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Sample records for 2m kcl soil

  1. a Modified Denitrifying Bacteria Method for Dual Stable Isotopic Analysis of of Soil Nitrate in Kcl Extracts: Identification of Bioindicators of Nitrogen Deposition Along a Gradient in the Sonoran Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. D.; Sickman, J. O.; Allen, E. B.

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies performing dual isotopic analysis of nitrate in KCl soil extracts using denitrifying bacteria have not incorporated alterations in the method to compensate for the increased N2O blank produced when the bacteria are exposed to KCl in solution. When 1M KCl is used as a blank, the amount of N2O released from the concentrated bacteria solution is more than four times as high as when using a DI water blank. The excess N2O produced is not an artifact of nitrate impurity in the KCl, although the blank increases with the molarity of KCl up to 1M. The introduction of N2O gas is significant enough to alter the values of IAEA USGS standards (3 μg in 3ml KCl) which in turn results in an inaccurate regression for unknown samples. We reduced the size of the KCl blank and its effect on the standards by adding 3ml of KCl to the bacteria solution prior to purging the sample with He gas. This removes the N2O gas which is released by the bacteria when they initially come in contact with the KCl, and allows for standards to be calibrated to a precision of ± 0.1 % δ15N and ± 0.2 % δ18O. Using this new method, we measured δ15N and δ18O of nitrate in 1M KCl soil extracts taken from surface soil (5cm cores) along a nitrogen deposition gradient spanning the Coachella Valley in the western Sonoran Desert during the summer. Early germinating winter annual plant species (Schismus barbatus, Chaenactic fremontii, and Malacothrix glabrata) were collected as seedlings early in the growing season and again in late spring before senescence. Leaves from the dominant shrub, Larrea tridentata, were also collected from each site. Soil nitrogen from sites on the eastern edge of the valley had δ18O values between +30 and +41%, indicating an influence of atmospheric nitrate in plant available nitrate. There was an inverse correlation (r2=0.907) between soil δ18O and the δ15N of the C.fremontii leaf tissue, which suggests that in areas of high N deposition, some seedlings are

  2. Grain-boundary migration in KCl bicrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbon, C. F.

    1968-01-01

    Boundary migration in melt-grown bicrystals of KCl containing pure twist boundaries was investigated. The experiments involve the use of bicrystal specimens in the shape of right-triangular prisms with the boundary parallel to one side.

  3. Laser characteristics of KCL:O2(-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilk, S. R.; Boyd, R. W.; Teegarden, K. J.

    1983-10-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission and laser action have been observed at 77 K in KCl crystals containing the superoxide ion (O2/-/). The laser operates in two bands of width approximately 50 A centered at 6350 A and 5984 A. These bands are the (lattice) phonon sidebands of vibronic transitions of the superoxide ion. At lower temperatures (approximately 6 K) amplified spontaneous emission is observed in the zero phonon line at 6294 A.

  4. Optical properties of KCl:Sn2+ phosphors synthesized from aqueous KCl/SnCl2 solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Jun-ichi; Adachi, Sadao

    2011-12-01

    KCl:Sn2+ phosphors were synthesized from aqueous KCl/SnCl2 solutions. Solvents with a molar ratio of KCl : SnCl2 = 1 : M (M = 0 - 5) were dissolved in de-ionized water. The optical properties of the synthesized phosphors were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) analysis, PL excitation spectroscopy (PLE), and PL lifetime measurements. KCl:Sn2+ phosphor synthesized with M = 0.1 exhibited the strongest PL emission in the green (AT band) and red spectral regions (R band). The phosphors synthesized with M ≥ 1 were composites of various potassium chlorostannates and emitted light in the red spectral region (R band). Annealing the M = 0.1 phosphor in dry N2 resulted in a PL spectrum that was the same as those usually observed in melt-grown KCl:Sn2+ phosphors (i.e., exhibiting only the AT emission band). Annealing also led to a change in the PL decay characteristic from a double exponential curve to a single exponential curve. The AT and R emission bands had nearly the same PLE spectra and were related to the deexcitation of the Sn2+ (5s5p) ions in KCl.

  5. Mechanisms of low Na+-induced increase in intracellular calcium in KCl-depolarized rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Satyajeet S; Saini, Harjot K; Xu, Yan-Jun; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2004-08-01

    Although low Na+ is known to increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cardiac muscle, the exact mechanisms of low Na+ -induced increases in [Ca2+]i are not completely defined. To gain information in this regard, we examined the effects of low Na+ (35 mM) on freshly isolated cardiomyocytes from rat heart in the absence and presence of different interventions. The [Ca2+]i in cardiomyocytes was measured fluorometrically with Fura-2 AM. Following a 10 min incubation, the low Na+ -induced increase in [Ca2+], was only observed in cardiomyocytes depolarized with 30 mM KCl, but not in quiescent cardiomyocytes. In contrast, low Na+ did not alter the ATP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in the cardiomyocytes. This increase in [Ca2+]i due to low Na+ and elevated KCl was dependent on the extracellular concentration of Ca2+ (0.25-2.0 mM). The L-type Ca2+ -channel blockers, verapamil and diltiazem, at low concentrations (1 microM) depressed the low Na+, KCl-induced increase in [Ca2+]i without significantly affecting the response to low Na+ alone. The low Na+, high KCl-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was attenuated by treatments of cardiomyocytes with high concentrations of both verapamil (5 and 10 microM), and diltiazem (5 and 10 microM) as well as with amiloride (5-20 microM), nickel (1.25-5.0 mM), cyclopiazonic acid (25 and 50 microM) and thapsigargin (10 and 20 microM). On the other hand, this response was augmented by ouabain (1 and 2 mM) and unaltered by 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl) amiloride (5 and 10 microM). These data suggest that in addition to the sarcolemmal Na+ - Ca2+ exchanger, both sarcolemmal Na+ - K+ ATPase, as well as the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -pump play prominent roles in the low Na+ -induced increase in [Ca2+]i. PMID:15524176

  6. Substituting KCl for NaCl in fresh Queso Fresco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the sodium level in cheese is challenging when a signature salty flavor is expected, such as in high-moisture Queso Fresco (QF). Fresh starter-free QF was fine milled and dry salted at different levels of NaCl and KCl to obtain total salt levels of 1.5 to 2.0%. The treatments contained 1....

  7. Effects of KCl substitution on textural properties of Queso Fresco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial substitution of KCl for NaCl has been attempted in some common cheese varieties because of restrictions on sodium in the diets of some consumers. The changes in texture of Queso Fresco, a popular Hispanic cheese, were monitored during refrigerated storage after replacing some of the NaCl wi...

  8. 2m class telescope project at Lijiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Bai-Rong; Luo, Guo-Quan; Liu, Zhong; Tan, Hui-Song

    Supported by the ministry of science and technology, government of Yunnan Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, a 2m class telescope project was granted. In this paper, we will first review the site, Gaomeigu, briefly, then give the details of 2m class telescope project, and finally discuss the future plans of this new telescope.

  9. Present and Future of M2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Satoru; Watanabe, Takashi

    In recent years, the rapid progress in the development of hardware and software technologies enables tiny and low cost information devices hereinafter referred to as Machine to be widely available. M2M (Machine to Machine) has been of much attention where many tiny machines are connected to each other through networks with minimal human intervention to provide smooth and intelligent management. M2M is a promising core technology providing timely, flexible, efficient and comprehensive service at low cost. M2M has wide variety of applications including energy management system, environmental monitoring system, intelligent transport system, industrial automation system and other applications. M2M consists of terminals and networks that connect them. In this paper, we mainly focus on M2M networking and mention the future direction of the technology.

  10. Structure of CO2 monolayer on KCl(1 0 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Taiquan; Cao, Dan; Wang, Xinyan; Jiao, Zhiwei; Jiang, Zhouting; Chen, Miaogen; Luo, Honglei; Zhu, Ping

    2015-06-01

    The first-principle technique has been employed to determine the structure of carbon dioxide (CO2) dimers, molecular chains, monolayers and the CO2/KCl(1 0 0) system. Their potential structures have been proposed. CASTEP calculation shows that CO2 molecular chains and monolayers based on two stable dimers by the electric interaction are all self-assembly system. At the coverage of 1.00 ML, two stable structures have been proposed when CO2 monolayer on the KCl(1 0 0) surface. The best one is the monolayer adsorbed on the surface with the C atom in the bridge site, the angle α between the molecular bond and the surface is 24°. The better one is the monolayer horizontally adsorbed on the surface with the C atom in the top-Cl site. The structural parameters in the adsorption system are similar to those in the monolayer.

  11. Impact of acid effluent from Kawah Ijen crater lake on irrigated agricultural soils: Soil chemical processes and plant uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rotterdam-Los, A. M. D.; Heikens, A.; Vriend, S. P.; van Bergen, M. J.; van Gaans, P. F. M.

    2008-12-01

    Volcanogenic contamination of irrigation water, caused by effluent from the hyperacid Ijen crater lake, has severely affected the properties of agricultural soils in East Java, Indonesia. From a comparison of acidified topsoil with subsoil and with top- and subsoil in a reference area, we identified processes responsible for changes in soil and soil solution chemistry induced by acid irrigation water, with emphasis on the nutrients Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn, and on Al, which may become phytotoxic under acid conditions in soils. Compositional data for bulk soil composition and selective extractions with 1 M KCl and 0.2 M acid ammonium oxalate are used in a mass balance approach to specify element fluxes, including uptake by rice plants. The results show that input via irrigation water has produced an increase in the total aluminum content in the affected topsoil, which is of the same order of magnitude as the increase in labile Al. High bioavailability of Al, as reflected by concentrations in KCl extracts, is consistent with elevated concentrations observed in rice plants. In contrast, and despite the high input via irrigation water, Ca and Mg concentrations have decreased in all measured soil fractions through dissolution of amorphous phases and minerals, and through competition of Al for adsorption sites on the exchange complex and plant roots. Strong leaching is also evident for Fe and especially Mn. In terms of the overall mass balance of the topsoil, plant uptake of Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn is negligible. If the use of acid irrigation would be stopped and the soil pH were to increase to values above 4.5, the observed phytotoxicity of Al will be halted. However, crops may then become fully dependent on the input from irrigation water or fertilizer for essential elements, due to the previous removal from the topsoil through leaching.

  12. Pesticide adsorption in relation to soil properties and soil type distribution in regional scale.

    PubMed

    Kodešová, Radka; Kočárek, Martin; Kodeš, Vít; Drábek, Ondřej; Kozák, Josef; Hejtmánková, Kateřina

    2011-02-15

    Study was focused on the evaluation of pesticide adsorption in soils, as one of the parameters, which are necessary to know when assessing possible groundwater contamination caused by pesticides commonly used in agriculture. Batch sorption tests were performed for 11 selected pesticides and 13 representative soils. The Freundlich equations were used to describe adsorption isotherms. Multiple-linear regressions were used to predict the Freundlich adsorption coefficients from measured soil properties. Resulting functions and a soil map of the Czech Republic were used to generate maps of the coefficient distribution. The multiple linear regressions showed that the K(F) coefficient depended on: (a) combination of OM (organic matter content), pH(KCl) and CEC (cation exchange capacity), or OM, SCS (sorption complex saturation) and salinity (terbuthylazine), (b) combination of OM and pH(KCl), or OM, SCS and salinity (prometryne), (c) combination of OM and pH(KCl), or OM and ρ(z) (metribuzin), (d) combination of OM, CEC and clay content, or clay content, CEC and salinity (hexazinone), (e) combination of OM and pH(KCl), or OM and SCS (metolachlor), (f) OM or combination of OM and CaCO(3) (chlorotoluron), (g) OM (azoxystrobin), (h) combination of OM and pH(KCl) (trifluralin), (i) combination of OM and clay content (fipronil), (j) combination of OM and pH(KCl), or OM, pH(KCl) and CaCO(3) (thiacloprid), (k) combination of OM, pH(KCl) and CEC, or sand content, pH(KCl) and salinity (chlormequat chloride). PMID:21144657

  13. Carbon and Nitrogen cycling in a permafrost soil profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, V. G.; Schaedel, C.; Mack, M. C.; Schuur, E.

    2015-12-01

    In high latitude ecosystems, active layer soils thaw during the growing season and are situated on top of perennially frozen soils (permafrost). Permafrost affected soil profiles currently store a globally important pool of carbon (1330-1580 PgC) due to cold temperatures constraining the decomposition of soil organic matter. With global warming, however, seasonal thaw is expected to increase in speed and extend to deeper portions of the soil profile. As permafrost soils become part of the active layer, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) previously stored in soil organic matter will be released via decomposition. In this experiment, the dynamic relationship between N mineralization, C mineralization, and C quality was investigated in moist acidic tundra soils. Soils from the active layer surface down through the permafrost (80cm) were incubated aerobically at 15°C for 225 days. Carbon dioxide fluxes were fit with a two pool exponential decay model so that the size and turnover of both the quickly decomposing C pool (Cfast) and the slowly decomposing C pool (Cslow) could be assessed. Soil extractions with 2M KCl were performed at six time points throughout the incubation so that dissolve inorganic N (DIN) and dissolved organic C (DOC) could be measured. DIN was readily extractable from deep permafrost soils throughout the incubation (0.05 mgN/g dry soil) but in active layer soils DIN was only produced after Cfast had been depleted. In contrast, active layer soils had high levels of DOC (0.65 mgC/g dry soil) throughout the incubation but in permafrost soils, DOC became depleted as Cfast reduced in size. The strong contrasts between the C and N cycling in active layer soils versus permafrost soils suggest that the deeper thaw will dramatically increase N availability in these soil profiles. Plants and soil microbes in the tundra are currently N limited so our findings imply that deepening thaw will 1) provide N necessary for increased plant growth and 2) stimulate losses of

  14. K-Cl cotransporters, cell volume homeostasis, and neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Khanna, Arjun R; Alper, Seth L; Adragna, Norma C; Lauf, Peter K; Sun, Dandan; Delpire, Eric

    2015-08-01

    K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters (KCCs) were originally characterized as regulators of red blood cell (RBC) volume. Since then, four distinct KCCs have been cloned, and their importance for volume regulation has been demonstrated in other cell types. Genetic models of certain KCCs, such as KCC3, and their inhibitory WNK-STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) serine-threonine kinases, have demonstrated the evolutionary necessity of these molecules for nervous system cell volume regulation, structure, and function, and their involvement in neurological disease. The recent characterization of a swelling-activated dephosphorylation mechanism that potently stimulates the KCCs has pinpointed a potentially druggable switch of KCC activity. An improved understanding of WNK/SPAK-mediated KCC cell volume regulation in the nervous system might reveal novel avenues for the treatment of multiple neurological diseases. PMID:26142773

  15. Morphological and Structural Investigation of Sexithiophene Growth on KCl (100)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The morphology and structure of sexithiophene deposited on KCl (100) substrates was investigated by scanning force microscopy and specular X-ray diffraction measurements. Two different needle-like structures with {010} and {4̅11} contact planes have been observed as well as islands of almost upright standing sexithiophene molecules with a {100} contact plane. Furthermore an azimuthal alignment of all three crystal orientations was observed by X-ray diffraction pole figure measurements, and the growth directions reflect the 4-fold rotational symmetry of the substrate surface. In addition the analysis of crystals with {4̅11} and {100} contact planes unveiled that they share a common crystallographic direction which is explained by ledge directed epitaxy. PMID:23413362

  16. Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

    1997-02-09

    Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

  17. Radiation effects on beta /10.6/ of pure and europium doped KCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, H. H.; Maisel, J. E.; Hartford, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the optical absorption coefficient as the result of X-ray and electron bombardment of pure monocrystalline and polycrystalline KCl and of divalent europium doped polycrystalline KCl were determined. A constant heat flow calorimetric method was used to measure the optical absorption coefficients. Both 300 kV X-ray irradiation and 2 MeV electron irradiation produced increases in the optical absorption coefficient at room temperature. X-ray irradiation produced more significant changes in pure monocrystalline KCl than equivalent amounts of electron irradiation. Electron irradiation of pure and Eu-doped polycrystalline KCl produced increases in the absorption by as much as a factor of 20 over untreated material. Bleaching of the electron-irradiated doped KCl with 649 millimicron light produced a further increase.

  18. Development of 2 m×2 m size glass RPCs for INO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, M.; Datar, V. M.; Kalmani, S. D.; Lahamge, S. M.; Mohammed, S.; Mondal, N. K.; Nagaraj, P.; Redij, A.; Samuel, D.; Saraf, M. N.; Satyanarayana, B.; Shinde, R. R.; Verma, P.

    2012-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to build a massive 50 kt magnetised iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector to study atmospheric neutrinos and to precisely determine the neutrino oscillation parameters. About 30,000 2 m×2 m size glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) will be used as active detector elements in ICAL. Starting with a small 30 cm ×30 cm size RPCs, we have now succeeded in developing full size 2 m ×2 m RPCs. The fabrication procedures used for these large size RPCs as well as their performance will be discussed in this paper. We will also present some preliminary results from our studies on SF6 based gas mixtures on the RPC operation and characteristics.

  19. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in vineyard acid soils amended with a bentonitic winery waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification processes were determined in different vineyard soils. The measurements were performed in samples non-amended and amended with different bentonitic winery waste concentrations. Carbon mineralization was measured as CO2 released by the soil under laboratory conditions, whereas NH4+ was determined after its extraction with KCl 2M. The time evolution of both, carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification, was followed during 42 days. The released CO2 was low in the analyzed vineyard soils, and hence the metabolic activity in these soils was low. The addition of the bentonitic winery waste to the studied soils increased highly the carbon mineralization (2-5 fold), showing that the organic matter added together the bentonitic waste to the soil have low stability. In both cases, amended and non-amended samples, the maximum carbon mineralization was measured during the first days (2-4 days), decreasing as the incubation time increased. The NH4+ results showed an important effect of bentonitic winery waste on the ammonification behavior in the studied soils. In the non-amended samples the ammonification was no detected in none of the soils, whereas in the amended soils important NH4+ concentrations were detected. In these cases, the ammonification was fast, reaching the maximum values of NH4 between 7 and 14 days after the bentonitic waste additions. Also, the percentages of ammonification respect to the total nitrogen in the soil were high, showing that the nitrogen provided by the bentonitic waste to the soil is non-stable. The fast carbon mineralization found in the soils amended with bentonitic winery wastes shows low possibilities of the use of this waste for the increasing the organic carbon pools in the soil.On the other hand, the use of this waste as N-fertilizer can be possible. However, due its fast ammonification, the waste should be added to the soils during active plant growth periods.

  20. Extraction of radiostrontium coprecipitated with calcium carbonate in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    The fraction of soil ZSr coprecipitated with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was determined by extraction into 0.1M hydrochloric acid (HCl)-0.5M potassium chloride (KCl) after an initial extraction with either 1M ammonium acetate (NH4OAc) or 1M KCl to remove soluble salts and exchangeable cations. This procedure was tested on soil samples supplemented with 85 g CaCO3/kg containing coprecipitated YVSr. A significant amount of both YVSr and Ca remained undissolved in this extractant but were subsequently removed by extraction with 8M HNO3. The extraction procedure was also applied to a group of 16 ZSr-contaminated soil and stream bed sediment samples. The amount of Cs + Mg extracted by 0.1M HCl-0.5M KCl, following KCl extraction, was well correlated with but slightly lower than the amounts expected for a complete dissolution of the CaCO3. Pre-extraction with NH4OAc, rather than KCl, dissolved significantly more CaCO3, resulting in a lower estimate of the soil CaCO3. Several soil samples, taken from a radioactive waste burial trench that had received sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) treatment injections, revealed that up to 98% of the total ZSr was observed in a CaCO3 phase. Untreated soils typically exhibited 80 to 95% of their ZSr in a cation exchangeable form, i.e., extractable by either NH4OAc or KCl.

  1. Links among nitrification, nitrifier communities, and edaphic properties in contrasting soils receiving dairy slurry.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Ann-Marie; Honeycutt, C Wayne; Vandemark, George; Griffin, Timothy S; Larkin, Robert P; He, Zhongqi; Wienhold, Brian J; Sistani, Karamat R; Albrecht, Stephan L; Woodbury, Bryan L; Torbert, Henry A; Powell, J Mark; Hubbard, Robert K; Eigenberg, Roger A; Wright, Robert J; Alldredge, J Richard; Harsh, James B

    2012-01-01

    Soil biotic and abiotic factors strongly influence nitrogen (N) availability and increases in nitrification rates associated with the application of manure. In this study, we examine the effects of edaphic properties and a dairy (Bos taurus) slurry amendment on N availability, nitrification rates and nitrifier communities. Soils of variable texture and clay mineralogy were collected from six USDA-ARS research sites and incubated for 28 d with and without dairy slurry applied at a rate of ~300 kg N ha(-1). Periodically, subsamples were removed for analyses of 2 M KCl extractable N and nitrification potential, as well as gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). Spearman coefficients for nitrification potentials and AOB copy number were positively correlated with total soil C, total soil N, cation exchange capacity, and clay mineralogy in treatments with and without slurry application. Our data show that the quantity and type of clay minerals present in a soil affect nitrifier populations, nitrification rates, and the release of inorganic N. Nitrogen mineralization, nitrification potentials, and edaphic properties were positively correlated with AOB gene copy numbers. On average, AOA gene copy numbers were an order of magnitude lower than those of AOB across the six soils and did not increase with slurry application. Our research suggests that the two nitrifier communities overlap but have different optimum environmental conditions for growth and activity that are partly determined by the interaction of manure-derived ammonium with soil properties. PMID:22218194

  2. An XPS study of the KCl surface oxidation in oxygen glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoch, J.; Ladecka, M.

    1988-05-01

    The reaction between the surface of KCl and oxygen in a glow discharge has been studied by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Oxygen glow discharge treatment resulted in the formation of a superoxide, which decomposed under vacuum at room temperature to KO 2 and finally to K 2O. No evidence of KClO 3 or KClO 4 formation has been found. Binding energies of some oxygen species in potassium oxides were determined. The possible role of potassium in K-doped silver catalysts of ethylene epoxidation is discussed.

  3. Hydration force between mica surfaces in aqueous KCl electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yongsheng

    2012-03-27

    Liquid-vapor molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the interaction forces between two mica surfaces in an aqueous KCl electrolyte solution. Strong repulsive hydration force is obtained within a distance of ~2 nm between the two mica surfaces, which cannot be explained by the continuum theory of double-layer repulsion. We find that this short-range repulsive hydration force is much stronger than the double-layer force between mica surfaces. Whereas the simulation system is much smaller than the surface force measurement system, fundamental mechanisms of repulsive hydration force are revealed. In particular, important features of the step-like force oscillatory behavior during normal compression and force hysteresis during retraction are observed. Detailed analysis of the ionic density distributions shows that the "forced adsorption" of diffusive K(+) ions onto mica surfaces during compression and the subsequent "slow desorption" of the absorbed K(+) ions from mica surfaces upon retraction are responsible for the hysteresis phenomenon. From a mechanics point of view, we attribute the load bearing capacity of the dense electrolyte to the very hard hydration shells of K(+) metal ions under confinement. We find that the hydrated K(+) ions and Cl(-) co-ions remain very diffusive in the aqueous film. Water molecules in the hydration layer are also very fluidic, in the sense that the diffusion constant of water molecules is less than its bulk value by at most 3 orders of magnitude under the extreme confinement. PMID:22369483

  4. Polarized emission from KCl:Eu2+ single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jun-Gill; Sohn, Youngku; Nah, Min-Kook; Kim, Youn-Doo; Ogryzlo, Elmer A.

    2000-04-01

    The polarization emission spectrum and the angular dependence of polarization ratio of the blue emission from KCl:Eu2+ were investigated at 78.8 K. The polarized emission at 420 nm consisted of several components. The angular dependence of polarization ratio of each component is proportional to sin(2icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> ) or -cos(2icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> ), when the exciting light is polarized at icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> with respect to the z -axis for the [100]-[010] optical arrangement. The relaxed excited states (RESs) of Eu2+ responsible for the 420 nm emission are presented in terms of the adiabatic potential energy surface (APES), taking into account the Jahn-Teller effect (JTE) coupling to the Eg mode and the spin-orbit (SO) interaction. The charge-compensating cation vacancy (CCV, Vc - ) also causes an additive perturbation.

  5. Template-Directed Directionally Solidified 3D Mesostructured AgCl-KCl Eutectic Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwoo; Aagesen, Larry K; Choi, Jun Hee; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Ha Seong; Liu, Jinyun; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Kang, Jin Gu; Ramazani, Ali; Thornton, Katsuyo; Braun, Paul V

    2015-08-19

    3D mesostructured AgCl-KCl photonic crystals emerge from colloidal templating of eutectic solidification. Solvent removal of the KCl phase results in a mesostructured AgCl inverse opal. The 3D-template-induced confinement leads to the emergence of a complex microstructure. The 3D mesostructured eutectic photonic crystals have a large stop band ranging from the near-infrared to the visible tuned by the processing. PMID:26177830

  6. Kinetics of the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, S. P.; Peterson, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The flash photolysis/ultraviolet absorption technique was used to measure the rate constants for the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M over the pressure range 50-700 torr and temperature range 229-362 K using He, O2, and N2 as diluent gases. The data were fit to the expression derived by Troe (1979) and co-workers for describing the pressure and temperature dependence of reactions in the falloff region. By combining these data with recent measurements of the rate constant for HO2NO2 thermal decomposition values of 73.8 + or - 2 eu for the standard entropy and -12.6 + or - kcal/mol for the standard enthalpy of formation of HO2NO2 were obtained. A significant enhancement in the rate constant was observed when water vapor was added to the system.

  7. Radiation effects on beta 10.6 of pure and europium doped KCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, H. H.; Maisel, J. E.; Hartford, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the optical absorption coefficient as a result of X-ray and electron bombardment of pure KCl (monocrystalline and polycrystalline), and divalent europium doped polycrystalline KCl were determined. The optical absorption coefficients were measured by a constant heat flow calorimetric method. Both 300 KV X-irradiation and 2 MeV electron irradiation produced significant increases in beta 10.6, measured at room temperature. The X-irradiation of pure moncrystalline KCl increased beta 10.6 by 0.005/cm for a 113 MR dose. For an equivalent dose, 2 MeV electrons were found less efficient in changing beta 10.6. However, electron irradiation of pure and Eu-doped polycrystalline KCl produced marked increases in adsorption. Beta increased to over 0.25/cm in Eu-doped material for a 30 x 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm dose, a factor of 20 increase over unirradiated material. Moreover, bleaching the electron irradiated doped KCl with 649 m light produced and additional factor of 1.5 increase. These findings will be discussed in light of known defect-center properties in KCl.

  8. Influence of partial replacement of NaCl with KCl on profiles of volatile compounds in dry-cured bacon during processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on the formation of volatile compounds in bacons during processing using a purge and trap dynamic headspace GC/MS system. Three substitutions were 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). The profiles of the volatile ...

  9. Calculation of the standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of KCl{sup 0} and activity coefficients of aqueous KCl at temperatures and pressures to 1000{degree}C and 5 kbar

    SciTech Connect

    Pokrovskii, V.A.; Helgeson, H.C.

    1997-06-01

    Regression of experimental activity coefficient and dissociation constant data reported in the literature with the Hueckel and Setchenow equations and the revised HKF equations of state generated parameters and thermodynamic properties of dissociated KCl and KCl{sup 0} at 25{degrees}C and bar that can be used to calculate the standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of KCl{sup 0} and the activity coefficients of KCl at temperatures and pressures to 1000{degrees}C and 5 kbar. 46 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. KCl ultra-thin films with polar and non-polar surfaces grown on Si(111)7 × 7

    PubMed Central

    Beinik, Igor; Barth, Clemens; Hanbücken, Margrit; Masson, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The growth of ultra-thin KCl films on the Si(111)7 × 7 reconstructed surface has been investigated as a function of KCl coverage and substrate temperature. The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Detailed analysis of the atomically resolved STM images of islands grown at room and high temperatures (400 K–430 K) revealed the presence of KCl(001) and KCl(111) islands with the ratio between both structures depending on the growth temperature. At room temperature, the growth of the first layer, which covers the initial Si(111)7 × 7 surface, contains double/triple atomic layers of KCl(001) with a small fraction of KCl(111) islands. The high temperature growth promotes the appearance of large KCl(111) areas, which are built up by three atomic layers. At room and high temperatures, flat and atomically well-defined ultra-thin KCl films can be grown on the Si(111)7 × 7 substrate. The formation of the above mentioned (111) polar films is interpreted as a result of the thermally activated dissociative adsorption of KCl molecules on Si(111)7 × 7, which produces an excess of potassium on the Si surface. PMID:25650038

  11. H2O activity in concentrated KCl and KCl-NaCl solutions at high temperatures and pressures measured by the brucite-periclase equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranovich, L. Y.; Newton, R. C.

