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Sample records for 2m faulkes telescopes

  1. The Faulkes Telescope Optical Spectrographs and Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul

    The Faulkes Telescope project funded primarily by the Dill Faulkes Educational Trust is currently constructing two 2-m robotic telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Australia. These will be the largest and most powerful telescopes ever built dedicated for use by schools and colleges. We have been awarded funding to build two optical spectrographs to be permanently mounted on these telescopes by the end of 2003. At this time an astronomical satellite called Swift will be launched by NASA. Swift is dedicated to the study of gamma-ray bursts the most powerful explosive events in the Universe. The Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Leicester has provided the X-ray camera for Swift and is a partner in the Faulkes Telescopes project. To enhance both projects we intend to use the Faulkes Telescope optical spectrographs to study the gamma-ray bursts identified by Swift. These data will also be made available to schools thereby raising the profile of physics and astronomy in the educational community.

  2. Hunting Spinning Asteroids with the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The Faulkes telescopes are proving a dab hand at allowing schools and amateurs to do real science. The author discusses the latest Faulkes research project, and his record-breaking discovery that was pert of it.

  3. The Faulkes Telescope Project at school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    The Faulkes Telescope Project [1] was started in 2000 and is currently managed by the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) [2]. Allows student access to two remote telescopes (in Hawaii and in Australia), allowing you to capture images of the sky. Since January 2012 I conduct monthly observations with students: first with students from Escola Secundária de Loulé (ESL) [3] and starting from September 2013 with students from Agrupamento de Escolas Dra Laura Ayres [4], in Quarteira. Each session is previously prepared in order to make the best of the time available. For that we use a virtual planetarium that allows us to see the sky in place and time of the scheduled session. After the start of each session a student takes control in real time of one of the telescopes from a computer connected to the internet. This project is a tool that gives the students the feeling of doing science and meet the sky step by step. The observations made by my students can be found at www.miguelneta.pt/faulkestelescope. [1] http://www.faulkes-telescope.com [2] http://lcogt.net [3] https://www.es-loule.edu.pt [4] http://www.esla.edu.pt

  4. Remote secure observing for the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert J.; Steele, Iain A.; Marchant, Jonathan M.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Mucke-Herzberg, Dorothea

    2004-09-01

    Since the Faulkes Telescopes are to be used by a wide variety of audiences, both powerful engineering level and simple graphical interfaces exist giving complete remote and robotic control of the telescope over the internet. Security is extremely important to protect the health of both humans and equipment. Data integrity must also be carefully guarded for images being delivered directly into the classroom. The adopted network architecture is described along with the variety of security and intrusion detection software. We use a combination of SSL, proxies, IPSec, and both Linux iptables and Cisco IOS firewalls to ensure only authenticated and safe commands are sent to the telescopes. With an eye to a possible future global network of robotic telescopes, the system implemented is capable of scaling linearly to any moderate (of order ten) number of telescopes.

  5. Mutual Events of the Uranian Satellites Observed with the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Apostolos; Lewis, F.; Hidas, M. G.; Brown, T. M.; Roche, P.

    2008-09-01

    The 2007 Uranian Equinox allowed unique observations of the planet, its rings and satellites, possible only twice during the planet's 84 year orbit. Among these were mutual eclipses and occultations between the 5 classical satellites Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon and Miranda. These ``mutual'' events are extremely useful as reality checks of satellite ephemerides. In addition, they provide an opportunity to improve our knowledge of the satellite orbits and the system constants. We observed several mutual events in 2007 using the 2m Faulkes Telescopes North (FTN) and South (FTS) located in Haleakala, Maui and Siding Spring, Australia respectively, operated by the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network. To mitigate against Uranus' glare, we utilized wide-band imaging in the near-IR, a small image scale and a posteriori subtraction of the planet's PSF. We obtained positive detections of six mutual events, three occultations and three eclipses, among these satellites. Three of these events involved Miranda, a difficult target due to its proximity to Uranus. Furthermore, we recorded at least two events that were predicted to occur with high confidence but did not, in fact, occur. During this presentation we will describe our observing strategy, operational setup and data reduction techniques and present examples of obtained lightcurves. Our observational results have been compared with predictions based on ephemerides by Laskar and Jacobson (1987; GUST86), by Lainey and Arlot (2006; LA06) and by Rush and Jacobson (2007; RJ07). Offsets with respect to the Voyager-era GUST86 are quite significant, of the order of minutes in the event midtimes. Smaller, yet significant trends in the data also appear with respect to LA06 and RJ07. We will discuss the nature of these trends and how they can be interpreted in terms of potential improvements in our knowledge of the Uranian system.

  6. Classification of PSN J09265677-2446596 with FLOYDS at Faulkes Telescope South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, D.; Valenti, S.; Graham, M. L.; Howell, D. A.; Parrent, J. T.

    2013-05-01

    We report a spectroscopic classification of PSN J09265677-2446596 located at ra=09:26:56.77 dec=-24:46:59.6. A spectrum (range 460-1000 nm) was obtained robotically on May 08.35 UT with the FLOYDS spectrograph at "Faulkes Telescope South" at Siding Springs. Utilizing the Superfit SN spectral identification code (Howell et al. 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) we find it is a SN Ia a week or more before maximum light, and is consistent with the host redshift at 0.007952.

  7. Classification of LSQ Supernova LSQ13vy with FLOYDS at Faulkes Telescope South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, S.; Graham, M. L.; Howell, D. A.; Sand, D.; Parrent, J. T.; Hadjiyska, E.; Walker, E. S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Baltay, C.; Ellman, N.; McKinnon, R.; Feindt, U.; Nugent, P.

    2013-04-01

    We report a spectroscopic classification of LSQ13vy located at ra= 16:06:55.85 dec=+03:00:15.1. A spectrum (range 350-1000 nm) obtained robotically on Apr. 06.70 UT with the FLOYDS spectrograph at "Faulkes Telescope South" at Siding Spring, shows it to be a SN type Ia several days before maxium at a redshift of 0.032. Comparisons with a library of supernova spectra using the Superfit SN spectral identification code (Howell et al.

  8. Pro-am collaborations with the Faulkes Telescopes, and the benefit to education, science and outreach awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, N.; Miles, R.; Roche, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Faulkes Telescope Project is an educational and research arm of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGTN). It has two 2-metre robotic telescopes, located at Haleakala on Maui (FT North) and Siding Spring in Australia (FT South). It is planned for these telescopes to be complemented by a research network of multiple 1-metre telescopes, along with an educational network of multiple 0.4-metre telescopes, providing 24-hour coverage of both northern and southern hemispheres. The telescope network is unique in that it provides school students with access to research grade instrumentation in the United Kingdom and several other countries across Europe as well as in Hawaii. Over the past few years, amateur astronomers have increasingly been working with schools suggesting projects which have provided valuable scientific input to professional astronomers. This poster aims to present several of the key results and observations where professional astronomers have cited and used this data obtained with the Faulkes Telescope, notably - Observations and results from the global campaign on Comet C/2007 Q3 ; Ref.[2] - Observations of the fragmentation of Comet 168P; Ref.[3] - Observations relating to the evolution of Comet C/2012 S1; Ref.[4] - Observations and imaging of the Jupiter-family comet, P/2010 TO20; Ref.[5

  9. 2m class telescope project at Lijiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Bai-Rong; Luo, Guo-Quan; Liu, Zhong; Tan, Hui-Song

    Supported by the ministry of science and technology, government of Yunnan Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, a 2m class telescope project was granted. In this paper, we will first review the site, Gaomeigu, briefly, then give the details of 2m class telescope project, and finally discuss the future plans of this new telescope.

  10. TOPS and Beyond: Training Master Teachers to Mentor Student Astronomy Projects Using the Faulkes Telescope-North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedient, J.; Meech, K. J.; Kadooka, M. A.; Mattei, J. A.; Hamai, J.; Hemphill, R.; Hu, S.

    2003-05-01

    2003 was the fifth and final year of the NSF-funded ``Towards Other Planetary Systems'' (TOPS) secondary school teacher training program conducted by the Institute for Astronomy in Hawai'i. While previous years concentrated on basic astronomy skills, cultural astronomy and astrobiology, TOPS 2003 focused on training master teachers and prior TOPS participants in the requisite skills to mentor student projects using the Faulkes Telescope-North (FTN), a 2-meter telescope under construction at the Haleakala High Altitude Observatory. The FTN and a twin in Australia will be the world's largest telescopes dedicated solely to education. This poster presentation describes the teacher's experiences with several prototype astrobiology projects suitable for a 2-meter-class telescope, including monitoring variable stars in star-forming regions, detecting extrasolar planet transits, and observing objects in the Kuiper Belt. Plans for partnering teachers with amateur astronomers proficient in observational techniques are also discussed; the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) is a likely reservoir of such individuals. The recent selection of a University of Hawai'i group led by the TOPS Director as a NASA Astrobiology Institute Lead Team will provide a framework for development of teacher-student-amateur astronomer teams advised by professional astronomers and conducting astrobiology research. This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, ESI-9731083, and through University of Maryland and University of Hawaii subcontract Z667702, which was awarded under prime contract NASW-00004 from NASA.

  11. Automation of Pic du Midi 2-m Telescope Bernard Lyot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie-Cambot, Jean-Marie; Lacassagne, F.; Ambert, P.; Arrotis, J.-M.; Argentin, Y.; Arberet, M.-P.; Chereau, E.; Decha, C.; Delaigue, C.; Guesdon, L.; Laurent-Burguiere, D.; Malbreil, G.

    2011-03-01

    Since 2007, Pic du Midi 2-m Telescope Bernard Lyot is dedicated to spectropolarimetry with a scientific niche in stella magnetism. In parallel, TBL is progressively evolving from an analogic human-controlled telescope, to a fully automated computer controlled digital telescope. This evolution required TBL team to replace all electronics and motors with digital system (parvex, brushless motors, buscan) components, and to integrate the dataflow system from proposal to archiving into a fully coordinates, remote-access software suite. A trained technician can already control remotely the telescope, instrument and science programs from anywhere. Further robotisation will require a high-level expert system to be defined.

  12. 2-m LAMOST-type telescope for the Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiangqun; Zhao, Yongheng; Wang, Yanan; Li, Guoping

    2006-06-01

    The Large-Sky-Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) put forward by Shou-guan Wang and Ding-qiang Su is a special reflecting Schmidt telescope with the spherical mirror fixed and the correcting plate acts as both correcting plate and tractor. The correcting plate is installed on an alt-azimuth mounting and its aspherical figure is variable to meet the requirement for eliminate the spherical aberration of the spherical primary mirror when it is at variant orientations during the observation course and for different sky area. With LAMOST, both large aperture and large field of view can been obtained. Benefited from the LAMOST design and practice, a LAMOST-type telescope for full-sky survey is conceived for the Antarctic. Because of the favorable seeing condition and all-winter continuous observation, a telescope with aperture of the 2-m could be equivalent to the 4-m LAMOST. We preliminarily considered a 2-m telescope with a primary focus and a Cassegrain focus. The f-ratio of 5 and FOV 3-degree for the primary focus, and f-ratio of 15 and 8 minutes FOV with the diffraction limited image for the Cassegrain focus. In this paper, the scientific goals, the optical system of the telescope, particular material and technique which are applicable under the extreme low temperature condition at the Antarctic are described.

  13. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  14. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  15. The mini-array of ASTRI SST-2M telescopes, precursors for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Vercellone, Stefano; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site on the slopes of Mount Etna, a large field of view (FoV, ~ 9.6°) dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes (SST). The CTA plans to install about 70 SST in the southern site to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach, since it includes the entire system of structure, mirrors optics (primary and secondary mirrors), camera, and control/acquisition software. A remarkable performance improvement could come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa). The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of nine ASTRI SST-2M units and it is proposed as a precursor and initial seed of the CTA to be installed at the final CTA southern site. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to the CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will, if compared for instance to H.E.S.S., extend the point source sensitivity up to ~ 100 TeV, also improving it above 5-10 TeV. Moreover, the unprecedented width of the FoV, with its homogeneous acceptance and angular resolution, will significantly contribute to the achievement of original results during the early CTA science phase.

  16. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: camera DAQ software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, Vito; Trifoglio, Massimo; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tacchini, Alessandro; Zoli, Andrea; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Capalbi, Milvia; Catalano, Osvaldo

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a Flagship Project financed by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, and led by INAF, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing an end-to-end prototype of a Small Size dual-mirror Telescope. In a second phase the ASTRI project foresees the installation of the first elements of the array at CTA southern site, a mini-array of 7 telescopes. The ASTRI Camera DAQ Software is aimed at the Camera data acquisition, storage and display during Camera development as well as during commissioning and operations on the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype that will operate at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on the Mount Etna (Sicily). The Camera DAQ configuration and operations will be sequenced either through local operator commands or through remote commands received from the Instrument Controller System that commands and controls the Camera. The Camera DAQ software will acquire data packets through a direct one-way socket connection with the Camera Back End Electronics. In near real time, the data will be stored in both raw and FITS format. The DAQ Quick Look component will allow the operator to display in near real time the Camera data packets. We are developing the DAQ software adopting the iterative and incremental model in order to maximize the software reuse and to implement a system which is easily adaptable to changes. This contribution presents the Camera DAQ Software architecture with particular emphasis on its potential reuse for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  17. Robotic operation of the DAO 1.2-m telescope and McKellar spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monin, D.; Saddlemyer, L.; Bohlender, D.

    2014-12-01

    The DAO 1.2-m telescope has been successfully used to obtain astronomical spectra in unattended robotic mode for a decade and approximately 2/3 of the nights scheduled on the telescope are now used in this fashion. The availability of such robotic operation has boosted the telescope's subscription rate by approximately 50% since telescope users no longer have to travel to the DAO in order to conduct their observing programs. An overview of the robotic system and some details of its operation are presented.

  18. The telescope control of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov telescope Array: hardware and software design architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, Elisa; Cascone, Enrico; Schwarz, Joseph; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Aisa, Damiano; Aisa, Simone; Bagaglia, Marco; Busatta, Andrea; Campeggi, Carlo; Cefala, Marco; Farnesini, Lucio; Giacomel, Stefano; Marchiori, Gianpiero; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Nucciarelli, Giuliano; Piluso, Antonfranco

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF). One of its aims is to develop, within the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) framework, an end-to-end small-sized telescope prototype in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) in order to investigate the energy range E ~ 1-100 TeV. A long-term goal of the ASTRI program is the production of an ASTRI/CTA mini-array composed of seven SST-2M telescopes. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, is seen as a standalone system that needs only network and power connections to work. The software system that is being developed to control the prototype is the base for the Mini-Array Software System (MASS), which has the task to make possible the operation of both the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and the ASTRI/CTA mini-array. The scope of this contribution is to give an overview of the hardware and software architecture adopted for the ASTRI SST- 2M prototype, showing how to apply state of the art industrial technologies to telescope control and monitoring systems.

  19. Operation of the University of Hawaii 2.2M Telescope on Mauna Kea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaren, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a final report from March 1, 1997-February 28, 1999 on the Operation of the University of Hawaii 2.2M Telescope on Mauna Kea. The topics include: 1) Telescope and Instrumentation (Newsletter and Documentation, Scheduling Periods); and 2) Scientific Highlights (The Outer Solar System-Trans-Neptunian Objects and the Kuiper Belt, Comet Hale-Bopp, Near-Earth Asteroids, Asteroid Families, and Galileo Mission Support).

  20. The New 2-M RCC Telescope in the Northern Caucasus for Modern Astronomical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarady, V. K.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    A new 2-m Ritchey-Chretien-Coude (RCC) telescope in the Northern Caucasus (the Kabardin-Balkar Republic, Russian Federation) is nearing being put into operation. It has been developed by the National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine on the Terskol peak (near Elbrus) which seems to be one of the best sites for astronomical ground observations in terms of its astroclimate. This paper describes the present status of the telescope, its instrumentation and outlines the scientific problems that can be solved using the telescope.

  1. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: primary mirror characterization by deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Giorgia; Canestrari, Rodolfo

    2015-09-01

    In 2014 the ASTRI Collaboration, led by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics, has constructed an end-to-end prototype of a dual-mirror imaging air Cherenkov telescope, proposed for the small size class of telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, has been installed at the observing station located at Serra La Nave (Italy). In this project the Brera Astronomical Observatory was responsible for the production and the testing of the primary mirror. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope's primary mirror has an aperture of ~ 4 m, a polynomial design, and consists of 18 individual hexagonal facets. These characteristics require the production and testing of panels with a typical size of ~1 m vertex-to-vertex and with an aspheric component of up to several millimetres. The mirror segments were produced assembling a sandwich of thin glass foils bent at room temperature to reach the desired shape. For the characterization of the mirrors we developed an ad-hoc deflectometry facility that works as an inverse Ronchi test in combination with a ray-tracing code. In this contribution we report the results of the deflectometric measurements performed on the primary mirror segments of the ASTRI SST-2M dual mirror telescope. The expected point spread function and the contributions to the degradation of the image quality are studied.

  2. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: opto-mechanical test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canestrari, Rodolfo; Giro, Enrico; Antolini, Elisa; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Cascone, Enrico; La Palombara, Nicola; Leto, Giuseppe; Pareschi, Giovanni; Scuderi, Salvo; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino

    2015-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory, with a combination of large-, medium-, and small-size telescopes (LST, MST and SST, respectively), will represent the next generation of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. It will explore the very high-energy domain from a few tens of GeV up to few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging resolution. In this framework, the Italian ASTRI program, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF), is currently developing a scientific and technological SST dual-mirror end-to-end prototype named ASTRI SST-2M. It is a 4-meter class telescope; it adopts an aplanatic, wide-field, double-reflection optical layout in a Schwarzschild-Couder configuration. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope structure and mirrors have been already installed at the INAF observing station at Serra La Nave, on Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy). In this contribution we report about the on-site deployment and the latest results on the opto-mechanical performance test conducted soon after the telescope installation

  3. Active optics system of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiol, Daniele; Capobianco, Gerardo; Fantinel, Daniela; Giro, Enrico; Lessio, Luigi; Loreggia, Davide; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Russo, Federico; Volpicelli, Antonio C.

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) SST-2M is an end-to-end prototype of Small Size class of Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. It will apply a dual mirror configuration to Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. The 18 segments composing the primary mirror (diameter 4.3 m) are equipped with an active optics system enabling optical re-alignment during telescope slew. The secondary mirror (diameter 1.8 m) can be moved along three degrees of freedom to perform focus and tilt corrections. We describe the kinematic model used to predict the system performance as well as the hardware and software design solution that will be implemented for optics control.

  4. The design and analysis of 2m telescope's K Mirror system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peng; Zhang, Jingxu; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    During the alt-azimuth telescope tracking, due to the frame structure of tracking support and relative movement of each mirror in Coude optical path, image plane is rotating. To eliminate the effects of image rotation for imaging and subsequent image processing, dove prism or K mirror are generally used. A set of K mirror system designed for 2m telescope. Affected by various errors in the alignment process, the rotating axis K, the optical axis of the K mirror, and the optical axis of the telescope's optical system can't be fully coincide. This causes the track optical axis drawn on the image is not a point, but a Pascal's limacon. The impact caused by the various sources of error were analyzed in this paper and simulation results have important guiding significance for the alignment error distribution.

  5. The New Instrument Suite of the TSU/Fairborn 2m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Maxwell, T.; Williamson, M. W.; Fekel, F. C.; Ge, J.; Kelly, J.; Ghasempour, A.; Powell, S.; Zhao, B.; Varosi, F.; Schofield, S.; Liu, J.; Warner, C.; Jakeman, H.; Avner, L.; Swihart, S.; Harrison, C.; Fishler, D.

    2014-01-01

    Tied with the Liverpool Telescope as the world's largest fully robotic optical research telescope, Tennessee State University's (TSU) 2m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) has recently been upgraded to improve performance and increase versatility by supporting multiple instruments. Its second-generation instrument head enables us to rapidly switch between any of up to twelve fibers optics, each of which can supply light to a different instrument. In 2013 construction was completed on a new temperature-controlled guest instrument building, and two new high resolution spectrographs were commissioned. The current set of instrumentation includes (1) the telescope's original R=30,000 echelle spectrograph (0.38--0.83 microns simultaneous), (2) a single order R=7,000 spectrograph centered at Ca H&K features, (3) a single-mode-fiber fed miniature echelle spectrograph (R=100,000; 0.48--0.62 microns simultaneous), (4) the University of Florida's EXPERT-3 spectrograph (R=100,000; 0.38--0.9 microns simultaneous; vacuum and temperature controlled) and (5) the University of Florida's FIRST spectrograph (R=70,000$; 0.8--1.35 or 1.4--1.8 microns simultaneous; vacuum and temperature controlled). Future instruments include the Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) Testbed, a combination low resolution dispersed spectrograph and Fourier Transform Spectrograph. We welcome inquiries from the community in regards to observing access and/or proposals for future guest instruments.

  6. RoboNet-1.0: A Prototype Global Network of Large Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, M. F.; Cardiff U. Collaboration; U. Hertfordshire Collaboration; U. Leicester Collaboration; St Andrews U. Collaboration; Queens U., Belfast Collaboration; Mullard Space Science Lab. Collaboration; U. Exeter Collaboration; U. Southampton Collaboration; U. Manchester Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    Involving a consortium of 10 UK universities, RoboNet-1.0 comprises the Liverpool Telescope (LT, La Palma), plus specially allocated time on the Faulkes Telescope North (FTN, Maui) and Faulkes Telescope South (FTS, Siding Spring, Australia). All three are essentially identical 2m telescopes equipped for both optical photometry and spectroscopy and operated from a common centre in Liverpool. The LT is primarily for research use whereas the FTs are mainly dedicated to education. Software developed by the eSTAR GRID project is being applied and enhanced to enable efficient and effective operation of the network. The primary scientific projects being addressed by RoboNet-1.0 are (a) rapid follow-up of Gamma Ray Burst sources detected by missions such as Swift, and (b) the detection of extra-solar planets via microlensing. Observations with the network began in August 2004. This is a pre-cursor project to the establishment of the full RoboNet global network of six dedicated telescopes which would greatly enhance work in several important branches of time domain astrophysics. Operation of the Liverpool Telescope and RoboNet-1.0 are funded by the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. The Faulkes Telescopes are funded by the Dill Faulkes Educational Trust.

  7. Some aspects of lunar photography with an 8-inch (0.2m) Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, J. C. D.

    1992-04-01

    A brief review of telescope properties and basic data on the Moon leads to some pragmatic conclusions on how to take a high resolution photograph of the lunar surface through an 8-inch (0.2m) Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope using a single lens reflex camera body as the film holder.

  8. Two color satellite laser ranging upgrades at Goddard's 1.2m telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Mcgarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Varghese, Thomas K.

    1993-01-01

    The ranging laboratory at Goddard's 1.2 m telescope tracking facility has recently been upgraded to include a single photoelectron sensitive Hamamatsu streak camera-based range receiver which uses doubled and tripled Nd:YAG frequencies for satellite laser ranging. Other ranging system upgrades include a new continuum laser, which will deliver up to 30 millijoules (mJ) at both 532 and 355 nm at a pulsewidth of 30 picoseconds (FWHM), and replacement of both ranging and tracking computers with COMPAQ 386 based systems. Preliminary results using a photomultiplier-tube based receiver and waveform digitizer indicate agreement within the accuracy of the measurement with the theoretical Marini and Murray model for atmospheric refraction. Two color streak camera measurements are used to further analyze the accuracy of these and other atmospheric refraction models.

  9. Two color satellite laser ranging upgrades at Goddard's 1.2m telescope facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; McGarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Varghese, Thomas K.

    1993-06-01

    The ranging laboratory at Goddard's 1.2 m telescope tracking facility has recently been upgraded to include a single photoelectron sensitive Hamamatsu streak camera-based range receiver which uses doubled and tripled Nd:YAG frequencies for satellite laser ranging. Other ranging system upgrades include a new continuum laser, which will deliver up to 30 millijoules (mJ) at both 532 and 355 nm at a pulsewidth of 30 picoseconds (FWHM), and replacement of both ranging and tracking computers with COMPAQ 386 based systems. Preliminary results using a photomultiplier-tube based receiver and waveform digitizer indicate agreement within the accuracy of the measurement with the theoretical Marini and Murray model for atmospheric refraction. Two color streak camera measurements are used to further analyze the accuracy of these and other atmospheric refraction models.

  10. The 64 Mpixel wide field imager for the Wendelstein 2m telescope: design and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyra, Ralf; Gössl, Claus; Hopp, Ulrich; Lang-Bardl, Florian; Riffeser, Arno; Bender, Ralf; Seitz, Stella

    2014-11-01

    The Wendelstein Observatory of Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich has recently been upgraded with a modern 2m robotic telescope. One Nasmyth port of the telescope has been equipped with a wide-field corrector which preserves the excellent image quality (<0.8 " median seeing) of the site (Hopp et al. 2008) over a field of view of 0.7 degrees diameter. The available field is imaged by an optical imager (WWFI, the Wendelstein Wide Field Imager) built around a customized 2×2 mosaic of 4 k×4 k 15 μm e2v CCDs from Spectral Instruments. This paper provides an overview of the design and the WWFI's performance. We summarize the system mechanics (including a structural analysis), the electronics (and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) protection) and the control software. We discuss in detail detector system parameters, i.e. gain and readout noise, quantum efficiency as well as charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and persistent charges. First on sky tests yield overall good predictability of system throughput based on lab measurements.

  11. Investigation into the Potential of Investigative Projects Involving Powerful Robotic Telescopes to Inspire Interest in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Faulkes Telescope Project and its educational aims are briefly summarised. Research to evaluate its impact in inspiring excitement and interest among students is described. The Faulkes Telescope in Hawaii was used to provide images for assessed coursework based on two of the Faulkes "education/research" projects on galaxies. Students'…

  12. Auxiliary instruments for the absolute calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Maria C.; Segreto, Alberto; Catalano, Osvaldo; La Rosa, Giovanni; Russo, Francesco; Sottile, Giuseppe; Gargano, Carmelo; Biondo, Benedetto; Fiorini, Mauro; Incorvaia, Salvatore; Toso, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is the end-to-end prototype telescope under development by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF, proposed for the investigation of the highest-energy gamma-ray band in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be installed in Italy at the INAF station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna during Fall 2014. The calibration and scientific validation phase will start soon after. The calibration of a Cherenkov telescope includes several items and tools. The ASTRI SST- 2M camera is equipped with an internal fiber illumination system that allows to perform the relative calibration through monitoring of gain and efficiency variations of each pixel. The absolute calibration of the overall system, including optics, will take advantage from auxiliary instrumentation, namely UVscope and UVSiPM, two small-aperture multi-pixels photon detectors NIST calibrated in lab. During commissioning phase, to measure the main features of ASTRI SST-2M, as its overall spectral response, the main telescope and the auxiliary UVscope-UVSiPM will be illuminated simultaneously by a spatially uniform flux generated by a ground-based light source, named Illuminator, placed at a distance of few hundreds meters. Periodically, during clear nights, the flux profiles of a reference star tracked simultaneously by ASTRI SST-2M and UVscope-UVSiPM will allow to evaluate the total atmospheric attenuation and the absolute calibration constant of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype. In this contribution we describe the auxiliary UVscope-UVSiPM and Illuminator sub-system together with an overview of the end-to-end calibration procedure foreseen for the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype.

  13. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: prototype technologies goals and strategies for the future SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Busatta, Andrea; Giacomel, Stefano; Folla, Ivan; Valsecchi, Marco; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Cascone, Enrico; Conconi, Paolo; Fiorini, Mauro; Giro, Enrico; La Palombara, Nicola; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Sironi, Giorgia; Stringhetti, Luca; Toso, Giorgio; Tosti, Gino; Pellicciari, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will represent the next generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope. Using a combination of large-, medium-, and small-scale telescopes (LST, MST, SST, respectively), it will explore the Very High Energy domain from a few tens of GeVup to about few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging quality. In this framework, the Italian ASTRI program, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) developed a 4-meter class telescope, which will adopt an aplanatic, wide-field, double-reflection optical layout in a Schwarzschild- Couder configuration. Within this program INAF assigned to the consortium between Galbiati Group and EIE Group the construction, assembly and tests activities of the prototype named ASTRI SST-2M. On the basis of the lesson learnt from the prototype, other telescopes will be produced, starting from a re-design phase, in order to optimize performances and the overall costs and production schedule for the CTA-SST telescope. This paper will firstly give an overview of the concept for the SST prototype mount structure. In this contest, the technologies adopted for the design, manufacturing and tests of the entire system will be presented. Moreover, a specific focus on the challenges of the prototype and the strategies associated with it will be provided, in order to outline the near future performance goals for this type of Cherenkov telescopes employed for Gamma ray science.

  14. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  15. VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope no. 1 (as on September 7, 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    ESO Press Photos 28-30/95; 13 September 1995 The construction of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) advances rapidly, both in Europe and in Chile. These three photos show some of the main mechanical parts of the first 8.2-metre telescope, as they presented themselves in Milan (Italy) on Thursday, September 7, 1995. Two versions of these photos, one smaller and one larger and with better image resolution, are accessible for convenient transfer over the networks. The mechanical structure of VLT Unit Telescope no. 1 is now in the process of being mounted at the Ansaldo Energia premises in Milan (Italy). The so-called main structure (i.e., telescope azimuth and altitude mechanical structure, including hydrostatic bearing system, direct drives and direct mounted encoding system) was designed and is being built by the Italian consortium AES, composed of Ansaldo Energia (Genova), SOIMI (Milan) and EIE (Venice). Already two months from now, in November 1995, the complete, enormous mechanical structures of this telescope will be moving on the azimuth hydrostatic bearing tracks, using the direct drive system designed and built by the PHASE Company (Genova, Italy). The thorough testing phase will start by the end of December 1995 or at the beginning of January 1996. ESO Press Photo 28/95 [54K] [248K] shows the lower part of the azimuth structure of the telescope (the fork) on the concrete pier on which the azimuth tracks (hydrostatic bearing journal) are mounted. The very high accuracy of this enormous structure (compare with the persons in the photo!) is illustrated by the fact that the "run-out" of the azimuth axis of the fork has been measured as only 80 microns (0.08 millimetres) on 90 degrees turning angle. This is a remarkable result, especially since the centering of the axis is done on a radial journal with a diameter of no less than 9 metres. When the fork is equipped with all auxiliary systems, it will weigh about 320 t, will be 18 metres long and 8 metres wide. It

  16. Early-Time Observations of GRBs afterglow with 2-m Robotic Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Melandri, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Steele, I. A.; Carter, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Bersier, D.; Bode, M. F.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Monfardini, A.

    2007-08-21

    In the era of rapid and accurate localisation of Gamma Ray Bursts by the Swift satellite, high quality early time multi-wavelength light curves, obtained by space and ground-based robotic telescopes, have shown that the standard 'smooth temporal power law decays' typical of late-time afterglow emission can be substantially modified at early times by e.g. energy injection from long-lived central engines, and/or interactions between the ejecta and clumps in the surrounding circumburst medium. Well-sampled optical light curves (covering a wide range in time, brightness and redshift) together with early-time polarimetry provide a powerful probe of the physics of GRBs, their ejecta and their environments. Here we summarise the GRB followup programme being conducted on a network of the world's three largest robotic telescopes that aims to obtain early-time multicolour photometric and polarimetric measurements crucial for the understanding of GRB physics.

  17. ATLAST-9.2m: a Large-Aperture Deployable Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oergerle, William; Feinberg, Lee D.; Purves, Lloyd R.; Hyde, T. Tupper; Thronson, Harley A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Postman, Marc; Bolear, Matthew R.; Budinoff, Jason G.; Dean, Bruce H.; Clampin, Mark C.; Ebbets, Dennis C.; Gong, Qian; Gull, Theodore R.; Howard, Joseph M.; Jones, Andrew L.; Lyon, Richard G.; Pasquale, Bert A.; Perrygo, Charles; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), designed to operate in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit. The primary mirror of the segmented 9.2-meter aperture has 36 hexagonal 1.315 m (flat to flat) glass mirrors. The architecture and folding of the telescope is similar to JWST, allowing it to fit into the 6.5 m fairing of a modest upgrade to the Delta-IV Heavy version of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). We discuss the overall observatory design, optical design, instruments, stray light, wavefront sensing and control, pointing and thermal control, and in-space servicing options.

  18. Numerical simulation of thermal effects on a 2m space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yanjue; Zhao, Fu; Zhang, Li; Xiang, Huiyu; Wang, Ping

    2009-12-01

    The primary mirror is a key component of large-scale space telescope, and its thermal effects analysis is an important guideline to thermal design and control of optical system. Based on Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) method and thermodynamics coupling theory, the heat-induced distortion and the effects of temperature distribution such as edge, axial and radial temperature grads acted on the primary mirror are analyzed in this paper. According to the design requirement and the numerical simulation results, the effective means of thermal control for the primary mirror are suggested.

  19. Coronagraphic Wavefront Control for the ATLAST-9.2m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, RIchard G.; Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Dean, Bruce H.; Mosier, Gary E.; Postman, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology for Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) concept was assessed as one of the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concepts (ASMC) studies. Herein we discuss the 9.2-meter diameter segmented aperture version and its wavefront sensing and control (WFSC) with regards to coronagraphic detection and spectroscopic characterization of exoplanets. The WFSC would consist of at least two levels of sensing and control: (i) an outer coarser level of sensing and control to phase and control the segments and secondary mirror in a manner similar to the James Webb Space Telescope but operating at higher temporal bandwidth, and (ii) an inner, coronagraphic instrument based, fine level of sensing and control for both amplitude and wavefront errors operating at higher temporal bandwidths. The outer loop would control rigid-body actuators on the primary and secondary mirrors while the inner loop would control one or more segmented deformable mirror to suppress the starlight within the coronagraphic field-of view. Herein we discuss the visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) and the requirements it levies on wavefront sensing and control and show the results of closed-loop simulations to assess performance and evaluate the trade space of system level stability versus control bandwidth.

  20. Operation of the University of Hawaii 2.2 M Telescope on Mauna KEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Donald N. B.

    1997-01-01

    During the period October 5, 1993-October 31, 1997, operation of the University of Hawaii's 2.2-meter telescope was partially funded by NASA Planetary Astronomy Program. During the grant period, the fraction of observing time devoted to studies of solar system objects (e.g., planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, and comets) was approximately 24% (i.e., it exceeded the fractional funding provided by this NASA grant). The number of nights allocated to planetary observing time is summarized. Proposals for use of the solar system observing time coming from within and outside the University of Hawaii competed for this observing time on an equal basis; applications were judged on scientific merit by a time allocation committee at the University of Hawaii.

  1. A cost-effective and serviceable ATLAST 9.2m telescope architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Jones, Andrew; Mosier, Gary; Rioux, Norman; Redding, Dave; Kienlen, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The ATLAST 9.2m architecture has evolved to be more cost effective while also meeting a more thorough understanding of the driving science requirements. The new approach can fit in an existing Delta IV Heavy rocket and makes extensive use of heritage and selective use of technology in order to minimize development time and cost. We have performed a more thorough look at how to meet the stability requirements for both thermal and dynamics and have an approach consistent with an initial error budget. In addition, we have developed concepts to support robotic or human servicing in a cost effective manner through a modular approach that relies on simple, external access and metrology. These refinements to the architecture enable a cost-effective, long-lifecycle, and relatively low risk approach to development.

  2. Science Programs for a 2-m Class Telescope at Dome C, Antarctica: PILOT, the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, M. G.; Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Bailey, J. A.; Blake, C.; Bedding, T. R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bond, I. A.; Glazebrook, K.; Hidas, M. G.; Lewis, G.; Longmore, S. N.; Maddison, S. T.; Mattila, S.; Minier, V.; Ryder, S. D.; Sharp, R.; Smith, C. H.; Storey, J. W. V.; Tinney, C. G.; Tuthill, P.; Walsh, A. J.; Walsh, W.; Whiting, M.; Wong, T.; Woods, D.; Yock, P. C. M.

    2005-08-01

    The cold, dry, and stable air above the summits of the Antarctic plateau provides the best ground-based observing conditions from optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths to be found on the Earth. Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope (PILOT) is a proposed 2m telescope, to be built at Dome C in Antarctica, able to exploit these conditions for conducting astronomy at optical and infrared wavelengths. While PILOT is intended as a pathfinder towards the construction of future grand-design facilities, it will also be able to undertake a range of fundamental science investigations in its own right. This paper provides the performance specifications for PILOT, including its instrumentation. It then describes the kinds of projects that it could best conduct. These range from planetary science to the search for other solar systems, from star formation within the Galaxy to the star formation history of the Universe, and from gravitational lensing caused by exo-planets to that produced by the cosmic web of dark matter. PILOT would be particularly powerful for wide-field imaging at infrared wavelengths, achieving near diffraction-limited performance with simple tip-tilt wavefront correction. PILOT would also be capable of near diffraction-limited performance in the optical wavebands, as well be able to open new wavebands for regular ground-based observation, in the mid-IR from 17 to 40μm and in the sub-millimetre at 200μm.

  3. EURONEAR—Recovery, follow-up and discovery of NEAs and MBAs using large field 1-2 m telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Birlan, M.; Tudorica, A.; Sonka, A.; Pozo, F. N.; Barr, A. D.; Asher, D. J.; Licandro, J.; Ortiz, J. L.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Popescu, M.; Nedelcu, A.; Dumitru, D.; Toma, R.; Comsa, I.; Vancea, C.; Vidican, D.; Opriseanu, C.; Badescu, T.; Badea, M.; Constantinescu, M.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the follow-up and recovery of 100 program NEAs, PHAs and VIs using the ESO/MPG 2.2 m, Swope 1 m and INT 2.5 m telescopes equipped with large field cameras. The 127 fields observed during 11 nights covered 29 square degrees. Using these data, we present the incidental survey work which includes 558 known MBAs and 628 unknown moving objects mostly consistent with MBAs from which 58 objects became official discoveries. We planned the runs using six criteria and four servers which focus mostly on faint and poorly observed objects in need of confirmation, follow-up and recovery. We followed 62 faint NEAs within one month after discovery and we recovered 10 faint NEAs having big uncertainties at their second or later opposition. Using the INT we eliminated four PHA candidates and VIs. We observed in total 1286 moving objects and we reported more than 10,000 positions. All data were reduced by the members of our network in a team effort, and reported promptly to the MPC. The positions of the program NEAs were published in 27 MPC and MPEC references and used to improve their orbits. The O-C residuals for known MBAs and program NEAs are smallest for the ESO/MPG and Swope and about four times larger for the INT whose field is more distorted. For the astrometric reduction, the UCAC-2 catalog is recommended instead of USNO-B1. The incidental survey allowed us to study statistics of the MBA and NEA populations observable today with 1-2 m facilities. We calculate preliminary orbits for all unknown objects, classifying them as official discoveries, later identifications and unknown outstanding objects. The orbital elements a, e, i calculated by FIND_ORB software for the official discoveries and later identified objects are very similar with the published elements which take into account longer observational arcs; thus preliminary orbits were used in statistics for the whole unknown dataset. We present a basic model which can be used to distinguish between MBAs and

  4. Test and analysis of the stability of friction drive of the vertical axis of the 1.2 m alt-az telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hesheng; Jiang, Chongguo; Wu, Wang; Wang, Jinso; Zhang, Yuncheng; Xiong, Yaoheng; Yang, Wanjiang; Niu, Xin

    The test and analysis of the static and dynamic stability of friction drive of the vertical axis of the 1.2 m alt-az telescope at Yunnan Observatory are carried out. The actual velocities and accelerations to be needed for tracking the Moon and the Lageos satellite are simulated. The tested results show that the stability of friction drive system can meet the needs of the ±1″tracking accuracy.

  5. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste; Xilouris, Manolis; Boumis, Panos; Bellas-Velidis, Ioannis; Maroussis, Athanasios; Dapergolas, Anastasios; Fytsilis, Anastasios; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Tsinganos, Kanaris

    2015-08-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects (NEOs) via lunar monitoring. The project involves upgrading the 1.2m Kryoneri telescope at the National Observatory of Athens, procuring two fast-frame cameras, and developing a software system, which will control the telescope and the cameras, process the images and automatically detect NEO impacts. NELIOTA will provide a web-based user interface, where the impact events will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The impact events will be verified, characterised and reported. The 1.2m telescope will be capable of detecting flashes much fainter than current, small-aperture, lunar monitoring telescopes. NELIOTA is therefore expected to characterise the frequency and distribution of NEOs weighing as little as a few grams.

  6. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Xilouris, M.; Boumis, P.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Maroussis, A.; Dapergolas, A.; Fytsilis, A.; Charmandaris, V.; Tsiganis, K.; Tsinganos, K.

    2016-01-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects (NEOs) via lunar monitoring. The project involves upgrading the 1.2m Kryoneri telescope of the National Observatory of Athens, building a two fast-frame camera instrument, and developing a software system, which will control the telescope and the cameras, process the images and automatically detect NEO impacts. NELIOTA will provide a web-based user interface, where the impact events will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The impact events will be verified, characterised and reported. The 1.2m telescope will be capable of detecting flashes much fainter than current, small-aperture, lunar monitoring telescopes. NELIOTA is therefore expected to characterise the frequency and distribution of NEOs weighing as little as a few grams.

  7. A low cost, high performance, 1.2m off-axis telescope built with NG-Xinetics silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Justin J.; Wellman, John A.; Egan, Richard G.; Wollensak, Richard J.

    2011-09-01

    The search for extrasolar habitable planets is one of three major astrophysics priorities identified for the next decade. These missions demand very high performance visible-wavelength optical imaging systems. Such high performance space telescopes are typically extremely expensive and can be difficult for government agencies to afford in today's economic climate, and most lower cost systems offer little benefit because they fall short on at least one of the following three key performance parameters: imaging wavelength, total system-level wavefront error and aperture diameter. Northrop Grumman Xinetics has developed a simple, lightweight, low-cost telescope design that will address the near-term science objectives of this astrophysics theme with the required optical performance, while reducing the telescope cost by an order of magnitude. Breakthroughs in SiC mirror manufacturing, integrated wavefront sensing, and high TRL deformable mirror technology have finally been combined within the same organization to offer a complete end-to-end telescope system in the lower end of the Class D cost range. This paper presents the latest results of real OAP polishing and metrology data, an optimized optical design, and finite element derived WFE

  8. The research on property of servo-control and drive system for 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. The function of servo system compensation network in control system (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhu-Lian; Xiong, Yao-Heng

    2005-06-01

    According to the requirement of SLR (Satellite Laser Range) using 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope of Yunnan Observatory, and the analysis of function of cascade compensation network in control system and the observation results, the compensation network of servo system of 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope, and the performance of control system after its compensation are discussed in this article. When friction drive is fulfilled by two torque motors, and PD compensation network in servo control system is used, it is found that the capability of rapid tracking of the 1.2 m telescope is actually improved, and the telescope can achieve 10°/s2 of maximum azimuth angle acceleration, 5°/s of maximum azimuth angle velocity, and it can meet the demand of tracking satellites near the Earth.

