ionization was half complete, the large-scale structure of the universe became visible in the ionization pattern. We will use redshifted 21 cm brightness to image the largest of the ionized bubbles in three dimensions, allowing us to determine the redshift of the early ionization. In addition, we will be able to study the evolution and merging of the ionized bubbles. PAST will be a sparse array telescope consisting of 10,000 log periodic antennas, providing over 50,000 square meters of effective collecting area. These antennas will be grouped into 80 phased arrays of 127 antennas. Current plans have these phased arrays fixed, pointed at the North Celestial Pole. Later, we can add electronic beam steering. Signals from the 80 phased arrays will be processed using a correlator built from a network of about 100 PC computers. The telescope will occupy ten square kilometers in the Ulastai Valley, Xin Jiang, China. The telescope will be built almost entirely of inexpensive commercially available off-the-shelf components. A series of tests of prototypes, made on-site, have allowed us to study the performance of the telescope and its components. We will present these results and show sky images obtained with the prototypes. We anticipate that one

  9. Magnetic configuration flexibility of snowflake divertor for HL-2M [Analysis of snowflake divertor configurations for HL-2M

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, G. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Ryutov, D. D.; ...

    2014-07-09

    HL-2M (Li, 2013 [1]) is a tokamak device that is under construction. Based on the magnetic coils design of HL-2M, four kinds of divertor configurations are calculated by CORSICA code (Pearlstein et al., 2001 [2]) with the same main plasma parameters, which are standard divertor, exact snowflake divertor, snowflake-plus divertor and snowflake-minus divertor configurations. The potential properties of these divertors are analyzed and presented in this paper: low poloidal field area around X-point, connection length from outside mid-plane to the primary X-point, target plate design and magnetic field shear. The results show that the snowflake configurations not only can reducemore » the heat load at divertor target plates, but also may improve the magneto-hydrodynamic stability by stronger magnetic shear at the edge. Furthermore, a new divertor configuration, named “tripod divertor”, is designed by adjusting the positions of the two X-points according to plasma parameters and magnetic coils current of HL-2M.« less

  10. Magnetic configuration flexibility of snowflake divertor for HL-2M [Analysis of snowflake divertor configurations for HL-2M

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, G. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Ryutov, D. D.; Pan, Y. D.; Xia, T. Y.

    2014-07-09

    HL-2M (Li, 2013 [1]) is a tokamak device that is under construction. Based on the magnetic coils design of HL-2M, four kinds of divertor configurations are calculated by CORSICA code (Pearlstein et al., 2001 [2]) with the same main plasma parameters, which are standard divertor, exact snowflake divertor, snowflake-plus divertor and snowflake-minus divertor configurations. The potential properties of these divertors are analyzed and presented in this paper: low poloidal field area around X-point, connection length from outside mid-plane to the primary X-point, target plate design and magnetic field shear. The results show that the snowflake configurations not only can reduce the heat load at divertor target plates, but also may improve the magneto-hydrodynamic stability by stronger magnetic shear at the edge. Furthermore, a new divertor configuration, named “tripod divertor”, is designed by adjusting the positions of the two X-points according to plasma parameters and magnetic coils current of HL-2M.

  11. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1991-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  12. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1992-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  13. Science operations with Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacconi, R.

    1982-01-01

    The operation, instrumentation, and expected contributions of the Space Telescope are discussed. Space Telescope capabilities are described. The organization and nature of the Space Telescope Science Institute are outlined, including the allocation of observing time and the data rights and data access policies of the institute.

  14. Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Lowell Observatory broke ground on its 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) in July 2005 and celebrated first light for the telescope in July 2012. In this overview to this special session, I will discuss the origin and development of the project, the telescope's general specifications and performance, its current operating status, and the initial instrument suite.

  15. Determination of IRT-2M fuel burnup by gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koleška, Michal; Viererbl, Ladislav; Marek, Milan; Ernest, Jaroslav; Šunka, Michal; Vinš, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    A spectrometric system was developed for evaluating spent fuel in the LVR-15 research reactor, which employs highly enriched (36%) IRT-2M-type fuel. Such system allows the measurement of detailed fission product profiles. Within these measurements, nuclides such as (137)Cs, (134)Cs, (144)Ce, (106)Ru and (154)Eu may be detected in fuel assemblies with different cooling times varying between 1.67 and 7.53 years. Burnup calculations using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code data showed good agreement with measurements, though some discrepancies were observed in certain regions. These discrepancies are attributed to the evaluation of irradiation history, reactor regulation pattern and buildup schemes.

  16. Contact aiming system of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Ye, Xiaoyou; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Gan, Xiaochuan; Shen, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    Composition and principle of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator were introduced. A novel contact aiming system based on high precision inductance sensor was designed. The zero-cross trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was treated as the aiming signal. A rotating mechanism was designed and a segmental shifting motion control model was established. Two key problems, avoiding probe crash and aiming repeatability, were solved. The one dimension end standards such as gauge block, step gauge could be measured directly by this means. The data of test revealed that aiming repeatability was less than 0.2μm.

  17. The Bionic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Neville

    2009-05-01

    Four hundred years after children in a spectacle makers workshop accidentally discovered the telescope, the development of this device has been a continuous replacement of the ``natural'' by the deliberate. The human eye is gone. The lens is gone. The tube is gone. The dome is on the verge of going. The size of the optics are ceasing to be set by transportation limits. Adaptive optics are preferred to stable optics. We deliberately break the Lagrange invariant. We focus on lasers instead of stars, and natural observing environments are being replaced by adaptive environments. The goals for the new ground based telescope encompass the oldest and newest ideas, to find signs of life elsewhere, and to find how all the universe developed.

  18. Origins Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. I will summarize the OST STDT, mission design and instruments, key science drivers, and the study plan over the next two years.

  19. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  20. Telescopes of galileo.

    PubMed

    Greco, V; Molesini, G; Quercioli, F

    1993-11-01

    The Florentine Istituto e Museo di Storia delta Scienza houses two complete telescopes and a single objective lens (reconstructed from several fragments) that can be attributed to Galileo. These optics have been partially dismantled and made available for optical testing with state-of-the-art equipment. The lenses were investigated individually; the focal length and the radii of curvature were measured, and the optical layout of the instruments was worked out. The optical quality of the surfaces and the overall performance of the two complete telescopes have been evaluated interferometrically at a wavelength of 633 nm (with a He-Ne laser source). It was found in particular that the optics of Galileo came close to attaining diffraction-limited operation.

  1. Galileo's wondrous telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-06-01

    If you need reminding of just how wrong the great and the good can be, take a trip to the Museum of the History of Science in Florence, Italy. The museum is staging an exhibition entitled "Galileo's telescope - the instrument that changed the world" to mark the 400th anniversary this year of Galileo Galilei's revolutionary astronomical discoveries, which were made possible by the invention of the telescope. At the start of the 17th century, astronomers assumed that all the planets and the stars in the heavens had been identified and that there was nothing new for them to discover, as the exhibition's curator, Giorgio Strano, points out. "No-one could have imagined what wondrous new things were about to be revealed by an instrument created by inserting two eyeglass lenses into the ends of a tube," he adds.

  2. Telescopic horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan

    2014-12-20

    The problem of "distortionless" viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems (mainly "binoculars") remains problematic. The so called "globe effect" is only partially counteracted in modern designs. Theories addressing the phenomenon have never reached definitive closure. In this paper, we show that exact distortionless viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems is not possible in general, but that it is in principle possible in-very frequent in battle field and marine applications-the case of horizon scanning. However, this involves cylindrical optical elements. For opto-electronic systems, a full solution is more readily feasible. The solution involves a novel interpretation of the relevant constraints and objectives. For final design decisions, it is not necessary to rely on a corpus of psychophysical (or ergonomic) data, although one has to decide whether the instrument is intended as an extension of the eye or as a "pictorial" device.

  3. Nonmechanical bifocal zoom telescope.

    PubMed

    Valley, Pouria; Reza Dodge, Mohammad; Schwiegerling, Jim; Peyman, Gholam; Peyghambarian, N

    2010-08-01

    We report on a novel zoom lens with no moving parts in the form of a switchable Galilean telescope. This zoom telescope consists of two flat liquid-crystal diffractive lenses with apertures of 10mm that can each take on the focal lengths of -50 and +100cm, with a spacing of 50cm and, hence, a zoom ratio of 4x. The lenses are driven using a low-voltage ac source with 1.6V and exhibit millisecond switching times. The spectral characteristic of this diffractive zoom system is evaluated for light sources of various bandwidths. Potential applications for this technology include a zoom lens with no moving parts for camera phones and medical imaging devices.

  4. TAUVEX - UV Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, Jeremy; Braun, Ofer; Brosch, Noah

    1993-01-01

    The TAUVEX UV Space Telescope currently under construction by El-Op Ltd. in Israel is designed both for recording images of the sky in the UV region and to serve as the optical monitor for the SODART X-Ray Telescope being built by the Danish Space Research Institute. The two systems, together with several other experiments, will be flown on the S-R-G satellite to be launched by the CIS in 1995. TAUVEX will image a field of about 1 deg simultaneously in three spectral bands. In addition, it will record a selected object in a high-speed time-resolved mode in these bands. The concept and design of TAUVEX is described in this paper.

  5. The Neutrino Telescope ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan José

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration [1] , formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological deffects, Q-balls, etc). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented

  6. [Galileo and his telescope].

    PubMed

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  7. The Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, Peter F.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL

    2007-11-13

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy pair-conversion telescope, covering the energy range from {approx}20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT is being built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. The scientific objectives the LAT will address include resolving the high-energy gamma-ray sky and determining the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources and the origin of the apparently isotropic diffuse emission observed by EGRET; understanding the mechanisms of particle acceleration in celestial sources, including active galactic nuclei, pulsars, and supernovae remnants; studying the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray bursts and transients; using high-energy gamma-rays to probe the early universe to z {ge} 6; and probing the nature of dark matter. The components of the LAT include a precision silicon-strip detector tracker and a CsI(Tl) calorimeter, a segmented anticoincidence shield that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large field-of-view and ensuring that nearly all pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. This paper includes a description of each of these LAT subsystems as well as a summary of the overall performance of the telescope.

  8. Simulation of the ASTRI two-mirrors small-size telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigongiari, C.; Cusumano, G.; Di Pierro, F.; La Parola, V.; Stamerra, A.; Vallania, P.; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium, the

    2016-05-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a world-wide project to build a new generation ground-based gamma-ray instrument operating in the energy range from some tens of GeV to above 100 TeV. To ensure full sky coverage CTA will consist of two arrays of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs), one in the southern hemisphere and another one in the northern hemisphere. CTA has just completed the design phase and it is entering in the pre-production one that includes the development of telescope precursor mini-arrays. ASTRI is an ongoing project, to develop and install at the southern CTA site one of such mini-arrays composed by nine dual-mirror small size telescopes equipped with an innovative camera based on silicon photomultiplier sensors. The end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, has been recently inaugurated at the Serra La Nave observing station, on Mount Etna, Italy. ASTRI SST-2M expected performance has been carefully studied using a full Monte Carlo simulation of the shower development in the atmosphere and detector response. Simulated data have been analyzed using the traditional Hillas moment analysis to obtain the expected angular and energy resolution. Simulation results, together with the comparison with the available experimental measurements, are shown.

  9. The Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, Chris R.

    2014-08-01

    The ING runs the highly-productive 4.2-mWilliam Herschel Telescope (WHT) and 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) on La Palma in the Canary Islands. I give an overview of the current operational model, commenting on how the model has evolved since the mid-1980s, and on the experience gained with e.g. instrument development; adaptive-optics/LGS deployment; hosting visiting instruments; scheduling; fault handling; student vs staff support of observers; and performance monitoring.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  11. The ASTRI/CTA mini-array of Small Size Telescopes as a precursor of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Agnetta, Gaetano; Antolini, Elisa; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Bastieri, Denis; Bellassai, Giancarlo; Belluso, Massimiliano; Bigongiari, Ciro; Billotta, Sergio; Biondo , Benedetto; Boettcher, Markus; Bonanno, Giovanni; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Bruno , Pietro; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Capalbi, Milvia; Capobianco, G.; Caraveo, Patrizia; Carosi, Alòessandro; Cascone, Enrico; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cereda, Michele; Conconi, Paolo; Conforti, Vito; Cusumano, Giancarlo; De Caprio, Vincenzo; De Luca, Andrea; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Di Paola, Andrea; Di Pierro, Federico; Fantinel, Daniela; Fiorini, Mauro; Fugazza, Dino; Gardiol, Daniele; Gargano, Carmelo; Garozzo , Salvatore; Gianotti , Fulvio; Giarrusso , Salvatore; Giro, Enrico; Grillo, Aledssandro; Impiombato, Domenico; Incorvaia , Salvatore; La Barbera , Antonino; La Palombara , Nicola; La Parola , Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Lessio, Luigi; Leto, Giuseppe; Lombardi , Saverio; Lucarelli, Fabrizio; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Malaspina, Giuseppe; Marano, Davide; Martinetti , Eugenio; Melioli, C.; Millul, Rachele; Mineo , Teresa; Morello, Carlo; Morlino, Giovanni; Nemmen, R.; Perri, Luca; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Romano, Patrizia; Romeo, Giuseppe; Russo, Francesco; Sacco, Bruno; Sartore, Nicola; Schwarz, Joseph; Alberto, Segreto; Selvestrel, Danilo; Sironi, Giorgia; Stamerra, Antonio; Strazzeri, Elisabetta; Stringhetti, Luca; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Tanci, Claudio; Testa, Vincenzo; Timpanaro , Maria Cristina; Toso, Giorgio; Tosti, Gino; Trifoglio, Massimo; Vallania, Piero; Vercellone, Stefano; Volpicelli, Antonio; Zitelli, Valentina

    2014-08-01

    ASTRI ("Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana") is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing a wide-field-of-view (9.6 degrees in diameter) end-to-end prototype of the small-size telescope (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, sensitive in the energy band from a few TeV up to hundreds TeV. The ASTRI telescope is based on a dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (ASTRI SST-2M) optical design, with a compact (F# = 0.5) optical configuration named ASTRI SST-2M telescope. This allows us to adopt an innovative modular focal plane camera based on silicon photo-multipliers, with a logical pixel size of 6.2mm x 6.2mm. Moreover, planned, and already being developed, an SST mini-array based on 7 identical telescopes represents an evolution of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope. The ASTRI/CTA mini-array will be part of the CTA array, representing a precursor that will be included into the final array. With the mini-array, in addition to a technical assessment studies in the perpective of the full CTA implementation, it will be possible to perform an early scientific program. In particular we wish to start investigating the poorly known energy range between a few and 100 TeV, thus exploring e.g. the cut-off regime of cosmic accelerators. Apart from INAF, other international institutes will directly participate in the mini-array implementation, as the North-West University in South Africa and the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil. An interest about it has been expressed also by other international groups. In this talk we will report on the development status of the ASTRI prototype and ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  12. "First Light" Approaches for Fourth VLT Unit Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-08-01

    These days, the ESO staff at Paranal is having a strong feeling of "déja-vu". Only seven months after the third 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, MELIPAL , achieved "First Light", this crucial moment is now rapidly approaching for YEPUN , the fourth and last of the giants at the ESO observatory. Following successful coating with a thin layer of aluminium in early June 2000, the 8.2-m primary Zerodur mirror (M1) was placed in its supporting cell and safely attached to the mechanical structure of YEPUN on July 31. On August 26, the 1.1-m M2 Beryllium Mirror for YEPUN was coated. Again, this delicate operation went very well and the measured reflectivity was excellent, about 91%. The M2 mirror and its support were then assembled and successfully installed at the telescope on Sunday, August 27. Before the optical mirrors were installed, and with dummies in their place, careful tests were made of most telescope functions. In particular, this included accurate balancing of the 450-tonnes telescope frame on its hydrostatic oil bearings, as well as precise adjustment of all motions. It now remains for the ESO engineers to do the final performance optimization of the entire telescope. The work on the fourth telescope has been particularly noticeable because a large proportion of the assembly, integration, tuning and testing was organised and executed by ESOs young group of capable engineers and technicians. As the engineering staff at Paranal has grown and during the earlier work on the first three telescopes, they have been acquiring the necessary expertise to autonomously integrate and maintain the 8.2-m telescopes. During the coming "First Light" observations, light from the selected celestial objects will be registered by the VLT Test Camera at the Cassegrain Focus. This comparatively simple instrument was also used for the consecutive "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). It is mounted on the telescope's optical axis

  13. Direct drive targets for the megajoule facility UFL-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, V. B.; Gus'kov, S. Yu; Vergunova, G. A.; Demchenko, N. N.; Stepanov, R. V.; Doskoch, I. Ya; Yakhin, R. A.; Zmitrenko, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Development of direct drive target schemes for the megajoule facility is a topical problem of up-to-date inertial fusion physics. The choice of possible schemes and solutions depends essentially on the irradiation conditions. The installations both running (NIF) and under construction (LMJ) are destined to the 3ω irradiation in PDD (polar direct drive) configuration. The UFL-2M installation that is under construction is based on 2ω irradiation and a symmetrical scheme of direct drive target irradiation. Under these conditions possible schemes for direct drive targets demonstrating the ignition and the achievement of gain G=10÷20 are considered in this report. At the same time, the possibilities are analyzed for the target compression and ignition with a reliability reserve at the conditions that can deviate from the standard ones, and if our understanding of the physics of the processes is not completely adequate to the physics of the real processes.

  14. Termolecular rate coefficients and the standard enthalpy of the reaction OH + CS sub 2 + M yields HOCS sub 2 + M

    SciTech Connect

    Diau, E.W.; Lee, Yuanpern )

    1991-01-10

    The reaction between OH and CS{sub 2} has been studied in He in the pressure range 9-270 Torr and the temperature range 249-298 K by means of the laser-photolysis/laser-induced-fluorescence technique. Analysis of the temporal profile of (OH) yielded the rate coefficients for the forward and reverse reactions for the equilibrium OH + CS{sub 2} + M {r equilibrium} HOCS{sub 2} + M and hence the equilibrium constant. Study of the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant leads to the standard enthalpy of reaction {Delta}H{degree} = {minus}43.9 {plus minus} 5.3 kJ mol{sup {minus}1} and the standard entropy of reaction {Delta}S{degree} = {minus}102.9 {plus minus} 15.4 J K{sup {minus}1} mol{sup {minus}1}. The termolecular rate coefficients for the forward reaction at 298 K have also been determined to be k{sub He}{sup III} = (5.04 {plus minus} 1.01) {times} 10{sup {minus}32} cm{sup 6} molecule{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} and k{sub CS{sub 2}}{sup III} = (4.28 {plus minus} 1.07) {times} 10{sup {minus}31} cm{sup 6} molecule{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}.

  15. Procedures for the relative calibration of the SiPM gain on ASTRI SST-2M camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impiombato, D.; Catalano, O.; Giarrusso, S.; Mineo, T.; Rosa, G. La; Gargano, C.; Sangiorgi, P.; Segreto, A.; Sottile, G.; Bonanno, G.; Garozzo, S.; Grillo, A.; Marano, D.; Romeo, G.; Gimenes, R.

    2017-02-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is one of the prototypes of the small size class of telescopes proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. Its optical design is based on a dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder configuration, and the camera is composed by a matrix of monolithic multipixel silicon photomultipliers managed by ad-hoc tailored front-end electronics. This paper describes the procedures for the gain calibration on the ASTRI SST-2M. Since the SiPM gain depends on the operative voltage and the temperature, we adjust the operative voltages for all sensors to have equal gains at a reference temperature. We then correct gain variations caused by temperature changes by adjusting the operating voltage of each sensor. For that purpose the SiPM gain dependence on operating voltage and on temperature have been measured. In addition, we present the calibration procedures and the results of the experimental measurements to evaluate, for each pixel, the parameters necessary to make the trigger uniform over the whole focal plane.

  16. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  17. Comparing NEO Search Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Multiple terrestrial and space-based telescopes have been proposed for detecting and tracking near-Earth objects (NEOs). Detailed simulations of the search performance of these systems have used complex computer codes that are not widely available, which hinders accurate cross-comparison of the proposals and obscures whether they have consistent assumptions. Moreover, some proposed instruments would survey infrared (IR) bands, whereas others would operate in the visible band, and differences among asteroid thermal and visible-light models used in the simulations further complicate like-to-like comparisons. I use simple physical principles to estimate basic performance metrics for the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and three space-based instruments—Sentinel, NEOCam, and a Cubesat constellation. The performance is measured against two different NEO distributions, the Bottke et al. distribution of general NEOs, and the Veres et al. distribution of Earth-impacting NEO. The results of the comparison show simplified relative performance metrics, including the expected number of NEOs visible in the search volumes and the initial detection rates expected for each system. Although these simplified comparisons do not capture all of the details, they give considerable insight into the physical factors limiting performance. Multiple asteroid thermal models are considered, including FRM, NEATM, and a new generalized form of FRM. I describe issues with how IR albedo and emissivity have been estimated in previous studies, which may render them inaccurate. A thermal model for tumbling asteroids is also developed and suggests that tumbling asteroids may be surprisingly difficult for IR telescopes to observe.

  18. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  19. Is Your Telescope Tweeting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Half of the world's population today was born after the Apollo Moon landings. The best way to reach this generation and get them excited about today's space exploration and astronomy news and events is through online social media, which are technologies that allow anyone to communicate with everyone. Twitter is a growing popular social media tool that uses short, 140 character "Tweets" to quickly and concisely convey updates on what you "are doing." With the right combination of information, personality and fun, telescopes and spacecraft are using Twitter for public outreach, providing important status updates while making the public feel like they are part of the mission.

  20. Recent discoveries and advances for the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking program with MSSS 1.2-meter telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambery, R. J.; Lawrence, K. J.; Hicks, M. D.; Jong, E. M. De; Parvdo, S.; Helin, E. F.

    2003-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program has two simultaneously-operating, autonomous search systems on two geographically-separated 1.2-m telescopes; one at the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) and the other on the Palomar Observatory's Oschin telescope (NEAT/Palomar). This paper will focus exclusively on the NEAT/MSSS system.

  1. SST dual-mirror telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Delphine; Laporte, Philippe; Sol, Hélène; Pareschi, Giovanni; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Stringhetti, Luca; Catalano, Osvaldo; White, Richard; Greenshaw, Tim; Hinton, Jim; Blake, Simon

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international collaboration that aims to create the world's foremost very high energy gamma-ray observatory, composed of large, medium and small size telescopes (SST). The SSTs will be the most numerous telescopes on site and will focus on capturing the rarer highest energy photons. Three prototypes of SST are designed and currently under construction; two of them, ASTRI and SST-GATE, have been designed, based on a dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) design which has never been built before for any astronomical observation. The SC optical design allows for a small plate scale, a wide field of view and a lightweight cameras aiming to minimize the cost of SST telescopes in order to increase their number in the array. The aim of this article is to report the progress of the two telescope projects prototyping telescope structures and cameras for the Small Size Telescopes for CTA. After a discussion of the CTA project and its scientific objectives, the performance of the SC design is described, with focus on the specific designs of SST-GATE and ASTRI telescopes. The design of both prototypes and their progress is reported in the current prototyping phase. The designs of Cherenkov cameras, CHEC and ASTRI, to be mounted on these telescopes are discussed and progresses are reported.

  2. SNAP Telescope Latest Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The coming era of precision cosmology imposes new demands on space telescopes with regard to spectrophotometric accuracy and image stability. To meet these requirements for SNAP we have developed an all reflecting two-meter-class space telescope of the three-mirror anastigmat type. Our design features a large flat annular field (1.5 degrees = 580mm diameter) and a telephoto advantage of 6, delivering a 22m focal length within an optical package length of only 3.5 meters. The use of highly stable materials (Corning ULE glass and carbon-fiber reinforced cyanate ester resin for the metering structure) combined with agressive distributed thermal control and an L2 orbit location will lead to unmatched figure stability. Owing to our choice of rigid structure with nondeployable solar panels, finite-element models show no structural resonances below 10Hz. An exhaustive stray light study has been completed. Beginning in 2005, two industry studies will develop plans for fabrication, integration and test, bringing SNAP to a highly realistic level of definition. SNAP is supported by the Office of Science, US DoE, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  3. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, P. R.

    1999-12-01

    The Green Bank Telescope The 100-m NRAO Green Bank Telescope will be completed in early 2000. The GBT has a large number of unique design and performance features that will give it unprecedented scientific capability. This poster display will review those features, which include an offset feed (clear aperture) design, an active surface, a closed-loop laser metrology system for surface figure and pointing control, broad frequency coverage from 100 MHz to 115 GHz, a versatile receiver selection mechanism, and a new multi-input, 256k-channel autocorrelation spectrometer. The status of the project, the commissioning schedule, plans for early operations, the initial instrumentation suite, and plans for future instrumentation will be reviewed. Scientific areas for which the GBT will have a large impact will be discussed, including observations of young galaxies at extreme redshifts, pulsars, HI and molecular spectroscopy, VLBI work, and millimeter-wave spectroscopy and continuum studies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  4. Magellan Telescopes operations 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osip, David J.; Phillips, Mark M.; Palunas, Povilas; Perez, Frank; Leroy, M.

    2008-07-01

    The twin 6.5m Magellan Telescopes have been in routine operations at the Las Campanas Observatory in the Chilean Andes since 2001 and 2002 respectively. The telescopes are owned and operated by Carnegie for the benefit of the Magellan consortium members (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Harvard University, the University of Arizona, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Michigan). This paper provides an up to date review of the scientific, technical, and administrative structure of the 'Magellan Model' for observatory operations. With a modest operations budget and a reasonably small staff, the observatory is operated in the "classical" mode, wherein the visiting observer is a key member of the operations team. Under this model, all instrumentation is supplied entirely by the consortium members and the various instrument teams continue to play a critical support role beyond initial deployment and commissioning activities. Here, we present a critical analysis of the Magellan operations model and suggest lessons learned and changes implemented as we continue to evolve an organizational structure that can efficiently deliver a high scientific return for the investment of the partners.

  5. FalconSAT-7: a membrane space solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Geoff; Asmolova, Olha; McHarg, Matthew G.; Quiller, Trey; Maldonado, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The US Air Force Academy of Physics has built FalconSAT-7, a membrane solar telescope to be deployed from a 3U CubeSat in LEO. The primary optic is a 0.2m photon sieve - a diffractive element consisting of billions of tiny circular dimples etched into a Kapton sheet. The membrane its support structure, secondary optics, two imaging cameras and associated control, recording electronics are packaged within half the CubeSat volume. Once in space the supporting pantograph structure is deployed, extending out and pulling the membrane flat under tension. The telescope will then be directed at the Sun to gather images at H-alpha for transmission to the ground. We will present details of the optical configuration, operation and performance of the flight telescope which has been made ready for launch in early 2017.

  6. The Busot Observatory: towards a robotic autonomous telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lozano, R.; Rodes, J. J.; Torrejón, J. M.; Bernabéu, G.; Berná, J. Á.

    2016-12-01

    We describe the Busot observatory, our project of a fully robotic autonomous telescope. This astronomical observatory, which obtained the Minor Planet Centre code MPC-J02 in 2009, includes a 14 inch MEADE LX200GPS telescope, a 2 m dome, a ST8-XME CCD camera from SBIG, with an AO-8 adaptive optics system, and a filter wheel equipped with UBVRI system. We are also implementing a spectrograph SGS ST-8 for the telescope. Currently, we are involved in long term studies of variable sources such as X-ray binaries systems, and variable stars. In this work we also present the discovery of W UMa systems and its orbital periods derived from the photometry light curve obtained at Busot Observatory.

  7. Deployment of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide field upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Good, John; Lee, Hanshin; Vattiat, Brian; Kriel, Herman; Bryant, Randy; Elliot, Linda; Landriau, Martin; Leck, Ron; Perry, David; Ramsey, Jason; Savage, Richard; Allen, Richard D.; Damm, George; DePoy, D. L.; Fowler, Jim; Gebhardt, Karl; Haeuser, Marco; MacQueen, Phillip; Marshall, J. L.; Martin, Jerry; Prochaska, Travis; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Shetrone, Matthew; Schroeder Mrozinski, Emily; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Cornell, Mark E.; Booth, John; Moreira, Walter

    2014-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is an innovative large telescope located in West Texas at the McDonald Observatory. The HET operates with a fixed segmented primary and has a tracker, which moves the four-mirror optical corrector and prime focus instrument package to track the sidereal and non-sidereal motions of objects. A major upgrade of the HET is in progress that will substantially increase the pupil size to 10 meters (from 9.2 m) and the field of view to 22 arcminutes (from 4 arcminutes) by replacing the corrector, tracker, and prime focus instrument package. In addition to supporting existing instruments, and a new low resolution spectrograph, this wide field upgrade will feed a revolutionary new integral field spectrograph called VIRUS, in support of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX§). The upgrade is being installed and this paper discusses the current status.

  8. Near anastigmatic grazing incidence telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1984-01-01

    A performance capability assessment is presently conducted for short versus long grazing incidence telescope designs, in view of the observation that the field curvature and astigmatism that are the primary residual aberrations of a Wolter-type incidence telescope can be substantially reduced through mirror length reduction. A major advantage of the short element telescope is that, if sufficiently short, both the paraboloid and hyperboloid surfaces may be fabricated as a single piece; this significantly facilitates the task of alignment.

  9. Cost Modeling for Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly (OTA). These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. Standard statistical methods are used to derive CERs for OTA cost versus aperture diameter and mass. The results are compared with previously published models.

  10. Particle Shape and Composition of NU-LHT-2M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Lowers, H.

    2012-01-01

    Particle shapes of the lunar regolith simulant NU-LHT-2M were analyzed by scanning electron microscope of polished sections. These data provide shape, size, and composition information on a particle by particle basis. 5,193 particles were measured, divided into four sized fractions: less than 200 mesh, 200-100 mesh, 100-35 mesh, and greater than 35 mesh. 99.2% of all particles were monominerallic. Minor size versus composition effects were noted in minor and trace mineralogy. The two metrics used are aspect ratio and Heywood factor, plotted as normalized frequency distributions. Shape versus composition effects were noted for glass and possibly chlorite. To aid in analysis, the measured shape distributions are compared to data for ellipses and rectangles. Several other simple geometric shapes are also investigated as to how they plot in aspect ratio versus Heywood factor space. The bulk of the data previously reported, which were acquired in a plane of projection, are between the ellipse and rectangle lines. In contrast, these data, which were acquired in a plane of section, clearly show that a significant number of particles have concave hulls in this view. Appendices cover details of measurement error, use of geometric shapes for comparative analysis, and a logic for comparing data from plane of projection and plane of section measurements.