    H2O activities in supercritical fluids in the system KCl-H2O-(MgO) were measured at pressures of 1, 2, 4, 7, 10 and 15 kbar by numerous reversals of vapor compositions in equilibrium with brucite and periclase. Measurements spanned the range 550-900°C. A change of state of solute KCl occurs as pressures increase above 2kbar, by which H2O activity becomes very low and, at pressures of 4kbar and above, nearly coincident with the square of the mole fraction (xH2O). The effect undoubtedly results primarily from ionic dissociation as H2O density (ρH2O) approaches 1gm/cm3, and is more pronounced than in the NaCl-H2O system at the same P-T-X conditions. Six values of solute KCl activity were yielded by terminal points of the isobaric brucite-periclase T-xH2O curves where sylvite saturation occurs. The H2O mole fraction of the isobaric invariant assemblage brucite-periclase-sylvite-fluid is near 0.52 at all pressures, and the corresponding temperatures span only 100°C between 1 and 15kbar. This remarkable convergence of the isobaric equilibrium curves reflects the great influence of pressure on lowering of both KCl and H2O activities. The H2O and KCl activities can be expressed by the formulas: aH2O=γH2O[xH2O+(1+(1+α)xKCl)], and aKCL=γKCl[(1+α)xKCl/(xH2O+(1+α)xKCl)](1+α), where α is a degree of dissociation parameter which increases from zero at the lowest pressures to near one at high pressures and the γ's are activity coefficients based on an empirical regular solution parameter W: ln γi=(1-xi)2W. Least squares fitting of our H2O and KCl activity data evaluates the parameters: α=exp(4.166 -2.709/ρH2O) - 212.1P/T, and W=(-589.6-23.10P) /T, with ρH2O in gm/cm3, P in kbar and T in K. The standard deviation from the measured activities is only +/-0.014. The equations define isobaric liquidus curves, which are in perfect agreement with previous DTA liquidus measurements at 0.5-2kbar, but which depart progressively from their extrapolation to higher pressures

  12. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - KClO4/Aluminum Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2012-01-17

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a Proficiency Test for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO4 and aluminum—KClO4/Al mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of two solids. The mixture was found to be: 1) much less sensitive to impact than RDX, (LLNL being the exception) and PETN, 2) more sensitive to friction than RDX and PETN, and 3) extremely sensitive to spark. The thermal analysis showed little or no exothermic character. One prominent endothermic feature was observed in the temperature range studied and identified as a phase transition of KClO4.

  13. Ideal Supercapacitor Behavior of Amorphous V 2O 5· nH 2O in Potassium Chloride (KCl) Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee Y.; Goodenough, J. B.

    1999-11-01

    Amorphous a-V2O5·nH2O in mild KCl aqueous electrolyte proves to be an excellent electrode for a faradaic electrochemical capacitor. Cyclic voltammograms versus SCE give ideal capacitor behavior between 0.0 and +0.8 V at pH 6.67 and between -0.2 and +0.8 V at pH 2.32 with, respectively, a constant specific capacitance over 100 cycles of ca. 350 and 290 F/g, respectively. On short-circuit, a-V2O5·nH2O in 2 M KCl aqueous solution at pH 2.32 gave an initial current density of 0.28 A/cm2 and a total released charge of 4.5 C/cm2, which is to be compared with 0.32 A/cm2 and 11.1 C/cm2 for RuOOH·nH2O in 5.3 M H2SO4. Moreover, half the stored charge was released 1.6 times faster from the a-V2O5·nH2O electrode. These results demonstrate that the K+ ion can be used as the working ion in a faradaic capacitor, which frees the search for new materials from the constraint of working in a strong acid aqueous medium.

  14. Optical properties of bismuth-doped KCl and SrF2 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstov, S. V.; Zhao, M.; Su, L.; Yang, Q.; Iskhakova, L. D.; Firstova, E. G.; Alyshev, S. V.; Riumkin, K. E.; Dianov, E. M.

    2016-09-01

    Structural and spectroscopic properties of the pristine and γ-irradiated Bi-doped KCl and SrF2 crystals grown by the Bridgman technique were studied. New emission bands in the visible and near IR regions from the irradiated crystals were observed. An origin of optical centers responsible for near IR luminescence is discussed.

  15. Single PTCDA molecules on planar and stepped KCl and NaCl(100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldahhak, H.; Schmidt, W. G.; Rauls, E.

    2015-11-01

    First principles calculations have been employed to investigate the adsorption of single PTCDA molecules on KCl(100) and NaCl(100) surfaces. The lateral and rotational diffusion barriers as well as the electronic and the geometric aspects of single PTCDA molecules adsorbed on planar terraces as well as at defective steps have been studied in detail.

  16. Adsorption of PTCDA on NaCl(100) and KCl(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldahhak, H.; Schmidt, W. G.; Rauls, E.

    2013-11-01

    The adsorption of PTCDA on KCl and NaCl(100) surfaces has been investigated by means of first principles calculations. Besides a variety of adsorbate structures for single molecules and a monolayer of flat lying molecules on plain terraces, the influence of monoatomic steps and the different defect site at step edges has been studied in detail.

  17. Life at high salt concentrations, intracellular KCl concentrations, and acidic proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Aharon

    2013-01-01

    Extremely halophilic microorganisms that accumulate KCl for osmotic balance (the Halobacteriaceae, Salinibacter) have a large excess of acidic amino acids in their proteins. This minireview explores the occurrence of acidic proteomes in halophiles of different physiology and phylogenetic affiliation. For fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales, known to accumulate KCl, an acidic proteome was predicted. However, this is not confirmed by genome analysis. The reported excess of acidic amino acids is due to a high content of Gln and Asn, which yield Glu and Asp upon acid hydrolysis. The closely related Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris use different strategies to cope with high salt. The first has an acidic proteome and accumulates high KCl concentrations at high salt concentrations; the second does not accumulate KCl and lacks an acidic proteome. Acidic proteomes can be predicted from the genomes of some moderately halophilic aerobes that accumulate organic osmotic solutes (Halomonas elongata, Chromohalobacter salexigens) and some marine bacteria. Based on the information on cultured species it is possible to understand the pI profiles predicted from metagenomic data from hypersaline environments. PMID:24204364

  18. The reduction of chlorine on carbon in AlCl3-KCl-NaCl melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1971-01-01

    Using a rotating vitreous carbon disk electrode, the kinetic parameters for chlorine reduction in an AlCl3-KCl-NaCl (57.5-12.5-30 mol percent) melt were determined. It was found that the reduction of chlorine occurs according to two paths, with the first step probably being rate-determining.

  19. Study of the phototransferred thermoluminescence in KCl:Eu2+ phosphors.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Montero, M; Meléndrez, R; Chernov, V; Barboza-Flores, M; Castañeda, B

    2002-01-01

    The phototransferred thermoluminescence (PITL) processes play an important role in the optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric properties in KCl:Eu2+ crystals. In the present work, experimental evidence is presented about the participation of F and Fz centres in the associated recombination luminescence mechanisms involved with all three phenomena. An analysis of the TL glow curve of KCl:Eu2+ exposed to X ray ionising radiation shows three main thermoluminescence peaks around 370, 390 and 470 K. The 470 K highest intensity peak, considered the dosimetric peak due to its low fading and linear dose behaviour, is strongly correlated to the F and Fz centres. Through optical absorption spectra measurements of an optically bleached specimen, it was found that a minimum occurs at 560 nm, coinciding with the F centre band in KCl:Eu2+. Moreover, the diminishing of the integrated TL 470 K peak intensity is also seen to have a minimum at 560 nm (F centres); it also happens simultaneously with an increase of the integrated TL peak associated to the Fz band. This supports the close relation of the F and Fz centres in the PTTL process in KCl:Eu2+. PMID:12382857

  20. Quantitative megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry using the storage phosphor KCl:Eu2+

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhaohui; Driewer, Joseph P.; Zheng, Yuanshui; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold

    2009-01-01

    This work, for the first time, reports the use of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+) storage phosphor for quantitative megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry. In principle, KCl:Eu2+ functions using the same photostimulatated luminescence (PSL) mechanism as commercially available BaFBr0.85I0.15:Eu2+ material that is used for computed radiography (CR) but features a significantly smaller effective atomic number—18 versus 49—making it a potentially useful material for nearly tissue-equivalent radiation dosimetry. Cylindrical KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 7 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house. Dosimetric properties, including radiation hardness, response linearity, signal fading, dose rate sensitivity, and energy dependence, were studied with a laboratory optical reader after irradiation by a linear accelerator. The overall experimental uncertainty was estimated to be within ±2.5%. The findings were (1) KCl:Eu2+ showed satisfactory radiation hardness. There was no significant change in the stimulation spectra after irradiation up to 200 Gy when compared to a fresh dosimeter, indicating that this material could be reused at least 100 times if 2 Gy per use was assumed, e.g., for patient-specific IMRT QA. (2) KCl:Eu2+ exhibited supralinear response to dose after irradiation from 0 to 800 cGy. (3) After x ray irradiation, the PSL signal faded with time and eventually reached a fading rate of about 0.1%∕h after 12 h. (4) The sensitivity of the dosimeter was independent of the dose rate ranging from 15 to 1000 cGy∕min. (5) The sensitivity showed no beam energy dependence for either open x ray or megavoltage electron fields. (6) Over-response to low-energy scattered photons was comparable to radiographic film, e.g., Kodak EDR2 film. By sandwiching dosimeters between low-energy photon filters (0.3 mm thick lead foils) during irradiation, the over-response was reduced. The authors have demonstrated that KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters have many desirable

  1. Performance of KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphor dosimeters for low dose measurements

    PubMed Central

    Li, H. Harold; Hansel, Rachael; Knutson, Nels; Yang, Deshan

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+) storage phosphor material has the potential to become the physical foundation of a novel and reusable dosimetry system using either film-like devices or devices similar to thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips. The purposes of this work are to quantify the performance of KCl:Eu2+ prototype dosimeters for low dose measurements and to demonstrate how it can be incorporated into clinical application for in vivo peripheral dose measurements. Pellet-style KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The dosimeters were read using a laboratory photostimulated luminescence detection system. KCl:Eu2+ prototype storage phosphor dosimeter was capable of measuring a dose-to-water as low as 0.01 cGy from a 6 MV photon beam with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 6. A pre-readout thermal annealing procedure enabled the dosimeter to be read within an hour post irradiation. After receiving large accumulated doses (~10 kGy), the dosimeters retained linear response in the low dose region with only a 20 percent loss of sensitivity comparing to a fresh sample (zero Gy history). The energy-dependence encountered during low dose peripheral measurements could be accounted for via a single point outside-field calibration per each beam quality. With further development the KCl:Eu2+− based dosimeter could become a versatile and durable dosimetry tool with large dynamic range (sub-cGy to 100 Gy). PMID:23735856

  2. Correlations between different acidity forms in amorphous loamy soils of the tundra and taiga zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamrikova, E. V.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2013-05-01

    Pair correlation coefficients ( r) between the acidity parameters for the main genetic horizons of soddy-podzolic soils (SPSs), typical podzolic soils (TPSs), gley-podzolic soils (GPSs), and tundra surfacegley soils (TSGSs) have been calculated on the basis of a previously developed database. A significant direct linear correlation has been revealed between the pHwater and pHKCl values in the organic and eluvial horizons of each soil, but the degree of correlation decreased when going from the less acidic SPSs to the more acidic soils of other taxons. This could be related to the fact that, under strongly acid conditions, extra Al3+ was dissolved in the KCl solutions from complex compounds in the organic horizons and from Al hydroxide interlayers in the soil chlorites. No significant linear correlation has been found between the exchangeable acidity ( H exch) and the activity of the [H]+ ions in the KCl extract ( a(H+)KCl) calculated per unit of mass in the organic horizons of the SPSs, but it has been revealed in the organic horizons of the other soils because of the presence of the strongest organic acids in their KCl extracts. The high r values between the H exch and a(H+)KCl in all the soils of the taiga zones have been related to the common source and composition of the acidic components. The correlation between the exchangeable and total ( H tot) acidities in the organic horizons of the podzolic soils has been characterized by high r values because of the common source of the acidity: H+ and probably Al3+ ions located on the functional groups of organic acids. High r values between the H exch and a(H+)KCl have been observed in the mineral horizons of all the soils, because the Al3+ hydroxo complexes occurring on the surface and in the interlayer spaces of the clay minerals were sources of both acidity forms.

  3. Soil application of an aluminum industry by-product: Influences on soil chemistry and plant nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Provin, T.L.; Joern, B.C.

    1996-11-01

    The recovery of metallic aluminum from furnace slag (skim) requires a fluxing salt to encapsulate metal oxides.A change from sodium chloride to potassium chloride (KCl) as a fluxing agent may allow for the annual agronomic land application of up to 2 million metric tons of this currently landfilled by-product. Both greenhouse and laboratory experiments were employed to study the influence of skim applications on soil and plant uptake of metals. In the greenhouse, KCl-enriched skim, KCl, and potassium sulfate were evaluated as potassium (K) fertilizers for wheat and alfalfa were grown on three soils and washed quartz sand. All K sources increased dry matter yields in both crops on all soils. Total metal analysis of tissue samples and analysis of soil pH, exchangeable base, and available phosphorus will also be presented. The utilization of a KCl-enrich skim product as a K fertilizer may provide an environmentally suitable alternative to landfills as well as an inexpensive source of K fertilizer to agriculture.

  4. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN. PMID:7787867

  5. Rate coefficient for H + O2 + M = HO2 + M evaluated from shock tube measurements of induction times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    Shock tube experiments measured hydrogen-air induction times near the second explosion limit. By matching these experimental results with numerically predicted induction times, the rate coefficient for the reaction H + O2 + M = HO2 + M was evaluated as k-sub 4,N2 = 3.3 (plus or minus .6) x 10 to the 15 cm to the 6th/sq mole/s.

  6. Electrochemical study of uranium cations in LiCl-KCl melt using a rotating disk electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Sang-Eun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yoon; Park, Tae-Hong; Cho, Young Hwan; Yeon, Jei-Won; Song, Kyuseok

    2013-07-01

    A rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurement technique was employed to investigate the electrochemical REDOX reactions of actinide (An) and lanthanide (Ln) ions in LiCl-KCl molten salt. By using RDE, it is possible to access more exact values of the diffusion coefficient, Tafel slope, and exchange current density. In this work, we constructed RDE setup and electrodes for RDE measurements in high temperature molten salt and measured the electrochemical parameters of the An and Ln ions. The RDE setup is composed of a Pine model MSRX rotator equipped with a rod type of W electrode. The active electrode area was confined to the planar part of the W rod by making meniscus at the LiCl-KCl melt surface.

  7. The role of valence-band excitation in laser ablation of KCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, Richard F., Jr.; Tang, Kai; Bunton, Patrick H.; Wang, Ling-Jun

    1991-01-01

    We present recent measurements of excited-atom and ion emission from KCl surfaces illuminated by vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation (h-nu = 8-28 eV) and ultraviolet laser light (h-nu = 4 eV). At low intensities characteristic of the synchrotron experiments, excited atoms are desorbed by simple valence-band excitation process involving the metallization of the KCl surface. At the higher intensities typical of laser desorption and ablation, we observe a strong decrease in K emission as a function of the number of laser shots, but an essentially constant yield of Cl. K(+) and Cl(-) emission at high intensities show similar behavior. The energetics of these desorption phenomena can be treated in a bond-orbital model which shows that creation of a single valence hole is sufficient to excite an ion to an anti-bonding state.

  8. Cyclic Corrosion and Chlorination of an FeCrAl Alloy in the Presence of KCl

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Israelsson, Niklas; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hellström, K.; Svensson, J-E; Johansson, L-G

    2015-05-30

    The KCl-induced corrosion of the FeCrAl alloy Kanthal® APMT in an O2 + N2 + H2O environment was studied at 600 °C. The samples were pre-oxidized prior to exposure in order to investigate the protective nature of alumina scales in the present environment. The microstructure and composition of the corroded surface was investigated in detail. Corrosion started at flaws in the pre-formed α-alumina scales, i.e. α-alumina was protective in itself. Consequently, KCl-induced corrosion started locally and, subsequently, spread laterally. An electrochemical mechanism is proposed here by which a transition metal chloride forms in the alloy and K2CrO4 forms at themore » scale/gas interface. Scale de-cohesion is attributed to the formation of a sub-scale transition metal chloride.« less

  9. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - KClO3/Dodecane Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorenson, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2011-05-23

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO3 and dodecane—KClO3/dodecane mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of solid and liquid materials. The mixture was found to: 1) be more sensitive to impact than RDX, and PETN, 2) less sensitive to friction than PETN, and 3) less sensitive to spark than RDX. The thermal analysis showed little or no exothermic features suggesting that the dodecane volatilized at low temperatures. A prominent endothermic feature was observed assigned to melting of KClO3. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study has the potential to suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. The results are compared among the laboratories and then compared to historical data from various sources. The testing performers involved for the KClO3/dodecane mixture are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand

  10. Electrode potentials of uranium in the LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, D. S.; Volkovich, V. A.; Vladykin, E. N.; Vasin, B. D.

    2015-08-01

    The electrode potentials of uranium in the melt of the eutectic mixture of lithium, potassium, and cesium chlorides are measured in the temperature range 573-1073 K. Formal standard potentials E U * (III)/U and the main thermodynamic characteristics of uranium trichloride in the LiCl-KCl-CsCl melt are calculated, and the electronic absorption spectra of UCl 6 3- ions are measured.

  11. Characterization of Fe/KClO4 heat powders and pellets.

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, Frederick William; Guidotti, Ronald Armand; Odinek, Judy Gail

    2005-04-01

    Pellets of Fe/KClO{sub 4} mixtures are used as a heat source for thermally activated ('thermal') batteries. They provide the energy necessary for melting the electrolyte and bringing the battery stack to operating temperature. The effects of morphology of the Fe and the heat-pellet density and composition on both the physical properties (flowability, pelletization, and pellet strength) and the pyrotechnic performance (burn rate and ignition sensitivity) were examined using several commercial sources of Fe.

  12. Generation of KCL031 clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Laureen; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Hobbs, Carl; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-01-01

    The KCL031 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a normal healthy blastocyst donated for research. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment and under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) standards. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays.

  13. On the electrochemical formation of Pu-Al alloys in molten LiCl-KCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Nourry, C.; Souček, P.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Properties of Pu-Al alloys were investigated in connection with development of pyrochemical methods for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Electroseparation techniques in molten LiCl-KCl are being developed in ITU to group-selectively recover actinides from the mixture with fission products. In the process, actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes, forming solid actinide-aluminium alloys. This article is focused on electro-chemical characterisation of Pu-Al alloys in molten LiCl-KCl, on electrodeposition of Pu on solid Al electrodes and on determination of chemical composition and structure of the formed alloys. Cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry were used to study Pu-Al alloys in the temperature range 400-550 °C. Pu is reduced to metal in one reduction step Pu 3+/Pu 0 on an inert W electrode. On a reactive Al electrode, the reduction of Pu 3+ to Pu 0 occurs at a more positive potential due to formation of Pu-Al alloys. The open circuit potential technique was used to identify the alloys formed. Stable deposits were obtained by potentiostatic electrolyses of LiCl-KCl-PuCl 3 melts on Al plates. XRD and SEM-EDX analyses were used to characterise the alloys, which were composed mainly of PuAl 4 with some PuAl 3. In addition, the preparation of PuCl 3 containing salt by carbochlorination of PuO 2 is described.

  14. Phase relations in the hydrous CMAS pyrolite in presence of KCl at 2 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, O.

    2012-04-01

    In the upper mantle, chlorides are constituents of concentrated aqueous solutions (brines), as well as chloride-carbonate and carbonatite melts. Mineral assemblages coming from diverse depth levels show that mobile (K, Na)Cl-bearing fluids are able to provoke intensive metasomatism of the peridotitic mantle accompanied by melting. Scarce experimental studies on influence of brines on mineral equilibria in the peridotitic mantle (Stalder et al., 2008; Chu et al., 2011) indicate that influence of chlorides on water activity in a fluid equilibrated with forsterite enstatite at pressures above 2 GPa is very similar to their effect at lower "crustal" pressures (e.g. Aranovich, Newton, 1997): decrease of the H2O activity with an increase of the salt content results in an increase of the melting temperature of silicates. Nevertheless, these experiments were performed in the Al-free systems. Presence of Al would provoke an active interaction of alkali chlorides, namely KCl, with silicates with formation of new K-Al-bearing phases, such as phlogopite (in presence of H2O), which would influence on the melting of complex assemblages. In order to investigate an effect of KCl on phase relations in the Al2O3, CaO, Na2O-rich hydrous peridotite and on stability of garnet, pyroxenes, and amphiboles, in particular, experiments on interaction of the model CMAS pyrolite Fo57En17Prp14Di12 (+0.3 wt. % of Na2O) with the H2O-KCl fluid were performed at 2 GPa in the temperature interval 900-1200. Mixtures of synthetic forsterite, diopside, enstatite and pyrope in the above weight ratio were mixed with 14 wt. % of Mg(OH)2 corresponding to 4.4 wt. % of H2O in the system. 2.4, 3.7, 5 and 10 wt. % of KCl were added to silicate-H2O mixture. Experiments were performed using a piston-cylinder apparatus with ½-inch talc high-pressure cells calibrated via brucite = periclase + H2O and albite = jadeite + quartz equilibria curves. Temperature was controlled with accuracy ?1 with the W95Re5/W80Re20

  15. X-ray storage performance of KCl:Eu2+ with high cumulated dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, Rachael A.; Xiao, Zhiyan; Zhang, Lei; Li, H. Harold

    2014-05-01

    The effects of high cumulative radiation dose on the luminescence properties of KCl:Eu2+ are investigated. Pellet samples of KCl:Eu2+ were given doses of up to 200 kGy at the Louisiana State University Synchrotron facility. After synchrotron irradiation, samples were optically bleached and given a clinical dose of 2 Gy from a 6 MV medical linear accelerator. Optical properties were evaluated using photostimulated luminescence (PSL), photoluminescence (PL), and temperature-dependent PSL measurements. For a cumulated dose of up to 5-10 kGy, the PSL emission intensity increased by 15% compared to the PSL signal with no radiation history. For doses higher than 10 kGy, the PSL emission intensity retained at least 70% of the original intensity. Spatial correlation of the charge storage centers increased for doses up to 5 kGy and then decreased for higher cumulative doses. Emission band at 975 nm was attributed to transitions of Eu1+. PL spectra showed an intense peak centered at 420 nm for all cumulative doses. The results of this work show that KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphors are excellent reusable materials for radiation therapy dosimetry.

  16. [Application of ICP-MS to detecting ten kinds of heavy metals in KCl fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-kui; Shen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Fu-suo; Yan, Yun; Jing, Jing-ying; Meng, Qing-feng

    2008-10-01

    With the rapid development of society, more and more attention has been focused on environmental safety, especially on the pollutions of heavy metals, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants and deleterious microorganism. Heavy metals are difficult to metabolize in human body are quite harmful, so research on the pollution of heavy metals is increasingly important. There are many pollution sources of heavy metals, including waste residue, waste water and exhaust gas from industry and automobile, and garbage from human life. The contents of 10 kinds of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb) in potassium fertilizer (KCl) from Russia were analyzed by ICP-MS. The results showed that potassium fertilizer (KCl) contained less heavy metals than organic-inorganic compound fertilizer; the content of heavy metals Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb is 0.00, 65.54, 238.85, 190.60, 0.98, 14.98, 2.97, 10.04, 1.28 and 97.42 ng x g(-1), respectively, which accords with the correlative standards. All the data showed that if potassium fertilizer (KCl) is manufactured through normal channel, the content of heavy metals should be little and safe. PMID:19123423

  17. Relative osmotic effects of raffinose, KCl, and NaCl across basolateral cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Welling, L W; Welling, D J; Ochs, T

    1990-10-01

    Lumen-collapsed segments of rabbit S2 proximal tubule were bathed in isotonic medium and then exposed acutely to a medium made hypertonic by the addition of raffinose, NaCl, KCl, Na gluconate, K gluconate, or choline Cl. The result was a rapid efflux of water and a shrinking of the tubule, which could be measured by video techniques within the first 0.1 s. After reequilibration in isotonic medium, each tubule was then exposed to a second hypertonic medium to provide a direct comparison between two different solutes, either NaCl vs. KCl or raffinose vs. any one of the other solutes. Because raffinose is impermeant across the basolateral cell membrane, the ratio of its effect to that of another solute is a measure of the reflection coefficient (sigma) of that other solute. The following results were obtained: sigma KCl = 0.70 +/- 0.02, sigma K gluconate = 0.97 +/- 0.07, sigma Na gluconate = 0.84 +/- 0.06, and sigma choline Cl = 0.75 +/- 0.06. We previously have reported sigma NaCl = 0.56 +/- 0.07. If sigma of each salt is considered to be the arithmetic average of its component parts, and if gluconate and choline are considered to be impermeant, we also obtain sigma Na+ = 0.68, sigma K+ = 0.94, and sigma Cl- = 0.50. PMID:2221098

  18. Supercooling of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions under acoustic levitation.

    PubMed

    Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2006-10-14

    The supercooling capability of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions is investigated at containerless state by using acoustic levitation method. The supercooling of water is obviously enhanced by the alkali metal ions and increases linearly with the augmentation of concentrations. Furthermore, the supercooling depends on the nature of ions and is 2-3 K larger for NaCl solution than that for KCl solution in the present concentration range: Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to reveal the intrinsic correlation between supercoolability and microstructure. The translational and orientational order parameters are applied to quantitatively demonstrate the effect of ionic concentration on the hydrogen-bond network and ice melting point. The disrupted hydrogen-bond structure determines essentially the concentration dependence of supercooling. On the other hand, the introduced acoustic pressure suppresses the increase of supercooling by promoting the growth and coalescence of microbubbles, the effective nucleation catalysts, in water. However, the dissolved ions can weaken this effect, and moreover the degree varies with the ion type. This results in the different supercoolability for NaCl and KCl solutions under the acoustic levitation conditions. PMID:17042605

  19. Ionic conductivity studies in crystalline PVA/NaAlg polymer blend electrolyte doped with alkali salt KCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheela, T.; Bhajantri, R. F.; Ravindrachary, V.; Pujari, P. K.; Rathod, Sunil G.; Naik, Jagadish

    2014-04-01

    Potassium Chloride (KCl) doped poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (NaAlg) in 60:40 wt% polymer blend electrolytes were prepared by solution casting method. The complexation of KCl with host PVA/NaAlg blend is confirmed by FTIR and UV-Vis spectra. The XRD studies show that the crystallinity of the prepared blends increases with increase in doping. The dc conductivity increases with increase in dopant concentration. Temperature dependent dc conductivity shows an Arrhenius behavior. The dielectric properties show that both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increases with increase in KCl doping concentration and decreases with frequency. The cole-cole plots show a decrease in bulk resistance, indicates the increase in ac conductivity, due to increase in charge carrier mobility. The doping of KCl enhances the mechanical properties of PVA/NaAlg, such as Young's modulus, tensile strength, stiffness.

  20. Solubility of NaCl and KCl in aqueous HCl from 20 to 85°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Robert W., II; Clynne, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    The solubilities of NaCl and KCl in aqueous HCl solutions were determined from 20 to 85°C at concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 g of HCl/100 g of solution. Equations are given that describe the solubilities over the range of conditions studied. For NaCl and KCl respectively measured solubilities show an average deviation from these equations of ??0.10 and ??0.08 g/100 g of saturated solution.

  1. Incorporation of Lactobacillus casei in Iranian ultrafiltered Feta cheese made by partial replacement of NaCl with KCl.