  9. The property of servo-control and drive system for 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. Mechanics characteristics of single and multi-point friction drives (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhu-Lian; Xiong, Yao-Heng

    2005-03-01

    According to the special requirement we have made the Laser Ranging for satellites on the low orbit of the Earth using the 1.2 m Alt-Az telescope. This article discusses the mechanics characteristics of single and multi-point friction drives of the telescope. When friction drives are fulfilled with two moment electromotors, the telescope an reach 10°/s2 of maximum azimuth angle acceleration and 5°/s of maximum azimuth angle velocity. This can meet the demand of tracking satellites near the Earth.

  10. Faulkes Telescope observations of the optical rise of a bright outburst of Aql X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, David M.; Lewis, Fraser

    2016-08-01

    The neutron star X-ray binary transient, Aql X-1 has just entered a new outburst. Swift/BAT detected an increase in the hard X-ray flux starting on 2016 July 29 (MJD 57598; ATel #9287), followed by a confirmation from Swift/XRT that the source is detected and bright at 0.3-10 keV (ATel #9292) and by July 31 the optical flux had also brightened (ATel #9293).

  11. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the next generation of Cherenkov telescopes: a single framework approach from requirement analysis to integration and verification strategy definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Mauro; La Palombara, Nicola; Stringhetti, Luca; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Giro, Enrico; Leto, Giuseppe; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Pareschi, Giovanni; Tosti, Gino; Vercellone, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    ASTRI is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, which aims to develop an endto- end prototype of one of the three types of telescopes to be part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), an observatory which will be the main representative of the next generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. The ASTRI project, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF), has proposed an original design for the Small Size Telescope, which is aimed to explore the uppermost end of the Very High Energy domain up to about few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging quality. It is characterized by challenging and innovative technological solutions which will be adopted for the first time in a Cherenkov telescope: a dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder configuration, a modular, light and compact camera based on silicon photomultipliers, and a front-end electronic based on a specifically designed ASIC. The end-to-end project is also including all the data-analysis software and the data archive. In this paper we describe the process followed to derive the ASTRI specifications from the CTA general requirements, a process which had to take into proper account the impact on the telescope design of the different types of the CTA requirements (performance, environment, reliability-availability-maintenance, etc.). We also describe the strategy adopted to perform the specification verification, which will be based on different methods (inspection, analysis, certification, and test) in order to demonstrate the telescope compliance with the CTA requirements. Finally we describe the integration planning of the prototype assemblies (structure, mirrors, camera, control software, auxiliary items) and the test planning of the end-to-end telescope. The approach followed by the ASTRI project is to have all the information needed to report the verification process along all project stages in a single

  12. Optical data of ERS obtained at 60 cm ASV and 2m Rozhen telescopes useful for the link ICRF-Gaia CRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damljanovic, G.; Taris, F.; Boeva, S.; Latev, G.

    2014-12-01

    After the GAIA observations (ESA mission) a new optical celestial reference frame (CRF) will be provided which will replace the Hipparcos one. CRF will be dense and based on QSOs (quasi stellar objects). The plan for Gaia is to survey stars and QSOs brighter than 20 mag; it means, about 500 000 extragalactic sources (ERS) and billion stars of our galaxy. Till now, only nearly 10% of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) objects (about 70 common sources) are useful for the link between VLBI (radio) and future Gaia (optical) frames with the highest accuracy. It is because some sources are not optically bright enough, and some of them are not point-like ones but extended sources; the extended sources are not suitable for Gaia astrometric accuracy. So, it is necessary to detect, observe and determine the astrometric positions of common sources in both (optical and radio) domains. For the purpose of mentioned aligning the radio and optical frames, we need as much as possible additional optically bright QSOs (with magnitudes up to 18 and compact structures). The morphology and photometry variations of common QSOs make displacement of their optical photocenters. That displacement could be critical for this link. For morphology investigations, we also included the observations of QSOs made during the period 2011-2013 at the RCC telescope (of Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences); the CCD camera VersArray 1300B was used, and D=F = 2=16. For photometry investigations, we use, among others, the 60 cm ASV telescope (Astronomical Station Vidojevica of Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade, Serbia); the CCD is Apogee U42, and D=F = 0:6=6. We present particularly some data obtained at these telescopes.

  13. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  14. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  15. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network: Keeping Education in the Dark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. J.

    2011-09-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) is creating a network of telescopes to be placed around the world providing 24/7 sky coverage of both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. These telescopes will range in size from 0.4 m to 2.0 m and will be available for scientific and educational uses in both real-time and in a queue-scheduler. The educational uses of LCOGT will be primarily online through our website (http://www.lcogt.net) where there will be how-to guides, ideas for activities, opportunities for participating in research projects with our astronomers, full access to the public archive, as well as an online community built through forums and groups. Content will be visible to all, although registered users will have the ability to add resources, post on blogs and forums, comment and rate existing pages and resources, collaborate in world-wide projects, and much more. The current network includes the two 2.0 m Faulkes Telescopes on Haleakala, Maui and at Siding Spring, Australia. A 0.8 m telescope located at Sedgwick Reserve in the Santa Ynez Valley is nearly commissioned and will be used both for local outreach events as well as on the LCOGT network. The first pair of 0.4 m telescopes has been deployed to Maui and are enclosed inside the clamshell dome with Faulkes Telescope North (FTN), but still have some time to go before they are fully commissioned. The site in Chile is currently being prepped for three 1.0 m and two pairs of 0.4 m telescopes with the site in South Africa to follow shortly. Other sites include the Canary Islands, a site in North America, one in Asia, and another site in Australia. The 0.4 m telescopes will be deployed by pair and the 1.0 m telescopes will be deployed in groups of two or three, all with research-grade instrumentation.

  16. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  17. SNAP telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  18. Teaching Telescopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John S.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses experience of teaching optical experiments with emphasis upon the student's design and construction of refracting and reflecting telescopes. Concludes that the student's interest and acquired knowledge are greatly enhanced through the use of realistic experiments. (CC)

  19. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  20. Interferometry with the ESO Very Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Luehe, Oskar; Derie, Frederic; Koehler, Bertrand; Leveque, Samuel A.; Paresce, Francesco; Verola, Massimo

    1997-03-01

    The interferometric mode of the ESO very large telescope (VLT) permits coherent combination of stellar light beams collected by four telescopes with 8 m diameter and by several auxiliary telescopes of the 2 m class. While the position of the 8 m telescopes is fixed, auxiliary telescopes can be moved on rails, and can operate from 30 stations distributed on the top of the observatory site for efficient UV coverage. Coherent beam combination can be achieved with the 8 m telescopes alone, with the auxiliary telescopes alone, or with any combination, up to eight telescopes in total. A distinct feature of the interferometric mode is the high sensitivity due to the 8 m pupil of the main telescopes, with the potential for adaptive optics compensation in the near- infrared spectral regime. The VLT interferometer is conceived as an evolutionary program where a significant fraction of the interferometer's functionality is initially funded, and more capability may be added later while experience is gained and further funding becomes available. The scientific program is now defined by a team which consists of a VLTI scientist at ESO and fifteen astronomers from the VLT community. ESO has recently decided to resume the construction of the VLTI which was delayed in December 1993, in order to achieve first interferometric fringes with two of the 8 m telescopes around the year 2000, and routine operation with 2 m auxiliary telescopes from 2003 onwards. This paper presents an overview of the recent evolution of the project and its future development.

  1. The Liverpool Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert J.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, Neil R.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Steele, I. A.; Tomlinson, M. D.

    2011-03-01

    The Liverpool Telescope (LT) is a fully robotic 2m optical telescope at a world-class observatory site. It runs autonomously without direct human control either on site or remotely. It is not operated primarily for a single science project, but rather is a common-user facility, time allocated by an open, peer-review process and conducting a variety of optical and IR imaging, spectroscopic and polarimetric programs. This paper describes some of aspects of the site infrastructure and instrument suite designed specifically to support robust and reliable unsupervised operations. Aside from the telescope hardware, the other aspect of robotic operations is the mechanisms whereby users interact with the telescope and its automated scheduler. We describe how these have been implemented for the LT. Observing routinely since 2004, the LT has demonstrated it is possible to operate a large, common-user robotic observatory. Making the most of the flexibility afforded by fully robotic operations, development continues in collaboration with both observers and other observatories to develop observing modes to enable new science across the broad discipline of time-domain astrophysics.

  2. Present and Future of M2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Satoru; Watanabe, Takashi

    In recent years, the rapid progress in the development of hardware and software technologies enables tiny and low cost information devices hereinafter referred to as Machine to be widely available. M2M (Machine to Machine) has been of much attention where many tiny machines are connected to each other through networks with minimal human intervention to provide smooth and intelligent management. M2M is a promising core technology providing timely, flexible, efficient and comprehensive service at low cost. M2M has wide variety of applications including energy management system, environmental monitoring system, intelligent transport system, industrial automation system and other applications. M2M consists of terminals and networks that connect them. In this paper, we mainly focus on M2M networking and mention the future direction of the technology.

  3. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  4. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  5. Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, C. W.

    2001-05-01

    Since the discovery of gamma-ray bursts, a number of groups have attempted to detect correlated optical transients from these elusive objects. Following the flight of the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in 1991, a prompt burst coordinate alert service, BACODINE (now GCN) became available to ground-based telescopes. Several instruments were built to take advantage of this facility, culminating in the discovery of a bright optical flash associated with GRB990123. To date, that single observation remains unique - no other prompt flashes have been seen for a dozen or so other bursts observed with comparably short response times. Thus, GRB prompt optical luminosities may be considerably dimmer than observed for the GRB990123 event or even absent altogether. A new generation of instruments is prepared to explore these possibilties using burst coordinates provided by HETE-2, Swift, Ballerina, Agile and other satellite missions. These telescopes have response times as short as a few seconds and reach limiting magnitudes, m_v 20, guaranteeing a sensitivity sufficient to detect the afterglow many hours later. Results from these experiments should provide important new data about the dynamics and locale of GRBs.

  6. Zone generator for Large Space Telescope technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    A concept is presented for monitoring the optical adjustment and performance of a Large Space Telescope which consists of a 1.2m diameter turntable with a laser stylus to operate at speeds up to 30 rpm. The focus of the laser stylus is under closed loop control. A technique for scribing zones of suitable depth, width, and uniformity applicable to large telescope mirrors is also reported.

  7. Neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, H.

    2012-09-15

    Neutrino astrophysics offers a new possibility to observe our Universe: high-energy neutrinos, produced by the most energetic phenomena in our Galaxy and in the Universe, carry complementary (if not exclusive) information about the cosmos: this young discipline extends in fact the conventional astronomy beyond the usual electromagnetic probe. The weak interaction of neutrinos with matter allows them to escape from the core of astrophysical objects and in this sense they represent a complementary messenger with respect to photons. However, their detection on Earth due to the small interaction cross section requires a large target mass. The aim of this article is to review the scientific motivations of the high-energy neutrino astrophysics, the detection principles together with the description of a running apparatus, the experiment ANTARES, the performance of this detector with some results, and the presentation of other neutrino telescope projects.

  8. The CCAT Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Jason; CCAT

    2013-01-01

    CCAT will be a 25 m diameter on-axis Gregory telescope operating in the 0.2 to 2.1 mm wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude of 5600 m on Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. CCAT will support cameras and spectrometers with up to 1 field of view at its f/6 Nasmyth foci. The key performance requirements for the telescope are a half wavefront error <12.5 μm rms and pointing error <0.35"/350 μm). CCAT will have an f/0.4 primary with an active surface to compensate gravitational and thermal deformations. The primary will be made of 2 m keystone-shaped segments, each with 16 machined aluminum tiles mounted on a carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastic (CFRP) subframe. The segments will be supported by a CFRP spaceframe truss on an elevation over azimuth mount made of steel. CCAT will be inside an enclosure to reduce wavefront and pointing errors due to wind forces and thermal deformation due to solar illumination.

  9. Development of 2 m×2 m size glass RPCs for INO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, M.; Datar, V. M.; Kalmani, S. D.; Lahamge, S. M.; Mohammed, S.; Mondal, N. K.; Nagaraj, P.; Redij, A.; Samuel, D.; Saraf, M. N.; Satyanarayana, B.; Shinde, R. R.; Verma, P.

    2012-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to build a massive 50 kt magnetised iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector to study atmospheric neutrinos and to precisely determine the neutrino oscillation parameters. About 30,000 2 m×2 m size glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) will be used as active detector elements in ICAL. Starting with a small 30 cm ×30 cm size RPCs, we have now succeeded in developing full size 2 m ×2 m RPCs. The fabrication procedures used for these large size RPCs as well as their performance will be discussed in this paper. We will also present some preliminary results from our studies on SF6 based gas mixtures on the RPC operation and characteristics.

  10. NLST: India's National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.; Soltau, D.; Kärcher, H.; Süß, M.; Berkefeld, T.

    2010-06-01

    This article introduces the new Indian 2 m telescope which has been designed by MT Mechatronics in a detailed conceptual design study for the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. We describe the background of the project and the science goals which shall be addressed with this telescope. NLST is a solar telescope with high optical throughput and will be equipped with an integrated Adaptive Optics system. It is optimized for a site with the kind of seeing and wind conditions as they are expected at a lake site in the Himalayan mountains. The telescope can also be used for certain night time applications. We also give the scientific rationale for this class of telescope.

  11. Mechanical concepts for 30 m class telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Warren B.; Angel, James Roger P.

    2003-01-01

    The 20 20 Telescope is a 30 meter class telescope comprised of two 21.2m collector telescopes on a 100m circular track. Each collector telescope has a focal ratio of F: 0.7 and is comprised of seven 8.4 m segments. There is an instrument bridge that carries the combining instrument. The proposal for 20 20 is to have discrete combiner stations for 30,60,and 100 meter baselines. Additional focal stations are implemented for Nasmyth and bent Cassegrain. The Track has the same segmented construction and tracking motion on hydrostatic bearings as LBT. The collector telescope buildings will co-track and co-rotate on separate tracks. The 30m design has the same basic shape as a single 21 meter Collector but many aspects are different. The 30 meter telescope is a single hexagonal aperture with a primary at F: 0.5. There are 13 that are 8.74m hexagons and 6 half hexagons. The 30m telescope has primarily Nasmyth platforms behind the primary mirror. Both telescopes have a 30 meter equivalent circular aperture. Both telescopes have high structural performance, at 6.5 Hz and 5.3 Hz respectively. Both are balanced, and use similar designed components. Comparison of their characteristics and design differences can show the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  12. Global Astrophysical Telescope System - telescope No. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, Krzysztof; Baranowski, Roman; Fagas, Monika; Borczyk, Wojciech; Dimitrov, Wojciech; Polińska, Magdalena

    2014-02-01

    We present the new, second spectroscopic telescope of Poznań Astronomical Observatory. The telescope allows automatic simultaneous spectroscopic and photometric observations and is scheduled to begin operation from Arizona in autumn 2013. Together with the telescope located in Borowiec, Poland, it will constitute a perfect instrument for nearly continuous spectroscopic observations of variable stars. With both instruments operational, the Global Astrophysical Telescope System will be established.

  13. Results from telescopes in orbit, and the greatest on the ground: A multifrequency study of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villicana Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin; Saucedo Morales, Julio Cesar; Armijos Abendaño, Jairo; Carreto, Francisco; Martin, Sergio; Mast, Damian; Diaz, Angeles

    2016-07-01

    In this work we present the result of combine and compare data from terrestrial observatories and space telescopes toward galaxies. We used the 8m NIR Gemini telescope at Chile, FIRST-Herschel in the space, ALMA interferometer at Chile, and Fermi telescope for gamma frequency in the space toward NGC1068. Also, we use a 2m optical/IR telescope at Mexico and the VLA interferometer in USA combined with Fermi telescope toward 3C454.3.

  14. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.; Rosing, W.; Pickles, A.; Howell, D. A.

    2009-05-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a privately-funded observatory dedicated to time-domain astronomy. Our main observing tool will be a homogeneous world-wide network of 12 x 1m optical telescopes, each equipped for both imaging and spectroscopy. We will also continue to operate 2m telscopes in Hawaii and Australia, and we plan to deploy a few tens of 0.4m imaging telescopes for education and for bright-object research. LCOGT has membership in the Pan-STARRS1 consortium, in the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and in LSST. In accord with these affiliations, our staff's scientific interests are concentrated in (but not restricted to) the areas of extrasolar planets, extragalactic transients (especially SNe), and pulsating stars. In this poster we describe the observatory in general terms, including its research agenda, its telescope deployment plans and schedule, its notable technical challenges, and its anticipated methods of working with the wider astronomical community. For more detailed information about LCOGT's aims and projects, please see the related posters in this session.

  15. GISOT: a giant solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; von der Lühe, Oskar F.; Bettonvil, Felix C.; Jägers, Aswin P.; Snik, Frans

    2004-10-01

    A concept is presented for an extremely large high-resolution solar telescope with an aperture of 11 m and diffraction limited for visual wavelengths. The structure of GISOT will be transparent to wind and placed on a transparent stiff tower. For efficient wind flushing, all optics, including the primary mirror, will be located above the elevation axis. The aperture will be of the order of 11 m, not rotatively symmetrical, but of an elongated shape with dimensions 11 x 4 m. It consists of a central on-axis 4 m mirror with on both sides 3 pieces of 2 m mirrors. The optical layout will be kept simple to guarantee quality and minimize stray light. A Coudé room for instruments is planned below the telescope. The telescope will not be housed in a dome-like construction, which interferes with the open principle. Instead the telescope will be protected by a foldable tent construction with a diameter of the order of 30 m, which doesn"t form any obstruction during observations, but can withstand the severe weather circumstances on mountain sites. Because of the nature of the solar scene, extremely high resolution in only one dimension is sufficient to solve many exciting problems in solar physics and in this respect the concept of GISOT is very promising.

  16. Coherent large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. E.

    Present ground-based telescopes are compared with those of the future. The inherent limitations of ground-based telescopes are reviewed, and existing telescopes and their evolution are briefly surveyed in order to see the trends that led to the present period of innovative telescope design. The major telescope types and the critical design factors that must be considered in designing large telescopes for the future are reviewed, emphasizing economicality. As an example, the Ten Meter Telescope project at the University of California is discussed in detail, including the telescope buildings, domes, and apertures, the telescope moving weights, the image quality, and the equipment. Finally, a brief review of current work in progress on large telescopes is given.

  17. Kinetics of the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, S. P.; Peterson, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The flash photolysis/ultraviolet absorption technique was used to measure the rate constants for the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M over the pressure range 50-700 torr and temperature range 229-362 K using He, O2, and N2 as diluent gases. The data were fit to the expression derived by Troe (1979) and co-workers for describing the pressure and temperature dependence of reactions in the falloff region. By combining these data with recent measurements of the rate constant for HO2NO2 thermal decomposition values of 73.8 + or - 2 eu for the standard entropy and -12.6 + or - kcal/mol for the standard enthalpy of formation of HO2NO2 were obtained. A significant enhancement in the rate constant was observed when water vapor was added to the system.

  18. System concepts for a series of lunar optical telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nein, Max E.; Davis, Billy G.; Hilchey, John D.

    1992-01-01

    The Lunar Telescope Working Group of the Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, has conducted conceptual studies of an evolutionary family of UV/ optical/IR telescopes to be based on the lunar surface. Included are: (1) the 16-m aperture Large Lunar Telescope; (2) the 4-m aperture precursor Lunar Cluster Telescope Experiment; and (3) the 2-m Lunar Transit Telescope proposed by John McGraw of the Steward Observatory. Development and emplacement of these advanced astronomical facilities would parallel the buildup of an initial lunar exploration site, an early lunar outpost, and a permanent lunar base. The Working Group has examined the feasibility of constructing such telescopes and assessed technology, subsystem, system, transportation, and operations requirements for their development and emplacement. Influences of the lunar environment and site selection on telescope design and operation were also evaluated.

  19. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Maria; Eichorn, William; Hill, Michael; Hylan, Jason; Marsh, James; Ohl, Raymond; Sampler, Henry; Wright, Geraldine; Crane, Allen; Herrera, Acey; Quigley, Robert; Jetten, Mark; Young, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approx.40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The ISIM optical metering structure is a roughly 2.2x1.7x2.2mY, asymmetric frame that is composed of carbon fiber and resin tubes bonded to invar end fittings and composite gussets and clips. The structure supports the SIs, isolates the SIs from the OTE, and supports thermal and electrical subsystems. The structure is attached to the OTE structure via strut-like kinematic mounts. The ISM structure must meet its requirements at the approx.40K cryogenic operating temperature. The SIs are aligned to the structure s coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. The ISM structure is thermally cycled for stress relief and in order to measure temperature-induced mechanical, structural changes. These ambient-to-cryogenic changes in the alignment of SI and OTE-related interfaces are an important component in the JWST Observatory alignment plan and must be verified.

  20. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  1. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  2. Coma-compensation telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacFarlane, Malcolm J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A telescope for eliminating on axis coma due to tilt of the secondary mirror in infrared astronomy. The secondary mirror of a reflecting telescope is formed to cause field coma to always be equal and opposite at the optical axis of the telescope to tilt coma regardless of the angle through the secondary mirror is tilted with respect to the optical axis.

  3. The space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers concerning the development of the Space Telescope which were presented at the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American Astronautical Society in August, 1975 are included. Mission planning, telescope performance, optical detectors, mirror construction, pointing and control systems, data management, and maintenance of the telescope are discussed.

  4. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network: Keeping Citizen Scientists in the Dark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. J.

    2012-08-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) is creating a network of telescopes at excellent sites around the world providing 24/7 all sky coverage for astronomical observations. The network of telescopes, ranging in size from 0.4 m to 2.0 m, will be available for both scientific and education users. The LCOGT telescopes are being built quickly and will be deployed soon. The two 2.0 m Faulkes Telescopes, one on Haleakala, Maui (FTN), the other at Siding Spring Observatory, Australia (FTS), are currently in operation. There is also a 0.8 m telescope in the Santa Ynez Valley, California (BOS), which is being used for commissioning and for many local outreach programs. The first 1.0 m telescopes will be heading to Chile and South Africa in 2011 and will each be accompanied by a 0.4 m telescope. Other sites, including Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), McDonald Observatory (Texas), Siding Spring (Australia), and Haleakala (Hawaii) will follow, with the possibility of up to two additional sites yet to be selected. The LCOGT education and public outreach effort is transforming into a "Citizen Science" program. Several projects will encompass taking observations through the network, analyzing the data, and sharing the results with other citizen scientists from around the world. The first of these projects, "Agent Exoplanet," will be launched in mid-2011, and will involve analyzing brand-new data to create a light curve of an exoplanet. As the network is not yet complete, this test project will not include actual observing as future ones will. More information about LCOGT and its Citizen Science program can be found online (http://www.lcogt.net). In addition to material to get started in the Citizen Science program, the website also includes resources and content for more hands-on activities using archived data, general astronomy pages, network information, complete access to the public data archive, current news, and recent publications. And don't forget to

  5. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  6. Grid-Observing: Creating a Global Network of Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessman, F. V.; Gelderman, R.; Naylor, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Steele, I.

    2004-12-01

    With the increasing switch from classical observing campaigns to service observations, the decreasing pressure on a large number of 1 - 2m telescopes, and the rapid growth in the number of robotic, autonomous telescopes, it has become possible to create a truly global network of telescopes - what we call ``Grid-Observing." Such a network would permit a variety of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring and temporal survey projects which cannot be performed either with current or proposed larger telescopes (e.g. LSST) or with individual telescopes operated by a single institution. Participating observatories can be ``paid" for the services they provide to the network by being able to extract an equivalent amount of time on other telescopes, scaled by aperture, spectral resolution, atmospheric conditions, and the costs of operation or willingness to provide such a service. An XML interface - Remote Telescope Markup Language - insures that communications within the network are simple and relatively easily adapted to existent observatory software and procedures. An eBay-like mechanism for the automatic scheduling of telescopes can provide the necessary flexibility needed to perform time-critical projects as well as insure that the participating institutions retain full control over their telescopes. We are planning on networking several robotic telescope in the near future and expect that many other robotic and non-robotic telescopes will follow.

  7. India's National Large Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    India's 2-m National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) is aimed primarily at carrying out observations of the solar atmosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution. A comprehensive site characterization program, that commenced in 2007, has identified two superb sites in the Himalayan region at altitudes greater than 4000-m that have extremely low water vapor content and are unaffected by monsoons. With an innovative optical design, the NLST is an on-axis Gregorian telescope with a low number of optical elements to reduce the number of reflections and yield a high throughput with low polarization. In addition, it is equipped with a high-order adaptive optics to produce close to diffraction limited performance. To control atmospheric and thermal perturbations of the observations, the telescope will function with a fully open dome, to achieve its full potential atop a 25 m tower. Given its design, NLST can also operate at night, without compromising its solar performance. The post-focus instruments include broad-band and tunable Fabry-Pérot narrow-band imaging instruments; a high resolution spectropolarimeter and an Echelle spectrograph for night time astronomy. This project is led by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and has national and international partners. Its geographical location will fill the longitudinal gap between Japan and Europe and is expected to be the largest solar telescope with an aperture larger than 1.5 m till the ATST and EST come into operation. An international consortium has been identified to build the NLST. The facility is expected to be commissioned by 2016.

  8. The Euro50 Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Torben; Ardeberg, Arne L.; Beckers, Jacques; Goncharov, Alexander; Owner-Petersen, Mette; Riewaldt, Holger; Snel, Ralph; Walker, David

    2003-01-01

    Euro50 is a proposed optical telescope with an equivalent primary mirror diameter of 50 m. Partners of the collaboration are institutes in Sweden, Spain, Ireland, Finland, and the UK. The telescope will have a segmented primary mirror and an aplanatic Gregorian configuration with two elliptical mirrors. For a 50 m telescope there would be no economical advantage in going to a spherical primary. The size of the primary mirror segments (2 m) has been selected on the basis of a minimization of cost. An adaptive optics system will be integrated into the telescope. The telescope will have three operational modes: Seeing limited observations, single conjugate adaptive observations in the K-band, and dual conjugate observations also in the K-band. An upgrade to adaptive optics also in the visible down to 500 nm is foreseen. There will be an enclosure to protect the telescope against adverse weather and wind disturbances. Integrated simulation models are under development. The project time will be 10 years and the cost some 591 MEuros.

  9. Adaptive-optics performance of Antarctic telescopes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Jon S

    2004-02-20

    The performance of natural guide star adaptive-optics systems for telescopes located on the Antarctic plateau is evaluated and compared with adaptive-optics systems operated with the characteristic mid-latitude atmosphere found at Mauna Kea. A 2-m telescope with tip-tilt correction and an 8-m telescope equipped with a high-order adaptive-optics system are considered. Because of the large isoplanatic angle of the South Pole atmosphere, the anisoplanatic error associated with an adaptive-optics correction is negligible, and the achievable resolution is determined only by the fitting error associated with the number of corrected wave-front modes, which depends on the number of actuators on the deformable mirror. The usable field of view of an adaptive-optics equipped Antarctic telescope is thus orders of magnitude larger than for a similar telescope located at a mid-latitude site; this large field of view obviates the necessity for multiconjugate adaptive-optics systems that use multiple laser guide stars. These results, combined with the low infrared sky backgrounds, indicate that the Antarctic plateau is the best site on Earth at which to perform high-resolution imaging with large telescopes, either over large fields of view or with appreciable sky coverage. Preliminary site-testing results obtained recently from the Dome Concordia station indicate that this site is far superior to even the South Pole. PMID:15008551

  10. First Steps Toward K-12 Teacher Professional Development Using Internet-based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Gershun, D.; Slater, T. F.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    .skytitan.org), Faulkes Telescope North (FTN—part of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network—www.lcogt.net), and the MicroObservatory Robotic Telescope Network (http://mo-www.cfa.harvard.edu/MicroObservatory). As is common in astronomy observation, the class experienced setbacks to observing plans from a variety of sources, including clouds, dust storms, wind, instrument malfunctions, and light pollution from a nearby rodeo. Participants requested observations on robotic telescopes and directly controlled remote telescopes (FTN and Sky Titan). Data from the surveys suggest the theme that the ability to control telescopes in real time is of significant educational value, despite 6 of 10 participants citing frustrations due to equipment malfunctions and weather. Future courses will need backup plans or dates to account for the possibility of lost observing time. Participants used a variety of software tools to analyze data. Survey data showed the LCOGT Agent Exoplanet citizen science exercise to be an important learning event in the progression toward using SalsaJ to create exoplanet light curves from FTN data. Much of the data from FTN and Sky Titan used by participants was not collected during the observing runs due to issues noted above. The telescope operators provided previous data for analysis. None of the evidence we collected indicates that this lack of direct linkage is a problem.

  11. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  12. JWST pathfinder telescope integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI and T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  13. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  14. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-08-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  15. The ASTRI prototype and mini-array: precursor telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site on the slopes of Mount Etna, a large field of view (9.6 degrees) dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes. CTA plans to install about 70 small size telescopes in the southern site to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach, since it includes the entire system of structure, mirror's optics (primary and secondary mirrors), camera, and control/acquisition software. Although it is a technological prototype, the ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be able to perform systematic monitoring of bright TeV sources. A remarkable improvement in terms of performance could come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa) and with also a contribution by INFN. The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of at least nine ASTRI SST-2M units. It is proposed as one of the CTA mini-array of telescope precursors and initial seeds of CTA, to be installed at the final CTA southern site. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will extend and improve the sensitivity, similar to the H.E.S.S. one in the 1-10 TeV energy range, up to about 100 TeV.

  16. Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be an 8 m class deployable, radiatively cooled telescope, optimized for the 1-5 μm band, with zodiacal background limited sensitivity from 0.6 to 10 μm or longer, operating for 10 yr near the Earth-Sun second LAGRANGIAN POINT (L2). It will be a general-purpose observatory, operated by the SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE (STScI) for competitively s...

  17. South Pole Telescope optics.

    PubMed

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber. PMID:18716649

  18. The Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.; Olmi, L.; Durand, G.; Daddi, E.; Israel, F.; Kramer, C.; Lagage, P.-O.; de Petris, M.; Sabbatini, L.; Spinoglio, L.; Schneider, N.; Tothill, N.; Tremblin, P.; Valenziano, L.; Veyssière, C.

    This report aims to provide a summary of the status of our Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope (AST) project up to date. It is a very new project for Antarctic astronomy. Necessary prerequisites for a future deployment of a large size telescope infrastructure have been tested in years 2007 and 2008. The knowledge of the transmission, frost formation and temperature gradient were fundamental parameters before starting a feasibility study. The telescope specifications and requirements are currently discussed with the industrial partnership.

  19. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The results of a LISA telescope sensitivity analysis will be presented, The emphasis will be on the outgoing beam of the Dall-Kirkham' telescope and its far field phase patterns. The computed sensitivity analysis will include motions of the secondary with respect to the primary, changes in shape of the primary and secondary, effect of aberrations of the input laser beam and the effect the telescope thin film coatings on polarization. An end-to-end optical model will also be discussed.

  20. The Multiple Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J. M.; Ulich, B. L.; Shannon, R. R.; Carleton, N. P.; Geary, J. C.; Latham, D. W.; Angel, J. R. P.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Weymann, R. J.

    The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), located on top of Mount Hopkins (2600 m) in Arizona, consists of six main telescope systems, each of which is a classical Cassegrain with a 1.8 m diameter parabolic primary with focal ratio f/2.7, and a hyperbolic secondary producing a final f/31.6 for each of the individual telescopes. The most significant departures of the MMT from conventional optical telescope technology are (1) the use of light-weight 'egg-crate' mirrors, which reduced the telescope weight, (2) the use of an alt-azimuth mount, which simplifies the gravitational effects on the structure, (3) the use of a ball-bearing support rather than hydrostatic bearings, resulting in cost savings and less maintenance, (4) the use of spur gear drives rather than worm gears, and (5) the use of multiple coaligned light collectors rather than a single monolithic mirror. Early multiple objective telescopes are discussed, and the early history of the MMT project is given. The design and performance of the telescope are explained, and MMT instrumentation (spectrograph, optical design, detector, infrared photometer, SAO CCD camera) is given. Astronomical research with the telescope is discussed, along with plans for future multiple objective telescopes.

  1. The first VERITAS telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, J.; Atkins, R. W.; Badran, H. M.; Blaylock, G.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Byrum, K. L.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Celik, O.; Chow, Y. C. K.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.; de la Calle Perez, I.; Dowdall, C.; Dowkontt, P.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A. D.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L. F.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G.; Glidewell, O. J.; Grube, J.; Gutierrez, K. J.; Gyuk, G.; Hall, J.; Hanna, D.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, S. B.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kenny, G. E.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Knapp, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Linton, E.; Little, E. K.; Maier, G.; Manseri, H.; Milovanovic, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ogden, P. A.; Ong, R. A.; Petry, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pizlo, F.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E. T.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Sleege, G.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Syson, A.; Toner, J. A.; Valcarcel, L.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; White, R. J.; Williams, D. A.; Wagner, R.

    2006-07-01

    The first atmospheric Cherenkov telescope of VERITAS (the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) has been in operation since February 2005. We present here a technical description of the instrument and a summary of its performance. The calibration methods are described, along with the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the telescope and comparisons between real and simulated data. The analysis of TeV γ-ray observations of the Crab Nebula, including the reconstructed energy spectrum, is shown to give results consistent with earlier measurements. The telescope is operating as expected and has met or exceeded all design specifications.

  2. ATST telescope pier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Manuel, Eric; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world with a 4m aperture primary mirror. The off axis nature of the telescope optical layout, has the proportions of an 8 metre class telescope. Accordingly the instrumentation for solar observations a 16m diameter co-rotating laboratory (Coude Rotator) is also located within the telescope pier. The pier has a lower cylindrical profile with an upper conical section to support both the telescope mount with a 9m bearing diameter and contain the 16m diameter Coudé rotator. The performance of this pier cannot be considered in isolation but must account for ancillary equipment, access and initial installation. The Coude rotator structure and bearing system are of similar size to the telescope base structure and therefore this is the proverbial 'ship in a bottle' problem. This paper documents the competing requirements on the pier design and the balancing of these as the design progresses. Also summarized is the evolution of the design from a conceptual traditional reinforced concrete pier to a composite concrete and steel framed design. The stiffness requirements of the steel frame was a unique challenge for both the theoretical performance and overall design strategy considering constructability. The development of design acceptance criteria for the pier is discussed along with interfacing of the AandE firm responsible for the pier design and the telescope designer responsible for the telescope performance.

  3. Telescope performance verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Buckley, David A. H.

    2004-09-01

    While Systems Engineering appears to be widely applied on the very large telescopes, it is lacking in the development of many of the medium and small telescopes currently in progress. The latter projects rely heavily on the experience of the project team, verbal requirements and conjecture based on the successes and failures of other telescopes. Furthermore, it is considered an unaffordable luxury to "close-the-loop" by carefully analysing and documenting the requirements and then verifying the telescope's compliance with them. In this paper the authors contend that a Systems Engineering approach is a keystone in the development of any telescope and that verification of the telescope's performance is not only an important management tool but also forms the basis upon which successful telescope operation can be built. The development of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has followed such an approach and is now in the verification phase of its development. Parts of the SALT verification process will be discussed in some detail to illustrate the suitability of this approach, including oversight by the telescope shareholders, recording of requirements and results, design verification and performance testing. Initial test results will be presented where appropriate.

  4. Paper Productivity of Ground-based Large Optical Telescopes from 2000 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Chul

    2011-08-01

    We present an analysis of the scientific (refereed) paper productivity of the current largest (diameter>8m) ground-based optical (and infrared) telescopes during the ten-year period from 2000 to 2009. The telescopes for which we have gathered and analysed the scientific publication data are the two 10-m Keck telescopes, the four 8.2-m Very Large Telescopes (VLT), the two 8.1-m Gemini telescopes, the 8.2-m Subaru telescope, and the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). We have analysed the numbers of papers published in various astronomical journals produced by using these telescopes. While the total numbers of papers from these observatories are largest for the VLT, followed by Keck, Gemini, Subaru, and HET, the number of papers produced by each component of the telescopes is largest for Keck, followed by VLT, Subaru, Gemini, and HET. In 2009, each telescope of the Keck, VLT, Gemini, Subaru, and HET observatories produced 135, 109, 93, 107, and 5 refereed papers, respectively. We have shown that each telescope of the Keck, VLT, Gemini, and Subaru observatories is producing 2.1+/-0.9 Nature and Science papers annually and these papers make up 1.7+/-0.8% of all refereed papers produced by using each of those telescopes. Extending this relation, we propose that this ratio of the number of Nature and Science papers to the total number of refereed papers that will be produced by future extremely large telescopes (ELTs) will remain similar. From a comparison of the publication trends of the above telescopes, we suggest that (i) having more than one telescope of the same kind at the same location and (ii) increasing the number of instruments available at the telescope are good ways to maximize the paper productivity.

  5. Evaluating SLOOH Robotic Telescopes for Formal Educational Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, D.; Berryhill, K. J.; Slater, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    has shown a slight increase in the class average from 55% to 69% +/- 21% and has not been determined to be statistically significant. Analysis of transcripts and surveys finds categories relating to "Images" and "Interface" as contributing to both the strengths and limitations of SLOOH. Even though there is a limit on how many images a user may capture during a single mission, images are more than adequate in quality, and do not need to be processed. This tends to be appealing for students who are starting out in astronomy and may be motivated more by capturing their own pictures rather than looking at archived photos. Although robotic in nature, SLOOH does allow users the option to view and capture images in real-time, giving users more of a personal connection than other robotic telescopes. However, if a class does not meet when SLOOH is active, then students will not be able to witness this process. The ability to join other user's missions creates a friendly community atmosphere, essential to the process of learning science at any level. Such analysis has provided evidence indicating that SLOOH Space Camera merits further investigation in an undergraduate introductory astronomy setting. 1. SLOOH Space Camera—www.slooh.com 2. MicroObservatory— http://mo-www.cfa.harvard.edu/MicroObservatory 3. Sky Titan Observatory—www.skytitan.org 4. Faulkes North Telescope—www.lcogt.net

  6. LUTE telescope structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE) Telescope Structural Design Study was to investigate the feasibility of designing an ultralightweight 1-m aperture system within optical performance requirements and mass budget constraints. This study uses the results from our previous studies on LUTE as a basis for further developing the LUTE structural architecture. After summarizing our results in Section 2, Section 3 begins with the overall logic we used to determine which telescope 'structural form' should be adopted for further analysis and weight estimates. Specific telescope component analysis showing calculated fundamental frequencies and how they compare with our derived requirements are included. 'First-order' component stress analyses to ensure telescope optical and structural component (i.e. mirrors & main bulkhead) weights are realistic are presented. Layouts of both the primary and tertiary mirrors showing dimensions that are consistent with both our weight and frequency calculations also form part of Section 3. Section 4 presents our calculated values for the predicted thermally induced primary-to-secondary mirror despace motion due to the large temperature range over which LUTE must operate. Two different telescope design approaches (one which utilizes fused quartz metering rods and one which assumes the entire telescope is fabricated from beryllium) are considered in this analysis. We bound the secondary mirror focus mechanism range (in despace) based on these two telescope configurations. In Section 5 we show our overall design of the UVTA (Ultraviolet Telescope Assembly) via an 'exploded view' of the sub-system. The 'exploded view' is annotated to help aid in the understanding of each sub-assembly. We also include a two view layout of the UVTA from which telescope and telescope component dimensions can be measured. We conclude our study with a set of recommendations not only with respect to the LUTE structural architecture

  7. Video Telescope Operating Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Exotic pet veterinarians frequently have to operate on small animals, and magnification is commonly used. Existing endoscopy equipment can be used with a mechanical arm and telescope to enable video telescope operating microscopy. The additional equipment items and their specifics are described, and several case examples are provided. PMID:26117519

  8. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  9. High resolution telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. High resolution telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y.

    1990-12-31

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Inherent small telescope projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    As we stand on the verge of substantial access to the new generation of giant telescopes (Gemini, VLT and others) it is timely to consider the range of science that can be undertaken with the substantial number of smaller telescopes that are spread around the globe. While providing survey science input to the giant telescopes, or simultaneous monitoring capability for space missions, is a clearly important role (see previous contributions), it should not be forgotten that there are still many outstanding scientific programmes that can be undertaken on smaller telescopes in their own right. There is a danger of these opportunities being overlooked in the stampede to abandon the smaller telescope 'baggage' in the hope of acquiring access to more giant telescope time. I will try to demonstrate that the most effective and efficient use of all our telescope time requires access to a broad range of complementary facilities. I will therefore describe here some of the projects currently being undertaken with smaller telescopes as well as some of those planned for future facilities such as ROBONET.

  12. Telescope With Reflecting Baffle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Telescope baffle made from combination of reflecting surfaces. In contrast with previous ellipsoidal reflecting baffles, new baffle reflects skew rays more effectively and easier to construct. For infrared telescopes, reflecting baffles better than absorbing baffles because heat load reduced, and not necessary to contend with insufficiency of infrared absorption exhibited by black coatings.

  13. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-25

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'x20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  14. All Sky Camera, LIDAR and Electric Field Meter: Auxiliary instruments for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leto, Giuseppe; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo; Bellassai, Giancarlo; Bruno, Pietro; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Martinetti, Eugenio

    2015-03-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is the end-to-end prototype telescope of the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF, designed to investigate the 10-100 TeV band in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope has been installed in Italy in September 2014, at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna. The telescope is foreseen to be completed and fully operative in spring 2015 including auxiliary instrumentation needed to support both operations and data analysis. In this contribution we present the current status of a sub-set of the auxiliary instruments that are being used at the Serra La Nave site, namely an All Sky Camera, an Electric Field Meter and a Raman Lidar devoted, together with further instrumentation, to the monitoring of the atmospheric and environmental conditions. The data analysis techniques under development for these instruments could be applied at the CTA sites, where similar auxiliary instrumentation will be installed.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.