  11. Suppression of disruptions with ECH on JFT-2M

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, K.; Mori, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Tamai, H.; Shoji, T.; Miura, Y.; Aikawa, H.; Kasai, S.; Kawakami, T.; Kawashima, H.; Maeno, M.; Matsuda, T.; Nagashima, K.; Oasa, K.; Odajima, K.; Ogawa, H.; Ogawa, T.; Seike, T.; Shiina, T.; Uehara, K.; Yamauchi, T.; Suzuki, N.; Maeda, H. )

    1994-10-15

    Typical MHD disruptions at surface safety factor q[sub a]=3 have been avoided by off-central ECH in the JFT-2M Tokamak. For the suppression, the electron cyclotron resonance layer has to be placed radially in a very narrow region of width about 1 cm near the q=2 surface. Both low-field side heating and high-field side heating are effective for the suppression. Fourier spectrum of the magnetic fluctuation shows that mode amplitude decreases by ECH and disruption is avoided. Without ECH, the mode frequency decreases (mode locking) and disruption occurs. Pulse feedback modulation of the ECH power by a magnetic pickup signal shows that the effect of the ECH to reduce the fluctuation is observed only when O-point of the island is likely to be heated. The actual time scale of the suppression is much faster than the time scale of the change of the overall current profile. These observations show that ECH acts on the m=2 island. Further this heating is found to be effective to reduce the m=2 mode which appears at the density-limit-disruption.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Velocities and EW of PTF SNe Ia (Maguire+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, K.; Sullivan, M.; Pan, Y.-C.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Mazzali, P.; Chotard, N.; Clubb, K. I.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kandrashoff, M. T.; Poznanski, D.; Saunders, C. M.; Silverman, J. M.; Walker, E.; Xu, D.

    2015-04-01

    We present spectroscopic classification and follow-up data for SNe Ia obtained as part of the PTF collaboration. SN candidates were discovered in P48 g- and R-band images using image-subtraction techniques. Photometry was obtained at the P48, as well as the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope (LT) and the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Faulkes Telescope North (FTN). In this paper, we focus on the spectroscopic sample analysis and use only derived quantities from the light curves (light-curve width, time of B-band maximum light). (2 data files).

  13. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 3: Optical telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the optical telescope assembly for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The systems considerations are based on mission-related parameters and optical equipment requirements. Information is included on: (1) structural design and analysis, (2) thermal design, (3) stabilization and control, (4) alignment, focus, and figure control, (5) electronic subsystem, and (6) scientific instrument design.

  14. Gamma-Ray Telescopes: 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in gamma-ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of Al-26.

  15. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for over 400 years, yet most people have never looked though one. We invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky, and have a close encounter with the cosmos.Our main aim is to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics to the young minds by inspiring, empowering and engaging them using astronomy and astrophysics tools and concepts. We would like to see Africa compete with the rest of the world and we believe this can happen through having a scientifically literate society. We also work closely wit teachers, parents and the general public to further our objectives. We will present on our recently awarded project to work with schools in rural coastal Kenya, a very poor area of the country. We will also present on other work we continue to do with schools to make our project sustainable even after the OAD funding.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have identified what may be the most luminous star known; a celestial mammoth that releases up to 10-million times the power of the Sun and is big enough to fill the diameter of Earth's orbit. The star unleashes as much energy in six seconds as our Sun does in one year. The image, taken by a UCLA-led team with the recently installed Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) aboard the HST, also reveals a bright nebula, created by extremely massive stellar eruptions. The UCLA astronomers estimate that the star, called the Pistol Star, (for the pistol shaped nebula surrounding it), is approximately 25,000 light-years from Earth, near the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The Pistol Star is not visible to the eye, but is located in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, hidden behind the great dust clouds along the Milky Way

  17. Composite telescope technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    We report the development of optical mirrors based on polymer matrix composite materials. Advantages of this technology are low cost and versatility. By using appropriate combinations of polymers and various metallic and nonmetallic particles and fibers, the properties of the materials can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications. We report the fabrication and testing of flat and curved mirrors made with metal powders, multiple mirrors replicated with high degree of uniformity from the same mandrels, cryogenic testing, mirrors made of ferromagnetic materials that can be actively or adaptively controlled by non-contact actuation, optics with very smooth surfaces made by replication, and by spincasting. We discuss development of a new generation of ultra-compact, low power active optics and 3D printing of athermal telescopes.

  18. Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Redding, David; Lowman, Andrew; Cohen, David; Ohara, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts the planned Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope (AHMT), which is intended to demonstrate a new approach to the design and construction of wide-aperture spaceborne telescopes for astronomy and Earth science. This technology is also appropriate for Earth-based telescopes. The new approach can be broadly summarized as using advanced lightweight mirrors that can be manufactured rapidly at relatively low cost. More specifically, it is planned to use precise replicated metallic nanolaminate mirrors to obtain the required high-quality optical finishes. Lightweight, dimensionally stable silicon carbide (SiC) structures will support the nanolaminate mirrors in the required surface figures. To enable diffraction- limited telescope performance, errors in surface figures will be corrected by use of mirror-shape-control actuators that will be energized, as needed, by a wave-front-sensing and control system. The concepts of nanolaminate materials and mirrors made from nanolaminate materials were discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Nanolaminates constitute a relatively new class of materials that can approach theoretical limits of stiffness and strength. Nanolaminate mirrors are synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition of metallic alloys and/or compounds on optically precise master surfaces to obtain optical-quality reflector surfaces backed by thin shell structures. As an integral part of the deposition process, a layer of gold that will constitute the reflective surface layer is deposited first, eliminating the need for a subsequent and separate reflective-coating process. The crystallographic textures of the nanolaminate will be controlled to optimize the performance of the mirror. The entire deposition process for making a nanolaminate mirror takes less than 100 hours, regardless of the mirror diameter. Each nanolaminate mirror will be bonded to its lightweight SiC supporting structure. The lightweight nanolaminate mirrors and Si

  19. The Metagenomic Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G.; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well–known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well–researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms. PMID:25054802

  20. The metagenomic telescope.

    PubMed

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well-known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well-researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms.

  1. Kashima 34-m Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Kawai, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The Kashima 34-m radio telescope has been continuously operated and maintained by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) as a facility of the Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) in Japan. This brief report summarizes the status of this telescope, the staff, and activities during 2012.

  2. Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In 1990 NASA launched the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. In addition to cameras and spectrographs usable from the far ultraviolet to the near-infrared, the observatory contains three white-light INTERFEROMETERS. As part of engineering and science support their primary task was telescope guiding; to position and hold science targets within the science instrument apertures with tolerances approaching 0.1'...

  3. Telescopes, Mounts and Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobberley, M.; Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    The amateur astronomer used to have a relatively basic choice of equipment: a refractor (see REFRACTING TELESCOPES), or a Newtonian reflector (see REFLECTING TELESCOPES); there were few other options. The refractor has always been the stereotype astronomer's instrument: a spy glass, with a lens at one end and an eyepiece at the other. However, in practice, the reflector has always been better aper...

  4. Site testing for the Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Dunham, Edward W.; Bright, Leonard P.; Corson, Charles

    2004-10-01

    We present results of an extended campaign to test astronomical and environmental qualities of the intended site for the Discovery Channel Telescope, located at 2361m elevation near Happy Jack, AZ. A semi-permanent test station has been in operation since January 2003, consisting of a Differential Image Motion Measurement (DIMM) system and a weather station. Median seeing derived from DIMM measurements for January 2003 - May 2004 on 117 separate nights was 0.84 arcsec, with a first-quartile average of 0.62 arcsec. A wind sensor array deployed on a 12.2m tower is used to characterize air flow over the site. We find that ground induced turbulence becomes more prevalent below the 7.3m level. The Lowell DIMM system has also been run adjacent to the WIYN telescope for simultaneous comparative seeing measurements. Absolute correlations of DIMM seeing with WIYN image quality were good over two nights' observing under a range of environmental conditions.

  5. Turkey's next big science project: DAG the 4 meter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, O.; Yesilyaprak, C.; Yerli, S. K.; Zago, L.; Jolissaint, L.

    2014-07-01

    The DAG (Turkish for Eastern Anatolia Observatory) 4-m telescope project has been formally launched in 2012, being fully funded by the Government of Turkey. This new observatory is to be located on a 3170 m altitude ridge near the town of Erzurum in Eastern Anatolia. First light is scheduled for late 2017. The DAG team's baseline design of the telescope consists of a Ritchey-Chretien type with alt-az mount, a focal length of 56 m and a field of view up to 30 arcmin. Multiple instruments will be located at the Nasmyth foci. The optical specifications of the telescope are set by DAG team for diffraction limited performance with active and adaptive optics. Modern mirror control technologies will allow defining in a most cost effective way the figuring requirements of the optical surfaces: the low order figuring errors of the combined optical train constituted of M1-M2-M3 are defined in terms of Zernike coefficients and referred to the M1 surface area. The high order figuring errors are defined using the phase structure functions. Daytime chilling of the closed enclosure volume and natural ventilation through suitable openings during observations will be used to ensure optimal mirror and dome seeing. A design of a ground layer adaptive optics (GLAO) subsystem is developed concurrently with the telescope. In this paper, main design aspects, the optical design and expected performance analysis of the telescope will be presented.

  6. Control system developments for the Isaac Newton Group of telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Martin; Wilkes, John D.; Amos, Clive S.

    1995-06-01

    A number of improvements have been made to the servo control systems of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Isaac Newton Group of telescopes on La Palma in the Canary Islands. The successful upgrading of both the Cassegrain and prime focus rotators to meet more stringent science and engineering requirements is described. Simulation (using Matlab(superscript R) and Simulink(superscript R)) of a model reference adaptive controller to improve azimuth tracking in the presence of torque disturbances is presented together with some preliminary results and a discussion of the way forward. Further enhancements to the WHT's subsystems are also discussed. The smaller 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) and the 1 m Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope (JKT) are also being considered for major improvements to their drives and encoders. Studies are being carried out to determine the requirements and appropriate goals of such improvements and whether modern control approaches can offer cost-effective solutions with minimal re-engineering work. The current performance, generally pointing and tracking, of these telescopes is presented and the subsystems which limit performance are examined; these may be drives, encoders, mirror supports, and structural components. A range of solutions is considered and the technical proposals developed so far are discussed.

  7. Las Cumbres Observatory 1-Meter Global Science Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, Andrew; Dubberley, M.; Haldeman, B.; Haynes, R.; Posner, V.; Rosing, W.; staff, LCOGT

    2009-05-01

    We present the optical, mechanical and electronic design of the LCOGT 1-m telescope. These telescopes are planned to go in pairs to each of 6 sites worldwide, complementing 0.4m telescopes and 2-m telescopes at two existing sites. This science network is designed to provide continuously available photometric monitoring and spectroscopy of variable sources. The 1-m optical design is an f/8 quasi-RC system, with a doublet corrector and field flattener to provide good image quality out to 0.8 degrees. The field of view of the Fairchild 4K science CCD is 27 arcmin, with 0.39 arcsec pixels. The mechanical design includes a stiff C-ring equatorial mount and friction drive rollers, mounted on a triangular base that can be adjusted for latitude. Another friction drive is coupled at the Declination axis to the M1 mirror cell, that forms the main Optical Tube Assembly (OTA) structural element. The OTA design includes a stiff carbon fiber truss assembly, with offset vanes to an M2 drive that provides remote focus, tilt and collimation. The tube assembly weighs about 600 Kg, including Hextek mirrors, 4K science CCD, filter wheel, autoguiders and medium resolution spectrograph pick-off fiber. The telescopes will be housed in domes at existing observatory sites. They are designed to operate remotely and reliably under centralized control for automatic, optimized scheduling of observations with available hardware.

  8. Wind buffeting of large telescopes.

    PubMed

    MacMynowski, Douglas G; Andersen, Torben

    2010-02-01

    Unsteady wind loads due to turbulence within the telescope enclosure are one of the largest dynamic disturbances for ground-based optical telescopes. The desire to minimize the response to the wind influences the design of the telescope enclosure, structure, and control systems. There is now significant experience in detailed integrated modeling to predict image jitter due to wind. Based on this experience, a relatively simple model is proposed that is verified (from a more detailed model) to capture the relevant physics. In addition to illustrating the important elements of the telescope design that influence wind response, this model is used to understand the sensitivity of telescope image jitter to a wide range of design parameters.

  9. Characterizing Rocky and Gaseous Exoplanets with 2 m Class Space-based Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Marley, Mark S.

    2016-02-01

    Several concepts now exist for small, space-based missions to directly characterize exoplanets in reflected light. While studies have been performed that investigate the potential detection yields of such missions, little work has been done to understand how instrumental and astrophysical parameters will affect the ability of these missions to obtain spectra that are useful for characterizing their planetary targets. Here, we develop an instrument noise model suitable for studying the spectral characterization potential of a coronagraph-equipped, space-based telescope. We adopt a baseline set of telescope and instrument parameters appropriate for near-future planned missions like WFIRST-AFTA, including a 2 m diameter primary aperture, an operational wavelength range of 0.4-1.0 μm, and an instrument spectral resolution of λ/Δλ = 70, and apply our baseline model to a variety of spectral models of different planet types, including Earth twins, Jupiter twins, and warm and cool Jupiters and Neptunes. With our exoplanet spectral models, we explore wavelength-dependent planet-star flux ratios for main-sequence stars of various effective temperatures and discuss how coronagraph inner and outer working angle constraints will influence the potential to study different types of planets. For planets most favorable to spectroscopic characterization—cool Jupiters and Neptunes as well as nearby super-Earths—we study the integration times required to achieve moderate signal-to-noise ratio spectra. We also explore the sensitivity of the integration times required to either detect the bottom or presence of key absorption bands (for methane, water vapor, and molecular oxygen) to coronagraph raw contrast performance, exozodiacal light levels, and the distance to the planetary system. Decreasing detector quantum efficiency at longer visible wavelengths makes the detection of water vapor in the atmospheres of Earth-like planets extremely challenging, and also hinders detections

  10. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  11. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy; Cumming, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an international cooperative development and operations program between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Space Agency, DLR (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt). SOFIA is a 2.5 meter, optical/infrared/sub-millimeter telescope mounted in a Boeing model 747SP-21 aircraft and will be used for many basic astronomical observations performed at stratospheric altitudes. It will accommodate installation of different focal plane instruments with in-flight accessibility provided by investigators selected from the international science community. The Facility operational lifetime is planned to be greater than 20 years. This presentation will present the results of developmental testing of SOFIA, including analysis, envelope expansion and the first operational mission. It will describe a brief history of open cavities in flight, how NASA designed and tested SOFIAs cavity, as well as flight test results. It will focus on how the test team achieved key milestones by systematically and efficiently reducing the number of test points to only those absolutely necessary to achieve mission requirements, thereby meeting all requirements and saving the potential loss of program funding. Finally, it will showcase examples of the observatory in action and the first operational mission of the observatory, illustrating the usefulness of the system to the international scientific community. Lessons learned on how to whittle a mountain of test points into a manageable sum will be presented at the conclusion.

  12. Astronomy with Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paczyński, Bohdan

    2006-12-01

    The All Sky Automated Survey is monitoring the entire sky to about 14 mag with a cadence of about 1 day; it has discovered about 105 variable stars, most of them new. The instrument used for the survey had an aperture of 7 cm. A search for planetary transits has led to the discovery of about a dozen confirmed planets, so-called hot Jupiters, providing information on planetary masses and radii. Most discoveries were done with telescopes with apertures of 10 cm. We propose a search for optical transients covering the entire sky with a cadence of 10-30 minutes and a limit of 12-14 mag, with an instant verification of all candidate events. The search will be made with a large number of 10 cm instruments, and the verification will be done with 30 cm instruments. We also propose a system to be located at the L1 point of the Earth-Sun system to detect ``killer asteroids.'' With a limiting magnitude of about 18 mag, it could detect 10 m boulders several hours prior to their impact and provide warning against Tunguska-like events, as well as provide news about spectacular but more modest, harmless impacts.

  13. Astronomy with Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    2006-06-01

    While there are more than a dozen telescopes larger than 10 meters there is plenty of interesting astronomy which can be done with much smaller instruments. Notice that the existing SDSS, and the future PanSTARRS and LSST saturate at 15 mag. An example of interesting science is provided with ASAS (All Sky Automated Survey) which used aperture of 7 cm to discover over 50,000 variable stars brighter than 14 mag, covering almost 3/4 of the sky. Most of these are new discoveries.ASAS like instruments are most likely more efficient in a search for afterglows following gamma-ray bursts (GRB) than CFHT and its Megacam. In fact it should be possible to detect the afterglows without a GRB trigger by imaging all visible sky every 15 minutes down to 16 mag using a number of ASAS-like instruments.Another example of small instruments being essential, is their ability to detect 'killer asteroids' prior to their impact. It will take a number of small instruments, somewhat more powerful than ASAS, to detect boulders as small as 10 - 20 meters at a distance of several days prior to their impact. This will provide time to evacuate a region in case of Tunguska-like event, or to provide news of a spectacular but harmless event in case of a more modest impact.

  14. POST: Polar Stratospheric Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bely, Pierre Y.; Ford, Holland C.; Burg, Richard; Petro, Larry; White, Rick; Bally, John

    1995-10-01

    The tropopause, typically at 16 to 18 km altitude at the lower latitudes, dips to 8 km in the polar regions. This makes the cold, dry and nonturbulent lower stratosphere accessible to tethered aerostats. Tethered aerostats can fly as high as 12 km and are extremely reliable, lasting for many years. In contrast to free-flying balloons, they can stay on station for weeks at a time, and payloads can be safely recovered for maintenance and adjustment and relaunched in a matter of hours. We propose to use such a platform, located first in the Arctic (near Fairbanks, Alaska) and, potentially, later in the Antarctic, to operate a new technology 6-meter, diluted aperture telescope with diffraction-limited performance in the near infrared. Thanks to the low ambient temperature (220 K), thermal emission from the optics is of the same order as that of the zodiacal light in the 2 to 3 micron band. Since this wavelength interval is the darkest part of the zodiacal light spectrum from optical wavelengths to 100 microns, the combination of high resolution images and a very dark sky make it the spectral region of choice for observing the redshifted light from galaxies and clusters of galaxies at moderate to high redshifts.

  15. Operating a heterogeneous telescope network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Alasdair; Bischoff, Karsten; Burgdorf, Martin; Cavanagh, Brad; Christian, Damien; Clay, Neil; Dickens, Rob; Economou, Frossie; Fadavi, Mehri; Frazer, Stephen; Granzer, Thomas; Grosvenor, Sandy; Hessman, Frederic V.; Jenness, Tim; Koratkar, Anuradha; Lehner, Matthew; Mottram, Chris; Naylor, Tim; Saunders, Eric S.; Solomos, Nikolaos; Steele, Iain A.; Tuparev, Georg; Vestrand, W. Thomas; White, Robert R.; Yost, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    In the last few years the ubiquitous availability of high bandwidth networks has changed the way both robotic and non-robotic telescopes operate, with single isolated telescopes being integrated into expanding "smart" telescope networks that can span continents and respond to transient events in seconds. The Heterogeneous Telescope Networks (HTN)* Consortium represents a number of major research groups in the field of robotic telescopes, and together we are proposing a standards based approach to providing interoperability between the existing proprietary telescope networks. We further propose standards for interoperability, and integration with, the emerging Virtual Observatory. We present the results of the first interoperability meeting held last year and discuss the protocol and transport standards agreed at the meeting, which deals with the complex issue of how to optimally schedule observations on geographically distributed resources. We discuss a free market approach to this scheduling problem, which must initially be based on ad-hoc agreements between the participants in the network, but which may eventually expand into a electronic market for the exchange of telescope time.

  16. Space Telescope Systems Description Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Space Telescope Project is to orbit a high quality optical 2.4-meter telescope system by the Space Shuttle for use by the astronomical community in conjunction with NASA. The scientific objectives of the Space Telescope are to determine the constitution, physical characteristics, and dynamics of celestial bodies; the nature of processes which occur in the extreme physical conditions existing in stellar objects; the history and evolution of the universe; and whether the laws of nature are universal in the space-time continuum. Like ground-based telescopes, the Space Telescope was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of utilizing a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic will allow the Space Telescope to be effectively used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs for an international user community and hence making contributions to man's needs. By using the Space Shuttle to provide scientific instrument upgrading and subsystems maintenance, the useful and effective operational lifetime of the Space Telescope will be extended to a decade or more.

  17. UV-Photometry with the 1.2 M Schmidt Telescopt in Baldone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglitis, I.; Eglite, M.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Andruk, V. M.

    The University of Latvia's Institute of astronomy possesses a collection of 22 thousand photographic plates taken by the 1.2 m Schmidt telescope located at the Baldone observatory. Among others, there are 767 astronegatives in this collection obtained in 314 sky areas using the Johnson U-filter. The field of view of each negative covers 19 square degrees. The plate scale is 72"/mm. The digitizing of the UV-collection has started in June 2016 with EPSON EXPRESSION 10000XL flatbed scanner. The general aim of the digitizing is to obtain UV-magnitudes and positions of all objects registered on the plates. Up to date near a half of the UV-collection is digitized. 24 digitized MEGA program plates of the collection were used for the preliminary investigation of the quality of photographic material and scanner systematic behavior. The catalog of positions and UV-magnitudes of 68.784 stars and galaxies for 12 regions allows evaluating the expected accuracy of the whole observed material. The estimated accuracy for all objects is σαδ = ±0.28" and σU = ±0.20m for positions and brightness respectively. For the stars with U = 8m - 14m these errors are σα δ = ±0.11" and σU = ±0.09m. The convergence of coordinates with respect to the coordinates of the reference system Tycho2 is σαδ= ±0.06". The conformity with photoelectric Upe-magnitudes is ±0.13m.

  18. Why systems engineering on telescopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Meiring, Jacobus G.

    2003-02-01

    Although Systems Engineering has been widely applied to the defence industry, many other projects are unaware of its potential benefits when correctly applied, assuming that it is an expensive luxury. It seems that except in a few instances, telescope projects are no exception, prompting the writing of this paper. The authors postulate that classical Systems Engineering can and should be tailored, and then applied to telescope projects, leading to cost, schedule and technical benefits. This paper explores the essence of Systems Engineering and how it can be applied to any complex development project. The authors cite real-world Systems Engineering examples from the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The SALT project is the development and construction of a 10m-class telescope at the price of a 4m telescope. Although SALT resembles the groundbreaking Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in Texas, the project team are attempting several challenging changes to the original design, requiring a focussed engineering approach and discernment in the definition of the telescope requirements. Following a tailored Systems Engineering approach on this project has already enhanced the quality of decisions made, improved the fidelity of contractual specifications for subsystems, and established criteria testing their performance. Systems Engineering, as applied on SALT, is a structured development process, where requirements are formally defined before the award of subsystem developmental contracts. During this process conceptual design, modeling and prototyping are performed to ensure that the requirements were realistic and accurate. Design reviews are held where the designs are checked for compliance with the requirements. Supplier factory and on-site testing are followed by integrated telescope testing, to verify system performance against the specifications. Although the SALT project is still far from completion, the authors are confident that the present benefits from

  19. Geodetic Observatory Wettzell - 20-m Radio Telescope and Twin Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Schatz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    In the year 2012, the 20-m radio telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany again contributed very successfully to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry observing program. Technical changes, developments, improvements, and upgrades were made to increase the reliability of the entire VLBI observing system. In parallel, the new Twin radio telescope Wettzell (TTW) got the first feedhorn, while the construction of the HF-receiving and the controlling system was continued.

  20. U-values of stars and galaxies from digitized astronomic negatives obtained by Baldone Schmidt telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglitis, I.; Eglite, M.; Andruk, V.; Pakuliak, L.

    2016-12-01

    Digitizing and processing of several dozen Johnson U plates from the archive of 1.2 m Baldone Schmidt telescope were made. Scans were obtained using Epson Expression scanners. Image processing was made in the LINUX/MIDAS/ROMAFOT package. Obtained positional accuracy of Tycho2 stars is 0.1". The precision of the characteristic curves restoration is 0.1-0.2 m.

  1. Lightweighted ZERODUR for telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, T.; Davis, M.; Hartmann, P.; Hull, T.; Jedamzik, R.

    2014-07-01

    The glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT has an excellent reputation as mirror blank material for earthbound and space telescope applications. It is known for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. Recent improvements in CNC machining at SCHOTT allow achieving extremely light weighted substrates up to 90% incorporating very thin ribs and face sheets. In 2012 new ZERODUR® grades EXPANSION CLASS 0 SPECIAL and EXTREME have been released that offer the tightest CTE grades ever. With ZERODUR® TAILORED it is even possible to offer ZERODUR® optimized for customer application temperature profiles. In 2013 SCHOTT started the development of a new dilatometer setup with the target to drive the industrial standard of high accuracy thermal expansion metrology to its limit. In recent years SCHOTT published several paper on improved bending strength of ZERODUR® and lifetime evaluation based on threshold values derived from 3 parameter Weibull distribution fitted to a multitude of stress data. ZERODUR® has been and is still being successfully used as mirror substrates for a large number of space missions. ZERODUR® was used for the secondary mirror in HST and for the Wolter mirrors in CHANDRA without any reported degradation of the optical image quality during the lifetime of the missions. Some years ago early studies on the compaction effects of electron radiation on ZERODUR® were re analyzed. Using a more relevant physical model based on a simplified bimetallic equation the expected deformation of samples exposed in laboratory and space could be predicted in a much more accurate way. The relevant ingredients for light weighted mirror substrates are discussed in this paper: substrate material with excellent homogeneity in its properties, sufficient bending strengths, space radiation hardness and CNC machining capabilities.

  2. Prism beamswitch for radio telescopes.

    PubMed

    Payne, J M; Ulich, B L

    1978-12-01

    A dielectric prism and switching mechanism have been constructed for beamswitching a Cassegrain radio telescope. Spatially extended radio sources may be mapped without significant confusion utilizing the sensitivity and stability inherent in the conventional Dicke radiometer.

  3. Automated telescope for variability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, S.; Baliyan, K. S.; Chandra, S.; Joshi, U. C.; Kalyaan, A.; Mathur, S. N.

    PRL has installed a 50 cm telescope at Mt Abu, Gurushikhar. The backend instrument consists of a 1K × 1K EMCCD camera with standard UBVRI filters and also has polarization measurement capability using a second filter wheel with polaroid sheets oriented at different position angles. This 50 cm telescope observatory is operated in a robotic mode with different methods of scheduling of the objects being observed. This includes batch mode, fully manual as well as fully autonomous mode of operation. Linux based command line as well as GUI software are used entirely in this observatory. This talk will present the details of the telescope and associated instruments and auxiliary facilities for weather monitoring that were developed in house to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the telescope. The facility has been in use for a couple of years now and various objects have been observed. Some of the interesting results will also be presented.

  4. Anastigmatic three-mirror telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D. G. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A three-mirror telescope for extraterrestrial observations is described. An ellipsoidal primary mirror, a hyperbolic secondary mirror, and an ellipsoidal tertiary mirror, produce an image in a conveniently located finite plane for viewing.

  5. Space Telescope moving target tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strikwerda, T. E.; Strohbehn, K.; Fowler, K. R.; Skillman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper formulates a Space Telescope (ST) moving target tracking algorithm and evaluates a practical implementation. The algorithm is shown to be satisfactory for tracking such moving objects as the moons of Mars.

  6. Large aperture Fresnel telescopes/011

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A., LLNL

    1998-07-16

    At Livermore we`ve spent the last two years examining an alternative approach towards very large aperture (VLA) telescopes, one based upon transmissive Fresnel lenses rather than on mirrors. Fresnel lenses are attractive for VLA telescopes because they are launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) and because they virtually eliminate the traditional, very tight, surface shape requirements faced by reflecting telescopes. Their (potentially severe) optical drawback, a very narrow spectral bandwidth, can be eliminated by use of a second (much smaller) chromatically-correcting Fresnel element. This enables Fresnel VLA telescopes to provide either single band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 0.1), multiple band, or continuous spectral coverage. Building and fielding such large Fresnel lenses will present a significant challenge, but one which appears, with effort, to be solvable.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  8. The Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. M.

    1994-12-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project has evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 x 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train --- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in late fall 1995 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1995 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson) and ADS Italia. Construction

  9. The Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. M.

    1995-05-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project has evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 x 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train --- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in spring of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximicrons flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximicrons stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1995 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson) and ADS Italia

  10. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is a cutaway illustration of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with callouts. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope-Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  12. Imaging phased telescope array study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The problems encountered in obtaining a wide field-of-view with large, space-based direct imaging phased telescope arrays were considered. After defining some of the critical systems issues, previous relevant work in the literature was reviewed and summarized. An extensive list was made of potential error sources and the error sources were categorized in the form of an error budget tree including optical design errors, optical fabrication errors, assembly and alignment errors, and environmental errors. After choosing a top level image quality requirment as a goal, a preliminary tops-down error budget allocation was performed; then, based upon engineering experience, detailed analysis, or data from the literature, a bottoms-up error budget reallocation was performed in an attempt to achieve an equitable distribution of difficulty in satisfying the various allocations. This exercise provided a realistic allocation for residual off-axis optical design errors in the presence of state-of-the-art optical fabrication and alignment errors. Three different computational techniques were developed for computing the image degradation of phased telescope arrays due to aberrations of the individual telescopes. Parametric studies and sensitivity analyses were then performed for a variety of subaperture configurations and telescope design parameters in an attempt to determine how the off-axis performance of a phased telescope array varies as the telescopes are scaled up in size. The Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) multipurpose telescope testbed (MMTT) configuration was analyzed in detail with regard to image degradation due to field curvature and distortion of the individual telescopes as they are scaled up in size.