    PubMed

    Karimi, R; Mortazavian, A M; Karami, M

    2012-08-01

    Probiotic Iranian ultrafiltered Feta cheese was produced from ultrafiltration of milk with a volumetric concentration factor of 4.5:1. The heat-treated retentates were inoculated with 10(7) cfu of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI L26/mL. A mesophilic-thermophilic mixed culture of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus was also used. Three percent (wt/wt) salt with different ratios of NaCl:KCl (100% NaCl, 50% NaCl:50% KCl, 75% NaCl:25% KCl, and 25% NaCl:75% KCl) were used in cheese formulation. The viability of L. casei was determined in treatments during the ripening period (90d at 5°C) within 15-d intervals. The pH, titratable acidity, and redox potential changes were monitored throughout the mentioned period. The mean pH drop rate, mean acidity increase rate, and mean redox potential increase rate were calculated at the end of the storage period. Also, total nitrogen, water-soluble nitrogen, lactic acid, and acetic acid concentrations, and syneresis and sensory characteristics of the product were measured during the mentioned period every 30d. The maximum viability of L. casei was observed within d 15 to 30 of the ripening period in the treatment containing the lowest amount of sodium. Addition of KCl enhanced syneresis. Cheeses with NaCl alone and with only 25% replacement by KCl have the highest sensory acceptability. PMID:22818434

  2. Acute Aerobic Swimming Exercise Induces Distinct Effects in the Contractile Reactivity of Rat Ileum to KCl and Carbachol

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Layanne C. da Cunha; de Souza, Iara L. L.; Vasconcelos, Luiz H. C.; Brito, Aline de Freitas; Queiroga, Fernando R.; Silva, Alexandre S.; da Silva, Patrícia M.; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade; da Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes short-term physiological changes in the intestinal smooth muscle associated to the ischemia-reperfusion process; however, few studies have demonstrated its effect on the intestinal contractile function. Thus, this work describes our observations regarding the influence of acute aerobic swimming exercise in the contractile reactivity, oxidative stress, and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED) and acutely exercised (EX-AC) groups. Animals were acclimated by 10, 10, and 30 min of swimming exercise in intercalated days 1 week before exercise. Then they were submitted to forced swimming for 1 h with a metal of 3% of their body weight attached to their body. Animals were euthanized immediately after the exercise section and the ileum was suspended in organ baths for monitoring isotonic contractions. The analysis of lipid peroxidation was performed in order to determinate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a marker of oxidative stress, and intestinal smooth muscle morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were altered in the EX-AC with an increase in both its efficacy and potency (Emax = 153.2 ± 2.8%, EC50 = 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 1.8 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M). Interestingly, carbachol had its efficacy and potency reduced in the EX-AC (Emax = 67.1 ± 1.4%, EC50 = 9.8 ± 1.4 × 10−7 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 2.0 ± 0.2 × 10−7 M). The exercise did not alter the MDA levels in the ileum (5.4 ± 0.6 μ mol/mL) in the EX-AC compared to the SED group (8.4 ± 1.7 μ mol/mL). Moreover, neither the circular nor the longitudinal smooth muscle layers thickness were modified by the exercise (66.2 ± 6.0 and 40.2 ± 2.6 μm, respectively), compared to the SED group (61.6 ± 6.4 and 34.8 ± 3.7 μm, respectively). Therefore, the ileum sensitivity to contractile agents is differentially altered by the acute aerobic

  3. CH2M Hill cleared in tunnel explosion case

    SciTech Connect

    Krizan, W.G.; Bradford, H.; Schriener, J.

    1993-09-06

    One of the most critical issues in industry is whether architects and engineers should be held responsible for construction safety on jobsites. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration says yes under certain conditions. But the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission has overturned one application of that view on appeal in a controversial case. It involves a unit of Denver-based CH2M Hill Cos.'s role as program manager for the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) on its $2.2-billion water pollution abatement program. On May 5, 1989, OSHA cited CH2M Hill Central Inc. for 46 willful safety violations in connection with a 1988 methane tunnel explosion that killed three supervisors of contractor S.A. Healy Co., Chicago, Healy was charged with 68 violations. Healy encountered methane while boring CT-7, a two-mile crosstown tunnel. It evacuated the site, but didn't follow the evacuation plan. It failed to shut down all nonessential equipment and the supervisors returned after waiting only 17 minutes instead of the one hour minimum. CH2M Hill's citations and proposed $460,000 fine for violating OSHA's construction standards were for having 45 pieces of unapproved electrical equipment in the tunnel and improper ventilation equipment. CH2M Hill claimed the standards did not apply to it because the firm did not engage in construction work, exercise substantial supervision over the construction work performed by the contractor or create or control the hazardous condition.

  4. Exchangeable and secondary mineral reactive pools of aluminium in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils.

    PubMed

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N

    2014-07-01

    The use of coastal floodplain sulfidic sediments for agricultural activities has resulted in the environmental degradation of many areas worldwide. The generation of acidity and transport of aluminium (Al) and other metals to adjacent aquatic systems are the main causes of adverse effects. Here, a five-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to 30 coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS) from north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. This enabled quantification of the proportion of aluminium present in 'water-soluble', 'exchangeable', 'organically-complexed', 'reducible iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxide/hydroxysulfate-incorporated' and 'amorphous Al mineral' fractions. The first three extractions represented an average of 5% of 'aqua regia' extractable Al and their cumulative concentrations were extremely high, reaching up to 4000 mg·kg(-1). Comparison of Al concentrations in the final two extractions indicated that 'amorphous Al minerals' are quantitatively a much more important sink for the removal of aqueous Al derived from the acidic weathering of these soils than reducible Fe(III) minerals. Correlations were observed between soil pH, dissolved and total organic carbon (DOC and TOC) and Al concentrations in organic carbon-rich CLASS soil horizons. These results suggest that complexation of Al by dissolved organic matter significantly increases soluble Al concentrations at pH values >5.0. As such, present land management practices would benefit with redefinition of an 'optimal' soil from pH ≥5.5 to ~4.8 for the preservation of aquatic environments adjacent to organic-rich CLASS where Al is the sole or principle inorganic contaminant of concern. Furthermore, it was observed that currently-accepted standard procedures (i.e. 1 M KCl extraction) to measure exchangeable Al concentrations in these types of soils severely underestimate exchangeable Al and a more accurate representation may be obtained through the use of 0.2 M CuCl2. PMID:24727041

  5. Temporal signal stability of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} storage phosphor dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Zhiyan; Hansel, Rachael; Chen Haijian; Du Dongsu; Yang Deshan; Li, H. Harold

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Current KCl:Eu{sup 2+} prototype dosimeters require a wait time of 12 h between irradiation and dosimetric readout. Although irradiating the dosimeters in the evening and reading on the following day works well in the clinical schedule, reducing the wait time to few hours is desirable. The purposes of this work are to determine the origin of the unstable charge-storage centers and to determine if these centers respond to optical or thermal excitation prior to dosimetric readout. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters were fabricated in-house for this study. A 6 MV photon beam was used to irradiate the dosimeters. After x ray irradiation, dosimeters were subjected to external excitation with near-infrared (NIR) light, ultraviolet (UV) light, or thermal treatment. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) signal's temporal stability was subsequently measured at room temperature over a few hours using a laboratory PSL readout system. The dosimeters were also placed in a cryostat to measure the temperature dependence of the temporal stability down to 10 K. Results: Strong F-band was present in the PSL stimulation spectrum, indicating that F-centers were the electron-storage centers in KCl:Eu{sup 2+} where an electron was stored at a chlorine anion vacancy. Due to deep energy-depth (2.2 eV), F-centers were probably not responsible for the fast fading in the first a few hours post x ray irradiation. In addition, weak NIR bands were present. However, there was no change in PSL stabilization rate with intense NIR excitation, suggesting that the NIR bands played no role in the PSL fading. At temperatures lower than 77 K there was almost no signal fading with time. Noticeable PSL was observed for undoped KCl samples at room temperature, suggesting that Cl{sub 2}{sup -} V{sub k} centers served as hole-storage centers for both undoped and doped KCl where a hole was trapped by a chlorine molecular ion. V{sub k} centers were stable at low temperature and became mobile

  6. Thermogenic activity of the Ca2+-ATPase from blue marlin heater organ: regulation by KCl and temperature.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Danielly Cristiny Ferraz; Landeira-Fernandez, Ana Maria

    2009-11-01

    This work shows that vesicles derived from the blue marlin heater organ retain a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase that can interconvert different forms of energy. During the hydrolysis of ATP part of the energy is always converted into heat, and the other part can be converted into work (Ca(2+) transport) or heat, depending on the temperature and the presence of KCl in the reaction medium. At 15 degrees C, where KCl stimulates the activity approximately threefold, measurements of the amount of heat released per mole of ATP hydrolyzed (DeltaH(cal)) show similar values (approximately -11 kcal/mol) in the presence or absence of a Ca(2+) gradient. At 25 degrees C, KCl activates the enzyme to the same extent as at 15 degrees C, but inhibits the production of extra heat by SR Ca(2+)-ATPase when a Ca(2+) gradient is built up across the membrane. The DeltaH(cal) values found in the presence of a Ca(2+)-gradient were -26.2 +/- 2.9 kcal/mol (n = 7) in control experiments and -16.1 +/- 1.5 (n = 14) in the presence of 100 mM KCl. At 35 degrees C, KCl has a smaller effect ( approximately 1.5-fold) on activating the enzyme. Similar to SR Ca(2+)-ATPase from mammals, at this temperature the enzyme produces almost twice the amount of heat per mole of ATP hydrolyzed in the presence of a Ca(2+) gradient and KCl has no effect at all on this increment. These data suggest that the marlin SR Ca(2+)-ATPase may play an important role in heater organ thermogenesis and that KCl has the potential for regulating the heat production catalyzed by the enzyme. PMID:19710387

  7. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Simpson, Mike

    2012-11-30

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

  8. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - KClO4/Carbon Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2013-01-31

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO4 and activated carbon—KClO4/C mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of two solids. The mixture was found to be insensitive to impact, friction, and thermal stimulus, and somewhat sensitive to spark discharge. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study has the potential to suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. The results are compared among the laboratories and then compared to historical data from various sources. The testing performers involved for the KClO4/carbon mixture are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand how to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

  9. Equilibria in the ternary system SrCl2-KCl-H2O and the quaternary system SrCl2-KCl-NaCl-H2O at 323 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Sang, Shi-Hua; Zhong, Si-Yao; Huang, Wang-Yin

    2015-12-01

    The experimental studies on phase equilibria in the ternary system SrCl2-NaCl-H2O and the quaternary system SrCl2-KCl-NaCl-H2O at 323 K were done by the method of isothermal solution saturation. Solubilities and densities of the solution were determined experimentally. The phase diagrams and density-composition diagrams were plotted based on the experimental data. The phase diagram of the ternary system SrCl2-KCl-H2O at 323 K consists of one invariant point, two univariant curves, and two crystallization regions (SrCl2 · 6H2O and KCl). The phase diagrams of the quaternary system SrCl2-KCl-NaCl-H2O at 323 K consist of one invariant point, three univariant curves, and three crystallization regions (SrCl2 · 6H2O, NaCl, and KCl). A brief discussion of the experimental results is described.

  10. Plant uptake and downward migration of 85Sr and 137Cs after their deposition on to flooded rice fields: lysimeter experiments with and without the addition of KCl and lime.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y H; Lim, K M; Choi, H J; Choi, G S; Lee, H S; Lee, C W

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the plant uptake and downward migration of radiostrontium and radiocesium deposited on to a flooded rice field, 85Sr and 137Cs were applied to the standing water over an acidic sandy soil in planted lysimeters. The plant uptake was quantified with the areal transfer factor (TFa, m2 kg(-1)-dry plant). Following the spiking 14 days after transplanting, the TFa values for the hulled seeds were 3.9 x 10(-4) for 85Sr and 1.4 x 10(-4) for 137Cs, whereas those for the straws were 1.3 x 10(-2) and 3.2 x 10(-4), respectively. The 137Cs TFa from the spiking at the anthesis/milky-ripe stage was several times higher than that from the earlier spiking, whereas the difference was much less in the 85Sr TFa. Such an increase in the 137Cs TFa was attributed mainly to an enhanced plant-base uptake. The addition of KCl and lime after the spiking significantly reduced the TFa values of both radionuclides. The reducing effect was greater for the later spiking. An appreciable fraction of the applied activity leached out of the lysimeter for 85Sr, whereas a negligible fraction leached for 137Cs. The leaching was remarkably increased by the KCl and lime addition for both. A conspicuous localization of 137Cs with respect to the soil surface was observed. In a batch experiment, the 137Cs concentration in the standing water decreased more rapidly than that of 85Sr, both of which were fitted to the power functions of the elapsed time. To add KCl and lime slowed such decreases to lessen the distribution coefficients (Kd) of both 85Sr and 137Cs. PMID:15465178

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ExoMol line list for KCl (Barton+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, E. J.; Chui, C.; Golpayegani, S.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.; Frohman, D. J.; Bernath, P. F.

    2014-03-01

    The files comprising this line list are in the standard ExoMol format, and are named sXXkYYcl.dat and tXXkYYcl.dat, where XX and YY are the mass numbers of the potassium and chlorine isotopes, respectively. The isotopologues covered are: (39K)(35Cl), (39K)(37Cl), (41K)(35Cl) and (41K)(37Cl). The partition functions from 1-3000K in 1K intervals for these isotopologues of KCl are also provided in files named pXXkYYcl.dat and consist of two columns (T/K followed by Q). (12 data files).

  12. Activation analysis of indium, KCl, and melamine by using a laser-induced neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungman; Lee, Kitae; Cha, Hyungki

    2014-04-01

    A laser-induced repetitively operated fast neutron source with a neutron yield of 4 × 105 n/pulse and a pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz, which was developed using a deuterated polystyrene film target and a 24-TW femtosecond laser, was applied for laser activation analyses of indium, KCl, and melamine samples. The nuclear reactions of the measured gamma spectra for the activated samples were identified as (n, γ), (n, n'), and (n, 2n) reactions. These indicate possible usage of the neutron source for practical activation analyses of various materials.

  13. An investigation of the critical liquid-vapor properties of dilute KCl solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, R.W., II; Babcock, R.S.; Czamanske, G.K.

    1976-01-01

    The three parameters that define the critical point, temperature, pressure, and volume have been experimentally determined by means of filling studies in a platinum-lined system for five KCl solutions ranging from 0.006 to 0.568 m. The platinum-lined vessels were used to overcome the problems with corrosion experienced by earlier workers. The critical temperature (tc), pressure (Pc), and volume (Vc) were found to fit the equations {Mathematical expression} from infinite dilution to 1.0 m. ?? 1976 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  14. Generation of KCL034 clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line

    PubMed Central

    Devito, Liani; Jacquet, Laureen; Petrova, Anastasia; Miere, Cristian; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-01-01

    The KCL034 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a normal healthy blastocyst donated for research. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment and under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) standards. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays. The line was also validated for sterility, specific and non-specific human pathogens.

  15. Generation of KCL033 clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line

    PubMed Central

    Devito, Liani; Petrova, Anastasia; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-01-01

    The KCL033 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a normal healthy blastocyst donated for research. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment and under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) standards. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays. The line was also validated for sterility and specific and non-specific human pathogens. PMID:27345988

  16. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program--KClO4/Dodecane Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2012-05-11

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO4 and dodecane—KClO4/dodecane mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of solid and liquid materials. The mixture was found to: 1) be less sensitive to impact than RDX, and PETN, 2) less sensitive to friction than RDX and PETN, and 3) less sensitive to spark than RDX and PETN. The thermal analysis showed little or no exothermic features suggesting that the dodecane volatilized at low temperatures. A prominent endothermic feature was observed and assigned to a phase transition of KClO4. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study has the potential to suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. The results are compared among the laboratories and then compared to historical data from various sources. The testing performers involved for the KClO4/dodecane mixture are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some

  17. An electrochemical study of uranium behaviour in LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, D. S.; Volkovich, V. A.; Vasin, B. D.; Vladykin, E. N.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemical behaviour of uranium was studied in the low melting ternary LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic at 573-1073 K employing potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. Uranium electrode potentials were measured directly and U(III)/U(IV) red-ox potentials were determined from the results of cyclic voltammetry measurements. Formal standard electrode and red-ox potentials of uranium, and thermodynamic properties of uranium chlorides in the studied melt were calculated. Diffusion coefficients of U(III) and U(IV) ions were determined using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry.

  18. Surface Morphology and Microstructural Characterization of KCl Crystals Grown in Halite-Sylvite Brine Solutions by Electron Backscattered Diffraction Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podder, Jiban; Basu, Ritwik; Evitts, Richard William; Besant, Robert William

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a study on the ternary NaCl-KCl-H2O system was carried out by an extractive metallurgy technique from mixed brine solutions of different compositions at room temperature (23°C). The surface morphology and microstructure were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The presence of Na{ }+ was found to reduce the stability of the solutions and increase the crystallization induction period, interfacial energy, energy of formation of the nucleus and greatly reduce the nucleation rate of KCl crystal. The surface morphology of KCl crystals is significantly changed due to presence of 5 to 10% (w/w) of NaCl as impurities in the binary solutions and shows the formation of co-crystals of different crystallographic orientation of NaCl on the KCl surface. In addition X-ray diffraction studies performed on KCl crystals grown in halite-sylvite binary solutions reveals that these crystals are cubic in nature and its lattice constant is 6.2952 Å when the NaCl concentration is small.

  19. Growth of NaCl on thin epitaxial KCl films on Ag(100) studied by SPA-LEED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, Christian; Paulheim, Alexander; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the growth of NaCl on thin (100)-oriented films of KCl by spot profile analysis of low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The underlying question of this investigation was how the system accommodates to the misfit of - 10% between the NaCl and KCl lattices. The KCl films (3 atomic layers thick) were epitaxially grown on a Ag(100) single crystal. We studied the heteroepitaxial growth of NaCl on KCl at 300 K and at 500 K, respectively. At 300 K, the first NaCl monolayer (ML) grows pseudomorphically on the KCl film. From the second layer onward, the NaCl lattice relaxes. The NaCl multilayers roughen, and a small rotational disorder (± 4°) of the NaCl domains is observed. The roughening results from the formation of multilayer islands of limited lateral size due to the misfit to the pseudomorphic first NaCl layer. At a growth temperature of 500 K, no pseudomorphic NaCl layer forms, instead relaxed multilayer island growth of NaCl is observed from the first layer onward. Similarly to the growth at 300 K, we find NaCl multilayer islands of limited lateral size. For both temperatures, we explain this growth behavior by the misfit that makes the adsorption sites at the island edges of the first relaxed NaCl layer less favorable for larger islands, promoting nucleation of multilayer islands.

  20. Phase relations in the system NaCl-KCl-H2O: IV. Differential thermal analysis of the sylvite liquidus in the KCl-H2O binary, the liquidus in the NaCl-KCl-H2O ternary, and the solidus in the NaCl-KCl binary to 2 kb pressure, and a summary of experimental data for thermodynamic-PTX analysis of solid-liquid equilibria at elevated P-T conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Sterner, S.M.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1992-01-01

    The sylvite liquidus in the binary system KCl-H2O and the liquidus in the ternary system NaCl-KCl-H2O were determined by using isobaric differential thermal analysis (DTA) cooling scans at pressures up to 2 kbars. Sylvite solubilities along the three-phase curve in the binary system KCl-H2O were obtained by the intersection of sylvite-liquidus isopleths with the three-phase curve in a P-T plot. These solubility data can be represented by the equation Wt.% KCl (??0.2) = 12.19 + 0.1557T - 5.4071 ?? 10-5 T2, where 400 ??? T ??? 770??C. These data are consistent with previous experimental observations. The solidus in the binary system NaCl-KCl was determined by using isobaric DTA heating scans at pressures up to 2 kbars. Using these liquidus and solidus data and other published information, a thermodynamic-PTX analysis of solid-liquid equilibria at high pressures and temperatures for the ternary system has been performed and is presented in an accompanying paper (Part V of this series). However, all experimental liquidus, solidus, and solvus data used in this analysis are summarized in this report (Part IV) and they are compared with the calculated values based on the analysis. ?? 1992.

  1. Contact aiming system of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Ye, Xiaoyou; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Gan, Xiaochuan; Shen, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    Composition and principle of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator were introduced. A novel contact aiming system based on high precision inductance sensor was designed. The zero-cross trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was treated as the aiming signal. A rotating mechanism was designed and a segmental shifting motion control model was established. Two key problems, avoiding probe crash and aiming repeatability, were solved. The one dimension end standards such as gauge block, step gauge could be measured directly by this means. The data of test revealed that aiming repeatability was less than 0.2μm.

  2. Automation of Pic du Midi 2-m Telescope Bernard Lyot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie-Cambot, Jean-Marie; Lacassagne, F.; Ambert, P.; Arrotis, J.-M.; Argentin, Y.; Arberet, M.-P.; Chereau, E.; Decha, C.; Delaigue, C.; Guesdon, L.; Laurent-Burguiere, D.; Malbreil, G.

    2011-03-01

    Since 2007, Pic du Midi 2-m Telescope Bernard Lyot is dedicated to spectropolarimetry with a scientific niche in stella magnetism. In parallel, TBL is progressively evolving from an analogic human-controlled telescope, to a fully automated computer controlled digital telescope. This evolution required TBL team to replace all electronics and motors with digital system (parvex, brushless motors, buscan) components, and to integrate the dataflow system from proposal to archiving into a fully coordinates, remote-access software suite. A trained technician can already control remotely the telescope, instrument and science programs from anywhere. Further robotisation will require a high-level expert system to be defined.

  3. Multicomponent diffusion in molten LiCl-KCl: Dynamical correlations and divergent Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Wang, Jin; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    Multicomponent diffusional mechanisms in the ternary LiCl-KCl system are elucidated using the Green-Kubo formalism and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusion matrix is evaluated from the Onsager dynamical matrix that contains the diffusion flux correlation functions. From the temporal behavior of the correlation functions, we observe that the Li-Li and Li-Cl ion pairs have a pronounced cage dynamics that remains noticeably strong even at high temperatures. Even though the Onsager coefficients, which are the time integrals of the diffusion flux correlation functions, portray a relatively smooth variation across various compositions and temperatures, we observe a sign change and a divergent-like behavior for the MS diffusivity of the K-Li ion pair at a temperature of ˜1100 K for the eutectic composition, and at a KCl mole fraction of ˜0.49 at 1043 K. Negative MS diffusivities, while unusual, are however shown to satisfy the nonnegative entropic constraints.

  4. A simplified model of TiH1.65/KClO4 pyrotechnic ignition.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ken Shuang

    2009-04-01

    A simplified model was developed and is presented in this report for simulating thermal transport coupled with chemical reactions that lead to the pyrotechnic ignition of TiH1.65/KClO4 powder. The model takes into account Joule heating via a bridgewire, thermal contact resistance at the wire/powder interface, convective heat loss to the surroundings, and heat released from the TiH1.65- and KClO4-decomposition and TiO2-oxidation reactions. Chemical kinetic sub-models were put forth to describe the chemical reaction rate(s) and quantify the resultant heat release. The simplified model predicts pyrotechnic ignition when heat from the pyrotechnic reactions is accounted for. Effects of six key parameters on ignition were examined. It was found that the two reaction-rate parameters and the thermal contact resistance significantly affect the dynamic ignition process whereas the convective heat transfer coefficient essentially has no effect on the ignition time. Effects of the initial/ambient temperature and electrical current load through the wire are as expected. Ignition time increases as the initial/ambient temperature is lowered or the wire current load is reduced. Lastly, critical needs such as experiments to determine reaction-rate and other model-input parameters and to measure temperature profiles, time to ignition and burn-rate data for model validation as well as efforts in incorporating reaction-rate dependency on pressure are pointed out.

  5. 4. pi. physics. [/sup 40/Ar + KCl, 0. 4 to 1. 8 GeV/A

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, A.

    1980-03-01

    Exclusive ..pi../sup -/ and charged-particle production in collisions of /sup 40/Ar on KCl are studied at incident energies from 0.4 to 1.8 GeV/A. The correlation between the ..pi../sup -/ and the total charged particle multiplicity confines the reaction along a narrow ridge with no exotic islands of pion production. For high multiplicities the system reaches the total disintegration of target and projectile into singly charged fragments and pions. Every 200 MeV/A datum was taken with a central and inelastic trigger. For central collisions the mean ..pi../sup -/ multiplicity increases linearly with the bombarding energy with no marked discontinuities due to the ..delta..(3,3) resonance. At 1.8 GeV/A evidence for nonthermal ..pi../sup -/ production in central collisions is found. The total c.m. energy in ..pi../sup -/ shows linear dependence on the ..pi../sup -/ multiplicity with a slope of epsilon = 300 MeV/..pi../sup -/. Strange particle production in the central collision of 1.8 GeV/A Ar on KCl is seen. 8 figures.

  6. Neutron scattering from coupled phonon-impurity modes in KCl1-c(KCN)c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicklow, R. M.; Crummett, W. P.; Mostoller, M.; Wood, R. F.

    1980-09-01

    The hybridization of host-lattice phonons with the internal-energy states of CN- impurities in KCl has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering as a function of temperature between 10 and 100 K for samples with impurity concentrations in the range c=0.4 to 6 at.%. A temperature- and concentration-dependent coupling between phonons with Eg symmetry and the Eg transitions of CN- ions is observed near a frequency of 0.5 THz, a value which is consistent with the energy-level spacings for CN- in KCl as deduced by Beyeler. However, an expected coupling of phonons and CN- transitions with T2g symmetry near the same frequency was not detected. A simple two-level model for the CN- impurity provides a rather good description of the data for the Eg coupled modes for c<2 at.%, but it deviates significantly for larger concentrations. Quasielastic scattering, which has a strong dependence on impurity concentration, temperature, and phonon wave vector, is also observed.

  7. Cyclic Corrosion and Chlorination of an FeCrAl Alloy in the Presence of KCl

    SciTech Connect

    Israelsson, Niklas; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hellström, K.; Svensson, J-E; Johansson, L-G

    2015-05-30

    The KCl-induced corrosion of the FeCrAl alloy Kanthal® APMT in an O2 + N2 + H2O environment was studied at 600 °C. The samples were pre-oxidized prior to exposure in order to investigate the protective nature of alumina scales in the present environment. The microstructure and composition of the corroded surface was investigated in detail. Corrosion started at flaws in the pre-formed α-alumina scales, i.e. α-alumina was protective in itself. Consequently, KCl-induced corrosion started locally and, subsequently, spread laterally. An electrochemical mechanism is proposed here by which a transition metal chloride forms in the alloy and K2CrO4 forms at the scale/gas interface. Scale de-cohesion is attributed to the formation of a sub-scale transition metal chloride.

  8. Single crystalline nature of para-sexiphenyl crystallites grown on KCl(100).

    PubMed

    Haber, T; Oehzelt, M; Resel, R; Andreev, A; Thierry, A; Sitter, H; Smilgies, D M; Schaffer, B; Grogger, W; Resel, R

    2006-03-01

    This work focuses on studies of the single crystal nature of para-sexiphenyl structures grown on freshly cleaved KCl(100) surfaces. Two different kinds of morphologies, namely terrace like structures and needle like structures, are found by atomic force microscopy as well as by electron microscopy. Regardless of the morphology the individual crystallites show highly regular shapes. The crystalline alignment and the degree of order of the crystallites on the surface are determined by X-ray diffraction. Several epitaxial alignments of para-sexiphenyl on KCl(100) are observed and all of them are perfectly aligned on the surface. The rocking curve widths of the organic crystallites do not exceed 800" which is approximately only the four fold of the substrates' ones. The single crystalline nature of para-sexiphenyl crystallites is proven by transmission electron microscopy, diffraction patterns, dark field imaging and high resolution techniques. Single crystalline terraced mounds reach diameters of several microns and heights of 50 nm. Single crystal needles show heights and breadths of more than 100 nm and lengths of several microns. PMID:16573123

  9. KCl-Dependent Release of Mitochondrial Membrane-Bound Arginase Appears to Be a Novel Variant of Arginase-II.

    PubMed

    Suman, Mishra; Rajnikant, Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Arginase regulates arginine metabolism, ornithine-urea cycle, and immunological surveillance. Arginase-I is predominant in cytosol, and arginase-II is localised in the mitochondria. A mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase has also been proposed to be adsorbed with outer membrane of mitochondria which gets released by 150 mM potassium chloride (KCl). It is presumed that inclusion of 150 mM KCl in the homogenization medium would not only facilitate release of arginase bound with outer membrane of mitochondria but also affect functional anatomy of mitochondria, mitochondrial enzymes, and proteins. Therefore, it has been intended to characterize KCl-dependent release of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase from liver of mice. Results provide advancement in the area of arginase biology and suggest that fraction of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase contains mitochondrial arginase-II and a variant of arginase-II. PMID:27293971

  10. KCl-Dependent Release of Mitochondrial Membrane-Bound Arginase Appears to Be a Novel Variant of Arginase-II

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Mishra; Rajnikant, Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Arginase regulates arginine metabolism, ornithine-urea cycle, and immunological surveillance. Arginase-I is predominant in cytosol, and arginase-II is localised in the mitochondria. A mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase has also been proposed to be adsorbed with outer membrane of mitochondria which gets released by 150 mM potassium chloride (KCl). It is presumed that inclusion of 150 mM KCl in the homogenization medium would not only facilitate release of arginase bound with outer membrane of mitochondria but also affect functional anatomy of mitochondria, mitochondrial enzymes, and proteins. Therefore, it has been intended to characterize KCl-dependent release of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase from liver of mice. Results provide advancement in the area of arginase biology and suggest that fraction of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase contains mitochondrial arginase-II and a variant of arginase-II. PMID:27293971

  11. Effect of Aluminum Particle Surface Area and Morphology on the Combustion Properties of KClO4/Al Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulder, Stanley; Mackey, Joseph; Wilkinson, John

    2009-06-01

    Compositions of KClO4/Al are used in military applications as well as the pyrotechnics industry. The reaction rate as well as the ease of initiation depends on metal particle surface area as well as particle morphology. This factor is especially important for metal fuels having a melting point higher than the melting point of the oxidizer component in the energetic composition. Aluminum powder and turnings of various particle sizes were combined with KClO4 to form an energetic composition. The explosives mixtures were combusted in a rapid scanning calorimeter device (RSD). dP/dt and dT/dt results were measured and heats of reaction were calculated. The effect of Al particle surface area and particle morphology on the combustion properties of KClO4/Al is discussed.