    1991-01-01

    A general overview of the performance and current status of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented. Most key spacecraft subsystems are operating well, equaling or exceeding specifications. Spacecraft thermal properties, power, and communications, are superb. The only spacecraft subsystem to have failed, a gyro, is briefly discussed. All science instruments are functioning extremely well and are returning valuable scientific data. The two significant problems effecting the Hubble Space Telescope science return, the pointing jitter produced by thermally induced bending of the solar array wings and the optical telescope assembly spherical aberration, are discussed and plans to repair both problems are mentioned. The possible restoration of full optical performance of the axial scientific instruments through the use of the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement, currently under study for the 1993 servicing mission, is discussed. In addition, an overview of the scientific performance of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented.

  16. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  17. The solar optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Objectives of the Solar Optical Telescope are to study the physics of the Sun on the scale at which many of the important physical processes occur and to attain a resolution of 73km on the Sun or 0.1 arc seconds of angular resolution. Topics discussed in this overview of the Solar Optical Telescope include: why is the Solar Optical Telescope needed; current picture of the Sun's atmosphere and convection zone; scientific problems for the Solar Optical Telescope; a description of the telescope; the facility - science management, contamination control, and accessibility to the instruments; the scientific instruments - a coordinated instrument package for unlocking the Sun's secrets; parameters of the coordinated instrument package; science operations from the Space Shuttle; and the dynamic solar atmosphere.

  18. Wind-flow measurement over the Subaru Telescope.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Hirofumi; Baba, Naoshi; Ohtsubo, Masashi; Norimoto, Yuji; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Miura, Noriaki

    2004-05-20

    Wind flows over the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea in Hawaii were analyzed with a correlation method. Three or four wind flows were detected from our measurements. Spatial and temporal resolution of the wind-flow analysis across the 8.2 m pupil were investigated experimentally. A three-dimensional spatiotemporal-frequency analysis was also applied to the wind-flow data. PMID:15176198

  19. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.; Salinari, Piero

    1998-08-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project is a collaboration between institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, and Ohio. With the addition of the partners from Ohio State and Germany in February 1997, the Large Binocular Telescope Corporation has the funding required to build the full telescope populated with both 8.4 meter optical trans. The first of two 8.4 meter borosilicate honeycomb primary mirrors for LBT was cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in 1997. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes adaptive infrared secondaries of a Gregorian design. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage the two folded Gregorian focal planes to three central locations. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance were important drivers for the design of the telescope in order to provide the best possible images for interferometric observations. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure was completed in 1997 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). A series of contracts for the fabrication and machining of the telescope structure had been placed at the end of 1997. The final enclosure design was completed at M3 Engineering & Technology (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia. During 1997, the telescope pier and the concrete ring wall for the rotating enclosure were completed along with the steel structure of the fixed portion of the enclosure. The erection of the steel structure for the rotating portion of the enclosure will begin in the Spring of 1998.

  20. The New Generation Astronomical Telescopes Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, M. F.

    This 2.6 million-pound project, based in Liverpool (Merseyside) has three aims: the regeneration of regional industry; fostering scientific education and public understanding of science and technology, and research in astrophysics. The project partners are Liverpool John Moores University, Royal Greenwich Observatory, and National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside. The project received a major grant from the European Union. We see it as of potentially great interest to developing countries who might adapt it to optimise benefits from future astronomy programmes. We are constructing the 2m Liverpool Telescope (LT), the World's largest robotic telescope, to be operational on La Palma (Canaries) in 1999, as the prototype of a range of high-specification 1m to 3m-class telescopes, with relatively low capital and operating costs, to be constructed jointly by RGO and JMU. LT's fully-automated operating mode will allow it to undertake, much less expensively, many programmes which are difficult, or impossible, on conventional telescopes. A second 2m is being built by us for a group in India. Surveying the U.K. community showed that LT would be around 8 times over-subscribed ensuring, with efficient peer review, front-rank science. Although most observing time is for research, around 5% will be reserved for science education and public understanding of science. The U.K. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council funded a pilot study of providing data from the telescope to schools and colleges. A progress report on this aspect will be available in Kyoto.

  1. The Mercator telescope: relevance, status, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Gert; Pessemier, Wim; Merges, Florian; Pérez Padilla, Jesus; Prins, Saskia; Van Winckel, Hans

    2014-07-01

    In todays era of ever growing telescope apertures, there remains a specific niche for meter-class telescopes, provided they are equipped with efficient and dedicated instruments. In case these telescopes have permanent and long-term availability, they turn out very useful for intensive monitoring campaigns over a large range of time-scales. Flexible scheduling and time allocation allow small telescopes to rapidly seize new opportunities or provide immediate follow-up observations to complement data from large ground-based or space-borne facilities. The Mercator telescope, a 1.2-m telescope, installed at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain), successfully targets this niche of intensive monitoring and flexible scheduling. Mercator is already in operation since 2001 and has seen several upgrades in the mean time. In this contribution we give an update about the actual telescope status and its performance. We also present the Mercator instrument suite that currently consists of two instruments. The workhorse instrument is HERMES, a very efficient and stable fibre-fed high-resolution spectrograph. Recently, the MAIA imager was commissioned. This is a three- channel photometric instrument that observes a large field simultaneously in the different color bands. The MAIA detectors are unique 6k x 2k frame transfer devices which also allow for fast and continuous monitoring of variable phenomena.We discuss two important upcoming upgrades: a long-awaited automatic mirror cover and, more importantly, an entirely new telescope control system (TCS). This TCS is based on modern PLC technology, and relies on OPC UA and EtherCAT communication. Only commercially off-the-shelve hardware will be used for controlling the telescope. As a test case and as a precursor of the full TCS, such PLC systems are already deployed at Mercator to steer the Nasmyth mirror mechanism and to control the MAIA instrument. Finally, we also give an overview of the

  2. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  3. The large binocular telescope.

    PubMed

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010. PMID:20517352

  4. The GREGOR Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Lagg, A.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Luehe, O.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.

    2012-12-01

    The 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope is a new facility for high-resolution observations of the Sun. The telescope is located at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide on Tenerife. The telescope incorporates advanced designs for a foldable-tent dome, an open steel-truss telescope structure, and active and passive means to minimize telescope and mirror seeing. Solar fine structure can be observed with a dedicated suite of instruments: a broad-band imaging system, the "GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer", and the "Grating Infrared Spectrograph". All post-focus instruments benefit from a high-order (multi-conjugate) adaptive optics system, which enables observations close to the diffraction limit of the telescope. The inclusion of a spectrograph for stellar activity studies and the search for solar twins expands the scientific usage of the GREGOR to the nighttime domain. We report on the successful commissioning of the telescope until the end of 2011 and the first steps towards science verification in 2012.

  5. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  6. Lear jet telescope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Goorvitch, D.; Dix, M. G.; Hitchman, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The telescope system was designed as a multi-user facility for observations of celestial objects at infrared wavelengths, where ground-based observations are difficult or impossible due to the effects of telluric atmospheric absorption. The telescope is mounted in a Lear jet model 24B which typically permits 70 min. of observing per flight at altitudes in excess of 45,000 ft (13 km). Telescope system installation is discussed, along with appropriate setup and adjustment procedures. Operation of the guidance system is also explained, and checklists are provided which pertain to the recommended safe operating and in-flight trouble-shooting procedures for the equipment.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-02-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,0000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  9. Ritchey-Chretien Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosin, S.; Amon, M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A Ritchey-Chretien telescope is described which was designed to respond to images located off the optical axis by using two transparent flat plates positioned in the ray path of the image. The flat plates have a tilt angle relative to the ray path to compensate for astigmatism introduced by the telescope. The tilt angle of the plates is directly proportional to the off axis angle of the image. The plates have opposite inclination angles relative to the ray paths. A detector which is responsive to the optical image as transmitted through the plates is positioned approximately on the sagittal focus of the telescope.

  10. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Genet, David R.; Talent, David L.; Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler P.; Boyd, Louis J.; Trueblood, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  11. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler; Genet, Russell; Genet, David; Talent, David; Boyd, Louis; Trueblood, Mark; Filippenko, Alexei V. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  12. Composite Space Telescope Truss

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers are recycling an idea for a lightweight, compact space telescope structure from the early 1990s. The 315 struts and 84 nodes were originally designed to enable spacewalking astronaut...

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of a sky full of glittering jewels. The HST peered into the Sagittarius star cloud, a narrow dust free region, providing this spectacular glimpse of a treasure chest full of stars.

  14. Webb Telescope: Planetary Evolution

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stars and planets form in the dark, inside vast, cold clouds of gas and dust. The James Webb Space Telescope's large mirror and infrared sensitivity will let astronomers peer inside dusty knots whe...

  15. Building a Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linas, Chris F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides information on the parts, materials, prices, dimensions, and tools needed for the construction of a telescope that can be used in high school science laboratories. Includes step-by-step directions and a diagram for assembly. (RT)

  16. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in contemporary astronomy and astrophysics is shown to depend on complementary investigations with sensitive telescopes operating in several wavelength regions, some of which can be on the Earth's surface and others of which must be in space.

  17. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN. PMID:7787867

  18. Rate coefficient for H + O2 + M = HO2 + M evaluated from shock tube measurements of induction times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    Shock tube experiments measured hydrogen-air induction times near the second explosion limit. By matching these experimental results with numerically predicted induction times, the rate coefficient for the reaction H + O2 + M = HO2 + M was evaluated as k-sub 4,N2 = 3.3 (plus or minus .6) x 10 to the 15 cm to the 6th/sq mole/s.

  19. A project of a two meter telescope in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair

    2015-03-01

    Site testing undertaken during the last 20 years by Moroccan researchers through international studies have shown that the Atlas mountains in Morocco has potentialities similar to those sites which host the largest telescopes in world. Given the quality of the sites and opportunities to conduct modern research, we believe that the installation of a 2m diameter telescope will open new horizons for Astronomy in Morocco and north Africa allowing our region to enter definitively into the very exclusive club of countries possessing an instrument of that size. A state of the art astrophysical observatory on any good astronomical observation site should be equipped with a modern 2m-class, robotic telescope and some smaller telescopes. Our plan should be to operate one of the most efficient robotic 2m class telescopes worldwide in order to offer optimal scientific opportunities for researchers and maintain highest standards for the education of students. Beside all categories of astronomical research fields, students will have the possibility to be educated intensively on the design, manufacturing and operating of modern state of the art computer controlled instruments. In the frame of such education and observation studies several PhD and dissertational work packages are possible. Many of the observations will be published in articles worldwide and a number of guest observers from other countries will have the possibility to take part in collaborations. This could be a starting point of an international reputation of our region in the field of modern astronomy.

  20. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.

    1997-03-01

    The large binocular telescope (LBT) project have evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 by 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson, Arizona. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train -- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in the fall of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1996 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image illustrates the overall Hubble Space Telescope (HST) configuration. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  2. Optical tracking telescope compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbart, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    In order to minimize the effects of parameter variations in the dynamics of an optical tracking telescope, a model referenced parameter adaptive control system is described that - in conjunction with more traditional forms of compensation - achieves a reduction of rms pointing error by more than a factor of six. The adaptive compensation system utilizes open loop compensation, closed loop compensation, and model reference compensation to provide the precise input to force telescope axis velocity to follow the ideal velocity.

  3. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer which will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to picometer accuracies. As with any optical system, even one with such very large separations between the transmitting and receiving, telescopes, a sensitivity analysis should be performed to see how, in this case, the far field phase varies when the telescope parameters change as a result of small temperature changes.

  4. The Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Nathaniel P.; Hoffmann, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the basic design and principle of operating an optical-infrared telescope, the MMT. This third largest telescope in the world represents a new stage in telescope design; it uses a cluster of six reflecting telescopes, and relies on an automatic sensing and control system. (GA)

  5. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  6. Monolithic afocal telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An afocal monolithic optical element formed of a shallow cylinder of optical material (glass, polymer, etc.) with fast aspheric surfaces, nominally confocal paraboloids, configured on the front and back surfaces. The front surface is substantially planar, and this lends itself to deposition of multi-layer stacks of thin dielectric and metal films to create a filter for rejecting out-of-band light. However, an aspheric section (for example, a paraboloid) can either be ground into a small area of this surface (for a Cassegrain-type telescope) or attached to the planar surface (for a Gregorian-type telescope). This aspheric section of the surface is then silvered to create the telescope's secondary mirror. The rear surface of the cylinder is figured into a steep, convex asphere (again, a paraboloid in the examples), and also made reflective to form the telescope's primary mirror. A small section of the rear surface (approximately the size of the secondary obscuration, depending on the required field of the telescope) is ground flat to provide an unpowered surface through which the collimated light beam can exit the optical element. This portion of the rear surface is made to transmit the light concentrated by the reflective surfaces, and can support the deposition of a spectral filter.

  7. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  8. Spectroradiometry with space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Colina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Radiometry, i.e. measuring the power of electromagnetic radiation—hitherto often referred to as "photometry"—is of fundamental importance in astronomy. We provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration of space telescopes and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. A lot of effort has been, and still is going into radiometric "calibration" of telescopes once they are in space; these methods use celestial primary and transfer standards and are based in part on stellar models. The history of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope serves as a platform to review these methods. However, we insist that a true calibration of spectroscopic space telescopes must directly be based on and traceable to laboratory standards, and thus be independent of the observations. This has recently become a well-supported aim, following the discovery of the acceleration of the cosmic expansion by use of type-Ia supernovae, and has led to plans for launching calibration rockets for the visible and infrared spectral range. This is timely, too, because an adequate exploitation of data from present space missions, such as Gaia, and from many current astronomical projects like Euclid and WFIRST demands higher radiometric accuracy than is generally available today. A survey of the calibration of instruments observing from the X-ray to the infrared spectral domains that include instrument- or mission-specific estimates of radiometric accuracies rounds off this review.

  9. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  10. CH2M Hill cleared in tunnel explosion case

    SciTech Connect

    Krizan, W.G.; Bradford, H.; Schriener, J.

    1993-09-06

    One of the most critical issues in industry is whether architects and engineers should be held responsible for construction safety on jobsites. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration says yes under certain conditions. But the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission has overturned one application of that view on appeal in a controversial case. It involves a unit of Denver-based CH2M Hill Cos.'s role as program manager for the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) on its $2.2-billion water pollution abatement program. On May 5, 1989, OSHA cited CH2M Hill Central Inc. for 46 willful safety violations in connection with a 1988 methane tunnel explosion that killed three supervisors of contractor S.A. Healy Co., Chicago, Healy was charged with 68 violations. Healy encountered methane while boring CT-7, a two-mile crosstown tunnel. It evacuated the site, but didn't follow the evacuation plan. It failed to shut down all nonessential equipment and the supervisors returned after waiting only 17 minutes instead of the one hour minimum. CH2M Hill's citations and proposed $460,000 fine for violating OSHA's construction standards were for having 45 pieces of unapproved electrical equipment in the tunnel and improper ventilation equipment. CH2M Hill claimed the standards did not apply to it because the firm did not engage in construction work, exercise substantial supervision over the construction work performed by the contractor or create or control the hazardous condition.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    the way for other space-based observatories. How the mission was named Hubble Space Telescope is named after Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953), who was one of the great pioneers of modern astronomy. Industrial Involvement The ESA contribution to HST included the Solar Panels and the Faint Object Camera (FOC). Prime contractors for the FOC were Dornier (now DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, Germany), and Matra (France); for the Solar Panels British Aerospace (UK). Launch date: April 25, 1990 Launcher: Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31) Launch mass: 11 110 kg Dimensions Length: 15.9 m, diameter: 4.2 m. In addition two solar panels each 2.4 x 12.1 m. Payload (current) A 2.4 m f/24 Ritchey-Chretien telescope with four main instruments, currently WFPC2, STIS, NICMOS and FOC. In addition the three fine-guidance sensors are used for astrometric observations (positional astronomy). WFPC2 - Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 is an electronic camera working at two magnifications. It has four CCD detectors with 800 x 800 pixels. One of these (called Planetary Camera) has a higher resolution (<0.1 arcsecond). STIS - Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph uses so-called MAMAs and CCDs to provide images and spectra. It is sensitive to a wide range of light from UV to Infrared. NICMOS - Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer provides images and spectra in the infrared. NICMOS uses cooled HgCdTe detectors. Currently NICMOS is dormant and awaits a new cooler to be provided during Servicing Mission 3B. FOC - Faint Object Camera - a very high resolution camera built by ESA. FOC is no longer in use and will be replaced by the new Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) during Servicing Mission 3B. Orbit Circular, 593 km with a 28.5 degree inclination. Operations Science operations are co-ordinated and conducted by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore. Overall management of daily on-orbit operations is carried out by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt. Ground

  12. Reflective and antireflective coatings for the optical chain of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Stringhetti, Luca

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. One of the main aims of the ASTRI Project is the design, construction and on-field verification of a dual mirror (2M) end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype is designed according to the Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, and adopts a camera based on Silicon Photo Multipliers (SiPM); it will be assembled at the INAF astronomical site of Serra La Nave on mount Etna (Catania, Italy) in the second half of 2014, and will start scientific validation phase soon after. With its 4m wide primary dish, the telescope will be sensitive to multi-TeV Very High Energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV and above, with a point spread function of ~2 arcminutes and a wide (semiaperture 4.8°) corrected field of view. The peculiarities of the optical design and of the SiPM bandpass pushed towards specifically optimized choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. Fully dielectric multi-layer coatings have been developed and tested as an option for the primary mirror, aiming to filter out the large Night Sky Background contamination at wavelengths λ>~700 nm. On the other hand, for the large monolithic secondary mirror a simpler design with quartz-overcoated aluminium has been optimized for incidences far from normality. The conformation of the ASTRI camera in turn pushed towards the design of a reimaging system based on thin pyramidal light guides, that could be optionally integrated in the focal surface, aiming to increase the fill factor. An anti-reflective coating optimized for a wide range of incident angles faraway from normality was specifically developed to enhance the UV-optical transparency of these elements. The issues, strategy, simulations and experimental results are thoroughly

  13. Ultrathin zoom telescopic objective.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-08-01

    We report an ultrathin zoom telescopic objective that can achieve continuous zoom change and has reduced compact volume. The objective consists of an annular folded lens and three electrowetting liquid lenses. The annular folded lens undertakes the main part of the focal power of the lens system. Due to a multiple-fold design, the optical path is folded in a lens with the thickness of ~1.98mm. The electrowetting liquid lenses constitute a zoom part. Based on the proposed objective, an ultrathin zoom telescopic camera is demonstrated. We analyze the properties of the proposed objective. The aperture of the proposed objective is ~15mm. The total length of the system is ~18mm with a tunable focal length ~48mm to ~65mm. Compared with the conventional zoom telescopic objective, the total length has been largely reduced. PMID:27505830

  14. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  15. Telescoping tube assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturm, Albert J. (Inventor); Marrinan, Thomas E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An extensible and retractable telescoping tube positions test devices that inspect large stationary objects. The tube has three dimensional adjustment capabilities and is vertically suspended from a frame. The tube sections are independently supported with each section comprising U-shaped housing secured to a thicker support plate. Guide mechanisms preferably mounted only to the thicker plates guide each tube section parallel to a reference axis with improved accuracy so that the position of the remote end of the telescoping tube is precisely known.

  16. Virtual Telescopes in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoban, S.; Des Jardins, M.; Farrell, N.; Rathod, P.; Sachs, J.; Sansare, S.; Yesha, Y.; Keating, J.; Busschots, B.; Means, J.; Clark, G.; Mayo, L.; Smith, W.

    Virtual Telescopes in Education is providing the services required to operate a virtual observatory comprising distributed telescopes, including an interactive, constraint-based scheduling service, data and resource archive, proposal preparation and review environment, and a VTIE Journal. A major goal of VTIE is to elicit from learners questions about the nature of celestial objects and the physical processes that give rise to the spectacular imagery that catches their imaginations. Generation of constrained science questions will assist learners in the science process. To achieve interoperability with other NSDL resources, our approach follows the Open Archives Initiative and the W3C Semantic Web activity.

  17. Transit telescope designs optimized for multiple object spectroscopy with fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Instruments to simultaneously study the spectra of many objects in the field of view of a telescope can be made using fused silica fibers. The spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the University of Arizona has been modified for such operation, and is used routinely to study the dynamics of galaxy clusters. Consideration has been given to how the multifiber technique can best be used to obtain spectra of the many faint objects identified by deep transit survey instruments and new space and radio telescopes. A transit survey such as that planned by McGraw et al. (1980), with CCDs at the focus of a 2m transit telescope, will identify objects down to 24th magnitude, and down to 22nd magnitude will give very complete data on variability and optical energy distribution. A telescope with much larger aperture is required for spectroscopic follow up. It is suggested that large telescopes dedicated to this type of work can be made and operated for only a fraction of the cost of a general-purpose telescope.

  18. TELESCOPES: Astronomers Overcome 'Aperture Envy'.

    PubMed

    Irion, R

    2000-07-01

    Many users of small telescopes are disturbed by the trend of shutting down smaller instruments in order to help fund bigger and bolder ground-based telescopes. Small telescopes can thrive in the shadow of giant new observatories, they say--but only if they are adapted to specialized projects. Telescopes with apertures of 2 meters or less have unique abilities to monitor broad swaths of the sky and stare at the same objects night after night, sometimes for years; various teams are turning small telescopes into robots, creating networks that span the globe and devoting them to survey projects that big telescopes don't have a prayer of tackling. PMID:17832960

  19. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  20. The Falcon Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  1. Wearable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Schuster, Glenn M; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Groisman, Alex; Legerton, Jerry; Meyers, William; Amigo, Goretty Alonso; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-08-20

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a 1.6 mm thick scleral contact lens providing both 1× and 2.8× magnified vision paths, intended for use as a switchable eye-borne telescopic low-vision aid. The F/9.7 telescopic vision path uses an 8.2 mm diameter annular entrance pupil and 4 internal reflections in a polymethyl methacrylate precision optic. This gas-impermeable insert is contained inside a smooth outer casing of rigid gas-permeable polymer, which also provides achromatic correction for refraction at the curved lens face. The unmagnified F/4.1 vision path is through the central aperture of the lens, with additional transmission between the annular telescope rings to enable peripheral vision. We discuss potential solutions for providing oxygenation for an extended wear version of the lens. The prototype lenses were characterized using a scale-model human eye, and telescope functionality was confirmed in a small-scale clinical (nondispensed) demonstration. PMID:26368753

  2. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. H.; Schloerb, F. P.; LMT Project Team

    2009-05-01

    This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between México and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50 m diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the LMT site, at an altitude of ˜ 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32 m diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain first-light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the reflector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for final commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  3. The Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloerb, F. Peter

    2008-07-01

    This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between Mexico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the 4600m LMT site on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32m-diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain first light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the reflector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for final commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, outfitted with its initial complement of scientific instruments, will be a world-leading scientific research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  4. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  5. Nordic optical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeberg, Arne

    The Nordic Optical Telescope for the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory at La Palma is presented. It has been designed with highest emphasis on good resulting image quality. Within a tight budget frame a compact altazimuth mounted telescope has emerged. We have aimed at high-quality blind pointing and tracking. Optomechanically the telescope should be able to take advantage also of the observing periods with best seeing. The building has been designed with main emphasis on image quality. Partly guided by wind-tunnel tests, we have chosen a small dome with favourable air-flow performance. Data on micro-thermal activity has made us opt for a height above ground of the primary mirror being about eight metres. A relatively complete site-testing programme has confirmed the excellent quality of the observatory. The telescope will be operated with a Cassegrain focus only. Provisions are foreseen for rapid exchange of ancillary instrumentation. A set of standard ancillary instruments will be available at all times under the responsibility of on-site staff. It will include modern imaging devices, photometers, polarimeters and spectrographs for various tasks.

  6. The Greenland Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Paul; Blundell, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    In the spring of 2010, the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, acquired the ALMA North America prototype antenna - a state-of-the-art 12-m diameter dish designed for submillimeter astronomy. Together with the MIT-Haystack Observatory and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, the plan is to retrofit this antenna for cold-weather operation and equip it with a suite of instruments designed for a variety of scientific experiments and observations. The primary scientific goal is to image the shadow of the Super-Massive Black Hole in M87 in order to test Einstein’s theory of relativity under extreme gravity. This requires the highest angular resolution, which can only be achieved by linking this antenna with others already in place to form a telescope almost the size of the Earth. We are therefore developing plans to install this antenna at the peak of the Greenland ice-sheet. This location will produce an equivalent North-South separation of almost 9,000 km when linked to the ALMA telescope in Northern Chile, and an East-West separation of about 6,000 km when linked to SAO and ASIAA’s Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and will provide an angular resolution almost 1000 times higher than that of the most powerful optical telescopes. Given the quality of the atmosphere at the proposed telescope location, we also plan to make observations in the atmospheric windows at 1.3 and 1.5 THz. We will present plans to retrofit the telescope for cold-weather operation, and discuss potential instrumentation and projected time-line.

  7. Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2007-05-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a pioneering centimeter-wavelength radio telescope that will produce science that cannot be done with any other instrument. The ATA is the first radio telescope designed for commensal observing; it will undertake the most comprehensive and sensitive SETI surveys ever done as well as the deepest and largest area continuum and spectroscopic surveys. Science operations will commence this year with a 42-element array. The ATA will ultimately comprise 350 6-meter dishes at Hat Creek in California, and will make possible large, deep radio surveys that were not previously feasible. The telescope incorporates many new design features including hydroformed antenna surfaces, a log-periodic feed covering the entire range of frequencies from 500 MHz to 11.2 GHz, low noise, wide-band amplifiers with a flat response over the entire band. The full array has the sensitivity of the Very Large Array but with a survey capability that is greater by an order of magnitude due to the wide field of view of the 6-meter dishes. Even with 42 elements, the ATA will be one of the most powerful radio survey telescopes. Science goals include the Five GHz sky survey (FiGSS) to match the 1.4-GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey within the first year of operation with the 42 element array, and a deep all-sky survey of extragalactic hydrogen to investigate galaxy evolution and intergalactic gas accretion. Transient and variable source surveys, pulsar science, spectroscopy of new molecular species in the galaxy, large-scale mapping of galactic magnetic filaments, and wide-field imaging of comets and other solar system objects are among the other key science objectives of the ATA. SETI surveys will reach sufficient sensitivity to detect an Arecibo planetary radar from 1,000,000 stars to distances of 300 pc.

  8. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. The development of telescope optical requirements and potential optical design configurations is reported.

  9. The Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, Chris R.

    2014-08-01

    The ING runs the highly-productive 4.2-mWilliam Herschel Telescope (WHT) and 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) on La Palma in the Canary Islands. I give an overview of the current operational model, commenting on how the model has evolved since the mid-1980s, and on the experience gained with e.g. instrument development; adaptive-optics/LGS deployment; hosting visiting instruments; scheduling; fault handling; student vs staff support of observers; and performance monitoring.

  10. Simulation of the ASTRI two-mirrors small-size telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigongiari, C.; Cusumano, G.; Di Pierro, F.; La Parola, V.; Stamerra, A.; Vallania, P.; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium, the

    2016-05-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a world-wide project to build a new generation ground-based gamma-ray instrument operating in the energy range from some tens of GeV to above 100 TeV. To ensure full sky coverage CTA will consist of two arrays of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs), one in the southern hemisphere and another one in the northern hemisphere. CTA has just completed the design phase and it is entering in the pre-production one that includes the development of telescope precursor mini-arrays. ASTRI is an ongoing project, to develop and install at the southern CTA site one of such mini-arrays composed by nine dual-mirror small size telescopes equipped with an innovative camera based on silicon photomultiplier sensors. The end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, has been recently inaugurated at the Serra La Nave observing station, on Mount Etna, Italy. ASTRI SST-2M expected performance has been carefully studied using a full Monte Carlo simulation of the shower development in the atmosphere and detector response. Simulated data have been analyzed using the traditional Hillas moment analysis to obtain the expected angular and energy resolution. Simulation results, together with the comparison with the available experimental measurements, are shown.

  11. The ASTRI/CTA mini-array of Small Size Telescopes as a precursor of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Agnetta, Gaetano; Antolini, Elisa; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Bastieri, Denis; Bellassai, Giancarlo; Belluso, Massimiliano; Bigongiari, Ciro; Billotta, Sergio; Biondo , Benedetto; Boettcher, Markus; Bonanno, Giovanni; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Bruno , Pietro; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Capalbi, Milvia; Capobianco, G.; Caraveo, Patrizia; Carosi, Alòessandro; Cascone, Enrico; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cereda, Michele; Conconi, Paolo; Conforti, Vito; Cusumano, Giancarlo; De Caprio, Vincenzo; De Luca, Andrea; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Di Paola, Andrea; Di Pierro, Federico; Fantinel, Daniela; Fiorini, Mauro; Fugazza, Dino; Gardiol, Daniele; Gargano, Carmelo; Garozzo , Salvatore; Gianotti , Fulvio; Giarrusso , Salvatore; Giro, Enrico; Grillo, Aledssandro; Impiombato, Domenico; Incorvaia , Salvatore; La Barbera , Antonino; La Palombara , Nicola; La Parola , Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Lessio, Luigi; Leto, Giuseppe; Lombardi , Saverio; Lucarelli, Fabrizio; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Malaspina, Giuseppe; Marano, Davide; Martinetti , Eugenio; Melioli, C.; Millul, Rachele; Mineo , Teresa; Morello, Carlo; Morlino, Giovanni; Nemmen, R.; Perri, Luca; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Romano, Patrizia; Romeo, Giuseppe; Russo, Francesco; Sacco, Bruno; Sartore, Nicola; Schwarz, Joseph; Alberto, Segreto; Selvestrel, Danilo; Sironi, Giorgia; Stamerra, Antonio; Strazzeri, Elisabetta; Stringhetti, Luca; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Tanci, Claudio; Testa, Vincenzo; Timpanaro , Maria Cristina; Toso, Giorgio; Tosti, Gino; Trifoglio, Massimo; Vallania, Piero; Vercellone, Stefano; Volpicelli, Antonio; Zitelli, Valentina

    2014-08-01

    ASTRI ("Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana") is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing a wide-field-of-view (9.6 degrees in diameter) end-to-end prototype of the small-size telescope (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, sensitive in the energy band from a few TeV up to hundreds TeV. The ASTRI telescope is based on a dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (ASTRI SST-2M) optical design, with a compact (F# = 0.5) optical configuration named ASTRI SST-2M telescope. This allows us to adopt an innovative modular focal plane camera based on silicon photo-multipliers, with a logical pixel size of 6.2mm x 6.2mm. Moreover, planned, and already being developed, an SST mini-array based on 7 identical telescopes represents an evolution of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope. The ASTRI/CTA mini-array will be part of the CTA array, representing a precursor that will be included into the final array. With the mini-array, in addition to a technical assessment studies in the perpective of the full CTA implementation, it will be possible to perform an early scientific program. In particular we wish to start investigating the poorly known energy range between a few and 100 TeV, thus exploring e.g. the cut-off regime of cosmic accelerators. Apart from INAF, other international institutes will directly participate in the mini-array implementation, as the North-West University in South Africa and the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil. An interest about it has been expressed also by other international groups. In this talk we will report on the development status of the ASTRI prototype and ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  12. Science operations with Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacconi, R.

    1982-01-01

    The operation, instrumentation, and expected contributions of the Space Telescope are discussed. Space Telescope capabilities are described. The organization and nature of the Space Telescope Science Institute are outlined, including the allocation of observing time and the data rights and data access policies of the institute.

  13. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1992-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  14. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1991-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  15. Contact aiming system of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Ye, Xiaoyou; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Gan, Xiaochuan; Shen, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    Composition and principle of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator were introduced. A novel contact aiming system based on high precision inductance sensor was designed. The zero-cross trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was treated as the aiming signal. A rotating mechanism was designed and a segmental shifting motion control model was established. Two key problems, avoiding probe crash and aiming repeatability, were solved. The one dimension end standards such as gauge block, step gauge could be measured directly by this means. The data of test revealed that aiming repeatability was less than 0.2μm.

  16. "First Light" Approaches for Fourth VLT Unit Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-08-01

    These days, the ESO staff at Paranal is having a strong feeling of "déja-vu". Only seven months after the third 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, MELIPAL , achieved "First Light", this crucial moment is now rapidly approaching for YEPUN , the fourth and last of the giants at the ESO observatory. Following successful coating with a thin layer of aluminium in early June 2000, the 8.2-m primary Zerodur mirror (M1) was placed in its supporting cell and safely attached to the mechanical structure of YEPUN on July 31. On August 26, the 1.1-m M2 Beryllium Mirror for YEPUN was coated. Again, this delicate operation went very well and the measured reflectivity was excellent, about 91%. The M2 mirror and its support were then assembled and successfully installed at the telescope on Sunday, August 27. Before the optical mirrors were installed, and with dummies in their place, careful tests were made of most telescope functions. In particular, this included accurate balancing of the 450-tonnes telescope frame on its hydrostatic oil bearings, as well as precise adjustment of all motions. It now remains for the ESO engineers to do the final performance optimization of the entire telescope. The work on the fourth telescope has been particularly noticeable because a large proportion of the assembly, integration, tuning and testing was organised and executed by ESOs young group of capable engineers and technicians. As the engineering staff at Paranal has grown and during the earlier work on the first three telescopes, they have been acquiring the necessary expertise to autonomously integrate and maintain the 8.2-m telescopes. During the coming "First Light" observations, light from the selected celestial objects will be registered by the VLT Test Camera at the Cassegrain Focus. This comparatively simple instrument was also used for the consecutive "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). It is mounted on the telescope's optical axis

  17. Telescopic horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan

    2014-12-20

    The problem of "distortionless" viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems (mainly "binoculars") remains problematic. The so called "globe effect" is only partially counteracted in modern designs. Theories addressing the phenomenon have never reached definitive closure. In this paper, we show that exact distortionless viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems is not possible in general, but that it is in principle possible in-very frequent in battle field and marine applications-the case of horizon scanning. However, this involves cylindrical optical elements. For opto-electronic systems, a full solution is more readily feasible. The solution involves a novel interpretation of the relevant constraints and objectives. For final design decisions, it is not necessary to rely on a corpus of psychophysical (or ergonomic) data, although one has to decide whether the instrument is intended as an extension of the eye or as a "pictorial" device. PMID:25608206

  18. COROT telescope development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viard, Thierry; Bodin, Pierre; Magnan, Alain

    2004-06-01

    COROTEL is the telescope of the future COROT satellite which aims at measuring stellar flux variations very accurately. To perform this mission, COROTEL has to be very well protected against straylight (from Sun and Earth) and must be very stable with time. Thanks to its high experience in this field, Alcatel Space has proposed an original optical concept associated with a high performance baffle. From 2001, the LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS) has placed the telescope development contract to Alcatel Space and is presently almost finished. Based on relevant material and efficient thermal control design, COROTEL should meet its ambitious performance and bring to scientific community for the first time precious data coming from stars and their possible companions.

  19. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  20. Galileo's wondrous telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-06-01

    If you need reminding of just how wrong the great and the good can be, take a trip to the Museum of the History of Science in Florence, Italy. The museum is staging an exhibition entitled "Galileo's telescope - the instrument that changed the world" to mark the 400th anniversary this year of Galileo Galilei's revolutionary astronomical discoveries, which were made possible by the invention of the telescope. At the start of the 17th century, astronomers assumed that all the planets and the stars in the heavens had been identified and that there was nothing new for them to discover, as the exhibition's curator, Giorgio Strano, points out. "No-one could have imagined what wondrous new things were about to be revealed by an instrument created by inserting two eyeglass lenses into the ends of a tube," he adds.

  1. The Bionic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Neville

    2009-05-01

    Four hundred years after children in a spectacle makers workshop accidentally discovered the telescope, the development of this device has been a continuous replacement of the ``natural'' by the deliberate. The human eye is gone. The lens is gone. The tube is gone. The dome is on the verge of going. The size of the optics are ceasing to be set by transportation limits. Adaptive optics are preferred to stable optics. We deliberately break the Lagrange invariant. We focus on lasers instead of stars, and natural observing environments are being replaced by adaptive environments. The goals for the new ground based telescope encompass the oldest and newest ideas, to find signs of life elsewhere, and to find how all the universe developed.

  2. Telescope enclosure flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Fred F.; Wong, Woon-Yin; Baldwin, Jack; Siegmund, Walter A.; Limmongkol, Siriluk; Comfort, Charles H.

    1991-12-01

    Dome-induced thermal disturbances that degrade seeing can originate when temperature differences exist between the interior and exterior of a telescope enclosure. It is important to design enclosures which minimize the effect. One design aid is to model the enclosure and study the flow patterns in and around the model at various angles to the flow direction. We have used a water tunnel and models of spherical, octagonal, and rectangular enclosures to investigate the flow characteristics as a function of angle and venting configuration. In addition to a large video data-base, numerical results yield flushing times for all models and all venting arrangements. We have also investigated the comparative merits of passive venting as opposed to active forced flow circulation for the 4m telescope enclosure at the NOAO Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory at La Serena, Chile. Finally, the flow characteristics of a tracking half-shroud were studied as a possible shield for the enclosureless case.

  3. The Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, Peter F.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL

    2007-11-13

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy pair-conversion telescope, covering the energy range from {approx}20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT is being built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. The scientific objectives the LAT will address include resolving the high-energy gamma-ray sky and determining the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources and the origin of the apparently isotropic diffuse emission observed by EGRET; understanding the mechanisms of particle acceleration in celestial sources, including active galactic nuclei, pulsars, and supernovae remnants; studying the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray bursts and transients; using high-energy gamma-rays to probe the early universe to z {ge} 6; and probing the nature of dark matter. The components of the LAT include a precision silicon-strip detector tracker and a CsI(Tl) calorimeter, a segmented anticoincidence shield that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large field-of-view and ensuring that nearly all pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. This paper includes a description of each of these LAT subsystems as well as a summary of the overall performance of the telescope.

  4. The Astrometric Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David; Dyer, John; Nishioka, Kenji; Scargle, Jeffrey; Sobeck, Charlie

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of the Astrometric Telescope Facility (ATF) proposed for use on NASA's Space Station is traced and its design characteristics are presented. With a focal plane scale of 12.7 arcsec/mm, the strawman design has a field size of 10 sq arcmin and a limiting visual magnitude fainter than 16. Output from an observation includes the X and Y coordinates of each star and its relative brightness.

  5. [Galileo and his telescope].

    PubMed

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book. PMID:16929794

  6. Error-Compensated Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.; Stacy, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed reflecting telescope includes large, low-precision primary mirror stage and small, precise correcting mirror. Correcting mirror machined under computer control to compensate for error in primary mirror. Correcting mirror machined by diamond cutting tool. Computer analyzes interferometric measurements of primary mirror to determine shape of surface of correcting mirror needed to compensate for errors in wave front reflected from primary mirror and commands position and movement of cutting tool accordingly.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  8. The Smiley Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, R. M.; Castelaz, M. W.; Daugherty, J.; Owen, L.

    2004-12-01

    More than ever modern astronomy is based upon a multi-wavelength approach combining data-sets from optical, infrared, radio, X-ray and gamma ray observatories to provide improved understanding of astrophysical phenomena. In the field of astronomy education however, until recently most teaching resources available to high schools have been limited to small optical telescopes, with little coverage of other branches of observational astronomy. To fill in this resource gap, PARI has developed the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy and the Smiley 4.6 m Radio Telescope to provide high schools access to a state-of-the-art, internet accessable radio observatory for class projects and activities. We describe here the development of the Smiley radio telescope, its control systems and give examples of several class activities which have been developed for use by high school students. We describe the future development of Smiley and plans to upgrade its performance. The SGRA has been supported by grants from Progress Energy, Z. Smith Reynolds, STScI IDEAS, and the AAS Small Research Grant Program which is supported by NASA.

  9. Muon cherenkov telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamova, E.; Angelov, I.; Kalapov, I.; Davidkov, K.; Stamenov, J.

    2001-08-01

    : The Muon Cerenkov Telescope is a system of water cerenkov detectors, using the coincidence technique to register cosmic ray muons. It is constructed in order to study the variations of cosmic rays and their correlation with solar activity and processes in the Earth magnetosphere. 1 Basic design of the Muon Cerenkov Telescope The telescope has 18 water cerenkov detectors / 0.25 m2 each /, situated in two parallel planes. / Fig. 1/ Each detector /fig. 2/ consists of a container with dimensions 50x50x12.5 cm made of 3mm thick glass with mirror cover of the outer side. The container is filled with distilled water to 10cm level. A photomultiplier is attached to a transparent circle at the floor of the container and the discriminator is placed in its housing. When a charged particle with energy greater than the threshold energy for cerenkov radiation generation passes the radiator, cerenkov photons are initiated and a part of them reach the PMT cathode after multiple reflections from the mirror sides of the container.

  10. Scanning holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.

  11. Fatigue crack propagation in carburized X-2M steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbach, B. L.; Lou, Bingzhe; Pearson, P. K.; Fairchild, R. E.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1985-07-01

    The growth rates of fatigue cracks propagating through the case and into the core have been studied for carburized X-2M steel (0.14 C, 4.91 Cr, 1.31 Mo, 1.34 W, 0.42 V). Fatigue cracks were propagated at constant stress intensities, ΔK, and also at a constant cyclic peak load, and the crack growth rates were observed to pass through a minimum value as the crack traversed the carburized case. The reduction in the crack propagation rates is ascribed to the compressive stresses which were developed in the case, and a pinched clothespin model is used to make an approximate calculation of the effects of internal stress on the crack propagation rates. We define an effective stress intensity, Ke = Ka + Ki, where Ka is the applied stress intensity, Ki = σid{i/1/2}, σi is the internal stress, and di is a characteristic distance associated with the depth of the internal stress field. In our work, a value of di = 11 mm (0.43 inch) fits the data quite well. A good combination of resistance to fatigue crack propagation in the case and fracture toughness in the core can be achieved in carburized X-2M steel, suggesting that this material will be useful in heavy duty gears and in aircraft gas turbine mainshaft bearings operating under high hoop stresses.

  12. Recent discoveries and advances for the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking program with MSSS 1.2-meter telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambery, R. J.; Lawrence, K. J.; Hicks, M. D.; Jong, E. M. De; Parvdo, S.; Helin, E. F.

    2003-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program has two simultaneously-operating, autonomous search systems on two geographically-separated 1.2-m telescopes; one at the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) and the other on the Palomar Observatory's Oschin telescope (NEAT/Palomar). This paper will focus exclusively on the NEAT/MSSS system.

  13. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  14. Kinetics of the reaction Cl + NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M.-T.