  13. BCK Network of Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGruder, Charles H.; Antoniuk, Krill; Carini, Michael T.; Gelderman, Richard; Hammond, Benjamin; Hicks, Stacy; Laney, David; Shakhovskoy, David; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Williams, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The BCK network consists of three research grade telescopes: 0.6m (B) at the Bell Observatory near Western Kentucky University (WKU), 1.3m (C) at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and a 1.3m (K) at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The Bell Telescope is operated remotely from WKU while the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak possesses an autonomous scheduler. The BCK telescopes are distributed longitudinally over 145º and can be used to observe continuously up to 21.2 hours/day. The network will be chiefly employed to observe variable stars, blazars and unpredictable celestial events.Because celestial objects with ground-based telescopes cannot be observed optically during the daytime, continuous ground-based astronomical observations are only possible via a network of longitudinally distributed telescopes. When the sun rises in Crimea after it sets at Bell, continuous observations are possible. This occurs for about six and ½ months per year - mid September to early April. A network is highly desirable for events that are not predictable for instance the appearance of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, or undiscovered exoplanetsVariable stars are really only known in significant numbers to about 14 mag. But, as the magnitude increases the number of stars in any field increases very sharply, so there are many variable stars to discover at faint magnitude (m > 14). Discovering new variables makes great undergraduate student projects, a major component of astronomical research at WKU. In addition, pinning down the periods of variable stars is greatly facilitated with a network of telescopes.The BCK telescope network will also be used for monitoring the optical variability of blazars. The network provides increased coverage on daily variability timescales by minimizing interruptions due to weather and or mechanical problems at any one observatory and is used for obtaining continuous (12+ hours) of observations of rapid variability in blazars which would

  14. Demonstration Telescopes Using "Dollar Optics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Paul

    2008-05-01

    I propose a poster that illustrates the use of "dollar optics” for experimentation and for the creation of demonstration telescopes. Handling a variety of lenses and mirrors provides an opportunity for discovering practical optics. Some part of this path of exploration must have been traveled by Galileo as he experimented with spectacle lenses. "Dollar optics” include reading glasses (positive meniscus lenses), convex and concave mirrors, Fresnel sheets, magnifying lenses, and eye loupes. Unwanted distance spectacles (negative meniscus lenses) are available at second-hand stores. Galileo telescopes, "long” 17th century telescopes, and useful demonstration models of Newtonian reflectors can be made with "dollar” optics. The poster will illustrate practical information about "dollar optics” and telescopes: magnification, focal length, and "diopters” disassembling spectacles; creating cheap mounts for spectacle lenses; the importance of optical axes and alignment; eyepieces; and focusing. (A table would be useful with the poster to set out a hands-on display of "dollar optic” telescopes.) Educators, experimenters, and those concerned with astronomy outreach might be interested in this poster. Working with "dollar optics” requires facility with simple tools, interest in planning projects, patience, imagination, and the willingness to invest some time and effort. "Dollar optics” may help to foster creativity and hands-on enthusiasm - as did Galileo's work with simple lenses 400 years ago. "Oh! When will there be an end put to the new observations and discoveries of this admirable instrument?” - Galileo Galilei as quoted by Henry C. King, The History of the Telescope.

  15. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  16. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy A.; Cumming, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    and a proof of concept mission for which SOFIA was opportunely positioned is showcased. Success on this time-critical mission to observe a rare astronomical event proved the usefulness of an airborne observatory and the value in waiting for the capability provided by SOFIA. Finally, lessons learned in the test program are presented with emphasis on how lessons from previous aircraft and successful test programs were applied to SOFIA. Effective application of these lessons was crucial to the success of the SOFIA flight test program. SOFIA is an international cooperative program between NASA and the German Space Agency, DLR. It is a 2.5 meter (100-inch) telescope mounted in a Boeing 747SP aircraft used for astronomical observations at altitudes above 35,000 feet. SOFIA will accommodate a host of scientific instruments from the international science community and has a planned operational lifespan of more than 20 years.

  17. The Discovery Channel Telescope: Construction and Design Progress, June 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Smith, B. W.; Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Wiecha, O. M.; Marshall, H.

    2006-06-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2m telescope under construction in northern Arizona. The DCT is located at a new site near Happy Jack at 2361m elevation, which was selected following a lengthy site testing campaign that demonstrated median ground-level seeing of 0.84-arcsec FWHM. The DCT science mission includes targeted studies of astrophysical and solar system objects utilizing RC and Nasmyth-mounted imaging and spectroscopic instrumentation, and wide-field surveys of KBO’s, Centaurs, NEA’s, and other time-variable objects with a 2-degree FOV prime focus camera.The DCT facility enclosure and control building will be completed this year, including the supports for the telescope mount and dome, the major infrastructure for facility machinery, the instrument laboratory, control and computer rooms, and the auxiliary building for the mirror coating facility. Meanwhile, the 4.3m ULE meniscus primary mirror blank was completed at Corning, Inc., in October 2005, and the 2-3 year mirror figuring effort is due to begin June 2006. The primary mirror and its design support, and the preliminary integrated telescope mount model, were finite-element analyzed to optimize the design of the mirror and top-end support configurations. The prime focus camera design has been refined to achieve atmospheric dispersion-compensated 0.25-arcsec images at 1-degree field radius, from B to I-band, at reduced cost through simplification of glasses to standard types and utilization of spheres on all but two lens surfaces.The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. Lowell Observatory is actively seeking additional partners in the project; interested parties should contact R. L. Millis, Director.

  18. The Discovery Channel Telescope, Progress and Status 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, T. A.; Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, in northern Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope will have Ritchey-Chretien and Nasmyth configurations for optical/IR imaging and spectroscopy. The ultra-low-expansion (ULE) meniscus primary mirror in fabrication at Corning Glass has been recently slump-formed to the prescribed radius-of-curvature. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology, and e2v Technologies have completed in-depth conceptual designs of the optics, mount, facility, and mosaic focal plane, respectively, the results of which were subjected to a formal review in July, 2004. The telescope facility has moved into the detailed design phase by Lowell Observatory and M3. An extended site-testing campaign of the astronomical and environmental qualities at the Happy Jack site was conducted from January 2003-October 2004 . Differential image motion observations on 117 nights gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, with a first-quartile average of 0.62 arcsec FWHM. The use permit securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest was issued in November 2004, and site preparation for the access road was initiated before winter 2004. Formal ground breaking is planned for June 2005, and construction of major facility elements are expected to commence in earnest at that time. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. Lowell Observatory is actively seeking an additional partner for the project. Interested parties should contact R. L. Millis, Director, at Lowell

  19. The Carlsberg Meridian Telescope: an astrometric robotic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. W.

    2001-12-01

    An overview is given of the Carlsberg Meridian Telescope on La Palma, which is one of the oldest robotic telescopes, having started observing on La Palma in 1984. In the spring of 1997, a further stage of automation was made when we converted the telescope to remote operation. Since then, the telescope has been operated over the Internet from Britain, Denmark or Spain. In 1997, a CCD camera, operating in a drift-scan mode, was installed. A year later the telescope underwent a major upgrade and a larger 2k×2k CCD camera was installed, with a Sloan r' filter. With the new system, the magnitude limit is r'=17 and the positional accuracy is in the range 0.03'' to 0.05''. The main task of the project is to map the sky in the declination range -3o to +50o, with the aim of providing an astrometric and photometric catalogue that can accurately transfer the Hipparcos/Tycho reference frame to Schmidt plates. We will release the first data by the end of 2001. Using the photometric information, extinction data for La Palma is also provided.

  20. The Carlsberg Meridian Telescope: An Astrometric Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Dafydd Wyn

    An overview is given of the Carlsberg Meridian Telescope on La Palma, which is one of the oldest robotic telescopes, having started observing in 1984. In the spring of 1997, a further stage of automation was made when we converted the telescope to remote operation. Since then, the telescope has been operated over the Internet from Britain, Denmark or Spain. Two years ago, the telescope underwent a major upgrade and a 2k×2k CCD camera was installed, with a Sloan r' filter, operating in a drift scan mode. With the new system, the magnitude limit is r'=17 and the positional accuracy is in the range 0.03'' to 0.05''. The main task of the project is to map the sky in the declination range -3o to +50o, with the aim of providing an astrometric and photometric catalogue that can accurately transfer the Hipparcos/Tycho reference frame to Schmidt plates. We will release the first data by the end of the year.

  1. James Webb Space Telescope: large deployable cryogenic telescope in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Atkinson, Charles; Clampin, Mark; Feinberg, Lee D.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an infrared space telescope designed to explore four major science themes: first light and reionization, the assembly of galaxies, the birth of stars and protoplanetary systems, and planetary systems and origins of life. JWST is a segmented architecture telescope with an aperture of 6.6 m. It will operate at cryogenic temperature (40 K), achieved via passive cooling, in an orbit about the Earth-Sun second Lagrange point (L2). Passive cooling is facilitated by means of a large sunshield that provides thermal isolation and protection from direct illumination from the Sun. The large size of the telescope and spacecraft systems require that they are stowed for launch in a configuration that fits the Ariane 5 fairing, and then deployed after launch. Routine wavefront sensing and control measurements are used to achieve phasing of the segmented primary mirror and initial alignment of the telescope. A suite of instruments will provide the capability to observe over a spectral range from 0.6- to 27-μm wavelengths with imaging and spectroscopic configurations. An overview is presented of the architecture and selected optical design features of JWST are described.

  2. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-07-30

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate.

  3. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate. PMID:26263991

  4. Lunar-based optical telescopes: Planning astronomical tools of the twenty-first century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, J. D.; Nein, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    A succession of optical telescopes, ranging in aperture from 1 to 16 m or more, can be deployed and operated on the lunar surface over the next half-century. These candidates to succeed NASA's Great Observatories would capitalize on the unique observational advantages offered by the Moon. The Lunar Telescope Working Group and the LUTE Task Team of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have assessed the feasibility of developing and deploying these facilities. Studies include the 16-m Large Lunar Telescope (LLT); the Lunar Cluster Telescope Experiment (LCTE), a 4-m precursor to the LLT; the 2-m Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT); and its precursor, the 1-m Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE). The feasibility of developing and deploying each telescope was assessed and system requirements and options for supporting technologies, subsystems, transportation, and operations were detailed. Influences of lunar environment factors and site selection on telescope design and operation were evaluated, and design approaches and key tradeoffs were established. This paper provides an overview of the study results. Design concepts and brief system descriptions are provided, including subsystem and mission options selected for the concepts.

  5. LISA Telescope Spacer Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff; Arsenovic, P.; Catelluci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, Howard R.; Preston, A.; Sanjuan, J.; Williams, L.; Mueller, G.

    2010-01-01

    The LISA mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of - 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. We describe the mechanical requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution, layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design. Plans for fabrication and testing will be outlined.

  6. Preliminary LISA Telescope Spacer Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, J.; Arsenovic, P.; Catellucci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, R. T.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of approximately 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. This poster describes the requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution,layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design, and plans for fabrication and testing.

  7. 40 CFR 180.325 - 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid... Tolerances § 180.325 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for negligible residues of the plant regulator 2-(m-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid from...

  8. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  9. TIGRE: A new robotic spectroscopy telescope at Guanajuato, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K.-P.; Rauw, G.; Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; González-Pérez, J. N.; Czesla, S.; Wolter, U.; Jack, D.; Eenens, P.; Trinidad, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    TIGRE is a new robotic spectroscopy telescope located in central Mexico at the La Luz Observatory of the University of Guanajuato. The 1.2 m telescope is fiber-coupled to an échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolving power exceeding 20 000 over most of the covered spectral range between 3800 Å and 8800 Å, with a small gap of 130 Å around 5800 Å. TIGRE operates robotically, i.e. it (normally) carries out all observations without any human intervention, including, in particular, the target selection in any given observing night. In this paper we describe the properties of the TIGRE instrumentation and its technical realization, as well as our first operational experience with the performance and efficiency of the overall system. Finally, we present some examples of recent TIGRE observations.

  10. TTL robotic telescopes and Robonet: new possibilities for robotic astronomical observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, C.

    2003-05-01

    Five TTL (Telescope Technologies Limited, Liverpool J.M. University, U.K.) telescopes, ranging in size from 2m to 2.4m are currently being manufactured and installed at sites worldwide (Hawaii; La Palma; India; China; Australia). These telescopes have been designed to work robotically, i.e. the telescopes will not be supervised either locally or remotely during routine observations. Observation requests from many observers authorised by multiple allocation committees are stored in the telescope database. Actual observations are scheduled using a version of a `dispatch' scheduler which decides in real time the best observation to perform next on the basis of the current telescope state and observing conditions, subject to fairness and efficiency criteria. In this way observations can be matched to local conditions, and rapid response to targets of opportunity is possible. The robotic software includes telescope run-up and run-down, focussing tests, monitoring of observing conditions for optimum scheduling of observations, automated observation of photometric standards and pipeline data reduction. The developing global network of TTL telescopes (`Robonet') is uniquely well suited to a vast range of scientific programs in time domain astrophysics, such as the discovery of Earth-size planets using gravitational lensing, astro-tomography with a resolution of one millionth of an arc second, and continuous 24-hour monitoring of variable objects. Also, uniquely, telescope time may be readily `traded' on the network to enable a single telescope to become effectively a global distributed Observatory, facilitating observations in both northern and southern hemispheres and on a much wider set of instrumentation than is easily available for a single telescope.

  11. Improved optical design for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppala, Lynn G.

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents an improved optical design for the LSST, an f/1.25 three-mirror telescope covering 3.0 degrees full field angle, with 6.9 m effective aperture diameter. The telescope operates at five wavelength bands spanning 386.5 nm to 1040 nm (B, V, R, I and Z). For all bands, 80% of the polychromatic diffracted energy is collected within 0.20 arc-seconds diameter. The reflective telescope uses an 8.4 m f/1.06 concave primary, a 3.4 m convex secondary and a 5.2 m concave tertiary in a Paul geometry. The system length is 9.2 m. A refractive corrector near the detector uses three fused silica lenses, rather than the two lenses of previous designs. Earlier designs required that one element be a vacuum barrier, but now the detector sits in an inert gas at ambient pressure, with the last lens serving as the gas barrier. Small adjustments lead to optimal correction at each band. Each filter has a different axial thickness, and the primary and tertiary mirrors are repositioned for each wavelength band. Features that simplify manufacturing include a flat detector, a far less aspheric convex secondary (10 μm from best fit sphere) and reduced aspheric departures on the lenses and tertiary mirror. Five aspheric surfaces, on all three mirrors and on two lenses, are used. The primary is nearly parabolic. The telescope is fully baffled so that no specularly reflected light from any field angle, inside or outside of the full field angle of 3.0 degrees, can reach the detector.

  12. Improved Optical Design for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

    SciTech Connect

    Seppala, L

    2002-09-24

    This paper presents an improved optical design for the LSST, an fll.25 three-mirror telescope covering 3.0 degrees full field angle, with 6.9 m effective aperture diameter. The telescope operates at five wavelength bands spanning 386.5 nm to 1040 nm (B, V, R, I and Z). For all bands, 80% of the polychromatic diffracted energy is collected within 0.20 arc-seconds diameter. The reflective telescope uses an 8.4 m f/1.06 concave primary, a 3.4 m convex secondary and a 5.2 m concave tertiary in a Paul geometry. The system length is 9.2 m. A refractive corrector near the detector uses three fused silica lenses, rather than the two lenses of previous designs. Earlier designs required that one element be a vacuum barrier, but now the detector sits in an inert gas at ambient pressure. The last lens is the gas barrier. Small adjustments lead to optimal correction at each band. The filters have different axial thicknesses. The primary and tertiary mirrors are repositioned for each wavelength band. The new optical design incorporates features to simplify manufacturing. They include a flat detector, a far less aspheric convex secondary (10 {micro}m from best fit sphere) and reduced aspheric departures on the lenses and tertiary mirror. Five aspheric surfaces, on all three mirrors and on two lenses, are used. The primary is nearly parabolic. The telescope is fully baffled so that no specularly reflected light from any field angle, inside or outside of the full field angle of 3.0 degrees, can reach the detector.

  13. Large aperture millimeter/submillimeter telescope: which is more cost-effective, aperture synthesis telescope versus large single dish telescope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Saito, Masao

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) consists of 66 antennas with the aperture equivalent to a 91-m diameter antenna. The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is the world's largest, 100-m diameter telescope in the wavelength range of 3 mm to 30 cm. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) will be the world's largest, 50-m diameter, steerable millimeter-wavelength telescope. The Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT) will be the world's largest, 25-m diameter, submillimeter-wavelength telescope. We will investigate advantages and disadvantages of both the aperture synthesis telescope and the large single-dish telescope taking the cost effectiveness into consideration, and will propose the design of antenna structure for a future telescope project at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths.

  14. The Spitzer Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, NASA's Great Observatory for infrared astronomy, was launched 2003 August 25 and is returning excellent scientific data from its Earth-trailing solar orbit. Spitzer combines the intrinsic sensitivity achievable with a cryogenic telescope in space with the great imaging and spectroscopic power of modern detector arrays to provide the user community with huge gains in capability for exploration of the cosmos in the infrared. The observatory systems are largely performing as expected, and the projected cryogenic lifetime is about five years. Spitzer is thus both a scientific and a technical precursor to the infrared astronomy missions of the future. This very brief paper refers interested readers to several sets of recent publications which describe both the scientific and the technical features of Spitzer in detail. Note that, until 2003 December, Spitzer was known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF).

  15. Quantum telescope: feasibility and constraints.

    PubMed

    Kurek, A R; Pięta, T; Stebel, T; Pollo, A; Popowicz, A

    2016-03-15

    The quantum telescope is a recent idea aimed at beating the diffraction limit of spaceborne telescopes and possibly other distant target imaging systems. There is no agreement yet on the best setup of such devices, but some configurations have already been proposed. In this Letter we characterize the predicted performance of quantum telescopes and their possible limitations. Our extensive simulations confirm that the presented model of such instruments is feasible and the device can provide considerable gains in the angular resolution of imaging in the UV, optical, and infrared bands. We argue that it is generally possible to construct and manufacture such instruments using the latest or soon to be available technology. We refer to the latest literature to discuss the feasibility of the proposed QT system design.

  16. Double Compton scatter telescope calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, B.; Simone, J.; Green, M.; Long, J.; Zanrosso, E.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Calibration techniques for a medium energy gamma ray telescope are described. Gain calibration using Compton edge spectra involves comparisons of pulse height spectra with spectra simulated by a Monte Carlo computer code which includes Compton scattering and pair production, plural scattering and variable energy resolution, and cell size. The telescope considered comprises 56 cells of liquid scintillator in four size groups, with a total liquid volume of 325 l; each cell has its own photomultiplier tube. Energy and angular resolutions and the PMT gain calibration procedure are verified with double scatter data for monoenergetic gamma rays at a known location. Detection probabilities for any cell combination in the two telescope arrays are calculated per steradian as a function of the scattering for a number of different energies with a Van de Graaff accelerator.

  17. Feature-based telescope scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghib, Elahesadat; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Feature-based Scheduler offers a sequencing strategy for ground-based telescopes. This scheduler is designed in the framework of Markovian Decision Process (MDP), and consists of a sub-linear online controller, and an offline supervisory control-optimizer. Online control law is computed at the moment of decision for the next visit, and the supervisory optimizer trains the controller by simulation data. Choice of the Differential Evolution (DE) optimizer, and introducing a reduced state space of the telescope system, offer an efficient and parallelizable optimization algorithm. In this study, we applied the proposed scheduler to the problem of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Preliminary results for a simplified model of LSST is promising in terms of both optimality, and computational cost.

  18. Efficient generation of B2m-null pigs via injection of zygote with TALENs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Du, Yinan; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Wang, Lulu; Li, Jian; Wang, Fengchao; Huang, Zhengen; Huang, Xingxu; Wei, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Donor major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules are the main targets of the host immune response after organ allotransplantation. Whether and how MHC I-deficiency of pig donor tissues affects rejection after xenotransplantation has not been assessed. Beta2-microglobulin (B2M) is indispensable for the assembly of MHC I receptors and therefore provides an effective target to disrupt cell surface MHC I expression. Here, we report the one-step generation of mutant pigs with targeted disruptions in B2m by injection of porcine zygotes with B2m exon 2-specific TALENs. After germline transmission of mutant B2m alleles, we obtained F1 pigs with biallelic B2m frameshift mutations. F1 pigs lacked detectable B2M expression in tissues derived from the three germ layers, and their lymphocytes were devoid of MHC I surface receptors. Skin grafts from B2M deficient pigs exhibited remarkably prolonged survival on xenogeneic wounds compared to tissues of non-mutant littermates. Mutant founder pigs with bi-allelic disruption in B2m and B2M deficient F1 offspring did not display visible abnormalities, suggesting that pigs are tolerant to B2M deficiency. In summary, we show the efficient generation of pigs with germline mutations in B2m, and demonstrate a beneficial effect of donor MHC I-deficiency on xenotransplantation. PMID:27982048

  19. An explanation of the preferential formation of less stable isomers in three-body reactions - Cl + NO2 + M; ClO + NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J. S.; Baldwin, A. C.; Golden, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A realistic assessment of the potential depletion of stratospheric ozone due to manmade emissions requires a knowledge of the sources and sinks of the potential threat. The reactions ClO + NO2 + M yield products and Cl + NO2 + M yield products are of interest because they represent possible sink mechanism for both odd chlorine and odd nitrogen species. In this paper, the Troe method (1977) is used to calculate the low-pressure limit rate constants of the above three-body reactions. The result for the Cl + NO2 + M reaction is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental finding of Niki et al. (1978), where both nitryl chloride and chlorine nitrate are products of the cited reaction. An explanation is proposed to account for apparent discrepancy between the measured rate constants for ClO + NO2 + M in the forward and reverse directions. Stratospheric implications are also discussed.

  20. The National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Indian National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) will be a state-of-the-art 2-m class telescope for carrying out high-resolution studies in the solar atmosphere. Recent numerical simulations suggest that crucial physical processes like vortex flow, dissipation of magnetic fields and the generation of MHD waves can occur efficiently over length scales of tens of kilometers. Current telescopes are unable to resolve solar feature to this level at visible wavelengths. NLST will not only achieve good spatial resolution, but will also have a high photon throughput in order to carry out spectropolarimetric observations to accurately measure vector magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere with a good signal to noise ratio. The main science goals of NLST include: a) Magnetic field generation and the solar cycle; b) Dynamics of magnetized regions; c) Helioseismology; d) Long term variability; e) Energetic phenomena and Activity; and f) Night time astronomy. The optical design of the telescope is optimized for high optical throughput and uses a minimum number of optical elements. A high order adaptive optics system is integrated as part of the design that works with a modest Fried's parameter of 7-cm to give diffraction limited performance. The telescope will be equipped with a suite of post-focus instruments including a high resolution spectrograph and a polarimeter. NLST will also be used for carrying out stellar observations during the night. The mechanical design of the telescope, building, and the innovative dome takes advantage of the natural air flush which will help to keep the open telescope in temperature equilibrium. Critical to the successful implementation of NLST is the selection of a site with optimum atmospheric properties, such as the number of sunshine hours and good "seeing" over long periods. A site characterization programme carried over several years has established the existence of suitable sites in the Ladakh region. After its completion, currently

  1. Foundation design for a radio telescope on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, Koon Meng; Johnson, Stewart W.; Yuan, Zehong

    1990-01-01

    A foundation design for a 122 m diameter dish-type radio telescope on the moon is presented. The 1.2 m wide and 43 m diameter circular strip footing was analyzed for settlement due to compaction during installation and also for total and differential settlement under in-service laods. An axisymmetrical finite element code of the uppdated Lagrangian formulation was used. Interface slip elements were also used. The nonlinear hyperbolic stress-strain model parameters for the regolith were derived from load-deflection characteristics of astronauts' bootprints and the Rover tracks.

  2. Technical description of the U.K. large telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Roger L.; Raybould, Keith

    1990-07-01

    The British astronomical community is currently engaged in the development of an 8-m aperture visible/IR telecope whose structure is based on the successful Herschel 4.2-m telescope. The primary mirror will be of meniscus type, with a 40:1 aspect ratio and active support; two secondaries will be used, of which the first (f/7) will furnish a corrected 40-arcmin field, while the second (f/35) can be chopped for use in the thermal IR. Enclosure design options under consideration encompass a carousel, a conventional hemispherical dome, and a lightweight octagonal enclosure.

  3. LSST telescope and site status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressler, William J.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project1 received its construction authorization from the National Science Foundation in August 2014. The Telescope and Site (T and S) group has made considerable progress towards completion in subsystems required to support the scope of the LSST science mission. The LSST goal is to conduct a wide, fast, deep survey via a 3-mirror wide field of view optical design, a 3.2-Gpixel camera, and an automated data processing system. The summit facility is currently under construction on Cerro Pachón in Chile, with major vendor subsystem deliveries and integration planned over the next several years. This paper summarizes the status of the activities of the T and S group, tasked with design, analysis, and construction of the summit and base facilities and infrastructure necessary to control the survey, capture the light, and calibrate the data. All major telescope work package procurements have been awarded to vendors and are in varying stages of design and fabrication maturity and completion. The unique M1M3 primary/tertiary mirror polishing effort is completed and the mirror now resides in storage waiting future testing. Significant progress has been achieved on all the major telescope subsystems including the summit facility, telescope mount assembly, dome, hexapod and rotator systems, coating plant, base facility, and the calibration telescope. In parallel, in-house efforts including the software needed to control the observatory such as the scheduler and the active optics control, have also seen substantial advancement. The progress and status of these subsystems and future LSST plans during this construction phase are presented.

  4. EST: The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, M.

    2008-09-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project for a 4 meter-class ground-based telescope, to be located in the Canary Islands. The project is promoted by the European Association for Solar Telescopes (EAST), a consortium formed by research organizations from 15 European countries. EST will be optimized for studies of magnetic coupling between the deep photosphere and upper chromosphere. The project has been approved for funds by the European Union, within the FP-7 framework, to produce the design of all systems and subsystems of the telescope during the next three years. This includes the optical and optomechanical design of the telescope itself and of the instruments and their control. MCAO will be included in the optical path in a natural way to compensate for atmospheric disturbances in an optimum way. The design of EST will strongly emphasize the use of a large number of visible and near-infrared instruments simultaneously which will influence the telescope design from the very beginning. This communication will center mainly on the scientific objectives that EST will address. Generally speaking, they involve understanding how the magnetic field emerges through the solar surface, interacts with the plasma dynamics to transfer energy between different regions, and finally releases it in the form of heat or as violent events in the solar chromosphere and corona. Among the many topics of interest, one may cite, as described in the EST Science Requirements Document: small-scale flux emergence in quiet sun regions, large-scale magnetic structures, magnetic flux cancellation processes, polar magnetic fields, magnetic topology of the photosphere and chromosphere, conversion of mechanical to magnetic energy in the photosphere, wave propagation from photosphere to chromosphere, energy dissipation in the chromosphere at small and large scales, etc. The present status and future perspectives of the project will also be outlined.

  5. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is being developed by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian space agencies for launch during 2013. This mission is expected to carry the legacy of discovery of the Hubble Space Telescope through the next decade, and is designed with unique capability to address key questions about formation of the first galaxies after the Big Bang, their subsequelet volution, and the formation of stars and planets within our own galaxy. This talk will present an overview of the mission science objectives and the status of the mission development.

  7. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  8. Apollo Telescope Mount Spar Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard the Skylab. The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image shows the ATM spar assembly. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the 10-foot long canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into the rack, a complex frame, and was protected by the solar shield.

  9. Wide field of view telescope

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  10. The network of INTA telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, L.

    2008-06-01

    The Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial has a network of three telescopes located at some of the best places for astronomy in mainland Spain. The first is at the Observatorio de Calar Alto in Almeria, at an altitude of more than 2100 m. The second is near Calatayud in Zaragoza, at the summit of a 1400-m high mountain. The last is on the campus of the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospatial (INTA), in Madrid. The three telescopes are either 40 or 50 cm in diameter and will be available for communications and educational projects.

  11. Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, William; Thanjavur, Karun

    2011-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is key to the natural evolution of today's automated telescopes to fully autonomous systems. Based on its rapid development over the past five decades, AI offers numerous, well-tested techniques for knowledge based decision making essential for real-time telescope monitoring and control, with minimal - and eventually no - human intervention. We present three applications of AI developed at CFHT for monitoring instantaneous sky conditions, assessing quality of imaging data, and a prototype for scheduling observations in real-time. Closely complementing the current remote operations at CFHT, we foresee further development of these methods and full integration in the near future.

  12. LISA telescope spacer design investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjuan, Josep; Mueller, Guido; Livas, Jeffrey; Preston, Alix; Arsenovic, Petar; Castellucci, Kevin; Generie, Joseph; Howard, Joseph; Stebbins, Robin

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a space-based gravitational wave observa-tory with the goal of observing Gravitational Waves (GWs) from astronomical sources in a frequency range from 30 µHz to 0.1 Hz. The detection of GWs at such low frequency requires measurements of distances at the pico-meter level between bodies separated by 5 million kilo-meters. The LISA mission consists of three identical spacecraft (SC) separated by 5 × 106 km forming an equilateral triangle. Each SC contains two optical assemblies and two vacuum en-closures housing one proof mass (PM) in geodesic (free fall) motion each. The two assemblies on one SC are each pointing towards an identical assembly on each of the other two SC to form a non-equal arm interferometer. The measurement of the GW strain is done by measuring the change in the length of the optical path between the PMs of one arm relative to the other arms caused by the pass of a GW. An important element of the Interferometric Measurement System (IMS) is the telescope which, on one hand, gathers the light coming from the far SC (˜100 pW) and, on the other hand, expands and collimates the small outgoing beam ( 1 W) and sends it to the far SC. Due to the very demanding sensitivity requirements care must be taken in the design and validation of the telescope not to degrade the IMS performance. For instance, the diameter of the telescope sets the the shot noise of the IMS and depends critically on the diameter of the primary and the divergence angle of the outgoing beam. As the telescope is rather fast telescope, the divergence angle is a critical function of the overall separation between the primary and secondary. Any long term changes of the distance of more than a a few micro-meter would be detrimental to the LISA mission. Similarly challenging are the requirements on the in-band path-length noise for the telescope which has to be kept below 1 pm Hz-1/2 in the LISA band. Different configurations (on-axis/off axis

  13. New Information about Old Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Helden, Albert

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that the earliest telescopes were primitive, suffering from a number of defects such as spherical and chromatic aberrations, grinding and polishing errors, and poor quality glass. In the last two decades, much new information has been uncovered by the cooperation between historians and scientists. As a result, we now have a much better, and more complete, history of early telescopes, from spectacle lenses and the invention of the instrument to the demise of long-focus non-achromatic refractors and their replacement by reflectors in the eighteenth century. We can begin to quantify the properties of these early instruments, and the results are often surprising.