  12. Fatigue crack propagation in carburized X-2M steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbach, B. L.; Lou, Bingzhe; Pearson, P. K.; Fairchild, R. E.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1985-07-01

    The growth rates of fatigue cracks propagating through the case and into the core have been studied for carburized X-2M steel (0.14 C, 4.91 Cr, 1.31 Mo, 1.34 W, 0.42 V). Fatigue cracks were propagated at constant stress intensities, ΔK, and also at a constant cyclic peak load, and the crack growth rates were observed to pass through a minimum value as the crack traversed the carburized case. The reduction in the crack propagation rates is ascribed to the compressive stresses which were developed in the case, and a pinched clothespin model is used to make an approximate calculation of the effects of internal stress on the crack propagation rates. We define an effective stress intensity, Ke = Ka + Ki, where Ka is the applied stress intensity, Ki = σid{i/1/2}, σi is the internal stress, and di is a characteristic distance associated with the depth of the internal stress field. In our work, a value of di = 11 mm (0.43 inch) fits the data quite well. A good combination of resistance to fatigue crack propagation in the case and fracture toughness in the core can be achieved in carburized X-2M steel, suggesting that this material will be useful in heavy duty gears and in aircraft gas turbine mainshaft bearings operating under high hoop stresses.

  13. 2-m LAMOST-type telescope for the Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiangqun; Zhao, Yongheng; Wang, Yanan; Li, Guoping

    2006-06-01

    The Large-Sky-Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) put forward by Shou-guan Wang and Ding-qiang Su is a special reflecting Schmidt telescope with the spherical mirror fixed and the correcting plate acts as both correcting plate and tractor. The correcting plate is installed on an alt-azimuth mounting and its aspherical figure is variable to meet the requirement for eliminate the spherical aberration of the spherical primary mirror when it is at variant orientations during the observation course and for different sky area. With LAMOST, both large aperture and large field of view can been obtained. Benefited from the LAMOST design and practice, a LAMOST-type telescope for full-sky survey is conceived for the Antarctic. Because of the favorable seeing condition and all-winter continuous observation, a telescope with aperture of the 2-m could be equivalent to the 4-m LAMOST. We preliminarily considered a 2-m telescope with a primary focus and a Cassegrain focus. The f-ratio of 5 and FOV 3-degree for the primary focus, and f-ratio of 15 and 8 minutes FOV with the diffraction limited image for the Cassegrain focus. In this paper, the scientific goals, the optical system of the telescope, particular material and technique which are applicable under the extreme low temperature condition at the Antarctic are described.

  14. Apparent molar heat capacity and other thermodynamic properties of aqueous KCL solutions to high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Pabalan, R.T.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1988-07-01

    Heat capacities of KCl solutions have been measured from 413 to 573 K at 200 bar over the molality range of 0.05-3.0 mol kg/sup -1/. These were combined with literature data on volumes, heat capacities, enthalpies, and osmotic coefficients up to a temperature of 599 K and a pressure of 500 bar to yield comprehensive equations for the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of KCl(aq) to high temperatures and pressures by using ion-interaction approach of Pitzer.

  15. Kinetics of the reaction Cl + NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M.-T.

    1984-01-01

    Using atomic chlorine resonance fluorescence at 140 nm to detect the decay of atomic chlorine in the presence of an excess of NO2, the rate constant for the reaction Cl + NO2 + M, where M is the total gas concentration, is measured over the temperature range 264 to 417 K and at a pressure 1 to 7 torr in a discharge flow system. The rate constants for M= He and M= N2 are measured and the results are summarized in a table. The systematic error of the rate constants is estimated to be about 15 percent. A static photolysis system coupled with an FTIR spectrophotometer is used to determine the branching ratio for the formation of two possible isomers. The ratio is concluded to be ClONO (greater than or equal 75 percent) and ClNO2 (less than or equal 25 percent) which is in agreement with the results of Niki et al. (1978).

  16. Direct drive targets for the megajoule facility UFL-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, V. B.; Gus'kov, S. Yu; Vergunova, G. A.; Demchenko, N. N.; Stepanov, R. V.; Doskoch, I. Ya; Yakhin, R. A.; Zmitrenko, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Development of direct drive target schemes for the megajoule facility is a topical problem of up-to-date inertial fusion physics. The choice of possible schemes and solutions depends essentially on the irradiation conditions. The installations both running (NIF) and under construction (LMJ) are destined to the 3ω irradiation in PDD (polar direct drive) configuration. The UFL-2M installation that is under construction is based on 2ω irradiation and a symmetrical scheme of direct drive target irradiation. Under these conditions possible schemes for direct drive targets demonstrating the ignition and the achievement of gain G=10÷20 are considered in this report. At the same time, the possibilities are analyzed for the target compression and ignition with a reliability reserve at the conditions that can deviate from the standard ones, and if our understanding of the physics of the processes is not completely adequate to the physics of the real processes.

  17. Global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in the L-2M stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailov, M. I.; Shchepetov, S. V.; Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J.

    2015-12-15

    Analysis of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in the L-2M stellarator (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences) is presented. The properties of free-boundary equilibria states are outlined, the stability conditions for small-scale modes are briefly discussed, and the number of trapped particles is estimated. All the magnetic configurations under study are stable against ballooning modes. It is shown that global ideal internal MHD modes can be found reliably only in Mercier unstable plasmas. In plasma that is stable with respect to the Mercier criterion, global unstable modes that are localized in the vicinity of the free plasma boundary and are not associated with any rational magnetic surface inside the plasma (the so-called peeling modes) can be found. The radial structure of all perturbations under study is almost entirely determined by the poloidal coupling of harmonics. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data.

  18. Experimental study of hot electrons in LECR2M plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, H. W.; Ma, X. W.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Ma, B. H.; Li, X. X.; Sha, S.; Zhu, Y. H.; Lu, W.; Shang, Y.

    2008-02-15

    In order to investigate the hot electron component in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas, the volume bremsstrahlung spectra in the x-ray photon energy range were measured with a high-purity germanium detector on Lanzhou ECR Ion Source No. 2 Modified (LECR2M). A collimation system similar to Bernhardi's was used to focus at the central part of the plasma. The ion source was operated under various source conditions with argon; sometimes oxygen was added to enhance high charge state ion beam intensities. The spectral temperature of hot electrons T{sub spe} was derived from the measured bremsstrahlung spectra. The evolution of the deduced temperature of hot electrons T{sub spe} with the ion source parameters, such as the rf frequency, power, and the magnetic confinement configuration, was investigated.

  19. Oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme activities of dry-cured bacons as affected by the partial substitution of NaCl with KCl.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haizhou; Yan, Wenjing; Zhuang, Hong; Huang, Mingming; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on protein and lipid oxidation as well as antioxidant enzyme activities in dry-cured bacons during processing. The partial substitution was 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). Compared with 0% KCl (I), the substitution of 40% NaCl with KCl did not significantly influence the protein and lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The bacons that were treated with 70% KCl treatment (III) showed increased lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH-Px activity, whereas samples treated with formulas I and II showed higher protein oxidation and antioxidant enzyme catalase activity. These results demonstrate that the substitution of NaCl with KCl by more than 40% may significantly affect protein and lipid oxidation and that for the substitution of NaCl in further processed meat products with other chloride salts, salt content is very important for control of protein and lipid biochemical changes in finished products. PMID:26868571

  20. Corrosion resistance of steel materials in LiCl-KCl melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Li, Bing; Shen, Miao; Li, Shi-yan; Yu, Jian-guo

    2012-10-01

    The corrosion behaviors of 304SS, 316LSS, and Q235A in LiCl-KCl melts were investigated at 450°C by Tafel curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). 316LSS shows the best corrosion resistance behaviors among the three materials, including the most positive corrosion potential and the smallest corrosion current from the Tafel curves and the largest electron transfer resistance from the Nyquist plots. The results are in good agreement with the weight losses in the static corrosion experiments for 45 h. This may be attributed to the better corrosion resistance of Mo and Ni existing as alloy elements in 316LSS, which exhibit the lower corrosion current densities and more positive corrosion potentials than 316LSS in the same melts.

  1. Calorimetric study of the entropy relation in the NaCl–KCl system

    PubMed Central

    Benisek, Artur; Dachs, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    The heat capacity of one Na-rich and two K-rich samples of the NaCl–KCl (halite–sylvite) crystalline solution was investigated between 5 and 300 K. It deviated positively from ideal behaviour with a maximum at 40 K. The thereby produced excess entropy at 298.15 K was described by a symmetric Margules mixing model yielding WmS = 8.73 J/mol/K. Using enthalpy of mixing data from the literature and our data on the entropy, the solvus was calculated for a pressure of 105 Pa and compared with the directly determined solvus. The difference between them can be attributed to the effect of Na–K short range ordering (clustering). PMID:24926102

  2. Electrolysis of plutonium nitride in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, O.; Iwai, T.; Shiozawa, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamura, Y.; Inoue, T.

    2000-01-01

    The electrolysis of plutonium nitride, PuN, was investigated in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt with 0.54 wt% PuCl 3 at 773 K in order to understand the dissolution of PuN at the anode and the deposition of metal at the cathode from the viewpoint of the application of a pyrochemical process to nitride fuel cycle. It was found from cyclic voltammetry that the electrochemical dissolution of PuN began nearly at the theoretically evaluated potential and this reaction was irreversible. Several grams of plutonium metal were successfully recovered at the molybdenum electrode as a deposit with a current efficiency of about 90%, although some fractions of the deposited plutonium often fell from the molybdenum electrode.

  3. Magnetic properties of Sr-ferrites synthesized in molten (NaCl+KCl) flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Si-Dong; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2006-12-01

    The Sr-ferrite powders, SrFe12O19, were synthesized by the molten salt method using (NaCl+KCl) mixture. Particle morphology was homogeneous and hexagonal platelet like. Both particle size and thickness increased as the reaction temperature and time increased. The sintering density of Sr-ferrite magnet prepared with powders by the molten salt method showed the maximum value at the sintering temperature of 1200C. The magnetic properties of the Sr-ferrite magnet were investigated with various sintering temperatures. The maximum values of remanent magnetization ( σr, 45 emu/g) and coercivity field ( Hcj, 298 kA/m) occurred at the sintering temperatures of 1150- 1200C. The Sr-ferrite magnet by a molten salt method showed higher remanent magnetization and coercivity field than those of the Sr-ferrite magnet prepared with the same starting materials by a conventional ceramic process.

  4. Semiconductor- to metallic-like behavior in Bi thin films on KCl substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Thanh Nhan; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Bi thin films, with a thickness of 100 nm, are deposited by electron-beam evaporation on a freshly cleaved (100) KCl substrate. The substrate temperature during film growth (Tdep) ranges from room temperature up to 170 °C. Films deposited at room temperature exhibit a maze-like microstructure typical of the rhombohedral (110) texture, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. For Tdep above 80 °C, a different microstructure appears, characterized by concentric triangular shapes corresponding to the trigonal (111) texture. Temperature dependence of the resistivity shows a transition from a semiconductor-like behavior for films deposited at room temperature to a metallic-like behavior for Tdep above 80 °C. From magnetoresistance measurements between room temperature and 1.6 K, we extract the electron and hole mobilities, concentrations, and mean free paths, which allow to draw a complete picture of the transport properties of both types of films.

  5. Calorimetric study of the entropy relation in the NaCl-KCl system.

    PubMed

    Benisek, Artur; Dachs, Edgar

    2013-07-01

    The heat capacity of one Na-rich and two K-rich samples of the NaCl-KCl (halite-sylvite) crystalline solution was investigated between 5 and 300 K. It deviated positively from ideal behaviour with a maximum at 40 K. The thereby produced excess entropy at 298.15 K was described by a symmetric Margules mixing model yielding [Formula: see text] = 8.73 J/mol/K. Using enthalpy of mixing data from the literature and our data on the entropy, the solvus was calculated for a pressure of 10(5) Pa and compared with the directly determined solvus. The difference between them can be attributed to the effect of Na-K short range ordering (clustering). PMID:24926102

  6. Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk

    2013-07-01

    The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

  7. Effects of various dopants on NaCl and KCl glow curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, A. T.; Kozakiewicz, A. G.; Derry, T. E.; Comins, J. D.; Suszynska, M.

    2004-06-01

    We have measured the thermoluminescence of a number of NaCl and KCl crystals following irradiation at ambient temperature with the same dose (10 kGy) of Co-60 γ rays. We compare the TL of pure samples and of samples doped with europium and calcium ions. In the case of NaCl, additional impurities (Ni, Pb, Sr and Cr) have been investigated. The effects of irradiation are determined using optical absorption and thermoluminescence. Factors investigated include the effects of different dopants on TL glow curves and the effects of thermal annealing samples at 400 °C before the irradiation. Changes in TL glow curves relating to changes in the state of aggregation of the impurities produced by pre-irradiation annealing are reported in this paper. Perhaps the most significant effect is a temperature shift of the main glow peak in pre-annealed compared to not pre-annealed samples in the case of Eu doped NaCl. The magnitude of the shift depends on the concentration of the Eu dopant. Shifts are also observed for Ni and Sr impurities in NaCl, but not for Ca and Cr impurities in NaCl. In the case of KCl, glow peaks generally occur at similar temperatures in doped samples and do not shift when doped samples are pre-annealed. Here the main effect of different impurities is to influence the size of the emission and not the structure of the glow curve. Results are discussed in terms of current theories of thermoluminescence.

  8. Electrochemical extraction of neodymium by co-reduction with aluminum in LiCl-KCl molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong-De; Xu, Yan-Lu; Zhang, Mi-Lin; Xue, Yun; Han, Wei; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Zhi-Jian

    2013-02-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Nd(III) ions in LiCl-KCl and LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 melts on a Mo electrode at 723 K was studied by various electrochemical techniques. The results showed that Nd(III) ions are reduced to Nd(0) through two consecutive steps, and the underpotential deposition of neodymium on pre-deposited Al electrode formed two kinds of Al-Nd intermetallic compounds in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 solutions. The electrochemical extraction of neodymium was carried out in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 melts on a Mo electrode at 873 K by potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis. The extraction efficiency was 99.25% after potentiostatic electrolysis for 30 h. Al-Li-Nd bulk alloy was obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that Al2Nd and Al3Nd phases were formed in Al-Li-Nd alloy. The microstructure and micro-zone chemical analysis of Al-Li-Nd alloy were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively.

  9. Densities of L-Glutamic Acid HCl Drug in Aqueous NaCl and KCl Solutions at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryshetti, Suresh; Raghuram, Noothi; Rani, Emmadi Jayanthi; Tangeda, Savitha Jyostna

    2016-04-01

    Densities (ρ ) of (0.01 to 0.07) {mol}{\\cdot } {kg}^{-1} L-Glutamic acid HCl (L-HCl) drug in water, and in aqueous NaCl and KCl (0.5 and 1.0) {mol}{\\cdot } {kg}^{-1} solutions have been reported as a function of temperature at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The accurate density (ρ ) values are used to estimate the various parameters such as the apparent molar volume (V_{2,{\\upphi }}), the partial molar volume (V2^{∞}), the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient (α 2), the partial molar expansion (E2^{∞}), and Hepler's constant (partial 2V2^{∞}/partial T2)P. The Cosphere overlap model is used to understand the solute-solvent interactions in a ternary mixture (L-HCl drug + NaCl or KCl + water). Hepler's constant (partial 2V2^{∞}/partial T2)_P is utilized to interpret the structure-making or -breaking ability of L-HCl drug in aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions, and the results are inferred that L-HCl drug acts as a structure maker, i.e., kosmotrope in aqueous NaCl solutions and performs as a structure breaker, i.e., chaotrope in aqueous KCl solutions.

  10. Study on a recovery of rare earth oxides from a LiCl-KCl-RECl 3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, H. C.; Cho, Y. Z.; Park, H. S.; Lee, T. K.; Kim, I. T.; Park, K. I.; Lee, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive rare earth chlorides in waste LiCl-KCl molten salts have to be separated as a stable form to minimize waste volume and to achieve stable solidification. In this work, thermal behavior of rare earth chlorides (CeCl 3, GdCl 3, NdCl 3, PrCl 3) was investigated in an oxygen condition to recover rare earth oxides from a LiCl-KCl-RECl 3 system. The rare earth chlorides in the LiCl-KCl molten salts were smoothly converted to an oxychloride form at a higher temperature than 650 °C, except for CeCl 3. CeCl 3 was totally converted to an oxide from at a higher temperature than 450 °C. The rare earth oxychlorides (GdOCl, NdOCl, PrOCl) were effectively converted to oxide forms at a higher temperature than 1100 °C. It was confirmed that rare earth oxides can be recovered from a LiCl-KCl-RECl 3 system without impurity generation.

  11. Uncertainties of Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Measurements Using KCl-Coated Denuders, Cation-Exchange Membranes, and Nylon Membranes: Humidity Influences.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2015-05-19

    Quantifying the concentration of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and identifying the chemical compounds in the atmosphere are important for developing accurate local, regional, and global biogeochemical cycles. The major hypothesis driving this work was that relative humidity affects collection of GOM on KCl-coated denuders and nylon membranes, both currently being applied to measure GOM. Using a laboratory manifold system and ambient air, GOM capture efficiency on 3 different collection surfaces, including KCl-coated denuders, nylon membranes, and cation-exchange membranes, was investigated at relative humidity ranging from 25 to 75%. Recovery of permeated HgBr2 on KCl-coated denuders declined by 4-60% during spikes of relative humidity (25 to 75%). When spikes were turned off GOM recoveries returned to 60 ± 19% of permeated levels. In some cases, KCl-coated denuders were gradually passivated over time after additional humidity was applied. In this study, GOM recovery on nylon membranes decreased with high humidity and ozone concentrations. However, additional humidity enhanced GOM recovery on cation-exchange membranes. In addition, reduction and oxidation of elemental mercury during experiments was observed. The findings in this study can help to explain field observations in previous studies. PMID:25877790

  12. Determination of the refractive index difference caused by the birefringence of FA (II) centers in KCl:Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silfsten, Pertti; Ketolainen, Pertti

    1991-11-01

    A method is described for determining the refractive index difference caused by the birefringence of oriented FA (II) centers in KCl:Li crystals. It is shown that the portion induced by the birefringence can be separated from an absorption spectrum measured through a polarizer-analyzer system. From this portion the refractive index difference can then be calculated with ease.

  13. Kinetics of the ClO + NO2 + M reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, M. J.; Molina, L. T.; Ishiwata, T.

    1980-01-01

    The ClO + NO2 + M reaction has been studied with two techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the products, and flash photolysis-ultraviolet absorption to monitor the decay of ClO in excess NO2. The measured third-order rate constant is 1.5 x 10 to the -31st cm to the 6th/molecule-squared per sec at 298 K with M = N2, in good agreement with previous literature values, but the rate constant appears to decrease by up to a factor of three in the presence of increasing amounts of OClO. For the infrared studies a stoichiometric mixture of ClO and NO2 was prepared in a flow system by mixing NO with OClO; at least as much NO2 as ClONO2 was produced under a variety of experimental conditions. These two sets of results are incompatible with the assumption made in previous kinetic studies that ClONO2 is the only recombination product; other isomers such as OClONO or ClOONO are likely to be formed three to four times faster. These results imply that potential stratospheric ozone depletion due to chlorofluoromethanes may be even larger than previously thought.

  14. Particle Shape and Composition of NU-LHT-2M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Lowers, H.

    2012-01-01

    Particle shapes of the lunar regolith simulant NU-LHT-2M were analyzed by scanning electron microscope of polished sections. These data provide shape, size, and composition information on a particle by particle basis. 5,193 particles were measured, divided into four sized fractions: less than 200 mesh, 200-100 mesh, 100-35 mesh, and greater than 35 mesh. 99.2% of all particles were monominerallic. Minor size versus composition effects were noted in minor and trace mineralogy. The two metrics used are aspect ratio and Heywood factor, plotted as normalized frequency distributions. Shape versus composition effects were noted for glass and possibly chlorite. To aid in analysis, the measured shape distributions are compared to data for ellipses and rectangles. Several other simple geometric shapes are also investigated as to how they plot in aspect ratio versus Heywood factor space. The bulk of the data previously reported, which were acquired in a plane of projection, are between the ellipse and rectangle lines. In contrast, these data, which were acquired in a plane of section, clearly show that a significant number of particles have concave hulls in this view. Appendices cover details of measurement error, use of geometric shapes for comparative analysis, and a logic for comparing data from plane of projection and plane of section measurements.

  15. [Effects of different potassium fertilizers on the phytoavailability of Pb in soil and its mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Xu, Ming-Gang; Li, Ju-Mei; Song, Zheng-Guo; Zhang, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Effects of four kinds of potassium fertilizer (KH2PO4, K2SO4, KNO3 and KCl) in its conventional application rate as K, 0.11 g x kg(-1) on the Pb absorption by rape and speciation of Pb in paddy soil were examined by pot trial. Results showed that the Pb content in rape decreased with using KH2PO4 and K2SO4, and in the second season of pot trial for KH2PO4 treatment, Pb content in rape shoots under Pb1 (300 mg x kg(-1)) and Pb2 (500 mg x kg(-1)) level decreased by 35.6% and 45.4% respectively compared with control treatment. Applied KNO3 in soil also decreased Pb content in rape shoots to some extent, but KCl had adverse effect. At lower Pb level (300 mg x kg(-1)), KH2 PO4 and K2SO4 caused Pb in soil transformed from non-residual fractions to residual fraction substantially and for higher Pb level (500 mg x kg(-1)) only KH2PO4 application had similar effect. Under two contaminated Pb levels, exchangeable and carbonate fraction Pb in soil by using KCl were all enhanced, which indicated that KCl could promote the phytoavailability of Pb. As thus one of the most important mechanisms of potassium fertilizers influencing Pb phtoavailability was changing the speciation of Pb in soil. PMID:18441941

  16. Corrosion and Microstructure Correlation in Molten LiCl-KCl Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Shankar, A.; Mathiya, S.; Thyagarajan, K.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2010-07-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing in molten chloride salt medium has been considered as one of the best options for the reprocessing of spent metallic fuels of future fast breeder reactors. The unit operations such as salt preparation, electrorefining, and cathode processing involve the presence of molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from 673 to 1373 K (400 to 1100 °C). The present work discusses the corrosion behavior of electroformed nickel (EF Ni) without and with nickel-tungsten (Ni-W) coating, 316L SS, and INCONEL 625 alloy in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at 673 K, 773 K, and 873 K (400 °C, 500 °C, and 600 °C) in the presence of air. The weight percent loss of the exposed samples was determined by the weight loss method and surface morphology of the salt exposed, and product layers were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis were also carried out on the exposed and corrosion product layers to understand the phases present and the corrosion mechanism involved. The results of the present study indicated that INCONEL 625 alloy showed superior corrosion resistance compared to electroformed nickel (EF Ni), EF Ni with nickel-tungsten (Ni-W) coating (EF Ni-W), and 316L SS. The EF Ni with Ni-W coating exhibits better corrosion resistance than EF Ni without tungsten coating. Based on the surface morphology, XRD, and EDX analysis of corrosion product layers, the mechanism of corrosion of INCONEL 625 and 316L involves formation of chromium-rich compound at the surface and subsequent spallation. For the EF Ni, the porous thick NiO corrosion product allows the penetration of salt, thus accelerating the corrosion. Improved corrosion resistance of EF Ni-W was attributed to the W-rich NiO layer, while for INCONEL 625, the adherent and protective NiO layer improved the corrosion resistance. The article highlights the results of the present investigation.

  17. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  18. Local structures and the dissolving behavior of aqueous ammonia and its KCl and NH4Cl solutions: A Raman spectroscopy and X-ray scattering study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenyu; Yuan, Junsheng; Li, Fei; Liu, Ziyu

    2016-06-01

    The aqueous ammonia (5%-15%) and its KCl and NH4Cl solutions have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. The microscopic structures in these solutions were proposed. The addition of KCl reinforced the hydrogen bond between NH3 and H2O. On contrary, NH4Cl destroyed this interaction by forming hydrogen bond NH4(+)-NH3. This study gave an interpretation of the different dissolving behavior of KCl and NH4Cl in aqueous ammonia, which may have important implications in the separation of potassium and ammonium salt during the industrial production. PMID:26974475

  19. Local structures and the dissolving behavior of aqueous ammonia and its KCl and NH4Cl solutions: A Raman spectroscopy and X-ray scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shenyu; Yuan, Junsheng; Li, Fei; Liu, Ziyu

    2016-06-01

    The aqueous ammonia (5%-15%) and its KCl and NH4Cl solutions have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. The microscopic structures in these solutions were proposed. The addition of KCl reinforced the hydrogen bond between NH3 and H2O. On contrary, NH4Cl destroyed this interaction by forming hydrogen bond NH4+-NH3. This study gave an interpretation of the different dissolving behavior of KCl and NH4Cl in aqueous ammonia, which may have important implications in the separation of potassium and ammonium salt during the industrial production.

  20. Separation of plutonium from lanthanum by electrolysis in LiCl KCl onto molten bismuth electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serp, J.; Lefebvre, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Rebizant, J.; Vallet, P.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2005-04-01

    This work presents a study on the electroseparation of plutonium from lanthanum using molten bismuth electrodes in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 733 K. The reduction potentials of Pu3+ and La3+ ions were measured on a Bi thin film electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV). A difference between the peak potentials for the formation of PuBi2 and LaBi2 of approximately 100 mV was found. Separation tests were then carried out using different current densities and salt phase compositions between a plutonium rod anode and an unstirred molten Bi cathode in order to evaluate the efficiency of an electrolytic separation process. At a current density of 12 mA/cm2/wt% (Pu3+), only Pu3+ ions are reduced into the molten Bi electrode, leaving La3+ ions in the salt melt. Similar results were found at two different Pu/La concentration ratios ([Pu]/[La] = 4 and 10). At a current density of 26 mA/cm2/wt% (Pu3+), co-reduction of Pu and La was observed as expected by the large negative potential of the Bi cathode during the separation test.