    1984-01-01

    Using atomic chlorine resonance fluorescence at 140 nm to detect the decay of atomic chlorine in the presence of an excess of NO2, the rate constant for the reaction Cl + NO2 + M, where M is the total gas concentration, is measured over the temperature range 264 to 417 K and at a pressure 1 to 7 torr in a discharge flow system. The rate constants for M= He and M= N2 are measured and the results are summarized in a table. The systematic error of the rate constants is estimated to be about 15 percent. A static photolysis system coupled with an FTIR spectrophotometer is used to determine the branching ratio for the formation of two possible isomers. The ratio is concluded to be ClONO (greater than or equal 75 percent) and ClNO2 (less than or equal 25 percent) which is in agreement with the results of Niki et al. (1978).

  15. Direct drive targets for the megajoule facility UFL-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, V. B.; Gus'kov, S. Yu; Vergunova, G. A.; Demchenko, N. N.; Stepanov, R. V.; Doskoch, I. Ya; Yakhin, R. A.; Zmitrenko, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Development of direct drive target schemes for the megajoule facility is a topical problem of up-to-date inertial fusion physics. The choice of possible schemes and solutions depends essentially on the irradiation conditions. The installations both running (NIF) and under construction (LMJ) are destined to the 3ω irradiation in PDD (polar direct drive) configuration. The UFL-2M installation that is under construction is based on 2ω irradiation and a symmetrical scheme of direct drive target irradiation. Under these conditions possible schemes for direct drive targets demonstrating the ignition and the achievement of gain G=10÷20 are considered in this report. At the same time, the possibilities are analyzed for the target compression and ignition with a reliability reserve at the conditions that can deviate from the standard ones, and if our understanding of the physics of the processes is not completely adequate to the physics of the real processes.

  16. Global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in the L-2M stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailov, M. I.; Shchepetov, S. V.; Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J.

    2015-12-15

    Analysis of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in the L-2M stellarator (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences) is presented. The properties of free-boundary equilibria states are outlined, the stability conditions for small-scale modes are briefly discussed, and the number of trapped particles is estimated. All the magnetic configurations under study are stable against ballooning modes. It is shown that global ideal internal MHD modes can be found reliably only in Mercier unstable plasmas. In plasma that is stable with respect to the Mercier criterion, global unstable modes that are localized in the vicinity of the free plasma boundary and are not associated with any rational magnetic surface inside the plasma (the so-called peeling modes) can be found. The radial structure of all perturbations under study is almost entirely determined by the poloidal coupling of harmonics. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data.

  17. Experimental study of hot electrons in LECR2M plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, H. W.; Ma, X. W.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Ma, B. H.; Li, X. X.; Sha, S.; Zhu, Y. H.; Lu, W.; Shang, Y.

    2008-02-15

    In order to investigate the hot electron component in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas, the volume bremsstrahlung spectra in the x-ray photon energy range were measured with a high-purity germanium detector on Lanzhou ECR Ion Source No. 2 Modified (LECR2M). A collimation system similar to Bernhardi's was used to focus at the central part of the plasma. The ion source was operated under various source conditions with argon; sometimes oxygen was added to enhance high charge state ion beam intensities. The spectral temperature of hot electrons T{sub spe} was derived from the measured bremsstrahlung spectra. The evolution of the deduced temperature of hot electrons T{sub spe} with the ion source parameters, such as the rf frequency, power, and the magnetic confinement configuration, was investigated.

  18. Comparing NEO Search Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Multiple terrestrial and space-based telescopes have been proposed for detecting and tracking near-Earth objects (NEOs). Detailed simulations of the search performance of these systems have used complex computer codes that are not widely available, which hinders accurate cross-comparison of the proposals and obscures whether they have consistent assumptions. Moreover, some proposed instruments would survey infrared (IR) bands, whereas others would operate in the visible band, and differences among asteroid thermal and visible-light models used in the simulations further complicate like-to-like comparisons. I use simple physical principles to estimate basic performance metrics for the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and three space-based instruments—Sentinel, NEOCam, and a Cubesat constellation. The performance is measured against two different NEO distributions, the Bottke et al. distribution of general NEOs, and the Veres et al. distribution of Earth-impacting NEO. The results of the comparison show simplified relative performance metrics, including the expected number of NEOs visible in the search volumes and the initial detection rates expected for each system. Although these simplified comparisons do not capture all of the details, they give considerable insight into the physical factors limiting performance. Multiple asteroid thermal models are considered, including FRM, NEATM, and a new generalized form of FRM. I describe issues with how IR albedo and emissivity have been estimated in previous studies, which may render them inaccurate. A thermal model for tumbling asteroids is also developed and suggests that tumbling asteroids may be surprisingly difficult for IR telescopes to observe.

  19. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  20. Is Your Telescope Tweeting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Half of the world's population today was born after the Apollo Moon landings. The best way to reach this generation and get them excited about today's space exploration and astronomy news and events is through online social media, which are technologies that allow anyone to communicate with everyone. Twitter is a growing popular social media tool that uses short, 140 character "Tweets" to quickly and concisely convey updates on what you "are doing." With the right combination of information, personality and fun, telescopes and spacecraft are using Twitter for public outreach, providing important status updates while making the public feel like they are part of the mission.

  1. Telescope Time Allocation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.

    2005-03-01

    TaToo is ESO's new Time Allocation Tool. This software scheduler is a combination of a user-friendly graphical user interface and an intelligent constraint-programming engine fine-tuned to ESO's scheduling problem. TaToo is able to produce a high quality and reliable schedule taking into consideration all constraints of the recommended programs for all telescopes in about 15 minutes. This performance allows schedulers at ESO-VISAS to simulate and evaluate different scenarios, optimize the scheduling of engineering activities at the observatories, and in the end construct the most science efficient schedule possible.

  2. Astronomy before the telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C.

    This book is the most comprehensive and authoritative survey to date of world astronomy before the telescope in AD 1609. International experts have contributed chapters examining what observations were made, what instruments were used, the effect of developments in mathematics and measurement, and the diversity of early views of cosmology and astrology. The achievements of European astronomers from prehistoric times to the Renaissance are linked with those of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, India and the Islamic world. Other chapters deal with early astronomy in the Far East and in the Americas, and with traditional astronomical knowledge in Africa, Australia and the Pacific.

  3. Cryogenic silicon carbide mirrors for infrared astronomical telescopes: lessons learnt from AKARI for SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Enya, Keigo; Nakagawa, Takao

    2013-09-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) has good thermal conductivity, high stiffness, and a relatively low specific density, all of which are advantageous to the application to telescopes operating at cryogenic temperatures. The first Japanese astronomical infrared space mission AKARI, which was launched in 2006 February and completed the second generation all-sky survey at 6 bands from mid- to far-infrared, employed a 700mm cryogenic telescope made of specially developed SiC. It was a sandwich-type of SiC composed of a lightweight porous core and a dense chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coat to decrease the specific density and facilitate machining for achieving the required surface figure accuracy. Measurements with an interferometer of 160-mm sample mirrors demonstrated that the AKARI mirror SiC had good thermal stability down to cryogenic temperatures (~6K), while the mirror support of the compact design became the primary source of the wave-front errors of the AKARI telescope. Taking the advantage of the heritage of the AKARI telescope development as well as ESA's Herschel telescope, we are planning the next infrared space mission SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) of a 3.2m cooled telescope in participation of ESA using SiC-based materials. In this presentation, we summarize the development of AKARI SiC telescope and present the development activities of the SPICA telescope from the point of view of SiC being as the mirror material for cryogenic space infrared telescopes.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurre, G.

    1987-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope will employ magnetic torque controllers, which make use of the Earth's magnetic field augmented by four reaction wheels. DC torques are easily allowed for, but variations, orbit by orbit, can result in excessive wheel speeds which can excite vibratory modes in the telescope structure. If the angular momentum from aerodynamic sources exceeds its allocation of 100 Nms, the excess has to come out of the maneuvering budget since the total capacity of the momentum storage system is fixed at 500 Nms. This would mean that maneuvers could not be made as quickly, and this would reduce the amount of science return. In summary, there is a definite need for a model that accurately portrays short term (within orbit) variations in density for use in angular momentum management analyses. It would be desirable to have a simplified model that could be used for planning purposes; perhaps applicable only over a limited altitude range (400 to 700 km) and limited latitude band.

  5. Antares reference telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    Antares is a 24 beam, 40 TW carbon dioxide laser fusion system currently nearing completion. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target. It is to position the targets to within 10 (SIGMA)m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares reference telescope system is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares reference telescope system consists of two similar electrooptical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9% optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and tradeoffs are discussed. The final system chosen and its current status are described.

  6. SNAP Telescope Latest Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The coming era of precision cosmology imposes new demands on space telescopes with regard to spectrophotometric accuracy and image stability. To meet these requirements for SNAP we have developed an all reflecting two-meter-class space telescope of the three-mirror anastigmat type. Our design features a large flat annular field (1.5 degrees = 580mm diameter) and a telephoto advantage of 6, delivering a 22m focal length within an optical package length of only 3.5 meters. The use of highly stable materials (Corning ULE glass and carbon-fiber reinforced cyanate ester resin for the metering structure) combined with agressive distributed thermal control and an L2 orbit location will lead to unmatched figure stability. Owing to our choice of rigid structure with nondeployable solar panels, finite-element models show no structural resonances below 10Hz. An exhaustive stray light study has been completed. Beginning in 2005, two industry studies will develop plans for fabrication, integration and test, bringing SNAP to a highly realistic level of definition. SNAP is supported by the Office of Science, US DoE, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  7. Magellan Telescopes operations 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osip, David J.; Phillips, Mark M.; Palunas, Povilas; Perez, Frank; Leroy, M.

    2008-07-01

    The twin 6.5m Magellan Telescopes have been in routine operations at the Las Campanas Observatory in the Chilean Andes since 2001 and 2002 respectively. The telescopes are owned and operated by Carnegie for the benefit of the Magellan consortium members (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Harvard University, the University of Arizona, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Michigan). This paper provides an up to date review of the scientific, technical, and administrative structure of the 'Magellan Model' for observatory operations. With a modest operations budget and a reasonably small staff, the observatory is operated in the "classical" mode, wherein the visiting observer is a key member of the operations team. Under this model, all instrumentation is supplied entirely by the consortium members and the various instrument teams continue to play a critical support role beyond initial deployment and commissioning activities. Here, we present a critical analysis of the Magellan operations model and suggest lessons learned and changes implemented as we continue to evolve an organizational structure that can efficiently deliver a high scientific return for the investment of the partners.

  8. Near anastigmatic grazing incidence telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1984-01-01

    A performance capability assessment is presently conducted for short versus long grazing incidence telescope designs, in view of the observation that the field curvature and astigmatism that are the primary residual aberrations of a Wolter-type incidence telescope can be substantially reduced through mirror length reduction. A major advantage of the short element telescope is that, if sufficiently short, both the paraboloid and hyperboloid surfaces may be fabricated as a single piece; this significantly facilitates the task of alignment.

  9. Cost Modeling for Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly (OTA). These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. Standard statistical methods are used to derive CERs for OTA cost versus aperture diameter and mass. The results are compared with previously published models.

  10. Kinetics of the ClO + NO2 + M reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, M. J.; Molina, L. T.; Ishiwata, T.

    1980-01-01

    The ClO + NO2 + M reaction has been studied with two techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the products, and flash photolysis-ultraviolet absorption to monitor the decay of ClO in excess NO2. The measured third-order rate constant is 1.5 x 10 to the -31st cm to the 6th/molecule-squared per sec at 298 K with M = N2, in good agreement with previous literature values, but the rate constant appears to decrease by up to a factor of three in the presence of increasing amounts of OClO. For the infrared studies a stoichiometric mixture of ClO and NO2 was prepared in a flow system by mixing NO with OClO; at least as much NO2 as ClONO2 was produced under a variety of experimental conditions. These two sets of results are incompatible with the assumption made in previous kinetic studies that ClONO2 is the only recombination product; other isomers such as OClONO or ClOONO are likely to be formed three to four times faster. These results imply that potential stratospheric ozone depletion due to chlorofluoromethanes may be even larger than previously thought.

  11. Particle Shape and Composition of NU-LHT-2M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Lowers, H.

    2012-01-01

    Particle shapes of the lunar regolith simulant NU-LHT-2M were analyzed by scanning electron microscope of polished sections. These data provide shape, size, and composition information on a particle by particle basis. 5,193 particles were measured, divided into four sized fractions: less than 200 mesh, 200-100 mesh, 100-35 mesh, and greater than 35 mesh. 99.2% of all particles were monominerallic. Minor size versus composition effects were noted in minor and trace mineralogy. The two metrics used are aspect ratio and Heywood factor, plotted as normalized frequency distributions. Shape versus composition effects were noted for glass and possibly chlorite. To aid in analysis, the measured shape distributions are compared to data for ellipses and rectangles. Several other simple geometric shapes are also investigated as to how they plot in aspect ratio versus Heywood factor space. The bulk of the data previously reported, which were acquired in a plane of projection, are between the ellipse and rectangle lines. In contrast, these data, which were acquired in a plane of section, clearly show that a significant number of particles have concave hulls in this view. Appendices cover details of measurement error, use of geometric shapes for comparative analysis, and a logic for comparing data from plane of projection and plane of section measurements.

  12. Why Space Telescopes Are Amazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    One of humanity's best ideas has been to put telescopes in space. The dark stillness of space allows telescopes to perform much better than they can on even the darkest and clearest of Earth's mountaintops. In addition, from space we can detect colors of light, like X-rays and gamma rays, that are blocked by the Earth's atmosphere I'll talk about NASA's team of great observatories: the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory} and how they've worked together to answer key questions: When did the stars form? Is there really dark matter? Is the universe really expanding ever faster and faster?

  13. Telescope structures - An evolutionary overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1987-01-01

    A development history is presented for telescope structural support materials, design concepts, equatorial and altazimuthal orientational preferences, and mechanical control system structural realizations. In the course of 50 years after Galileo, the basic configurations of all reflecting telescopes was set for the subsequent 300 years: these were the Cassegrain, Gregorian, and Newtonian designs. The challenge of making a lightweight ribbed pyrex glass primary mirror for the 5-m Palomar telescope was met by von Karman's use of finite element analysis. Attention is given to the prospects for a 20-m deployable space-based reflecting telescope.

  14. Compact Sunshade For Telescope Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, E. L.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed built-in sunshade enables large-aperture reflecting telescope to view laser transmitter apparently close to Sun, without adding excessive size or mass to telescope. Telescope looks through sunshade from behind and below. Tops of hexagonal tubes trimmed to spherical shape corresponding to sphere of rotation of telescope. Sunshade supports secondary reflector. Discerns signals from sources only 12 degrees from line of sight to Sun. Sunshade equipped with internal vanes running lengths of tubes receives signals from sources within 6 degree or even 3 degree of apparent position of Sun.

  15. APEX telescope observations of new molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrowski, F.; Menten, K. M.; Güsten, R.; Belloche, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrides are key ingredients of interstellar chemistry since they are the initial products of chemical networks that lead to the formation of more complex molecules. The fundamental rotational transitions of light hydrides fall into the submillimeter wavelength range. Using the APEX telescope, we observed the long sought hydrides SH+ and OH+ in absorption against the strong continuum source Sagittarius B2(M). Both, absorption from Galactic center gas as well as from diffuse clouds in intervening spiral arms over a large velocity range is observed. The detected absorption of a continuous velocity range on the line of sight shows these hydrides to be an abundant component of diffuse clouds. In addition, we used the strongest submillimeter dust continuum sources in the inner Galaxy to serve as background candles for a systematic census of these hydrides in diffuse clouds and massive star forming regions of our Galaxy and initial results of this survey are presented.

  16. 29 November 2011 Stellar Occultation by 2060 Chiron: Symmetric Jet-like Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, Jessica D.; Bosh, A. S.; Person, M. J.; Bianco, F. B.; Fulton, B. J.; Gulbis, A. S.; Bus, S. J.; Zangari, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    On 29 November 2011 UT, 2060 Chiron occulted a R=14.93 star; data were successfully obtained at the 3-m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea and 2-m Faulkes North Telescope at Haleakala. The IRTF lightcurve shows a solid-body detection of Chiron's nucleus with a chord duration of 16.0 ± 1.4 seconds, corresponding to a chord length of 158 ± 14 km. Symmetric, dual extinction features in the Faulkes light curve indicate the presence of optically thick material roughly 300 km from the body midpoint. The duration of the features indicates a 3 ± 2 km feature separated by 10-14 km from a second 7 ± 2 km feature. The symmetry, optical thickness, and narrow size of these features allow for the intriguing possibility of a near-circular arc or shell of material.

  17. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 3: Optical telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the optical telescope assembly for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The systems considerations are based on mission-related parameters and optical equipment requirements. Information is included on: (1) structural design and analysis, (2) thermal design, (3) stabilization and control, (4) alignment, focus, and figure control, (5) electronic subsystem, and (6) scientific instrument design.

  18. Gamma-Ray Telescopes: 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in gamma-ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of Al-26.

  19. Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Redding, David; Lowman, Andrew; Cohen, David; Ohara, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts the planned Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope (AHMT), which is intended to demonstrate a new approach to the design and construction of wide-aperture spaceborne telescopes for astronomy and Earth science. This technology is also appropriate for Earth-based telescopes. The new approach can be broadly summarized as using advanced lightweight mirrors that can be manufactured rapidly at relatively low cost. More specifically, it is planned to use precise replicated metallic nanolaminate mirrors to obtain the required high-quality optical finishes. Lightweight, dimensionally stable silicon carbide (SiC) structures will support the nanolaminate mirrors in the required surface figures. To enable diffraction- limited telescope performance, errors in surface figures will be corrected by use of mirror-shape-control actuators that will be energized, as needed, by a wave-front-sensing and control system. The concepts of nanolaminate materials and mirrors made from nanolaminate materials were discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Nanolaminates constitute a relatively new class of materials that can approach theoretical limits of stiffness and strength. Nanolaminate mirrors are synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition of metallic alloys and/or compounds on optically precise master surfaces to obtain optical-quality reflector surfaces backed by thin shell structures. As an integral part of the deposition process, a layer of gold that will constitute the reflective surface layer is deposited first, eliminating the need for a subsequent and separate reflective-coating process. The crystallographic textures of the nanolaminate will be controlled to optimize the performance of the mirror. The entire deposition process for making a nanolaminate mirror takes less than 100 hours, regardless of the mirror diameter. Each nanolaminate mirror will be bonded to its lightweight SiC supporting structure. The lightweight nanolaminate mirrors and Si

  20. Composite telescope technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    We report the development of optical mirrors based on polymer matrix composite materials. Advantages of this technology are low cost and versatility. By using appropriate combinations of polymers and various metallic and nonmetallic particles and fibers, the properties of the materials can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications. We report the fabrication and testing of flat and curved mirrors made with metal powders, multiple mirrors replicated with high degree of uniformity from the same mandrels, cryogenic testing, mirrors made of ferromagnetic materials that can be actively or adaptively controlled by non-contact actuation, optics with very smooth surfaces made by replication, and by spincasting. We discuss development of a new generation of ultra-compact, low power active optics and 3D printing of athermal telescopes.

  1. Microoptical telescope compound eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duparré, Jacques W.; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay–Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70ºx10º field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results.

  2. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have identified what may be the most luminous star known; a celestial mammoth that releases up to 10-million times the power of the Sun and is big enough to fill the diameter of Earth's orbit. The star unleashes as much energy in six seconds as our Sun does in one year. The image, taken by a UCLA-led team with the recently installed Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) aboard the HST, also reveals a bright nebula, created by extremely massive stellar eruptions. The UCLA astronomers estimate that the star, called the Pistol Star, (for the pistol shaped nebula surrounding it), is approximately 25,000 light-years from Earth, near the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The Pistol Star is not visible to the eye, but is located in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, hidden behind the great dust clouds along the Milky Way

  4. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for over 400 years, yet most people have never looked though one. We invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky, and have a close encounter with the cosmos.Our main aim is to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics to the young minds by inspiring, empowering and engaging them using astronomy and astrophysics tools and concepts. We would like to see Africa compete with the rest of the world and we believe this can happen through having a scientifically literate society. We also work closely wit teachers, parents and the general public to further our objectives. We will present on our recently awarded project to work with schools in rural coastal Kenya, a very poor area of the country. We will also present on other work we continue to do with schools to make our project sustainable even after the OAD funding.

  5. Spica: the next generation infrared space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, J. R.; Nakagawa, T.

    2011-11-01

    We present an overview of SPICA, the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, a world-class space observatory optimized for mid- and far-IR astronomy (from 5 to ~210 μm) with a cryogenically cooled ~3.2 m telescope (<6 K). Its high spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity in both photometry and spectroscopy modes will enable us to address a number of key problems in astronomy. SPICA's large, cold aperture will provide a two order of magnitude sensitivity advantage over current far-IR facilities (λ > 30μm wavelength). In the present design, SPICA will carry mid-IR camera, spectrometers and coronagraph (by JAXA institutes) and a far-IR imager FTS-spectrometer, SAFARI (~34-210 μm, provided by an European/Canadian consortium lead by SRON). Complementary instruments such as a far-IR/submm spectrometer (proposed by NASA) are also being discussed. SPICA will be the only space observatory of its era to bridge the far-IR wavelength gap between JWST and ALMA, and carry out unique science not achievable at visible or submm wavelengths. In this contribution we summarize some of the scientific advances that will be made possible by the large increase in sensitivity compared to previous infrared space missions.

  6. The metagenomic telescope.

    PubMed

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well-known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well-researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms. PMID:25054802

  7. The Metagenomic Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G.; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well–known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well–researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms. PMID:25054802

  8. Las Cumbres Observatory 1-Meter Global Science Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, Andrew; Dubberley, M.; Haldeman, B.; Haynes, R.; Posner, V.; Rosing, W.; staff, LCOGT

    2009-05-01

    We present the optical, mechanical and electronic design of the LCOGT 1-m telescope. These telescopes are planned to go in pairs to each of 6 sites worldwide, complementing 0.4m telescopes and 2-m telescopes at two existing sites. This science network is designed to provide continuously available photometric monitoring and spectroscopy of variable sources. The 1-m optical design is an f/8 quasi-RC system, with a doublet corrector and field flattener to provide good image quality out to 0.8 degrees. The field of view of the Fairchild 4K science CCD is 27 arcmin, with 0.39 arcsec pixels. The mechanical design includes a stiff C-ring equatorial mount and friction drive rollers, mounted on a triangular base that can be adjusted for latitude. Another friction drive is coupled at the Declination axis to the M1 mirror cell, that forms the main Optical Tube Assembly (OTA) structural element. The OTA design includes a stiff carbon fiber truss assembly, with offset vanes to an M2 drive that provides remote focus, tilt and collimation. The tube assembly weighs about 600 Kg, including Hextek mirrors, 4K science CCD, filter wheel, autoguiders and medium resolution spectrograph pick-off fiber. The telescopes will be housed in domes at existing observatory sites. They are designed to operate remotely and reliably under centralized control for automatic, optimized scheduling of observations with available hardware.

  9. Turkey's next big science project: DAG the 4 meter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, O.; Yesilyaprak, C.; Yerli, S. K.; Zago, L.; Jolissaint, L.

    2014-07-01

    The DAG (Turkish for Eastern Anatolia Observatory) 4-m telescope project has been formally launched in 2012, being fully funded by the Government of Turkey. This new observatory is to be located on a 3170 m altitude ridge near the town of Erzurum in Eastern Anatolia. First light is scheduled for late 2017. The DAG team's baseline design of the telescope consists of a Ritchey-Chretien type with alt-az mount, a focal length of 56 m and a field of view up to 30 arcmin. Multiple instruments will be located at the Nasmyth foci. The optical specifications of the telescope are set by DAG team for diffraction limited performance with active and adaptive optics. Modern mirror control technologies will allow defining in a most cost effective way the figuring requirements of the optical surfaces: the low order figuring errors of the combined optical train constituted of M1-M2-M3 are defined in terms of Zernike coefficients and referred to the M1 surface area. The high order figuring errors are defined using the phase structure functions. Daytime chilling of the closed enclosure volume and natural ventilation through suitable openings during observations will be used to ensure optimal mirror and dome seeing. A design of a ground layer adaptive optics (GLAO) subsystem is developed concurrently with the telescope. In this paper, main design aspects, the optical design and expected performance analysis of the telescope will be presented.

  10. Telescopes, Mounts and Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobberley, M.; Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    The amateur astronomer used to have a relatively basic choice of equipment: a refractor (see REFRACTING TELESCOPES), or a Newtonian reflector (see REFLECTING TELESCOPES); there were few other options. The refractor has always been the stereotype astronomer's instrument: a spy glass, with a lens at one end and an eyepiece at the other. However, in practice, the reflector has always been better aper...

  11. Himalayan optical telescope switches on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padma, T. V.

    2016-05-01

    The largest optical telescope in India has turned on, opening up a new era for astronomy in the country. The 3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) – part of an Indo-Belgian collaboration – was activated remotely on 30 March from Belgium by visiting Indian prime minister Narendra Modi and his Belgian counterpart Charles Michel.

  12. Kashima 34-m Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Kawai, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The Kashima 34-m radio telescope has been continuously operated and maintained by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) as a facility of the Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) in Japan. This brief report summarizes the status of this telescope, the staff, and activities during 2012.

  13. Characterizing Rocky and Gaseous Exoplanets with 2 m Class Space-based Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Marley, Mark S.

    2016-02-01

    Several concepts now exist for small, space-based missions to directly characterize exoplanets in reflected light. While studies have been performed that investigate the potential detection yields of such missions, little work has been done to understand how instrumental and astrophysical parameters will affect the ability of these missions to obtain spectra that are useful for characterizing their planetary targets. Here, we develop an instrument noise model suitable for studying the spectral characterization potential of a coronagraph-equipped, space-based telescope. We adopt a baseline set of telescope and instrument parameters appropriate for near-future planned missions like WFIRST-AFTA, including a 2 m diameter primary aperture, an operational wavelength range of 0.4-1.0 μm, and an instrument spectral resolution of λ/Δλ = 70, and apply our baseline model to a variety of spectral models of different planet types, including Earth twins, Jupiter twins, and warm and cool Jupiters and Neptunes. With our exoplanet spectral models, we explore wavelength-dependent planet-star flux ratios for main-sequence stars of various effective temperatures and discuss how coronagraph inner and outer working angle constraints will influence the potential to study different types of planets. For planets most favorable to spectroscopic characterization—cool Jupiters and Neptunes as well as nearby super-Earths—we study the integration times required to achieve moderate signal-to-noise ratio spectra. We also explore the sensitivity of the integration times required to either detect the bottom or presence of key absorption bands (for methane, water vapor, and molecular oxygen) to coronagraph raw contrast performance, exozodiacal light levels, and the distance to the planetary system. Decreasing detector quantum efficiency at longer visible wavelengths makes the detection of water vapor in the atmospheres of Earth-like planets extremely challenging, and also hinders detections

  14. Wind buffeting of large telescopes.

    PubMed

    MacMynowski, Douglas G; Andersen, Torben

    2010-02-01

    Unsteady wind loads due to turbulence within the telescope enclosure are one of the largest dynamic disturbances for ground-based optical telescopes. The desire to minimize the response to the wind influences the design of the telescope enclosure, structure, and control systems. There is now significant experience in detailed integrated modeling to predict image jitter due to wind. Based on this experience, a relatively simple model is proposed that is verified (from a more detailed model) to capture the relevant physics. In addition to illustrating the important elements of the telescope design that influence wind response, this model is used to understand the sensitivity of telescope image jitter to a wide range of design parameters. PMID:20119010

  15. User-support models at the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, Chris

    2012-09-01

    The user support model at the ING telescopes has evolved considerably over the last 20 years, mainly in response to improvements in the reliability and efficiency of the observing systems. Observers at the 4.2-m William Her- schel Telescope (WHT) currently get first-night (afternoon + evening) support from staff support astronomers, and all-night support from telescope operators. As of 2010, the telescope operators also provide engineering sup- port at night. Observers at the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) get first-night support from student support astronomers, but no night-time operator/engineering support. Feedback from observers indicates a continuing high level of satisfaction with the support they receive.

  16. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  17. Design and simulation of the active support system for a 1.2m meniscus primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haitao; Fan, Bin; Zeng, Zhige; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Hongqiao; Liu, Rong

    2015-07-01

    Thin meniscus primary mirrors with active support have been used successfully in many large telescopes, and also draw attention of many optical fabricators. Because the active support system can correct the low order figure errors, such as astigmatism, coma, trefoil 3rd astigmatism, the optical fabricators can just focus on to remove high order figure errors. This will shorten the fabrication time. In this paper, we present an active support system for a 1.2m meniscus parabolic primary mirror. It contains 37 axial push-pull force supports, 3 axial fixed points, and 4 lateral restraints. Some basic performance of the active support system is analyzed and the figure error correction capability is also studied based on Zernike modes.

  18. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy; Cumming, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an international cooperative development and operations program between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Space Agency, DLR (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt). SOFIA is a 2.5 meter, optical/infrared/sub-millimeter telescope mounted in a Boeing model 747SP-21 aircraft and will be used for many basic astronomical observations performed at stratospheric altitudes. It will accommodate installation of different focal plane instruments with in-flight accessibility provided by investigators selected from the international science community. The Facility operational lifetime is planned to be greater than 20 years. This presentation will present the results of developmental testing of SOFIA, including analysis, envelope expansion and the first operational mission. It will describe a brief history of open cavities in flight, how NASA designed and tested SOFIAs cavity, as well as flight test results. It will focus on how the test team achieved key milestones by systematically and efficiently reducing the number of test points to only those absolutely necessary to achieve mission requirements, thereby meeting all requirements and saving the potential loss of program funding. Finally, it will showcase examples of the observatory in action and the first operational mission of the observatory, illustrating the usefulness of the system to the international scientific community. Lessons learned on how to whittle a mountain of test points into a manageable sum will be presented at the conclusion.

  19. Space Schmidt telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. D.; Smith, H. J.; Henize, K. G.; Carruthers, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    The complete survey takes in 3627 fields, each 4.87 deg in diameter, arranged in a hexagonal pattern superimposed on the celestial equatorial coordinate system. The declination bands are spaced every 3 deg, 20 min. The optical instrument is a folded all-reflecting Schmidt system with an aperture of 0.74 m, a focal length of 2.0 m (f/2.7), a circlar field with a diameter of 4.87 deg, and a limiting image diameter of less than 2 arcsec over the entire field. The detector is an electrographic camera having a photocathode diameter of 170 mm. In discussing the telescope structure, it is pointed out that the optical support system is to be of graphite-epoxy construction. The focal tolerance (the most critical optical tolerance) is to be + or - 12 microns. Regarding contamination control, it is expected that with appropriate design it will be possible to operate in sunlight for observations in a restricted portion of the sky, at least more than 90 deg from the sun, depending on the geometry and reflectivity of the platform or spacecraft configuration.

  20. Operating a heterogeneous telescope network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Alasdair; Bischoff, Karsten; Burgdorf, Martin; Cavanagh, Brad; Christian, Damien; Clay, Neil; Dickens, Rob; Economou, Frossie; Fadavi, Mehri; Frazer, Stephen; Granzer, Thomas; Grosvenor, Sandy; Hessman, Frederic V.; Jenness, Tim; Koratkar, Anuradha; Lehner, Matthew; Mottram, Chris; Naylor, Tim; Saunders, Eric S.; Solomos, Nikolaos; Steele, Iain A.; Tuparev, Georg; Vestrand, W. Thomas; White, Robert R.; Yost, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    In the last few years the ubiquitous availability of high bandwidth networks has changed the way both robotic and non-robotic telescopes operate, with single isolated telescopes being integrated into expanding "smart" telescope networks that can span continents and respond to transient events in seconds. The Heterogeneous Telescope Networks (HTN)* Consortium represents a number of major research groups in the field of robotic telescopes, and together we are proposing a standards based approach to providing interoperability between the existing proprietary telescope networks. We further propose standards for interoperability, and integration with, the emerging Virtual Observatory. We present the results of the first interoperability meeting held last year and discuss the protocol and transport standards agreed at the meeting, which deals with the complex issue of how to optimally schedule observations on geographically distributed resources. We discuss a free market approach to this scheduling problem, which must initially be based on ad-hoc agreements between the participants in the network, but which may eventually expand into a electronic market for the exchange of telescope time.

  1. Polarimetry with multiple mirror telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, S. C.

    1986-01-01

    The polarizations of multiple mirror telescopes are calculated using Mueller calculus. It is found that the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) produces a constant depolarization that is a function of wavelength and independent of sky position. The efficiency and crosstalk are modeled and experimentally verified. The two- and four-mirror new generation telescopes are found to produce sinusoidal depolarization for which an accurate interpretation of the incident Stokes vector requires inverse matrix calculations. Finally, the depolarization of f/1 paraboloids is calculated and found to be less than 0.1 percent at 3000 A.

  2. Global Astrophysical Telescope System - GATS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polińska, M.; Kamiński, K.; Dimitrov, W.; Fagas, M.; Borczyk, W.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Baranowski, R.; Bartczak, P.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.

    2014-02-01

    The Global Astronomical Telescope System is a project managed by the Astronomical Observatory Institute of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland) and it is primarily intended for stellar medium/high resolution spectroscopy. The system will be operating as a global network of robotic telescopes. The GATS consists of two telescopes: PST 1 in Poland (near Poznań) and PST 2 in the USA (Arizona). The GATS project is also intended to cooperate with the BRITE satellites and supplement their photometry with spectroscopic observations.

  3. Geodetic Observatory Wettzell - 20-m Radio Telescope and Twin Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Schatz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    In the year 2012, the 20-m radio telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany again contributed very successfully to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry observing program. Technical changes, developments, improvements, and upgrades were made to increase the reliability of the entire VLBI observing system. In parallel, the new Twin radio telescope Wettzell (TTW) got the first feedhorn, while the construction of the HF-receiving and the controlling system was continued.

  4. Lightweighted ZERODUR for telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, T.; Davis, M.; Hartmann, P.; Hull, T.; Jedamzik, R.

    2014-07-01

    The glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT has an excellent reputation as mirror blank material for earthbound and space telescope applications. It is known for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. Recent improvements in CNC machining at SCHOTT allow achieving extremely light weighted substrates up to 90% incorporating very thin ribs and face sheets. In 2012 new ZERODUR® grades EXPANSION CLASS 0 SPECIAL and EXTREME have been released that offer the tightest CTE grades ever. With ZERODUR® TAILORED it is even possible to offer ZERODUR® optimized for customer application temperature profiles. In 2013 SCHOTT started the development of a new dilatometer setup with the target to drive the industrial standard of high accuracy thermal expansion metrology to its limit. In recent years SCHOTT published several paper on improved bending strength of ZERODUR® and lifetime evaluation based on threshold values derived from 3 parameter Weibull distribution fitted to a multitude of stress data. ZERODUR® has been and is still being successfully used as mirror substrates for a large number of space missions. ZERODUR® was used for the secondary mirror in HST and for the Wolter mirrors in CHANDRA without any reported degradation of the optical image quality during the lifetime of the missions. Some years ago early studies on the compaction effects of electron radiation on ZERODUR® were re analyzed. Using a more relevant physical model based on a simplified bimetallic equation the expected deformation of samples exposed in laboratory and space could be predicted in a much more accurate way. The relevant ingredients for light weighted mirror substrates are discussed in this paper: substrate material with excellent homogeneity in its properties, sufficient bending strengths, space radiation hardness and CNC machining capabilities.

  5. The Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Allen Telescope Array Team

    2010-01-01

    The ATA is a 42-element centimeter wavelength array located in Hat Creek, California and jointly operated by UC Berkeley Radio Astronomy Laboratory and the SETI Institute. Since the ATA dedication in Fall 2007, activities have been focused on commissioning the array, retrofitting a handful of components including the feed, developing an operations model, creation of pipeline processing for correlator imaging data, early science observations, and launching of the major surveys for which the telescope was built. The retrofit of the feed improves feed mechanical robustness as well as high frequency performance. Science programs launched include imaging radio transient and static sky surveys (ATATS and PiGSS), commensal SETI and transient surveys of the Galactic Center, targeted SETI observations of nearby stars, the Fly's Eye transient survey, broadband spectra of nearby star-forming galaxies, polarimetric observations of bright radio sources, observations of hydrogen in nearby galaxies and galaxy groups, molecular line observations in the Galaxy, and observations of Jupiter and the Moon. The baseline Square Kilometer Array (SKA) design, a large-N-small-diameter (LNSD) array with wide-band single-pixel feeds and an offset Gregorian antenna, bears a strong resemblance to the ATA. Additional ATA contributions to the SKA include configuration studies for LNSD arrays, the use of fiber optics for broadband data transmission, the use of flexible FPGA-based digital electronics, passive cooling of antennas, and implementation of commensal observing modes. The ATA is currently used for exploration of calibration and imaging algorithms necessary for the SKA. I will summarize current technical status and performance, the results from early science and surveys, and ATA contributions to SKA development.

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalirai, Jason

    2014-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be the most powerful space telescope that we've ever constructed, and it is a critical step towards answering the top science questions outlined in both the 2000 and 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Surveys. In this presentation, I'll first briefly highlight the science capabilities, current status, and science timeline of JWST out to its 2018 launch. I'll then describe several frontier science opportunities that are uniquely enabled by combining JWST's high spatial resolution and unprecedented IR throughput with the Thirty Meter Telescope's spectral capabilities and visible throughput. Like Hubble and current 10 meter telescopes on the ground, the combination of these two facilities will be a great 1-2 punch to usher in a new era in UVOIR astrophysics.

  7. The CMS pixel luminosity telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmayer, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a new complement to the CMS detector for the LHC Run II data taking period. It consists of eight 3-layer telescopes based on silicon pixel detectors that are placed around the beam pipe on each end of CMS viewing the interaction point at small angle. A fast 3-fold coincidence of the pixel planes in each telescope will provide a bunch-by-bunch measurement of the luminosity. Particle tracking allows collision products to be distinguished from beam background, provides a self-alignment of the detectors, and a continuous in-time monitoring of the efficiency of each telescope plane. The PLT is an independent luminometer, essential to enhance the robustness on the measurement of the delivered luminosity and to reduce its systematic uncertainties. This will allow to determine production cross-sections, and hence couplings, with high precision and to set more stringent limits on new particle production.

  8. The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong; Deng, Yuanyong; Ji, Haisheng

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Giant Solar Telescope is the next generation ground-based solar telescope. The main science task of this telescope is to observe the ultra fine structures of the solar magnetic field and dynamic field. Due to the advantages in polarization detection and thermal controlling with a symmetrical circular system, the current design of CGST is a 6~8 meter circular symmetrical telescope. The results of simulations and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demands of most science cases not only in infrared bands but also in near infrared bands and even in visible bands. The prominences and the filaments are very important science cases of CGST. The special technologies for prominence observation will be developed, including the day time laser guide star and MCAO. CGST is proposed by all solar observatories and several institutes and universities in China. It is supported by CAS and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  9. Automated telescope for variability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, S.; Baliyan, K. S.; Chandra, S.; Joshi, U. C.; Kalyaan, A.; Mathur, S. N.

    PRL has installed a 50 cm telescope at Mt Abu, Gurushikhar. The backend instrument consists of a 1K × 1K EMCCD camera with standard UBVRI filters and also has polarization measurement capability using a second filter wheel with polaroid sheets oriented at different position angles. This 50 cm telescope observatory is operated in a robotic mode with different methods of scheduling of the objects being observed. This includes batch mode, fully manual as well as fully autonomous mode of operation. Linux based command line as well as GUI software are used entirely in this observatory. This talk will present the details of the telescope and associated instruments and auxiliary facilities for weather monitoring that were developed in house to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the telescope. The facility has been in use for a couple of years now and various objects have been observed. Some of the interesting results will also be presented.

  10. Large aperture Fresnel telescopes/011

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A., LLNL

    1998-07-16

    At Livermore we`ve spent the last two years examining an alternative approach towards very large aperture (VLA) telescopes, one based upon transmissive Fresnel lenses rather than on mirrors. Fresnel lenses are attractive for VLA telescopes because they are launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) and because they virtually eliminate the traditional, very tight, surface shape requirements faced by reflecting telescopes. Their (potentially severe) optical drawback, a very narrow spectral bandwidth, can be eliminated by use of a second (much smaller) chromatically-correcting Fresnel element. This enables Fresnel VLA telescopes to provide either single band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 0.1), multiple band, or continuous spectral coverage. Building and fielding such large Fresnel lenses will present a significant challenge, but one which appears, with effort, to be solvable.

  11. Anastigmatic three-mirror telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D. G. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A three-mirror telescope for extraterrestrial observations is described. An ellipsoidal primary mirror, a hyperbolic secondary mirror, and an ellipsoidal tertiary mirror, produce an image in a conveniently located finite plane for viewing.

  12. Prism beamswitch for radio telescopes.

    PubMed

    Payne, J M; Ulich, B L

    1978-12-01

    A dielectric prism and switching mechanism have been constructed for beamswitching a Cassegrain radio telescope. Spatially extended radio sources may be mapped without significant confusion utilizing the sensitivity and stability inherent in the conventional Dicke radiometer. PMID:18699031

  13. Glancing incidence telescopes for space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangus, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Design optimization is reported for glancing telescopes of increased collecting areas. Considered are nested geometries for X-ray and extreme ultraviolet telescopes, each of which generates only one singular principal surface. In the case of the X-ray telescope, the field curvature of the outer telescope serves as a standard and the focus of each of the inner telescopes is made coplanar by a slight descrease in the collecting area of each of the inner telescopes. In the case of the EUV telescope, a slight change in the maximum slope angle of the inner telescope makes the field curvatures coincide. Five concentric X-ray telescopes form a collecting area of approximately 900 sq cm, and a nested EUV telescope consisting of two concentric telescopes produces a collecting area of about 45 sq cm.

  14. The Discovery Channel Telescope: Construction and Design Progress, June 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Smith, B. W.; Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Wiecha, O. M.; Marshall, H.