  14. Cherenkov telescopes as optical telescopes for bright sources: today's specialized 30-m telescopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Brian C.

    2011-10-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) use large-aperture (3-30 m) optical telescopes with arcminute angular resolution to detect TeV gamma-rays in the atmosphere. I show that IACTs are well suited for optical observations of bright sources (V≲ 8-10), because these sources are brighter than the sky background. Their advantages are especially great on rapid time-scales. Thus, IACTs might study many phenomena optically, including transiting exoplanets and the brightest gamma-ray bursts. In principle, an IACT could achieve millimagnitude photometry of these objects with second-long exposures. I also consider the potential for optical spectroscopy with IACTs, finding that their poor angular resolution limits their usefulness for high spectral resolutions, unless complex instruments are developed. The high photon collection rate of IACTs is potentially useful for precise polarimetry. Finally, I briefly discuss the broader possibilities of extremely large, low-resolution telescopes, including a 10 arcsec resolution telescope and space-borne telescopes.

  15. LSST Telescope and Site Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbendam, Victor; Claver, C. F.; Andrew, J.; Barr, J.; Gressler, W.; Kingsley, J.; Neill, D. R.; Olivier, S.; Sebag, J.; LSST Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The LSST Telescope and Site has been designed to meet the stringent goals of the survey in terms of image quality and throughput. The telescope system delivers 0.25 arc sec FWHM seeing to the overall system image quality error budget. An active optics control system has been identified to measure wavefront quality in the focal plane and use this to reconstruct the figure and alignment errors in the optics. The primary-tertiary monolithic mirror is being fabricated at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab using their structured borosilicate spin casting technology. Fabrication of the mold is underway, with "high fire” scheduled for spring 2008, and final delivery in late 2011. Baseline designs for active mirror support and optical testing for the monolith and conventional secondary mirror systems have been developed. The telescope is compact, stiff, and agile to maximize observing efficiency. The 300 ton structure can make 3.5 degree moves (at a 30 degree zenith angle) on the sky in less than 5 seconds. The dome will track and slew to follow the telescope pointing with minimal power. The summit facility has been designed to support operations and maintenance for minimal down time

  16. Neutrino telescopes in the World

    SciTech Connect

    Ernenwein, J.-P.

    2007-01-12

    Neutrino astronomy has rapidly developed these last years, being the only way to get specific and reliable information about astrophysical objects still poorly understood.Currently two neutrino telescopes are operational in the World: BAIKAL, in the lake of the same name in Siberia, and AMANDA, in the ices of the South Pole. Two telescopes of the same type are under construction in the Mediterranean Sea: ANTARES and NESTOR. All these telescopes belong to a first generation, with an instrumented volume smaller or equal to 0.02 km3. Also in the Mediterranean Sea, the NEMO project is just in its stag phase, within the framework of a cubic kilometer size neutrino telescope study. Lastly, the ICECUBE detector, with a volume reaching about 1 km3, is under construction on the site of AMANDA experiment, while an extension of the BAIKAL detector toward km3 is under study. We will present here the characteristics of these experiments, as well as the results of their observations.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope prescription retrieval.

    PubMed

    Redding, D; Dumont, P; Yu, J

    1993-04-01

    Prescription retrieval is a technique for directly estimating optical prescription parameters from images. We apply it to estimate the value of the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror conic constant. Our results agree with other studies that examined primary-mirror test fixtures and results. In addition they show that small aberrations exist on the planetary-camera repeater optics.

  18. Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the spacecraft’s main scientificinstrument. This animation shows a gamma ray (purple) entering the LAT,where it is converted into an electron (red) and a...

  19. Push-To Telescope Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Two coordinate systems are related here, one defined by the earth's equator and north pole, the other by the orientation of a telescope at some location on the surface of the earth. Applying an interesting though somewhat obscure property of orthogonal matrices and using the cross-product simplifies this relationship, revealing that a surprisingly…

  20. POST: a polar stratospheric telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland C.; Bely, Pierre Y.; Bally, John; Crocker, James H.; Dopita, Mike; Tilley, James N.; Allen, Ronald; Bartko, Frank; White, Richard L.; Burg, Richard; Burrows, Christopher J.; Clampin, Mark; Harper, Doyal A.; Illingworth, Garth; McCray, Richard; Meyer, Stephan; Mould, Jeremy; Norman, Colin

    1994-06-01

    The lower stratosphere in the polar regions offers conditions for observation in the near-infrared comparable to those obtained from space. We describe a concept for a 6-meter, diluted aperture, near-infrared telescope carried by a tethered aerostat flying at 12 km altitude, to serve as a testbed for future space astronomical observatories while producing frontier science.

  1. The Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffert, M.

    1996-12-01

    Since 1988 the UCSB Cosmology Group has performed a number of measurements of the degree scale structure in the Cosmic Background Radiation. These include 3 South Pole expeditions in 1989, 91 and 94. and 8 balloon flights using SIS, HEMTs and bolometer based detectors. We will present a summary of these measurements focusing onthe recent results. In addition, we will describe the recent flight of HACME, a balloon- borne experiment to map CMB anisotropies with 0.75 degree angular resolution over several hundred square degrees. This experiment is a prototype for our next generation CMB experiment, the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST). BEAST will feature a 2 m diameter carbon fiber composite primary mirror for high angular resolution and a sensitive array of ultra-low noise HEMT amplifiers at 30, 40, and 90 GHz. BEAST is designed for an Antarctic long duration balloon flight allowing an observing time of order two weeks. This experiment will provide an unprecedented combination of sensitivty and angular resolution across a significant region of sky.

  2. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, R.; de Donato, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Guzmán, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Paic, G.; Patiño Salazar, E.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Sánchez, F. A.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vargas Treviño, A. D.; Vergara Limón, S.; Villaseñor, L. M.; Auger Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm2. Each layer is 4m2 and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cm×2m, oriented at a 90∘ angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4×4cm2. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2μs data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  3. Expected performance of the ASTRI mini-array in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pierro, F.; Bigongiari, C.; Stamerra, A.; Vallania, P.; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium, the

    2016-05-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory is a world-wide project for the ground-based study of the sources of the highest energy photons. By adopting telescopes of three different size categories it will cover the wide energy range from tens of GeV up to hundreds of TeV, limited only by the source physical properties and the gamma absorption by the extragalactic background light. The full sky coverage will be assured by two arrays, one in each hemisphere. An array of small size telescopes (SSTs), covering the highest energy region (3-100 TeV), the region most flux limited for current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, is planned to be deployed at the southern CTA site in the first phase of the CTA project. The ASTRI collaboration has developed a prototype of a dual mirror SST equipped with a SiPM-based focal plane (ASTRI SST-2M) and has proposed to install a mini-array of nine of such telescopes at the CTA southern site (the ASTRI mini-array). In order to study the expected performance and the scientific capabilities of different telescope configurations, full Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the shower development in the atmosphere for both gammas and hadronic background have been performed, followed by detailed simulations of the telescopes. In this work the expected performance of the ASTRI mini-array in terms of sensitivity, angular and energy resolution are presented and discussed.

  4. The Xinglong 2.16-m Telescope: Current Instruments and Scientific Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhou; Wang, Huijuan; Jiang, Xiaojun; Wu, Hong; Li, Hongbin; Huang, Yang; Xu, Dawei; Hu, Zhongwen; Zhu, Yinan; Wang, Jianfeng; Komossa, Stefanie; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2016-11-01

    The Xinglong 2.16-m reflector is the first 2-m class astronomical telescope in China. It was jointly designed and built by the Nanjing Astronomical Instruments Factory (NAIF), Beijing Astronomical Observatory (now National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, NAOC), and Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1989. It is a Ritchey-Chrétien (R-C) reflector on an English equatorial mount and the effective aperture is 2.16 m. It had been the largest optical telescope in China for ˜18 years until the Guoshoujing Telescope (also called Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope, LAMOST) and the Lijiang 2.4-m telescope were built. At present, there are three main instruments on the Cassegrain focus available: the Beijing Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (BFOSC) for direct imaging and low-resolution (R ˜ 500-2000) spectroscopy, the spectrograph made by Optomechanics Research Inc. (OMR) for low-resolution spectroscopy (the spectral resolutions are similar to those of BFOSC) and the fiber-fed High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS; R ˜ 30,000-65,000). The telescope is widely open to astronomers all over China as well as international astronomical observers. Each year there are more than 40 ongoing observing projects, including 6-8 key projects. Recently, some new techniques and instruments (e.g., astro-frequency comb calibration system, polarimeter, and adaptive optics) have been or will be tested on the telescope to extend its observing abilities.

  5. Virtual Telescope Observes Record-Breaking Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    New Data Show that "2001 KX76" Is Larger than Ceres Summary Ceres, the first asteroid (minor planet) to be discovered in the Solar System, has held the record as the largest known object of its kind for two centuries. However, recent observations at the European Southern Observatory with the world's first operational virtual telescope 'Astrovirtel' have determined that the newly discovered distant asteroid "2001 KX76" is significantly larger, with a diameter of 1200 km, possibly even 1400 km . PR Photo 27a/01 : Image of "2001 KX76 , obtained with the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at La Silla. PR Photo 27b/01 : Relative sizes of the largest known Kuiper Belt Objects and Pluto . Astrovirtel provides decisive data about 2001 KX76 ESO PR Photo 27a/01 ESO PR Photo 27a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 461 x 400 pix - 60k] [Normal - JPEG: 921 x 800 pix - 536k] Caption : ESO PR Photo 27a/01 shows a reproduction of a colour composite image, based on three exposures with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory. By combining data from the world's first operational "virtual telescope", Astrovirtel , with that from a conventional telescope at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) at La Silla (Chile), European astronomers [2] have determined the size of the newly found, remote asteroid, 2001 KX76 . Their measurements indicate that this icy rock has a diameter of at least 1200 km and is therefore larger than any other known asteroid in the Solar System . The previous record-holder, the asteroid Ceres, was also the first object of its type to be discovered - by the Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi on January 1, 1801. Its diameter is about 950 km, relegating it to second place after holding the asteroid size record for two hundred years. This conclusion is based on data from Astrovirtel, which has been operating at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) for about one year. This advanced prototype science tool which in effect mimics a telescope

  6. FORCAST Camera Installed on SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cornell University's Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope, or FORCAST, being installed on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy's 2.5-meter telescope in preparation f...

  7. Rangefinder Metrology for the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. A.; Creager, R. E.; Parker, D. H.; Payne, J. A.

    A scanning laser rangefinder metrology system for the 100 meter Green Bank Telescope is described. Use of this system for correction of the primary reflector's shape and pointing of the telescope is described.

  8. Eclipse Photographs Through a Small Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Bill

    1999-08-01

    Results of previous eclipse photography using a small telescope (Questar 90mm x 1200mm EFL) and camera. During the presentation of images, tips and ideas for getting good pictures through a telescope will be discussed.

  9. Galileo, telescopic astronomy, and the Copernican system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Helden, A.

    Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Telescopic discoveries. 3. Sunspots, Copernicanism, and theology. 4. The decree of 1616. 5. The Dialogue. 6. The trial of Galileo. 7. The aftermath of the trial. 8. Telescopic astronomy after Galileo.

  10. Tunable electronic and magnetic properties of Cr2M'C2T2 (M' = Ti or V; T = O, OH or F)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhui; Zhou, Xumeng; Luo, Xuepiao; Zhang, Shaozheng; Chen, Liang

    2016-11-01

    Here we report on the magnetic properties and electronic structures of Cr2M'C2T2 (M' = Ti, or V; T = O, OH, or F) systems investigated by means of first-principles calculations. Results indicate that Cr2M'C2T2 can be nonmagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic, or ferromagnetic and either a semiconductor or metal depending on the choice of M' and T and the through-bond coupling interactions that affect the arrangements of Cr2M'C2T2 systems. It was found that Cr2TiC2O2 is nonmagnetic, Cr2TiC2F2 and Cr2TiC2(OH)2 are anti-ferromagnetic. Cr2VC2(OH)2, Cr2VC2F2, and Cr2VC2O2 are ferromagnetic. The Curie temperatures of Cr2VC2(OH)2, Cr2VC2F2 are up to 618.36 and 695.65 K, respectively, calculated by the Heisenberg model with mean-field approximation. By using HSE06 methods, Cr2TiC2F2 was found to have an indirect band gap of approximately 1.35 eV while Cr2TiC(OH)2 was found to have a direct band gap of 0.84 eV. The tunable magnetic properties and electronic structures make the Cr2M'C2T2 (M' = Ti, or V; T = O, OH, or F) double transition metal carbides promising two dimensional materials for applications in spin electronics, photocatalysis, and data storage.

  11. Origins Space Telescope: Telescope Design and Instrument Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, Margaret; Carter, Ruth; Leisawitz, David; Dipirro, Mike; Flores, Anel; Staguhn, Johannes; Kellog, James; Roellig, Thomas L.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bradford, Charles; Wright, Edward L.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The renaming of the mission reflects Origins science goals that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, nearby galaxies and the Milky Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. This poster will show the preliminary telescope design that will be a large aperture (>8 m in diameter), cryogenically cooled telescope. We will also present the specifications for the spectrographs and imagers over a potential wavelength range of ~10 microns to 1 millimeter. We look forward to community input into this mission definition over the coming year as we work on the concept design for the mission. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  12. The Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bely, Pierre-Yves (Editor); Burrows,, Christopher J. (Editor); Illingworth,, Garth D.

    1989-01-01

    In Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, the Space Science Board of the National Research Council identified high-resolution-interferometry and high-throughput instruments as the imperative new initiatives for NASA in astronomy for the two decades spanning 1995 to 2015. In the optical range, the study recommended an 8 to 16-meter space telescope, destined to be the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to complement the ground-based 8 to 10-meter-class telescopes presently under construction. It might seem too early to start planning for a successor to HST. In fact, we are late. The lead time for such major missions is typically 25 years, and HST has been in the making even longer with its inception dating back to the early 1960s. The maturity of space technology and a more substantial technological base may lead to a shorter time scale for the development of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Optimistically, one could therefore anticipate that NGST be flown as early as 2010. On the other hand, the planned lifetime of HST is 15 years. So, even under the best circumstances, there will be a five year gap between the end of HST and the start of NGST. The purpose of this first workshop dedicated to NGST was to survey its scientific potential and technical challenges. The three-day meeting brought together 130 astronomers and engineers from government, industry and universities. Participants explored the technologies needed for building and operating the observatory, reviewed the current status and future prospects for astronomical instrumentation, and discussed the launch and space support capabilities likely to be available in the next decade. To focus discussion, the invited speakers were asked to base their presentations on two nominal concepts, a 10-meter telescope in space in high earth orbit, and a 16-meter telescope on the moon. The workshop closed with a panel discussion focused mainly on the scientific case, siting, and the

  13. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  14. World atlas of large optical telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    By 1980 there will be approximately 100 large optical telescopes in the world with mirror or lens diameters of one meter (39 inches) and larger. This atlas gives information on these telescopes and shows their locations on continent-sized maps. Observatory locations considered suitable for the construction of future large telescopes are also shown.

  15. The Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, L. L.; Reed, M. D.; Thompson, M. A.; Gilker, J. T.

    We describe the Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope project. The hardware includes a 16 inch Meade LX-200 telescope, an AstroHaven 7 feet dome, an Apogee U47 CCD camera and filter wheel, a Boltwood Cloud Sensor II, and various other minor hardware. We are implementing RTS2 for the Telescope Control System and incorporating custom drivers for ancillary systems.

  16. Spitzer Space Telescope mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Johnny H.; Garcia, Mark D.; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Long, Stacia M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the mission design, launch, orbit, and navigation results for the Spitzer space telescope mission. The Spitzer telescope was launched by the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle into a heliocentric Earth trailing orbit. This orbit is flown for the first time and will be used by several future astronomical missions such as Kepler, SIM, and LISA. This paper describes the launch strategy for a winter versus a summer launch and how it affects communications. It also describes how the solar orbit affects the design and operations of the Observatory. It describes the actual launch timeline, launch vehicle flight performance, and the long term behavior of the as flown orbit. It also provides the orbit knowledge from in-flight navigation data.

  17. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  18. Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Lifan; Yuan, Xiangyan; Gu, Bozhong; Li, Xinnan; Yang, Shihai; Gong, Xuefei; Du, Fujia; Qi, Yongjun; Xu, Lingzhe

    2014-07-01

    Chinese Antarctic Observatory has been listed as National large research infrastructure during twelfth five-year plan. Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope, one of two major facility of Chinese Antarctic Observatory, is a 2.5-meter optic/infrared telescope and will be built at the Chinese Antarctic Kunlun Station. It is intended to take advantage of the exceptional seeing conditions, as well as the low temperature reducing background for infrared observations. KDUST will adopt an innovative optical system, which can deliver very good image quality over a 2 square degree flat field of view. All of parts of it have been designed carefully to endure the extremely harsh environment. KDUST will be perched on a 14.5-meter-high tower to lift it above the turbulence layer. In this paper, preliminary design and key technology pre-research of KDUST will be introduced.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing begins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    The day's work began when astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman stepped out into the cargo bay at 9h41 pm CST, Saturday (4h41 am CET, Sunday). They immediately set to work replacing two gyroscope assemblies, known as the Rate Sensor Units, two associated electronics boxes, called Electronic Control Units, and eight electrical fuse plugs. The work was completed ahead of schedule, but the astronauts had trouble closing the doors of the compartment housing the gyros and took over an hour to get them shut. The astronauts also prepared equipment for the replacement of the solar arrays. "The feeling down here is one of great satisfaction for a tremendous job today" said spacecraft communicator Greg Harbaugh in mission control. "We are very proud of the work that you all did and we are very confident in the continued success of the mission. Everything is going great and tomorrow is going to be another great day". ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier played a vital role during the spacewalk moving the astronauts and their equipment around the cargo bay with the shuttle's robot arm. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission features more robot arm operations than any other shuttle flight. The telescope's left-hand solar array was rolled up successfully at 6h24 am CST (1h24 pm CET). The 11-tonne observatory was rotated 180 degrees on its turntable before commands were sent to retract the second array at 8h23 am CST (3h23 pm CET). The crew stopped the retraction when it appeared the system may have jammed. Mission control instructed the crew to jettison the array, a procedure that they have trained for. Tomorrow astronauts Kathy Thornton and Tom Akers will make a six-hour spacewalk to jettison the troublesome wing, store the other in the cargo bay, and install two new panels supplied by ESA. The second set of arrays feature thermal shields and a modified thermal compensation system to prevent the flexing that affected the first pair. The Hubble Space Telescope was plucked

  20. THE OPTIMAL GRAVITATIONAL LENS TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Surdej, J.; Hanot, C.; Sadibekova, T.; Delacroix, C.; Habraken, S.; Coleman, P.; Dominik, M.; Le Coroller, H.; Mawet, D.; Quintana, H.; Sluse, D.

    2010-05-15

    Given an observed gravitational lens mirage produced by a foreground deflector (cf. galaxy, quasar, cluster, ...), it is possible via numerical lens inversion to retrieve the real source image, taking full advantage of the magnifying power of the cosmic lens. This has been achieved in the past for several remarkable gravitational lens systems. Instead, we propose here to invert an observed multiply imaged source directly at the telescope using an ad hoc optical instrument which is described in the present paper. Compared to the previous method, this should allow one to detect fainter source features as well as to use such an optimal gravitational lens telescope to explore even fainter objects located behind and near the lens. Laboratory and numerical experiments illustrate this new approach.

  1. Telescoping Space-Station Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

  2. The Ortega Telescope Andor CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, M.; Batcheldor, D.

    2012-07-01

    We present a preliminary instrument report for an Andor iKon-L 936 charge-couple device (CCD) being operated at Florida Tech's 0.8 m Ortega Telescope. This camera will replace the current Finger Lakes Instrumentation (FLI) Proline CCD. Details of the custom mount produced for this camera are presented, as is a quantitative and qualitative comparison of the new and old cameras. We find that the Andor camera has 50 times less noise than the FLI, has no significant dark current over 30 seconds, and has a smooth, regular flat field. The Andor camera will provide significantly better sensitivity for direct imaging programs and, once it can be satisfactorily tested on-sky, will become the standard imaging device on the Ortega Telescope.

  3. Workshop on Mars Telescopic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III (Editor); Moersch, J. E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held August 14-15, 1995, at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, was organized and planned with two primary goals in mind: The first goal was to facilitate discussions among and between amateur and professional observers and to create a workshop environment fostering collaborations and comparisons within the Mars observing community. The second goal was to explore the role of continuing telescopic observations of Mars in the upcoming era of increased spacecraft exploration. The 24 papers presented at the workshop described the current NASA plans for Mars exploration over the next decade, current and recent Mars research being performed by professional astronomers, and current and past Mars observations being performed by amateur observers and observing associations. The workshop was divided into short topical sessions concentrating on programmatic overviews, groundbased support of upcoming spacecraft experiments, atmospheric observations, surface observations, modeling and numerical studies, and contributions from amateur astronomers.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  6. Opening the Dutch Open Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.; de Wijn, A. G.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Hammerschlag, R. H.

    2002-10-01

    We hope to "open the DOT" to the international solar physics community as a facility for high-resolution tomography of the solar atmosphere. Our aim is to do so combining peer-review time allocation with service-mode operation in a "hands-on-telescope" education program bringing students to La Palma to assist in the observing and processing. The largest step needed is considerable speedup of the DOT speckle processing.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Proto planetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  8. Recent performance of the normal incident x-ray telescope with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamoto, S.; Ishii, R.; Nukamori, S.; Imai, K.; Mochida, A.; Sato, S.; Ohgi, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hoshino, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report recent results of the performance measurement of our X-ray telescope with adaptive optics. The telescope is designed to use the 13.5nm EUV with the Mo/Si multilayers, making a normal incident optics. The primary mirror is 80mm in its diameter and the focal length of 2m. The deformable mirror is controlled by measuring a wave-front of an optical laser. Effects of a difference between the light paths from the reference and from an object are examined. The angular resolution is measured with optical light and we confirm almost diffraction limited resolution as well as its appropriate function as adaptive optics.

  9. An underground cosmic ray muon telescope for observation of cosmic ray anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. W.; Ng, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    A telescope housed in a tunnel laboratory has an overburden of 573 hg cm(-2) and is located under the center of a saddle-shaped landscape. It is composed of triple layers of proportional counters, each layer of area approx. 4m x 2m and their separation 0.5m. Events are selected by triple coincidence and software track identification. The telescope is in operation for over a year and the overall count rate is 1280 hr(-1). The structure and operation of the system is reported.

  10. Building the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous presentation, I reported on how the freak collapse of the NRAO 300-ft transit radio telescope led to the inclusion of $75 million for a new radio telescope in the 1989 Congressional Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act. But, this was only the beginning. NRAO was faced with challenging specifications and an unworkable schedule, but there was no design and no project team. Only one bid was even close to the Congressional appropriation. In an attempt to meet the unrealistic antenna delivery date, the contractor started construction of the foundation and fabrication of antenna members before the design was finished, leading to retrofits, redesign, and multiple delays. The antenna contractor was twice sold to other companies leading to further delays and cost escalation. In order to recoup their mounting losses, the new owners sued NRAO for $29 million for claimed design changes, and NRAO countersued demanding to be reimbursed for added project management costs and lost scientific data resulting from the seven-year delay in the completion of the telescope. Legal fees and a small net award in favor of the contractor left NRAO and the NSF with a nine million dollar bill which NSF handled by an innovative accounting adjustment.

  11. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (SDK) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to S microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  12. Sensitivity of coded mask telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Gerald K

    2008-05-20

    Simple formulas are often used to estimate the sensitivity of coded mask x-ray or gamma-ray telescopes, but these are strictly applicable only if a number of basic assumptions are met. Complications arise, for example, if a grid structure is used to support the mask elements, if the detector spatial resolution is not good enough to completely resolve all the detail in the shadow of the mask, or if any of a number of other simplifying conditions are not fulfilled. We derive more general expressions for the Poisson-noise-limited sensitivity of astronomical telescopes using the coded mask technique, noting explicitly in what circumstances they are applicable. The emphasis is on using nomenclature and techniques that result in simple and revealing results. Where no convenient expression is available a procedure is given that allows the calculation of the sensitivity. We consider certain aspects of the optimization of the design of a coded mask telescope and show that when the detector spatial resolution and the mask to detector separation are fixed, the best source location accuracy is obtained when the mask elements are equal in size to the detector pixels.

  13. QUIJOTE telescope design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Alberto; Murga, Gaizka; Etxeita, Borja; Sanquirce, Rubén; Rebolo, Rafael; Rubiño-Martin, Jose Alberto; Herreros, José-Miguel; Hoyland, Roger; Gomez, Francisca; Génova-Santos, Ricardo T.; Piccirillo, Lucio; Maffei, Bruno; Watson, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The QUIJOTE CMB experiment aims to characterize the polarization of the CMB in the frequency range 10-30 GHz and large angular scales. It will be installed in the Teide Observatory, following the projects that the Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background group has developed in the past (Tenerife experiment, IAC-Bartol experiment...) and is running at the present time (VSA, Cosmosomas). The QUIJOTE CMB experiment will consist of two telescopes which will be installed inside a unique enclosure, which is already constructed. The layout of both telescopes is based on an altazimuth mount supporting a primary and a secondary mirror disposed in a offset Gregorian Dragon scheme. The use of industrial-like fabrication techniques, such as sand-mould casting, CNC machining, and laser tracker measuring for alignment, provided the required performances for microwave observation. A fast-track construction scheme, altogether with the use of these fabrication techniques allowed designing and manufacturing the opto-mechanics of the telescope in 14 months prior to delivery for final start-up in December 2008.

  14. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisconti, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  15. CMB Telescopes and Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Shaul; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) is now firmly establishedas a fundamental and essential probe of the geometry, constituents, and birth ofthe observable universe. The CMB is a potent observable because it can bemeasured with precision and accuracy. Just as importantly, theoretical models ofthe universe can predict the characteristics of the CMB to high accuracy, andthose predictions can be directly compared to observations. There are multipleaspects associated with making a precise measurement. In this chapter, we focuson optical components for the instrumentation used to measure the CMBpolarization and temperature anisotropy. We begin with an overview of generalconsiderations for CMB observations and discuss common concepts used inthe community. We next consider a variety of alternatives available for adesigner of a CMB telescope. Our discussion is guided by the ground- andballoon-based instruments that have been implemented over the years. In thesame vein, we compare the arc-minute resolution Atacama CosmologyTelescope (ACT) and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). CMB interferometersare presented briefly. We conclude with a comparison of the four CMBsatellites, Relikt, COBE, WMAP, and Planck, to demonstrate a remarkableevolution in design, sensitivity, resolution, and complexity over the past30 years.

  16. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  17. Sensitivity of coded mask telescopes.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Gerald K

    2008-05-20

    Simple formulas are often used to estimate the sensitivity of coded mask x-ray or gamma-ray telescopes, but these are strictly applicable only if a number of basic assumptions are met. Complications arise, for example, if a grid structure is used to support the mask elements, if the detector spatial resolution is not good enough to completely resolve all the detail in the shadow of the mask, or if any of a number of other simplifying conditions are not fulfilled. We derive more general expressions for the Poisson-noise-limited sensitivity of astronomical telescopes using the coded mask technique, noting explicitly in what circumstances they are applicable. The emphasis is on using nomenclature and techniques that result in simple and revealing results. Where no convenient expression is available a procedure is given that allows the calculation of the sensitivity. We consider certain aspects of the optimization of the design of a coded mask telescope and show that when the detector spatial resolution and the mask to detector separation are fixed, the best source location accuracy is obtained when the mask elements are equal in size to the detector pixels.

  18. Equal-Curvature X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a new type of x-ray telescope design; an Equal-Curvature telescope. We simply add a second order axial sag to the base grazing incidence cone-cone telescope. The radius of curvature of the sag terms is the same on the primary surface and on the secondary surface. The design is optimized so that the on-axis image spot at the focal plane is minimized. The on-axis RMS (root mean square) spot diameter of two studied telescopes is less than 0.2 arc-seconds. The off-axis performance is comparable to equivalent Wolter type 1 telescopes.

  19. Cost Modeling for Space Optical Telescope Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Luedtke, Alexander; West, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper reviews an on-going effort to develop cost modes for space telescopes. This paper summarizes the methodology used to develop cost models and documents how changes to the database have changed previously published preliminary cost models. While the cost models are evolving, the previously published findings remain valid: it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; technology development as a function of time reduces cost; and lower areal density telescopes cost more than more massive telescopes.

  20. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. Current and foreseeable launch vehicles will be limited to carrying around 4-5 meter diameter objects. Thus, if a large, filled-aperture telescope (6-20 meters in diameter) is to be placed in space, it will be required to have a deployable primary mirror. Such a mirror may be an inflatable membrane or a segmented mirror consisting of many smaller pieces. In any case, it is expected that the deployed primary will not be of sufficient quality to achieve diffraction-limited performance for its aperture size. Thus, an active optics system will be needed to correct for initial as well as environmentally-produced primary figure errors. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed considerable expertise in the area of active optics with the PAMELA test-bed. The combination of this experience along with the Marshall optical shop's work in mirror fabrication made MSFC the logical choice to lead NASA's effort to develop active optics technology for large, space-based, astronomical telescopes. Furthermore, UAH's support of MSFC in the areas of optical design, fabrication, and testing of space-based optical systems placed us in a key position to play a major role in the development of this future-generation telescope. A careful study of the active optics components had to be carried out in order to determine control segment size, segment quality, and segment controllability required to achieve diffraction-limited resolution with a given primary mirror. With this in mind, UAH undertook the following effort to provide NASA/MSFC with optical design and analysis support for the large telescope study. All of the work performed under this contract has already been reported, as a team member with MSFC, to NASA Headquarters in a series of presentations given between May and December of 1995. As specified on the delivery

  1. Twin-Telescope Wettzell (TTW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, H.; Dassing, R.; Kronschnabl, G.; Schlüter, W.; Schwarz, W.; Lauber, P.; Kilger, R.