  1. Shock sensitivity of TiH/sub 0. 65/KClO/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, P.S.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The pyrotechnic TiH/sub 0.65/KClO/sub 4/ (THKP) is shock initiated in a through-bulkhead actuator (TBA) manufactured at UniDynamics. In the testing of various lots of THKP, we observed an apparent lot-to-lot variability in the shock sensitivities of the powders. The shock sensitivity for each powder lot was obtained by firing fifty TBA units each specially machined with a different bulkhead thickness. These powder lot qualification tests were both expensive and time consuming. For those reasons, we developed a new sensitivity test that is less complicated, inexpensive and consumes less THKP powder. In addition, it has the advantage that we can now easily vary several powder parameters such as density, powder preparation and condition, powder mass and the diameter of the powder column. Our new test method consists of simultaneously shocking 20 simulated TBA units in a so-called shock board. The shock board contains the simulated TBAs around its periphery; the TBA simulators can have various bulkhead thicknesses and are easy to machine. The simulators are mounted at the ends of EXTEX tracks that are all fired at the same time by a detonator located at the center of the board. After firing the assembly, the units are checked for function and the data analyzed using the ASENT computer program. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Protein-salt binding data from potentiometric titrations of lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl

    SciTech Connect

    Engmann, J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M. |

    1997-03-01

    An existing method for potentiometric titrations of proteins was improved, tested and applied to titrations of the enzyme hen-egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl at ionic strengths from 0.1 M to 2.0 M at 25 C. Information about the protein`s net charge dependence on pH and ionic strength were obtained and salt binding numbers for the system were calculated using a linkage concept. For the pH range 2.5--11.5, the net charge slightly but distinctly increases with increasing ionic strength between 0.1 M and 2.0 M. The differences are most distinct in the pH region below 5. Above pH 11.35, the net charge decreases with increasing ionic strength. Preliminary calculation of binding numbers from titration curves at 0.1 M and 1.0 M showed selective association of chloride anions and expulsion of potassium ions at low pH. Ion-binding numbers from this work will be used to evaluate thermodynamic properties and to correlate crystallization or precipitation phase-equilibrium data in terms of a model based on the integral-equation theory of fluids which is currently under development.

  3. Methanol extracts of Hamelia patens containing oxindole alkaloids relax KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo; Rivera, Jesús; Oropeza, Martha; Mendoza, Pilar; Amekraz, Badia; Jankowski, Christopher; Campos, Maria

    2004-10-01

    Hamelia patens JAQC. (Rubiaceae) is a medicinal bush widely distributed in tropical areas of the American continent. It is used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the treatment of menstrual disorders, therefore suggesting that its chemical constituents may have some effect on myometrium contractility. Physiological effects might differ due to quantitative variations in the content of alkaloids arising from its wide geographical distribution. To test this hypothesis, the content of oxindole alkaloids in methanol extracts of five different samples collected in Mexico was quantified by GC-MS. Each extract was assayed on contractility of estrogen-primed rat myometrium. Variations in the content of alkaloids were observed among the different samples. All samples relaxed in a concentration-dependent manner the high KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium. Those which lack rumberine and/or maruquine displayed a higher relaxant effect than samples containing them, suggesting that these alkaloids might counteract the effects of isopteropodine. However, in contrast with verapamil, Hamelia patens metanol extracts are poor relaxants. PMID:15467206

  4. Spectroscopy of isolated PTCDA molecules on the KCl(100) surface: Vibrational spectra and azimuthal orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Mathias; Paulheim, Alexander; Marquardt, Christian; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2013-02-01

    Small amounts of the model molecule perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) were vacuum deposited on epitaxial KCl films on Ag(100). The use of a low substrate temperature (20 K) during deposition hampered molecular diffusion resulting in isolated monomers on the surface. Fluorescence and fluorescence excitation spectroscopy performed on these monomers yielded highly resolved spectra with narrow lines corresponding to individual vibronic modes. This high resolution in our spectra is caused by a very small inhomogeneous broadening due to well-defined adsorption sites of the molecule on the substrate. Indeed, by polarization dependent fluorescence spectroscopy we show that the flat-lying molecules exhibit a preferred azimuthal orientation on the surface, the long molecular axis being oriented along the [011] or the equivalent [0bar{1}1] direction of the substrate. Furthermore, the high resolution in the spectra allowed a detailed analysis of the vibronic modes. The vibrational modes of the adsorbed molecule are very similar to those of the free PTCDA molecule, but due to the presence of the substrate additional low energy modes which are relevant for the full understanding of the spectra couple to the transition.

  5. Spectroscopy of isolated PTCDA molecules on the KCl(100) surface: vibrational spectra and azimuthal orientation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mathias; Paulheim, Alexander; Marquardt, Christian; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2013-02-14

    Small amounts of the model molecule perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) were vacuum deposited on epitaxial KCl films on Ag(100). The use of a low substrate temperature (20 K) during deposition hampered molecular diffusion resulting in isolated monomers on the surface. Fluorescence and fluorescence excitation spectroscopy performed on these monomers yielded highly resolved spectra with narrow lines corresponding to individual vibronic modes. This high resolution in our spectra is caused by a very small inhomogeneous broadening due to well-defined adsorption sites of the molecule on the substrate. Indeed, by polarization dependent fluorescence spectroscopy we show that the flat-lying molecules exhibit a preferred azimuthal orientation on the surface, the long molecular axis being oriented along the [011] or the equivalent [011] direction of the substrate. Furthermore, the high resolution in the spectra allowed a detailed analysis of the vibronic modes. The vibrational modes of the adsorbed molecule are very similar to those of the free PTCDA molecule, but due to the presence of the substrate additional low energy modes which are relevant for the full understanding of the spectra couple to the transition. PMID:23425484

  6. Effects of calcium antagonists on KCl-evoked calcium uptake by rat cortical synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Wei, J W; Chiang, D H

    1986-01-01

    A series of calcium antagonists were used to study their blocking effect on high potassium-induced calcium uptake into rat cortical synaptosomes; these antagonists were classified into five groups: dihydropyridine group (i.e. nifedipine and nitrendipine), benzothiazepine group (i.e. diltiazem), phenylalkylamine group (i.e. verapamil and D600), phenothiazine group (i.e. trifluoperazine) and diphenylpiperazine group (i.e. flunarizine and cinnarizine). Voltage-dependent 45Ca2+-uptake into this fraction was measured after 20 sec KCl-induced depolarization. The ID30 values of the above-mentioned antagonists affecting 45Ca2+-uptake were calculated to be nitrendipine (80 microM), nifedipine (100 microM), verapamil (50 microM), D600 (15 microM), diltiazem (70 microM), trifluoperazine (7 microM), cinnarizine (1.2 microM) and flunarizine (0.7 microM). Our results reveal that in rat brain synaptosomal fractions, calcium influx via the voltage-gated calcium channel appears to be more sensitive to diphenylpiperazine and phenothiazine groups; whereas, phenylalkylamine, benzothiazepine and dihydropyridine groups were relatively insensitive. This contrasts with the well known data obtained from vascular smooth muscle, in which the dihydropyridine group is the most sensitive of all the groups studied. Our results suggest that calcium channels in neuronal tissue are most likely different from those in non-neuronal tissue. PMID:3721183

  7. Adsorption-induced changes of intramolecular optical transitions: PTCDA/NaCl and PTCDA/KCl.

    PubMed

    Hochheim, Manuel; Bredow, Thomas

    2015-09-15

    Structural and optical properties of isolated perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride molecules adsorbed on (100) oriented NaCl and KCl surfaces were studied theoretically to analyze the recently observed red-shift of the optical excitation spectrum after adsorption (Müller et al., Phys. Rev. B, 2011, 83, 241203; Paulheim et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 4906). The ground-state structures were obtained by periodic dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For the excited-state calculations, nonperiodic time-dependent DFT methods were applied for a cluster model embedded in point charges. The range-separated hybrid functional CAM-B3LYP was used. Correlation-consistent basis sets were used and the calculated excitation energies were extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The shift of the first optical excitation energy was analyzed in terms of electronic and geometric contributions. It was found that both the distortion of the molecule due to the interaction with the surface and the electrostatic potential of the surface play an important role. PMID:26152591

  8. Sites of Regulated Phosphorylation that Control K-Cl Cotransporter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rinehart, Jesse; Maksimova, Yelena D.; Tanis, Jessica E.; Stone, Kathryn L.; Hodson, Caleb A.; Zhang, Junhui; Risinger, Mary; Pan, Weijun; Wu, Dianqing; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Forbush, Biff; Joiner, Clinton H.; Gulcicek, Erol E.; Gallagher, Patrick G.; Lifton, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Modulation of intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl−]i) plays a fundamental role in cell volume regulation and neuronal response to GABA. Cl− exit via K-Cl cotransporters (KCCs) is a major determinant of [Cl−]I; however, mechanisms governing KCC activities are poorly understood. We identified two sites in KCC3 that are rapidly dephosphorylated in hypotonic conditions in cultured cells and human red blood cells in parallel with increased transport activity. Alanine substitutions at these sites result in constitutively active cotransport. These sites are highly phosphorylated in plasma membrane KCC3 in isotonic conditions, suggesting that dephosphorylation increases KCC3's intrinsic transport activity. Reduction of WNK1 expression via RNA interference reduces phosphorylation at these sites. Homologous sites are phosphorylated in all human KCCs. KCC2 is partially phosphorylated in neonatal mouse brain and dephosphorylated in parallel with KCC2 activation. These findings provide insight into regulation of [Cl−]i and have implications for control of cell volume and neuronal function. PMID:19665974

  9. Electrolytic LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl melt in porous Li-Al anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, C. E.; Heatherly, D. E.; Heatherly, L., Jr.; Braunstein, J.

    1983-12-01

    Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. Precipitation of lithium chloride during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode.

  10. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program — KClO3/Icing Sugar (-100 mesh) Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorenson, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Moran, Jesse S.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Hsu, Peter C.; Whipple, Richard E.; Reynolds, John G.

    2011-05-02

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO3 sized through a 100-mesh sieve mixed with icing sugar, also sized through a 100-mesh sieve—KClO3/icing sugar (-100) mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of two solid materials. The mixture was found to be: 1) more sensitive to impact than RDX, with sensitivity similar to PETN, 2) the same or more sensitive to friction than PETN, and 3) less sensitive to spark than RDX. The analysis showed that the mixture has thermally stability similar to RDX and is perhaps more energetic upon decomposition but variable results indicate sampling issues.

  11. First-principles calculation of principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra for warm dense KCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shijun; Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Li, Zi; Zhang, Ping; He, Xian-Tu

    2015-06-01

    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. It is shown that approximate description of ionization in FPMD has small influence on Hugoniot pressure due to mutual compensation of electronic kinetic pressure and virial pressure. The calculation of X-ray absorption spectra shows that the band gap of KCl persists after the pressure ionization of the 3p electrons of Cl and K taking place at lower energy, which provides a detailed understanding to the evolution of electronic structures of warm dense matter.

  12. Equilibrium between titanium ions and high-purity titanium electrorefining in a NaCl-KCl melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jian-xun; Wang, Qiu-yu; Hu, Guo-jing; Zhu, Xiao-bo; Jiao, Shu-qiang; Zhu, Hong-min

    2014-07-01

    TiCl x ( x = 2.17) was prepared by using titanium sponge to reduce the concentration of TiCl4 in a NaCl-KCl melt under negative pressure. The as-prepared NaCl-KCl-TiCl x melt was employed as the electrolyte, and two parallel crude titanium plates and one high-purity titanium plate were used as the anode and cathode, respectively. A series of electrochemical tests were performed to investigate the influence of electrolytic parameters on the current efficiency and quality of cathodic products. The results indicated that the quality of cathodic products was related to the current efficiency, which is significantly dependent on the current density and the initial concentration of titanium ions. The significance of this study is the attainment of high-purity titanium with a low oxygen content of 30 × 10-6.

  13. First-principles calculation of principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra for warm dense KCl

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shijun; Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Li, Zi; Zhang, Ping; He, Xian-Tu

    2015-06-15

    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. It is shown that approximate description of ionization in FPMD has small influence on Hugoniot pressure due to mutual compensation of electronic kinetic pressure and virial pressure. The calculation of X-ray absorption spectra shows that the band gap of KCl persists after the pressure ionization of the 3p electrons of Cl and K taking place at lower energy, which provides a detailed understanding to the evolution of electronic structures of warm dense matter.

  14. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  15. Preparation of Al-La Master Alloy by Thermite Reaction in NaF-NaCl-KCl Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Poknam; Li, Hyonmo; Kim, Wenjae; Wang, Zhaowen; Liu, Fengguo

    2015-05-01

    A NaF-NaCl-KCl ternary system containing La2O3 was investigated for the preparation of Al-La master alloy by the thermite reaction method. The solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salt was determined by the method of isothermal solution saturation. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to consider the content of La2O3 in molten salt and the supernatant composition of molten salt after dissolution of La2O3, respectively. The results showed that the content of NaF had a positive influence on the solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salts, and the solubility of La2O3 could reach 8.71 wt.% in molten salts of 50 wt.%NaF-50 wt.% (44 wt.%NaCl + 56 wt.%KCl). The XRD pattern of cooling molten salt indicated the formation of LaOF in molten salt, which was probably obtained by the reaction between NaF and La2O3. The kinetic study showed that the thermite reaction was in accord with a first-order reaction model. The main influence factors on La content in the Al-La master alloy product, including molten salt composition, amount of Al, concentration of La2O3, stirring, reduction time and temperature, were investigated by single-factor experimentation. The content of La in the Al-La master alloy could be reached to 10.1 wt.%.

  16. Generation of KCL035 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in HBB gene.

    PubMed

    Hewitson, Heema; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-03-01

    The KCL035 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried a mutation in the HBB gene, which is linked to the β-thalassemia syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays. PMID:27345970

  17. Epitaxial growth of Ge-Sb-Te films on KCl by high deposition rate pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelander, E.; Gerlach, J. W.; Ross, U.; Frost, F.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2014-06-01

    Pulsed laser deposition was employed to deposit epitaxial Ge2Sb2Te5-layers (GST) on (100) oriented KCl-substrates. XRD-measurements show a process temperature window for epitaxial growth of the cubic phase between 200 and 300 °C. Below 250 °C (111) oriented GST dominates the growth process and above 250 °C the (100) orientation is the dominating one. Pole figure measurements confirm these results and additionally reveal that the (111) orientation consists of 4 domains with 90° azimuthal separation with an initial 15° rotation with the substrate lattice, i.e., [2-1-1]GST || [100]KCl. The (100) orientation grows cube-on-cube with KCl. A systematic variation of the deposition rate showed that it is possible to obtain epitaxial films in the range between 2.5 and 250 nm/min with no significant deterioration of crystal quality. A smooth topography of (111) oriented films was found, whereas the (100) dominated films in general show higher surface roughness as evidenced from atomic force microscopy investigations.

  18. Package FLUIDS. Part 4: thermodynamic modelling and purely empirical equations for H2O-NaCl-KCl solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Ronald J.

    2012-05-01

    A H2O-NaCl-KCl-rich fluid occurs occasionally in fluid inclusions in a variety of geological environments. The properties of this fluid provide information about the conditions of entrapment, and thereby, conditions that have affected the rock. New purely empirical and thermodynamic models are developed in this study to reproduce the properties of the H2O-NaCl-KCl fluid system, especially the liquidus at variable pressures (the solid-liquid-vapour surface, i.e. SLV), and at constant pressures (the solid-liquid surface, i.e. SL). The SLV surface is modelled according to "best-fit" polynomial equations, which relate temperature, pressure and composition. The SL surfaces, at constants pressures, are modelled according to thermodynamic principles, i.e. the equality of chemical potentials of components (NaCl and KCl) in each phase at equilibrium. The models are valid up to 400 MPa and 900°C and can be applied to fluid inclusions studies to obtain salinities from dissolution temperatures of salt crystals. The new models are included in the program AqSo WHS that forms part of the software package FLUIDS (Bakker, Chem Geol 194:3-23, 2003), to be able to apply directly the mathematical functions in fluid inclusion studies and in general fluid properties investigations.

  19. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program — KClO3 (as received)/Icing Sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorenson, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Whipple, Richard E.; Reynolds, John G.

    2011-05-23

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO3 as received from the manufacturer mixed with icing sugar, sized through a 100-mesh sieve—KClO3/icing sugar (AR) mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of two solid materials. The mixture was found to: 1) be more sensitive to impact than RDX, similar to PETN, 2) be the same or less sensitive to friction than PETN, and 3) to be less sensitive to spark than RDX. The thermal analysis showed that the mixture has thermally stability similar to RDX and is perhaps more energetic upon decomposition but variable results indicate sampling issues. Compared to the 100-mesh sieved counter part, the KClO3/icing sugar (-100) mixture, the AR mixture was found to be about the same sensitivity towards impact, friction and ESD.

  20. Kinetics of desorption of KCL from polyvinyl alcohol-borate hydrogel in aqueous-alcoholic solvents at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Rehana; Abdeen, Zain Ul

    2015-11-01

    Desorption kinetics of adsorbed KCl from Polyvinyl alcohol borate hydrogel was studied by conductivity method in aqueous system and aqueous binary solvent system using 50% aqueous-methanol, aqueous- ethanol and aqueous-propanol at different temperature ranging from 293 to 313 K. Desorption process follows pseudo first order and intra particle diffusion kinetics was analyzed on the basis of linear regression coefficient R 2 and chi square test χ2 values. The process of desorption of KCl from hydrogel was favorable in aqueous system, the study reveals the fact that the polarity of solvent influenced the kinetics of desorption, on decrement of polarity of solvent rate, rate constant and intra particle rate constant decreases. Based on intra particle kinetic equation fitting it was concluded that desorption was initiated by removal of ions from surface of hydrogel later on ions interacted inside the cross linked unit was also become free. Temperature enhances the rate, rate constant and intra particle rate constant. Thermodynamic parameters attributed towards the fact that the process of desorption of KCl from hydrogel is non-spontaneous in nature.

  1. Impact of soil properties on selected pharmaceuticals adsorption in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Kocarek, Martin; Klement, Ales; Fer, Miroslav; Golovko, Oksana; Grabic, Roman; Jaksik, Ondrej

    2014-05-01

    The presence of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment has been recognized as a potential threat. Pharmaceuticals may contaminate soils and consequently surface and groundwater. Study was therefore focused on the evaluation of selected pharmaceuticals adsorption in soils, as one of the parameters, which are necessary to know when assessing contaminant transport in soils. The goals of this study were: (1) to select representative soils of the Czech Republic and to measure soil physical and chemical properties; (2) to measure adsorption isotherms of selected pharmaceuticals; (3) to evaluate impact of soil properties on pharmaceutical adsorptions and to propose pedotransfer rules for estimating adsorption coefficients from the measured soil properties. Batch sorption tests were performed for 6 selected pharmaceuticals (beta blockers Atenolol and Metoprolol, anticonvulsant Carbamazepin, and antibiotics Clarithromycin, Trimetoprim and Sulfamethoxazol) and 13 representative soils (soil samples from surface horizons of 11 different soil types and 2 substrates). The Freundlich equations were used to describe adsorption isotherms. The simple correlations between measured physical and chemical soil properties (soil particle density, soil texture, oxidable organic carbon content, CaCO3 content, pH_H2O, pH_KCl, exchangeable acidity, cation exchange capacity, hydrolytic acidity, basic cation saturation, sorption complex saturation, salinity), and the Freundlich adsorption coefficients were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Then multiple-linear regressions were applied to predict the Freundlich adsorption coefficients from measured soil properties. The largest adsorption was measured for Clarithromycin (average value of 227.1) and decreased as follows: Trimetoprim (22.5), Metoprolol (9.0), Atenolol (6.6), Carbamazepin (2.7), Sulfamethoxazol (1.9). Absorption coefficients for Atenolol and Metoprolol closely correlated (R=0.85), and both were also

  2. The phase diagrams and Pitzer model representations for the system KCl + MgCl2 + H2O at 50 and 75°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ji-min; Peng, Jing; Duan, Yu-xia; Tian, Chong; Ping, Mei

    2012-12-01

    The solubilities in the KCl-MgCl2-H2O system were determined at 50 and 75°C and the phase diagrams and the diagram of refractive index vs composition were plotted. Two invariant point, three univariant curves, and three crystallization zones, corresponding to potassium chloride, hexahydrate (MgCl2 · 6H2O) and double salt (KCl · MgCl2 · 6H2O) showed up in the phase diagrams of the ternary system, The mixing parameters θK, Ca and ΨK, Ca, Cl and equilibrium constant K sp were evaluated in KCl-MgCl2-H2O system by least-squares optimization procedure, in which the single-salt Pitzer parameters of KCl and MgCl2 β(0), β(1), β(2), and C ϕ were directly calculated from the literature. The results obtained were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Soil transport parameters of potassium under a tropical saline soil condition using STANMOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzanye da Silva Santos, Rafaelly; Honorio de Miranda, Jarbas; Previatello da Silva, Livia

    2015-04-01

    Environmental responsibility and concerning about the final destination of solutes in soil, so more studies allow a better understanding about the solutes behaviour in soil. Potassium is a macronutrient that is required in high concentrations, been an extremely important nutrient for all agricultural crops. It plays essential roles in physiological processes vital for plant growth, from protein synthesis to maintenance of plant water balance, and is available to plants dissolved in soil water while exchangeable K is loosely held on the exchange sites on the surface of clay particles. K will tend to be adsorbed onto the surface of negatively charged soil particles. Potassium uptake is vital for plant growth but in saline soils sodium competes with potassium for uptake across the plasma membrane of plant cells. This can result in high Na+:K+ ratios that reduce plant growth and eventually become toxic. This study aimed to obtain soil transport parameters of potassium in saline soil, such as: pore water velocity in soil (v), retardation factor (R), dispersivity (λ) and dispersion coefficient (D), in a disturbed sandy soil with different concentrations of potassium chlorate solution (KCl), which is one of the most common form of potassium fertilizer. The experiment was carried out using soil samples collected in a depth of 0 to 20 cm, applying potassium chlorate solution containing 28.6, 100, 200 and 500 mg L-1 of K. To obtain transport parameters, the data were adjusted with the software STANMOD. At low concentrations, interaction between potassium and soil occur more efficiently. It was observed that only the breakthrough curve prepared with solution of 500 mg L-1 reached the applied concentration, and the solution of 28.6 mg L-1 overestimated the parameters values. The STANMOD proved to be efficient in obtaining potassium transport parameters; KCl solution to be applied should be greater than 500 mg L-1; solutions with low concentrations tend to overestimate

  4. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Park, Changyong; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2016-01-01

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03-13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Qeff) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Qeff is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Qeff with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed.

  5. Measurements and Analysis of Oxygen Bubble Distributions in LiCl-KCl Molten Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan W. Bezzant; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael F. Simpson

    2013-03-01

    Transparent system experimental studies have been performed to provide measurement and analysis of oxygen bubble distributions and mass transfer coefficients at different sparging rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.20 L/min in LiCl-KCl molten salt at 500 degrees C using a high-speed digital camera and an oxygen sensor. The results reveal that bubble sizes and rise velocities increased with an increase in oxygen sparging rate. The bubbles observed were ellipsoidal in shape, and an equivalent diameter based on the ellipsoid volume was calculated. The average equivalent bubble diameters at 500 degrees C and these oxygen sparging rates range from 2.63 to 4.07 mm. Results show that the bubble equivalent diameters at each respective sparging rate are normally distributed. A Fanning friction factor correlation was produced to predict a bubble’s rise velocity based on its equivalent diameter. The oxygen mass transfer coefficients for four sparging rates were calculated using the oxygenation model. These calculated values were within the order of magnitude of 10-2 cm/sec and followed a decreasing trend corresponding to an increasing bubble size and sparging rate. The diffusivities were calculated based on two different types of mechanisms, one based on physics of the bubbles and the other on systematic properties. The results reveal that diffusivity values calculated from bubble physics are 1.65 to 8.40 x 10-5 cm2/sec, which are within the range suggested by literature for gases in liquids of a similar viscosity.

  6. 40 CFR 180.325 - 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid... Tolerances § 180.325 2-(m-Chlorophenoxy) propionic acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for negligible residues of the plant regulator 2-(m-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid from...

  7. An explanation of the preferential formation of less stable isomers in three-body reactions - Cl + NO2 + M; ClO + NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J. S.; Baldwin, A. C.; Golden, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A realistic assessment of the potential depletion of stratospheric ozone due to manmade emissions requires a knowledge of the sources and sinks of the potential threat. The reactions ClO + NO2 + M yield products and Cl + NO2 + M yield products are of interest because they represent possible sink mechanism for both odd chlorine and odd nitrogen species. In this paper, the Troe method (1977) is used to calculate the low-pressure limit rate constants of the above three-body reactions. The result for the Cl + NO2 + M reaction is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental finding of Niki et al. (1978), where both nitryl chloride and chlorine nitrate are products of the cited reaction. An explanation is proposed to account for apparent discrepancy between the measured rate constants for ClO + NO2 + M in the forward and reverse directions. Stratospheric implications are also discussed.

  8. Effects of Soil Management on N Mineralization and Nitrification Rates in Soybean Fields of the Amazon, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, M.; Mitsuya, M.; Moura, J. M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) promoted by the cultivation of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merrill], consists in a significant input of reactive nitrogen (N) in the system. The availability of this nutrient to plants occurs through the mineralization of organic-N of the soil, conducted by soil organic matter and / or crop residues. Thus, understanding the fate of this increased supply, as well as changes in the dynamics of N in the system is essential in the context of the recent expansion of soybean in the Amazon. This work aims to understand the dynamics of N in the soil cultivated with soybean, through the determination of ammonium and nitrate concentrations, as well as, mineralization and nitrification rates in soybean fields under till and no-till systems in the municipality of Santarém, Brazil. We collected 12 soil samples (0-10cm depth) in each crop and the extractions were done in 2M KCl solution using 10 g of soil. The samples were incubated for 7 days when new extractions were done to determine the rates of mineralization and nitrification. The till system showed higher concentrations of nitrate (0.82 ± 0.13 mg kg-1) and ammonium (8.15 ± 0.54 mg kg-1) compared to the results found in no-till system (0.59 ± 0.09 mg kg-1 and 5.25 ± 0.28 mg kg-1 for nitrate and ammonium respectively). The mineralization rates were negative in the till system, indicating possible immobilization of N in the soil during that period. In contrast, no-till system showed higher rates of mineralization in the soil. Although there is a great removal of N by grain harvest, it is possible to infer that no-till system has higher nitrogen availability to soybean and that this management could contribute to an increased productivity mainly due to deposition of crop residues enriched in N on the soil.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of tracer transport in variably saturated soils at USDA-ARS OPE3 field site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of uncertainties in hydrologic and geochemical parameters on the results of simulations of the tracer transport in variably saturated soils at the USDA-ARS OPE3 field site. A tracer experiment with a pulse of KCL solution applied to an irrigatio...

  10. Purification of used eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-06-01

    The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl-KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4-8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700-750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized.

  11. Further studies on the partial double Donnan. Is isosmotic KCl solution isotonic with cells of respiratory trees of the holothurian Isostichopus badionotus Selenka?

    PubMed

    Herrera; Herrera; López

    2000-05-01

    As potassium, chloride and water traverse cell membranes, the cells of stenohaline marine invertebrates should swell if exposed to sea water mixed with an isosmotic KCl solution as they do when exposed to sea water diluted with water. To test this hypothesis respiratory tree fragments of the holothurian Isostichopus badionotus were exposed to five isosmotic media prepared by mixing artificial sodium sea water with isosmotic (611 mmol/l) KCl solution to obtain 100, 83, 71, 60 and 50% sea water, with and without 2 mmol/l ouabain. For comparison, respiratory tree fragments were incubated in sea water diluted to the same concentrations with distilled water, with and without ouabain. Cell water contents and potassium and sodium concentrations were unaffected by KCl-dilution or ouabain in isosmotic KCl-sea water mixtures. In tissues exposed to H(2)O-diluted sea water, cell water increased osmometrically and potassium, sodium and chloride concentrations decreased with dilution; ouabain caused a decrease in potasium and an increase in sodium but no effect on chloride concentrations. The isotonicity of the isosmotic KCl solution cannot be adscribed to impermeability of the cell membrane to KCl as both ions easily traverse the cell membrane. Rather, operationally immobilized extracellular sodium ions, which electrostatically hold back anions and consequently water, together with the lack of a cellward electrochemical gradient for potassium, resulting from membrane depolarization caused by high external potassium concentration, would explain the isotonicity of isosmotic KCl solution. The high external potassium concentration also antagonizes the inhibitory effect of ouabain on the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase responsible for sodium and potassium active transport. PMID:10742500

  12. EXPLORING IO'S ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION WITH APEX: FIRST MEASUREMENT OF {sup 34}SO{sub 2} AND TENTATIVE DETECTION OF KCl

    SciTech Connect

    Moullet, A.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Gurwell, M.; Black, J. H; Butler, B.