    2006-06-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2m telescope under construction in northern Arizona. The DCT is located at a new site near Happy Jack at 2361m elevation, which was selected following a lengthy site testing campaign that demonstrated median ground-level seeing of 0.84-arcsec FWHM. The DCT science mission includes targeted studies of astrophysical and solar system objects utilizing RC and Nasmyth-mounted imaging and spectroscopic instrumentation, and wide-field surveys of KBO’s, Centaurs, NEA’s, and other time-variable objects with a 2-degree FOV prime focus camera.The DCT facility enclosure and control building will be completed this year, including the supports for the telescope mount and dome, the major infrastructure for facility machinery, the instrument laboratory, control and computer rooms, and the auxiliary building for the mirror coating facility. Meanwhile, the 4.3m ULE meniscus primary mirror blank was completed at Corning, Inc., in October 2005, and the 2-3 year mirror figuring effort is due to begin June 2006. The primary mirror and its design support, and the preliminary integrated telescope mount model, were finite-element analyzed to optimize the design of the mirror and top-end support configurations. The prime focus camera design has been refined to achieve atmospheric dispersion-compensated 0.25-arcsec images at 1-degree field radius, from B to I-band, at reduced cost through simplification of glasses to standard types and utilization of spheres on all but two lens surfaces.The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. Lowell Observatory is actively seeking additional partners in the project; interested parties should contact R. L. Millis, Director.

  15. Imaging phased telescope array study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The problems encountered in obtaining a wide field-of-view with large, space-based direct imaging phased telescope arrays were considered. After defining some of the critical systems issues, previous relevant work in the literature was reviewed and summarized. An extensive list was made of potential error sources and the error sources were categorized in the form of an error budget tree including optical design errors, optical fabrication errors, assembly and alignment errors, and environmental errors. After choosing a top level image quality requirment as a goal, a preliminary tops-down error budget allocation was performed; then, based upon engineering experience, detailed analysis, or data from the literature, a bottoms-up error budget reallocation was performed in an attempt to achieve an equitable distribution of difficulty in satisfying the various allocations. This exercise provided a realistic allocation for residual off-axis optical design errors in the presence of state-of-the-art optical fabrication and alignment errors. Three different computational techniques were developed for computing the image degradation of phased telescope arrays due to aberrations of the individual telescopes. Parametric studies and sensitivity analyses were then performed for a variety of subaperture configurations and telescope design parameters in an attempt to determine how the off-axis performance of a phased telescope array varies as the telescopes are scaled up in size. The Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) multipurpose telescope testbed (MMTT) configuration was analyzed in detail with regard to image degradation due to field curvature and distortion of the individual telescopes as they are scaled up in size.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope-Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  17. The JCMT Telescope Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie; Cockayne, Steve

    Established telescopes often face a challenge when trying to incorporate new software standards and utilities into their existing real-time control system. At the JCMT we have successfully added important new features such as a Relational Database (the Telescope Management System---TMS), an online data Archive, and WWW based utilities to an, in part, 10-year old system. The new functionality was added with remarkably few alterations to the existing system. We are still actively expanding and exploring these new capabilities.

  18. BCK Network of Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGruder, Charles H.; Antoniuk, Krill; Carini, Michael T.; Gelderman, Richard; Hammond, Benjamin; Hicks, Stacy; Laney, David; Shakhovskoy, David; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Williams, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The BCK network consists of three research grade telescopes: 0.6m (B) at the Bell Observatory near Western Kentucky University (WKU), 1.3m (C) at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and a 1.3m (K) at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The Bell Telescope is operated remotely from WKU while the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak possesses an autonomous scheduler. The BCK telescopes are distributed longitudinally over 145º and can be used to observe continuously up to 21.2 hours/day. The network will be chiefly employed to observe variable stars, blazars and unpredictable celestial events.Because celestial objects with ground-based telescopes cannot be observed optically during the daytime, continuous ground-based astronomical observations are only possible via a network of longitudinally distributed telescopes. When the sun rises in Crimea after it sets at Bell, continuous observations are possible. This occurs for about six and ½ months per year - mid September to early April. A network is highly desirable for events that are not predictable for instance the appearance of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, or undiscovered exoplanetsVariable stars are really only known in significant numbers to about 14 mag. But, as the magnitude increases the number of stars in any field increases very sharply, so there are many variable stars to discover at faint magnitude (m > 14). Discovering new variables makes great undergraduate student projects, a major component of astronomical research at WKU. In addition, pinning down the periods of variable stars is greatly facilitated with a network of telescopes.The BCK telescope network will also be used for monitoring the optical variability of blazars. The network provides increased coverage on daily variability timescales by minimizing interruptions due to weather and or mechanical problems at any one observatory and is used for obtaining continuous (12+ hours) of observations of rapid variability in blazars which would

  19. Radio Telescope Gets Star Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-11-01

    Actress Jodie Foster, who played a scientist in search of extraterrestrial life in the 1997 film Contact, narrates a new promotional film to reintroduce the public to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's (NRAO) renovated Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. The 24-minute film, Beyond the Visible, which will air in the VLA Visitor Center, focuses on the operation of the telescope and scientific achievements associated with it.

  20. Liverpool Telescope classification of ATLAS16bdg as a Type Ia supernova near maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundell, C. G.; Smith, R. J.; Childress, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    On 2016 June 15 at approximately 21:03 UT, we performed multicolour optical imaging, spectroscopy and polarimetry with the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope IO:O camera of galaxy NGC4708 in which a bright optical transient was reported by Tonry et al. ATel #9151 (ATLAS16bdg).

  1. NIRo Telescope: Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengstorf, Adam W.; Slavin, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a 20-inch telescope and wide-field CCD imager to be used for remote, unattended observing. To be located in southern Lake County, IN, the NIRo Telescope will enjoy darker skies than those around the Purdue University Calumet (PUC) campus. While this project will enable high-quality research for the astronomy faculty and undergraduate students at PUC, its uniqueness lies in the planned education and outreach components. Using synoptic data from the telescope, we will, in conjunction with faculty from the PUC School of Education, develop curricula and assessment tools in line with Indiana earth and space science standards for grades 6 8. While small, robotic telescopes have been successfully used to implement similar programs for undergraduate and secondary education, this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first project to specifically target primary school education. This program will affect a wide range in ethnic and socioeconomic communities immediately surrounding the PUC campus in northwest Indiana. Data from the telescope will be reduced by PUC faculty and undergraduate researchers and disseminated to the participating schools for analysis and discovery and also archived for future use via a dedicated website. The website and its contents will then be accessible to the broader community, allowing schools outside the immediate region to view data and results and potentially participate in the educational component of our proposal.

  2. Demonstration Telescopes Using "Dollar Optics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Paul

    2008-05-01

    I propose a poster that illustrates the use of "dollar optics” for experimentation and for the creation of demonstration telescopes. Handling a variety of lenses and mirrors provides an opportunity for discovering practical optics. Some part of this path of exploration must have been traveled by Galileo as he experimented with spectacle lenses. "Dollar optics” include reading glasses (positive meniscus lenses), convex and concave mirrors, Fresnel sheets, magnifying lenses, and eye loupes. Unwanted distance spectacles (negative meniscus lenses) are available at second-hand stores. Galileo telescopes, "long” 17th century telescopes, and useful demonstration models of Newtonian reflectors can be made with "dollar” optics. The poster will illustrate practical information about "dollar optics” and telescopes: magnification, focal length, and "diopters” disassembling spectacles; creating cheap mounts for spectacle lenses; the importance of optical axes and alignment; eyepieces; and focusing. (A table would be useful with the poster to set out a hands-on display of "dollar optic” telescopes.) Educators, experimenters, and those concerned with astronomy outreach might be interested in this poster. Working with "dollar optics” requires facility with simple tools, interest in planning projects, patience, imagination, and the willingness to invest some time and effort. "Dollar optics” may help to foster creativity and hands-on enthusiasm - as did Galileo's work with simple lenses 400 years ago. "Oh! When will there be an end put to the new observations and discoveries of this admirable instrument?” - Galileo Galilei as quoted by Henry C. King, The History of the Telescope.

  3. Global TIE (Telescopes in Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.; Schweitzer, A. E.; Clark, G.; Hoban, S.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2001-12-01

    The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) project (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. Global TIE seeks to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible to schools all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers.

  4. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate. PMID:26263991

  5. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate. PMID:26263991

  6. Euro50: Proposal for a 50 m Optical and Infrared Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeberg, Arne; Andersen, Torben; Rodriguez Espinosa, Jose Miguel

    Staff from Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Lund Observatory, Physics Department and Larmor Research Institute at Galway, and Tuorla Observatory is collaborating on studies for a 50 m optical and infrared telescope. The telescope concepts are based on the work on extremely large telescopes carried out during 1991-2000 at Lund Observatory, and on the experience from the 10.4 m segmented Grantecan telescope presently under construction. The proposed 50 m telescope is a fully adaptive Nasmyth telescope with a Ritchey Chretien configuration. It will have an aspherical, segmented primary mirror with 2 m large segments and a deformable secondary. Adaptive optics will be implemented in several steps. From the beginning, there will be single-conjugate adaptive optics for the K-band. Next, and within the first year of operation, the telescope will have single-conjugate adaptive optics for visible wavelengths. As a third step, and another year of operation, dual-conjugate adaptive optics will be made available for the K-band. The telescope will be housed in a co-rotating enclosure at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory on La Palma. Further studies are in progress aiming at preparation of a proposal during the first half of 2002.

  7. Infrared Doppler instrument for the Subaru Telescope (IRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, M.; Suto, H.; Nishikawa, J.; Kotani, T.; Sato, B.; Aoki, W.; Usuda, T.; Kurokawa, T.; Kashiwagi, K.; Nishiyama, S.; Ikeda, Y.; Hall, D.; Hodapp, K.; Hashimoto, J.; Morino, J.; Inoue, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Washizaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Kwon, J.; Suenaga, T.; Oh, D.; Narita, N.; Kokubo, E.; Hayano, Y.; Izumiura, H.; Kambe, E.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Ikoma, M.; Hori, Ya.; Omiya, M.; Genda, H.; Fukui, A.; Fujii, Y.; Guyon, O.; Harakawa, H.; Hayashi, M.; Hidai, M.; Hirano, T.; Kuzuhara, M.; Machida, M.; Matsuo, T.; Nagata, T.; Ohnuki, H.; Ogihara, M.; Oshino, S.; Suzuki, R.; Takami, H.; Takato, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Tachinami, C.; Terada, H.

    2012-09-01

    IRD is the near-infrared high-precision radial velocity instrument for the Subaru 8.2-m telescope. It is a relatively compact (~1m size) spectrometer with a new echelle-grating and Volume-Phase Holographic gratings covering 1-2 micron wavelengths combined with an original frequency comb using optical pulse synthesizer. The spectrometer will employ a 4096x4096-pixel HgCdTe array under testing at IfA, University of Hawaii. Both the telescope/Adaptive Optics and comb beams are fed to the spectrometer via optical fibers, while the instrument is placed at the Nasmyth platform of the Subaru telescope. Expected accuracy of the Doppler-shifted velocity measurements is about 1 m s-1. Helped with the large collecting area and high image quality of the Subaru telescope, IRD can conduct systematic radial velocity surveys of nearby middle-to-late M stars aiming for down to one Earth-mass planet. Systematic observational and theoretical studies of M stars and their planets for the IRD science are also ongoing. We will report the design and preliminary development progresses of the whole and each component of IRD.

  8. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy A.; Cumming, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    and a proof of concept mission for which SOFIA was opportunely positioned is showcased. Success on this time-critical mission to observe a rare astronomical event proved the usefulness of an airborne observatory and the value in waiting for the capability provided by SOFIA. Finally, lessons learned in the test program are presented with emphasis on how lessons from previous aircraft and successful test programs were applied to SOFIA. Effective application of these lessons was crucial to the success of the SOFIA flight test program. SOFIA is an international cooperative program between NASA and the German Space Agency, DLR. It is a 2.5 meter (100-inch) telescope mounted in a Boeing 747SP aircraft used for astronomical observations at altitudes above 35,000 feet. SOFIA will accommodate a host of scientific instruments from the international science community and has a planned operational lifespan of more than 20 years.

  9. 40 CFR 180.325 - 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid... Tolerances § 180.325 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for negligible residues of the plant regulator 2-(m-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid from...

  10. FalconSAT-7: a membrane space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Geoff; Asmolova, Olha; Dickinson, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The USAF Academy Department of Physics is building FalconSAT-7, a membrane solar telescope to be deployed from a 3U CubeSat in LEO. The primary optic is a 0.2m photon sieve.—a diffractive element consisting of billions of tiny holes in an otherwise opaque polymer sheet. The membrane, its support structure, secondary optics, two imaging cameras and associated control/recording electronics are all packaged within half the CubeSat volume. Once in space the supporting pantograph structure is deployed, pulling the membrane flat under tension. The telescope will then be steered towards the Sun to gather images at H-alpha for transmission to the ground. Due for launch in 2016, FalconSAT-7 will serve as a pathfinder for future surveillance missions.

  11. Design and development of a wide field telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Il; Lee, Sangon; Lim, Juhee; Yang, Ho-Soon; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Song, Jae Bong; Lee, Yun Woo; Lee, Jong Ung; Jin, Ho

    2012-09-01

    A prototype of large wide field telescope is a Cassegrain telescope which covers 2° field of view with two hyperbolic mirrors, a 0.5 m primary mirror and a 0.2 m secondary mirror with multiple correction lenses. To fulfill the optical and mechanical performance requirements in design and development phase extensive finite element analyses using NX NASTRAN and optical analyses with CODE V and PCFRINGE have been conducted for the structure of optical system. Analyses include static deformation (gravity and thermal), frequency, dynamic response analysis, and optical performance evaluations for minimum optical deformation. Image motion is also calculated based on line of sight sensitivity equations integrated in finite element models. A parametric process was performed for the design optimization to produce highest fundamental frequency for a given weight, as well as to deal with the normal concerns about global performance.

  12. TIGRE: A new robotic spectroscopy telescope at Guanajuato, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K.-P.; Rauw, G.; Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; González-Pérez, J. N.; Czesla, S.; Wolter, U.; Jack, D.; Eenens, P.; Trinidad, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    TIGRE is a new robotic spectroscopy telescope located in central Mexico at the La Luz Observatory of the University of Guanajuato. The 1.2 m telescope is fiber-coupled to an échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolving power exceeding 20 000 over most of the covered spectral range between 3800 Å and 8800 Å, with a small gap of 130 Å around 5800 Å. TIGRE operates robotically, i.e. it (normally) carries out all observations without any human intervention, including, in particular, the target selection in any given observing night. In this paper we describe the properties of the TIGRE instrumentation and its technical realization, as well as our first operational experience with the performance and efficiency of the overall system. Finally, we present some examples of recent TIGRE observations.

  13. Metrology camera system of prime focus spectrograph for Subaru telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Chou, Chueh-Yi; Chang, Yin-Chang; Huang, Pin-Jie; Hu, Yen-Sang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Gunn, James E.; Karr, Jennifer; Yan, Chi-Hung; Mao, Peter; Ohyama, Youichi; Karoji, Hiroshi; Sugai, Hajime; Shimono, Atsushi

    2014-07-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph designed for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. The metrology camera system of PFS serves as the optical encoder of the COBRA fiber motors for the configuring of fibers. The 380mm diameter aperture metrology camera will locate at the Cassegrain focus of Subaru telescope to cover the whole focal plane with one 50M pixel Canon CMOS sensor. The metrology camera is designed to provide the fiber position information within 5μm error over the 45cm focal plane. The positions of all fibers can be obtained within 1s after the exposure is finished. This enables the overall fiber configuration to be less than 2 minutes.

  14. Prime focus instrument of prime focus spectrograph for Subaru telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Braun, David F.; Schwochert, Mark A.; Huang, Pin-Jie; Kimura, Masahiko; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Reiley, Daniel J.; Mao, Peter; Fisher, Charles D.; Tamura, Naoyuki; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Sang; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Wen, Chih-Yi; Chou, Richard C.-Y.; Takato, Naruhisa; Sugai, Hajime; Ohyama, Youichi; Karoji, Hiroshi; Shimono, Atsushi; Ueda, Akitoshi

    2014-07-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph design for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capability of Hyper SuprimeCam (HSC). The prime focus unit of PFS called Prime Focus Instrument (PFI) provides the interface with the top structure of Subaru telescope and also accommodates the optical bench in which Cobra fiber positioners are located. In addition, the acquisition and guiding (AG) cameras, the optical fiber positioner system, the cable wrapper, the fiducial fibers, illuminator, and viewer, the field element, and the telemetry system are located inside the PFI. The mechanical structure of the PFI was designed with special care such that its deflections sufficiently match those of the HSC's Wide Field Corrector (WFC) so the fibers will stay on targets over the course of the observations within the required accuracy.

  15. COSMOGRAIL: Time delays in lensed quasars from Himalayan Chandra Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathna Kumar, S.; Stalin, C. S.; Tewes, M.; Courbin, F.; Asfandiyarov, I.; Ibrahimov, M.; Eulaers, E.; Meylan, G.; Prabhu, T. P.; Magain, P.

    Estimating H_0 to an accuracy of few percent is an important challenge today as it will offer key insights into various questions in cosmology. By measuring time delays between the photometric variations in lensed quasar images and subsequent modelling of the mass distribution in the lensing galaxy, it is possible to constrain H_0 in a way well complementary to traditional techniques. Time delays are difficult to measure due to the long time span needed to monitor the sources and photometry is challenging due to the small angular separation between the lensed quasar images. These issues are addressed by the COSMOGRAIL (COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses) collaboration, which uses several telescopes in both the hemispheres to monitor a large sample of gravitationally lensed quasars. As part of this collaboration, 6 sources are being monitored using the 2 m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) in Hanle, India. We present here the preliminary estimates of time delays in these sources.

  16. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, O.; Del Santo, M.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M. C.; Pareschi, G.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  17. Improved Optical Design for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)

    SciTech Connect

    Seppala, L

    2002-09-24

    This paper presents an improved optical design for the LSST, an fll.25 three-mirror telescope covering 3.0 degrees full field angle, with 6.9 m effective aperture diameter. The telescope operates at five wavelength bands spanning 386.5 nm to 1040 nm (B, V, R, I and Z). For all bands, 80% of the polychromatic diffracted energy is collected within 0.20 arc-seconds diameter. The reflective telescope uses an 8.4 m f/1.06 concave primary, a 3.4 m convex secondary and a 5.2 m concave tertiary in a Paul geometry. The system length is 9.2 m. A refractive corrector near the detector uses three fused silica lenses, rather than the two lenses of previous designs. Earlier designs required that one element be a vacuum barrier, but now the detector sits in an inert gas at ambient pressure. The last lens is the gas barrier. Small adjustments lead to optimal correction at each band. The filters have different axial thicknesses. The primary and tertiary mirrors are repositioned for each wavelength band. The new optical design incorporates features to simplify manufacturing. They include a flat detector, a far less aspheric convex secondary (10 {micro}m from best fit sphere) and reduced aspheric departures on the lenses and tertiary mirror. Five aspheric surfaces, on all three mirrors and on two lenses, are used. The primary is nearly parabolic. The telescope is fully baffled so that no specularly reflected light from any field angle, inside or outside of the full field angle of 3.0 degrees, can reach the detector.

  18. Alignment and phasing of deployable telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, N. J.; Ulich, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    The experiences in coaligning and phasing the Multi-Mirror Telescope (MMT), together with studies in setting up radio telescopes, are presented. These experiences are discussed, and on the basis they furnish, schemes are suggested for coaligning and phasing four large future telescopes with complex primary mirror systems. These telescopes are MT2, a 15-m-equivalent MMT, the University of California Ten Meter Telescope, the 10 m sub-mm wave telescope of the University of Arizona and the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, and the Large Deployable Reflector, a future space telescope for far-IR and sub-mm waves.

  19. LISA Telescope Spacer Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff; Arsenovic, P.; Catelluci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, Howard R.; Preston, A.; Sanjuan, J.; Williams, L.; Mueller, G.

    2010-01-01

    The LISA mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of - 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. We describe the mechanical requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution, layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design. Plans for fabrication and testing will be outlined.

  20. Preliminary LISA Telescope Spacer Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, J.; Arsenovic, P.; Catellucci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, R. T.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of approximately 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. This poster describes the requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution,layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design, and plans for fabrication and testing.

  1. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  2. Foundation design for a radio telescope on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, Koon Meng; Johnson, Stewart W.; Yuan, Zehong

    1990-01-01

    A foundation design for a 122 m diameter dish-type radio telescope on the moon is presented. The 1.2 m wide and 43 m diameter circular strip footing was analyzed for settlement due to compaction during installation and also for total and differential settlement under in-service laods. An axisymmetrical finite element code of the uppdated Lagrangian formulation was used. Interface slip elements were also used. The nonlinear hyperbolic stress-strain model parameters for the regolith were derived from load-deflection characteristics of astronauts' bootprints and the Rover tracks.

  3. Small optical telescopes on the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Problems associated with the design and operation of efficient lunar-based telescopes are discussed. The various types of reflecting telescopes and catadioptric optical systems developed so far are characterized and compared. Requirements concerning mounting of a telescope on the lunar surface are examined. Properties of materials to be used in manufacturing telescopes for a safe operation in the lunar environment are considered. Finally, the telescope size is dealt with.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. The observatory has a large primary mirror 6.5 meter in diameter, designed to deliver high angular resolution in the infrared, combined with a large collecting area. The telescope optics are designed and fabricated to operate at the cryogenic temperatures (,...,40 k) required for an IR optimized telescope. The primary mirror is also a segmented mirror architecture. The observatory is designed to achieve cryogenic operating temperature via passive cooling, facilitated by a five-layer sunshield which keeps the telescope in the sun's shadow. Since the observatory dimensions exceed the Ariane 5 fairing size, the observatory has to be stowed for launch and deployed following launch. The observatory will be launched into an L2 orbit that provides continuous science operations and a benign thermal environment for optical stability.

  5. Architecture of the FIRST telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Eri J.; Connell, Steven J.; Dodson, Kelly J.; Abbott, Jamie L.; Abusafieh, Abdel A.; Backovsky, Z. F.; Dyer, Jack E.; Escobedo-Torres, Javier; Friedman, Zvi; Hull, Anthony B.; Small, Donald W.; Thorndyke, Phil; Whitmore, Shaun A.

    2000-07-01

    The Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST), is an ESA cornerstone mission, that will be used for photometry, imaging and spectroscopy in the 80 to 670 micrometer range. NASA, through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), will be contributing the telescope and its design to ESA. This paper will discuss the work being done by JPL and Composite Optics, Incorporated (COI), the developer of the primary mirror technology. Optical and mechanical constraints for the telescope have been defined by ESA and evolved from their trade studies. Design drivers are wave front error (10 micrometer rms with a goal of 6 micrometer rms), mass (260 kg), primary mirror diameter (3.5 m) and f number (f/0.5), and the operational temperature (less than 90 K). In response to these requirements a low mass, low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) telescope has been designed using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). This paper will first present background on the JPL/COI CFRP mirror development efforts. After selection of the material, the next two steps, that are being done in parallel, are to demonstrate that a large CFRP mirror could meet the requirements and to detail the optical, thermal and mechanical design of the telescope.

  6. An explanation of the preferential formation of less stable isomers in three-body reactions - Cl + NO2 + M; ClO + NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J. S.; Baldwin, A. C.; Golden, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A realistic assessment of the potential depletion of stratospheric ozone due to manmade emissions requires a knowledge of the sources and sinks of the potential threat. The reactions ClO + NO2 + M yield products and Cl + NO2 + M yield products are of interest because they represent possible sink mechanism for both odd chlorine and odd nitrogen species. In this paper, the Troe method (1977) is used to calculate the low-pressure limit rate constants of the above three-body reactions. The result for the Cl + NO2 + M reaction is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental finding of Niki et al. (1978), where both nitryl chloride and chlorine nitrate are products of the cited reaction. An explanation is proposed to account for apparent discrepancy between the measured rate constants for ClO + NO2 + M in the forward and reverse directions. Stratospheric implications are also discussed.

  7. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  8. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  9. Space Telescope maintenance and refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trucks, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Telescope (ST) represents a new concept regarding spaceborne astronomical observatories. Maintenance crews will be brought to the orbital worksite to make repairs and replace scientific instruments. For major overhauls the telescope can be temporarily returned to earth with the aid of the Shuttle. It will, thus, be possible to conduct astronomical studies with the ST for two decades or more. The five first-generation scientific instruments used with the ST include a wide field/planetary camera, a faint object camera, a faint object spectrograph, a high resolution spectrograph, and a high speed photometer. Attention is given to the optical telescope assembly, the support systems module, aspects of mission and science operations, unscheduled maintenance, contingency orbital maintenance, planned on-orbit maintenance, ground maintenance, ground refurbishment, and ground logistics.

  10. Optical Telescope Design Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, J.; Sankar, S.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the results of a study conducted from Nov 2012-Apr 2013 to develop a telescope design for a space-based gravitational wave detector. The telescope is needed for efficient power delivery but since it is directly in the beam path, the design is driven by the requirements for the overall displacement sensitivity of the gravitational wave observatory. Two requirements in particular, optical pathlength stability and scattered light performance, are beyond the usual specifications for good image quality encountered in traditional telescopic systems. An important element of the study was to tap industrial expertise to develop an optimized design that can be reliably manufactured. Key engineering and design trade-offs and the sometimes surprising results will be presented.

  11. Scientific management of Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A historical summay is given on the science management of the Space Telescope, the inception of which began in 1962, when scientists and engineers first recommended the development of a nearly diffraction limited substantial-size optical telescope. Phase A, the feasibility requirements generation phase, began in 1971 and consisted largely of NASA scientists and a NASA design. Phase B, the preliminary design phase, established a tiered structure of scientists, led by the Large Space Telescope operations and Management Work Group. A Mission Operations Working Group headed six instrument definition teams to develop the essential instrument definitions. Many changes took place during Phase B, before design and development, which began in 1978 and still continues today.

  12. Infrared telescope on Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, D.

    1979-01-01

    The infrared telescope (IRT) on Spacelab 2 which will be the first cryogenically cooled telescope operated from the Orbiter is discussed. Its objectives are to measure the induced environment about the Orbiter and to demonstrate the ability to manage a large volume of superfluid helium in space. The prime astrophysical objectives are to map extended sources of low surface brightness infrared emission, including the zodiacal light, the galactic plane, and extragalactic regions. The IRT design is described, including the f/4 15.2 cm highly baffled Herschelian telescope cooled to 8 K which may scan to within 35 deg of the sun. The focal plane cooled to 3 K consists of nine discrete photoconductors covering the wavelength of 4.5-120 microns in five bands, with a single stellar detector used for aspect determination. Overlapping scans, contiguous orbits, and a six degree per second scan rate permit rapid redundant coverage of 60 % of the sky.

  13. Quantum telescope: feasibility and constraints.

    PubMed

    Kurek, A R; Pięta, T; Stebel, T; Pollo, A; Popowicz, A

    2016-03-15

    The quantum telescope is a recent idea aimed at beating the diffraction limit of spaceborne telescopes and possibly other distant target imaging systems. There is no agreement yet on the best setup of such devices, but some configurations have already been proposed. In this Letter we characterize the predicted performance of quantum telescopes and their possible limitations. Our extensive simulations confirm that the presented model of such instruments is feasible and the device can provide considerable gains in the angular resolution of imaging in the UV, optical, and infrared bands. We argue that it is generally possible to construct and manufacture such instruments using the latest or soon to be available technology. We refer to the latest literature to discuss the feasibility of the proposed QT system design. PMID:26977642

  14. ORFEUS-SPAS MAIN TELESCOPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Multi-Payload Processing Facility (MPPF) at KSC, technicians hoist the orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) II main telescope to a vertical position prior to installing it atop the Astronomy Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ASTRO-SPAS) platform. Two spectrographs share the main telescope: the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUV) provided by the University of California at Berkeley, and the Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph (FUV) designed by German institutions the University of Tubingen and Landessternwarte Heidelberg and built by German company Kayser-Threde. The main telescope has a primary mirror approximately one yard (one meter) in diameter, coated with iridium to improve its light-gathering power in the ultraviolet. During the flight of ORFEUS-SPAS II on Space Shuttle Mission STS- 80, these two spectrographs -- along with a third installed separately on the ASTRO-SPAS -- will gather data about the life cycle of stars.

  15. AKARI: space infrared cooled telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi; Salama, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    AKARI, formerly known as ASTRO-F, is the second Japanese space mission to perform infrared astronomical observations. AKARI was launched on 21 February 2006 (UT) and brought into a sun-synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 700 km by a JAXA M-V rocket. AKARI has a telescope with a primary-mirror aperture size of 685 mm together with two focal-plane instruments on board: the Infrared Camera (IRC), which covers the spectral range 2-26 μm and the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS), which operates in the range 50-180 μm. The telescope mirrors are made of sandwich-type silicon carbide, specially developed for AKARI. The focal-plane instruments and the telescope are cooled by a unique cryogenic system that kept the telescope at 6K for 550 days with 180 l super-fluid liquid Helium (LHe) with the help of mechanical coolers on board. Despite the small telescope size, the cold environment and the state-of-the-art detectors enable very sensitive observations at infrared wavelengths. To take advantage of the characteristics of the sun-synchronous polar orbit, AKARI performed an all-sky survey during the LHe holding period in four far-infrared bands with FIS and two mid-infrared bands with IRC, which surpasses the IRAS survey made in 1983 in sensitivity, spatial resolution, and spectral coverage. AKARI also made over 5,000 pointing observations at given targets in the sky for approximately 10 min each, for deep imaging and spectroscopy from 2 to 180 μm during the LHe holding period. The LHe ran out on 26 August 2007, since which date the telescope and instrument are still kept around 40K by the mechanical cooler on board, and near-infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations with IRC are now being continued in pointing mode.

  16. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is being developed by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian space agencies for launch during 2013. This mission is expected to carry the legacy of discovery of the Hubble Space Telescope through the next decade, and is designed with unique capability to address key questions about formation of the first galaxies after the Big Bang, their subsequelet volution, and the formation of stars and planets within our own galaxy. This talk will present an overview of the mission science objectives and the status of the mission development.

  17. System of reflective telescope baffles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavroudis, Orestes N.; Foo, Leslie D.

    1994-03-01

    The use of absorbing baffles for blocking scattered light in space-borne telescopes raises a major problem. The absorbed stray light becomes heat, which in the space environment cannot be dissipated by air convection. This is particularly important for those telescopes operating in the IR, because the warm baffles will reradiate at those wavelengths. The conventional solution to this problem is the use of cryogenic cooling. We present here an alternative system of reflective baffles that reflect back out of the entrance aperture a preponderance of the stray light. Some criteria are also presented that will aid in the location and the distribution of the individual vanes.

  18. The network of INTA telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, L.

    2008-06-01

    The Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial has a network of three telescopes located at some of the best places for astronomy in mainland Spain. The first is at the Observatorio de Calar Alto in Almeria, at an altitude of more than 2100 m. The second is near Calatayud in Zaragoza, at the summit of a 1400-m high mountain. The last is on the campus of the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospatial (INTA), in Madrid. The three telescopes are either 40 or 50 cm in diameter and will be available for communications and educational projects.

  19. New Information about Old Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Helden, Albert

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that the earliest telescopes were primitive, suffering from a number of defects such as spherical and chromatic aberrations, grinding and polishing errors, and poor quality glass. In the last two decades, much new information has been uncovered by the cooperation between historians and scientists. As a result, we now have a much better, and more complete, history of early telescopes, from spectacle lenses and the invention of the instrument to the demise of long-focus non-achromatic refractors and their replacement by reflectors in the eighteenth century. We can begin to quantify the properties of these early instruments, and the results are often surprising.

  20. LISA telescope spacer design investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjuan, Josep; Mueller, Guido; Livas, Jeffrey; Preston, Alix; Arsenovic, Petar; Castellucci, Kevin; Generie, Joseph; Howard, Joseph; Stebbins, Robin

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a space-based gravitational wave observa-tory with the goal of observing Gravitational Waves (GWs) from astronomical sources in a frequency range from 30 µHz to 0.1 Hz. The detection of GWs at such low frequency requires measurements of distances at the pico-meter level between bodies separated by 5 million kilo-meters. The LISA mission consists of three identical spacecraft (SC) separated by 5 × 106 km forming an equilateral triangle. Each SC contains two optical assemblies and two vacuum en-closures housing one proof mass (PM) in geodesic (free fall) motion each. The two assemblies on one SC are each pointing towards an identical assembly on each of the other two SC to form a non-equal arm interferometer. The measurement of the GW strain is done by measuring the change in the length of the optical path between the PMs of one arm relative to the other arms caused by the pass of a GW. An important element of the Interferometric Measurement System (IMS) is the telescope which, on one hand, gathers the light coming from the far SC (˜100 pW) and, on the other hand, expands and collimates the small outgoing beam ( 1 W) and sends it to the far SC. Due to the very demanding sensitivity requirements care must be taken in the design and validation of the telescope not to degrade the IMS performance. For instance, the diameter of the telescope sets the the shot noise of the IMS and depends critically on the diameter of the primary and the divergence angle of the outgoing beam. As the telescope is rather fast telescope, the divergence angle is a critical function of the overall separation between the primary and secondary. Any long term changes of the distance of more than a a few micro-meter would be detrimental to the LISA mission. Similarly challenging are the requirements on the in-band path-length noise for the telescope which has to be kept below 1 pm Hz-1/2 in the LISA band. Different configurations (on-axis/off axis

  1. The Large Space Telescope program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The 1980's should see the establishment of the first major observatory in space. This observatory will contain a long-lifetime reflecting telescope of about 120 inches clear aperture. Advantages of an orbiting telescope include the elimination of astronomical seeing effects and improvements in resolving power. The small images and darker sky will permit low-dispersion spectrographs to avoid more of the contaminating background. The crispness of the images also has potential for very efficient high-dispersion spectroscopy. A further advantage lies in the accessibility of all the sky and nearly around-the-clock observing.

  2. Super-size space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.; Warner, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A class of space telescopes for astronomical observations with a resolution and collecting capability more than one order of magnitude better than what is expected from the 2.4 m Space Telescope is discussed. To this purpose aplanatic two-mirror systems of coplanar primary/secondary mirror arrangements with approximately 45 deg angles of incidence and an overall diameter of about 100 m have been designed and analyzed. The main advantages of these systems are their compactness and the associated minimization of the moment of inertia in two axes. Two opposing secondary arrangements, one forward-reflecting and the other backward-reflecting are analyzed and compared.

  3. Wide field of view telescope

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  4. Colliding Galaxies: Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-10-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope looks deep within the violent center where the two Antennae Galaxies were merging. The Hubble's high resolution and sensitivity reveals the birth of young star clusters formed in the collision. New Hubble images of young star clusters help investigators put the evolutionary sequence into the right order. The Hubble Space Telescope images are: (1) zoom into the antennae galaxies; (2) galaxy merger evolution sequence; (3) the formation of the antennae pair; and (4) artist's conception of the collision of Milky-Way Galaxy with the Andromeda.

  5. The Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiffert, M.

    1996-12-01

    Since 1988 the UCSB Cosmology Group has performed a number of measurements of the degree scale structure in the Cosmic Background Radiation. These include 3 South Pole expeditions in 1989, 91 and 94. and 8 balloon flights using SIS, HEMTs and bolometer based detectors. We will present a summary of these measurements focusing onthe recent results. In addition, we will describe the recent flight of HACME, a balloon- borne experiment to map CMB anisotropies with 0.75 degree angular resolution over several hundred square degrees. This experiment is a prototype for our next generation CMB experiment, the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST). BEAST will feature a 2 m diameter carbon fiber composite primary mirror for high angular resolution and a sensitive array of ultra-low noise HEMT amplifiers at 30, 40, and 90 GHz. BEAST is designed for an Antarctic long duration balloon flight allowing an observing time of order two weeks. This experiment will provide an unprecedented combination of sensitivty and angular resolution across a significant region of sky.

  6. Expected performance of the ASTRI mini-array in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pierro, F.; Bigongiari, C.; Stamerra, A.; Vallania, P.; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium, the

    2016-05-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory is a world-wide project for the ground-based study of the sources of the highest energy photons. By adopting telescopes of three different size categories it will cover the wide energy range from tens of GeV up to hundreds of TeV, limited only by the source physical properties and the gamma absorption by the extragalactic background light. The full sky coverage will be assured by two arrays, one in each hemisphere. An array of small size telescopes (SSTs), covering the highest energy region (3-100 TeV), the region most flux limited for current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, is planned to be deployed at the southern CTA site in the first phase of the CTA project. The ASTRI collaboration has developed a prototype of a dual mirror SST equipped with a SiPM-based focal plane (ASTRI SST-2M) and has proposed to install a mini-array of nine of such telescopes at the CTA southern site (the ASTRI mini-array). In order to study the expected performance and the scientific capabilities of different telescope configurations, full Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the shower development in the atmosphere for both gammas and hadronic background have been performed, followed by detailed simulations of the telescopes. In this work the expected performance of the ASTRI mini-array in terms of sensitivity, angular and energy resolution are presented and discussed.

  7. Detection and initial characterisation of an exoplanet atmosphere with small aperture telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernt, I.; Müller, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Granzer, T.

    2013-09-01

    In the recent years atmospheres of exoplanets have been studied with space-based telescopes like the HST or large aperture ground-based telescopes like the Gran Telescopio Canarias. But as the number of suitable exoplanets is rising, comparative studies of atmospheres with a statistically meaningful amount of targets will follow, for which the observational time with large telescopes is limited and expensive. Our aim is to investigate whether it is possible to detect and initially characterise the atmosphere of an exoplanet with small aperture telescopes using chromatic variations in transit depths. We collected multi-color transits in the years 2011 to 2013 using the robotic 1.2m-telescope STELLA on Tenerife as well as the Nordic Optical Telescope and the 70cm-telescope at the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam. The highly inflated Hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b was chosen as target for our pilot study for its favorable large atmospheric scale height and therefore enhanced atmospheric detectability. Models of the atmospheric spectra of HAT-P-32 b indicate that the STELLA-data can be used to distinguish between a dusty and a cloud-free atmosphere using the gradient in transit depth of the observations in the blue band and in the visible band. Here we want to present our project together with the first results of the transit depth analysis.

  8. ZERODUR mirror substrates for solar telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, T.; Jedamzik, R.; Hartmann, P.

    The zero-expansion glass ceramic material, ZERODUR, is well known for nighttime telescope mirror substrates. Also for solar telescopes, ZERODUR is often selected as mirror blank material. Examples are the Swedish 1m Solar Telescope (SST), the balloon-born telescope SUNRISE, and the New Solar Telescope (NST) of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The properties of ZERODUR are discussed with respect to the special technical requirements of solar observatories, resulting in the conclusion that mirrors made of this glass ceramic material are an excellent choice for solar telescopes.

  9. On resolving 2M - 1 narrow-band signals with an M sensor uniform linear array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Douglas B.; Johnson, Don H.

    1992-01-01

    Length 2M real signal vectors are used to address the problem of determining the maximum number of narrow-band signals whose parameters can be estimated with a linear array of M equally spaced sensors. It is shown that 2M of these real vectors are linearly independent with probability one, and, thus in the presence of additive white noise, the parameters of 2M - 1 signals can be estimated. An algorithm for determining directions and amplitudes is presented.

  10. Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the spacecraft’s main scientificinstrument. This animation shows a gamma ray (purple) entering the LAT,where it is converted into an electron (red) and a...

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is a view of a solar cell blanket deployed on a water table during the Solar Array deployment test. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Arrays provide power to the spacecraft. The arrays are mounted on opposite sides of the HST, on the forward shell of the Support Systems Module. Each array stands on a 4-foot mast that supports a retractable wing of solar panels 40-feet (12.1-meters) long and 8.2-feet (2.5-meters) wide, in full extension. The arrays rotate so that the solar cells face the Sun as much as possible to harness the Sun's energy. The Space Telescope Operations Control Center at the Goddard Space Center operates the array, extending the panels and maneuvering the spacecraft to focus maximum sunlight on the arrays. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST Solar Array was designed by the European Space Agency and built by British Aerospace. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

  12. LSST telescope integration and tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebag, Jacques; Gressler, William; Neill, Doug; Barr, Jeff; Claver, Chuck; Andrew, John

    2014-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Telescope integration and test plan is phased to ensure that subsystems and services are available to support the integration flow. It begins with the summit facility construction and shows how the major subsystems feed into the activities through final testing. In order to minimize the amount of hardware mated for the first time during that period, the approach is to favor all hardware mated and pre-tested at vendors' facilities with associated hardware and software prior to delivery onsite. The integration and test plan exploits the diffraction limited on-axis image quality of the three-mirror design. In addition, fiducials will be used during optical acceptance testing at vendors' facilities to capture the optical axis geometry of each optical element. These fiducials will be used during the integration and tests sequence to facilitate the telescope optical alignment. In this paper, we describe the major steps of the LSST telescope integration and test sequence prior to the start of commissioning with the science camera.

  13. Conically Scanned Holographic LIDAR Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary

    1993-01-01

    Holographic LIDAR telescope includes holographic disk, rotation of which sweeps collimated, monochromatic beam of light from laser through conical scan. Holographic disk diffracts light scattered back from target volume or area to focal point located at stationary photomultiplier detector. Two conical baffles prevent stray light from reaching detector.

  14. Push-To Telescope Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Two coordinate systems are related here, one defined by the earth's equator and north pole, the other by the orientation of a telescope at some location on the surface of the earth. Applying an interesting though somewhat obscure property of orthogonal matrices and using the cross-product simplifies this relationship, revealing that a surprisingly…

  15. MACE telescope : Servo design aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayya, Y. S.; Srivastava, G. P.; Koul, R.

    2002-03-01

    The design parameters of the servo system for the MACE imaging Cerenkov telescope, based on functional, performance, operational and safety requirements of the system are briefly discussed. The servo system is designed around electronically commutated motors using fully digital controllers, pc-compatible hardware and software and ethernet connectivity for remote monitoring and control.

  16. NEAT: A Microarcsec Astrometric Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Goullioud, R.

    2011-01-01

    NEAT, Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope is a medium-small telescope (is) approximately 1m in diameter that is designed to make ultra precise (is) less than 1 uas (microarcsec) astrometric measurements of nearby stars in a (is) approximately 1hr observation. Four major error sources prevent normal space telescopes from obtaining accuracies close to 1 uas. Even with a small 1m telescope, photon noise is usually not a problem for the bright nearby target stars. But in general, the reference stars are much fainter. Typically a field of view of (is) approximately 0.5 deg dia is needed to obtain enough bright reference stars. The NEAT concept uses a very simple but unusual design to avoid optically induced astrometric errors. The third source of error is the accuracy and stability of the focal plane. A 1uas error over a (is) approximately 2000 arcsec field of view implies the focal plane is accurate or at least stable to 5 parts in 10(exp 10) over the lifetime of the mission ( (is) approximately 5yrs). The 4th class of error has to do with our knowledge of the PSF and how that PSF is sampled by an imperfect detector. A Nyquist sampled focal plane would have (is) greater than 2 pixels per lambda/D, and centroiding to 1uas means centroiding to 10-5 pixels. This paper describes the mission concept, and an overview of the technology needed to perform 1uas astrometry with a small telescope, and how we overcome problems 1 and 2. A companion paper will describe the technical progress we've made in solving problems 3 and 4.