    2007-07-01

    Following the recommendations made by the VLBI2010 vision report of the IVS, a proposal has been made to construct a Twin Telescope for the Fundamental Station Wettzell in order to meet the future requirements of the next VLBI generation. The Twin Telescope consists of two identical radiotelescopes. It is a project of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG). This article summarizes the project and some design ideas for the Twin-Telescope. %ZALMA (2005). Technical Specification for Design, Manufacturing, Transport and Integration on Site of the ALMA ANTENNAS, Doc. ALMA-34.00.00.00.006-BSPE. Behrend, D. (2006). VLBI2010 Antenna Specs, Data sheet. DeBoer, D. (2001). The ATA Offset Gregorian Antenna, ATA Memo #16, February 10. Imbriale, W.A. (2006). Design of a Wideband Radio Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and S. Weinreb and H. Mandi, California Institute of Technology. Kilger, R. (2007). TWIN-Design studies, Presentation for the IVS board members (internal document),Wettzell. Kronschnabl, G. (2006). Subject: Memo from Bill Petrachenko, E-mail to the Twin-Working Group (in German), July. Lindgren, ETS-Lindgren (2005). The Model 3164-05 Open Boundary Quadridge Horn, Data Sheet. Niell, A., A. Whitney, W. Petrachenko, W. Schlüter, N. Vandenberg, H.Hase, Y. Koyama, C. Ma, H. Schuh, G. Tucari (2006). in: IVS Annual Report 2005, pg. 13-40, NASA/TP-2006-214136, April. Olsson, R., Kildal, P.-S., and Weinreb, S. (2006). IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 2, February. Petrachenko, B. (2006). The Case For and Against Multiple Antennas at a Site, IVS Memorandum, 2006-019v01. Petrachenko, B. (2006). IVS Memorandum, 2006-016v01. RFSpin (2004). Double Ridged Waveguide Horn-Model DRH20, Antenna Specifications, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Crossed Log- Periodic Antennas HL024A1/S1, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Log-Periodic Antennas HL050/HL050S1, Data Sheet. Rogers, A.E.E. (2006). Simulations of broadband

  2. Aligning Astronomical Telescopes via Identification of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A proposed method of automated, precise alignment of a ground-based astronomical telescope would eliminate the need for initial manual alignment. The method, based on automated identification of known stars and other celestial objects in the telescope field of view, would also eliminate the need for an initial estimate of the aiming direction. The method does not require any equipment other than a digital imaging device such as a charge-coupled-device digital imaging camera and control computers of the telescope and camera, all of which are standard components in professional astronomical telescope systems and in high-end amateur astronomical telescope systems. The method could be implemented in software running in the telescope or camera control computer or in an external computer communicating with the telescope pointing mount and camera control computers.

  3. COX-2 mRNA expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and effect by NSAID.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Li, P; Zhang, S-T; You, H; Jia, J-D; Yu, Z-L

    2008-01-01

    To investigate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and the effect of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) on it, in order to explore the mechanism of COX-2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) carcinogenesis and the ability of NSAID to prevent or treat ESCC. Frozen specimens of human ESCC and adjacent normal esophageal squamous epithelium pairs (n = 22) were examined for COX-2 mRNA expression by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After incubation with aspirin (a non-selective COX inhibitor) or Nimesulide (a selective COX-2 inhibitor), the proliferation status of two human esophageal squamous cancer cell lines, EC-9706 and EC-109, was quantified by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The expression of COX-2 mRNA in these cells was detected by RT-PCR. COX-2 mRNA was expressed in 12 of 22 (54.5%) ESCC tissue samples, but it was undetectable in all the specimens of adjacent normal esophageal squamous epithelium COX-2 mRNA expression. Both aspirin (5-20 mmol/L) and Nimesulide (0.1-0.8 mmol/L) inhibited EC-9706 cell line proliferation and suppressed its COX-2 mRNA expression dose-dependently. However, only aspirin (5-20 mmol/L) could inhibit proliferation in the EC-109 cell line and suppress COX-2 mRNA expression. Nimesulide (0.1-0.8 mmol/L) could neither inhibit EC-109 cell growth nor suppress COX-2 mRNA expression. COX-2 mRNA expression is a frequent phenomenon in human ESCC tissue samples and plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of ESCC. NSAID may be useful in the chemoprevention and therapy of human ESCC and its effects are likely to be mediated by modulating COX-2 activity.

  4. Discovery Channel Telescope, Progress and Status, September 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, T. A.; Millis, R. L.; Smith, B. W.; Dunham, E. W.; Wiecha, O. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope being built at a new site near Happy Jack, in northern Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time- variable targets. The telescope will have Ritchey-Chretien and Nasmyth configurations for optical/IR imaging and spectroscopy. Formal groundbreaking for the DCT at the Happy Jack site occurred on 12 July 2005. Construction of major facility elements will commence in earnest in September 2005. An extended site-testing campaign of the astronomical and environmental qualities at the Happy Jack site was conducted from January 2003-October 2004. Differential image motion observations on 117 nights gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, with a first-quartile average of 0.62 arcsec FWHM. The use permit securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest was issued in November 2004, and site preparation including construction of the access road was completed in June 2005. The ultra-low-expansion (ULE) meniscus primary mirror in fabrication at Corning Glass has been recently slump-formed to the prescribed radius-of-curvature. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology, and e2v Technologies have completed in-depth conceptual designs of the optics, mount, facility, and mosaic focal plane, respectively, the results of which were subjected to a formal review in July, 2004. The detailed design of the telescope facility was recently completed by Lowell Observatory and M3 in preparation for the initial construction phase in fall 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. An additional partner can be accomodated

  5. The Discovery Channel Telescope: Construction and Design Progress, January 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Millis, R. L.; Smith, B. W.; Dunham, E. W.; Marshall, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2m telescope under construction in northern Arizona. The DCT is located at a new site near Happy Jack at 2361m elevation, which was selected following a lengthy site testing campaign that demonstrated DIMM-characterized median ground-level seeing of 0.84-arcsec FWHM. The DCT science mission includes targeted studies of astrophysical and solar system objects utilizing RC and Nasmyth-mounted imaging and spectroscopic instrumentation, and wide-field surveys of KBO’s, NEA’s, and astrophysical objects with a 2-degree FOV prime focus camera. The DCT facility enclosure and control buildings will be completed soon, including the telescope mount and dome supports, major machinery infrastructure, the instrument laboratory, control and computer rooms, and the auxiliary building for the mirror coating plant. Meanwhile, the effort for final figuring and polishing of the 4.3m ULE meniscus primary mirror blank began in August 2006 at the University of Arizona College of Optical Sciences. The primary mirror and its design support, and the integrated telescope mount model, were finite-element analyzed to optimize the design of the mirror and top-end support configurations. The primary mirror axial and tangential actuators will be fabricated in early 2007 and utilized in the final figure and polish cycle. The prime focus camera design has been refined to achieve atmospheric dispersion-compensated 0.25-arcsec images at 1-degree field radius, from B to I-band, at reduced cost through simplification of glasses to standard types and utilization of spheres on all but two lens surfaces. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. Lowell Observatory and Discovery Communications are actively seeking additional

  6. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In this paper, the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals are reviewed.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  9. 113. JOB NO. 1347K, SHEET 2M, 1929, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. JOB NO. 1347-K, SHEET 2M, 1929, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; BOILER HOUSE ASSEMBLY PLANT; SECTIONS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. The character of W-doped one-dimensional VO{sub 2} (M)

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Liu Chunyan; Mao Lijuan

    2009-10-15

    The one-dimensional W-doped VO{sub 2} (M) solid solutions with a various doped content were successfully synthesized under hydrothermal condition and subsequent calcination for the first time, and physical-chemical and phase transformation character were explored, subsequently. DSC analyses displayed that the phase-transition temperature of VO{sub 2} (M) solid solution could be linearly tuned with the doped content. Promisingly, the one-dimensional W-doped VO{sub 2} (M) had a good thermochromic property. - Graphical Abstract: One-dimensional W-doped VO{sub 2} (M) solid solutions with a various doped content were synthesized under hydrothermal condition and subsequent calcination. The physical-chemical and phase transformation character were explored, subsequently.

  11. Surface Meteorological Station - ARL 2m, ancillary flux, Prineville - Raw Data

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, Kirk

    2016-10-25

    These data contain measurements from a 4-component net radiometer, as well as 2m temperature, pressure and RH. Also measurements of soil moisture and temperature and soil heat fluxes are found herein.

  12. Surface Meteorological Station - ARL 2m, ancillary flux, Boardman - Raw Data

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, Kirk

    2016-10-25

    These data contain measurements from a four-component net radiometer, as well as 2-m temperature, pressure, and relative humidity (RH). In addition, soil moisture and temperature measurements and soil heat fluxes are included.

  13. Braiding statistics and classification of two-dimensional charge-2 m superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenjie

    2016-08-01

    We study braiding statistics between quasiparticles and vortices in two-dimensional charge-2 m (in units of e ) superconductors that are coupled to a Z2 m dynamical gauge field, where m is any positive integer. We show that there exist 16 m types of braiding statistics when m is odd, but only 4 m types when m is even. Based on the braiding statistics, we obtain a classification of topological phases of charge-2 m superconductors—or formally speaking, a classification of symmetry-protected topological phases, as well as invertible topological phases, of two-dimensional gapped fermions with Z2m f symmetry. Interestingly, we find that there is no nontrivial fermionic symmetry-protected topological phase with Z4f symmetry.

  14. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    ESO Video Newsreel 15, released on March 14, 2005. It provides an introduction to the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the two Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) now installed at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 07a/05 shows the impressive ensemble at the summit of Paranal. From left to right, the enclosure of VLT Antu, Kueyen and Melipal, AT1, the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) in the background, AT2 and VLT Yepun. Located at the summit of the 2,600-m high Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert (Chile), ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) is at the forefront of astronomical technology and is one of the premier facilities in the world for optical and near-infrared observations. The VLT is composed of four 8.2-m Unit Telescope (Antu, Kueyen, Melipal and Yepun). They have been progressively put into service together with a vast suite of the most advanced astronomical instruments and are operated every night in the year. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. The href="/instruments/vlti">VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines starlight captured by two 8.2- VLT Unit Telescopes, dramatically increasing the spatial resolution and showing fine details of a large variety of celestial objects. The VLTI is arguably the world's most advanced optical device of this type. It has already demonstrated its powerful capabilities by addressing several key scientific issues, such as determining the size and the shape of a variety of stars (ESO PR 22/02, PR 14/03 and PR 31/03), measuring distances to stars (ESO PR 25/04), probing the innermost regions of the proto-planetary discs around young stars (ESO PR 27/04) or making the first detection by infrared interferometry of an extragalactic object (ESO PR 17/03). "Little Brothers" ESO PR Photo 07b/05 ESO PR Photo 07b/05 [Preview - JPEG: 597 x 400 pix - 47k] [Normal - JPEG: 1193 x 800 pix - 330k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 3354 pix - 10.0M] ESO PR Photo 07c/05 ESO PR Photo 07c/05

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Technology to Market (T2M) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Christopher Todd; Bush, Jason William; Gentle, Jake Paul; Hill, Porter Jack; Myers, Kurt Steven; Williams, Christopher Luke

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a tiered Technology to Market (T2M) curriculum for basic researchers to project leads to measure the effect of technology transfer skills on project success and impact. The plan will train five researchers in basic technology transfer principles where success will be measured by assessing improvements in T2M skills and knowledge after the training is complete, likely using before and after surveys.

  16. Measurement of prompt neutron generation time at the VIR-2M pulsed nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhov, L. Yu.; Kotkov, S. P.; Kuznetsov, M. S.; Chursin, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    The prompt neutron generation time is measured in the core of the VIR-2M research nuclear reactor. The measurements are performed using the Babala method while the reactor is in the subcritical state. The VIR-2M reactor and the relevant experimental equipment are briefly described, and the experimental procedure and data processing technique are presented. It is shown that the prompt neutron generation time with empty experimental channels is 35 ± 1 μs.

  17. Australia to Build Fibre Positioner for the Very Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    The Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) at Epping (New South Wales, Australia) has been awarded the contract to build a fibre positioner for the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope (VLT). This new, large astronomical facility is located at the Paranal Observatory in Chile and will feature four Unit Telescopes, each with a main mirror of 8.2-m diameter. This positioner, (affectionately) known as the OzPoz , will form part of the FLAMES facility (the F ibre L arge A rea M ulti- E lement S pectrograph), to be mounted on the second Unit Telescope (UT2) of the VLT in 2001. The construction of this facility includes other institutes in Europe, e.g. Observatoire de Genève (Switzerland) and Observatoire de Meudon (France). The ESO Instrument Division will coordinate the entire project that will result in an observational capability that is unique in the world. Optical fibres at astronomical telescopes Optical fibres have come to play an increasingly important role as transmitters of information, for instance in telephone and computer networks. It may be less known that they can be used in a similar way to transmit visible and infrared light in astronomical telescopes. Over the past decade, the AAO has been refining its skills in building optical-fibre instruments for its own telescopes, the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope and the 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope (a telescope dedicated to wide-field surveys). These instruments enable astronomers to study many celestial objects simultaneously, increasing the effectiveness and productivity by enormous factors. The OzPoz positioner sets up to 560 optical fibres (developed in collaboration with the Observatoire de Meudon in France) very precisely by a robotic arm to match the positions of galaxies and quasars in the telescope's focal plane. The positional accuracy is about 50 µm (0.05 mm), or 0.08 arcsec on the sky. The fibres siphon the light from these very faint and distant astronomical objects and guide it

  18. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  19. TMT telescope structure thermal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Sadjadpour, Amir; Roberts, Scott

    2014-08-01

    The thermal behavior of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Telescope Structure (STR) and the STR mounted subsystems depends on the heat load of the System, the thermal properties of component materials and the environment as well as their interactions through convection, conduction and radiation. In this paper the thermal environment is described and the latest three-dimensional Computational Solid Dynamics (CSD) model is presented. The model tracks the diurnal temperature variation of the STR and the corresponding deformations. The resulting displacements are fed into the TMT Merit Function Routine (MFR), which converts them into translations and rotations of the optical surfaces. They, in turn, are multiplied by the TMT optical sensitivity matrix that delivers the corresponding pointing error. Thus the thermal performance of the structure can be assessed for requirement compliance, thermal drift correction strategies and look-up tables can be developed and design guidance can be provided. Results for a representative diurnal cycle based on measured temperature data from the TMT site on Mauna Kea and CFD simulations are presented and conclusions are drawn.

  20. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    of the Array Operations Site. This means surviving strong winds and temperatures between +20 and -20 Celsius whilst being able to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to better than 25 micrometres (less than the typical thickness of a human hair). Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad - a docking station with connections for power and fibre optics - and positioned it with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars today, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 18.5 km and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. "Transporting our first antenna to the Chajnantor plateau is a epic feat which exemplifies the exciting times in which ALMA is living. Day after day, our global collaboration brings us closer to the birth of the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in the world", said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in

  1. Far Ultraviolot Space Telescope (FAUST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope is a compact, wide field-of-view, far ultraviolet instrument designed for observations of extended and point sources of astronomical interest. It was originally used in sounding rocket work by both French and American investigators. The instrument was modified for flight on the space shuttle and flew on the Spacelab 1 mission as a joint effort between the Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale and the University of California, Berkeley. The prime experiment objective of this telescope on the Atmospheric Laboratory Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission is to observe faint astronomical sources in the far ultraviolet with sensitivities far higher than previously available. The experiment will cover the 1300 to 1800 A band, which is inaccessible to observers on earth. The observing program during the mission consists of obtaining deep sky images during spacecraft nighttime. The targets will include hot stars and nebulae in our own galaxy, faint diffuse galactic features similar to the cirrus clouds seen by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), large nearby galaxies, nearby clusters of galaxies, and objects of cosmological interest such as quasars and the diffuse far ultraviolet background.

  2. Origins Space Telescope: Community Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Sean J.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. This poster will outline the ways in which the astronomical community can participate in the STDT activities and a summary of tools that are currently available or are planned for the community during the study. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  3. Space Telescopes and Orbital Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Almost 12,000 artificial objects orbiting the Earth are currently in the public catalog of orbital elements maintained by the USAF. Only a small fraction of them are operational satellites. The remainder is satellites whose missions have ended, rocket bodies, and parts and debris from larger parent objects. And the catalog only contains the biggest and brightest of the objects in orbit. The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) regime where most of this population concentrates is also a regime of incredible interest to astronomers, since it is where flagship missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope and other Great Observatories operate. I'll review the current state of knowledge of the orbital debris population, how it has grown with time, and how this environment could affect current and future space telescopes. There are mitigation measures which many spacecraft operators have adopted which can control the growth of the debris population. Orbital debris research at the University of Michigan is funded by NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.

  4. Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L. (Editor); Bell, J. F., III (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop E convened in Tucson, Arizona, in October 1997 by popular demand slightly over two years following the first successful Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held in Ithaca, New York, in August 1995. Experts on Mars from the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and the United States were present. Twenty-eight oral presentations were made and generous time allotted for useful discussions among participants. The goals of the workshop were to (1) summarize active groundbased observing programs and evaluate them in the context of current and future space missions to Mars, (2) discuss new technologies and instrumentation in the context of changing emphasis of observations and theory useful for groundbased observing, and (3) more fully understand capabilities of current and planned Mars missions to better judge which groundbased observations are and will continue to be of importance to our overall Mars program. In addition, the exciting new discoveries presented from the Pathfinder experiments and the progress report from the Mars Global Surveyor infused the participants with satisfaction for the successes achieved in the early stages of these missions. Just as exciting was the enthusiasm for new groundbased programs designed to address new challenges resulting from mission science results. We would like to thank the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as Dr. David Black, director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute, and the staff of the Institute's Publications and Program Services Department for providing logistical, administrative, and publication support services for this workshop.

  5. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  6. pt5m - a 0.5 m robotic telescope on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, L. K.; Butterley, T.; Dhillon, V. S.; Littlefair, S. P.; Wilson, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    pt5m is a 0.5 m robotic telescope located on the roof of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) building, at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma. Using a five-position filter wheel and CCD detector, and bespoke control software, pt5m provides a high-quality robotic observing facility. The telescope first began robotic observing in 2012, and is now contributing to transient follow-up and time-resolved astronomical studies. In this paper, we present the scientific motivation behind pt5m, as well as the specifications and unique features of the facility. We also present an example of the science we have performed with pt5m, where we measure the radius of the transiting exoplanet WASP-33b. We find a planetary radius of 1.603 ± 0.014RJ.

  7. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - V. WASP-15 and WASP-16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, John; Mancini, L.; Browne, P.; Burgdorf, M.; Calchi Novati, S.; Dominik, M.; Gerner, T.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kains, N.; Ricci, D.; Schäfer, S.; Schönebeck, F.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bozza, V.; Chen, G.; Dodds, P.; Dreizler, S.; Fang, X.-S.; Finet, F.; Gu, S.-H.; Hardis, S.; Harpsøe, K.; Henning, Th.; Hundertmark, M.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Kerins, E.; Kjeldsen, H.; Liebig, C.; Lund, M. N.; Lundkvist, M.; Mathiasen, M.; Nikolov, N.; Penny, M. T.; Proft, S.; Rahvar, S.; Sahu, K.; Scarpetta, G.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Surdej, J.; Wertz, O.

    2013-09-01

    We present new photometric observations of WASP-15 and WASP-16, two transiting extrasolar planetary systems with measured orbital obliquities but without photometric follow-up since their discovery papers. Our new data for WASP-15 comprise observations of one transit simultaneously in four optical passbands using GROND on the MPG/European Southern Observatory (ESO) 2.2 m telescope, plus coverage of half a transit from DFOSC on the Danish 1.54 m telescope, both at ESO La Silla. For WASP-16 we present observations of four complete transits, all from the Danish telescope. We use these new data to refine the measured physical properties and orbital ephemerides of the two systems. Whilst our results are close to the originally determined values for WASP-15, we find that the star and planet in the WASP-16 system are both larger and less massive than previously thought.

  8. JWST Telescope Integration and Test Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Whitman, Tony L.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. The JWST Optical Telescope Element (Telescope) integration and test program is well underway. The telescope was completed in the spring of 2016 and the cryogenic test equipment has been through two optical test programs leading up to the final flight verification program. The details of the telescope mirror integration will be provided along with the current status of the flight observatory. In addition, the results of the two optical ground support equipment cryo tests will be shown and how these plans fold into the flight verification program.

  9. JWST telescope integration and test progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Whitman, Tony L.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. The JWST Optical Telescope Element (Telescope) integration and test program is well underway. The telescope was completed in the spring of 2016 and the cryogenic test equipment has been through two optical test programs leading up to the final flight verification program. The details of the telescope mirror integration will be provided along with the current status of the flight observatory. In addition, the results of the two optical ground support equipment cryo tests will be shown and how these plans fold into the flight verification program.

  10. JWST telescope integration and test status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary; Scorse, Thomas; Kennard, Scott; Spina, John; Whitman, Tony; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles; Young, Greg; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Marsh, James; Lander, Juli; Feinberg, Lee

    2014-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. 2014 is an incredible year for the Telescope Alignment, Integration, and Test portion of the program. Long awaited and planned, the two segment Pathfinder telescope will be built and the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) will be integrated into the large cryo-vacuum chamber at the Johnson Spaceflight Center. The current status of the integration equipment and the demonstrations leading up to the flight-like Pathfinder telescope will be provided as the first step to the final verification of the complex cryo test equipment. The plans and status of bringing the OGSE on-line and ready for a series of risk reduction cryo tests starting in 2015 on the Pathfinder Telescope will also be presented.

  11. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes.

    PubMed

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D

    2015-04-16

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths.

  12. Compliant Baffle for Large Telescope Daylight Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Compliant Baffle for Large Telescope Daylight Imaging Steven Griffin, Andrew Whiting, Shawn Haar The Boeing Company Stacie Williams Air Force...not impact wind loading induced jitter on the 3.6 m telescope . Analysis was performed to design a compliant baffle out of a synthetic fabric that...will be a comparison of angular rate sensors and accelerometers mounted on the telescope . 1.0 INTRODUCTION Unsteady wind loading is the largest

  13. Telescope Systems for Balloon-Borne Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, C. (Editor); Witteborn, F. C. (Editor); Shipley, A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the use of balloons for scientific research are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) astronomical observations with balloon-borne telescopes, (2) orientable, stabilized balloon-borne gondola for around-the-world flights, (3) ultraviolet stellar spectrophotometry from a balloon platform, (4) infrared telescope for balloon-borne infrared astronomy, and (5) stabilization, pointing, and command control of balloon-borne telescopes.

  14. Segmented Mirror Telescope Model and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS SEGMENTED MIRROR TELESCOPE MODEL AND SIMULATION by Travis W. Axtell June 2011 Thesis Co...Mirror Telescope Model and Simulation Travis W. Axtell Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943 Department of the Navy Approved for public release...Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. IRB Protocol Number: N/A The Segmented Mirror Telescope (SMT) housed at the Naval Postgraduate School is a

  15. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  16. The ASTRI mini-array software system (MASS) implementation: a proposal for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Conforti, Vito; Schwarz, Joseph; Antolini, Elisa; Antonelli, L. A.; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bruno, Pietro; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Capalbi, Milvia; Cascone, Enrico; Catalano, Osvaldo; Di Paola, Andrea; Di Pierro, Federico; Fioretti, Valentina; Gallozzi, Stefano; Gardiol, Daniele; Gianotti, Fulvio; Giro, Enrico; Grillo, Alessandro; La Palombara, Nicola; Leto, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Saverio; Maccarone, Maria C.; Pareschi, Giovanni; Russo, Federico; Sangiorgi, Pierluca; Scuderi, Salvo; Stringhetti, Luca; Testa, Vincenzo; Trifoglio, Massimo; Vercellone, Stefano; Zoli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The ASTRI mini-array, composed of nine small-size dual mirror (SST-2M) telescopes, has been proposed to be installed at the southern site of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), as a set of preproduction units of the CTA observatory. The ASTRI mini-array is a collaborative and international effort carried out by Italy, Brazil and South Africa and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. We present the main features of the current implementation of the Mini-Array Software System (MASS) now in use for the activities of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype located at the INAF observing station on Mt. Etna, Italy and the characteristics that make it a prototype for the CTA control software system. CTA Data Management (CTADATA) and CTA Array Control and Data Acquisition (CTA-ACTL) requirements and guidelines as well as the ASTRI use cases were considered in the MASS design, most of its features are derived from the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array Control software. The MASS will provide a set of tools to manage all onsite operations of the ASTRI mini-array in order to perform the observations specified in the short term schedule (including monitoring and controlling all the hardware components of each telescope and calibration device), to analyze the acquired data online and to store/retrieve all the data products to/from the onsite repository.

  17. Rate constants for H + O{sub 2} + M (r_arrow) HO{sub 2} + M in seven bath gases.

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J.; Su, M.-C,; Sutherland, J.; Carroll, J.; Wagner, A.; Chemistry; Butler Univ.; BNL; Drew Univ.

    2002-05-30

    The third-order reaction, H + O{sub 2} + M {yields} HO{sub 2} + M, has been measured near the low-pressure limit at room temperature for M = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O and over an extended range of temperatures in a shock tube for M = Ar, O{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}. In all cases, H atoms were produced by the laser photolysis of NH3 and detected by atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy. The measurements are consistent with the available experimental record and, in particular, confirm the exceptionally high recombination rate constant when M = H{sub 2}O. The standard theoretical analysis is applied to this entire experimental record to derive the value of the average energy change per collision, -{Delta}E{sub all}. The resulting -{Delta}E{sub all} values are sensible for all M but H{sub 2}O. The problem with H{sub 2}O motivates a change in the standard theoretical analysis that both rationalizes the behavior of H{sub 2}O and also quantitatively changes the derived -{Delta}E{sub all} values for the other species of M. These changes involve three modifications of the standard treatment: (1) explicit temperature dependence in the number of active rotational degrees of freedom contributing to the HO{sub 2}* state density, (2) the replacement of Lennard-Jones potential for the HO{sub 2}* + M interaction with an electrostatic + dispersion potential, and (3) the calculation of the collision rate between HO{sub 2}* + M by a free rotor model for 'complex formation' between the M and HO{sub 2}*. The optimized values of -{Delta}E{sub all} that are produced from this new analysis have the following characteristics: (1) the value of -{Delta}E{sub all} is the same for all rare gases, and (2) -{Delta}E{sub all} for di- and polyatomic molecules are enhanced relative to the rare gas atoms. This work supports the conclusions of previous trajectory studies that collision rates between activated complexes and bath gases are often underestimated while -{Delta

  18. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Prince, F. Andrew; Smart, Christian; Stephens, Kyle; Henrichs, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes, this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.

  19. Robotic telescope observing with the BAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, P.

    2010-06-01

    Have you ever wished you had access to a telescope that can image down to magnitude 20 from the comfort of your own home? This is now made possible by using the growing number of robotic telescopes around the world that are available for amateur astronomers to acquire such CCD imagery. In 2008, using income derived from the legacy of renowned BAA observer Harold Ridley, the Robotic Telescope Project was started to encourage members to contribute to the various BAA Observing Sections using robotic telescopes, by providing a 50% subsidy on commercial rates (up to a limit per member).

  20. The Dutch Open Telescope on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Hammerschlag, R. H.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Leenaarts, J.; Snik, F.; Sütterlin, P.; Tziotziou, K.; de Wijn, A. G.

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma is an innovative solar telescope combining open telescope structure and an open support tower with a multi-wavelength imaging assembly and with synchronous speckle cameras to generate high-resolution movies which sample different layers of the solar atmosphere simultaneously and co-spatially at high resolution over long durations. The DOT test and development phase is nearly concluded. The installation of an advanced speckle processor enables full science utilization including "Open-DOT" time allocation to the international community. Co-pointing with spectropolarimeters at other Canary Island telescopes and with TRACE furnishes valuable Solar-B precursor capabilities.

  1. A New 800 mm Automatic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrievsky, S. M.; Molotov, I. E.; Fashchevsky, N. N.; Podlesnyak, S. V.; Zhukov, V. V.; Kouprianov, V. V.; Kashuba, S. G.; Kashuba, V. I.; Mel'nichenko, V. F.; Gorbanev, Yu. M.

    A new automatic telescope, a 800-millimeter main mirror catadioptric anastigmatic aplanat, was constructed by specialists of Odessa National University Astronomical observatory (Ukraine) in cooperation with their colleagues from the ISON project (Russia), and was recently put into operation. The telescope is mounted at Mayaki station in suburb of Odessa. It is equipped with a focal corrector and a professional CCD camera. The telescope is used now for observations of geostationary objects, asteroids, and comets. In addition, this telescope can be used for the high precision photometric observations of faint objects up to 20m.

  2. European Extremely Large Telescope: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility providing significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.

  3. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Dalgaard, Louise T.

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic {beta}-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/- islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2-/- and GK+/- islets compared with GK+/- islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/- mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/- mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

  4. Developing a Telescope Simulator Towards a Global Autonomous Robotic Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giakoumidis, N.; Ioannou, Z.; Dong, H.; Mavridis, N.

    2013-05-01

    A robotic telescope network is a system that integrates a number of telescopes to observe a variety of astronomical targets without being operated by a human. This system autonomously selects and observes targets in accordance to an optimized target. It dynamically allocates telescope resources depending on the observation requests, specifications of the telescopes, target visibility, meteorological conditions, daylight, location restrictions and availability and many other factors. In this paper, we introduce a telescope simulator, which can control a telescope to a desired position in order to observe a specific object. The system includes a Client Module, a Server Module, and a Dynamic Scheduler module. We make use and integrate a number of open source software to simulate the movement of a robotic telescope, the telescope characteristics, the observational data and weather conditions in order to test and optimize our system.