    2013-10-10

    The composition of Io's tenuous atmosphere is poorly constrained. Only the major species SO{sub 2} and a handful of minor species have been positively identified, but a variety of other molecular species should be present, based on thermochemical equilibrium models of volcanic gas chemistry and the composition of Io's environment. This paper focuses on the spectral search for expected yet undetected molecular species (KCl, SiO, S{sub 2}O) and isotopes ({sup 34}SO{sub 2}). We analyze a disk-averaged spectrum of a potentially line-rich spectral window around 345 GHz, obtained in 2010 at the APEX 12 m antenna. Using different models assuming either extended atmospheric distributions or a purely volcanically sustained atmosphere, we tentatively measure the KCl relative abundance with respect to SO{sub 2} and derive a range of 4 × 10{sup –4}-8 × 10{sup –3}. We do not detect SiO or S{sub 2}O and present new upper limits on their abundances. We also present the first measurement of the {sup 34}S/{sup 32}S isotopic ratio in gas phase on Io, which appears to be twice as high as the Earth and interstellar medium reference values. Strong lines of SO{sub 2} and SO are also analyzed to check for longitudinal variations of column density and relative abundance. Our models show that, based on their predicted relative abundance with respect to SO{sub 2} in volcanic plumes, both the tentative KCl detection and SiO upper limit are compatible with a purely volcanic origin for these species.

  13. Direct measurement of translingual epithelial NaCl and KCl currents during the chorda tympani taste response.

    PubMed Central

    Heck, G L; Persaud, K C; DeSimone, J A

    1989-01-01

    We have measured the NaCl or KCl currents under voltage clamp across the dorsal lingual epithelium of the rat and simultaneously the response of the taste nerves. Under short-circuit conditions a NaCl stimulus evoked an inward current (first current) that coincided with excitation of the chorda tympani. This was followed by a slower inward current (second current) that matched the kinetics of taste nerve adaptation. The peak first current and the coincident neural response satisfied the same saturating NaCl concentration dependence. Both first and second currents were partially blocked by amiloride as were the phasic and tonic components of the neural response. The NaCl-evoked second current was completely blocked by ouabain. Investigation of the NaCl-evoked current and the neural response over a range of clamped voltages showed that inward negative potentials enhanced the inward current and the neural response to 0.3 M NaCl. Sufficiently high inward positive potentials reversed the current, and made the neural response independent of further changes in voltage. Therefore, one of the NaCl taste transduction mechanisms is voltage dependent while the other is voltage independent. A KCl stimulus also evoked an inward short-circuit current, but this and the neural response were not amiloride-sensitive. The data indicate that neural adaptation to a NaCl stimulus, but not a KCl stimulus, is mediated by cell Na/K pumps. A model is proposed in which the connection between the NaCl-evoked second current and cell repolarization is demonstrated. PMID:2541822

  14. Absorption characteristics of anions (I-, Br-, and Te2-) into zeolite in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uozumi, Koichi; Sugihara, Kei; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Koyama, Tadafumi; Tsukada, Takeshi; Terai, Takayuki; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2014-04-01

    The behaviors of anion fission product (FP) elements to be absorbed into zeolite in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were studied using iodine, bromine, and tellurium. First, the type-A zeolite was selected as the most suitable type of zeolite among type-A, type-X, and type-Y zeolites through experiments in which zeolites were heated together with LiCl-KCl-KI salt. As the next step, experiments in which the type-A zeolite was immersed in molten LiCl-KCl salt containing various concentrations of iodine, bromine, or tellurium were performed. The degree of absorption of the anion FP elements was evaluated using the separation factor (SF) value versus chlorine. Although the SF values for iodine and tellurium were higher than 1.0, which meant that these elements were absorbed into the type-A zeolite more intensively than chlorine in the salt, the corresponding value for bromine was approximately 1.0. The effects of coexisting cation FPs were also examined using cesium, strontium, and neodymium, and it was revealed that the SF values for iodine were less than those in the case without cation addition. On the other hand, the SF values for tellurium were not affected by the coexistence of cesium and strontium. Finally, the feasibility of the present pyroprocess flowsheet was evaluated by calculating the inventory of each anion FP in an electrorefiner based on the obtained SF values instead of temporary values for the anion FPs absorption, which were set due to lack of experimental data.

  15. Effects of reducing dietary ([Na+ + K+]-[Cl- + SO4 =]) on bone in dairy cows at parturition.

    PubMed

    van Mosel, M; Wouterse, H S; van't Klooster, A T

    1994-05-01

    The effects of feeding diets with different milliequivalents (mEq) of dietary ([Na+ + K+]-[Cl- + SO4 =]) to dairy cows during the last seven weeks of pregnancy on bone morphology at parturition were studied. Nine monozygotic twin pairs of pregnant cows (five pairs of parity 1 or 2 and four pairs of parity 3 or more) were allocated to two diets which were formulated to provide either -4 mEq (anion diet) or +572.5 mEq (cation diet) of ([Na+ + K+]-[Cl- + SO4 =]) kg-1 dietary dry matter. Bone biopsies were taken from the tuber coxae between three and eight hours after parturition. The plasma concentrations of calcium and inorganic phosphorus, the total plasma alkaline phosphatase activity and the urinary hydroxyproline:creatinine ratio were not significantly affected by diet during the experimental period. In low parity (2 or less) cows the percentage trabecular bone volume, the percentage osteoclast surface and the mean number of osteoclasts per microscopic field (identified by Goldner staining) were lower on the anion diet than on the cation diet (P < 0.02). In the high parity cows, the percentage osteoid volume (P < 0.05) and the ratio of percentage osteoid volume to percentage osteoid surface (P < 0.001) were greater in the cows fed the anion diet than in the cows fed the cation diet. The results show that reducing the mEq of dietary ([Na+ + K+]-[Cl- + SO4 =]) to -4 mEq kg-1 dietary dry matter affected some of the parameters of bone formation but did not enhance bone resorption. PMID:8073176

  16. Pressure Dependence of the Infrared-Active Phonons in the Mixed Crystal System KCl(1-x)Br(x).

    PubMed

    Ferraro, J R; Postmus, C; Mitra, S S; Hoskins, C J

    1970-01-01

    The mixed crystal system KCl(1-x)Br(x) shows a one-mode type behavior. The variation of the long-wavelength transverse optical (TO) mode frequency at 1 atm pressure can be understood in terms of the virtual crystal model. The variation of the frequency with pressure or the mole fraction x can be expressed in terms of volume change alone. The slopes of the vTO mode vs P are highest for the end numbers, and are less for intermediate values of x, and may be understood in terms of a nonlinear variation of the compressibility with x. PMID:20076127

  17. Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I.

    2013-07-01

    A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

  18. Convoy electrons emitted by 2-MeV He + ions at grazing incidence on KCl(0 0 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Nakamoto, A.; Suzuki, M.; Kimura, K.

    2006-07-01

    Convoy electrons produced during grazing angle scattering of 2-MeV He + ions at a clean (0 0 1) surface of KCl are measured to see the effect of the surface track potential. The measurement is performed at 230 °C with a beam current far below 1 pA to avoid macroscopic charging. The observed convoy electron energy coincides with the energy of the electron isotachic to the incident ion. This suggests that the effect of the surface track potential is accidentally cancelled out by the surface wake potential.

  19. Generation of KCL017 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in VHL gene.

    PubMed

    Hewitson, Heema; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-03-01

    The KCL017 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting splicing site of the VHL gene encoding von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (676+3A>T). The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays. PMID:27345980

  20. Generation of KCL016 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in VHL gene.

    PubMed

    Miere, Cristian; Hewitson, Heema; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-01-01

    The KCL016 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting splicing site of the VHL gene encoding von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (676+3A>T). The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays. PMID:27345783

  1. Generation of KCL028 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the HTT gene

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Laureen; Hewitson, Heema; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Hobbs, Carl; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-01-01

    The KCL028 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the HTT gene encoding huntingtin (43 trinucleotide repeats; 21 for the normal allele). The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays.

  2. Generation of KCL036 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the HTT gene

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Laureen; Hewitson, Heema; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Hobbs, Carl; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-01-01

    The KCL036 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the HTT gene encoding huntingtin (38 trinucleotide repeats; 14 for the normal allele). The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays.

  3. Generation of KCL012 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the HTT gene

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Laureen; Hewitson, Heema; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Hobbs, Carl; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-01-01

    The KCL012 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the HTT gene encoding huntingtin (46 trinucleotide repeats; 17 for the normal allele). The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays.

  4. Generation of KCL027 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the HTT gene

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Laureen; Hewitson, Heema; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Hobbs, Carl; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-01-01

    The KCL027 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the HTT gene encoding huntingtin (43 trinucleotide repeats; 21 for the normal allele). The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays.

  5. On resolving 2M - 1 narrow-band signals with an M sensor uniform linear array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Douglas B.; Johnson, Don H.

    1992-01-01

    Length 2M real signal vectors are used to address the problem of determining the maximum number of narrow-band signals whose parameters can be estimated with a linear array of M equally spaced sensors. It is shown that 2M of these real vectors are linearly independent with probability one, and, thus in the presence of additive white noise, the parameters of 2M - 1 signals can be estimated. An algorithm for determining directions and amplitudes is presented.

  6. 131I-MIBG targeting of neuroblastoma cells is acutely enhanced by KCl stimulation through the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun Woo; Park, Jin Won; Lee, Eun Jeong; Jung, Kyung-Ho; Paik, Jin-Young; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy relies on norepinephrine transporter (NET) function. The ionic make-up of the extracellular fluid critically controls neuronal cell activity and can also affect substrate transport. In this study, we explored the effect of treatment with elevated KCl concentration on MIBG uptake in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. KCl stimulation caused a rapid increase of (131)I-MIBG uptake in a manner that was calcium-dependent and accompanied by activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)II. The effect was completely abolished by KN93, an inhibitor of CaMKI, II, and IV. STO609, a selective inhibitor of CaMK kinase required for activation of CaMKI and IV, but not CaMKII, only modestly attenuated the response. The KCl effect was also completely abrogated by ML7, a selective inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). This restricted form of CaMK activates myosin, which is required for vesicle trafficking. Saturation kinetic analysis revealed KCl stimulation to increase maximal transport velocity without affecting substrate affinity. In conclusion, KCl stimulation rapidly upregulates NET function through the CaMK pathway via activation of CaMKII and MLCK. These findings allow a better understanding of how NET function is acutely modulated by the ionic environment, which in turn may ultimately help improve the efficacy of (131)I-MIBG therapy. PMID:23763646

  7. Phase equilibria in the system H{sub 2}O-NaCl-KCl-MgCl{sub 2} relevant to salt cake processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnar, R.J.; Vityk, M.O.; Hryn, J.N.; Mavrogenes, J.

    1997-02-01

    One waste product in recycling of Al is salt cake, a mixture of Al, salts, and residue oxides. Several methods have been proposed to recycle salt cake, one involving high-temperature leaching of salts from the salt cake. The salt composition can be approximated as a mixture predominantly of NaCl and KCl salts, with lesser amounts of Mg chloride. In order to better assess the feasibility of recycling salt cake, an experimental study was conducted of phase equilibria in the system H{sub 2}O-NaCl-KCl-MgCl{sub 2} at pressure (P), temperature (T), and composition conditions appropriate for high- temperature salt cake recycling. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of small amounts (2-10 wt%) of MgCl{sub 2} on solubilities of halite (NaCl) and sylvite (KCl) in saturated solutions (30-50 wt% NaCl+KCl; NaCl:KCl = 1:1 and 3:1) at elevated P and T.

  8. Phase relations in the system NaCl-KCl-H2O: V. Thermodynamic-PTX analysis of solid-liquid equilibria at high temperatures and pressures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sterner, S.M.; Chou, I.-Ming; Downs, R.T.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1992-01-01

    The Gibbs energies of mixing for NaCl-KCl binary solids and liquids and solid-saturated NaCl-KCl-H2O ternary liquids were modeled using asymmetric Margules treatments. The coefficients of the expressions were calibrated using an extensive array of binary solvus and solidus data, and both binary and ternary liquidus data. Over the PTX range considered, the system exhibits complete liquid miscibility among all three components and extensive solid solution along the anhydrous binary. Solid-liquid and solid-solid phase equilibria were calculated by using the resulting equations and invoking the equality of chemical potentials of NaCl and KCl between appropriate phases at equilibrium. The equations reproduce the ternary liquidus and predict activity coefficients for NaCl and KCl components in the aqueous liquid under solid-saturation conditions between 673 and 1200 K from vapor saturation up to 5 kbar. In the NaCl-KCl anhydrous binary system, the equations describe phase equilibria and predict activity coefficients of the salt components for all stable compositions of solid and liquid phases between room temperature and 1200 K and from 1 bar to 5 kbar. ?? 1992.

  9. Electrodeposition of Mg-Li-Al-La Alloys on Inert Cathode in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Chen, Qiong; Sun, Yi; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Milin

    2011-12-01

    Electrochemical preparation of Mg-Li-Al-La alloys on inert electrodes was investigated in LiCl-KCl melt at 853 K (580 °C). Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and square wave voltammograms (SWVs) show that the existence of AlCl3 or AlF3 could promote La deposition on an active Al substrate, which is predeposited on inert electrodes. All electrochemical tests show that the reduction of La3+ is a one-step reduction process with three electrons exchanged. The reduction of La(III)→La(0) occurred at -2.04 V, and the underpotential deposition (UPD) of La was detected at -1.55 V ( vs Ag/AgCl). The same phenomena concerning La UPD were observed on two inert cathodes, W and Mo. In addition, Mg-Li-Al-La alloys were obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis on the W cathode from La2O3 in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-KF melts with aluminum as the anode. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that various phases like the Al2La, Al12Mg17, and βLi phase (LiMg/Li3Mg7) existed in the Mg-Li-Al-La alloys. The distribution of Mg, Al, and La in Mg-Li-Al-La alloys from the analysis of a scan electron micrograph (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) indicated that the elements Mg, Al, and La distributed homogeneously in the alloys.

  10. Electrochemical Behaviour and Electrorefining of Cobalt in NaCl-KCl-K2TiF6 Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey A.; Kazakova, Olga S.; Makarova, Olga V.

    2009-08-01

    The electrorefining of cobalt in NaCl-KCl-K2TiF6 (20 wt%) melt has been investigated. It was shown that complexes of Ti(III) and Co(II) appeared in the melt due to the reaction 2Ti(IV) + Co → 2Ti(III) + Co(II) and this reaction was entirely shifted to the right hand side. On the base of linear sweep voltammetry diagnostic criteria it was found that the discharge of Co(II) to Co metal is controlled by diffusion. The limiting current density of discharge Co(II) to metal in NaCl-KCl-K2TiF6 (20 wt%) melt was determined by steady-state voltammetry. The electrorefining of cobalt was carried out in hermetic electrolyser under argon atmosphere. Initial cathodic current density was changed from 0.2 Acm-2 up to 0.7 Acm-2, the electrolysis temperature varied within 973 - 1123 K. Behaviour of impurities during cobalt electrorefining was discussed. It was shown that electrorefining led to the elimination of most of the interstitial impurities (H2, N2, O2, C), with the result that the remaining impurity levels below 10 ppm impart high ductility to cobalt.

  11. Yield enhancements in and spectral measurements of Al-Mg-KCl mixture arrays on the 7-MA Saturn generator

    SciTech Connect

    LePell, P.; Failor, B.; Coverdale, C.

    1997-12-31

    Based on previous near-Z mixture calculations and experiments, a set of experiments have been performed on the 7-MA Saturn generator. Arrays of 30 wires on a 24 mm diameter were imploded in 55 ns. These arrays are composed of Al-Mg alloys (1 and 6%), Al-Mg coatings (19 or 36% Mg) and Al-Mg 1% alloy with 19 or 36% KCl coating. The 6% Mg alloys and the Mg-coatings gave more kilovolt yield than the 1% alloy as has been seen in other experiments. The addition of KCl did not enhance the yield significantly but this appears to be due to the presence of a significant aluminum free-bound continuum that already produces ten of kilojoules of x-rays. They also report on the spectral analyses of temperature from seven different line ratios and the slope of the free-bound continuum plus density estimates based on Stark broadening of hydrogen-like aluminum lines and by matching the observed radiated powers.

  12. Effects of temperature, concentration, and uranium chloride mixture on zirconium electrochemical studies in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Robert O.; Yoon, Dalsung; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies were performed to provide measurement and analysis of zirconium (Zr) electrochemistry in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt at different temperatures and concentrations using cyclic voltammetry (CV). An additional experimental set with uranium chloride added into the system forming UCl3sbnd ZrCl4sbnd LiClsbnd KCl was performed to explore the general behavior of these two species together. Results of CV experiments with ZrCl4 show complicated cathodic and anodic peaks, which were identified along with the Zr reactions. The CV results reveal that diffusion coefficients (D) of ZrCl4 and ZrCl2 as the function of temperature can be expressed as DZr(IV) = 0.00046exp(-3716/T) and DZr(II) = 0.027exp(-5617/T), respectively. The standard rate constants and apparent standard potentials of ZrCl4 at different temperatures were calculated. Furthermore, the results from the mixture of UCl3 and ZrCl4 indicate that high concentrations of UCl3 hide the features of the smaller concentration of ZrCl4 while Zr peaks become prominent as the concentration of ZrCl4 increases.

  13. The multidrug resistance pumps are inhibited by silibinin and apoptosis induced in K562 and KCL22 leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza; Yekaninejad, Mirsaeed; Dinehkabodi, Orkideh Saydi; Noori-Daloii, Ali Reza

    2014-05-01

    Silibinin have been introduced for several years as a potent antioxidant in the field of nutraceuticals. Based on wide persuasive effects of this drug, we have decided to investigate the effects of silibinin on chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in vitro models, K562 and KCL22 cell lines. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, microculture tetrazolium test (MTT assay) and real-time PCR were employed to evaluate the effects of silibinin on cell cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and expression of various multidrug resistance genes in these cell lines, respectively. Our results have shown that presence of silibinin has inhibitory effects on cell proliferation of K562 and KCL22 cell lines. Also, our data indicated that silibinin, in a dose-dependent manner with applying no cytotoxic effects, inhibited cell proliferation and reduced mRNA expression levels of some transporter genes e.g. MDR1, MRP3, MRP2, MRP1, MRP5, MRP4, ABCG2, ABCB11, MRP6 and MRP7. The multifarious in vitro inhibitory effects of silibinin are in agreement with growing body of evidence that silibinin would be an efficient anticancer agent in order to be used in multi-target therapy to prevail the therapeutic hold backs against CML. PMID:24522246

  14. Fluorescence spectroscopy of PTCDA molecules on the KCl(100) surface in the limit of low coverages: site selection and diffusion.

    PubMed

    Paulheim, Alexander; Müller, Mathias; Marquardt, Christian; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2013-04-14

    We performed fluorescence (FL) and fluorescence excitation (FLE) spectroscopy on the model molecule perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxyl acid dianhydride (PTCDA) for very low coverages (below 1% of a monolayer) on thin (100) oriented KCl films. Two different states of PTCDA molecules can be distinguished in the spectra: an initial state, which is observed directly after deposition of the molecules onto the cold sample at 20 K, and a final state, which is found after intensive optical excitation or thermal annealing of the sample. The spectrum of the final state is blue-shifted with respect to that of the initial state by 130 ± 15 cm(-1) and exhibits lines with significantly reduced widths. This can be explained by diffusion of molecules from initially populated terrace sites to energetically favoured step edge sites. Polarization dependent spectroscopy reveals the same azimuthal orientation of the molecules on both adsorption sites and leads to a model of the adsorption geometry of PTCDA at the KCl step sites. Our experiment demonstrates how optical spectroscopy can be used to investigate kinetic processes of fluorescent molecules on surfaces. PMID:23435674

  15. Statistical hadronization model analysis of hadron yields in p + Nb and Ar + KCl at SIS18 energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Destefanis, M.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gilardi, C.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lange, J. S.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Mihaylov, D.; Michel, J.; Morinière, E.; Mousa, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Rehnisch, L.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schmah, A.; Schuldes, H.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wirth, J.; Wisniowski, M.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The HADES data from p + Nb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √{s_{NN}} = 3.2 GeV are analyzed employing a statistical hadronization model. The model can successfully describe the production yields of the identified hadrons π0, η, Λ, K 0 s, ω with parameters T_{chem} = (99± 11) MeV and μb = (619± 34) MeV, which fit well into the chemical freeze-out systematics found in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, we reanalyze our previous HADES data from Ar + KCl collisions at √{s_{NN}} = 2.6 GeV with an updated version of the model. We address equilibration in heavy-ion collisions by testing two aspects: the description of yields and the regularity of freeze-out parameters from a statistical model fit as a function of colliding energy and system size. Despite its success, the model fails to describe the observed Ξ- yields in both, p + Nb and Ar + KCl . Special emphasis is put on feed-down contributions from higher-lying resonance states as a possible explanation for the observed excess.

  16. A thermostable high pressure xenon gamma-ray detector for monitoring concentration of KCl during fertilizer manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrenko, V. V.; Dvornyak, A. G.; Gratchev, V. M.; Kondakova, O. N.; Krivova, K. V.; Papchenko, A. Yu; Sokolov, D. V.; Ulin, S. E.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Vlasik, K. F.

    1999-02-01

    The abundance of 40K isotope in natural K is about 10 -4. Therefore, measurements of the intensity of the 1.46 MeV gamma line from 40K allows to estimate the concentration of KCl in various mixtures and solutions. However, during the technological procedure it is necessary to carry out the measurements at a relatively high temperature, typically at about 120°C, where traditional detectors cannot be used. A high pressure xenon gamma-detector has been developed for these kinds of measurements. The detector is a cylindrical ionization chamber with a sensitive volume of 5 l. The pressure of xenon gas inside the chamber is 40 atm. A special charge sensitive amplifier capable to operate at high temperatures up to 200°C was designed for these measurements. The detector test under real industrial conditions at "Silvinit" - a company located in the North East of European part of Russia - proved that the concentration of KCl can be measured directly during the manufacturing process with an accuracy better than 1% in the temperature between 15°C and 120°C.

  17. Neutron scattering from coupled phonon-impurity modes in KCl/sub 1-c/(KCN)/sub c/

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklow, R.M.; Crummett, W.P.; Mostoller, M.; Wood, R.F.

    1980-09-15

    The hybridization of host-lattice phonons with the internal-energy states of CN/sup -/ impurities in KCl has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering as a function of temperature between 10 and 100 K for samples with impurity concentrations in the range c=0.4 to 6 at. %. A temperature- and concentration-dependent coupling between phonons with E/sub g/ symmetry and the E/sub g/ transitions of CN/sup -/ ions is observed near a frequency of 0.5 THz, a value which is consistent with the energy-level spacings for CN/sup -/ in KCl as deduced by Beyeler. However, an expected coupling of phonons and CN/sup -/ transitions with T/sub 2g/ symmetry near the same frequency was not detected. A simple two-level model for the CN/sup -/ impurity provides a rather good description of the data for the E/sub g/ coupled modes for c<2 at. %, but it deviates significantly for larger concentrations. Quasielastic scattering, which has a strong dependence on impurity concentration, temperature, and phonon wave vector, is also observed.

  18. Measurement and thermodynamic model study on equilibrium solubility in the ternary system KCl-KBr-H2O at 323.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Ling-Zong; Li, Dan; Ma, Cun-Yun; Liu, Kai-Xuan

    2014-12-01

    The solubilities and the refractive indices of the KCl-KBr-H2O system at 323.15 K were studied with the isothermal dissolution method. The phase diagram and refractive index diagram were plotted for this system at 323.15 K. There is only one crystallization field of the solid solution K(Cl, Br). The system belongs to the solid solution type. The refractive indices of the equilibrium solution varies regularly with w(KCl) increasing. The calculated refractive index data are in good agreement with the experimental data. The parameter ΨK, Cl, Br at 323.15 K was fitted using the measured solubility data in this study. The equilibrium constant equation for the equilibrium solids at 323.15 K were obtained using the different Pitzer parameters from the literature or this work with a method using the activity product constant. The calculated solubilities agree well with experimental values.

  19. Monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine improve the sensory quality of fermented cooked sausages with 50% and 75% replacement of NaCl with KCl.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Fermented cooked sausages were produced by replacing 50% and 75% of NaCl with KCl and adding monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine. The manufacturing process was monitored by pH and water activity measurements. The sodium and potassium contents of the resulting products were measured. The color values (L*, a* and b*), texture profiles and sensory profiles were also examined. Replacing 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl depreciated the sensory quality of the products. The reformulated sausages containing monosodium glutamate combined with lysine, taurine, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate masked the undesirable sensory attributes associated with the replacement of 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl, allowing the production of fermented cooked sausages with good sensory acceptance and approximately 68% sodium reduction. PMID:24008059

  20. [Identification of C(2)M interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid screening].

    PubMed

    Shanshan, Yue; Laixin, Xia

    2015-11-01

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a huge structure which assembles between the homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase I. Drosophila germ cell-specific nucleoprotein C(2)M clustering at chromosomes can induce SC formation. To further study the molecular function and mechanism of C(2)M in meiosis, we constructed a bait vector for C(2)M and used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify C(2)M interacting proteins. Forty interacting proteins were obtained, including many DNA and histone binding proteins, ATP synthases and transcription factors. Gene silencing assays in Drosophila showed that two genes, wech and Psf1, may delay the disappearance of SC. These results indicate that Wech and Psf1 may form a complex with C(2)M to participate in the formation or stabilization of the SC complex. PMID:26582530

  1. Cigarette Smoking and Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 mRNA in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus in Suicides

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Helene; Arango, Victoria; Kassir, Suham A.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Mann, J. John; Underwood, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with suicide and mood disorders and stimulates serotonin release. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) synthesizes serotonin and is over-expressed in suicides. We determined whether smoking is associated with TPH2 mRNA in suicides and controls. TPH2 mRNA was measured postmortem in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of controls (N=26, 17 nonsmokers and nine smokers) and suicides (N=23, 5 nonsmokers and 18 smokers). Psychiatric history was obtained by psychological autopsy. TPH2 mRNA was greater in suicide nonsmokers than suicide smokers, control smokers and control nonsmokers (p=0.006). There was more TPH2 mRNA throughout the DRN. Smoking interferes with the TPH2 mRNA increase observed in suicide nonsmokers. The absence of altered TPH2 expression in non-suicide smokers suggests no pharmacological effect of smoking. PMID:26954509

  2. Detailed soil mapping and relationships between soil characteristics and tree growth in an alluvial plain (Lombardy, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, Chiara; Comolli, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located in an abandoned meander of the Oglio river (southern Lombardy, Italy), with young soils of alluvial origin (Calcaric Fluvisols). During 2002, in an area covering 20 hectares, a tree plant for wood production was realized (oak, hornbeam, ash, alder, and walnut; poplar only in the first part of the growth cycle). Objective of the study was to verify the existence of correlations between tree growth and soil characteristics. In 2004, the soil was sampled at 126 points, according to a regular grid, taking the surface soil horizon (Ap). The collected soil samples were analyzed in laboratory, measuring pH in H2O and KCl, texture, total carbonates, soil organic C (SOC), available P (Olsen), and exchangeable K. The pH in H2O varies between 7.7 and 8.1; the pH in KCl varies between 7.2 and 7.7; the more frequent particle-size classes are loam and sandy loam; SOC varies between 0.4 and 1.1%; total carbonates from 23 to 45%; exchangeable K between 0.01 and 0.25 cmol(+) kg-1; available P between 1.2 and 16.8 mg kg-1. At a distance of 12 years, in 2014, diameters at breast height of all the trees (2513 in total) were measured and their height was estimated on the basis of empirical equations obtained for each species, in order to calculate the tree volume. Spatial variability of soil properties was evaluated and mapped using multivariate geostatistical techniques. The analyses revealed the presence of different scales of spatial variation: micro-scale, short range scale (about 80 m for texture) and long range scale (about 220 m for texture). The spatial pattern of most soil properties (mainly texture and total carbonates) was probably associated with fluvial depositional processes. To evaluate soil-plant relationships, soil characteristics were collocated into the plant data set by estimating specific soil properties at each individual tree location. Soil spatial variability was reflected by the differences in plant growth. Statistical analysis of the

  3. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Michelle B.; Schier, Lindsey A.; Blonde, Ginger D.; Spector, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC) lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX) and in sham-operated controls (SHAM). Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p.), but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA) even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average). For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001) in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006) in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and

  4. Electrochemical Study of Ni20Cr Coatings Applied by HVOF Process in ZnCl2-KCl at High Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Porcayo-Calderón, J; Sotelo-Mazón, O; Casales-Diaz, M; Ascencio-Gutierrez, J A; Salinas-Bravo, V M; Martinez-Gomez, L

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of Ni20Cr coatings deposited by HVOF (high velocity oxygen-fuel) process was evaluated in ZnCl2-KCl (1 : 1 mole ratio) molten salts. Electrochemical techniques employed were potentiodynamic polarization curves, open circuit potential, and linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements. Experimental conditions included static air and temperatures of 350, 400, and 450°C. 304-type SS was evaluated in the same conditions as the Ni20Cr coatings and it was used as a reference material to assess the coatings corrosion resistance. Coatings were evaluated as-deposited and with a grinded surface finished condition. Results showed that Ni20Cr coatings have a better corrosion performance than 304-type SS. Analysis showed that Ni content of the coatings improved its corrosion resistance, and the low corrosion resistance of 304 stainless steel was attributed to the low stability of Fe and Cr and their oxides in the corrosive media used. PMID:25210645

  5. Deep Subthreshold XI{sup -} Production in Ar+KCl Reactions at 1.76A GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Agakishiev, G.; Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kirschner, D.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Metag, V.; Mishra, D.; Pechenova, O.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Balanda, A.; Dybczak, A.; Michalska, B.; Otwinowski, J.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.