  17. NEAT: A Microarcsec Astrometric Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.

    2011-01-01

    NEAT, Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope is a medium-small telescope 1m in diameter that is designed to make ultra precise < 1 uas (microarcsec) astrometric measurements of nearby stars in a 1hr observation. Four major error sources prevent normal space telescopes from obtaining accuracies close to 1 uas. Even with a small 1m telescope, photon noise is usually not a problem for the bright nearby target stars. But in general, the reference stars are much fainter. Typically a field of view of 0.5 deg dia is needed to obtain enough bright reference stars. The NEAT concept uses a very simple but unusual design to avoid optically induced astrometric errors. The third source of error is the accuracy and stability of the focal plane. A 1uas error over a 2000 arcsec field of view implies the focal plane is accurate or at least stable to 5 parts in 1010 over the lifetime of the mission (5yrs). The 4th class of error has to do with our knowledge of the PSF and how that PSF is sampled by an imperfect detector. A Nyquist sampled focal plane would have > 2 pixels per ?/D, and centroiding to 1uas means centroiding to 10-5 pixels. This paper describes the mission concept, and an overview of the technology needed to perform 1uas astrometry with a small telescope, and how we overcome problems 1 and 2. A companion paper will describe the technical progress we've made in solving problems 3 and 4.

  18. Virtual Telescope Observes Record-Breaking Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    New Data Show that "2001 KX76" Is Larger than Ceres Summary Ceres, the first asteroid (minor planet) to be discovered in the Solar System, has held the record as the largest known object of its kind for two centuries. However, recent observations at the European Southern Observatory with the world's first operational virtual telescope 'Astrovirtel' have determined that the newly discovered distant asteroid "2001 KX76" is significantly larger, with a diameter of 1200 km, possibly even 1400 km . PR Photo 27a/01 : Image of "2001 KX76 , obtained with the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at La Silla. PR Photo 27b/01 : Relative sizes of the largest known Kuiper Belt Objects and Pluto . Astrovirtel provides decisive data about 2001 KX76 ESO PR Photo 27a/01 ESO PR Photo 27a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 461 x 400 pix - 60k] [Normal - JPEG: 921 x 800 pix - 536k] Caption : ESO PR Photo 27a/01 shows a reproduction of a colour composite image, based on three exposures with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory. By combining data from the world's first operational "virtual telescope", Astrovirtel , with that from a conventional telescope at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) at La Silla (Chile), European astronomers [2] have determined the size of the newly found, remote asteroid, 2001 KX76 . Their measurements indicate that this icy rock has a diameter of at least 1200 km and is therefore larger than any other known asteroid in the Solar System . The previous record-holder, the asteroid Ceres, was also the first object of its type to be discovered - by the Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi on January 1, 1801. Its diameter is about 950 km, relegating it to second place after holding the asteroid size record for two hundred years. This conclusion is based on data from Astrovirtel, which has been operating at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) for about one year. This advanced prototype science tool which in effect mimics a telescope

  19. The Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II on Subaru and the University of Hawaii 88 in Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, H.; Hattori, T.; Kawai, A.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, T.; Ishigaki, T.; Ishii, M.; Ohtani, H.; Shimono, A.; Okita, Y.; Matsubayashi, K.; Kosugi, G.; Sasaki, M.; Takeyama, N.

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate physical conditions of ionized gas in galaxies, as well as its kinematics, we have developed the Kyoto tridimensional spectrograph II. It is a multimode optical instrument, including integral field spectrograph (IFS) and Fabry-Perot imager modes. We have designed it compact so that we can mount it on 2 m class telescopes as well as on the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. Special care was taken to obtain high-quality calibrations in the IFS mode. In order to remove the chromatic aberration of micropupil images produced by a lenslet array, we have introduced a corrector lens system behind the lenslet array. The internal calibration system simulates the telescope optics so that the system provides micropupil images identical to those produced by the telescope. The rigidness of the instrument provides the positional stability of micropupil images. We have succeeded in test observations of all the modes on Subaru and the University of Hawaii 88 in (UH88) telescopes and have verified the performance of the instrument. This includes the instrument efficiencies as well as the effective sky background subtraction and the minimization of crosstalk effects in the IFS mode. In the IFS mode a spatial resolution of 0.4'' was obtained in good seeing conditions. Each of 37 × 37 lenslets subtends 0.1'' in Subaru's case. This samples the image size well. A wider field of view is emphasized in the case of UH88.

  20. FORCAST Camera Installed on SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cornell University's Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope, or FORCAST, being installed on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy's 2.5-meter telescope in preparation f...

  1. Rangefinder Metrology for the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. A.; Creager, R. E.; Parker, D. H.; Payne, J. A.

    A scanning laser rangefinder metrology system for the 100 meter Green Bank Telescope is described. Use of this system for correction of the primary reflector's shape and pointing of the telescope is described.

  2. Recent Results from the MAGIC Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, Rudolf K.

    2005-02-21

    Some recent results are shown, obtained during the commissioning period of the MAGIC telescope. They demonstrate that the telescope is now approaching a performance level suitable for physics observations.

  3. Galileo, telescopic astronomy, and the Copernican system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Helden, A.

    Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Telescopic discoveries. 3. Sunspots, Copernicanism, and theology. 4. The decree of 1616. 5. The Dialogue. 6. The trial of Galileo. 7. The aftermath of the trial. 8. Telescopic astronomy after Galileo.

  4. The next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    We present the overview and the current status of SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics), which is a mission optimized for mid- and far-infrared astronomy with a cryogenically cooled 3.2 m telescope. SPICA has high spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity in the mid- and far-infrared, which will enable us to address a number of key problems in present-day astronomy, ranging from the star-formation history of the universe to the formation of planets. To reduce the mass of the whole mission, SPICA will be launched at ambient temperature and cooled down on orbit by mechanical coolers on board with an efficient radiative cooling system, a combination of which allows us to have a 3-m class cooled (6 K) telescope in space with moderate total weight (3.7t). SPICA is proposed as a Japanese-led mission together with extensive international collaboration. ESA's contribution to SPICA has been studied under the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision. The consortium led by SRON is in charge of a key focal plane instrument SAFARI (SPICA Far-Infrared Instrument). Korea and Taiwan are also important partners for SPICA. US participation to SPICA is under discussion. The SPICA project is now in the "risk mitigation phase". The target launch year of SPICA is 2022.

  5. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascale, E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chung, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; MacTavish, C. J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Martin, T. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N.; Truch, M. D. P.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2008-07-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 μm. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30'' at 250 μm. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of ~30''; postflight pointing reconstruction to lesssim5'' rms is achieved. The onboard telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a preselected set of maps, with the option of manual override. In this paper we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hr flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hr, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, in 2006 December.

  6. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semisch, Christopher; BLAST Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital survey-experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between 3 arrays, observes simultaneously in broad-band (30%) spectral-windows at 250µm, 350µm, and 500µm. The optical design is based on a 2m diameter Cassegrain telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250µm. The gondola pointing system enables raster-like maps of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of 30"; post-flight pointing reconstruction to < 5" rms is also achieved. The on-board telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a pre-selected set of maps, with the option of manual intervention. Since a test-flight in 2003, BLAST has made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100-hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in June 2005, and a 250-hour, circumpolar-flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, in December 2006.

  7. FalconSAT-7: a membrane space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Geoff P.; Asmolova, Olha

    2014-08-01

    The USAF Academy Department of Physics has built FalconSAT-7, a membrane solar telescope to be deployed from a 3U CubeSat in LEO. The primary optic is a 0.2m photon sieve - a diffractive element consisting of billions of tiny circular dimples etched into a Kapton sheet. The membrane, its support structure, secondary optics, two imaging cameras and associated control/recording electronics are all packaged within half the CubeSat volume. Once in space, the supporting pantograph structure is deployed, extending out and pulling the membrane flat under tension. The telescope will then be directed at the Sun to gather images at H-alpha for transmission to the ground. Due for launch in 2015, FalconSAT-7 will serve as a pathfinder for future surveillance missions consisting of a 0.3m aperture deployed from a 12U satellite. Such a telescope would be capable of providing sub-meter resolution of ground-based objects.

  8. An underground cosmic ray muon telescope for observation of cosmic ray anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. W.; Ng, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    A telescope housed in a tunnel laboratory has an overburden of 573 hg cm(-2) and is located under the center of a saddle-shaped landscape. It is composed of triple layers of proportional counters, each layer of area approx. 4m x 2m and their separation 0.5m. Events are selected by triple coincidence and software track identification. The telescope is in operation for over a year and the overall count rate is 1280 hr(-1). The structure and operation of the system is reported.

  9. Telescope protection algorithm for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Class, B. F.; Welch, R. V.; Wiltsee, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a proposed on-board Telescope Protection Algorithm (TPA) for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). This TPA consists of hardware and software capable of performing both fail-operational and fail-safe modes of operation. In the fail-operational mode, each ephemeris load and slew/dwell command sequence is checked on-board before use. The slew command monitor detects unallowable slew/dwell commands and transfers control to an algorithm which slews to and maintains a safe telescope orientation while preserving precise attitude determination and control. This fail-operational mode is also given the authority to autonomously restart the slew/dwell sequence at a point beyond the faulty command. The fail-safe system consists of software and hardware which detects impending earth, moon, or sun avoidance zone violations and activates a backup hardware safe hold mode. The subject TPA and relevant sensor complement were designed for the SIRTF mission; however, this system can easily be used as a basis for failure detection and correction in a wide range of other missions.

  10. The Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bely, Pierre-Yves (Editor); Burrows,, Christopher J. (Editor); Illingworth,, Garth D.

    1989-01-01

    In Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, the Space Science Board of the National Research Council identified high-resolution-interferometry and high-throughput instruments as the imperative new initiatives for NASA in astronomy for the two decades spanning 1995 to 2015. In the optical range, the study recommended an 8 to 16-meter space telescope, destined to be the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to complement the ground-based 8 to 10-meter-class telescopes presently under construction. It might seem too early to start planning for a successor to HST. In fact, we are late. The lead time for such major missions is typically 25 years, and HST has been in the making even longer with its inception dating back to the early 1960s. The maturity of space technology and a more substantial technological base may lead to a shorter time scale for the development of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Optimistically, one could therefore anticipate that NGST be flown as early as 2010. On the other hand, the planned lifetime of HST is 15 years. So, even under the best circumstances, there will be a five year gap between the end of HST and the start of NGST. The purpose of this first workshop dedicated to NGST was to survey its scientific potential and technical challenges. The three-day meeting brought together 130 astronomers and engineers from government, industry and universities. Participants explored the technologies needed for building and operating the observatory, reviewed the current status and future prospects for astronomical instrumentation, and discussed the launch and space support capabilities likely to be available in the next decade. To focus discussion, the invited speakers were asked to base their presentations on two nominal concepts, a 10-meter telescope in space in high earth orbit, and a 16-meter telescope on the moon. The workshop closed with a panel discussion focused mainly on the scientific case, siting, and the

  11. [Identification of C(2)M interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid screening].

    PubMed

    Shanshan, Yue; Laixin, Xia

    2015-11-01

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a huge structure which assembles between the homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase I. Drosophila germ cell-specific nucleoprotein C(2)M clustering at chromosomes can induce SC formation. To further study the molecular function and mechanism of C(2)M in meiosis, we constructed a bait vector for C(2)M and used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify C(2)M interacting proteins. Forty interacting proteins were obtained, including many DNA and histone binding proteins, ATP synthases and transcription factors. Gene silencing assays in Drosophila showed that two genes, wech and Psf1, may delay the disappearance of SC. These results indicate that Wech and Psf1 may form a complex with C(2)M to participate in the formation or stabilization of the SC complex. PMID:26582530

  12. Cigarette Smoking and Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 mRNA in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus in Suicides

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Helene; Arango, Victoria; Kassir, Suham A.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Mann, J. John; Underwood, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with suicide and mood disorders and stimulates serotonin release. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) synthesizes serotonin and is over-expressed in suicides. We determined whether smoking is associated with TPH2 mRNA in suicides and controls. TPH2 mRNA was measured postmortem in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of controls (N=26, 17 nonsmokers and nine smokers) and suicides (N=23, 5 nonsmokers and 18 smokers). Psychiatric history was obtained by psychological autopsy. TPH2 mRNA was greater in suicide nonsmokers than suicide smokers, control smokers and control nonsmokers (p=0.006). There was more TPH2 mRNA throughout the DRN. Smoking interferes with the TPH2 mRNA increase observed in suicide nonsmokers. The absence of altered TPH2 expression in non-suicide smokers suggests no pharmacological effect of smoking. PMID:26954509

  13. Wide-Angle, Flat-Field Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallam, K. L.; Howell, B. J.; Wilson, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    All-reflective system unvignetted. Wide-angle telescope uses unobstructed reflecting elements to produce flat image. No refracting elements, no chromatic aberration, and telescope operates over spectral range from infrared to far ultraviolet. Telescope used with such image detectors as photographic firm, vidicons, and solid-state image arrays.

  14. World atlas of large optical telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    By 1980 there will be approximately 100 large optical telescopes in the world with mirror or lens diameters of one meter (39 inches) and larger. This atlas gives information on these telescopes and shows their locations on continent-sized maps. Observatory locations considered suitable for the construction of future large telescopes are also shown.

  15. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  16. The Optimal Gravitational Lens Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdej, J.; Delacroix, C.; Coleman, P.; Dominik, M.; Habraken, S.; Hanot, C.; Le Coroller, H.; Mawet, D.; Quintana, H.; Sadibekova, T.; Sluse, D.

    2010-05-01

    Given an observed gravitational lens mirage produced by a foreground deflector (cf. galaxy, quasar, cluster, ...), it is possible via numerical lens inversion to retrieve the real source image, taking full advantage of the magnifying power of the cosmic lens. This has been achieved in the past for several remarkable gravitational lens systems. Instead, we propose here to invert an observed multiply imaged source directly at the telescope using an ad hoc optical instrument which is described in the present paper. Compared to the previous method, this should allow one to detect fainter source features as well as to use such an optimal gravitational lens telescope to explore even fainter objects located behind and near the lens. Laboratory and numerical experiments illustrate this new approach.

  17. Workshop on Mars Telescopic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III (Editor); Moersch, J. E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held August 14-15, 1995, at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, was organized and planned with two primary goals in mind: The first goal was to facilitate discussions among and between amateur and professional observers and to create a workshop environment fostering collaborations and comparisons within the Mars observing community. The second goal was to explore the role of continuing telescopic observations of Mars in the upcoming era of increased spacecraft exploration. The 24 papers presented at the workshop described the current NASA plans for Mars exploration over the next decade, current and recent Mars research being performed by professional astronomers, and current and past Mars observations being performed by amateur observers and observing associations. The workshop was divided into short topical sessions concentrating on programmatic overviews, groundbased support of upcoming spacecraft experiments, atmospheric observations, surface observations, modeling and numerical studies, and contributions from amateur astronomers.

  18. THE OPTIMAL GRAVITATIONAL LENS TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Surdej, J.; Hanot, C.; Sadibekova, T.; Delacroix, C.; Habraken, S.; Coleman, P.; Dominik, M.; Le Coroller, H.; Mawet, D.; Quintana, H.; Sluse, D.

    2010-05-15

    Given an observed gravitational lens mirage produced by a foreground deflector (cf. galaxy, quasar, cluster, ...), it is possible via numerical lens inversion to retrieve the real source image, taking full advantage of the magnifying power of the cosmic lens. This has been achieved in the past for several remarkable gravitational lens systems. Instead, we propose here to invert an observed multiply imaged source directly at the telescope using an ad hoc optical instrument which is described in the present paper. Compared to the previous method, this should allow one to detect fainter source features as well as to use such an optimal gravitational lens telescope to explore even fainter objects located behind and near the lens. Laboratory and numerical experiments illustrate this new approach.

  19. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing begins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    The day's work began when astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman stepped out into the cargo bay at 9h41 pm CST, Saturday (4h41 am CET, Sunday). They immediately set to work replacing two gyroscope assemblies, known as the Rate Sensor Units, two associated electronics boxes, called Electronic Control Units, and eight electrical fuse plugs. The work was completed ahead of schedule, but the astronauts had trouble closing the doors of the compartment housing the gyros and took over an hour to get them shut. The astronauts also prepared equipment for the replacement of the solar arrays. "The feeling down here is one of great satisfaction for a tremendous job today" said spacecraft communicator Greg Harbaugh in mission control. "We are very proud of the work that you all did and we are very confident in the continued success of the mission. Everything is going great and tomorrow is going to be another great day". ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier played a vital role during the spacewalk moving the astronauts and their equipment around the cargo bay with the shuttle's robot arm. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission features more robot arm operations than any other shuttle flight. The telescope's left-hand solar array was rolled up successfully at 6h24 am CST (1h24 pm CET). The 11-tonne observatory was rotated 180 degrees on its turntable before commands were sent to retract the second array at 8h23 am CST (3h23 pm CET). The crew stopped the retraction when it appeared the system may have jammed. Mission control instructed the crew to jettison the array, a procedure that they have trained for. Tomorrow astronauts Kathy Thornton and Tom Akers will make a six-hour spacewalk to jettison the troublesome wing, store the other in the cargo bay, and install two new panels supplied by ESA. The second set of arrays feature thermal shields and a modified thermal compensation system to prevent the flexing that affected the first pair. The Hubble Space Telescope was plucked

  1. NRO 10-m submillimeter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukita, Nobuharu; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ishiguro, Masato; Ezawa, Hajime; Sekimoto, Yutaro; Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Keizo; Matsumoto, Soichi

    2000-07-01

    A 10-m submillimeter telescope designed for interferometric observations at bands from 3 to 0.3 mm has constructed at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The telescope is an engineering model for a large millimeter and sub-millimeter array, and will be operated for developments of sub-millimeter observation techniques at a remote site. We have fabricated lightweight machined aluminum panels (15 kg m-2) that have a surface accuracy of 5 micrometer rms. They have a typical size of 0.8 m X 0.6 m, and are supported with three motorized screws. The back-up structure is constructed of a central hub of low thermal expansion alloy, and CFRP honeycomb boards and tubes. Holography measurements will be made with a nearby transmitter at 3 mm. The overall surface accuracy is expected to be < 25 micrometer rms; the goal being 17 micrometer rms. We have achieved an accuracy of 0.03' rms for angle encoders. The drive and control system is designed to achieve a pointing error of 1'.0 rms with no wind and at night. Under a wind velocity of 7 m s-1, the pointing error increases to 2'.0 rms. An optical telescope of 10-cm diameter mounted on the center hub will be used to characterize pointing and tracking accuracy. Thermal effects on the pointing and surface accuracy will be investigated using temperature measurements and FEM analyses. The fast position switching capability is also demanded to cancel atmospheric fluctuations. The antenna is able to drive both axes at a maximum velocity of 3 deg s-2 with a maximum acceleration of 6 deg. s-2. The telescope is currently equipped with SIS receivers for 100, 150, 230, and 345 GHz and a continuum backend and an FX-type digital autocorrelator with an instantaneous bandwidth of 512 MHz and 1024 channel outputs.

  2. Space infrared telescope facility project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    The functions undertaken during this reporting period were: to inform the planetary science community of the progress and status of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Project; to solicit input from the planetary science community on needs and requirements of planetary science in the use of SIRTF at such time that it becomes an operational facility; and a white paper was prepared on the use of the SIRTF for solar system studies.

  3. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Proto planetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will operate within the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy between 5 and 29 microns. The scientific investigations described here define the measurement capabilities of the telescope, but they do not imply that those particular observations will be made. JWST is a facility-class mission, so most of the observing time will be allocated to investigators from the international astronomical community through competitively-selected proposals.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtalik, F. S.

    1988-01-01

    The role of systems engineering in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) development program at NASA Marshall is reviewed. The scientific objectives and overall characteristics of the HST are recalled, and particular attention is given to the early identification and correction of problems in the optical system, the pointing-control system (maneuvering and fine guidance), the rate-gyro assembly, reaction-wheel isolation, the battery reconditioning circuit, and optical cleanliness.

  8. Sensitivity of coded mask telescopes.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Gerald K

    2008-05-20

    Simple formulas are often used to estimate the sensitivity of coded mask x-ray or gamma-ray telescopes, but these are strictly applicable only if a number of basic assumptions are met. Complications arise, for example, if a grid structure is used to support the mask elements, if the detector spatial resolution is not good enough to completely resolve all the detail in the shadow of the mask, or if any of a number of other simplifying conditions are not fulfilled. We derive more general expressions for the Poisson-noise-limited sensitivity of astronomical telescopes using the coded mask technique, noting explicitly in what circumstances they are applicable. The emphasis is on using nomenclature and techniques that result in simple and revealing results. Where no convenient expression is available a procedure is given that allows the calculation of the sensitivity. We consider certain aspects of the optimization of the design of a coded mask telescope and show that when the detector spatial resolution and the mask to detector separation are fixed, the best source location accuracy is obtained when the mask elements are equal in size to the detector pixels. PMID:18493279

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals.

  10. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (SDK) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to S microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  11. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisconti, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  12. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/. PMID:17503900

  13. Cost Modeling for Space Optical Telescope Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Luedtke, Alexander; West, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper reviews an on-going effort to develop cost modes for space telescopes. This paper summarizes the methodology used to develop cost models and documents how changes to the database have changed previously published preliminary cost models. While the cost models are evolving, the previously published findings remain valid: it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; technology development as a function of time reduces cost; and lower areal density telescopes cost more than more massive telescopes.

  14. All sky monitoring network with amateur telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhonghua; Xu, Chun

    2012-09-01

    We describe here a multiband all sky monitoring system under construction using amateur resources. The system consists of a data management center and a network of telescopes. The total number of telescopes in this network can be huge and all the telescopes are not affected by their local weather or their operability so this network is capable of monitoring the whole night sky simultaneously in many different bands. The telescopes in the network can be operated on an individual basis or on a coordinated mode. The data taken by the telescopes in the network are sent to the data management center via internet where calibration, data fusion, data analysis are performed.

  15. Twin-Telescope Wettzell (TTW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, H.; Dassing, R.; Kronschnabl, G.; Schlüter, W.; Schwarz, W.; Lauber, P.; Kilger, R.

    2007-07-01

    Following the recommendations made by the VLBI2010 vision report of the IVS, a proposal has been made to construct a Twin Telescope for the Fundamental Station Wettzell in order to meet the future requirements of the next VLBI generation. The Twin Telescope consists of two identical radiotelescopes. It is a project of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG). This article summarizes the project and some design ideas for the Twin-Telescope. %ZALMA (2005). Technical Specification for Design, Manufacturing, Transport and Integration on Site of the ALMA ANTENNAS, Doc. ALMA-34.00.00.00.006-BSPE. Behrend, D. (2006). VLBI2010 Antenna Specs, Data sheet. DeBoer, D. (2001). The ATA Offset Gregorian Antenna, ATA Memo #16, February 10. Imbriale, W.A. (2006). Design of a Wideband Radio Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and S. Weinreb and H. Mandi, California Institute of Technology. Kilger, R. (2007). TWIN-Design studies, Presentation for the IVS board members (internal document),Wettzell. Kronschnabl, G. (2006). Subject: Memo from Bill Petrachenko, E-mail to the Twin-Working Group (in German), July. Lindgren, ETS-Lindgren (2005). The Model 3164-05 Open Boundary Quadridge Horn, Data Sheet. Niell, A., A. Whitney, W. Petrachenko, W. Schlüter, N. Vandenberg, H.Hase, Y. Koyama, C. Ma, H. Schuh, G. Tucari (2006). in: IVS Annual Report 2005, pg. 13-40, NASA/TP-2006-214136, April. Olsson, R., Kildal, P.-S., and Weinreb, S. (2006). IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 2, February. Petrachenko, B. (2006). The Case For and Against Multiple Antennas at a Site, IVS Memorandum, 2006-019v01. Petrachenko, B. (2006). IVS Memorandum, 2006-016v01. RFSpin (2004). Double Ridged Waveguide Horn-Model DRH20, Antenna Specifications, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Crossed Log- Periodic Antennas HL024A1/S1, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Log-Periodic Antennas HL050/HL050S1, Data Sheet. Rogers, A.E.E. (2006). Simulations of broadband

  16. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. Current and foreseeable launch vehicles will be limited to carrying around 4-5 meter diameter objects. Thus, if a large, filled-aperture telescope (6-20 meters in diameter) is to be placed in space, it will be required to have a deployable primary mirror. Such a mirror may be an inflatable membrane or a segmented mirror consisting of many smaller pieces. In any case, it is expected that the deployed primary will not be of sufficient quality to achieve diffraction-limited performance for its aperture size. Thus, an active optics system will be needed to correct for initial as well as environmentally-produced primary figure errors. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed considerable expertise in the area of active optics with the PAMELA test-bed. The combination of this experience along with the Marshall optical shop's work in mirror fabrication made MSFC the logical choice to lead NASA's effort to develop active optics technology for large, space-based, astronomical telescopes. Furthermore, UAH's support of MSFC in the areas of optical design, fabrication, and testing of space-based optical systems placed us in a key position to play a major role in the development of this future-generation telescope. A careful study of the active optics components had to be carried out in order to determine control segment size, segment quality, and segment controllability required to achieve diffraction-limited resolution with a given primary mirror. With this in mind, UAH undertook the following effort to provide NASA/MSFC with optical design and analysis support for the large telescope study. All of the work performed under this contract has already been reported, as a team member with MSFC, to NASA Headquarters in a series of presentations given between May and December of 1995. As specified on the delivery

  17. Conceptual design of a 5-m terahertz telescope at Dome A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dehua; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Yi; Zhou, Guohua; Cheng, Jingquan; Li, Guoping

    2012-09-01

    A 5-meter terahertz telescope is proposed by the Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy (CCAA) for the East Antarctica site of the Dome A plateau. The Dome A 5-m terahertz telescope (DATE 5) will be operated at sub-millimeter waveband taking the unique advantage of the transparent atmospheric windows between 200 and 350 μm wavelengths at Dome A. A preliminary design has been conducted according to the given technical requirements and the special environmental conditions at Dome A. A symmetric R-C Cassegrain optical system is designed for the telescope, with a primary f-ratio of 0.4 and a wide field of view of 10 arcmin. The magnification of the sub-reflector is 9.4, leading to the final focal ratio of 3.76 and the focus 0.2 m below the vertex of the primary reflector. To ensure surface accuracy of the reflectors precise as small as 10 um RMS, we consider using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) to build the backup structure (BUS) of the primary reflector and the sub-reflector itself. An alt-azimuthal mounting is adopted and a tall base structure beneath the telescope is set up to lift the telescope above the low atmosphere turbulent layer. All the mechanics, as well as control electronics, are strictly designed to fit the lower temperature operation in the Dome A environment. This paper is to generally present the mentioned systematic optical, structural and electronic design of the DATE 5 telescope.

  18. The Discovery Channel Telescope: Construction and Design Progress, January 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Millis, R. L.; Smith, B. W.; Dunham, E. W.; Marshall, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2m telescope under construction in northern Arizona. The DCT is located at a new site near Happy Jack at 2361m elevation, which was selected following a lengthy site testing campaign that demonstrated DIMM-characterized median ground-level seeing of 0.84-arcsec FWHM. The DCT science mission includes targeted studies of astrophysical and solar system objects utilizing RC and Nasmyth-mounted imaging and spectroscopic instrumentation, and wide-field surveys of KBO’s, NEA’s, and astrophysical objects with a 2-degree FOV prime focus camera. The DCT facility enclosure and control buildings will be completed soon, including the telescope mount and dome supports, major machinery infrastructure, the instrument laboratory, control and computer rooms, and the auxiliary building for the mirror coating plant. Meanwhile, the effort for final figuring and polishing of the 4.3m ULE meniscus primary mirror blank began in August 2006 at the University of Arizona College of Optical Sciences. The primary mirror and its design support, and the integrated telescope mount model, were finite-element analyzed to optimize the design of the mirror and top-end support configurations. The primary mirror axial and tangential actuators will be fabricated in early 2007 and utilized in the final figure and polish cycle. The prime focus camera design has been refined to achieve atmospheric dispersion-compensated 0.25-arcsec images at 1-degree field radius, from B to I-band, at reduced cost through simplification of glasses to standard types and utilization of spheres on all but two lens surfaces. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. Lowell Observatory and Discovery Communications are actively seeking additional

  19. Aligning Astronomical Telescopes via Identification of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A proposed method of automated, precise alignment of a ground-based astronomical telescope would eliminate the need for initial manual alignment. The method, based on automated identification of known stars and other celestial objects in the telescope field of view, would also eliminate the need for an initial estimate of the aiming direction. The method does not require any equipment other than a digital imaging device such as a charge-coupled-device digital imaging camera and control computers of the telescope and camera, all of which are standard components in professional astronomical telescope systems and in high-end amateur astronomical telescope systems. The method could be implemented in software running in the telescope or camera control computer or in an external computer communicating with the telescope pointing mount and camera control computers.

  20. E-ELT telescope main structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orden Martínez, Alfredo; Dilla Martínez, Angel; Ballesteros Pérez, Noelia; Alcantud Abellán, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    The European Extra Large Telescope is ESO's biggest astronomical telescope project. The E-ELT is an active and adaptive telescope. It has an astigmatic optical solution (five mirrors, including two flat ones). The telescope structure is of alt-azimuth type able to support a primary mirror with an equivalent diameter of 40 m. The telescope will be installed in a high-seismicity zone, in Cerro Armazones, Antofagasta Region, Chile, at an altitude of 3046 metres above sea level. This has significantly affected the boundary conditions and safety aspects considered during the project. The scope of the paper describes the Telescope Main Structure configuration developed by Empresarios Agrupados (Spain) during the FEED Studies performed from June 2009 to July 2011 in the frame of ESO Contracts. Most of the solutions implemented were extrapolated from existing installations in which Empresarios Agrupados has participated, adjusting for the extra large size of this new telescope.

  1. 113. JOB NO. 1347K, SHEET 2M, 1929, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. JOB NO. 1347-K, SHEET 2M, 1929, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; BOILER HOUSE ASSEMBLY PLANT; SECTIONS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. CH2M Hill Hanford Group Inc (CHG) Information Resource Management (IRM) Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, R.L.

    2000-05-08

    The CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., Information Resource Management Strategic Plan is the top-level planning document for applying information and information resource management to achieve the CHG mission for the management of the River Protection Project

  3. Idaho National Laboratory Technology to Market (T2M) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Christopher Todd; Bush, Jason William; Gentle, Jake Paul; Hill, Porter Jack; Myers, Kurt Steven; Williams, Christopher Luke

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a tiered Technology to Market (T2M) curriculum for basic researchers to project leads to measure the effect of technology transfer skills on project success and impact. The plan will train five researchers in basic technology transfer principles where success will be measured by assessing improvements in T2M skills and knowledge after the training is complete, likely using before and after surveys.

  4. Dynamics model of the IBR-2M pulsed reactor for analysis of fast transition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepelyshev, Yu. N.; Popov, A. K.; Sumkhuu, D.; Sangaa, D.

    2015-05-01

    A nonlinear model of the IBR-2M pulsed reactor dynamics relating values of variables at discreet instants of time (when power pulses appear) is developed on the basis of the MATLAB program system. The tests of the model by simulating calculated processes in the IBR-2M reactor proved the correctness of the model. A tentative estimate of the transfer coefficient for the linear part of the automatic regulator is obtained.

  5. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    ESO Video Newsreel 15, released on March 14, 2005. It provides an introduction to the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the two Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) now installed at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 07a/05 shows the impressive ensemble at the summit of Paranal. From left to right, the enclosure of VLT Antu, Kueyen and Melipal, AT1, the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) in the background, AT2 and VLT Yepun. Located at the summit of the 2,600-m high Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert (Chile), ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) is at the forefront of astronomical technology and is one of the premier facilities in the world for optical and near-infrared observations. The VLT is composed of four 8.2-m Unit Telescope (Antu, Kueyen, Melipal and Yepun). They have been progressively put into service together with a vast suite of the most advanced astronomical instruments and are operated every night in the year. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. The href="/instruments/vlti">VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines starlight captured by two 8.2- VLT Unit Telescopes, dramatically increasing the spatial resolution and showing fine details of a large variety of celestial objects. The VLTI is arguably the world's most advanced optical device of this type. It has already demonstrated its powerful capabilities by addressing several key scientific issues, such as determining the size and the shape of a variety of stars (ESO PR 22/02, PR 14/03 and PR 31/03), measuring distances to stars (ESO PR 25/04), probing the innermost regions of the proto-planetary discs around young stars (ESO PR 27/04) or making the first detection by infrared interferometry of an extragalactic object (ESO PR 17/03). "Little Brothers" ESO PR Photo 07b/05 ESO PR Photo 07b/05 [Preview - JPEG: 597 x 400 pix - 47k] [Normal - JPEG: 1193 x 800 pix - 330k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 3354 pix - 10.0M] ESO PR Photo 07c/05 ESO PR Photo 07c/05

  6. pt5m - a 0.5 m robotic telescope on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, L. K.; Butterley, T.; Dhillon, V. S.; Littlefair, S. P.; Wilson, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    pt5m is a 0.5 m robotic telescope located on the roof of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) building, at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma. Using a five-position filter wheel and CCD detector, and bespoke control software, pt5m provides a high-quality robotic observing facility. The telescope first began robotic observing in 2012, and is now contributing to transient follow-up and time-resolved astronomical studies. In this paper, we present the scientific motivation behind pt5m, as well as the specifications and unique features of the facility. We also present an example of the science we have performed with pt5m, where we measure the radius of the transiting exoplanet WASP-33b. We find a planetary radius of 1.603 ± 0.014RJ.

  7. HERMES at Mercator, competitive high-resolution spectroscopy with a small telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin , G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2014-01-01

    HERMES, a fibre-fed high-resolution (R = 85 000) échelle spectrograph with good stability and excellent throughput, is the work-horse instrument of the 1.2-m Mercator telescope on La Palma. HERMES targets building up time series of high-quality data of variable stellar phenomena, mainly for asteroseismology and binary-evolution research. In this paper we present the HERMES project and discuss the instrument design, performance, and a future upgrade. We also present some results of the first four years of HERMES observations. We illustrate the value of small telescopes, equipped with efficient instrumentation, for high-resolution spectroscopy. Based on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  8. Elevated TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes in schizophrenia but not major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Yuta; Kawabe, Kentaro; Yamazaki, Kiyohiro; Watanabe, Shinya; Numata, Shusuke; Mori, Yoko; Yoshida, Taku; Iga, Junichi; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    The pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia (SCZ) have not been clarified, but the microglia hypothesis has recently been discussed. We previously reported that the mRNA for a protein related to activation of microglia, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 2 (TREM2), is expressed higher in peripheral leukocytes in SCZ than controls. In this study, we analyzed TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes from both SCZ and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. We compared 50 SCZ patients and 42 MDD patients with age-matched controls. Levels of TREM2 mRNA in leukocytes were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR method using TaqMan probe. TREM2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in leukocytes of SCZ subjects than controls, but the expression level was non-significantly different in MDD subjects. We observed a decrease in TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes from one SCZ patient after clozapine treatment. The expression did not change following ECT, but the expression level in this patient was still significantly higher than that in controls. We conclude that the high amount of TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes is specific to SCZ but not MDD and that changes in TREM2 mRNA expression may be a trait biomarker for SCZ. PMID:27130565

  9. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  10. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In this paper, the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals are reviewed.

  11. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J.

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy between 5 and 29 microns. JWST is a facility-class mission, so most of the observing time will be allocated to investigators from the international astronomical community through competitively-selected proposals.

  12. Australia to Build Fibre Positioner for the Very Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    The Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) at Epping (New South Wales, Australia) has been awarded the contract to build a fibre positioner for the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope (VLT). This new, large astronomical facility is located at the Paranal Observatory in Chile and will feature four Unit Telescopes, each with a main mirror of 8.2-m diameter. This positioner, (affectionately) known as the OzPoz , will form part of the FLAMES facility (the F ibre L arge A rea M ulti- E lement S pectrograph), to be mounted on the second Unit Telescope (UT2) of the VLT in 2001. The construction of this facility includes other institutes in Europe, e.g. Observatoire de Genève (Switzerland) and Observatoire de Meudon (France). The ESO Instrument Division will coordinate the entire project that will result in an observational capability that is unique in the world. Optical fibres at astronomical telescopes Optical fibres have come to play an increasingly important role as transmitters of information, for instance in telephone and computer networks. It may be less known that they can be used in a similar way to transmit visible and infrared light in astronomical telescopes. Over the past decade, the AAO has been refining its skills in building optical-fibre instruments for its own telescopes, the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope and the 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope (a telescope dedicated to wide-field surveys). These instruments enable astronomers to study many celestial objects simultaneously, increasing the effectiveness and productivity by enormous factors. The OzPoz positioner sets up to 560 optical fibres (developed in collaboration with the Observatoire de Meudon in France) very precisely by a robotic arm to match the positions of galaxies and quasars in the telescope's focal plane. The positional accuracy is about 50 µm (0.05 mm), or 0.08 arcsec on the sky. The fibres siphon the light from these very faint and distant astronomical objects and guide it

  13. History of Robotic and Remotely Operated Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2011-03-01

    While automated instrument sequencers were employed on solar eclipse expeditions in the late 1800s, it wasn't until the 1960s that Art Code and associates at Wisconsin used a PDP minicomputer to automate an 8-inch photometric telescope. Although this pioneering project experienced frequent equipment failures and was shut down after a couple of years, it paved the way for the first space telescopes. Reliable microcomputers initiated the modern era of robotic telescopes. Louis Boyd and I applied single board microcomputers with 64K of RAM and floppy disk drives to telescope automation at the Fairborn Observatory, achieving reliable, fully robotic operation in 1983 that has continued uninterrupted for 28 years. In 1985 the Smithsonian Institution provided us with a suburb operating location on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona, while the National Science Foundation funded additional telescopes. Remote access to our multiple robotic telescopes at the Fairborn Observatory began in the late 1980s. The Fairborn Observatory, with its 14 fully robotic telescopes and staff of two (one full and one part time) illustrates the potential for low operating and maintenance costs. As the information capacity of the Internet has expanded, observational modes beyond simple differential photometry opened up, bringing us to the current era of real-time remote access to remote observatories and global observatory networks. Although initially confined to smaller telescopes, robotic operation and remote access are spreading to larger telescopes as telescopes from afar becomes the normal mode of operation.

  14. Apollo Telescope Mount Thermal Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM consisted of eight scientific instruments as well as a number of smaller experiments. This image is of the ATM thermal unit being tested in MSFC's building 4619. The thermal unit consisted of an active fluid-cooling system of water and methanol that was circulated to radiators on the outside of the canister. The thermal unit provided temperature stability to the ultrahigh resolution optical instruments that were part of the ATM.

  15. Space Telescope performance and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    The verification philosophy for the Space Telescope (ST) has evolved from years of experience with multispacecraft programs modified by the new factors introduced by the Space Transportation System. At the systems level of test, the ST will undergo joint qualification/acceptance tests with environment simulation using Lockheed's large spacecraft test facilities. These tests continue the process of detecting workmanship defects and module interface incompatibilities. The test program culminates in an 'all up' ST environmental test verification program resulting in a 'ready to launch' ST.

  16. Detectors for the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelsall, T.

    1978-01-01

    This review of Space Telescope (ST) detectors is divided into two parts. The first part gives short summaries of detector programs carried out during the final planning stage (Phase B) of the ST and discusses such detectors as Photicon, the MAMA detectors, the CODACON, the University of Maryland ICCD, the Goddard Space Flight Center ICCD, and the 70 mm SEC TV sensor. The second part describes the detectors selected for the first ST flight, including the wide field/planetary camera, the faint object and high resolution spectrographs, and the high speed photometer.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  18. Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L. (Editor); Bell, J. F., III (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop E convened in Tucson, Arizona, in October 1997 by popular demand slightly over two years following the first successful Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held in Ithaca, New York, in August 1995. Experts on Mars from the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and the United States were present. Twenty-eight oral presentations were made and generous time allotted for useful discussions among participants. The goals of the workshop were to (1) summarize active groundbased observing programs and evaluate them in the context of current and future space missions to Mars, (2) discuss new technologies and instrumentation in the context of changing emphasis of observations and theory useful for groundbased observing, and (3) more fully understand capabilities of current and planned Mars missions to better judge which groundbased observations are and will continue to be of importance to our overall Mars program. In addition, the exciting new discoveries presented from the Pathfinder experiments and the progress report from the Mars Global Surveyor infused the participants with satisfaction for the successes achieved in the early stages of these missions. Just as exciting was the enthusiasm for new groundbased programs designed to address new challenges resulting from mission science results. We would like to thank the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as Dr. David Black, director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute, and the staff of the Institute's Publications and Program Services Department for providing logistical, administrative, and publication support services for this workshop.

  19. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  20. Celestial Objects for Modern Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, Michael A.

    2002-09-01

    Preface; Part I. Amateur Astronomy: 1. Using this book effectively; 2. Observing sites and conditions; 3. The Moon, the Sun, and eclipses; 4. The planets; 5. Comets, asteroids (minor planets), and artificial satellites; 6. Constellations; 7. Stars - identification, nomenclature, and maps; 8. Stars - physical properties; 9. Double and multiple stars; 10. Variable stars; 11. Clusters, nebulae, and galaxies; Part II. Celestial Objects for Suburban Telescopes: 12. Celestial objects for suburban telescopes; 13. The January-February sky (R.A. 6h-10h); 14. The March-April sky (R.A. 10h-14h); 15. The May-June sky (R.A. 14h-18h); 16. The July-August sky (R.A. 18h-22h); 17. The September-October sky (R.A. 22h-2h); 18. The November-December sky (R.A. 2h-6h); Part III. Appendices: A. Converting decimal minutes to seconds; B. Precession from 1950 to 2000; C. Julian date, 2001-2015.