  5. Viscum album-Mediated COX-2 Inhibition Implicates Destabilization of COX-2 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Chaitrali; Hegde, Pushpa; Friboulet, Alain; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Kaveri, Srinivas V.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive use of Viscum album (VA) preparations in the complementary therapy of cancer and in several other human pathologies has led to an increasing number of cellular and molecular approaches to explore the mechanisms of action of VA. We have recently demonstrated that, VA preparations exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect by selectively down-regulating the COX-2-mediated cytokine-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), one of the important molecular signatures of inflammatory reactions. In this study, we observed a significant down-regulation of COX-2 protein expression in VA-treated A549 cells however COX-2 mRNA levels were unaltered. Therefore, we hypothesized that VA induces destabilisation of COX-2 mRNA, thereby depleting the available functional COX-2 mRNA for the protein synthesis and for the subsequent secretion of PGE2. To address this question, we analyzed the molecular degradation of COX-2 protein and its corresponding mRNA in A549 cell line. Using cyclohexamide pulse chase experiment, we demonstrate that, COX-2 protein degradation is not affected by the treatment with VA whereas experiments on transcriptional blockade with actinomycin D, revealed a marked reduction in the half life of COX-2 mRNA due to its rapid degradation in the cells treated with VA compared to that in IL-1β-stimulated cells. These results thus demonstrate that VA-mediated inhibition of PGE2 implicates destabilization of COX-2 mRNA. PMID:25664986

  6. SkyView Virtual Telescope:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Thomas A.; McDonald, Laura M.; Scollick, Keith A.

    2015-11-01

    The SkyView Virtual telescope provides access to survey datasets ranging from radio through the gamma-ray regimes. Over 100 survey datasets are currently available. The SkyView library referenced here is used as the basis for the SkyView web site (at http://skvyiew.gsfc.nasa.gov) but is designed for individual use by researchers as well. SkyView's approach to access surveys is distinct from most other toolkits. Rather than providing links to the original data, SkyView attempts to immediately re-render the source data in the user-requested reference frame, projection, scaling, orientation, etc. The library includes a set of geometry transformation and mosaicking tools that may be integrated into other applications independent of SkyView.

  7. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  8. SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    2010-02-15

    SLAC does not have a test beam for the HEP detector development at present. We have therefore created a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) facility, which is presently being used to test the FDIRC prototype. We have used it in the past to debug this prototype with the original SLAC electronics before going to the ESA test beam. Presently, it is used to test a new waveform digitizing electronics developed by the University of Hawaii, and we are also planning to incorporate the new Orsay TDC/ADC electronics. As a next step, we plan to put in a full size DIRC bar box with a new focusing optics, and test it together with a final SuberB electronics. The CRT is located in building 121 at SLAC. We anticipate more users to join in the future. This purpose of this note is to provide an introductory manual for newcomers.

  9. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  10. Compact telescope for free-space communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganov, Vladimir; James, Daryl G.

    2002-10-01

    Several types of telescopes are used for free space telecommunications. The most common are Cassegrain and Gregorian telescopes. The main difference between Cassegrain and Gregorian optical systems is that Gregorian telescopes employ a concave secondary mirror located beyond the focus of the primary mirror. This results in longer tube lengths, as the distance between mirrors is slightly more than the sum of their focal lengths, which is the reason Cassegrain systems are the most common. In addition, Gregorian telescopes produce an upright image, while Cassegrain telescopes produce an inverted image. FSONA is presenting a new compact optical system, which can be described as a modified Gregorian telescope. This telescope is ideally suited for free space optical communications but also has many other applications. The compact telescope is created from a standard Gregorian system by flipping the secondary mirror over a folding mirror installed approximately in the middle of the optical path between primary and secondary mirrors. In this manner, the primary mirror is constructed with a concentric "double curved" geometry, and a central obscuring folding mirror which matches the diameter of the smaller curve of the primary is mounted a short distance in front. This "double curved" geometry is easily produced using diamond turning technology, and the result is a compact telescope approximately 1/2 the length of a regular Gregorian telescope and roughly 2/3 the length of a Cassegrain telescope. There are several advantages to using this type of telescope: 1. The system is very compact. Telescope can be as short as 1/7 of the focal length of the system. 2. For Cassegrain and Gregorian systems it is very critical to keep tight tolerances on the centration between primary and secondary mirrors. The modified Gregorian telescope will always have perfect centration because both curved surfaces are machined at the same time on a diamond turning lathe. The folding mirror is flat

  11. The Onsala Twin Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, R.

    2013-08-01

    This paper described the Onsala Twin Telescope project. The project aims at the construction of two new radio telescopes at the Onsala Space Observatory, following the VLBI2010 concept. The project starts in 2013 and is expected to be finalized within 4 years. Z% O. Rydbeck. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg, ISBN 91-7032-621-5, 407-823, 1991. B. Petrachenko, A. Niell, D. Behrend, B. Corey, J. Böhm, P. Charlot, A. Collioud, J. Gipson, R. Haas, Th. Hobiger, Y. Koyama, D. MacMillan, Z. Malkin, T. Nilsson, A. Pany, G. Tuccari, A. Whitney, and J. Wresnik. Design Aspects of the VLBI2010 System. NASA/TM-2009-214180, 58 pp., 2009. R. Haas, G. Elgered, J. Löfgren, T. Ning, and H.-G. Scherneck. Onsala Space Observatory - IVS Network Station. In K. D. Baver and D. Behrend, editors, International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2011 Annual Report, NASA/TP-2012-217505, 88-91, 2012. H.-G. Scherneck, G. Elgered, J. M. Johansson, and B. O. Rönnäng. Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol. 23, No. 7-8, 811-823, 1998. A. R. Whitney. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Electrical engineering, MIT Cambridge, MA., 1974. B. A. Harper, J. D. Kepert, and J. D. Ginger. Guidelines for converting between various wind averaging periods in tropical cyclone conditions. WMO/TD-No. 1555, 64 pp., 2010 (available at \\url{http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/WMO_TD_1555_en.pdf})

  12. Small Space Telescopes for Spectroscopic Surveys of z>1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Kruk, J. W.; Rigby, J. R.; Robberto, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a preliminary study of small space telescopes (<2 m) for conducting a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies with the goals of determining the properties of galaxies at 1-2 and identifying the processes leading to the establishment of the Hubble Sequence seen today. All the cases studied so far have a multi-object slit selector based on TI’s 2000x1000 digital micromirror device (DMD), and all have 4 spectroscopic channels simultaneously viewing the UV, blue, red, and near-IR spectral regions, altogether covering 0.2-1.7 μ at a resolving power of 400. We judge the performance of the various cases against the goal of achieving a spectrum with S/N=7 per resolution element for an input flux of ~1x10^{-18} erg/s/cm^2/A.

  13. Anisotropic intermediate valence in Yb2M3Ga9 (M = Rh, Ir)

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, A.D.; Lawrence, J.M.; Lobos, A.M.; Aligia, A.A.; Bauer, E.D.; Moreno, N.O.; Booth, C.H.; Goremychkin, E.A.; Sarrao, J.L.; Thompson, J.D.; Batista, C.D.; Trouw, F.R.; Hehlen, M.P.

    2005-04-26

    The intermediate valence compounds Yb{sub 2}M{sub 3}Ga{sub 9} (M = Rh, Ir) exhibit an anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. We report measurements of the temperature dependence of the 4f occupation number, n{sub f}(T), for Yb{sub 2}M{sub 3}Ga{sub 9} as well as the magnetic inelastic neutron scattering spectrum S{sub mag}({Delta}E) at 12 and 300 K for Yb{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga{sub 9}. Both n{sub f}(T) and S{sub mag}({Delta}E) were calculated for the Anderson impurity model with crystal field terms within an approach based on the non-crossing approximation. These results corroborate the importance of crystal field effects in these materials; they also suggest that Anderson lattice effects are important to the physics of Yb{sub 2}M{sub 3}Ga{sub 9}.

  14. DRG2 Regulates G2/M Progression via the Cyclin B1-Cdk1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Soo Hwa; Kim, Ah-Ram; Park, Neung-Hwa; Park, Jeong Woo; Han, In-Seob

    2016-01-01

    Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) plays an important role in cell growth. Here we explored the linkage between DRG2 and G2/M phase checkpoint function in cell cycle progression. We observed that knockdown of DRG2 in HeLa cells affected growth in a wound-healing assay, and tumorigenicity in nude mice xenografts. Flow cytometry assays and [3H] incorporation assays indicated that G2/M phase arrest was responsible for the decreased proliferation of these cells. Knockdown of DRG2 elicited down-regulation of the major mitotic promoting factor, the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, but up-regulation of the cell cycle arresting proteins, Wee1, Myt1, and p21. These findings identify a novel role of DRG2 in G2/M progression. PMID:27669826

  15. Weak-value thermostat with 0.2 mK precision.

    PubMed

    Egan, Patrick; Stone, Jack A

    2012-12-01

    A new laser-based thermostat sensitive to 0.2 mK at room temperature is reported. The method utilizes a fluid-filled prism and interferometric weak-value amplification to sense nanoradian deviations of a laser beam: due to the high thermo-optic coefficient of the fluid (colorless fluorocarbon), the deviation angle through the prism is sensitive to temperature. We estimate the daily stability of our device to be 0.2 mK, which is limited by drifts in the apparatus, and the narrow 20 mK capture range is the price paid for the weak measurement.

  16. Analysis of surface error correction capability of 1.2m active support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yu; Fan, Bin; Li, Chaoqiang; Liu, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    The surface error correction ability is one of the important indicators to measure the performance of the active support system. In this paper, the correction force algorithm for the active support system of 1.2m thin meniscus mirror is introduced. Based on this algorithm, a simulation analysis is made. The simulation results show that the 1.2m active support system has excellent correction ability for Zernike polynomials term 4, 5, 6, 10 and 11, and has a good effect on the Zernike polynomials term 7 and 8.

  17. Space Infrared Telescope Facility science instruments overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothwell, Mary

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will contain three cryogenically cooled infrared instruments: the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), and the Multiband Infrared Photometer for SIRTF (MIPS). These instruments are sensitive to infrared radiation in the 1.8-1,200 micrometer range. This paper will discuss the three instruments' functional requirements and their accommodation in the SIRTF telescope system.

  18. The development of the Schmidt telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2009-06-01

    % Bernhard Schmidt (1879-1935) was born in Estonia. After a few years of studying engineering he ran an optical workshop in Mittweida, Saxonia, between 1901 and 1927. Astronomers appreciated the quality of his telescopes. Starting in 1925, on behalf of the Hamburg Observatory, he developed a short focal length optical system with a large field of view. For this purpose, Schmidt moved his workshop to the observatory. He succeeded in inventing the ``Schmidt telescope'' which allows the imaging of a large field of the sky without any distortions. Schmidt's first telescope (spherical mirror diameter 0.44 m, correction plate 0.36 m diameter, aperture ratio 1:1.75, and focal length 0.625 m) has been used since 1962 at the Boyden Observatory in Bloemfontein/South Africa. Apart from his 0.36 m telescope, Schmidt produced a second larger one of 0.60 m aperture. Shortly after Schmidt's death, the director of the observatory published details on the invention and production of the Schmidt telescope. After World War II, Schmidt telescopes have been widely used. The first large Schmidt telescope, the ``Big Schmidt'' (1.26 m), Mount Palomar, USA, was completed in 1948. The 0.80 m Schmidt telescope of Hamburg Observatory, planned since 1936, finished in 1954, is now on Calar Alto/Spain.

  19. Proposed Integrated Radio-Telescope Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Ewing, M. S.; Levy, G. S.; Mallis, R. K.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Smith, J. R.; Backer, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed network of radio telescopes, controlled by a central computer and managed by a single organization, offer potential for research on a scale that could not be matched by present privately and publicly-owned radio telescopes. With 10 antenna sites, network would establish base lines thousands of miles long. Antennas will be linked to computer center by telephone circuits.

  20. A Mechanical Analogue of the Refracting Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Molesini, Giuseppe; Sordini, Andrea; Straulino, Samuele

    2011-01-01

    The recent celebration of the discoveries made by Galileo four centuries ago has attracted new attention to the refracting telescope and to its use as an instrument for the observation of the night sky. This has offered the opportunity for addressing in the classroom the basic principles explaining the operation of the telescope. When doing so, a…

  1. Longer-baseline telescopes using quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Daniel; Jennewein, Thomas; Croke, Sarah

    2012-08-17

    We present an approach to building interferometric telescopes using ideas of quantum information. Current optical interferometers have limited baseline lengths, and thus limited resolution, because of noise and loss of signal due to the transmission of photons between the telescopes. The technology of quantum repeaters has the potential to eliminate this limit, allowing in principle interferometers with arbitrarily long baselines.

  2. BLAST: The Balloon-Borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, Mark; Ade, Peter; Bock, Jamie; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matt; Gunderson, Josh; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter; Hughes, David; Klein, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    BLAST is the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Sub-millimeter Telescope. It will fly from a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) platform from Antarctica. The telescope design incorporates a 2 m primary mirror with large-format bolometer arrays operating at 250, 350 and 500 microns. By providing the first sensitive large-area (10 sq. deg.) sub-mm surveys at these wavelengths, BLAST will address some of the most important galactic and cosmological questions regarding the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies and clusters. Galactic and extragalactic BLAST surveys will: (1) identify large numbers of high-redshift galaxies; (2) measure photometric redshifts, rest-frame FIR luminosities and star formation rates thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the galaxies that produce the FIR and sub-mm background; (3) measure cold pre-stellar sources associated with the earliest stages of star and planet formation; (4) make high-resolution maps of diffuse galactic emission over a wide range of galactic latitudes. In addition to achieving the above scientific goals, the exciting legacy of the BLAST LDB experiment will be a catalogue of 3000-5000 extragalactic sub-mm sources and a 100 sq. deg. sub-mm galactic plane survey. Multi-frequency follow-up observations from SIRTF, ASTRO-F, and Herschel, together with spectroscopic observations and sub-arcsecond imaging from ALMA are essential to understand the physical nature of the BLAST sources.

  3. The Infrared-Optical Telescope (IRT) of the Exist Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Bloom, Joshua; Gehrels, Neil; Golisano, Craig; Gong, Quan; Grindlay, Jonathan; Moseley, Samuel; Woodgate, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The IRT is a 1.1m visible and infrared passively cooled telescope, which can locate, identify and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. It will also acquire optical-IR, imaging and spectroscopy of AGN and transients discovered by the EXIST (The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope). The IRT imaging and spectroscopic capabilities cover a broad spectral range from 0.32.2m in four bands. The identical fields of view in the four instrument bands are each split in three subfields: imaging, objective prism slitless for the field and objective prism single object slit low resolution spectroscopy, and high resolution long slit on single object. This allows the instrument, to do simultaneous broadband photometry or spectroscopy of the same object over the full spectral range, thus greatly improving the efficiency of the observatory and its detection limits. A prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST makes IRT a unique tool for detection and study of these events, which is particularly valuable at wavelengths unavailable to the ground based observatories.

  4. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chung, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; MacTavish, C. J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Martin, T. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N. E.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of 30"; postflight pointing reconstruction to <5" rms is achieved. The onboard telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a preselected set of maps, with the option of manual override. On this poster, we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hour, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2006 December. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA through grants NAG5-12785, NAG5-13301, and NNGO-6GI11G, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Fondo Institucional para la Investigacion of the University of Puerto Rico, and the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs.

  5. University of California ten meter telescope project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. E.

    1982-10-01

    A discussion is presented of the prospective design features of the segmented, 10-m diameter optical-IR range telescope which the University of California is planning to build on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, with attention to the performance levels obtained from prototypes. The telescope primary mirror will be formed by 36 actively controlled mirror segments, which will be polished to their desired shape by stressed mirror polishing. The active control system employs displacement sensors at the edges of the mirror segments to determine their positions, which are then adjusted by three displacement actuators/segment. The telescope overall design is described as a Ritchley-Cretien f/1.75-f/15 system. The telescope's dome is highly compact, and rotates on a stationary building in the manner of conventional telescope domes.

  6. James Webb Space Telescope Project (JWST) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project. The JWST is an infrared telescope designed to collect data in the cosmic dark zone. Specifically, the mission of the JWST is to study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. It is a deployable telescope with a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, adjustable primary mirror. outfitted with cryogenic temperature telescope and instruments for infrared performance. The JWST is several times more sensitive than previous telescope and other photographic and electronic detection methods. It hosts a near infrared camera, near infrared spectrometer, mid-infrared instrument and a fine guidance sensor. The JWST mission objection and architecture, integrated science payload, instrument overview, and operational orbit are described.

  7. The Hexa-Pod-Telescope (HPT).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnur, G. F. O.; Stenvers, K.-H.; Pausch, K.

    The recently completed Hexa-Pod-Telescope (HPT) presents revolutionary new ideas on astronomical telescope design. Six mechanical struts support the HPT. The length of the six struts can be varied to permit the pointing and tracking of the HPT. Supporting the optical structure of the HPT from below allows to avoid superfluous balancing weights of normal telescopes. Compared to a classical telescope of the same mirror diameter the HPT realizes a weight reduction by a factor of 15! The HPT's primary mirror is realized as a hybrid structure consisting of a light-weight Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) structure permanently fixed to a 55 mm thin Zerodur faceplate, that forms the reflecting surface. Piezoelectrical ceramic positioners serve as active interface between the CFRP-structure and the optical surface. The low weight and extremely good optical quality of the HPT makes it an ideal candidate for larger telescopes in space, the moon and the stratosphere.

  8. Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hyde, R A

    1999-07-01

    The Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100-m) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope s large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) it and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope s eyepiece; the Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band (Deltalambda/lambda approximately 0.1), multiband, or continuous spectral coverage.

  9. Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25{endash}100-m) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope{close_quote}s large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) it and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope{close_quote}s eyepiece; the Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{approximately}0.1), multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. {copyright} 1999 Optical Society of America

  10. A telescope with augmented reality functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qichao; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    This study introduces a telescope with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) functions. In this telescope, information on the micro-display screen is integrated to the reticule of telescope through a beam splitter and is then received by the observer. The design and analysis of telescope optical system with AR and VR ability is accomplished and the opto-mechanical structure is designed. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype is fabricated and demonstrated. The telescope has an exit pupil diameter of 6 mm at an eye relief of 19 mm, 6° field of view, 5 to 8 times visual magnification , and a 30° field of view of the virtual image.

  11. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

  12. Periodic porous thermochromic VO2(M) films with enhanced visible transmittance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Bao, Jian; Tao, Minshan; Zhu, Rui; Lin, Yingting; Zhang, Xiaodong; Xie, Yi

    2013-07-11

    A periodic porous structure is introduced for the first time into a VO2(M) film to block only heat rather than light. The as-obtained 2D and 3D films show excellent visible transmittance and solar modulation efficiency.

  13. Performance of V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy Exposed to the JFT-2M Tokamak Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P.W.; Sengoku, S.; Ishiyama, S.; Fukaya, K.; Eto, M.; Oda, T.; Hirohata, Y.; Hino, T.; Tsai, H.

    1999-10-01

    A long-term test has been conducted in the JFT-2M tokamak fusion device to determine the effects of environmental exposure on the mechanical and chemical behavior of a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. Test specimens of the alloy were exposed in the outward lower divertor chamber of JFT-2M in a region away from direct contact with the plasma and were preheated to 300 C just prior to and during selected plasma discharges. During their nine-month residence time in JFT-2M, the specimens experienced approximately 200 lower single-null divertor shots at 300 C, during which high energy particle fluxes to the preheated test specimens were significant, and approximately 2,010 upper single-null divertor shots and non-diverter shots at room temperature, for which high energy particle fluxes to and expected particle retention in the test specimens were very low. Data from post-exposure tests have indicated that the performance of the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy would not be significantly affected by environmental exposure to gaseous species at partial pressures typical for tokamak operation. Deuterium retention in the exposed alloy was also low (<2 ppm). Absorption of interstitial by the alloy was limited to the very near surface, and neither the strength nor the Charpy impact properties of the alloy appeared to be significantly changed from the exposure to the JFT-2M tokamak environment.

  14. A Survey on M2M Systems for mHealth: A Wireless Communications Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kartsakli, Elli; Lalos, Aris S.; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Tennina, Stefano; Di Renzo, Marco; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    In the new era of connectivity, marked by the explosive number of wireless electronic devices and the need for smart and pervasive applications, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are an emerging technology that enables the seamless device interconnection without the need of human interaction. The use of M2M technology can bring to life a wide range of mHealth applications, with considerable benefits for both patients and healthcare providers. Many technological challenges have to be met, however, to ensure the widespread adoption of mHealth solutions in the future. In this context, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey on M2M systems for mHealth applications from a wireless communication perspective. An end-to-end holistic approach is adopted, focusing on different communication aspects of the M2M architecture. Hence, we first provide a systematic review of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), which constitute the enabling technology at the patient's side, and then discuss end-to-end solutions that involve the design and implementation of practical mHealth applications. We close the survey by identifying challenges and open research issues, thus paving the way for future research opportunities. PMID:25264958

  15. NFBD1/MDC1 participates in the regulation of G2/M transition in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Youquan; Suenaga, Yusuke; Okoshi, Rintaro; Sang, Meixiang; Kubo, Natsumi; Song, Fangzhou; Nakagawara, Akira; Ozaki, Toshinori

    2010-06-25

    NFBD1/MDC1 is a large nuclear protein involved in the early cellular response to DNA damage. Upon DNA damage, NFBD1 has an ability to facilitate the efficient DNA repair. In the present study, we have found that, in addition to DNA damage response, NFBD1 plays a critical role in the regulation of G2/M transition. Expression study using synchronized HeLa cells demonstrated that, like the mitotic kinase Plk1, NFBD1 expression level is maximal in G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. siRNA-mediated knockdown of NFBD1 resulted in G2/M arrest as well as simultaneous apoptosis in association with a significant increase in the amounts of {gamma}H2AX and pro-apoptotic p73. Since a remarkable down-regulation of mitotic phospho-histone H3 was detectable in NFBD1-knocked down cells, it is likely that knocking down of NFBD1 inhibits G2/M transition. Taken together, our present findings suggest that NFBD1 has a pivotal role in the regulation of proper mitotic entry.

  16. A survey on M2M systems for mHealth: a wireless communications perspective.

    PubMed

    Kartsakli, Elli; Lalos, Aris S; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Tennina, Stefano; Renzo, Marco Di; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-09-26

    In the new era of connectivity, marked by the explosive number of wireless electronic devices and the need for smart and pervasive applications, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are an emerging technology that enables the seamless device interconnection without the need of human interaction. The use of M2M technology can bring to life a wide range of mHealth applications, with considerable benefits for both patients and healthcare providers. Many technological challenges have to be met, however, to ensure the widespread adoption of mHealth solutions in the future. In this context, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey on M2M systems for mHealth applications from a wireless communication perspective. An end-to-end holistic approach is adopted, focusing on different communication aspects of the M2M architecture. Hence, we first provide a systematic review ofWireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), which constitute the enabling technology at the patient's side, and then discuss end-to-end solutions that involve the design and implementation of practical mHealth applications. We close the survey by identifying challenges and open research issues, thus paving the way for future research opportunities.

  17. LTE-advanced random access mechanism for M2M communication: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Rashid; Sarowa, Sandeep; Jaglan, Reena Rathee; Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Agrawal, Sunil

    2016-03-01

    Machine Type Communications (MTC) enables one or more self-sufficient machines to communicate directly with one another without human interference. MTC applications include smart grid, security, e-Health and intelligent automation system. To support huge numbers of MTC devices, one of the challenging issues is to provide a competent way for numerous access in the network and to minimize network overload. In this article, the different control mechanisms for overload random access are reviewed to avoid congestion caused by random access channel (RACH) of MTC devices. However, past and present wireless technologies have been engineered for Human-to-Human (H2H) communications, in particular, for transmission of voice. Consequently the Long Term Evolution (LTE) -Advanced is expected to play a central role in communicating Machine to Machine (M2M) and are very optimistic about H2H communications. Distinct and unique characteristics of M2M communications create new challenges from those in H2H communications. In this article, we investigate the impact of massive M2M terminals attempting random access to LTE-Advanced all at once. We discuss and review the solutions to alleviate the overload problem by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). As a result, we evaluate and compare these solutions that can effectively eliminate the congestion on the random access channel for M2M communications without affecting H2H communications.

  18. The Discharge Design of HL-2M with the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC)

    SciTech Connect

    Yudong Pan, S.C. Jardin, and C. Kes

    2007-10-10

    We present results on the discharge design of the HL-2M tokamak, which is to be an upgrade to the existing HL-2A tokamak. We present simulation results for complete 5-sec. discharges, both double null and lower single null, for both ohmic and auxiliary heated discharges. We also discuss the vertical stability properties of the device. __________________________________________________

  19. Beyond the Hubble Space Telescope: Early Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert W.; Patrick McCray, W.

    In this paper we investigate the early history of what was at first called the Next Generation Space Telescope, later to be renamed the James Webb Space Telescope. We argue that the initial ideas for such a Next Generation Space Telescope were developed in the context of the planning for a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. Much the most important group of astronomers and engineers examining such a successor was based at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. By the late 1980s, they had fashioned concepts for a successor that would work in optical, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, concepts that would later be regarded as politically unrealistic given the costs associated with them. We also explore how the fortunes of the planned Next Generation Space Telescope were intimately linked to that of its "parent," the Hubble Space Telescope.

  20. Investigations on the heat flux and impurity for the HL-2M divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, G. Y.; Cai, L. Z.; Duan, X. R.; Xu, X. Q.; Ryutov, D. D.; Cai, L. J.; Liu, X.; Li, J. X.; Pan, Y. D.

    2016-12-01

    The controllability of the heat load and impurity in the divertor is very important, which could be one of the critical problems to be solved in order to ensure the success for a steady state tokamak. HL-2M has the advantage of the poloidal field (PF) coils placed inside the demountable toroidal field (TF) coils and close to the main plasma. As a result, it is possible to make highly accurate configuration control of the advanced divertor for HL-2M. The divertor target geometry of HL-2M has been designed to be compatible with different divertor configurations to study the divertor physics and support the high performance plasma operations. In this paper, the heat loads and impurities with different divertor configurations, including the standard X-point divertor, the snowflake-minus divertor and two tripod divertor configurations for HL-2M, are investigated by numerical simulations with the SOLPS5.0 code under the current design of the HL-2M divertor geometry. The plasmas with different conditions, such as the low discharge parameters with {{I}\\text{p}}   =  0.5 MA at the first stage of HL-2M and the high parameters with {{I}\\text{p}}   =  2.0 MA during the normal operations, are simulated. The heat load profiles and the impurity distributions are obtained, and the control of the peak heat load and the effect of impurity on the core plasma are discussed. The compatibility of different divertor configurations for HL-2M is also evaluated. It is seen that the excellent compatibility of different divertor configurations with the current divertor geometry has been verified. The results show that the snowflake-minus divertor and the tripod divertor with {{d}x}=30 \\text{cm} present good performance in terms of the heat load profiles and the impurity distributions under different conditions, which may not have a big effect on the core plasma. In addition, it is possible to optimize the distance between the two X-points, {{d}x} , to achieve a better

  1. Keeping Astronomy in the Dark Around the Clock: Introducing LCOGT.net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.; Taylor, S. F.; Rosing, W.; Mann, R.; Trimble, V.; Farrell, J. A.

    2006-06-01

    The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope is a privately supported planned network of medium-sized (2m) telescopes, longitudinally located to "keep you in the dark all of the time". Since it will be able to perform continuous optical observations unbroken by the usual day/night cycle, LCOGT will have a capability to do astronomy in the 24+ hour time-domain, a function that does not currently exist in a manner dedicated to doing time-varying astronomy. By having such telescopes distributed in northern- and southern-hemisphere sets of nearly-identical facilities, LCOGT will also have a uniqe ability to perform target-of-opportunity observing. Finally, LCOGT will have sufficient telescope time to address a small number of key science questions that require large observing resources. A major educational outreach effort will accompany LCOGT science, building upon the educational work started by the Dill Faulkes Foundation.

  2. The radio telescope RATAN 600

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R.

    1978-01-01

    A six-meter radio antenna having 900 reflector elements arranged on a 579 -meter diameter circle and located in the northern part of the Caucasian Mountains is described. The elements are about 7.4 m by 2 m resulting in a total reflector surface of about 10,000 sq m. Individual elements can be adjusted by changing 260 screws and can be rotated both horizontally and vertically as well as being moved translationally in the radial direction. The circular area is equipped with a grid of tracks where four asymmetric cylindrical paraboloids serving as subreflectors are located. The directional profile or observational direction of the antenna is achieved by shifting the subreflectors and changing the position of the reflecting elements with respect to the subreflectors. Different radio sources can be observed at the same time by using different subreflectors and their associated reflector sectors. Each subreflector is connected to a receiving station. Capabilities for spectroscopic observation are discussed.

  3. Discovery of Rotational Modulations in the Planetary-mass Companion 2M1207b: Intermediate Rotation Period and Heterogeneous Clouds in a Low Gravity Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yifan; Apai, Dániel; Schneider, Glenn H.; Marley, Mark S.; Showman, Adam P.

    2016-02-01

    Rotational modulations of brown dwarfs have recently provided powerful constraints on the properties of ultra-cool atmospheres, including longitudinal and vertical cloud structures and cloud evolution. Furthermore, periodic light curves directly probe the rotational periods of ultra-cool objects. We present here, for the first time, time-resolved high-precision photometric measurements of a planetary-mass companion, 2M1207b. We observed the binary system with Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 in two bands and with two spacecraft roll angles. Using point-spread function-based photometry, we reach a nearly photon-noise limited accuracy for both the primary and the secondary. While the primary is consistent with a flat light curve, the secondary shows modulations that are clearly detected in the combined light curve as well as in different subsets of the data. The amplitudes are 1.36% in the F125W and 0.78% in the F160W filters, respectively. By fitting sine waves to the light curves, we find a consistent period of {10.7}-0.6+1.2 hr and similar phases in both bands. The J- and H-band amplitude ratio of 2M1207b is very similar to a field brown dwarf that has identical spectral type but different J-H color. Importantly, our study also measures, for the first time, the rotation period for a directly imaged extra-solar planetary-mass companion.