    2009-09-25

    We report first results on a deep subthreshold production of the doubly strange hyperon XI{sup -} in a heavy-ion reaction. At a beam energy of 1.76A GeV the reaction Ar+KCl was studied with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer at SIS18/GSI. A high-statistics and high-purity LAMBDA sample was collected, allowing for the investigation of the decay channel XI{sup -}->LAMBDApi{sup -}. The deduced XI{sup -}/(LAMBDA+SIGMA{sup 0}) production ratio of (5.6+-1.2{sub -1.7}{sup +1.8})x10{sup -3} is significantly larger than available model predictions.

  6. Determination of uranium and rare-earth metals separation coefficients in LiCl KCl melt by electrochemical transient techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. A.; Hayashi, H.; Minato, K.; Gaune-Escard, M.

    2005-09-01

    The main step in the pyrometallurgical process of spent nuclear fuel recycling is a molten salt electrorefining. The knowledge of separation coefficients of actinides (U, Np, Pu and Am) and rare-earth metals (Y, La, Ce, Nd and Gd) is very important for this step. Usually the separation coefficients are evaluated from the formal standard potentials of metals in melts containing their own ions, values obtained by potentiometric method. Electrochemical experiments were carried out at 723-823 K in order to estimate separation coefficients in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing uranium and lanthanum trichlorides. It was shown that for the calculation of uranium and lanthanum separation coefficients it is necessary to determine the voltammetric peak potentials of U(III) and La(III), their concentration in the melt and the kinetic parameters relating to U(III) discharge such as transfer and diffusion coefficients, and standard rate constants of charge transfer.

  7. Electrochemical Study of Ni20Cr Coatings Applied by HVOF Process in ZnCl2-KCl at High Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Porcayo-Calderón, J.; Sotelo-Mazón, O.; Casales-Diaz, M.; Ascencio-Gutierrez, J. A.; Salinas-Bravo, V. M.; Martinez-Gomez, L.

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of Ni20Cr coatings deposited by HVOF (high velocity oxygen-fuel) process was evaluated in ZnCl2-KCl (1 : 1 mole ratio) molten salts. Electrochemical techniques employed were potentiodynamic polarization curves, open circuit potential, and linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements. Experimental conditions included static air and temperatures of 350, 400, and 450°C. 304-type SS was evaluated in the same conditions as the Ni20Cr coatings and it was used as a reference material to assess the coatings corrosion resistance. Coatings were evaluated as-deposited and with a grinded surface finished condition. Results showed that Ni20Cr coatings have a better corrosion performance than 304-type SS. Analysis showed that Ni content of the coatings improved its corrosion resistance, and the low corrosion resistance of 304 stainless steel was attributed to the low stability of Fe and Cr and their oxides in the corrosive media used. PMID:25210645

  8. Zr electrorefining process for the treatment of cladding hull waste in LiCl-KCl molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang Hwa; Lee, You Lee; Jeon, Min Ku; Kang, Kweon Ho; Choi, Yong Taek; Park, Geun Il

    2013-07-01

    Zr electrorefining for the treatment of Zircaloy-4 cladding hull waste is demonstrated in LiCl-KCl-ZrCl{sub 4} molten salts. Although a Zr oxide layer thicker than 5 μm strongly inhibits the Zr dissolution process, pre-treatment processes increases the dissolution kinetics. For 10 g-scale experiments, the purities of the recovered Zr were 99.54 wt.% and 99.74 wt.% for fresh and oxidized cladding tubes, respectively, with no electrical contact issue. The optimal condition for Zr electrorefining has been found to improve the morphological feature of the recovered Zr, which reduces the salt incorporation by examining the effect of the process parameters such as the ZrCl{sub 4} concentration and the applied potential.

  9. Generation of KCL029 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in WAS gene.

    PubMed

    Miere, Cristian; Hewitson, Heema; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-01-01

    The KCL029 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried a c.814T>C mutation in the WAS gene, which is linked to the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, a rare, inherited, X-linked, recessive disease characterized by immune dysregulation and microthrombocytopenia. The line is also carrier for a mutation p.N1152H in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator CFTR. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays. PMID:27345811

  10. Spanish LLW and MLW disposal: durability of cemented materials in (Na, K)Cl simulated radioactive liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Goñi, S; Guerrero, A; Hernández, M S

    2001-01-01

    The microstructural stability or durability of a specific backfilling pozzolanic-cement mortar, which is employed in Spain, in concrete containers for the storage of low level liquid wastes (LLW) and medium level liquid wastes (MLW), has been studied by means of the Koch-Steinegger test at the temperatures of 20 and 40 degrees C during a period of 365 days. Mortar samples were immersed in salt solutions of 3.46 M NaCl and 3.46 M KCl to simulate the salinity of some radioactive liquid waste matrices. The resistance of the mortar to the saline solution attack is evaluated by the development of the relative flexural strength. The changes of the microstructure were followed by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Pore solution was extracted and analyzed at different periods of time to know the possible diffusion of sodium, chloride and potassium inside the microstructure. PMID:11150135

  11. Zirconium behaviour during electrorefining of actinide-zirconium alloy in molten LiCl-KCl on aluminium cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, R.; Souček, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Krachler, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Claux, B.; Glatz, J.-P.; Fanghänel, Th.

    2016-04-01

    A pyrochemical electrorefining process for the recovery of actinides from metallic nuclear fuel based on actinide-zirconium alloys (An-Zr) in a molten salt is being investigated. In this process actinides are group-selectively recovered on solid aluminium cathodes as An-Al alloys using a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt at a temperature of 450 °C. In the present study the electrochemical behaviour of zirconium during electrorefining was investigated. The maximum amount of actinides that can be oxidised without anodic co-dissolution of zirconium was determined at a selected constant cathodic current density. The experiment consisted of three steps to assess the different stages of the electrorefining process, each of which employing a fresh aluminium cathode. The results indicate that almost a complete dissolution of the actinides without co-dissolution of zirconium is possible under the applied experimental conditions.

  12. 113. JOB NO. 1347K, SHEET 2M, 1929, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. JOB NO. 1347-K, SHEET 2M, 1929, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; BOILER HOUSE ASSEMBLY PLANT; SECTIONS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. CH2M Hill Hanford Group Inc (CHG) Information Resource Management (IRM) Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, R.L.

    2000-05-08

    The CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., Information Resource Management Strategic Plan is the top-level planning document for applying information and information resource management to achieve the CHG mission for the management of the River Protection Project

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Technology to Market (T2M) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Christopher Todd; Bush, Jason William; Gentle, Jake Paul; Hill, Porter Jack; Myers, Kurt Steven; Williams, Christopher Luke

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a tiered Technology to Market (T2M) curriculum for basic researchers to project leads to measure the effect of technology transfer skills on project success and impact. The plan will train five researchers in basic technology transfer principles where success will be measured by assessing improvements in T2M skills and knowledge after the training is complete, likely using before and after surveys.

  15. Dynamics model of the IBR-2M pulsed reactor for analysis of fast transition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepelyshev, Yu. N.; Popov, A. K.; Sumkhuu, D.; Sangaa, D.

    2015-05-01

    A nonlinear model of the IBR-2M pulsed reactor dynamics relating values of variables at discreet instants of time (when power pulses appear) is developed on the basis of the MATLAB program system. The tests of the model by simulating calculated processes in the IBR-2M reactor proved the correctness of the model. A tentative estimate of the transfer coefficient for the linear part of the automatic regulator is obtained.

  16. Measurements of the salt-removal of NaCl, KCl and MgCl using a carbon electrode prepared with freezing thawing method in capacitive deionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endarko, Sari, Intan Permata; Fatimah, Iim

    2016-04-01

    Carbon electrodes prepared with freezing thawing method for desalination purpose has been synthesized and characterized. The carbon electrodes were prepared with an activated carbon (700 - 1400 m2/g) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a binder using freezing thawing method with 3 and 4 cycles (1 cycle is 12 hours for freezing and 12 hours for thawing). Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to analyze their electrochemical properties. The main study was to measure the salt-removal of 180 µS/cm NaCl, MgCl and KCl using a capacitive deionization (CDI) unit cell with five pairs of carbon electrodes. The applied potential of 2.0 V and a flow rate of 25 mL/min were used to desalination tests, the result showed that the salt-removal percentage of KCl solution has greater than NaCl and MgCl. The highest value for the salt-removal of NaCl, KCl and MgCl can be achieved for the freezing thawing method with 4 cycles. The salt-removal percentage of KCl was achieved at 64.10% whilst resulted in 54.30 and 54.47 % for NaCl and MgCl, respectively.

  17. Effects of Partial Substitutions of NaCl with KCl, CaSO4 and MgSO4 on the Quality and Sensorial Properties of Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of NaCl replacers (KCl, CaSO4, and MgSO4) on the quality and sensorial properties of pork patty. In the characteristics of spray-dried salt particles, KCl showed the largest particle size with low viscosity in solution. Meanwhile CaSO4 treatment resulted in the smallest particle size and the highest viscosity (p<0.05). In comparison of the qualities of pork patties manufactured by varying level of Na replacers, MgSO4 treatment exhibited low cooking loss comparing to control (p<0.05). Textural properties of KCl and MgSO4 treatments showed similar pattern, i.e., low level of the replacers caused harder and less adhesive texture than those of control (p<0.05), whereas the hardness of these products was not different with control when the replacers were added more than 1.0%. The addition of CaSO4 also manifested harder and less adhesive than control (p<0.05), but the textural properties of CaSO4 treatment was not affected by level of Ca-salt. Eventually, sensorial properties indicated that KCl and CaSO4 influenced negative effects on pork patties. In contrast, MgSO4 showed better sensorial properties in juiciness intensity, tenderness intensity as well as overall acceptability than control, reflecting that MgSO4 was an effective Na-replacer in meat product formulation. PMID:26761288

  18. The importance of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} for sulphation of gaseous KCl - An experimental investigation in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Kassman, Haakan; Baefver, Linda; Aamand, Lars-Erik

    2010-09-15

    This paper is based on results obtained during co-combustion of wood pellets and straw in a 12 MW circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. Elemental sulphur (S) and ammonium sulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) were used as additives to convert the alkali chlorides (mainly KCl) to less corrosive alkali sulphates. Their performance was then evaluated using several measurement tools including, IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous alkali chlorides), a low-pressure impactor (particle size distribution and chemical composition of extracted fly ash particles), and deposit probes (chemical composition in deposits collected). The importance of the presence of either SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} for gas phase sulphation of KCl is also discussed. Ammonium sulphate performed significantly better than elemental sulphur. A more efficient sulphation of gaseous KCl was achieved with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} even when the S/Cl molar ratio was less than half compared to sulphur. Thus the presence of gaseous SO{sub 3} is of greater importance than that of SO{sub 2} for the sulphation of gaseous KCl. (author)

  19. Elevated TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes in schizophrenia but not major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Yuta; Kawabe, Kentaro; Yamazaki, Kiyohiro; Watanabe, Shinya; Numata, Shusuke; Mori, Yoko; Yoshida, Taku; Iga, Junichi; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    The pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia (SCZ) have not been clarified, but the microglia hypothesis has recently been discussed. We previously reported that the mRNA for a protein related to activation of microglia, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 2 (TREM2), is expressed higher in peripheral leukocytes in SCZ than controls. In this study, we analyzed TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes from both SCZ and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. We compared 50 SCZ patients and 42 MDD patients with age-matched controls. Levels of TREM2 mRNA in leukocytes were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR method using TaqMan probe. TREM2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in leukocytes of SCZ subjects than controls, but the expression level was non-significantly different in MDD subjects. We observed a decrease in TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes from one SCZ patient after clozapine treatment. The expression did not change following ECT, but the expression level in this patient was still significantly higher than that in controls. We conclude that the high amount of TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes is specific to SCZ but not MDD and that changes in TREM2 mRNA expression may be a trait biomarker for SCZ. PMID:27130565

  20. Short communication: Effect of storage temperature on the solubility of milk protein concentrate 80 (MPC80) treated with NaCl or KCl.

    PubMed

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Walker, J; Wang, T; Rodriguez-Saona, L E

    2016-03-01

    A previous study in our laboratory showed that addition of 150 mM NaCl or KCl into diafiltration water improved the solubility of freshly made milk protein concentrate 80 (MPC80). In the present study, the objectives were (1) to evaluate the solubility of NaCl- or KCl-treated MPC80 samples kept at varying temperatures and then stored for extensive periods at room temperature (21°C ± 1°C); and (2) to determine if MPC80 samples stored at different temperatures and protein conformation can be grouped or categorized together. Freshly manufactured MPC80 samples were untreated (control), processed with NaCl, or processed with KCl. One set of sample bags was stored at 4°C; second and third sets of bags were kept at 25°C and 55°C for 1 mo (31d) and then transferred to room temperature (21°C ± 1°C) storage conditions for 1 yr (365d). Samples were tested for nitrogen solubility index (NSI) and for protein changes by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Analysis of variance results for NSI showed 2 significantly different groupings of MPC80 samples. The more soluble group contained samples treated with NaCl or KCl and stored at either 4°C or 25°C. These samples had mean NSI >97.5%. The less soluble groups contained all control samples, regardless of storage temperature, and NaCl- or KCl-treated samples stored at 55°C. These samples had mean NSI from 39.5 to 58%. Within each of these groups (more soluble and less soluble), no significant differences in solubility were detected. Pattern recognition analysis by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to assess protein changes during storage by monitoring the amide I and amide II (1,700(-1) to 1,300cm(-1)) regions. Dominant bands were observed at 1,385cm(-1) for control, 1,551cm(-1) for KCl-treated samples, and 1,694cm(-1) for NaCl-treated samples. Moreover, SIMCA clustered the MPC80 samples stored at 4°C separately from samples stored at 25°C and 55°C. This study demonstrates that (1

  1. The effects of perfusion rate and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on cirazoline- and KCl-induced responses in the perfused mesenteric arterial bed of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Adeagbo, A. S.; Tabrizchi, R.; Triggle, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on the perfusion rate/pressure relations, and on the pressor responses induced to cirazoline and KCl in isolated, perfused mesenteric arterial beds from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. 2. The basal perfusion pressure of arterial beds perfused with either physiological salt solution (PSS) or PSS containing 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone increased as the perfusion rate increased. L-NAME, in concentrations up to 100 microM, failed to alter the basal pressure regardless of the perfusion rate and viscosity; however, at 5 microM, it potentiated cirazoline-induced vasoconstriction at each of the perfusion rates. 3. L-NAME but not D-NAME caused a leftward shift of cirazoline concentration-response curves with a marked increase in the maximal response. The potentiating action of L-NAME was abolished in arterial beds perfused with a Ca(2+)-free physiological salt solution and also in beds denuded of endothelium by an infusion of distilled water for 5 min. 4. In endothelium-intact and -denuded preparations, L-NAME potentiated KCl pressor responses; the endothelium-independent potentiation of KCl pressor activity was stereospecific, time-independent and was not prevented by the presence of dexamethasone (0.5 microM) in the perfusion medium. However, L-NAME failed to potentiate vasoconstriction obtained to KCl in arterial beds denervated by cold storage (4-5 degrees C) for 2 days. 5. The absence of K+ in the perfusate did not inhibit the ability of L-NAME to potentiate alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated pressor responses, and nor did L-NAME inhibit KCl-induced vasodilatation in preconstricted arteries. It was thus concluded that L-NAME does not affect Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7912152

  2. The role of activator concentration and precipitate formation on optical and dosimetric properties of KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphor detectors

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Rachael A.; Xiao, Zhiyan; Hu, Yanle; Green, Olga; Yang, Deshan; Harold Li, H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The activator ion (Eu2+ in KCl:Eu2+) plays an important role in the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) mechanism of storage phosphor radiation detectors. In order to design an accurate, effective, and robust detector, it is important to understand how the activator ion concentration affects the structure and, consequently, radiation detection properties of KCl:Eu2+. Methods: Potassium chloride pellets were fabricated with various amounts of europium dopant (0.01–5.0 mol.% Eu2+). Clinical radiation doses were given with a 6 MV linear accelerator. Radiation doses larger than 100 Gy were given with a 137Cs irradiator. Dose response curves, radiation hardness, and temporal signal stability were measured using a laboratory PSL readout system. The crystal structure of the material was studied using x ray diffraction and luminescence spectroscopy. Results: The most intense PSL signal was from samples with 1.0 mol.% Eu. However, samples with concentrations higher than 0.05 mol.% Eu exhibited significant degradation in PSL intensity for cumulated doses larger than 3000 Gy. Structural and luminescence spectroscopy showed clear evidence of precipitate phases within the KCl lattice, especially for high activator concentrations. Analysis of PL emission spectra showed that interactions between Eu-Vc dipoles and Eu-Vc trimers could explain trends in PSL sensitivity and radiation hardness observations. Conclusions: The concentration of the activator ion (Eu2+) significantly affects radiation detection properties of the storage phosphor KCl:Eu2+. An activator concentration between 0.01 and 0.05 mol.% Eu in KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphor detectors is recommended for linear dose response, good PSL sensitivity, predictable temporal stability, and high reusability for megavoltage radiation detection. PMID:24007173

  3. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Dalgaard, Louise T.

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic {beta}-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/- islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2-/- and GK+/- islets compared with GK+/- islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/- mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/- mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

  4. Investigation of irradiated soil byproducts.

    PubMed

    Brey, R R; Rodriguez, R; Harmon, J F; Winston, P

    2001-01-01

    The high dose irradiation of windblown soil deposited onto the surface of spent nuclear fuel is of concern to long-term fuel storage stability. Such soils could be exposed to radiation fields as great as 1.08 x 10(-3) C/kg-s (15,000 R/hr) during the 40-year anticipated period of interim dry storage prior to placement at the proposed national repository. The total absorbed dose in these cases could be as high as 5 x 10(7) Gy (5 x 10(9) rads). This investigation evaluated the potential generation of explosive or combustible irradiation byproducts during this irradiation. It focuses on the production of radiolytic byproducts generated within the pore water of surrogate clays that are consistent with those found on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Synthesized surrogates of localized soils containing combinations of clay, water, and aluminum samples, enclosed within a stainless steel vessel were irradiated and the quantities of the byproducts generated measured. Two types of clays, varying primarily in the presence of iron oxide, were investigated. Two treatment levels of irradiation and a control were investigated. An 18-Mev linear accelerator was used to irradiate samples. The first irradiation level provided an absorbed dose of 3.9 x 10(5)+/-1.4 x 10(5)Gy (3.9 x 10(7)+/-1.4 x 10(7) rads) in a 3-h period. At the second irradiation level, 4.8 x 10(5)+/-2.0 x 10(5)Gy (4.8 x 10(7)+/-2.0 x 10(7) rads) were delivered in a 6-h period. When averaged over all treatment parameters, irradiated clay samples with and without iron (III) oxide (moisture content = 40%) had a production rate of hydrogen gas that was a strong function of radiation-dose. A g-value of 5.61 x 10(-9)+/-1.56 x 10(-9) mol/J (0.054+/-0.015 molecules/100-eV) per mass of pore water was observed in the clay samples without iron (III) oxide for hydrogen gas production. A g-value of 1.07 x 10(-8)+/-2.91 x 10(-9) mol/J (0.103+0.028 molecules/100-eV) per mass of pore water was observed

  5. Centrosome-associated regulators of the G2/M checkpoint as targets for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingmei; Ji, Ping; Liu, Jinsong; Broaddus, Russell R; Xue, Fengxia; Zhang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, control mechanisms have developed that restrain cell-cycle transitions in response to stress. These regulatory pathways are termed cell-cycle checkpoints. The G2/M checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis when DNA is damaged in order to afford these cells an opportunity to repair the damaged DNA before propagating genetic defects to the daughter cells. If the damage is irreparable, checkpoint signaling might activate pathways that lead to apoptosis. Since alteration of cell-cycle control is a hallmark of tumorigenesis, cell-cycle regulators represent potential targets for therapy. The centrosome has recently come into focus as a critical cellular organelle that integrates G2/M checkpoint control and repairs signals in response to DNA damage. A growing number of G2/M checkpoint regulators have been found in the centrosome, suggesting that centrosome has an important role in G2/M checkpoint function. In this review, we discuss centrosome-associated regulators of the G2/M checkpoint, the dysregulation of this checkpoint in cancer, and potential candidate targets for cancer therapy. PMID:19216791

  6. Viscum album-Mediated COX-2 Inhibition Implicates Destabilization of COX-2 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Chaitrali; Hegde, Pushpa; Friboulet, Alain; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Kaveri, Srinivas V.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive use of Viscum album (VA) preparations in the complementary therapy of cancer and in several other human pathologies has led to an increasing number of cellular and molecular approaches to explore the mechanisms of action of VA. We have recently demonstrated that, VA preparations exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect by selectively down-regulating the COX-2-mediated cytokine-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), one of the important molecular signatures of inflammatory reactions. In this study, we observed a significant down-regulation of COX-2 protein expression in VA-treated A549 cells however COX-2 mRNA levels were unaltered. Therefore, we hypothesized that VA induces destabilisation of COX-2 mRNA, thereby depleting the available functional COX-2 mRNA for the protein synthesis and for the subsequent secretion of PGE2. To address this question, we analyzed the molecular degradation of COX-2 protein and its corresponding mRNA in A549 cell line. Using cyclohexamide pulse chase experiment, we demonstrate that, COX-2 protein degradation is not affected by the treatment with VA whereas experiments on transcriptional blockade with actinomycin D, revealed a marked reduction in the half life of COX-2 mRNA due to its rapid degradation in the cells treated with VA compared to that in IL-1β-stimulated cells. These results thus demonstrate that VA-mediated inhibition of PGE2 implicates destabilization of COX-2 mRNA. PMID:25664986

  7. Soil carbon sequestration by three perennial legume pastures is greater in deeper soil layers than in the surface soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.-K.; Turner, N. C.; Song, L.; Gu, Y.-J.; Wang, T.-C.; Li, F.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a vital role as both a sink for and source of atmospheric carbon. Revegetation of degraded arable land in China is expected to increase soil carbon sequestration, but the role of perennial legumes on soil carbon stocks in semiarid areas has not been quantified. In this study, we assessed the effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and two locally adapted forage legumes, bush clover (Lespedeza davurica S.) and milk vetch (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) on the SOC concentration and SOC stock accumulated annually over a 2 m soil profile. The results showed that the concentration of SOC in the bare soil decreased slightly over the 7 years, while 7 years of legume growth substantially increased the concentration of SOC over the 0-2.0 m soil depth. Over the 7-year growth period the SOC stocks increased by 24.1, 19.9 and 14.6 Mg C ha-1 under the alfalfa, bush clover and milk vetch stands, respectively, and decreased by 4.2 Mg C ha-1 in the bare soil. The sequestration of SOC in the 1-2 m depth of the soil accounted for 79, 68 and 74 % of the SOC sequestered in the 2 m deep soil profile under alfalfa, bush clover and milk vetch, respectively. Conversion of arable land to perennial legume pasture resulted in a significant increase in SOC, particularly at soil depths below 1 m.

  8. Dietary NiCl2 causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in the broiler's kidney

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Wu, Bangyuan; Chen, Kejie; Deng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Here we showed that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg caused the G2/M cell cycle arrest and the reduction of cell proportion at S phase. The G2/M cell cycle arrest was accompanied by up-regulation of phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (p-ATM), p53, p-Chk1, p-Chk2, p21 protein expression and ATM, p53, p21, Chk1, Chk2 mRNA expression, and down-regulation of p-cdc25C, cdc2, cyclinB and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression and the cdc25, cdc2, cyclinB, PCNA mRNA expression. PMID:26440151

  9. Current status of advanced pelletized cold moderators development for IBR-2M research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, S.; Belyakov, A.; Bulavin, M.; Mukhin, K.; Shabalin, E.; Verhoglyadov, A.

    2013-03-01

    The world's first advanced pelletized cold neutron moderator is prepared to be put into operation at the IBR-2M pulsed research reactor. It provides long-wavelength neutrons to the most of neutron spectrometers at the beams of the IBR-2M reactor. Aromatic hydrocarbons are used as a material for cold moderators. It is a very attractive material because of its high radiation resistance, good moderating properties, incombustibility, etc. It is shown that the idea of beads transport by a helium flow at cryogenic temperatures is successful. The recent progress and plans for moderator development at the IBR-2M reactor as well as the experimental results of beads transport are discussed in the paper.