  1. TMT telescope structure thermal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Sadjadpour, Amir; Roberts, Scott

    2014-08-01

    The thermal behavior of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Telescope Structure (STR) and the STR mounted subsystems depends on the heat load of the System, the thermal properties of component materials and the environment as well as their interactions through convection, conduction and radiation. In this paper the thermal environment is described and the latest three-dimensional Computational Solid Dynamics (CSD) model is presented. The model tracks the diurnal temperature variation of the STR and the corresponding deformations. The resulting displacements are fed into the TMT Merit Function Routine (MFR), which converts them into translations and rotations of the optical surfaces. They, in turn, are multiplied by the TMT optical sensitivity matrix that delivers the corresponding pointing error. Thus the thermal performance of the structure can be assessed for requirement compliance, thermal drift correction strategies and look-up tables can be developed and design guidance can be provided. Results for a representative diurnal cycle based on measured temperature data from the TMT site on Mauna Kea and CFD simulations are presented and conclusions are drawn.

  2. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    of the Array Operations Site. This means surviving strong winds and temperatures between +20 and -20 Celsius whilst being able to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to better than 25 micrometres (less than the typical thickness of a human hair). Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad - a docking station with connections for power and fibre optics - and positioned it with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars today, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 18.5 km and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. "Transporting our first antenna to the Chajnantor plateau is a epic feat which exemplifies the exciting times in which ALMA is living. Day after day, our global collaboration brings us closer to the birth of the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in the world", said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in

  3. Holographic spectrograph for space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Lysenko, Sergiy; Crenshaw, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    A spectrograph is described which is made with dual Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) which are identical and parallel to each other. Both optics are collimating transmission HOEs with focal points that are at equal and opposite distances from each other. The identical HOEs are formed by the interference of a plane wave parallel to the grating plane with an off-axis spherical wave originating in the near-field. In playback, a spectrum can be formed from a point source radiator placed at the position of the recording spherical wave. If played back at an arbitrary wavelength other than the recording wavelength, the image exhibits coma. This spectrograph is intended for an unusual configuration where many nearly monochromatic sources of known wavelengths are separately positioned relative to the first HOE. The special application is in a space telescope capable of resolving spectra from habitable planets within 10 pc. HOEs of this type could be fabricated on membrane substrates with a low areal mass and stowable on rolls for insertion into the second Lagrange point. The intended application is for a 50 x 10 meter class primary objective holographic space telescope with 50 x 10 m HOEs in the spectrograph. We present a computer model of the spectrograph.. Experimental results are compared with predictions from theory. A single HOE is shown to perform over a wider bandwidth and is demonstrated.

  4. Corrector systems for cassegrain telescopes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R N

    1968-02-01

    Most modern reflecting telescopes have relative apertures of about f/3 and f/8 for the primary and first secondary foci in accordance with the suggestions of Bowen. The angular field which can be used at the first secondary focus is limited by the size of available plates for large instruments but can approach +/-1 degrees for smaller systems. The factors influencing the choice of the field corrector system in the first secondary focus are discussed. It is an important point whether the Ritchey-Chrétien form of the mirrors is strictly maintained-giving an optimum field without the corrector-or whether the aspheric constants are allowed to vary as free parameters. The differences are small but significant. The performance of a number of secondary focus correctors consisting of one, two, and three elements is discussed, spot diagrams being given in each case. Systems with fixed Ritchey-Chrétien mirror constants are inferior to those with free mirror constants. Test methods for the manufacture of the mirrors of telescopes of this type are compared. A doublet type corrector is suitable for compensation testing of primary mirrors or for secondaries tested from the back, but the testing of the latter from the front is more difficult. Several possible techniques are discussed. PMID:20062454

  5. JWST Telescope Integration and Test Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Whitman, Tony L.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. The JWST Optical Telescope Element (Telescope) integration and test program is well underway. The telescope was completed in the spring of 2016 and the cryogenic test equipment has been through two optical test programs leading up to the final flight verification program. The details of the telescope mirror integration will be provided along with the current status of the flight observatory. In addition, the results of the two optical ground support equipment cryo tests will be shown and how these plans fold into the flight verification program.

  6. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Dalgaard, Louise T.

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic {beta}-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/- islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2-/- and GK+/- islets compared with GK+/- islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/- mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/- mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

  7. Telescope Systems for Balloon-Borne Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, C. (Editor); Witteborn, F. C. (Editor); Shipley, A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the use of balloons for scientific research are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) astronomical observations with balloon-borne telescopes, (2) orientable, stabilized balloon-borne gondola for around-the-world flights, (3) ultraviolet stellar spectrophotometry from a balloon platform, (4) infrared telescope for balloon-borne infrared astronomy, and (5) stabilization, pointing, and command control of balloon-borne telescopes.

  8. A cooled telescope for infrared balloon astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, C.; Jacobson, M. R.; Harwit, M. O.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a 16 inch liquid helium cooled Cassegrain telescope with vibrating secondary mirror are discussed. The telescope is used in making far infrared astronomical observations. The system houses several different detectors for multicolor photometry. The cooled telescope has a ten to one increase in signal-to-noise ratio over a similar warm version and is installed in a high altitude balloon gondola to obtain data on the H2 region of the galaxy.

  9. 1-meter near-infrared solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Xu, J.

    In order to observe the fine structure of solar dynamical field and magnetic field, a 1-meter near-infrared solar telescope was developed by Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The telescope is located by the Fuxian Lake in southwest China. In this paper, we will introduce some details of the telescope such as scientific goals, structures, instruments and the parameters of the site. First light observation of high resolution photosphere is introduced too.

  10. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  11. Progress at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Steve C.; Nagel, Robert H.; Harvey, David A.; Brar, A.; Phillips, B.; Ray, J.; Trebisky, T. J.; Cromwell, Richard H.; Woolf, Neville J.; Corbally, Chris; Boyle, R.; Blanco, Daniel R.; Otten, L.

    1997-03-01

    The Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope incorporates a fast (f/1.0) borosilicate honeycomb primary mirror and an f/0.9 secondary in an aplanatic Gregorian optical configuration. We provide a brief technical and performance overview by describing the optical layout, the primary and secondary mirror systems, and the telescope drive and control system. Results from a high resolution wavefront sensor and a current wide-field image taken at the f/9 focus demonstrates the overall fine performance of the telescope.

  12. Corrective Optics For Camera On Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Meinel, Aden B.

    1994-01-01

    Assembly of tilted, aspherical circularly symmetric mirrors used as corrective optical subsystem for camera mounted on telescope exhibiting both large spherical wave-front error and inherent off-axis astigmatism. Subsystem provides unobscured camera aperture and diffraction-limited camera performance, despite large telescope aberrations. Generic configuration applied in other optical systems in which aberations deliberately introduced into telescopes and corrected in associated cameras. Concept of corrective optical subsystem provides designer with additional degrees of freedom used to optimize optical system.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  14. Covariance of lucky images for increasing objects contrast: diffraction-limited images in ground-based telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagigal, Manuel P.; Valle, Pedro J.; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Villó-Pérez, Isidro; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Images of stars adopt shapes far from the ideal Airy pattern due to atmospheric density fluctuations. Hence, diffraction-limited images can only be achieved by telescopes without atmospheric influence, e.g. spatial telescopes, or by using techniques like adaptive optics or lucky imaging. In this paper, we propose a new computational technique based on the evaluation of the COvariancE of Lucky Images (COELI). This technique allows us to discover companions to main stars by taking advantage of the atmospheric fluctuations. We describe the algorithm and we carry out a theoretical analysis of the improvement in contrast. We have used images taken with 2.2-m Calar Alto telescope as a test bed for the technique resulting that, under certain conditions, telescope diffraction limit is clearly reached.

  15. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Prince, F. Andrew; Smart, Christian; Stephens, Kyle; Henrichs, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes, this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.

  16. eSTAR: a distributed telescope network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Iain A.; Naylor, Tim; Allan, Alisdair; Etherton, Jason; Mottram, C. J.

    2002-11-01

    The e-STAR (e-Science Telescopes for Astronomical Research) project uses GRID techniques to develop the software infrastructure for a global network of robotic telescopes. The basic architecture is based around Intelligent Agents which request data from Discovery Nodes that may be telescopes or databases. Communication is based on a development of the XML RTML language secured using the Globus I/O library, with status serving provided via LDAP. We describe the system architecture and protocols devised to give a distributed approach to telescope scheduling, as well as giving details of the implementation of prototype Intelligent Agent and Discovery Node systems.

  17. European Extremely Large Telescope: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility providing significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.

  18. Herschel's 20ft Telescope at the Smithsonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVorkin, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The tube and one of the mirrors from the original Herschel 20-foot telescope have been on display at the National Air and Space Museum since September 12, 2001. Approximately 3,000 visitors walk past it each day, inspecting how William and Caroline jointly operated the telescope in their garden. This presentation will recount how the telescope was brought to NASM, and prepared for exhibition. We will also discuss a bit of what we've learned about the telescope's history from developing this display.

  19. The medium dispersion prism of the UK Schmidt Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, R. D.; Dawe, J. A.; Morgan, D. H.; Savage, A.; Smith, M. G.

    The UK 1.2-m Schmidt Telescope acquired its first full aperture objective prism in 1975. This was a very low dispersion prism which was found to be particularly useful in searching for faint QSO's. However, the dispersion in the red is so low that nearly all plates have been taken on the blue-sensitive IIIa J emulsion, and it has been extremely difficult to identify quasars with redshifts larger than z=3. It was, therefore, decided to obtain a second objective prism having a three times higher dispersion. It is expected that this prism will make it possible to conduct searches for quasars having redshifts greater than the long-standing limit at z approximately 3.5. The prism should also be useful for stellar classification work in the UV/blue part of the spectrum. A description is presented of some results obtained during the recent commissioning run with the new prism.

  20. Centrosome-associated regulators of the G2/M checkpoint as targets for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingmei; Ji, Ping; Liu, Jinsong; Broaddus, Russell R; Xue, Fengxia; Zhang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, control mechanisms have developed that restrain cell-cycle transitions in response to stress. These regulatory pathways are termed cell-cycle checkpoints. The G2/M checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis when DNA is damaged in order to afford these cells an opportunity to repair the damaged DNA before propagating genetic defects to the daughter cells. If the damage is irreparable, checkpoint signaling might activate pathways that lead to apoptosis. Since alteration of cell-cycle control is a hallmark of tumorigenesis, cell-cycle regulators represent potential targets for therapy. The centrosome has recently come into focus as a critical cellular organelle that integrates G2/M checkpoint control and repairs signals in response to DNA damage. A growing number of G2/M checkpoint regulators have been found in the centrosome, suggesting that centrosome has an important role in G2/M checkpoint function. In this review, we discuss centrosome-associated regulators of the G2/M checkpoint, the dysregulation of this checkpoint in cancer, and potential candidate targets for cancer therapy. PMID:19216791

  1. Viscum album-Mediated COX-2 Inhibition Implicates Destabilization of COX-2 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Chaitrali; Hegde, Pushpa; Friboulet, Alain; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Kaveri, Srinivas V.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive use of Viscum album (VA) preparations in the complementary therapy of cancer and in several other human pathologies has led to an increasing number of cellular and molecular approaches to explore the mechanisms of action of VA. We have recently demonstrated that, VA preparations exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect by selectively down-regulating the COX-2-mediated cytokine-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), one of the important molecular signatures of inflammatory reactions. In this study, we observed a significant down-regulation of COX-2 protein expression in VA-treated A549 cells however COX-2 mRNA levels were unaltered. Therefore, we hypothesized that VA induces destabilisation of COX-2 mRNA, thereby depleting the available functional COX-2 mRNA for the protein synthesis and for the subsequent secretion of PGE2. To address this question, we analyzed the molecular degradation of COX-2 protein and its corresponding mRNA in A549 cell line. Using cyclohexamide pulse chase experiment, we demonstrate that, COX-2 protein degradation is not affected by the treatment with VA whereas experiments on transcriptional blockade with actinomycin D, revealed a marked reduction in the half life of COX-2 mRNA due to its rapid degradation in the cells treated with VA compared to that in IL-1β-stimulated cells. These results thus demonstrate that VA-mediated inhibition of PGE2 implicates destabilization of COX-2 mRNA. PMID:25664986

  2. Seismic telescope for astrophysical research from space (STARS) triply reflecting telescope: a space instrument for astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Badiali, M; Amoretti, M

    1997-12-01

    We describe the characteristics of the wide-field, triply reflecting telescope adopted for the European Space Agency project STARS (seismic telescope for astrophysical research from space), operating in the visible and UV range. PMID:18264439

  3. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Mather, John C.; Clampin, Mark; Doyon, Rene; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Hutchings, John B.; Jakobsen, Peter; Lilly, Simon J.; Long, Knox S.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; McCaughrean, Mark J.; Mountain, Matt; Nella, John; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Smith, Eric P.; Sonneborn, George; Stiavelli, Massimo; Stockman, H. S.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Wright, Gillian S.

    2006-04-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold (<50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth Sun Lagrange point. The observatory will have four instruments: a near-IR camera, a near-IR multiobject spectrograph, and a tunable filter imager will cover the wavelength range, 0.6 < ; < 5.0 μ m, while the mid-IR instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5.0 < ; < 29 μ m. The JWST science goals are divided into four themes. The key objective of The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme is to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the early universe. The key objective of The Assembly of Galaxies theme is to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present day. The key objective of The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme is to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall on to dust-enshrouded protostars to the genesis of planetary systems. The key objective of the Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme is to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems including our own, and investigate the potential for the origins of life in those systems. Within these themes and objectives, we have derived representative astronomical observations. To enable these observations, JWST consists of a telescope, an instrument package, a spacecraft, and a sunshield. The telescope consists of 18 beryllium segments, some of which are deployed. The segments will be brought into optical alignment on-orbit through a process of periodic wavefront sensing and control. The instrument package contains the four science instruments and a fine guidance sensor. The spacecraft provides pointing, orbit maintenance, and communications. The sunshield

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Mather, John C.; Clampin, Mark; Doyon, Rene; Flanagan, Kathryn A.; Franx, Marijn; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Hutchings, John B.; Jakobsen, Peter; Lilly, Simon J.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; McCaughrean, Mark J.; Mountain, Matt; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Sonneborn, George; Stiavelli, Massimo; Windhorst, Rogier; Wright, Gillian S.

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold (<50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. The observatory will have four instruments: a near-IR camera, a near-IR multi-object spectrograph, and a tunable filter imager that will cover the wavelength range, 0.6 < λ < 5.0 μm, while the mid-IR instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5.0 < λ < 29 μm. The JWST science goals are divided into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the early universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present day. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems including our own, and investigate the potential for the origins of life in those systems. To enable these science goals, JWST consists of a telescope, an instrument package, a spacecraft, and a sunshield. The telescope primary mirror is made of 18 beryllium segments, some of which are deployed. The segments will be brought into optical alignment on-orbit through a process of periodic wavefront sensing and control. The instrument package contains the four science instruments and a fine guidance sensor. The spacecraft provides pointing, orbit maintenance, and communications. The sunshield provides passive thermal control. The JWST operations plan is based on that used for previous space observatories, and the majority of JWST

  5. Dietary NiCl2 causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in the broiler's kidney

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Wu, Bangyuan; Chen, Kejie; Deng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Here we showed that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg caused the G2/M cell cycle arrest and the reduction of cell proportion at S phase. The G2/M cell cycle arrest was accompanied by up-regulation of phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (p-ATM), p53, p-Chk1, p-Chk2, p21 protein expression and ATM, p53, p21, Chk1, Chk2 mRNA expression, and down-regulation of p-cdc25C, cdc2, cyclinB and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression and the cdc25, cdc2, cyclinB, PCNA mRNA expression. PMID:26440151

  6. Current status of advanced pelletized cold moderators development for IBR-2M research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, S.; Belyakov, A.; Bulavin, M.; Mukhin, K.; Shabalin, E.; Verhoglyadov, A.

    2013-03-01

    The world's first advanced pelletized cold neutron moderator is prepared to be put into operation at the IBR-2M pulsed research reactor. It provides long-wavelength neutrons to the most of neutron spectrometers at the beams of the IBR-2M reactor. Aromatic hydrocarbons are used as a material for cold moderators. It is a very attractive material because of its high radiation resistance, good moderating properties, incombustibility, etc. It is shown that the idea of beads transport by a helium flow at cryogenic temperatures is successful. The recent progress and plans for moderator development at the IBR-2M reactor as well as the experimental results of beads transport are discussed in the paper.

  7. Apigenin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation through G2/M cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Ujiki, Michael B; Ding, Xian-Zhong; Salabat, M Reza; Bentrem, David J; Golkar, Laleh; Milam, Ben; Talamonti, Mark S; Bell, Richard H; Iwamura, Takeshi; Adrian, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    Background Many chemotherapeutic agents have been used to treat pancreatic cancer without success. Apigenin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit growth in some cancer cell lines but has not been studied in pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that apigenin would inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro. Results Apigenin caused both time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in four pancreatic cancer cell lines. Apigenin induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Apigenin reduced levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, phosphorylated forms of cdc2 and cdc25, which are all proteins required for G2/M transition. Conclusion Apigenin inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells through suppression of cyclin B-associated cdc2 activity and G2/M arrest, and may be a valuable drug for the treatment or prevention of pancreatic cancer. PMID:17196098

  8. Recent results from telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is an experiment to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). TA's recent results, the energy spectrum and anisotropy based on the 6-year surface array data, and the primary composition obtained from the shower maximum (XMAX) are reported. The spectrum demonstrates a clear dip and cutoff. The shape of the spectrum is well described by the energy loss of extra-galactic protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Above the cutoff, a medium-scale (20∘ radius) flux enhancement was observed near the Ursa-Major. A chance probability of creating this hotspot from the isotropic flux is 4.0 σ. The measured ⟨XMAX⟩ is consistent with the primary being proton or light nuclei for energies 1018.2 eV-1019.2 eV.

  9. Unparticle effects in neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.; Martinez, R.; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2009-03-01

    Recently H. Georgi has introduced the concept of unparticles in order to describe the low energy physics of a nontrivial scale invariant sector of an effective theory. We investigate its physical effects on the neutrino flux to be detected in a kilometer cubic neutrino telescope such as IceCube. We study the effects, on different observables, of the survival neutrino flux after through the Earth, and the regeneration originated in the neutral currents. We calculate the contribution of unparticle physics to the neutrino-nucleon interaction and, then, to the observables in order to evaluate detectable effects in IceCUbe. Our results are compared with the bounds obtained by other nonunderground experiments. Finally, the results are presented as an exclusion plot in the relevant parameters of the new physics stuff.

  10. GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Denker, C.; Solanki, S.; Balthasar, H.; Berkefeld, T.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Klvana, M.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Popow, E.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K.

    2010-07-01

    With the integration of a 1-meter Cesic primary mirror the GREGOR telescope pre-commissioning started. This is the first time, that the entire light path has seen sunlight. The pre-commissioning period includes testing of the main optics, adaptive optics, cooling system, and pointing system. This time was also used to install a near-infrared grating spectro-polarimeter and a 2D-spectropolarimeter for the visible range as first-light science instruments. As soon as the final 1.5 meter primary mirror is installed, commissioning will be completed, and an extended phase of science verification will follow. In the near future, GREGOR will be equipped with a multi-conjugate adaptive optics system that is presently under development at KIS.

  11. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  12. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  13. The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nityananda, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of the National Centre of Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) at Khodad, India, has been operational in the band 0.2 to 2 metres for the last two and a half years. The system characteristics and performance and recent results from the group will be presented. Details of use over the last six months by scientists from other observatories under the GMRT Time Allocation Committee (GTAC) and future plans will be also be reviewed in this paper. Areas which have been studied include observations made in the GMRT band of neutral hydrogen, nearby galaxies, supernova remnants, the Galactic Centre, pulsars, the Sun and others.

  14. SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    2010-02-15

    SLAC does not have a test beam for the HEP detector development at present. We have therefore created a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) facility, which is presently being used to test the FDIRC prototype. We have used it in the past to debug this prototype with the original SLAC electronics before going to the ESA test beam. Presently, it is used to test a new waveform digitizing electronics developed by the University of Hawaii, and we are also planning to incorporate the new Orsay TDC/ADC electronics. As a next step, we plan to put in a full size DIRC bar box with a new focusing optics, and test it together with a final SuberB electronics. The CRT is located in building 121 at SLAC. We anticipate more users to join in the future. This purpose of this note is to provide an introductory manual for newcomers.

  15. SkyView Virtual Telescope:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Thomas A.; McDonald, Laura M.; Scollick, Keith A.

    2015-11-01

    The SkyView Virtual telescope provides access to survey datasets ranging from radio through the gamma-ray regimes. Over 100 survey datasets are currently available. The SkyView library referenced here is used as the basis for the SkyView web site (at http://skvyiew.gsfc.nasa.gov) but is designed for individual use by researchers as well. SkyView's approach to access surveys is distinct from most other toolkits. Rather than providing links to the original data, SkyView attempts to immediately re-render the source data in the user-requested reference frame, projection, scaling, orientation, etc. The library includes a set of geometry transformation and mosaicking tools that may be integrated into other applications independent of SkyView.

  16. The Infrared-Optical Telescope (IRT) of the Exist Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Bloom, Joshua; Gehrels, Neil; Golisano, Craig; Gong, Quan; Grindlay, Jonathan; Moseley, Samuel; Woodgate, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The IRT is a 1.1m visible and infrared passively cooled telescope, which can locate, identify and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. It will also acquire optical-IR, imaging and spectroscopy of AGN and transients discovered by the EXIST (The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope). The IRT imaging and spectroscopic capabilities cover a broad spectral range from 0.32.2m in four bands. The identical fields of view in the four instrument bands are each split in three subfields: imaging, objective prism slitless for the field and objective prism single object slit low resolution spectroscopy, and high resolution long slit on single object. This allows the instrument, to do simultaneous broadband photometry or spectroscopy of the same object over the full spectral range, thus greatly improving the efficiency of the observatory and its detection limits. A prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST makes IRT a unique tool for detection and study of these events, which is particularly valuable at wavelengths unavailable to the ground based observatories.

  17. BLAST: The Balloon-Borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, Mark; Ade, Peter; Bock, Jamie; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matt; Gunderson, Josh; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter; Hughes, David; Klein, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    BLAST is the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Sub-millimeter Telescope. It will fly from a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) platform from Antarctica. The telescope design incorporates a 2 m primary mirror with large-format bolometer arrays operating at 250, 350 and 500 microns. By providing the first sensitive large-area (10 sq. deg.) sub-mm surveys at these wavelengths, BLAST will address some of the most important galactic and cosmological questions regarding the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies and clusters. Galactic and extragalactic BLAST surveys will: (1) identify large numbers of high-redshift galaxies; (2) measure photometric redshifts, rest-frame FIR luminosities and star formation rates thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the galaxies that produce the FIR and sub-mm background; (3) measure cold pre-stellar sources associated with the earliest stages of star and planet formation; (4) make high-resolution maps of diffuse galactic emission over a wide range of galactic latitudes. In addition to achieving the above scientific goals, the exciting legacy of the BLAST LDB experiment will be a catalogue of 3000-5000 extragalactic sub-mm sources and a 100 sq. deg. sub-mm galactic plane survey. Multi-frequency follow-up observations from SIRTF, ASTRO-F, and Herschel, together with spectroscopic observations and sub-arcsecond imaging from ALMA are essential to understand the physical nature of the BLAST sources.

  18. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko

    2007-05-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is currently by far the most ambitious proposed ground-based optical survey. With initial funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and private sponsors, the design and development efforts are well underway at many institutions, including top universities and leading national laboratories. The main science themes that drive the LSST system design are Dark Energy and Matter, the Solar System Inventory, Transient Optical Sky and the Milky Way Mapping. The LSST system, with its 8.4m telescope and 3,200 Megapixel camera, will be sited at Cerro Pachon in northern Chile, with the first light scheduled for 2014. In a continuous observing campaign, LSST will cover the entire available sky every three nights in two photometric bands to a depth of V=25 per visit (two 15 second exposures), with exquisitely accurate astrometry and photometry. Over the proposed survey lifetime of 10 years, each sky location would be observed about 1000 times, with the total exposure time of 8 hours distributed over six broad photometric bandpasses (ugrizY). This campaign will open a movie-like window on objects that change brightness, or move, on timescales ranging from 10 seconds to 10 years, and will produce a catalog containing over 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. The survey will have a data rate of about 30 TB/night, and will collect over 60 PB of raw data over its lifetime, resulting in an incredibly rich and extensive public archive that will be a treasure trove for breakthroughs in many areas of astronomy and astrophysics.

  19. The Onsala Twin Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, R.

    2013-08-01

    This paper described the Onsala Twin Telescope project. The project aims at the construction of two new radio telescopes at the Onsala Space Observatory, following the VLBI2010 concept. The project starts in 2013 and is expected to be finalized within 4 years. Z% O. Rydbeck. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg, ISBN 91-7032-621-5, 407-823, 1991. B. Petrachenko, A. Niell, D. Behrend, B. Corey, J. Böhm, P. Charlot, A. Collioud, J. Gipson, R. Haas, Th. Hobiger, Y. Koyama, D. MacMillan, Z. Malkin, T. Nilsson, A. Pany, G. Tuccari, A. Whitney, and J. Wresnik. Design Aspects of the VLBI2010 System. NASA/TM-2009-214180, 58 pp., 2009. R. Haas, G. Elgered, J. Löfgren, T. Ning, and H.-G. Scherneck. Onsala Space Observatory - IVS Network Station. In K. D. Baver and D. Behrend, editors, International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2011 Annual Report, NASA/TP-2012-217505, 88-91, 2012. H.-G. Scherneck, G. Elgered, J. M. Johansson, and B. O. Rönnäng. Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol. 23, No. 7-8, 811-823, 1998. A. R. Whitney. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Electrical engineering, MIT Cambridge, MA., 1974. B. A. Harper, J. D. Kepert, and J. D. Ginger. Guidelines for converting between various wind averaging periods in tropical cyclone conditions. WMO/TD-No. 1555, 64 pp., 2010 (available at \\url{http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/WMO_TD_1555_en.pdf})

  20. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelrod, T. S.

    2006-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an 8.4 meter telescope with a 10 square degree field degree field and a 3 Gigapixel imager, planned to be on-sky in 2012. It is a dedicated all-sky survey instrument, with several complementary science missions. These include understanding dark energy through weak lensing and supernovae; exploring transients and variable objects; creating and maintaining a solar system map, with particular emphasis on potentially hazardous objects; and increasing the precision with which we understand the structure of the Milky Way. The instrument operates continuously at a rapid cadence, repetitively scanning the visible sky every few nights. The data flow rates from LSST are larger than those from current surveys by roughly a factor of 1000: A few GB/night are typical today. LSST will deliver a few TB/night. From a computing hardware perspective, this factor of 1000 can be dealt with easily in 2012. The major issues in designing the LSST data management system arise from the fact that the number of people available to critically examine the data will not grow from current levels. This has a number of implications. For example, every large imaging survey today is resigned to the fact that their image reduction pipelines fail at some significant rate. Many of these failures are dealt with by rerunning the reduction pipeline under human supervision, with carefully ``tweaked'' parameters to deal with the original problem. For LSST, this will no longer be feasible. The problem is compounded by the fact that the processing must of necessity occur on clusters with large numbers of CPU's and disk drives, and with some components connected by long-haul networks. This inevitably results in a significant rate of hardware component failures, which can easily lead to further software failures. Both hardware and software failures must be seen as a routine fact of life rather than rare exceptions to normality.

  1. Weak-value thermostat with 0.2 mK precision.

    PubMed

    Egan, Patrick; Stone, Jack A

    2012-12-01

    A new laser-based thermostat sensitive to 0.2 mK at room temperature is reported. The method utilizes a fluid-filled prism and interferometric weak-value amplification to sense nanoradian deviations of a laser beam: due to the high thermo-optic coefficient of the fluid (colorless fluorocarbon), the deviation angle through the prism is sensitive to temperature. We estimate the daily stability of our device to be 0.2 mK, which is limited by drifts in the apparatus, and the narrow 20 mK capture range is the price paid for the weak measurement. PMID:23202114

  2. High-resolution incremental tape encoder on the William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Martin

    1994-06-01

    Large, modern optical telescopes demand high performance pointing and tracking of the mount unless alternative methods of correcting the telescope `beam' are to be completely relied upon. This is rarely the case and `open-loop' specifications are still very demanding. The move from precision-geared to friction driven axes has excluded the use of gear-driven encoders while friction-driven encoders have not proved successful. Fiber and laser gyros are not sufficiently developed for use as a primary encoding system although they have useful inertial properties for inclusion in some systems. Tape encoders, which have been around for a very long time, are the major contender for today's applications. A commercially available inductive tape encoder system has been fitted to the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope in order to properly evaluate its performance and hence its suitability for use with the 8 m Gemini telescopes. The encoder system and the method adopted for fitting it to an operational telescope is briefly described and the results from performance tests are presented. Subsequent investigations into sources of error and the desirability and methods of correcting them are discussed and future work is considered.

  3. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chung, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; MacTavish, C. J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Martin, T. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N. E.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of 30"; postflight pointing reconstruction to <5" rms is achieved. The onboard telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a preselected set of maps, with the option of manual override. On this poster, we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hour, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2006 December. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA through grants NAG5-12785, NAG5-13301, and NNGO-6GI11G, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Fondo Institucional para la Investigacion of the University of Puerto Rico, and the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs.

  4. A Mechanical Analogue of the Refracting Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Molesini, Giuseppe; Sordini, Andrea; Straulino, Samuele

    2011-01-01

    The recent celebration of the discoveries made by Galileo four centuries ago has attracted new attention to the refracting telescope and to its use as an instrument for the observation of the night sky. This has offered the opportunity for addressing in the classroom the basic principles explaining the operation of the telescope. When doing so, a…

  5. Milestone reached for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The primary mirror for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) - the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope - is complete after engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, US, put in place the craft's 18th and final mirror segment.

  6. AUTOFOCUSING CATADIOPTRIC TELESCOPE FOR LIDAR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    LUCY WENDER

    2000-05-17

    An eight (8) inch diameter F/2.8 autofocusing optical telescope was designed for Lidar applications such as UV Mini-Raman spectroscopy. Operational range is 2 meters to infinity with autofocusing feature for ranges within 50 meters. Test measurements using silica telescope components gave a spot size within the 0.2 mm specification.

  7. The development of the Schmidt telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2009-06-01

    % Bernhard Schmidt (1879-1935) was born in Estonia. After a few years of studying engineering he ran an optical workshop in Mittweida, Saxonia, between 1901 and 1927. Astronomers appreciated the quality of his telescopes. Starting in 1925, on behalf of the Hamburg Observatory, he developed a short focal length optical system with a large field of view. For this purpose, Schmidt moved his workshop to the observatory. He succeeded in inventing the ``Schmidt telescope'' which allows the imaging of a large field of the sky without any distortions. Schmidt's first telescope (spherical mirror diameter 0.44 m, correction plate 0.36 m diameter, aperture ratio 1:1.75, and focal length 0.625 m) has been used since 1962 at the Boyden Observatory in Bloemfontein/South Africa. Apart from his 0.36 m telescope, Schmidt produced a second larger one of 0.60 m aperture. Shortly after Schmidt's death, the director of the observatory published details on the invention and production of the Schmidt telescope. After World War II, Schmidt telescopes have been widely used. The first large Schmidt telescope, the ``Big Schmidt'' (1.26 m), Mount Palomar, USA, was completed in 1948. The 0.80 m Schmidt telescope of Hamburg Observatory, planned since 1936, finished in 1954, is now on Calar Alto/Spain.

  8. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    A study is in-process to develop a multivariable parametric cost model for space telescopes. Cost and engineering parametric data has been collected on 30 different space telescopes. Statistical correlations have been developed between 19 variables of 59 variables sampled. Single Variable and Multi-Variable Cost Estimating Relationships have been developed. Results are being published.

  9. Adaptive compensation for an optical tracking telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbart, J. W.; Winston, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    The application of model referenced adaptive control theory to an optical tracking telescope is discussed. The capability of the adaptive technique to compensate for mount irregularities such as inertial variations and bearing friction is demonstrated via field test results on a large tracking telescope. Results are presented which show a 6 to 1 improvement in tracking accuracy for a worst-case satellite trajectory.

  10. Reliability of telescopes for the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaroya, Haym

    1995-02-01

    The subject of risk and reliability for lunar structures, in particular lunar-based telescopes, is introduced and critical issues deliberated. General discussions are made more specific regarding the lunar telescope, but this paper provides a framework for further quantitative reliability studies.

  11. Development Of Composite Panels For Telescope Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, Robert E.; Mcelroy, Paul M.; Johnston, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes continuing program for development of lightweight hexagonal graphite/epoxy composite panels intended to support precisely curved mirror surfaces assembled into large telescope mirror. Discusses development requirements, technical decisions, fabrication methods, measurements of properties of materials, analytical simulation, and thermal vacuum testing. Telescope flown in orbit around Earth to observe at wavelengths down to 30 micrometers.

  12. Nearly Anastigmatic X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed X-ray telescope made of many concentric reflecting rings, each of which consists of two portions of cone. Proposed design is variation on conventional grazing incidence X-ray telescope, which has just one twosegment reflecting element but suffers from excessive astigmatism and field curvature. Using many short elements instead of single long element, new design gives nearly anastigmatic image.

  13. Proposed Integrated Radio-Telescope Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Ewing, M. S.; Levy, G. S.; Mallis, R. K.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Smith, J. R.; Backer, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed network of radio telescopes, controlled by a central computer and managed by a single organization, offer potential for research on a scale that could not be matched by present privately and publicly-owned radio telescopes. With 10 antenna sites, network would establish base lines thousands of miles long. Antennas will be linked to computer center by telephone circuits.

  14. Minimum-cost 4-m telescope developed at October 1979 Nanjing study of telescope design and construction.

    PubMed

    Meinel, A B; Meinel, M P; Ningshen, H; Qiqian, H; Chunhua, P

    1980-08-15

    A lightweight 4-m telescope with a 6400-kg primary mirror of f/11.5 was developed during a two-week workshop at the Nanjing Astronomical Instruments Factory sponsored by the Purple Mountain Observatory, Academia Sinica, Nanjing, People's Republic of China. A central column supports the secondary mirror, thus eliminating all structures around the periphery of the primary mirror. The altazimuth mounting has the elevation axis behind the primary mirror and cell, requiring a counterweight. The Cassegrain focal position coincides with the elevation axis. A single secondary mirror and appropriate field correctors enable operations at the Harland Epps-Dan Schulte (HEDS), Cassegrain, Nasmyth, and coudé foci. Relay of the Cassegrain beam to the coudé is via an elliptical relay mirror. Cost scaling law considerations indicate that this 4-m design will have a cost comparable with that of a conventional 2.2-m telescope. A discussion of the double-tapered lightweight Cer-Vit-type mirror is included. PMID:20234489

  15. Syntheses and structural characterization of non-centrosymmetric Na2M2M'S6 (M, M‧=Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn, Zn, Cd) sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2016-06-01

    Seven new non-centrosymmetric Na2M2M'S6 sulfides, namely, Na2Sn2ZnS6(1), Na2Ga2GeS6(2), Na2Ga2SnS6(3-α), Na2Ga2SnS6(3-β), Na2Ge2ZnS6(4), Na2Ge2CdS6(5), Na2In2SiS6(6) and Na2In2GeS6(7), were synthesized by high temperature solid state reactions and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. They crystallize in non-centrosymmetric Fdd2 and Cc space groups and their three-dimensional [M2M‧S6]2-framework structures consist of MS4 and M‧S4 tetrahedra corner-connected to one another in either orderly or disordered fashion. Sodium ions reside in the tunnels of the anionic framework. Compounds 1, 2 and 3-α have the structure of known Li2Ga2GeS6, whereas compounds 6 and 7 are isostructural with known Li2In2GeS6 compound. Isostructural compounds 4 and 5 represent a new structural variant. Compounds 3-α and its new monoclinic structural variant 3-β have disordered structural framework. All of them are wide band gap semiconductors. Na2Ga2GeS6(2), Na2Ga2SnS6(3), Na2Ge2ZnS6(4) and Na2In2GeS6(7) compounds are found to be second-harmonic generation (SHG) active. Compounds 1, 2 and 3-α melt congruently.

  16. The Spacelab Wide Angle Telescope (SWAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. M.; Gull, T. R.; Henize, K. G.; Bertola, F.

    1979-01-01

    A fast wide angle telescope that will be capable of imaging to the darker sky limit and in the ultraviolet wavelength region available above the atmosphere is described. The telescope (SWAT) has a resolution comparable to that of the large ground-based Schmidt telescope and a field of at least five degrees. A number of astrophysically important investigations can only be accomplished with such a telescope, e.g., detection of hidden, hot objects like hot white dwarfs and subwarfs in stellar binary systems, and energetic regions in globular clusters and galaxy nuclei. It permits unique studies of the UV-morphology of extended objects and allows discovery of very faint extensions, halos, jets, and filaments in galaxies. It can contribute to the investigation of dust in the Milky Way and in other galaxies and, with an objective prism, spectra of very faint objects can be obtained. The SWAT will localize objects for further study with the narrow-field Space Telescope.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope Project (JWST) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project. The JWST is an infrared telescope designed to collect data in the cosmic dark zone. Specifically, the mission of the JWST is to study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. It is a deployable telescope with a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, adjustable primary mirror. outfitted with cryogenic temperature telescope and instruments for infrared performance. The JWST is several times more sensitive than previous telescope and other photographic and electronic detection methods. It hosts a near infrared camera, near infrared spectrometer, mid-infrared instrument and a fine guidance sensor. The JWST mission objection and architecture, integrated science payload, instrument overview, and operational orbit are described.

  18. Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hyde, R A

    1999-07-01

    The Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100-m) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope s large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) it and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope s eyepiece; the Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band (Deltalambda/lambda approximately 0.1), multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. PMID:18323902

  19. Large telescope plans in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, E. J.

    1983-05-01

    Plans to construct telescopes with apertures larger than seven meters have been announced in a number of countries, including Japan, the UK, the Soviet Union, and the U.S. The largest U.S. telescope being contemplated is a single mount instrument with an equivalent aperture greater than 15 meters. Two different design components are currently under consideration, taking into account an array of four 7.5 to 8-meter telescopes housed in a box-like structure, and an array of hexagonal segments which are controlled by a servosystem to form a single large dish. Attention is also given to a 10-meter segmented mirror telescope, a 7.5 to 8-meter telescope, and aspects of technology.

  20. A survey on M2M systems for mHealth: a wireless communications perspective.

    PubMed

    Kartsakli, Elli; Lalos, Aris S; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Tennina, Stefano; Renzo, Marco Di; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    In the new era of connectivity, marked by the explosive number of wireless electronic devices and the need for smart and pervasive applications, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are an emerging technology that enables the seamless device interconnection without the need of human interaction. The use of M2M technology can bring to life a wide range of mHealth applications, with considerable benefits for both patients and healthcare providers. Many technological challenges have to be met, however, to ensure the widespread adoption of mHealth solutions in the future. In this context, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey on M2M systems for mHealth applications from a wireless communication perspective. An end-to-end holistic approach is adopted, focusing on different communication aspects of the M2M architecture. Hence, we first provide a systematic review ofWireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), which constitute the enabling technology at the patient's side, and then discuss end-to-end solutions that involve the design and implementation of practical mHealth applications. We close the survey by identifying challenges and open research issues, thus paving the way for future research opportunities. PMID:25264958

  1. CH2M Hill Hanford Group Inc (CHG) Information Resource Management (IRM) Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, R.L.

    2000-06-06

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), Information Resource Management Strategic Plan is the top-level planning document for applying information and information resource management to achieve the CHG mission for the management of the River Protection Project waste tank farm.

  2. LTE-advanced random access mechanism for M2M communication: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Rashid; Sarowa, Sandeep; Jaglan, Reena Rathee; Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Agrawal, Sunil

    2016-03-01

    Machine Type Communications (MTC) enables one or more self-sufficient machines to communicate directly with one another without human interference. MTC applications include smart grid, security, e-Health and intelligent automation system. To support huge numbers of MTC devices, one of the challenging issues is to provide a competent way for numerous access in the network and to minimize network overload. In this article, the different control mechanisms for overload random access are reviewed to avoid congestion caused by random access channel (RACH) of MTC devices. However, past and present wireless technologies have been engineered for Human-to-Human (H2H) communications, in particular, for transmission of voice. Consequently the Long Term Evolution (LTE) -Advanced is expected to play a central role in communicating Machine to Machine (M2M) and are very optimistic about H2H communications. Distinct and unique characteristics of M2M communications create new challenges from those in H2H communications. In this article, we investigate the impact of massive M2M terminals attempting random access to LTE-Advanced all at once. We discuss and review the solutions to alleviate the overload problem by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). As a result, we evaluate and compare these solutions that can effectively eliminate the congestion on the random access channel for M2M communications without affecting H2H communications.

  3. NFBD1/MDC1 participates in the regulation of G2/M transition in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Youquan; Suenaga, Yusuke; Okoshi, Rintaro; Sang, Meixiang; Kubo, Natsumi; Song, Fangzhou; Nakagawara, Akira; Ozaki, Toshinori

    2010-06-25

    NFBD1/MDC1 is a large nuclear protein involved in the early cellular response to DNA damage. Upon DNA damage, NFBD1 has an ability to facilitate the efficient DNA repair. In the present study, we have found that, in addition to DNA damage response, NFBD1 plays a critical role in the regulation of G2/M transition. Expression study using synchronized HeLa cells demonstrated that, like the mitotic kinase Plk1, NFBD1 expression level is maximal in G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. siRNA-mediated knockdown of NFBD1 resulted in G2/M arrest as well as simultaneous apoptosis in association with a significant increase in the amounts of {gamma}H2AX and pro-apoptotic p73. Since a remarkable down-regulation of mitotic phospho-histone H3 was detectable in NFBD1-knocked down cells, it is likely that knocking down of NFBD1 inhibits G2/M transition. Taken together, our present findings suggest that NFBD1 has a pivotal role in the regulation of proper mitotic entry.

  4. The Discharge Design of HL-2M with the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC)

    SciTech Connect

    Yudong Pan, S.C. Jardin, and C. Kes

    2007-10-10

    We present results on the discharge design of the HL-2M tokamak, which is to be an upgrade to the existing HL-2A tokamak. We present simulation results for complete 5-sec. discharges, both double null and lower single null, for both ohmic and auxiliary heated discharges. We also discuss the vertical stability properties of the device. __________________________________________________

  5. Performance of V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy Exposed to the JFT-2M Tokamak Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P.W.; Sengoku, S.; Ishiyama, S.; Fukaya, K.; Eto, M.; Oda, T.; Hirohata, Y.; Hino, T.; Tsai, H.