  4. Infrastructure for large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEwen, Howard A.; Lillie, Charles F.

    2016-10-01

    It is generally recognized (e.g., in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration response to recent congressional appropriations) that future space observatories must be serviceable, even if they are orbiting in deep space (e.g., around the Sun-Earth libration point, SEL2). On the basis of this legislation, we believe that budgetary considerations throughout the foreseeable future will require that large, long-lived astrophysics missions must be designed as evolvable semipermanent observatories that will be serviced using an operational, in-space infrastructure. We believe that the development of this infrastructure will include the design and development of a small to mid-sized servicing vehicle (MiniServ) as a key element of an affordable infrastructure for in-space assembly and servicing of future space vehicles. This can be accomplished by the adaptation of technology developed over the past half-century into a vehicle approximately the size of the ascent stage of the Apollo Lunar Module to provide some of the servicing capabilities that will be needed by very large telescopes located in deep space in the near future (2020s and 2030s). We specifically address the need for a detailed study of these servicing requirements and the current proposals for using presently available technologies to provide the appropriate infrastructure.

  5. Telescopes for the 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, G.

    In the last decades, astronomy has been changed in a number of significant ways. The number of large optical telescopes with diameters on the order of or larger than 2.3 m has increased from 3 shortly after World War II to about 20 at the present time. Whereas prewar astronomy was largely devoted to the visual wavelengths (0.3-0.8 μm), astronomical observations currently span the range from γ ray wavelengths to the longest radio wavelengths. Most significantly, astronomy outside conventional optical astronomy has developed into sophisticated disciplines rather than experimental explorations. Many of the observational advances at the forefront of astronomy now come from other than visual observations. Along with these changes have come fundamental changes in visual astronomy itself. Observations with photographic plates are the exception rather than the rule at most large observatories. Instead, electronic cameras are in common use. A second change, especially in the United States, is that the funding has gone from largely private funding (e.g., the Carnegie Institution of Washington) to funding with the government providing a main share of the support. Indeed, the government has provided the total funding for those disciplines, like X ray astronomy, which use space-borne platforms. These changes have also affected the character of doing astronomy, and astronomers have become much more politically active on the national science scene.

  6. Parallaxes with Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G. F.; McArthur, B. E.; Harrison, T. E.; Lee, J.; Slesnick, C. L.; HST Astrometry Science Team

    2001-11-01

    We report on parallaxes for astrophysically interesting stars obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensor interferometer on Hubble Space Telescope. These objects include the central star of the planetary nebula NGC 6853, the cataclysmic variable TV Col, and the distance scale calibrators RR Lyr and delta Cep. We will discuss our considerable efforts to characterize the reference stars associated with each prime target, necessary to effect the correction from relative to absolute parallax. These targets were originally chosen by L. W. Fredrick in 1980. We compare these and our past results with all past, non-HST determinations, including those from HIPPARCOS for our brighter targets. The HST Astrometry Sceince Team consists of W. H. Jefferys , P.I., G. F. Benedict, deputy P.I., B. E. McArthur, P. J. Shelus, R. Duncombe (UTexas), E. Nelan (STScI), W. van Altena and J. Lee (Yale), O. Franz and L. Wasserman (Lowell Obs.), and L. Fredrick (UVirginia). We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA grant NAG5-1603 and our many supporters at STScI and Goddard Spaceflight Center. We thank R. Patterson, J. Rhee, and S. Majewski (UVirginia) and T. Montemayor (UTexas) for assistance with reference star photometry.

  7. Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Thomas William

    2010-06-01

    Introduction; Part I. The Instrument and the Observer: 1. The telescope; 2. The mode of observation; Part II. The Solar System: 1. The Sun; 2. Mercury; 3. Venus; 4. The Moon; 5. Index to the map of the moon; 6. Mars; 7. Jupiter; 8. Saturn; 9. Uranus and Neptune; 10. Comets; Part III. The Starry Heavens: 1. Double stars, clusters, and nebulae; 2. Andromeda; 3. Anser; 4. Antinous; 5. Aquarius; 6. Aquila; 7. Argo Navis; 8. Aries; 9. Auriga; 10. Boötes; 11. Camelopardus; 12. Cancer; 13. Canes Venatici; 14. Canis Major; 15. Canis Minor; 16. Capricornus; 17. Cassiopea; 18. Cepheus; 19. Cetus; 20. Clypeus Sobieskii; 21. Coma Berenices; 22. Corona Borealis; 23. Corvus; 24. Crater; 25. Cygnus; 26. Delphinus; 27. Draco; 28. Equuleus; 29. Eridanus; 30. Gemini; 31. Hercules; 32. Hydra; 33. Lacerta; 34. Leo; 35. Leo Minor; 36. Lepus; 37. Libra; 38. Lynx; 39. Lyra; 40. Monoceros; 41. Ophiuchus; 42. Orion; 43. Pegasus; 44. Perseus; 45. Pisces; 46. Sagitta; 47. Sagittarius; 48. Scorpio; Scutum, see Clypeus, Sobieskii; 49. Serpens; 50. Sextans; 51. Taurus; 52. Taurus Poniatowskii; 53. Triangulum; 54. Ursa Major; 55. Ursa Minor; 56. Virgo; 57. Vulpecula.

  8. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  9. The Octahedral Sheet of Metamorphic 2M 1-Phengites: a Combined EMPA And AXANES Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cibin, G.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Mottana, A.; Sassi, R.

    2009-05-12

    Two types of metamorphic phengites are known: one is linked to high pressure and is 3T; the other is 2M{sub 1}, and its composition is linked to rock-compositional constraints. This work investigates the octahedral sheet crystal-chemical differences between the two phengite types. Seven dioctahedral micas were studied: (1) one 3T phengite from an ultrahigh-pressure metagranitoid in the Dora Maira massif, Italy (P {approx} 4.3 GPa, T {approx} 730 C); (2) five 2M{sub 1} phengites from medium-P orthogneisses in the Eastern Alps metamorphic basement, Italy (P {le} 0.7 GPa, T {approx} 500-600 C); and (3) one 2M{sub 1} ferroan muscovite from pegmatite in Antarctica (P {le} 0.2 GPa, T {approx}500 C). All micas display significant extents of celadonite substitution. In particular, the 2M{sub 1}-phengite formulae (calculated on the basis of 11 O) have 0.68 < {sup IV}Al < 0.82 atoms per formula unit (apfu); octahedral atoms are dominated by Al (1.6-1.8 apfu), with minor and variable Fe (0.20-0.35 apfu) and Mg (0.05-0.17 apfu), and very minor Ti, Mn, and Cr. Total octahedral occupancies are slightly above 2.00 apfu, i.e., there seems to be partial occupancy of the third M site. For all micas, we recorded XAFS spectra on mosaics of carefully separated flakes oriented flat on a plastic support that could be rotated so as to account for the polarization of the synchrotron radiation beam, and we processed them on the basis of the AXANES theory. Spectra show angle-dependent absorption variations for Al and Fe, which can be deconvoluted and fitted by dichroic effects. Pre-edges consistently show most Fe to be Fe{sup 3+} and little angle-dependent intensity variations. The 2M{sub 1}-ferroan muscovite from Antarctica displays the same AXANES behavior as 2M{sub 1}-phengites. By contrast, the ultrahigh-pressure 3T-phengite from Dora Maira (having {sup IV}Al = 0.42 apfu, and Al and Mg as the dominant octahedral constituents) has XAFS spectra that differ significantly. Not only is the

  10. SiPM detectors for the ASTRI project in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billotta, Sergio; Marano, Davide; Bonanno, Giovanni; Belluso, Massimiliano; Grillo, Alessandro; Garozzo, Salvatore; Romeo, Giuseppe; Timpanaro, Maria Cristina; Maccarone, Maria Concetta C.; Catalano, Osvaldo; La Rosa, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Impiombato, Domenico; Gargano, Carmelo; Giarrusso, Salavtore

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a worldwide new generation project aimed at realizing an array of a hundred ground based gamma-ray telescopes. ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is the Italian project whose primary target is the development of an end-to-end prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, of the CTA small size class of telescopes devoted to investigation of the highest energy region, from 1 to 100 TeV. Next target is the implementation of an ASTRI/CTA mini-array based on seven identical telescopes. Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are the semiconductor photosensor devices designated to constitute the camera detection system at the focal plane of the ASTRI telescopes. SiPM photosensors are suitable for the detection of the Cherenkov flashes, since they are very fast and sensitive to the light in the 300-700nm wavelength spectrum. Their drawbacks compared to the traditional photomultiplier tubes are high dark count rates, after-pulsing and optical cross-talk contributions, and intrinsic gains strongly dependent on temperature. Nonetheless, for a single pixel, the dark count rate is well below the Night Sky Background, the effects of cross-talk and afterpulses are typically lower than 20%, and the gain can be kept stable against temperature variations by means of adequate bias voltage compensation strategies. This work presents and discusses some experimental results from a large set of measurements performed on the SiPM sensors to be used for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype camera and on recently developed detectors demonstrating outstanding performance for the future evolution of the project in the ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  11. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, S.; et al.

    2012-12-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21 is a companion document to the HST Call for Proposals1. It provides an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with basic information about telescope operations, instrument capabilities, and technical aspects of the proposal preparation process. A thorough understanding of the material in this document is essential for the preparation of a competitive proposal. This document is available as an online HTML document and a PDF file. The HTML version, optimized for online browsing, contains many links to additional information. The PDF version is optimized for printing, but online PDF readers have search capabilities for quick retrieval of specific information.

  13. Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Content, David

    2009-01-01

    A dual-channel telescope allows for a wide-field telescope design wit h a good, narrow field channel of fewer surfaces for shorter-wavelen gth or planet-finding applications. The design starts with a Korsch three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope that meets the mission criter ia for image quality over a wide field of view. The internal image a t the Cassegrain focus is typically blurry due to the aberration bala ncing among the three mirrors. The Cassegrain focus is then re-optim ized on the axis of the system where the narrow field channel instru ment is picked off by bending the primary mirror.

  14. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  15. General surface equations for glancing incidence telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized set of equations are derived for two mirror glancing incidence telescopes using Fermat's principle, a differential form of the law of reflection, the generalized sine condition, and a ray propagation equation described in vector form as a theoretical basis. The resulting formulation groups the possible telescope configurations into three distinct classes which are the Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and higher-order telescopes in which the Hettrick-Bowyer types are a subset. Eight configurations are possible within each class depending on the sign and magnitude of the parameters.

  16. NASA capabilities roadmap: advanced telescopes and observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescopes and Observatories (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories collecting all electromagnetic bands, ranging from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It has derived capability priorities from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps and, where appropriate, has ensured their consistency with other NASA Strategic and Capability Roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  17. New technology for large optical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, M. J.

    1983-05-01

    A recurrent topic arising in the discussions about new generation large optical telescopes is related to the economic advantages of lightweight reflector surfaces. A description is given of new technologies which might be suited for the construction of lightweight telescopes of low cost. One technology involves the use of sandwich structures, which include aluminum layers, separated by aluminum honeycomb layers. The availability of these structures, which have been developed for aircraft manufacture, has led various groups to study the feasibility of a use of sandwich materials for the manufacture of highly accurate reflecting surfaces, as required for millimeter and submillimeter wave telescopes. The results of these studies are discussed.

  18. MI-6: Michigan interferometry with six telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, John D.; Anderson, M.; Baron, F.; Berger, D. H.; Che, X.; Eckhause, T.; Kraus, S.; Pedretti, E.; Thureau, N.; Millan-Gabet, R.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Irwin, P.; Zhao, M.

    2010-07-01

    Based on the success of four-telescope imaging with the Michigan Infrared Combiner (MIRC) on the CHARA Array, our Michigan-based group will now upgrade our system to combine all six CHARA telescope simultaneously. In order to make this observationally efficient, we have had to improve a number of subsystems and commission new ones, including the new CHAMP fringe tracker, the introduction of photometric channels, the upgrading of the realtime operating systems, and the obvious hardware and software upgrades of the control system and the data pipeline. Here we will discuss the advantages of six-telescope operation, outline our upgrade plans and discuss our current progress.

  19. Design analysis of the astrometrical telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chunsheng; Lawrence, George; Levy, Eugene; Mcmillan, Robert

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of a space-based telescope requiring an accuracy of 50 pico radians. A relationship between the geometric centroid of a diffraction image and wave aberrations is derived by a combination approach of diffraction optics and geometric optics. Based on sensitivity of the centroid, one-mirror and two-mirror aplanatic telescopes are investigated. The comparison among three telescopes, parabola, Schwartzschild and Ritchey-Chretien are quantitatively carried out in terms of their sensitivities to the systematic errors and random errors. The study shows that the Ritchey-Chretien design is the most preferable.

  20. Dynamics and Control for a Small Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berná, J. A.; Pérez, M.; Bernabeu, G.

    1998-06-01

    Our main goal is to determine the dynamic equations of a certain complex system, as is the case of the mechanical system for a small aperture telescope. Causes of this complexity are: the lack of documents about the operation of the elements belonging to the system, and the variation of dynamics with respect to the time and the position of the telescope. To check that we have obtained a valid set of dynamic equations, we will design a computer control system that will implement a self-guide system for the telescope.

  1. Support structures for large infrared telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    An infrared telescope requires an accuracy of its reflecting surfaces of less than a micrometer. Future missions may require such accuracy from telescopes that are 20 meters or larger in diameter. The structure for supporting such a telescope will most probably take the form of a deep truss. Various approaches for constructing the primary mirror in space are illustrated. One that employs automated deployment of interconnected reflector-structure modules was described in detail. Estimates were made of the precision obtainable with properly configured truss structures and the required ability of active control systems for achieving the desired accuracy.

  2. Role of COX-2/mPGES-1/Prostaglandin E2 Cascade in Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhanjun; Zhang, Yue; Ding, Guixia; Heiney, Kristina Marie; Huang, Songming; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade plays critical roles in modulating many physiological and pathological actions in different organs. In the kidney, this cascade is of high importance in regulating fluid metabolism, blood pressure, and renal hemodynamics. Under some disease conditions, this cascade displays various actions in response to the different pathological insults. In the present review, the roles of this cascade in the pathogenesis of kidney injuries including diabetic and nondiabetic kidney diseases and acute kidney injuries were introduced and discussed. The new insights from this review not only increase the understanding of the pathological role of the COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 pathway in kidney injuries, but also shed new light on the innovation of the strategies for the treatment of kidney diseases. PMID:25729216

  3. Anisotropy of the superconducting properties of misfit layer compounds (MX) n(NbX 2) m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monceau, P.; Chen, J.; Laborde, O.; Briggs, A.; Auriel, C.; Roesky, R.; Meerschaut, A.; Rouxel, J.

    1994-02-01

    We have synthetized new compounds of the misfit layer family of general formula (MX) n(NbX 2) m with X:S, Se, M: Pb, Sn, rare earth metals, 1.1 2, m = 1, 2. Some of them exhibit a superconducting transition. In particular we compare the supercondcuting properties of polytypes as “PbNbS 3“-”PbNb 2S 5”, “LaNbSe 3”-“LaNb 2Se 5”. We show that the stacking mode of the (NbX 2) n is of prime importance for the occurence of superconductivity. Anisotropy in the superconducting state has been measured by angular magnetoresistance. Superconductivity in the compound “LaNb 2Se 5” has an extreme anisotropic character that in addition with the structural incommensurability allows a direct comparison with high T c oxides.

  4. Rate constant for formation of chlorine nitrate by the reaction ClO + NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M. T.; Lin, C. L.; Demore, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    The pseudo-first-order decay of ClO in a large excess of NO2 was monitored in a discharge flow/mass-spectrometer apparatus in order to measure the rate constant of the reaction ClO + NO2 + M yields ClONO2 + M for M = He, Ar, and N2 over the temperature range from 248 to 417 K. Numerical results are given for He at 248, 299, 360, and 417 K (1 to 9 torr); for Ar at 298 K (1 to 4 torr); and for N2 at 299, 360, and 417 K (1 to 6 torr). Systematic errors are estimated, and identification of the reaction product is discussed. The results obtained are shown to be in excellent agreement with other recent measurements of the same rate constant.

  5. THE WHITE DWARF COMPANION OF A 2 M{sub sun} NEUTRON STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalerao, Varun B.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2011-08-10

    We report the optical discovery of the companion to the 2 M{sub sun} millisecond pulsar PSR J1614-2230. The optical colors show that the 0.5 M{sub sun} companion is a 2.2 Gyr old He-CO white dwarf. We infer that M-dot during the accretion phase is <10{sup -2} M-dot{sub edd}. We show that the pulsar was born with a spin close to its current value, well below the rebirth line. The spin-down parameters, the mass of the pulsar, and the age of the system challenge the simple recycling model for the formation of millisecond pulsars.

  6. VLSI architectures for computing multiplications and inverses in GF(2-m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.; Truong, T. K.; Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.; Omura, J. K.; Reed, I. S.

    1983-01-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of Reed-Solomon coders and in some cryptographic algorithms. There is a need for good multiplication and inversion algorithms that are easily realized on VLSI chips. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for Galois fields based on a normal basis representation. A pipeline structure is developed to realize the Massey-Omura multiplier in the finite field GF(2m). With the simple squaring property of the normal-basis representation used together with this multiplier, a pipeline architecture is also developed for computing inverse elements in GF(2m). The designs developed for the Massey-Omura multiplier and the computation of inverse elements are regular, simple, expandable and, therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  7. Canted Antiferromagnetic Structure of M[N(CN)_2]2 (M = Mn, Fe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmety, C. R.; Epstein, A. J.; Huang, Q.; Lynn, J. W.; Erwin, R. W.; MLowercaseccall, S.; Crow, J. E.; Manson, J. L.; Miller, Joel S.; Stevenson, K. L.

    2000-03-01

    We report neutron diffraction, magnetic and specific heat studies of the isomorphous M[N(CN)_2]2 (M = Mn, Fe). The crystal structure consists of axially elongated and successively tilted discrete octahedra. There are two antiferromagnetically coupled and spontaneously canted sublattices. The spin orientation is mainly along the a-axis with small uncompensated moments along the b-axis for the Mn compound and in the bc-plane for the Fe compound. Both systems have novel field-induced magnetic phenomena at mK temperatures. Comparisons of the magnetic structures for the isomorphous series M[N(CN)_2]2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) suggest that spin direction is stabilized by the crystal fields and spin canting is induced by the successive tilting of the octahedra. We propose that the superexchange interaction is the mechanism responsible for the magnetic ordering in these compounds.

  8. Hypotensive but not normotensive haemorrhage increases tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA in caudal midline medulla.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heidi J; Henderson, Luke A; Keay, Kevin A

    2006-05-08

    Severe blood loss triggers shock, a precipitous hypotension and bradycardia. The integrity of (i) neurons in the vasodepressor region of the caudal midline medulla and (ii) central 5-HT neurotransmission are critical for the expression of haemorrhagic shock. This study investigated whether progressive blood loss triggers altered synthesis of 5-HT in the vasodepressor region of the caudal midline medulla by measuring changes in relative expression levels of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TpH 2) mRNA, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of neuronal 5-HT. Hypotensive but not normotensive haemorrhage triggered a significant increase in TpH 2 mRNA in the vasodepressor region of the caudal midline medulla, identifying an important role for 5-HT-containing caudal midline medullary neurons in haemorrhagic shock.

  9. Development of dual-polarization reflectometry facility for Uragan-2M torsatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grekov, D. L.; Tretiak, K. K.; Filippov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    The dual-polarization reflectometry facility developed for torsatron U-2M uses the extraordinary wave in addition to the ordinary wave. This is possible because the magnetic field of U-2M is produced by external conductors, is independent of plasma parameters, and is therefore a known quantity. The plasma probing is carried out simultaneously in a large number of pairs of close frequencies, which makes it possible to use superheterodyne circuits and, hence, considerably improves noise protection of the system and accuracy of measurement of phase shifts. The use of the extraordinary wave considerably broadens the range of the densities being measured in the given frequency band of generators. To reconstruct the density profile of the plasma from the frequency dependence of the phase shift of probing waves, original iterative algorithms have been developed for solving integral equations that are stable to experimental errors.

  10. The ALMA Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, A.; Marson, Ralph; Kern, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between North America, Europe and Japan. ALMA is an aperture synthesis radio telescope consisting of 50 12-meter antennas located at an elevation of 5,000 meters in Llano de Chajnantor, Chile. These antennas will operate at frequencies ranging from 31.3 GHz to 950 GHz. The antennas can be moved and placed in different configurations, with baselines between the antennas varying from 150 meters to 20 km. The 50 antennas are supplemented by sixteen additional ones, known as the ALMA Compact Array (ACA): 12 7-meter antennas and 4 12-meter antennas. The ALMA control system will consist of over 70 computers separated by distances of over 20 km. Two aspects of the system are apparent: its distributed nature and its need to accurately synchronize events across many computers separated by large distances. In this paper we describe key features of the architecture of the ALMA Control System, focusing on its properties as a distributed system and on the mechanisms employed to achieve its time synchronization goals. This control system is a distributed system that uses the ALMA Common Software (ACS) as a middleware system layered on top of CORBA. The architecture of the control system extensively employs the component/container model in ACS. In addition, the use of CORBA allows us to employ Java in the higher levels of the control system, leaving C++ to the lower time-critical levels. Python as a scripting language is used by astronomers, to craft standard observing programs, and engineers, in a testing and debugging mode. Key to the concept of an aperture synthesis telescope is a special purpose hardware system known as a correlator, responsible for making various delay model corrections and correlating the signals from the antennas. There are two correlators in ALMA, one for the array of 50 antennas and one for the ACA. This entire system operates under a control system that must synchronize events across the

  11. Industry 4.0, M2m, Iot&S - All Equal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrin, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Similarity between Industry 4.0, M2M, IOT&S. Advantages and disadvantages obtained using this three important methods. Decreasing costs while components are getting smaller and smaller in a world with better networking. Influence of business management applications integrated in smart factory logistic. The most important impacts in merging virtual and real production world, with the improvement of best processes having the same goal: creating value by open innovation

  12. Physalis angulata induced G2/M phase arrest in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Huang, Kuan-Yuh; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2006-07-01

    Physalis angulata (PA) is employed in herbal medicine around the world. It is used to treat diabetes, hepatitis, asthma and malaria in Taiwan. We have evaluated PA as a cancer chemopreventive agent in vitro by studying the role of PA in regulation of proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines. PA inhibited cell proliferation and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer MAD-MB 231 and MCF-7 cell lines. In this study, under treatment with various concentrations of PA in MDA-MB 231 cell line, we checked mRNA levels for cyclin A and cyclin B1 and the protein levels of cyclin A and cyclin B1, Cdc2 (cyclin-dependent kinases), p21(waf1/cip1) and P27(Kip1) (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors), Cdc25C, Chk2 and Wee1 kinase (cyclin-dependent kinase relative factors) in cell cycle G2/M phase. From those results, we determined that PA arrests MDA-MB 231 cells at the G2/M phase by (i) inhibiting synthesis or stability of mRNA and their downstream protein levels of cyclin A and cyclin B1, (ii) increasing p21(waf1/cip1) and P27(kip1) levels, (iii) increasing Chk2, thus causing an increase in Cdc25C phosphorylation/inactivation and inducing a decrease in Cdc2 levels and an increase in Wee1 level. According to the results obtained, PA appears to possess anticarcinogenic properties; these results suggest that the effect of PA on the levels of phosphorylated/inactivated Cdc25C are mediated by Chk2 activation, at least in part, via p21(waf1/cip1) and P27(kip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors pathway to arrest cells at G2/M phase in breast cancer carcinoma cells.

  13. 25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply room; computer power supply on left and water flow on right. This room is directly below data processing area (room #318). Sign on right reads: High purity water digital rack - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  14. Cosmological parameters from the comparison of peculiar velocities with predictions from the 2M++ density field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrick, Jonathan; Turnbull, Stephen J.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Hudson, Michael J.

    2015-06-01

    Peculiar velocity measurements are the only tool available in the low-redshift Universe for mapping the large-scale distribution of matter and can thus be used to constrain cosmology. Using redshifts from the 2M++ redshift compilation, we reconstruct the density of galaxies within 200 h-1 Mpc, allowing for the first time good sampling of important superclusters such as the Shapley Concentration. We compare the predicted peculiar velocities from 2M++ to Tully-Fisher and SNe peculiar velocities. We find a value of β* ≡ Ω m^{0.55}/b^* = 0.431 ± 0.021, suggesting Ω m^{0.55}σ _{8,lin} = 0.401 ± 0.024, in good agreement with other probes. The predicted peculiar velocity of the Local Group arising from the 2M++ volume alone is 540 ± 40 km s-1, towards l = 268° ± 4°, b = 38° ± 6°, only 10° out of alignment with the cosmic microwave background dipole. To account for velocity contributions arising from sources outside the 2M++ volume, we fit simultaneously for β* and an external bulk flow in our analysis. We find that an external bulk flow is preferred at the 5.1σ level, and the best fit has a velocity of 159 ± 23 km s- 1 towards l = 304° ± 11°, b = 6° ± 13°. Finally, the predicted bulk flow of a 50 h-1 Mpc Gaussian-weighted volume centred on the Local Group is 230 ± 30 km s-1, in the direction l = 293° ± 8°, b = 14° ± 10°, in agreement with predictions from Λ cold dark matter.

  15. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  16. S2M: A Stochastic Simulation Model of Poliovirus Genetic State Transition

    PubMed Central

    Ecale Zhou, Carol L.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling the molecular mechanisms that govern genetic variation can be useful in understanding the dynamics that drive genetic state transition in quasispecies viruses. For example, there is considerable interest in understanding how the relatively benign vaccine strains of poliovirus eventually revert to forms that confer neurovirulence and cause disease (ie, vaccine-derived poliovirus). This report describes a stochastic simulation model, S2M, which can be used to generate hypothetical outcomes based on known mechanisms of genetic diversity. S2M begins with predefined genotypes based on the Sabin-1 and Mahoney wild-type sequences, constructs a set of independent cell-based populations, and performs in-cell replication and cell-to-cell infection cycles while quantifying genetic changes that track the transition from Sabin-1 toward Mahoney. Realism is incorporated into the model by assigning defaults for variables that constrain mechanisms of genetic variability based roughly on metrics reported in the literature, yet these values can be modified at the command line in order to generate hypothetical outcomes driven by these parameters. To demonstrate the utility of S2M, simulations were performed to examine the effects of the rates of replication error and recombination and the presence or absence of defective interfering particles, upon reaching the end states of Mahoney resemblance (semblance of a vaccine-derived state), neurovirulence, genome fitness, and cloud diversity. Simulations provide insight into how modeled biological features may drive hypothetical outcomes, independently or in combination, in ways that are not always intuitively obvious. PMID:27385911

  17. S2M: A Stochastic Simulation Model of Poliovirus Genetic State Transition.

    PubMed

    Ecale Zhou, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    Modeling the molecular mechanisms that govern genetic variation can be useful in understanding the dynamics that drive genetic state transition in quasispecies viruses. For example, there is considerable interest in understanding how the relatively benign vaccine strains of poliovirus eventually revert to forms that confer neurovirulence and cause disease (ie, vaccine-derived poliovirus). This report describes a stochastic simulation model, S2M, which can be used to generate hypothetical outcomes based on known mechanisms of genetic diversity. S2M begins with predefined genotypes based on the Sabin-1 and Mahoney wild-type sequences, constructs a set of independent cell-based populations, and performs in-cell replication and cell-to-cell infection cycles while quantifying genetic changes that track the transition from Sabin-1 toward Mahoney. Realism is incorporated into the model by assigning defaults for variables that constrain mechanisms of genetic variability based roughly on metrics reported in the literature, yet these values can be modified at the command line in order to generate hypothetical outcomes driven by these parameters. To demonstrate the utility of S2M, simulations were performed to examine the effects of the rates of replication error and recombination and the presence or absence of defective interfering particles, upon reaching the end states of Mahoney resemblance (semblance of a vaccine-derived state), neurovirulence, genome fitness, and cloud diversity. Simulations provide insight into how modeled biological features may drive hypothetical outcomes, independently or in combination, in ways that are not always intuitively obvious.

  18. Spanning forests and OSP(N|2M) -invariant σ-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, Sergio; Sokal, Alan D.; Sportiello, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The present paper is part of our ongoing work on OSP(N|2M) supersymmetric σ-models, their relation with the Potts model at q  =  0 and spanning forests, and the rigorous analytic continuation of the partition function as an entire function of N  ‑  2M, a feature first predicted by Parisi and Sourlas in the 1970s. Here we accomplish two main steps. First, we analyze in detail the role of the Ising variables that arise when the constraint in the OSP(1|2) model is solved, and we point out two situations in which the Ising and forest variables decouple. Second, we establish the analytic continuation for the OSP(N|2M) model in some special cases: when the underlying graph is a forest, and for the Nienhuis action on a cubic graph. We also make progress in understanding the series-parallel graphs. Dedicated to our friend Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his  70th birthday

  19. Dynamic RACH Partition for Massive Access of Differentiated M2M Services

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qinghe; Li, Wanyu; Liu, Lingjia; Ren, Pinyi; Wang, Yichen; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    In machine-to-machine (M2M) networks, a key challenge is to overcome the overload problem caused by random access requests from massive machine-type communication (MTC) devices. When differentiated services coexist, such as delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services, the problem becomes more complicated and challenging. This is because delay-sensitive services often use more aggressive policies, and thus, delay-tolerant services get much fewer chances to access the network. To conquer the problem, we propose an efficient mechanism for massive access control over differentiated M2M services, including delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services. Specifically, based on the traffic loads of the two types of services, the proposed scheme dynamically partitions and allocates the random access channel (RACH) resource to each type of services. The RACH partition strategy is thoroughly optimized to increase the access performances of M2M networks. Analyses and simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of our design. The proposed scheme can outperform the baseline access class barring (ACB) scheme, which ignores service types in access control, in terms of access success probability and the average access delay. PMID:27043568

  20. Staphylococcus aureus Lpl Lipoproteins Delay G2/M Phase Transition in HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh-Thu; Deplanche, Martine; Nega, Mulugeta; Le Loir, Yves; Peisl, Loulou; Götz, Friedrich; Berkova, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle is an ordered set of events, leading to cell growth and division into two daughter cells. The eukaryotic cell cycle consists of interphase (G1, S, and G2 phases), followed by the mitotic phase and G0 phase. Many bacterial pathogens secrete cyclomodulins that interfere with the host cell cycle. In Staphylococcus aureus four cyclomodulins have been described so far that all represent toxins and are secreted into the culture supernatant. Here we show that the membrane-anchored lipoprotein-like proteins (Lpl), encoded on a genomic island called νSaα, interact with the cell cycle of HeLa cells. By comparing wild type and lpl deletion mutant it turned out that the lpl cluster is causative for the G2/M phase transition delay and also contributes to increased invasion frequency. The lipoprotein Lpl1, a representative of the lpl cluster, also caused G2/M phase transition delay. Interestingly, the lipid modification, which is essential for TLR2 signaling and activation of the immune system, is not necessary for cyclomodulin activity. Unlike the other staphylococcal cyclomodulins Lpl1 shows no cytotoxicity even at high concentrations. As all Lpl proteins are highly conserved there might be a common function that is accentuated by their multiplicity in a tandem gene cluster. The cell surface localized Lpls' suggests a correlation between G2/M phase transition delay and host cell invasion. PMID:28083519

  1. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  2. Dynamic RACH Partition for Massive Access of Differentiated M2M Services.