    1999-10-01

    A long-term test has been conducted in the JFT-2M tokamak fusion device to determine the effects of environmental exposure on the mechanical and chemical behavior of a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. Test specimens of the alloy were exposed in the outward lower divertor chamber of JFT-2M in a region away from direct contact with the plasma and were preheated to 300 C just prior to and during selected plasma discharges. During their nine-month residence time in JFT-2M, the specimens experienced approximately 200 lower single-null divertor shots at 300 C, during which high energy particle fluxes to the preheated test specimens were significant, and approximately 2,010 upper single-null divertor shots and non-diverter shots at room temperature, for which high energy particle fluxes to and expected particle retention in the test specimens were very low. Data from post-exposure tests have indicated that the performance of the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy would not be significantly affected by environmental exposure to gaseous species at partial pressures typical for tokamak operation. Deuterium retention in the exposed alloy was also low (<2 ppm). Absorption of interstitial by the alloy was limited to the very near surface, and neither the strength nor the Charpy impact properties of the alloy appeared to be significantly changed from the exposure to the JFT-2M tokamak environment.

  6. A Survey on M2M Systems for mHealth: A Wireless Communications Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kartsakli, Elli; Lalos, Aris S.; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Tennina, Stefano; Di Renzo, Marco; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    In the new era of connectivity, marked by the explosive number of wireless electronic devices and the need for smart and pervasive applications, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are an emerging technology that enables the seamless device interconnection without the need of human interaction. The use of M2M technology can bring to life a wide range of mHealth applications, with considerable benefits for both patients and healthcare providers. Many technological challenges have to be met, however, to ensure the widespread adoption of mHealth solutions in the future. In this context, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey on M2M systems for mHealth applications from a wireless communication perspective. An end-to-end holistic approach is adopted, focusing on different communication aspects of the M2M architecture. Hence, we first provide a systematic review of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), which constitute the enabling technology at the patient's side, and then discuss end-to-end solutions that involve the design and implementation of practical mHealth applications. We close the survey by identifying challenges and open research issues, thus paving the way for future research opportunities. PMID:25264958

  7. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

  8. Cell Cycle Arrest in G2/M Promotes Early Steps of Infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Groschel, Bettina; Bushman, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    We have identified four small molecules that boost transduction of cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and investigated their mechanism of action. These molecules include etoposide and camptothecin, which induce DNA damage by inhibiting religation of cleaved topoisomerase-DNA complexes, taxol, which interferes with the function of microtubules, and aphidicolin, which inhibits DNA polymerases. All four compounds arrest the cell cycle at G2/M, though in addition high concentrations of aphidicolin arrest in G1. We find that early events of HIV replication, including synthesis of late reverse transcription products, two-long terminal repeat circles, and integrated proviruses, were increased after treatment of cells with concentrations of each compound that arrested in G2/M. Stimulation was seen for both transformed cell lines (293T and HeLa cells) and primary cells (IMR90 lung fibroblasts). Arrest in G1 with high concentrations of aphidicolin boosted transduction, though not much as with lower concentrations that arrested in G2/M. Arrest of IMR90 cells in G1 by serum starvation and contact inhibition reduced transduction. Previously, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 was reported to increase HIV infection—here we investigated the effects of combinations of the cell cycle inhibitors with MG132 and obtained data suggesting that MG132 may also boost transduction by causing G2/M cell cycle arrest. These data document that cell cycle arrest in G2/M boosts the early steps of HIV infection and suggests methods for increasing transduction with HIV-based vectors. PMID:15827184

  9. Ground-based CCD astrometry with wide field imagers. III. WFI@2.2m proper-motion catalog of the globular cluster ω Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, A.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Platais, I.; Momany, Y.; Moretti, A.; Milone, A. P.; Ortolani, S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: ω Centauri is the most well studied Galactic Globular Cluster because of its numerous puzzling features: significant dispersion in metallicity, multiple populations, triple main-sequence, horizontal branch morphology, He-rich population(s), and extended star-formation history. Intensive spectroscopic follow-up observing campaigns targeting stars at different positions in the color-magnitude diagram promises to clarify some of these peculiarities. Aims: To be able to target cluster members reliably during spectroscopic surveys and both spatial and radial distributions in the cluster outskirts without including field stars, a high quality proper-motion catalog of ω Cen and membership probability determination are required. The only available wide field proper-motion catalog of ω Cen is derived from photographic plates, and only for stars brighter than B~16. Using ESO archive data, we create a new, CCD-based, proper-motion catalog for this cluster, extending to B~20. Methods: We used high precision astrometric software developed specifically for data acquired by WFI@2.2m telescope and presented in the first paper of this series. We demonstrated previously that a 7 mas astrometric precision level can be achieved with this telescope and camera for well exposed stars in a single exposure, assuming an empirical PSF and a local transformation approach in measuring star displacements. Results: We achieved a good cluster-field separation with a temporal base-line of only four years. We corrected our photometry for sky-concentration effects. We provide calibrated photometry for UBVR_CIC wide-band data plus narrow-band filter data centered on Hα for almost 360 000 stars. We confirm that the ω Cen metal-poor and metal-rich components have the same proper motion, and demonstrate that the metal-intermediate component in addition exhibits the same mean motion as the other RGB stars. We provide membership probability determinations for published ω Cen variable star

  10. Cross calibration of telescope optical throughput efficiencies using reconstructed shower energies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A. M. W.; Parsons, R. D.; Hofmann, W.; Bernlöhr, K.

    2016-02-01

    For reliable event reconstruction of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs), calibration of the optical throughput efficiency is required. Within current facilities, this is achieved through the use of ring shaped images generated by muons. Here, a complementary approach is explored, achieving cross calibration of elements of IACT arrays through pairwise comparisons between telescopes, focussing on its applicability to the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Intercalibration of telescopes of a particular type using eventwise comparisons of shower image amplitudes has previously been demonstrated to recover the relative telescope optical responses. A method utilising the reconstructed energy as an alternative to image amplitude is presented, enabling cross calibration between telescopes of varying types within an IACT array. Monte Carlo studies for two plausible CTA layouts have shown that this calibration procedure recovers the relative telescope response efficiencies at the few per cent level.

  11. Beyond the Hubble Space Telescope: Early Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert W.; Patrick McCray, W.

    In this paper we investigate the early history of what was at first called the Next Generation Space Telescope, later to be renamed the James Webb Space Telescope. We argue that the initial ideas for such a Next Generation Space Telescope were developed in the context of the planning for a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. Much the most important group of astronomers and engineers examining such a successor was based at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. By the late 1980s, they had fashioned concepts for a successor that would work in optical, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, concepts that would later be regarded as politically unrealistic given the costs associated with them. We also explore how the fortunes of the planned Next Generation Space Telescope were intimately linked to that of its "parent," the Hubble Space Telescope.

  12. SiPM detectors for the ASTRI project in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billotta, Sergio; Marano, Davide; Bonanno, Giovanni; Belluso, Massimiliano; Grillo, Alessandro; Garozzo, Salvatore; Romeo, Giuseppe; Timpanaro, Maria Cristina; Maccarone, Maria Concetta C.; Catalano, Osvaldo; La Rosa, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Impiombato, Domenico; Gargano, Carmelo; Giarrusso, Salavtore

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a worldwide new generation project aimed at realizing an array of a hundred ground based gamma-ray telescopes. ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is the Italian project whose primary target is the development of an end-to-end prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, of the CTA small size class of telescopes devoted to investigation of the highest energy region, from 1 to 100 TeV. Next target is the implementation of an ASTRI/CTA mini-array based on seven identical telescopes. Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are the semiconductor photosensor devices designated to constitute the camera detection system at the focal plane of the ASTRI telescopes. SiPM photosensors are suitable for the detection of the Cherenkov flashes, since they are very fast and sensitive to the light in the 300-700nm wavelength spectrum. Their drawbacks compared to the traditional photomultiplier tubes are high dark count rates, after-pulsing and optical cross-talk contributions, and intrinsic gains strongly dependent on temperature. Nonetheless, for a single pixel, the dark count rate is well below the Night Sky Background, the effects of cross-talk and afterpulses are typically lower than 20%, and the gain can be kept stable against temperature variations by means of adequate bias voltage compensation strategies. This work presents and discusses some experimental results from a large set of measurements performed on the SiPM sensors to be used for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype camera and on recently developed detectors demonstrating outstanding performance for the future evolution of the project in the ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  13. The radio telescope RATAN 600

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R.

    1978-01-01

    A six-meter radio antenna having 900 reflector elements arranged on a 579 -meter diameter circle and located in the northern part of the Caucasian Mountains is described. The elements are about 7.4 m by 2 m resulting in a total reflector surface of about 10,000 sq m. Individual elements can be adjusted by changing 260 screws and can be rotated both horizontally and vertically as well as being moved translationally in the radial direction. The circular area is equipped with a grid of tracks where four asymmetric cylindrical paraboloids serving as subreflectors are located. The directional profile or observational direction of the antenna is achieved by shifting the subreflectors and changing the position of the reflecting elements with respect to the subreflectors. Different radio sources can be observed at the same time by using different subreflectors and their associated reflector sectors. Each subreflector is connected to a receiving station. Capabilities for spectroscopic observation are discussed.

  14. Keeping Astronomy in the Dark Around the Clock: Introducing LCOGT.net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.; Taylor, S. F.; Rosing, W.; Mann, R.; Trimble, V.; Farrell, J. A.

    2006-06-01

    The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope is a privately supported planned network of medium-sized (2m) telescopes, longitudinally located to "keep you in the dark all of the time". Since it will be able to perform continuous optical observations unbroken by the usual day/night cycle, LCOGT will have a capability to do astronomy in the 24+ hour time-domain, a function that does not currently exist in a manner dedicated to doing time-varying astronomy. By having such telescopes distributed in northern- and southern-hemisphere sets of nearly-identical facilities, LCOGT will also have a uniqe ability to perform target-of-opportunity observing. Finally, LCOGT will have sufficient telescope time to address a small number of key science questions that require large observing resources. A major educational outreach effort will accompany LCOGT science, building upon the educational work started by the Dill Faulkes Foundation.

  15. The Octahedral Sheet of Metamorphic 2M 1-Phengites: a Combined EMPA And AXANES Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cibin, G.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Mottana, A.; Sassi, R.

    2009-05-12

    Two types of metamorphic phengites are known: one is linked to high pressure and is 3T; the other is 2M{sub 1}, and its composition is linked to rock-compositional constraints. This work investigates the octahedral sheet crystal-chemical differences between the two phengite types. Seven dioctahedral micas were studied: (1) one 3T phengite from an ultrahigh-pressure metagranitoid in the Dora Maira massif, Italy (P {approx} 4.3 GPa, T {approx} 730 C); (2) five 2M{sub 1} phengites from medium-P orthogneisses in the Eastern Alps metamorphic basement, Italy (P {le} 0.7 GPa, T {approx} 500-600 C); and (3) one 2M{sub 1} ferroan muscovite from pegmatite in Antarctica (P {le} 0.2 GPa, T {approx}500 C). All micas display significant extents of celadonite substitution. In particular, the 2M{sub 1}-phengite formulae (calculated on the basis of 11 O) have 0.68 < {sup IV}Al < 0.82 atoms per formula unit (apfu); octahedral atoms are dominated by Al (1.6-1.8 apfu), with minor and variable Fe (0.20-0.35 apfu) and Mg (0.05-0.17 apfu), and very minor Ti, Mn, and Cr. Total octahedral occupancies are slightly above 2.00 apfu, i.e., there seems to be partial occupancy of the third M site. For all micas, we recorded XAFS spectra on mosaics of carefully separated flakes oriented flat on a plastic support that could be rotated so as to account for the polarization of the synchrotron radiation beam, and we processed them on the basis of the AXANES theory. Spectra show angle-dependent absorption variations for Al and Fe, which can be deconvoluted and fitted by dichroic effects. Pre-edges consistently show most Fe to be Fe{sup 3+} and little angle-dependent intensity variations. The 2M{sub 1}-ferroan muscovite from Antarctica displays the same AXANES behavior as 2M{sub 1}-phengites. By contrast, the ultrahigh-pressure 3T-phengite from Dora Maira (having {sup IV}Al = 0.42 apfu, and Al and Mg as the dominant octahedral constituents) has XAFS spectra that differ significantly. Not only is the

  16. The VLT Survey Telescope ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, T.; Metcalfe, N.; Chehade, B.; Findlay, J. R.; Irwin, M. J.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Lewis, J. R.; Yoldas, A. Kupcu; Mann, R. G.; Read, M. A.; Sutorius, E. T. W.; Voutsinas, S.

    2015-08-01

    The VLT Survey Telescope ATLAS survey is an optical ugriz survey aiming to cover ≈4700 deg2 of the southern sky to similar depths as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From reduced images and object catalogues provided by the Cambridge Astronomical Surveys Unit, we first find that the median seeing ranges from 0.8 arcsec FWHM (full width at half-maximum) in i to 1.0 arcsec in u, significantly better than the 1.2-1.5 arcsec seeing for SDSS. The 5σ mag limit for stellar sources is rAB = 22.7 and in all bands these limits are at least as faint as SDSS. SDSS and ATLAS are more equivalent for galaxy photometry except in the z band where ATLAS has significantly higher throughput. We have improved the original ESO magnitude zero-points by comparing m < 16 star magnitudes with the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey in gri, also extrapolating into u and z, resulting in zero-points accurate to ≈ ± 0.02 mag. We finally compare star and galaxy number counts in a 250 deg2 area with SDSS and other count data and find good agreement. ATLAS data products can be retrieved from the ESO Science Archive, while support for survey science analyses is provided by the OmegaCAM Science Archive, operated by the Wide-Field Astronomy Unit in Edinburgh.

  17. Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Thomas William

    2010-06-01

    Introduction; Part I. The Instrument and the Observer: 1. The telescope; 2. The mode of observation; Part II. The Solar System: 1. The Sun; 2. Mercury; 3. Venus; 4. The Moon; 5. Index to the map of the moon; 6. Mars; 7. Jupiter; 8. Saturn; 9. Uranus and Neptune; 10. Comets; Part III. The Starry Heavens: 1. Double stars, clusters, and nebulae; 2. Andromeda; 3. Anser; 4. Antinous; 5. Aquarius; 6. Aquila; 7. Argo Navis; 8. Aries; 9. Auriga; 10. Boötes; 11. Camelopardus; 12. Cancer; 13. Canes Venatici; 14. Canis Major; 15. Canis Minor; 16. Capricornus; 17. Cassiopea; 18. Cepheus; 19. Cetus; 20. Clypeus Sobieskii; 21. Coma Berenices; 22. Corona Borealis; 23. Corvus; 24. Crater; 25. Cygnus; 26. Delphinus; 27. Draco; 28. Equuleus; 29. Eridanus; 30. Gemini; 31. Hercules; 32. Hydra; 33. Lacerta; 34. Leo; 35. Leo Minor; 36. Lepus; 37. Libra; 38. Lynx; 39. Lyra; 40. Monoceros; 41. Ophiuchus; 42. Orion; 43. Pegasus; 44. Perseus; 45. Pisces; 46. Sagitta; 47. Sagittarius; 48. Scorpio; Scutum, see Clypeus, Sobieskii; 49. Serpens; 50. Sextans; 51. Taurus; 52. Taurus Poniatowskii; 53. Triangulum; 54. Ursa Major; 55. Ursa Minor; 56. Virgo; 57. Vulpecula.

  18. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  19. Thermal investigation of a large lunar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Sherry T.

    1992-01-01

    Recent interest in construction of a large telescope on the lunar surface (Nein and Davis, 1991; Bely, Burrows, and Illingworth, 1989) has prompted this feasibility study of a thermal control system for a 16 meter diameter telescope located near the lunar equator. In addition to detailed analyses for a telescope located in a flat area near the equator, the thermal effect of locating the telescope in a crater, on a hill, and at higher latitude sites is discussed. Because an unprotected telescope experiences a wide range of temperature swings, several thermal protection schemes have been examined, including domes, sunshades, and ground shields to limit the temperature excursions of the primary mirror. Results of these analyses indicate that mirror temperature excursions can be limited to less than 100 Kelvin (K) per lunar cycle with an appropriate passive thermal protection system (dome), and that the telescope primary mirror can be maintained at less than 100 K for at least 7 days of each lunar cycle. However, such a dome precludes observations during the lunar day. Mirror temperature excursions can be reduced by incorporating thermal enclosures or shades in the design or by placing the telescope at a higher latitude.

  20. Seismic analysis of the LSST telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Douglas R.

    2012-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be located on the seismically active Chilean mountain of Cerro Pachón. The accelerations resulting from seismic events produce the most demanding load cases the telescope and its components must withstand. Seismic ground accelerations were applied to a comprehensive finite element analysis (FEA) model which included the telescope, its pier and the mountain top. Response accelerations for specific critical components (camera and secondary mirror assembly) on the telescope were determined by applying seismic accelerations in the form of Power Spectral Densities (PSD) to the FEA model. The PSDs were chosen based on the components design lives. Survival level accelerations were determined utilizing PSDs for seismic events with return periods 10 times the telescope's design life which is equivalent to a 10% chance of occurring over the lifetime. Since the telescope has a design life of 30 years it was analyzed for a return period of 300 years. Operational level seismic accelerations were determined using return periods of 5 times the lifetimes. Since the seismic accelerations provided by the Chilean design codes were provided in the form of Peak Spectral Accelerations (PSA), a method to convert between the two forms was developed. The accelerations are also affected by damping level. The LSST incorporates added damping to meets its rapid slew and settle requirements. This added damping also reduces the components' seismic accelerations. The analysis was repeated for the telescope horizon and zenith pointing. Closed form solutions were utilized to verify the results.

  1. Calvin-Rehoboth Robotic Twin Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarsma, D. B.; Molnar, L. A.; VanBaak, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The astronomy program at Calvin College, like many small colleges, is limited by poor weather and light pollution at its midwestern campus and by limited free time on the part of its astronomy faculty. Nonetheless we believe direct access to the physical universe is key to the science education both of science majors and nonmajors. Recent advances in hardware and software for modest robotic telescopes have made it possible for colleges like ours to incorporate the use of a remote bservatory into our curriculum within typical financial and time constraints. In this poster we make our first report on the installation of two robotic telescopes (one on campus and one at a remote site in New Mexico) using largely off-the-shelf components. Students learn first with the local telescope in order to understand the equipment and procedures, but obtain the majority of their data with the remote telescope. Equipment development is done first with the local telescope, and then implemented on the remote telescope (where time spent in development is difficult). We received an NSF CCLI grant and matching college funds in the summer of 2002. The local telescope was installed in the spring of 2003, and the New Mexico telescope was ready for remote operation in January 2004. Our poster will describe our equipment choices, including a few components (such as an equipment rack for the back end of the telescope) which we designed ourselves. It will also detail classroom use of the equipment in its first two semesters by students at a range of levels. A copy of the poster and many additional details of the project are available on the Calvin observatory website, http://www.calvin.edu/observatory/.

  2. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  3. A Mechanical Analogue of the Refracting Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Molesini, Giuseppe; Sordini, Andrea; Straulino, Samuele

    2011-04-01

    The recent celebration of the discoveries made by Galileo four centuries ago has attracted new attention to the refracting telescope and to its use as an instrument for the observation of the night sky.1 This has offered the opportunity for addressing in the classroom the basic principles explaining the operation of the telescope. When doing so, a key concept that is faced is magnification. In geometrical optics, the treatment of magnification is generally given in terms of light rays and first-order (Gaussian or paraxial) ray tracing. Computer programs are available with which the light path through the lenses and the whole telescope can be simulated.

  4. Frictionless Telescopes in Antarctica: Why and How?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattri, M.

    Seeing quality in Antarctica is in the hundredth arcseconds range out of the boundary layer. To take advantage of this quality telescopes should be in thermal equilibrium with the outside environment and should minimize the non linearity's like limit cycles which will deteriorate tracking. At the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) 8m telescopes this is realized using oil bearings and direct drives on the axes to avoid slip stick effects on the motion. In Antarctica this could be realized using magnetic bearings, possibly combined with motors, on the axes, with also advantages concerning power consumptions and maintenance of the system.

  5. NASA capabilities roadmap: advanced telescopes and observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescopes and Observatories (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories collecting all electromagnetic bands, ranging from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It has derived capability priorities from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps and, where appropriate, has ensured their consistency with other NASA Strategic and Capability Roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  6. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  7. Measuring Neutrinos with the ANTARES Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Corey

    2009-12-17

    The ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope has been taking data since construction began in 2006. The telescope, completed in May of 2008, detects the Cerenkov radiation of charged leptons produced by high energy neutrinos interacting in or around the detector. The lepton trajectory is reconstructed with high precision, revealing the direction of the incoming neutrino. The performance of the detector will be discussed and recent data showing muons, electromagnetic showers and atmospheric neutrinos will be presented. Studies have been underway to search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data since 2007. Results from these studies will be presented, and the sensitivity of the telescope will be discussed.

  8. Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Content, David

    2009-01-01

    A dual-channel telescope allows for a wide-field telescope design wit h a good, narrow field channel of fewer surfaces for shorter-wavelen gth or planet-finding applications. The design starts with a Korsch three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope that meets the mission criter ia for image quality over a wide field of view. The internal image a t the Cassegrain focus is typically blurry due to the aberration bala ncing among the three mirrors. The Cassegrain focus is then re-optim ized on the axis of the system where the narrow field channel instru ment is picked off by bending the primary mirror.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, S.; et al.

    2012-12-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21 is a companion document to the HST Call for Proposals1. It provides an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with basic information about telescope operations, instrument capabilities, and technical aspects of the proposal preparation process. A thorough understanding of the material in this document is essential for the preparation of a competitive proposal. This document is available as an online HTML document and a PDF file. The HTML version, optimized for online browsing, contains many links to additional information. The PDF version is optimized for printing, but online PDF readers have search capabilities for quick retrieval of specific information.

  10. Support structures for large infrared telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    An infrared telescope requires an accuracy of its reflecting surfaces of less than a micrometer. Future missions may require such accuracy from telescopes that are 20 meters or larger in diameter. The structure for supporting such a telescope will most probably take the form of a deep truss. Various approaches for constructing the primary mirror in space are illustrated. One that employs automated deployment of interconnected reflector-structure modules was described in detail. Estimates were made of the precision obtainable with properly configured truss structures and the required ability of active control systems for achieving the desired accuracy.

  11. Integrated multidisciplinary analysis of segmented reflector telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.; Needels, Laura

    1992-01-01

    The present multidisciplinary telescope-analysis approach, which encompasses thermal, structural, control and optical considerations, is illustrated for the case of an IR telescope in LEO; attention is given to end-to-end evaluations of the effects of mechanical disturbances and thermal gradients in measures of optical performance. Both geometric ray-tracing and surface-to-surface diffraction approximations are used in the telescope's optical model. Also noted is the role played by NASA-JPL's Integrated Modeling of Advanced Optical Systems computation tool, in view of numerical samples.

  12. General surface equations for glancing incidence telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized set of equations are derived for two mirror glancing incidence telescopes using Fermat's principle, a differential form of the law of reflection, the generalized sine condition, and a ray propagation equation described in vector form as a theoretical basis. The resulting formulation groups the possible telescope configurations into three distinct classes which are the Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and higher-order telescopes in which the Hettrick-Bowyer types are a subset. Eight configurations are possible within each class depending on the sign and magnitude of the parameters.

  13. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper descibes the design and the characteristics of the Multispectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), a new rocket spectroheliograph to be launched in August 1990. The MSSTA includes five multilayer Ritchey-Chretien telescopes covering the spectral range 150-300 A and eight multilayer Herschelian telescopes covering the spectral range 40-1550 A, making it possible to obtain spectrohelipgrams over the soft X-ray/extreme UV/FUV spectral range. The MSSTA is expected to obtain information regarding the structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere in the temperature range 10 to the 4th-10 to the 7th K.

  14. General surface equations for glancing incidence telescopes.

    PubMed

    Saha, T T

    1987-02-15

    A generalized set of equations are derived for two mirror glancing incidence telescopes using Fermat's principle, a differential form of the law of reflection, the generalized sine condition, and a ray propagation equation described in vector form as a theoretical basis. The resulting formulation groups the possible telescope configurations into three distinct classes which are the Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and higherorder telescopes in which the Hettrick-Bowyer types are a subset. Eight configurations are possible within each class depending on the sign and magnitude of the parameters. PMID:20454195

  15. Manufacture of Φ1.2m reaction bonded silicon carbide mirror blank CFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ge; Zhao, Rucheng; Zhao, Wenxing; Bao, Jianxun

    2010-05-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a new type candidate material for large-scale lightweight space mirror. Its low thermal distortion, high stiffness, fine optical quality and dimensional stability, make SiC an ideal material for large space born telescope. Since ten years Changchun institute optics, fine mechanics and physics (CIOMP) has developed reaction bonded SiC (RB-SiC) technology for space application, and can fabricate RB-SiC mirror with scale less than 1.0 meter for telescope. The green body is prepared with gel-casting method which is an attractive new ceramic forming process for making high-quality, complex-shaped ceramic parts. And then unmolding, drying, binder burning out, reacting bonded, the RB-SiC can be obtained. But with the development of space-born or ground telescope, the scale of primary mirror has exceeded 1.0 meter. So CIOMP has developed an assembly technique which called novel reaction-formed joint technology for larger RB-SiC mirror blank. The steps include joining of green bodies with mixture comprised of SiC particles and phenolic resin etc, firing, machining and sintering. Joining the Φ1.2 meter RB-SiC mirror blank by the novel reaction-formed joint technology. And testing the welding layer's performance, the results show that the thickness of 54-77μm, the microstructure and thermal property can be comparable to the substrate and the mechanical property are excellent in bending strength of 307MPa.

  16. The Construction of M2M System with Sensor Networks Using Digital Plethysmograph Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Norihisa; Asakawa, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Yoshitsugu; Yamada, Tomoko; Togashi, Atsushi; Sawamoto, Jun

    In recent years, the research of sensor networks advances and it is expected to be used in a wide variety of fields such as traceability system of products, environmental monitoring, health care, etc. We develop a M2M system with the sensor network technology for collection and analysis of the state of health and feedback of advices for better physical activity without human intervention. The system detects abnormality from pulse wave data from pulse wave sensor attached to the user. In this paper, we construct M2M sensor network system with continuous monitoring of arterial pulse wave and an advice generation function based on pr-installed rules, then we evaluate the usefulness of the system through experiment.

  17. VLSI architectures for computing multiplications and inverses in GF(2m).

    PubMed

    Wang, C C; Truong, T K; Shao, H M; Deutsch, L J; Omura, J K; Reed, I S

    1985-08-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of Reed-Solomon coders and in some cryptographic algorithms. There is a need for good multiplication and inversion algorithms that can be easily realized on VLSI chips. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for Galois fields based on a normal basis representation. In this paper, a pipeline structure is developed to realize the Massey-Omura multiplier in the finite field GF(2m). With the simple squaring property of the normal basis representation used together with this multiplier, a pipeline architecture is developed for computing inverse elements in GF(2m). The designs developed for the Massey-Omura multiplier and the computation of inverse elements are regular, simple, expandable, and therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation. PMID:11539660

  18. VLSI architectures for computing multiplications and inverses in GF(2-m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.; Truong, T. K.; Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.; Omura, J. K.; Reed, I. S.

    1983-01-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of Reed-Solomon coders and in some cryptographic algorithms. There is a need for good multiplication and inversion algorithms that are easily realized on VLSI chips. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for Galois fields based on a normal basis representation. A pipeline structure is developed to realize the Massey-Omura multiplier in the finite field GF(2m). With the simple squaring property of the normal-basis representation used together with this multiplier, a pipeline architecture is also developed for computing inverse elements in GF(2m). The designs developed for the Massey-Omura multiplier and the computation of inverse elements are regular, simple, expandable and, therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  19. VLSI architectures for computing multiplications and inverses in GF(2m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.; Truong, T. K.; Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.; Omura, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of Reed-Solomon coders and in some cryptographic algorithms. There is a need for good multiplication and inversion algorithms that are easily realized on VLSI chips. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for Galois fields based on a normal basis representation. A pipeline structure is developed to realize the Massey-Omura multiplier in the finite field GF(2m). With the simple squaring property of the normal-basis representation used together with this multiplier, a pipeline architecture is also developed for computing inverse elements in GF(2m). The designs developed for the Massey-Omura multiplier and the computation of inverse elements are regular, simple, expandable and, therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  20. THE WHITE DWARF COMPANION OF A 2 M{sub sun} NEUTRON STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalerao, Varun B.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2011-08-10

    We report the optical discovery of the companion to the 2 M{sub sun} millisecond pulsar PSR J1614-2230. The optical colors show that the 0.5 M{sub sun} companion is a 2.2 Gyr old He-CO white dwarf. We infer that M-dot during the accretion phase is <10{sup -2} M-dot{sub edd}. We show that the pulsar was born with a spin close to its current value, well below the rebirth line. The spin-down parameters, the mass of the pulsar, and the age of the system challenge the simple recycling model for the formation of millisecond pulsars.

  1. Rate constant for formation of chlorine nitrate by the reaction ClO + NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M. T.; Lin, C. L.; Demore, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    The pseudo-first-order decay of ClO in a large excess of NO2 was monitored in a discharge flow/mass-spectrometer apparatus in order to measure the rate constant of the reaction ClO + NO2 + M yields ClONO2 + M for M = He, Ar, and N2 over the temperature range from 248 to 417 K. Numerical results are given for He at 248, 299, 360, and 417 K (1 to 9 torr); for Ar at 298 K (1 to 4 torr); and for N2 at 299, 360, and 417 K (1 to 6 torr). Systematic errors are estimated, and identification of the reaction product is discussed. The results obtained are shown to be in excellent agreement with other recent measurements of the same rate constant.

  2. On the Diophantine equation x^2+q^2m=2y^p

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengely, Sz

    In this paper we consider the Diophantine equation $x^2+q^{2m}=2y^p$ where $m,p,q,x,y$ are integer unknowns with $m>0,$ $p$ and $q$ are odd primes and $\\gcd(x,y)=1.$ We prove that there are only finitely many solutions $(m,p,q,x,y)$ for which $y$ is not a sum of two consecutive squares. We also study the above equation with fixed $y$ and with fixed $q.$

  3. E2/M1 ratio of the N to Delta transition in a modified Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Anthony Randolph

    1997-08-01

    I use a chiral effective Lagrangian to find the E2/M1 ratio. This ratio is a measure of the deformation of the nucleon. The Lagrangian is a modified Skyrme model (1). Its construction is guided by chiral symmetry and the symmetries of QCD, which dictates the addition of the Wess-Zumino term. The current is quantized using collective coordinates (2). I find the ratio to be - .118%, which is smaller than most other models.

  4. Industry 4.0, M2m, Iot&S - All Equal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrin, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Similarity between Industry 4.0, M2M, IOT&S. Advantages and disadvantages obtained using this three important methods. Decreasing costs while components are getting smaller and smaller in a world with better networking. Influence of business management applications integrated in smart factory logistic. The most important impacts in merging virtual and real production world, with the improvement of best processes having the same goal: creating value by open innovation

  5. Differential distribution of ELMO1 and ELMO2 mRNAs in the developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Ishida, Chisaki; Ishikawa, Yukio; Negishi, Manabu

    2006-02-16

    ELMO is an upstream regulator of the Rho family small GTPase Rac. We investigated the distributions of mRNAs of two subtypes of ELMO, ELMO1 and ELMO2, in the developing mouse brain. Both ELMO1 and ELMO2 mRNAs are widely distributed in the developing mouse brain, but they were expressed in different neuronal populations in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum. Thus, ELMO1 and ELMO2 may play different roles during brain development. PMID:16443196

  6. 25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply room; computer power supply on left and water flow on right. This room is directly below data processing area (room #318). Sign on right reads: High purity water digital rack - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  7. The Irradiation Facility at the IBR-2M Reactor in Dubna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulavin, M.; Cheplakov, A.; Kulikov, S.; Kukhtin, V.; Shabalin, E.; Verhoglyadov, A.

    2014-06-01

    After renovation neutron pulsed reactor was successfully put into operation. In view of HL-LHC development, the irradiation facility at the IBR-2m, previously used for the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters electronics and materials certification, has been upgraded to permit accumulation in the warm temperature conditions of the fast neutrons fluences up to k*1017 n/cm2 per one standard reactor operation cycle - 11 days. The first test of materials for ATLAS was conducted.

  8. Development of Lunar Highland REgolith Simulants, NU-LHT-1M,-2M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, D. B.; Wilson, S. A.; Fikes, J.; McLemore, C.; Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    As part of a collaborative agreement between the U.S, Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) lunar highland simulants are being produced to support engineers and scientists in developing the technologies required to put a base on the moon by 2024. Two simulants have been produced to date: NU-LHT-1M and -2M (NASA/USGS-Lunar Highlands Type-l & 2 Medium-grained). Using starting material chiefly collected from the Stillwater Mine, Nye, MT, blending protocols were developed based on normative mineralogy calculated from average chemistry, for the Apollo 16 regolith. New technologies using a high temperature remotely coupled plasma melter were developed to generate both high quality and agglutinitic glasses that simulate the glassy components of the regolith. Detailed chemical, mineralogical and physical properties analysis of NU-LHT-1M indicate that it is overall a good surrogate for highlands lunar regolith (our new simulant LHT-2M has not be analyzed yet). The primary difference between 1M and 2M was the inclusion of trace mineralogy (phosphates and sulfide). Plans will also be presented on the future direction of the simulant project.

  9. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  10. On the age of the TW Hydrae association and 2M1207334-393254

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrado Y Navascués, D.

    2006-11-01

    Aims.We have estimated the age of the young moving group TW Hydrae Association, a cohort of a few dozen stars and brown dwarfs located near the Sun which share the same kinematic properties and, presumably, the same origin and age. Methods: .The chronology has been determined by analyzing different properties (magnitudes, colors, activity, lithium) of its members and comparing them with several well-known star forming regions and open clusters, as well as theoretical models. In addition, by using medium-resolution optical spectra of two M8 members of the association (2M1139 and 2M1207 - an accreting brown dwarf with a planetary mass companion), we have derived spectral types and measured Hα and lithium equivalent widths. We have also estimated their effective temperature and gravity, which were used to produce an independent age estimation for these two brown dwarfs. We have also collected spectra of 2M1315, a candidate member with a L5 spectral type and measured its Hα equivalent width. Results: .Our age estimate for the association, 10+10-7 Myr, agrees with previous values cited in the literature. In the case of the two brown dwarfs, we have derived an age of 15+15-10 Myr, which also agree with our estimate for the whole group. Conclusions: .We compared our results with recent articles published on the same subject using other techniques, and discuss the limits of the age-dating techniques.

  11. S2M: A Stochastic Simulation Model of Poliovirus Genetic State Transition

    PubMed Central

    Ecale Zhou, Carol L.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling the molecular mechanisms that govern genetic variation can be useful in understanding the dynamics that drive genetic state transition in quasispecies viruses. For example, there is considerable interest in understanding how the relatively benign vaccine strains of poliovirus eventually revert to forms that confer neurovirulence and cause disease (ie, vaccine-derived poliovirus). This report describes a stochastic simulation model, S2M, which can be used to generate hypothetical outcomes based on known mechanisms of genetic diversity. S2M begins with predefined genotypes based on the Sabin-1 and Mahoney wild-type sequences, constructs a set of independent cell-based populations, and performs in-cell replication and cell-to-cell infection cycles while quantifying genetic changes that track the transition from Sabin-1 toward Mahoney. Realism is incorporated into the model by assigning defaults for variables that constrain mechanisms of genetic variability based roughly on metrics reported in the literature, yet these values can be modified at the command line in order to generate hypothetical outcomes driven by these parameters. To demonstrate the utility of S2M, simulations were performed to examine the effects of the rates of replication error and recombination and the presence or absence of defective interfering particles, upon reaching the end states of Mahoney resemblance (semblance of a vaccine-derived state), neurovirulence, genome fitness, and cloud diversity. Simulations provide insight into how modeled biological features may drive hypothetical outcomes, independently or in combination, in ways that are not always intuitively obvious. PMID:27385911

  12. Product analysis of the OH + NO/sub 2/ + M reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, J.B.; Hammer, P.D.; Howard, C.J.

    1987-04-09

    A high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer optically coupled to a fast flow multipass absorption cell was used to spectroscopically study the products of OH + NO/sub 2/ + M ..-->.. HONO/sub 2/ + M (1a) and OH + NO/sub 2/ + M ..-->.. HOONO + M (1b). Infrared absorption spectra of the products of reaction 1 were recorded over the range 1850-3850 cm/sup -1/ for the following conditions: pressure 3 to 850 Torr, temperature 248 to 298 K, and (OH)/sub 0/ = (5 to 100) x 10/sup 11/ molecules cm/sup -3/. The infrared absorption spectrum of HOONO was not observed under these conditions. If the OH stretch band strength of HOONO is equal to that of HONO/sub 2/ this indicates <5% HOONO formation in reaction 1. Quantitative measurements of the conversion of OH to HONO/sub 2/ show that 75/sup +25//sub -10/% of reaction 1 forms HONO/sub 2/. These results are compared with predictions of the branching ratio of reaction 1 obtained from statistical theory.

  13. Dynamic RACH Partition for Massive Access of Differentiated M2M Services

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qinghe; Li, Wanyu; Liu, Lingjia; Ren, Pinyi; Wang, Yichen; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    In machine-to-machine (M2M) networks, a key challenge is to overcome the overload problem caused by random access requests from massive machine-type communication (MTC) devices. When differentiated services coexist, such as delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services, the problem becomes more complicated and challenging. This is because delay-sensitive services often use more aggressive policies, and thus, delay-tolerant services get much fewer chances to access the network. To conquer the problem, we propose an efficient mechanism for massive access control over differentiated M2M services, including delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services. Specifically, based on the traffic loads of the two types of services, the proposed scheme dynamically partitions and allocates the random access channel (RACH) resource to each type of services. The RACH partition strategy is thoroughly optimized to increase the access performances of M2M networks. Analyses and simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of our design. The proposed scheme can outperform the baseline access class barring (ACB) scheme, which ignores service types in access control, in terms of access success probability and the average access delay. PMID:27043568

  14. CyclinB1/Cdk1 Coordinates Mitochondrial Respiration for Cell Cycle G2/M Progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoqing; Fan, Ming; Candas, Demet; Zhang, Tie-Qiao; Eldridge, Angela; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Chromy, Brett A.; Nantajit, Danupon; Duru, Nadire; He, Fuchu; Chen, Min; Finkel, Toren; Weinstein, Lee S.; Li, Jian Jian

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A substantial amount of mitochondrial energy is required for cell cycle progression. However, the mechanisms coordinating the mitochondrial respiration with G2/M transition, a critical step in cell division, remains to be elucidated. Here we show that a fraction of cell cycle CyclinB1/Cdk1 proteins localizes into the matrix of mitochondria and phosphorylates a cluster of mitochondrial proteins including the complex I (CI) subunits in the respiratory chain. The CyclinB1/Cdk1-mediated CI subunit phosphorylation enhances CI activity, whereas deficiency of such phosphorylation in each of the relevant CI subunits results in impairment of CI function. Mitochondria-targeted CyclinB1/Cdk1 increases mitochondrial respiration with enhanced oxygen consumption and ATP generation, which provides cells with efficient bioenergy for G2/M transition and shortens overall cycling time. Thus, CyclinB1/Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of mitochondrial substrates allows cells to sense and respond to an increased energy demand for G2/M transition, and subsequently to up-regulate mitochondrial respiration for a successful cell cycle progression. PMID:24746669

  15. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  16. Dynamic RACH Partition for Massive Access of Differentiated M2M Services.

    PubMed

    Du, Qinghe; Li, Wanyu; Liu, Lingjia; Ren, Pinyi; Wang, Yichen; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    In machine-to-machine (M2M) networks, a key challenge is to overcome the overload problem caused by random access requests from massive machine-type communication (MTC) devices. When differentiated services coexist, such as delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services, the problem becomes more complicated and challenging. This is because delay-sensitive services often use more aggressive policies, and thus, delay-tolerant services get much fewer chances to access the network. To conquer the problem, we propose an efficient mechanism for massive access control over differentiated M2M services, including delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services. Specifically, based on the traffic loads of the two types of services, the proposed scheme dynamically partitions and allocates the random access channel (RACH) resource to each type of services. The RACH partition strategy is thoroughly optimized to increase the access performances of M2M networks. Analyses and simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of our design. The proposed scheme can outperform the baseline access class barring (ACB) scheme, which ignores service types in access control, in terms of access success probability and the average access delay. PMID:27043568

  17. Signature of the Superatom to Superhalogen Behavior of Aun(BO2)m clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandalam, Anil; Gotz, Matthias; Willis, Mary; Gantefor, Gerd; Jena, Puru

    2010-03-01

    We report the discovery of a new class of clusters consisting of Aun(BO2)m which formed during the oxygenation of gold clusters when boron nitride was used as insulation in the pulsed arc cluster ion source (PACIS). Using DFT based calculations, we trace the origin of these species to be due to the unusual stability of the BO2 moiety as well as shed light on their formation process. PES measurements and the corresponding DFT calculations further reveal some rather remarkable properties of Aun(BO2)m clusters such as large HOMO-LUMO gaps in the range of 3.00 eV -- 3.95 eV and electron affinities substantially larger than that of F, the most electronegative element in the periodic table. In addition, some of the most predominant features of the electronic structure of the bare Au clusters, namely odd-even alternation in the electron affinity, are preserved in the Aun(BO2) species. The synergy between theory and experiment illustrates that Aun(BO2)m clusters, behave as superatoms and superhalogens, opening the door for the synthesis of a new class of cluster-assembled materials.

  18. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  19. The Optical System of the SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, H.; Erdmann, M.

    1999-01-01

    The optical system of the SOFIA telescope consists of a Cassegrain telescope with an aperture of 2.5 m and a Nasmyth focus. The central optical part of the telescope is the monolithic 2.7-m Zerodur primary mirror. The lightweighting factor is 80 The primary mirror is supported by a very stiff CFRP structure. The secondary mirror is a lightweighted SiC mirror and has a chopping mechanism. The telescope has three built-in imagers for acquisition and tracking, one main-optics sharing focal plane imager and two boresighted imagers with a wide and a fine field of view. The poster presents the current status of the development.

  20. Telescope mount with azimuth-only primary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, W. H.

    1968-01-01

    In large aperture telescope primary reflectors, the primary mirror is fixed with respect to the gravity vector to avoid varying gravity deflection problems. The primary reflector does not become distorted in various positions nor in changing positions.