    PubMed

    Du, Qinghe; Li, Wanyu; Liu, Lingjia; Ren, Pinyi; Wang, Yichen; Sun, Li

    2016-03-30

    In machine-to-machine (M2M) networks, a key challenge is to overcome the overload problem caused by random access requests from massive machine-type communication (MTC) devices. When differentiated services coexist, such as delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services, the problem becomes more complicated and challenging. This is because delay-sensitive services often use more aggressive policies, and thus, delay-tolerant services get much fewer chances to access the network. To conquer the problem, we propose an efficient mechanism for massive access control over differentiated M2M services, including delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services. Specifically, based on the traffic loads of the two types of services, the proposed scheme dynamically partitions and allocates the random access channel (RACH) resource to each type of services. The RACH partition strategy is thoroughly optimized to increase the access performances of M2M networks. Analyses and simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of our design. The proposed scheme can outperform the baseline access class barring (ACB) scheme, which ignores service types in access control, in terms of access success probability and the average access delay.

  3. Chemical bonding in transition metal complexes with beryllium ligands [(PMe(3))(2)M-BeCl(2)], [(PMe(3))(2)M-BeClMe], and [(PMe(3))(2)M-BeMe(2)] (M = Ni, Pd, Pt).

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Pattiyil; Frenking, Gernot

    2010-08-26

    The equilibrium geometries and bond dissociation energies of the 14 valence electron (VE) complexes [(PMe(3))(2)M-BeCl(2)], [(PMe(3))(2)M-BeClMe], and [(PMe(3))(2)M-BeMe(2)] with M = Ni, Pd, and Pt have been calculated using density functional theory at the BP86/TZ2P level. The nature of the M-Be bond was analyzed with the NBO charge decomposition analysis and the EDA energy decomposition analysis. The theoretical results predict the equilibrium structures with a T-shaped geometry at the transition metal where the PMe(3) ligands are in the axial positions. The calculated bond dissociation energies show that the M-E bond strengths are in the range of donor-acceptor complexes of divalent beryllium compounds with ammonia. The bond strength decreases when the substituent at beryllium changes from Cl to CH(3). The NBO analysis shows a negative charge at the BeX(2) fragment, which indicates a net charge flow from the transition metal fragment to the beryllium fragment. The energy decomposition analysis of the M-Be bonds suggests two donor-acceptor bonds with sigma and pi symmetry where the transition metal fragment is a double donor with respect to the beryllium ligand. The pi component of the [Ni]-->BeXX' donation is much smaller than the sigma component.

  4. Cosmological parameters from the comparison of peculiar velocities with predictions from the 2M++ density field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Michael J.; Carrick, Jonathan; Turnbull, Stephen J.; Lavaux, Guilhem

    2016-10-01

    Using redshifts from the 2M++ redshift compilation, we reconstruct the density of galaxies within 200 h -1 Mpc, and compare the predicted peculiar velocities Tully-Fisher and SNe peculiar velocities. The comparison yields a best-fit value of β ≡ Ωm 0.55/b* = 0.431 +/- 0.021, suggesting Ωm 0.55σ8,lin = 0.401 +/- 0.024, in good agreement with other probes. The predicted peculiar velocity of the Local Group from sources within the 2M++ volume is 540 +/- 40 km s-1, towards l = 268° +/- 4°, b = 38° +/- 6°, which is misaligned by only 10° with the Cosmic Microwave Background dipole. To account for sources outside the 2M++ volume, we fit simultaneously for β* and an external bulk flow in our analysis. The external bulk flow has a velocity of 159 +/- 23 km s-1 towards l = 304° +/- 11°, b6° +/- 13°.

  5. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-11-27

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  6. Development of Lunar Highland REgolith Simulants, NU-LHT-1M,-2M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, D. B.; Wilson, S. A.; Fikes, J.; McLemore, C.; Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    As part of a collaborative agreement between the U.S, Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) lunar highland simulants are being produced to support engineers and scientists in developing the technologies required to put a base on the moon by 2024. Two simulants have been produced to date: NU-LHT-1M and -2M (NASA/USGS-Lunar Highlands Type-l & 2 Medium-grained). Using starting material chiefly collected from the Stillwater Mine, Nye, MT, blending protocols were developed based on normative mineralogy calculated from average chemistry, for the Apollo 16 regolith. New technologies using a high temperature remotely coupled plasma melter were developed to generate both high quality and agglutinitic glasses that simulate the glassy components of the regolith. Detailed chemical, mineralogical and physical properties analysis of NU-LHT-1M indicate that it is overall a good surrogate for highlands lunar regolith (our new simulant LHT-2M has not be analyzed yet). The primary difference between 1M and 2M was the inclusion of trace mineralogy (phosphates and sulfide). Plans will also be presented on the future direction of the simulant project.

  7. A variable-focal-length telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irkaev, Bahor; Popov, Gennadiy; Nekhaeva, Svetlana

    2005-04-01

    A special additional optical system (AOS) to develop any telescope into a zoom or a variable-focal-length telescope (variotelescope) is proposed. This system permits the telescope optics and detector (charge-couped device) to be matched in order to obtain the best resolution. An analysis of the resolution of the system consisting of the ‘V-telescope and detector’ is performed, and it is shown that the best way to match the optics and detector is to change the focal length, that is to change the image scale. The proposed AOS consists of two spherical mirrors: a large concave mirror and a small convex mirror. The AOS is illustrated by means of figures and tables.

  8. The associate principal astronomer telescope operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Edgington, Will; Henry, Greg

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with ATIS, a language for commanding remotely located automatic telescopes. This paper introduces the notion of an Associate Principal Astronomer, or APA. At the heart of the APA is automatic observation loading and scheduling software, and it is this software that is expected to help achieve efficient and productive telescope operations. The purpose of the APA system is to make it possible for astronomers to submit observation requests to and obtain resulting data from remote automatic telescopes, via the Internet, in a highly-automated way that minimizes human interaction with the system and maximizes the scientific return from observing time.

  9. Thermal conditioning of the AEOS Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Figgis, Peter D.

    2003-02-01

    The AEOS telescope facility was designed for high angular resolution imagery. Part of that design is the inclusion of several air handling systems to maximize dome seeing. Four air conditioning units chill the telescope and dome air to the predicted nighttime temperature. There is a mirror purge system, which prevents moisture from condensing on the mirror by blowing desiccated air into the mirror cell. A laminar air system counteracts the seeing degradation effects of a warm mirror by blowing air across the face of the primary. An hour before sunset the dome is partially opened and outside air is pulled through the telescope truss structure in an effort to remove any thermal differences caused by incorrect cooling. Finally a fan pulls air through the coude' tube in order to remove rising air cells. We present details of each system and the beginnings of our experiments to determine their efficacy. Finally, lessons learned from the systems on the AEOS telescope are presented.

  10. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets coronagraphic operations: lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, John H.; Ygouf, Marie; Choquet, Elodie; Hines, Dean C.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Golimowski, David A.; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; van der Marel, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraphic instrument (CGI) currently proposed for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) mission will be the first example of a space-based coronagraph optimized for extremely high contrasts that are required for the direct imaging of exoplanets reflecting the light of their host star. While the design of this instrument is still in progress, this early stage of development is a particularly beneficial time to consider the operation of such an instrument. We review current or planned operations on the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope with a focus on which operational aspects will have relevance to the planned WFIRST-AFTA CGI. We identify five key aspects of operations that will require attention: (1) detector health and evolution, (2) wavefront control, (3) observing strategies/postprocessing, (4) astrometric precision/target acquisition, and (5) polarimetry. We make suggestions on a path forward for each of these items.

  11. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  12. The misalignment induced aberrations of TMA telescopes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kevin P; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P

    2008-12-08

    The next major space-borne observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, will be a 6.6M field-biased, obscured, three-mirror anastigmat (TMA). Over the used field of view, the performance of TMA telescopes is dominated by 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations. Here it is shown that two dominant 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations arise for any TMA telescope. One aberration, field constant 3(rd) order coma is a well known misalignment aberration commonly seen in two-mirror Ritchey Chretien telescopes. The second aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear, 3(rd) order astigmatism is a new and unique image orientation dependence with field derived here for the first time using nodal aberration theory.

  13. Operations at the JPL OCTL Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith E.; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Biswas, Abhijit; Roberts, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The JPL Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) is a 200 sq-m located at 2.2.km altitude in Wrightwood California and houses a state-of-the-art 1-m telescope. The OCTL team is involved in the development of operational strategies for ground-to-space laser beam propagation for future NASA optical communications missions. Strategies include safe beam propagation through navigable air space, line of sight optical attenuation monitoring, adaptive optics, and multi-beam scintillation mitigation. This paper presents the results of recent operations at the OCTL facility including telescope characterization data and laser beam propagation experiments to Earth-orbiting retro-reflecting satellites; experiments that validate the telescope's tracking and blind-pointing performance and safe laser beam transmission procedures for propagating through navigable airspace.

  14. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Transportation Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ready for transportation to the Kennedy Space Center, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is pictured onboard the strongback dolly at the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) at the Lockheed assembly plant upon completion of final testing and verification.

  15. Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tousey, R

    1977-04-01

    This introductory paper describes Skylab and the course of events that led to this complex space project. In particular it covers the Apollo Telescope Mount and its instruments and the method of operation of the ATM mission.

  16. Theoretical contamination of cryogenic satellite telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, M.

    1978-01-01

    The state of contaminant molecules, the deposition rate on key surfaces, and the heat transfer rate were estimated by the use of a zeroth-order approximation. Optical surfaces of infrared telescopes cooled to about 20 K should be considered to be covered with at least several deposition layers of condensible molecules without any contamination controls. The effectiveness of the purge gas method of contamination controls was discussed. This method attempts to drive condensible molecules from the telescope tube by impacts with a purge gas in the telescope tube. For this technique to be sufficiently effective, the pressure of the purge gas must be more than 2 x .000001 torr. The influence caused by interactions of the purged gas with the particulate contaminants was found to slightly increase the resident times of the particulate contaminants within the telescope field of view.

  17. Holographic optical elements as scanning lidar telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2006-09-01

    We have developed and investigated the use of holographic optical elements (HOEs) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. Rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis makes a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope. We developed transmission and reflection HOEs for use at the first three harmonic wavelengths of Nd:YAG lasers. The diffraction efficiency, diffraction angle, focal length, focal spot size and optical losses were measured for several HOEs and holographic gratings, and found to be suitable for use as lidar receiver telescopes, and in many cases could also serve as the final collimating and beam steering optic for the laser transmitter. Two lidar systems based on this technology have been designed, built, and successfully tested in atmospheric science applications. This technology will enable future spaceborne lidar missions by significantly lowering the size, weight, power requirement and cost of a large aperture, narrow field of view scanning telescope.

  18. The MuPix Telescope: A Thin, High-Rate Tracking Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, H.; Berger, N.; Dittmeier, S.; Grzesik, C.; Hammerich, J.; Huang, Q.; Huth, L.; Kiehn, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Meier, F.; Perić, I.; Perrevoort, A.-K.; Schöoning, A.; vom Bruch, D.; Wauters, F.; Wiedner, D.

    2017-01-01

    The MuPix Telescope is a particle tracking telescope, optimized for tracking low momentum particles at high rates. It is based on the novel High-Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (HV-MAPS), designed for the Mu3e tracking detector. The telescope represents a first application of the HV-MAPS technology and also serves as test bed of the Mu3e readout chain. The telescope consists of up to eight layers of the newest prototypes, the MuPix7 sensors, which send self-triggered data via fast serial links to FPGAs, where the data is time-ordered and sent to the PC. A particle hit rate of 1 MHz per layer could be processed. Online tracking is performed with a subset of the incoming data. The general concept of the telescope, chip architecture, readout concept and online reconstruction are described. The performance of the sensor and of the telescope during test beam measurements are presented.

  19. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  20. ESO's Telescopes In memoriam Daniel Enard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmozzi, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    The contributions of ESO to the art of telescope-making have come a long way since the early years, placing it, by the turn of the millennium, among the acknowledged leaders in the field. In this article I will give a brief history of what are, in my view, the highlights among these developments, from the 3.6-metre telescope through the NTT and VLT/I to the E-ELT.

  1. Commissioning Results on the JWST Testbed Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Acton, D. Scott

    2006-01-01

    The one-meter 18 segment JWST Testbed Telescope (TBT) has been developed at Ball Aerospace to facilitate commissioning operations for the JWST Observatory. Eight different commissioning activities were tested on the TBT: telescope focus sweep, segment ID and Search, image array, global alignment, image stacking, coarse phasing, fine phasing, and multi-field phasing. This paper describes recent commissioning results from experiments performed on the TBT.

  2. Development of a clean optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate contamination on astronomical mirrors degrades performance in two ways: by information loss by extinction of light; and background and noise from scattering, especially forward or Fraunhofer scattering. These effects were not generally understood, and an ambitious pilot program was outlined to measure particulate effects on telescope optical performance; develop prophylactic and cleaning procedures suitable for groundbased observatories; investigate by computational modelling the effects on telescopes in space; and communicate the results and concerns within the astronomical community.

  3. Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated and developed the use of holographic optical elements (HOE) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. By rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis, a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope is possible. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOES for use with the first three harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, and designed, built, and tested two lidar systems based on this technology.

  4. Short Timescale Variables In Stellar Clusters: From Gaia To Ground-Based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelens, Maroussia; Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Eyer, Laurent; Mowlavi, Nami; Lecoeur-Taïbi, Isabelle; Rimoldini, Lorenzo; Palaversa, Lovro; Süveges, Maria; Charnas, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    Combined studies of variable stars and stellar clusters open great horizons, and they allow us to improve our understanding of stellar cluster formation and stellar evolution. In that prospect, the Gaia mission will provide astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic data for about one billion stars of the Milky Way. This will represent a major census of stellar clusters, and it will drastically increase the number of known variable stars. In particular, the peculiar Gaia scanning law offers the opportunity to investigate the rather unexplored domain of short timescale variability (from tens of seconds to a dozen of hours), bringing invaluable clues to the fields of stellar physics and stellar aggregates.We assess the Gaia capabilities in terms of short timescale variability detection, using extensive light-curve simulations for various variable object types. We show that Gaia can detect periodic variability phenomena with amplitude variations larger than a few millimagnitudes. Additionally, we plan to perform subsequent follow-up of variables stars detected in clusters by Gaia to better characterize them. Hence, we develop a pipeline for the analysis of high cadence photometry from ground-based telescopes such as the 1.2m Euler telescope (La Silla, Chile) and the 1.2m Mercator telescope (La Palma, Canary Islands).

  5. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) is a segmented, cryogenic telescope scheduled for launch in 2011. In September of 2002, NASA selected prime contractor Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) to build the observatory including management of the OTE. NGST is teamed with subcontractors Ball Aerospace, Alliant Techsystems (ATK). and Kodak. The team has completed several significant design, technology, architecture definition, and manufacturing milestones in the past year that are summarized in this paper.

  6. Sardinia Radio Telescope: the new Italian project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueff, Gavril; Alvito, Giovanni; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bolli, Pietro; Maccaferri, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Morsiani, Marco; Mureddu, Leonardo; Natale, Vincenzo; Olmi, Luca; Orfei, Alessandro; Pernechele, Claudio; Poma, Angelo; Porceddu, Ignazio; Rossi, Lucio; Zacchiroli, Gianpaolo

    2004-10-01

    This contribution gives a description of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna proposed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia) and it will join the two existing antennas of Medicina (Bologna) and Noto (Siracusa) both operated by the IRA. With its large antenna size (64m diameter) and its active surface, SRT, capable of operations up to about 100GHz, will contribute significantly to VLBI networks and will represent a powerful single-dish radio telescope for many science fields. The radio telescope has a Gregorian optical configuration with a supplementary beam-waveguide (BWG), which provides additional focal points. The Gregorian surfaces are shaped to minimize the spill-over and the standing wave between secondary mirror and feed. After the start of the contract for the radio telescope structural and mechanical fabrication in 2003, in the present year the foundation construction will be completed. The schedule foresees the radio telescope inauguration in late 2006.

  7. Analysis of space telescope data collection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Multiple Access (MA) communication link of the Space Telescope (ST) is described. An expected performance bit error rate is presented. The historical perspective and rationale behind the ESTL space shuttle end-to-end tests are given. The concatenated coding scheme using a convolutional encoder for the outer coder is developed. The ESTL end-to-end tests on the space shuttle communication link are described. Most important is how a concatenated coding system will perform. This is a go-no-go system with respect to received signal-to-noise ratio. A discussion of the verification requirements and Specification document is presented, and those sections that apply to Space Telescope data and communications system are discussed. The Space Telescope System consists of the Space Telescope Orbiting Observatory (ST), the Space Telescope Science Institute, and the Space Telescope Operation Control Center. The MA system consists of the ST, the return link from the ST via the Tracking and Delay Relay Satellite system to White Sands, and from White Sands via the Domestic Communications Satellite to the STOCC.

  8. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths. PMID:25880705

  9. SCIENTIFIC EFFICIENCY OF GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-10-01

    I scanned the six major astronomical journals of 2008 for all 1589 papers that are based on new data obtained from ground-based optical/IR telescopes worldwide. Then I collected data on numbers of papers, citations to them in 3+ years, the most-cited papers, and annual operating costs. These data are assigned to four groups by telescope aperture. For instance, while the papers from telescopes with an aperture >7 m average 1.29 more citations than those with an aperture of 2 to <4 m, this represents a small return for a factor of four difference in operating costs. Among the 17 papers that have received {>=}100 citations in 3+ years, only half come from the large (>7 m) telescopes. I wonder why the large telescopes do so relatively poorly and suggest possible reasons. I also found that papers based on archival data, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produce 10.6% as many papers and 20.6% as many citations as those based on new data. Also, the 577.2 papers based on radio data produced 36.3% as many papers and 33.6% as many citations as the 1589 papers based on optical/IR telescopes.

  10. Hartman Testing of X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Biskasch, Michael; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Hartmann testing of x-ray telescopes is a simple test method to retrieve and analyze alignment errors and low-order circumferential errors of x-ray telescopes and their components. A narrow slit is scanned along the circumference of the telescope in front of the mirror and the centroids of the images are calculated. From the centroid data, alignment errors, radius variation errors, and cone-angle variation errors can be calculated. Mean cone angle, mean radial height (average radius), and the focal length of the telescope can also be estimated if the centroid data is measured at multiple focal plane locations. In this paper we present the basic equations that are used in the analysis process. These equations can be applied to full circumference or segmented x-ray telescopes. We use the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC) to model a segmented x-ray telescope and show that the derived equations and accompanying analysis retrieves the alignment errors and low order circumferential errors accurately.

  11. Pixel telescope test in STAR at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiangming; Szelezniak, Michal; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Vu, Chinh; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Wieman, Howard

    2007-10-01

    The STAR experiment at RHIC is designing a new inner vertex detector called the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT). The HFT's innermost two layers is called the PIXEL detector which uses Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor technology (MAPS). To test the MAPS technology, we just constructed and tested a telescope. The telescope uses a stack of three MIMOSTAR2 chips, Each MIMOSTAR2 sensor, which was designed by IPHC, is an array of 132x128 pixels with a square pixel size of 30 μ. The readout of the telescope makes use of the ALICE DDL/SIU cards, which is compatible with the future STAR data acquisition system called DAQ1000. The telescope was first studied in a 1.2 GeV/c electron beam at LBNL's Advanced Light Source. Afterwards, the telescope was outside the STAR magnet, and then later inside it, 145 cm away from STAR's center. We will describe this first test of MAPS technology in a collider environment, and report on the occupancy, particle flux, and performance of the telescope.

  12. Scientific Efficiency of Ground-based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-10-01

    I scanned the six major astronomical journals of 2008 for all 1589 papers that are based on new data obtained from ground-based optical/IR telescopes worldwide. Then I collected data on numbers of papers, citations to them in 3+ years, the most-cited papers, and annual operating costs. These data are assigned to four groups by telescope aperture. For instance, while the papers from telescopes with an aperture >7 m average 1.29 more citations than those with an aperture of 2 to <4 m, this represents a small return for a factor of four difference in operating costs. Among the 17 papers that have received >=100 citations in 3+ years, only half come from the large (>7 m) telescopes. I wonder why the large telescopes do so relatively poorly and suggest possible reasons. I also found that papers based on archival data, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produce 10.6% as many papers and 20.6% as many citations as those based on new data. Also, the 577.2 papers based on radio data produced 36.3% as many papers and 33.6% as many citations as the 1589 papers based on optical/IR telescopes.

  13. The DAG project, a 4m class telescope: the telescope main structure performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marcuzzi, E.; Manfrin, C.; Battistel, C.; Pirnay, O.; Flebus, Carlo; Yeşilyaprak, C.; Keskin, O.; Yerli, S.

    2016-07-01

    Dogu Anatolu Gözlemevi (DAG-Eastern Anatolia Observatory) Project is a 4m class optical, near-infrared Telescope and suitable enclosure which will be located at an altitude of 3.170m in Erzurum, Turkey. The DAG telescope is a project fully funded by Turkish Ministry of Development and the Atatürk University of Astrophysics Research Telescope - ATASAM. The Project is being developed by the Belgian company AMOS (project leader), which is also the optics supplier and EIE GROUP, the Telescope Main Structure supplier and responsible for the final site integration. The design of the Telescope Main Structure fits in the EIE TBO Program which aims at developing a Dome/Telescope systemic optimization process for both performances and competitive costs based on previous project commitments like NTT, VLT, VST and ASTRI. The optical Configuration of the DAG Telescope is a Ritchey-Chretien with two Nasmyth foci and a 4m primary thin mirror controlled in shape and position by an Active Optic System. The main characteristics of the Telescope Main Structure are an Altitude-Azimuth light and rigid structure system with Direct Drive Systems for both axis, AZ Hydrostatic Bearing System and Altitude standard bearing system; both axes are equipped with Tape Encoder System. An innovative Control System characterizes the telescope performance.

  14. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Barbier, L.; Gehrels, N.; Palmer, D.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; BAT Engineering Team

    2000-10-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst MIDEX is a multiwavelength observatory scheduled to be launched in September 2003 to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their x-ray and optical afterglow emission. Swift will exploit these newly discovered GRB afterglow characteristics to make a comprehensive study of ~ 1000 GRBs and use the afterglow phenomenon as a tool for probing their source and evolution. Swift will also be able to use GRBs to probe the early Universe. The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Mission. BAT will observe and locate hundreds of bursts per year to better than 4 arc minutes accuracy. Using this prompt burst location information, Swift can slew quickly (within 20 - 70 s) to point on-board x-ray (XRT) and optical (UVOT) instrumentation at the burst for continued afterglow studies. The BAT instrument consists of a large (5200 cm2) hard x-ray detector plane positioned one meter away from an even larger (2.6 m2) coded aperture mask. The BAT detector plane consists of 128 CdZnTe semiconductor detector modules each containing 256 individual, planar 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm CdZnTe detectors that are read out by a pair of XA1 Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). The BAT mask will be constructed using 5 mm x 5 mm x 1 mm lead tiles attached to a self-supporting 0.4 g/cm2 substrate fabricated from Kevlar fiber/honeycomb materials. With 4 mm square focal plane detector elements and 5 mm square mask pixels, BAT will have angular resolution better than 22 arc minutes and will determine GRB source locations to ~ 4 arc minutes for bursts detected at 5 sigma or brighter. A full description of the BAT instrument and its capabilities will be presented along with results from performance tests of prototype detector modules.

  15. Characterization benches for neutrino telescope Optical Modules at the APC laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgitas, Theodore; Creusot, Alexandre; Kouchner, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    As has been demonstrated by the first generation of neutrino telescopes Antares and IceCube, precise knowledge of the photon detection efficiency of optical modules is of fundamental importance for the understanding of the instrument and accurate event reconstruction. Dedicated test benches have been developed to measure all related quantities for the Digital Optical Modules of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope being currently deployed in the Mediterranean sea. The first bench is a black box with robotic arms equipped with a calibrated single photon source or laser which enable a precise mapping of the detection efficiency at arbitrary incident angles as well as precise measurements of the time delays induced by the photodetection chain. These measurement can be incorporated and compared to full GEANT MonteCarlo simulations of the optical modules. The second bench is a 2 m×2 m ×2 m water tank equipped with muon hodoscopes on top and bottom. It enables to study and measure the angular dependence of the DOM's detection efficiency of the Cherenkov light produced in water by relativistic muons, thus reproducing in situ detection conditions. We describe these two benches and present their first results and status.

  16. FLOYDS Classification of PSNJ23441603+1046125 as a supernova type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, S.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; Hosselnzadeh, G.; Sand, D.

    2014-09-01

    We obtained a spectrum of PSN J23441603+1046125 on 2014 Sep. 2.46 (UT) with the robotic FLOYDS instrument mounted on the Faulkes Telescope North. The spectrum displays a blue continuum with hydrogen p-cygni features.

  17. FLOYDS Classification of PSN J01505356-3600308 as a 91bg-like Type Ia Supernova Near Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, G.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; McCully, C.; Valenti, S.

    2015-10-01

    We obtained a spectrum of PSN J01505356-3600308, discovered by Greg Bock (BOSS) and posted on the CBAT TOCP, on 2015 October 16.7 UT with the robotic FLOYDS instrument mounted on the Faulkes Telescope South.

  18. New facilities for Al+MgF2 coating for 2-m class mirrors for UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhupanov, Valery; Vlasenko, Oleg; Sachkov, Mikhail; Fedoseev, Viktor

    2014-07-01

    The World Space Observatory--Ultraviolet (WSO--UV) project is a Russian-Spanish space mission for spectroscopic and imaging observations in the UV domain (115-320 nm) where some of the most important astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied with unprecedented capability. In the horizon of the next decade, WSO--UV will be the only mission with the large primary mirror fully devoted for UV studies. The observatory includes a 170 cm aperture telescope capable of high-resolution spectroscopy, long slit low-resolution spectroscopy, and deep UV imaging. The telescope T-170M is a Ritchey-Chrétien with a F/10 focal ratio and a corrected field of view of 0.5 degrees. Specific data on the WSO-UV project (telescope, satellite, orbit, launcher, ground segment, etc.) are given in [1-6]. The current status of the WSO-UV focal plane instruments, their status of implementation, and the expected performances are presented in [7]. The science drivers of the WSO-UV mission are described in [8, 9]. The main WSO-UV instruments, spectrographs (WUVS instrument) and imagers (ISSIS instrument) are described in [10-13] and [14-15] correspondingly. The prospects of stellar studies with WSO-UV are presented in papers [16-17]. A paper [18] describes our experience of using the DP-190 glue for adhesive attachment of a large space mirror and its rim. In the instrument compartment, see Figure 1, the optical bench (OB) - used as reference plane for all the onboard instrumentation - is aligned and maintained in the correct position with respect to the primary mirror (PM) using a three rods system. An imaging instrument ISSIS is mounted on the upper basis of the optical bench, in the space available between the PM and the OB itself, while spectrographs (WUVS instrument) are mounted to the OB bottom basis. One of the primary tasks in creating telescope's PM is to apply coating with required reflective and protective properties. Aluminum is a well known reflecting coating for wavelength

  19. Towards efficient mobile M2M communications: survey and open challenges.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana

    2014-10-20

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone's battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways.

  20. A picrotoxin-specific conformational change in the glycine receptor M2-M3 loop.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Rebecca; Lynch, Joseph W

    2005-10-28

    The external loop linking the M2 and M3 transmembrane domains is crucial for coupling agonist binding to channel gating in the glycine receptor chloride channel (GlyR). A substituted cysteine accessibility scan previously showed that glycine activation increased the surface accessibility of 6 contiguous residues (Arg271-Lys276) toward the N-terminal end of the homomeric alpha1 GlyR M2-M3 loop. In the present study we used a similar approach to determine whether the allosteric antagonist, picrotoxin, could impose conformational changes to this domain that cannot be induced by varying agonist concentrations alone. Picrotoxin slowed the reaction rate of a sulfhydryl-containing compound (MTSET) with A272C, S273C, and L274C. Before interpreting this as a picrotoxin-specific conformational change, it was necessary to eliminate the possibility of steric competition between picrotoxin and MTSET. Accordingly, we showed that picrotoxin and the structurally unrelated blocker, bilobalide, were both trapped in the R271C GlyR in the closed state and that a point mutation to the pore-lining Thr6' residue abolished inhibition by both compounds. We also demonstrated that the picrotoxin dissociation rate was linearly related to the channel open probability. These observations constitute a strong case for picrotoxin binding in the pore. We thus conclude that the picrotoxin-specific effects on the M2-M3 loop are mediated allosterically. This suggests that the M2-M3 loop responds differently to the occupation of different binding sites.