  10. Apigenin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation through G2/M cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Ujiki, Michael B; Ding, Xian-Zhong; Salabat, M Reza; Bentrem, David J; Golkar, Laleh; Milam, Ben; Talamonti, Mark S; Bell, Richard H; Iwamura, Takeshi; Adrian, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    Background Many chemotherapeutic agents have been used to treat pancreatic cancer without success. Apigenin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit growth in some cancer cell lines but has not been studied in pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that apigenin would inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro. Results Apigenin caused both time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in four pancreatic cancer cell lines. Apigenin induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Apigenin reduced levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, phosphorylated forms of cdc2 and cdc25, which are all proteins required for G2/M transition. Conclusion Apigenin inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells through suppression of cyclin B-associated cdc2 activity and G2/M arrest, and may be a valuable drug for the treatment or prevention of pancreatic cancer. PMID:17196098

  11. Effect of potassium salts and distillery effluent on carbon mineralization in soil.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Suresh; Joshi, H C; Pathak, H; Jain, M C; Kalra, N

    2002-07-01

    Distillery effluent, a rich source of potassium, is used for irrigation at many places in the world. A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the influence of potassium salts present in post-methanation distillery effluent (PME) along with two other salts, KCl and K2SO4, on mineralization of carbon in soil. PME oxidized with H2O2, raw PME, KCl and K2SO4 solutions containing K equivalent to 10%, 20%, 40% and 100% of K present in PME were added to the soil separately, maintaining four replications for each treatment and control. Addition of salts up to a certain concentration stimulated C mineralization but a decline was noticed at higher concentrations. All the levels of salts caused higher CO2 evolution than the control suggesting that the presence of K salts enhanced the microbial activity resulting in increased CO2 evolution. The influence of K2SO4 was significantly higher than KCl in stimulating C mineralization in soil. Oxidized effluent had a higher stimulating effect than inorganic salts, showing the influence of other salts accompanying K in the PME. Raw PME, which contained excess organic C, increased CO2 evolution even at the highest salt level (100% PME) signifying the effect of added C on alleviating the salt stress on microbial activity. PMID:12094803

  12. Weak-value thermostat with 0.2 mK precision.

    PubMed

    Egan, Patrick; Stone, Jack A

    2012-12-01

    A new laser-based thermostat sensitive to 0.2 mK at room temperature is reported. The method utilizes a fluid-filled prism and interferometric weak-value amplification to sense nanoradian deviations of a laser beam: due to the high thermo-optic coefficient of the fluid (colorless fluorocarbon), the deviation angle through the prism is sensitive to temperature. We estimate the daily stability of our device to be 0.2 mK, which is limited by drifts in the apparatus, and the narrow 20 mK capture range is the price paid for the weak measurement. PMID:23202114

  13. Composition of steam in the system NaCl-KCl-H2O-quartz at 600°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, Robert O.; Thompson, J. Michael

    1993-01-01

    In the system NaCl-KCl-H2O, with and without ??-quartz present, steam was equilibrated in a large-volume reaction vessel with brine and/or precipitated salt at 600??C and pressures ranging from about 100 to 0.4 MPa. Episodically, steam was extracted for chemical analysis, accompanied by a decrease in pressure within the reaction vessel. In the absence of precipitated salt, within the analytical uncertainty stoichiometric quantities of Cl and total alkali, metals (Na + K) dissolve in steam coexisting with chloriderich brine. In contrast, in the presence of precipitated salt (in our experiments halite with some KCl in solid solution), significant excess chloride as associated hydrogen chloride (HCl0??) dissolves in steam. The HCl0 is generated by the reaction of steam with solid NaCl(s), producing solid NaOH(s) that diffuses into halite, forming a solid solution. In our quasistatic experiments, compared to dynamic flow-through experiments of others, higher initial ratios of H2O/NaCl have apparently resulted in higher model fractions of NaOH(s) in solid solution in halite. This, in turn, resulted in incrementally higher concentrations of associated NaOHo dissolved in steam. Addition of quartz to the system NaCl + KC1 + H2O resulted in an order of magnitude increase in the concentration of HCl0 dissolved in steam, apparently as a consequence of the formation of sodium disilicate by reaction of silica with NaOH(s). The measured dissolved silica in steam saturated with alkali halides at 600??C in the pressure range 7-70 MPa agrees nicely with calculated values of the solubility of ??-quartz obtained using the equation of Fournier and Potter (1982), corrected for dissolved salt by the method of fournier (1983). Na K ratios in steam at 600??C tend to be slightly greater than in coexisting brine. When precipitated halite is present, larger mole fractions of NaOH(s) in solid solution in that halite apparently result in even larger Na K ratios in coexisting steam

  14. Syntheses and structural characterization of non-centrosymmetric Na2M2M'S6 (M, M‧=Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn, Zn, Cd) sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohannan, Jinu P.; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2016-06-01

    Seven new non-centrosymmetric Na2M2M'S6 sulfides, namely, Na2Sn2ZnS6(1), Na2Ga2GeS6(2), Na2Ga2SnS6(3-α), Na2Ga2SnS6(3-β), Na2Ge2ZnS6(4), Na2Ge2CdS6(5), Na2In2SiS6(6) and Na2In2GeS6(7), were synthesized by high temperature solid state reactions and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. They crystallize in non-centrosymmetric Fdd2 and Cc space groups and their three-dimensional [M2M‧S6]2-framework structures consist of MS4 and M‧S4 tetrahedra corner-connected to one another in either orderly or disordered fashion. Sodium ions reside in the tunnels of the anionic framework. Compounds 1, 2 and 3-α have the structure of known Li2Ga2GeS6, whereas compounds 6 and 7 are isostructural with known Li2In2GeS6 compound. Isostructural compounds 4 and 5 represent a new structural variant. Compounds 3-α and its new monoclinic structural variant 3-β have disordered structural framework. All of them are wide band gap semiconductors. Na2Ga2GeS6(2), Na2Ga2SnS6(3), Na2Ge2ZnS6(4) and Na2In2GeS6(7) compounds are found to be second-harmonic generation (SHG) active. Compounds 1, 2 and 3-α melt congruently.

  15. Creating deep soil core monoliths: Beyond the solum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil monoliths serve as useful teaching aids in the study of the Earth’s critical zone where rock, soil, water, air, and organisms interact. Typical monolith preparation has so far been confined to the 1 to 2-m depth of the solum. Critical ecosystem services provided by soils include materials from ...

  16. A survey on M2M systems for mHealth: a wireless communications perspective.

    PubMed

    Kartsakli, Elli; Lalos, Aris S; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Tennina, Stefano; Renzo, Marco Di; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    In the new era of connectivity, marked by the explosive number of wireless electronic devices and the need for smart and pervasive applications, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are an emerging technology that enables the seamless device interconnection without the need of human interaction. The use of M2M technology can bring to life a wide range of mHealth applications, with considerable benefits for both patients and healthcare providers. Many technological challenges have to be met, however, to ensure the widespread adoption of mHealth solutions in the future. In this context, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey on M2M systems for mHealth applications from a wireless communication perspective. An end-to-end holistic approach is adopted, focusing on different communication aspects of the M2M architecture. Hence, we first provide a systematic review ofWireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), which constitute the enabling technology at the patient's side, and then discuss end-to-end solutions that involve the design and implementation of practical mHealth applications. We close the survey by identifying challenges and open research issues, thus paving the way for future research opportunities. PMID:25264958

  17. CH2M Hill Hanford Group Inc (CHG) Information Resource Management (IRM) Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, R.L.

    2000-06-06

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), Information Resource Management Strategic Plan is the top-level planning document for applying information and information resource management to achieve the CHG mission for the management of the River Protection Project waste tank farm.

  18. LTE-advanced random access mechanism for M2M communication: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Rashid; Sarowa, Sandeep; Jaglan, Reena Rathee; Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Agrawal, Sunil

    2016-03-01

    Machine Type Communications (MTC) enables one or more self-sufficient machines to communicate directly with one another without human interference. MTC applications include smart grid, security, e-Health and intelligent automation system. To support huge numbers of MTC devices, one of the challenging issues is to provide a competent way for numerous access in the network and to minimize network overload. In this article, the different control mechanisms for overload random access are reviewed to avoid congestion caused by random access channel (RACH) of MTC devices. However, past and present wireless technologies have been engineered for Human-to-Human (H2H) communications, in particular, for transmission of voice. Consequently the Long Term Evolution (LTE) -Advanced is expected to play a central role in communicating Machine to Machine (M2M) and are very optimistic about H2H communications. Distinct and unique characteristics of M2M communications create new challenges from those in H2H communications. In this article, we investigate the impact of massive M2M terminals attempting random access to LTE-Advanced all at once. We discuss and review the solutions to alleviate the overload problem by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). As a result, we evaluate and compare these solutions that can effectively eliminate the congestion on the random access channel for M2M communications without affecting H2H communications.

  19. NFBD1/MDC1 participates in the regulation of G2/M transition in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Youquan; Suenaga, Yusuke; Okoshi, Rintaro; Sang, Meixiang; Kubo, Natsumi; Song, Fangzhou; Nakagawara, Akira; Ozaki, Toshinori

    2010-06-25

    NFBD1/MDC1 is a large nuclear protein involved in the early cellular response to DNA damage. Upon DNA damage, NFBD1 has an ability to facilitate the efficient DNA repair. In the present study, we have found that, in addition to DNA damage response, NFBD1 plays a critical role in the regulation of G2/M transition. Expression study using synchronized HeLa cells demonstrated that, like the mitotic kinase Plk1, NFBD1 expression level is maximal in G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. siRNA-mediated knockdown of NFBD1 resulted in G2/M arrest as well as simultaneous apoptosis in association with a significant increase in the amounts of {gamma}H2AX and pro-apoptotic p73. Since a remarkable down-regulation of mitotic phospho-histone H3 was detectable in NFBD1-knocked down cells, it is likely that knocking down of NFBD1 inhibits G2/M transition. Taken together, our present findings suggest that NFBD1 has a pivotal role in the regulation of proper mitotic entry.

  20. The Discharge Design of HL-2M with the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC)

    SciTech Connect

    Yudong Pan, S.C. Jardin, and C. Kes

    2007-10-10

    We present results on the discharge design of the HL-2M tokamak, which is to be an upgrade to the existing HL-2A tokamak. We present simulation results for complete 5-sec. discharges, both double null and lower single null, for both ohmic and auxiliary heated discharges. We also discuss the vertical stability properties of the device. __________________________________________________

  1. Performance of V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy Exposed to the JFT-2M Tokamak Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P.W.; Sengoku, S.; Ishiyama, S.; Fukaya, K.; Eto, M.; Oda, T.; Hirohata, Y.; Hino, T.; Tsai, H.

    1999-10-01

    A long-term test has been conducted in the JFT-2M tokamak fusion device to determine the effects of environmental exposure on the mechanical and chemical behavior of a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. Test specimens of the alloy were exposed in the outward lower divertor chamber of JFT-2M in a region away from direct contact with the plasma and were preheated to 300 C just prior to and during selected plasma discharges. During their nine-month residence time in JFT-2M, the specimens experienced approximately 200 lower single-null divertor shots at 300 C, during which high energy particle fluxes to the preheated test specimens were significant, and approximately 2,010 upper single-null divertor shots and non-diverter shots at room temperature, for which high energy particle fluxes to and expected particle retention in the test specimens were very low. Data from post-exposure tests have indicated that the performance of the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy would not be significantly affected by environmental exposure to gaseous species at partial pressures typical for tokamak operation. Deuterium retention in the exposed alloy was also low (<2 ppm). Absorption of interstitial by the alloy was limited to the very near surface, and neither the strength nor the Charpy impact properties of the alloy appeared to be significantly changed from the exposure to the JFT-2M tokamak environment.

  2. A Survey on M2M Systems for mHealth: A Wireless Communications Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kartsakli, Elli; Lalos, Aris S.; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Tennina, Stefano; Di Renzo, Marco; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    In the new era of connectivity, marked by the explosive number of wireless electronic devices and the need for smart and pervasive applications, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are an emerging technology that enables the seamless device interconnection without the need of human interaction. The use of M2M technology can bring to life a wide range of mHealth applications, with considerable benefits for both patients and healthcare providers. Many technological challenges have to be met, however, to ensure the widespread adoption of mHealth solutions in the future. In this context, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey on M2M systems for mHealth applications from a wireless communication perspective. An end-to-end holistic approach is adopted, focusing on different communication aspects of the M2M architecture. Hence, we first provide a systematic review of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), which constitute the enabling technology at the patient's side, and then discuss end-to-end solutions that involve the design and implementation of practical mHealth applications. We close the survey by identifying challenges and open research issues, thus paving the way for future research opportunities. PMID:25264958

  3. Estimation of the composition of intermetallic compounds in LiCl-KCl molten salt by cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya L; Liu, Kui; Yuan, Li Y; Chai, Zhi F; Shi, Wei Q

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the compositions of Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi intermetallic compounds were estimated by the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. At first, CV measurements were carried out at different reverse potentials to study the co-reduction processes of Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi systems. The CV curves obtained were then re-plotted with the current as a function of time, and the coulomb number of each peak was calculated. By comparing the coulomb number of the related peaks, the compositions of the Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi intermetallic compounds formed in the co-reduction process could be estimated. The results showed that Al11Ce3, Al3Ce, Al2Ce and AlCe could be formed by the co-reduction of Ce(iii) and Al(iii). For the co-reduction of Er(iii) and Al(iii), Al3Er2, Al2Er and AlEr were formed. In a La(iii) and Bi(iii) co-existing system in LiCl-KCl melts, LaBi2, LaBi and Li3Bi were the major products as a result of co-reduction. PMID:27203295

  4. {Lambda}-p femtoscopy in collisions of Ar+KCl at 1.76A GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Agakishiev, G.; Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kirschner, D.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Metag, V.; Mishra, D.; Pechenova, O.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Balanda, A.; Dybczak, A.; Michalska, B.; Otwinowski, J.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.

    2010-08-15

    Results on {Lambda}p femtoscopy are reported at the lowest energy so far. At a beam energy of 1.76A GeV, the reaction Ar+KCl was studied with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at SIS18/GSI. A high-statistics and high-purity {Lambda} sample was collected, allowing for the investigation of {Lambda}p correlations at low relative momenta. The experimental correlation function is compared to corresponding model calculations allowing the determination of the space-time extent of the {Lambda}p emission source. The {Lambda}p source radius is found to be slightly smaller than the pp correlation radius for a similar collision system. The present {Lambda}p radius is significantly smaller than that found for Au+Au/Pb+Pb collisions in the AGS, SPS, and RHIC energy domains but larger than that observed for electroproduction from He. Taking into account all available data, we find the {Lambda}p source radius to increase almost linearly with the number of participants to the power of one-third.

  5. Loss of K-Cl co-transporter KCC3 causes deafness, neurodegeneration and reduced seizure threshold

    PubMed Central

    Boettger, Thomas; Rust, Marco B.; Maier, Hannes; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Schweizer, Michaela; Keating, Damien J.; Faulhaber, Jörg; Ehmke, Heimo; Pfeffer, Carsten; Scheel, Olaf; Lemcke, Beate; Horst, Jürgen; Leuwer, Rudolf; Pape, Hans-Christian; Völkl, Harald; Hübner, Christian A.; Jentsch, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    K-Cl co-transporters are encoded by four homologous genes and may have roles in transepithelial transport and in the regulation of cell volume and cytoplasmic chloride. KCC3, an isoform mutated in the human Anderman syndrome, is expressed in brain, epithelia and other tissues. To investigate the physiological functions of KCC3, we disrupted its gene in mice. This severely impaired cell volume regulation as assessed in renal tubules and neurons, and moderately raised intraneuronal Cl– concentration. Kcc3–/– mice showed severe motor abnormalities correlating with a progressive neurodegeneration in the peripheral and CNS. Although no spontaneous seizures were observed, Kcc3–/– mice displayed reduced seizure threshold and spike-wave complexes on electrocorticograms. These resembled EEG abnormalities in patients with Anderman syndrome. Kcc3–/– mice also displayed arterial hypertension and a slowly progressive deafness. KCC3 was expressed in many, but not all cells of the inner ear K+ recycling pathway. These cells slowly degenerated, as did sensory hair cells. The present mouse model has revealed important cellular and systemic functions of KCC3 and is highly relevant for Anderman syndrome. PMID:14532115

  6. Electrochemical behaviors of PuN and (U, Pu)N in LiCl KCl eutectic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, O.; Kato, T.; Iwai, T.; Arai, Y.; Yamashita, T.

    2005-02-01

    Electrochemical behaviors of PuN and (U, Pu)N in the LiCl KCl eutectic melts at 773 K were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical dissolution of PuN and (U, Pu)N began nearly at -0.90±0.05 and -0.95±0.05 V (vs. Ag+/Ag), respectively. The rest potentials of PuN and (U, Pu)N were observed at about 0.15 V more negative potential than that of UN, in the present experimental condition. The observed rest potentials of (U, Pu)N depended on the equilibrium potential of the Pu3+/PuN. In the cyclic voltammogram measured by use of (U, Pu)N as the working electrode, a steep rise of the positive current was observed at potentials more positive than -0.45 V in analogy with the cyclic voltammogram measured by use of UN as the working electrode. These indicate that UN and PuN in (U, Pu)N would be dissolved independently irrespective of forming the solid solution.

  7. A Glial K/Cl Transporter Controls Neuronal Receptive Ending Shape by Chloride Inhibition of an rGC.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, Aakanksha; Liu, Bingqian; Friedman, Christine J; Fong, Jennifer; Lu, Yun; Huang, Xin-Yun; Shaham, Shai

    2016-05-01

    Neurons receive input from the outside world or from other neurons through neuronal receptive endings (NREs). Glia envelop NREs to create specialized microenvironments; however, glial functions at these sites are poorly understood. Here, we report a molecular mechanism by which glia control NRE shape and associated animal behavior. The C. elegans AMsh glial cell ensheathes the NREs of 12 neurons, including the thermosensory neuron AFD. KCC-3, a K/Cl transporter, localizes specifically to a glial microdomain surrounding AFD receptive ending microvilli, where it regulates K(+) and Cl(-) levels. We find that Cl(-) ions function as direct inhibitors of an NRE-localized receptor-guanylyl-cyclase, GCY-8, which synthesizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). High cGMP mediates the effects of glial KCC-3 on AFD shape by antagonizing the actin regulator WSP-1/NWASP. Components of this pathway are broadly expressed throughout the nervous system, suggesting that ionic regulation of the NRE microenvironment may be a conserved mechanism by which glia control neuron shape and function. PMID:27062922

  8. The neuronal K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 influences postsynaptic AMPA receptor content and lateral diffusion in dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Gauvain, Grégory; Chamma, Ingrid; Chevy, Quentin; Cabezas, Carolina; Irinopoulou, Theano; Bodrug, Natalia; Carnaud, Michèle; Lévi, Sabine; Poncer, Jean Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 plays an essential role in neuronal chloride homeostasis, and thereby influences the efficacy and polarity of GABA signaling. Although KCC2 is expressed throughout the somatodendritic membrane, it is remarkably enriched in dendritic spines, which host most glutamatergic synapses in cortical neurons. KCC2 has been shown to influence spine morphogenesis and functional maturation in developing neurons, but its function in mature dendritic spines remains unknown. Here, we report that suppressing KCC2 expression decreases the efficacy of excitatory synapses in mature hippocampal neurons. This effect correlates with a reduced postsynaptic aggregation of GluR1-containing AMPA receptors and is mimicked by a dominant negative mutant of KCC2 interaction with cytoskeleton but not by pharmacological suppression of KCC2 function. Single-particle tracking experiments reveal that suppressing KCC2 increases lateral diffusion of the mobile fraction of AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 in spines but not in adjacent dendritic shafts. Increased diffusion was also observed for transmembrane but not membrane-anchored recombinant neuronal cell adhesion molecules. We suggest that KCC2, likely through interactions with the actin cytoskeleton, hinders transmembrane protein diffusion, and thereby contributes to their confinement within dendritic spines. PMID:21878564

  9. Role of the neuronal K-Cl co-transporter KCC2 in inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Chamma, Ingrid; Chevy, Quentin; Poncer, Jean Christophe; Lévi, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The K-Cl co-transporter KCC2 plays multiple roles in the physiology of central neurons and alterations of its function and/or expression are associated with several neurological conditions. By regulating intraneuronal chloride homeostasis, KCC2 strongly influences the efficacy and polarity of the chloride-permeable γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A and glycine receptor (GlyR) mediated synaptic transmission. This appears particularly critical for the development of neuronal circuits as well as for the dynamic control of GABA and glycine signaling in mature networks. The activity of the transporter is also associated with transmembrane water fluxes which compensate solute fluxes associated with synaptic activity. Finally, KCC2 interaction with the actin cytoskeleton appears critical both for dendritic spine morphogenesis and the maintenance of glutamatergic synapses. In light of the pivotal role of KCC2 in the maturation and function of central synapses, it is of particular importance to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation. These include development and activity-dependent modifications both at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. We emphasize the importance of post-translational mechanisms such as phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, oligomerization, cell surface stability, clustering and membrane diffusion for the rapid and dynamic regulation of KCC2 function. PMID:22363264

  10. Quantitative analysis of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt by spectrophotometry and electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tack-Jin; Uehara, Akihiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Yamana, Hajimu

    2011-02-01

    The redox behavior of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ in the LiCl-KCl eutectic at 773 K was investigated. Since the equilibrium potential of the melt is very close to the redox potential of the Eu 3+|Eu 2+ couple, the Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ species coexist. Quantitative analysis of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ was performed by spectrophotometry and by potentiometry. Under the coexistence of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+, potentiometric titration of Eu ion using a yttria-stabilized zirconia membrane electrode (YSZME) was performed by changing the concentration of O 2-. The formation of the europium oxychloride, EuOCl, was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, whiles no precipitation of the oxides, EuO and Eu 2O 3, was found. The equivalent point of the EuOCl formation ( x = [O 2-] added/[Eu] total) was shifted to a smaller value from the theoretical value ( x = 1) due to the coexisting Eu 2+. The contribution of the coexisting Eu 2+ to the formation of EuOCl was estimated by using [Eu 2+]/[Eu 3+] as determined by potentiometry and this was subtracted from the titration data. The solubility product of EuOCl was determined to be p ks(EuOCl) = 7.81 ± 0.10.

  11. The single-electrode Peltier heats of Li-Al alloy electrodes in LiCl-KCl eutectic system

    SciTech Connect

    Amezawa, Koji; Ito, Yasuhiko; Tomii, Yoichi )

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents the single-electrode Peltier heat of cathodic (or anodic) reaction of Li-Al alloy electrode in a coexisting phase state, or an intermetallic compound phase state estimated by thermoelectric-power measurement. The thermoelectric-power measurements of Li-Al alloys in various coexisting phase states were carried out with both potentiometric and potential-sweep methods in the LiCl-KCl eutectic system between 673 and 843 K. The values of the thermoelectric power of Li-Al alloys calculated by using thermodynamic literature data were in good agreement with those obtained by experiment. The single-electrode Peltier heat changes drastically with change of its phase state, and it was found that the formation reactions of [beta] (Li[sub 0.5]Al[sub 0.5]) and [gamma] (Li[sub 0.6]Al[sub 0.4]) phases are exothermic, and those of liquid phase from [beta] and [gamma] phase are endothermic. The single-electrode Peltier heat for the cathodic formation reaction of Li-Al alloy in intermetallic compound [gamma] phase is estimated to be exothermic by using the measured values of thermoelectric powers of Li-Al alloys in ([beta] + [gamma]) and ([gamma] + liq.) regions.

  12. Conservative management of cervical pregnancy with intramuscular administration of methotrexate and KCl injection: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Petousis, Stamatios; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Karavas, George; Palapelas, Vasileios; Prapas, Nikolaos; Rousso, David

    2015-01-16

    We report the case of a cervical pregnancy successfully treated with intramuscular injection of methotrexate (MTX) and intramniotic administration of potassium chloride. A 41-year-old woman was admitted to our Department with the suspicion of ectopic pregnancy. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed empty endometrial cavity, gestational sac within the cervical canal and embryonic echo measuring crown rump length 1.5 mm. Serum beta human chorionic gonadotropine (β-HCG) was measured 28590 IU/L. No cardiac activity was detected. The diagnosis of a cervical pregnancy was made. Patient was treated with intramuscular administration of methotrexate (50 mg/m(2)) in combination with ultrasound-guided intramniotic injection of KCl (2 meq/mL). Gradual decrease of β-HCG levels as well as ultrasound observation of collapsed gestational sac was observed. No curettage was necessitated. Patient was discharged on day 10(th) and was set in follow-up on a weekly basis. β-HCG values were measured < 10 IU/L on 56(th) day after MTX administration. Intramuscular administration of MTX may be effective in treatment of cervical pregnancy without additional interventional measures. PMID:25610854

  13. The K(+)-Cl(-) Cotransporter KCC2 and Chloride Homeostasis: Potential Therapeutic Target in Acute Central Nervous System Injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haijian; Che, Xiaoru; Tang, Junjia; Ma, Feiqiang; Pan, Kun; Zhao, Mingfei; Shao, Anwen; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Jianmin; Hong, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    The K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter-2 (KCC2) is a well-known member of the electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters with a restricted expression pattern to neurons. This transmembrane protein mediates the efflux of Cl(-) out of neurons and exerts a critical role in inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) and glycinergic neurotransmission. Moreover, KCC2 participates in the regulation of various physiological processes of neurons, including cell migration, dendritic outgrowth, spine morphology, and dendritic synaptogenesis. It is important to note that down-regulation of KCC2 is associated with the pathogenesis of multiple neurological diseases, which is of particular relevance to acute central nervous system (CNS) injury. In this review, we aim to survey the pathogenic significance of KCC2 down-regulation under the condition of acute CNS injuries. We propose that further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regarding KCC2 down-regulation after acute CNS injuries is necessary because of potential promising avenues for prevention and treatment of acute CNS injury. PMID:25941074

  14. With no lysine L-WNK1 isoforms are negative regulators of the K+-Cl- cotransporters.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Adriana; de Los Heros, Paola; Melo, Zesergio; Chávez-Canales, María; Murillo-de-Ozores, Adrián R; Moreno, Erika; Bazúa-Valenti, Silvana; Vázquez, Norma; Hadchouel, Juliette; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-07-01

    The K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters (KCC1-KCC4) encompass a branch of the SLC12 family of electroneutral cation-coupled chloride cotransporters that translocate ions out of the cell to regulate various factors, including cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration, among others. L-WNK1 is an ubiquitously expressed kinase that is activated in response to osmotic stress and intracellular chloride depletion, and it is implicated in two distinct hereditary syndromes: the renal disease pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) and the neurological disease hereditary sensory neuropathy 2 (HSN2). The effect of L-WNK1 on KCC activity is unknown. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK-293 cells, we show that the activation of KCCs by cell swelling was prevented by L-WNK1 coexpression. In contrast, the activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 was remarkably increased with L-WNK1 coexpression. The negative effect of L-WNK1 on the KCCs is kinase dependent. Elimination of the STE20 proline-alanine rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress-responsive kinase (OSR1) binding site or the HQ motif required for the WNK-WNK interaction prevented the effect of L-WNK1 on KCCs, suggesting a required interaction between L-WNK1 molecules and SPAK. Together, our data support that NKCC1 and KCCs are coordinately regulated by L-WNK1 isoforms. PMID:27170636

  15. Loss of K-Cl co-transporter KCC3 causes deafness, neurodegeneration and reduced seizure threshold.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Thomas; Rust, Marco B; Maier, Hannes; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Schweizer, Michaela; Keating, Damien J; Faulhaber, Jörg; Ehmke, Heimo; Pfeffer, Carsten; Scheel, Olaf; Lemcke, Beate; Horst, Jürgen; Leuwer, Rudolf; Pape, Hans-Christian; Völkl, Harald; Hübner, Christian A; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2003-10-15

    K-Cl co-transporters are encoded by four homologous genes and may have roles in transepithelial transport and in the regulation of cell volume and cytoplasmic chloride. KCC3, an isoform mutated in the human Anderman syndrome, is expressed in brain, epithelia and other tissues. To investigate the physiological functions of KCC3, we disrupted its gene in mice. This severely impaired cell volume regulation as assessed in renal tubules and neurons, and moderately raised intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration. Kcc3(-/-) mice showed severe motor abnormalities correlating with a progressive neurodegeneration in the peripheral and CNS. Although no spontaneous seizures were observed, Kcc3(-/-) mice displayed reduced seizure threshold and spike-wave complexes on electrocorticograms. These resembled EEG abnormalities in patients with Anderman syndrome. Kcc3(-/-) mice also displayed arterial hypertension and a slowly progressive deafness. KCC3 was expressed in many, but not all cells of the inner ear K(+) recycling pathway. These cells slowly degenerated, as did sensory hair cells. The present mouse model has revealed important cellular and systemic functions of KCC3 and is highly relevant for Anderman syndrome. PMID:14532115

  16. Compaction of TiH sub 1. 65 /KClO sub 4 pyrotechnic powder during confined burn

    SciTech Connect

    Hingorani-Norenberg, S.L. ); Razani, A.; Shahinpoor, M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    The burning behavior of titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (TiH{sub 1.65}/KClO{sub 4}) is currently under investigation. The research is presently aimed at studying the dynamic compaction of the material as a confined cylindrical charge of the pyrotechnic burns. Flash radiography equipment, optical fibers, and piezoelectric pressure transducers are used to study this phenomenon. The length to diameter ratio of the test charge is thirty and it is pressed in increments, which have a length to diameter ratio of one, into a cylindrical fixture consisting of an epoxy liner in a stainless steel housing. The housing has a series of radial holes to allow optical monitoring, through the transparent liner, of the ignition-front. Lead disks, placed between increments of powder, serve as x-ray tracers. Three 300 kilovolt x-ray heads are pulsed during each experiment, providing information regarding the state of compaction of the powder at three different times during the burn. Fiber optics are used to monitor the location of the ignition front. Pressure transducers monitor the pressure history inside the closed bomb. Tests have been performed with the powder at different initial densities and the data indicate that a significant amount of compaction occurs as the charge burns. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Cell Cycle Arrest in G2/M Promotes Early Steps of Infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Groschel, Bettina; Bushman, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    We have identified four small molecules that boost transduction of cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and investigated their mechanism of action. These molecules include etoposide and camptothecin, which induce DNA damage by inhibiting religation of cleaved topoisomerase-DNA complexes, taxol, which interferes with the function of microtubules, and aphidicolin, which inhibits DNA polymerases. All four compounds arrest the cell cycle at G2/M, though in addition high concentrations of aphidicolin arrest in G1. We find that early events of HIV replication, including synthesis of late reverse transcription products, two-long terminal repeat circles, and integrated proviruses, were increased after treatment of cells with concentrations of each compound that arrested in G2/M. Stimulation was seen for both transformed cell lines (293T and HeLa cells) and primary cells (IMR90 lung fibroblasts). Arrest in G1 with high concentrations of aphidicolin boosted transduction, though not much as with lower concentrations that arrested in G2/M. Arrest of IMR90 cells in G1 by serum starvation and contact inhibition reduced transduction. Previously, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 was reported to increase HIV infection—here we investigated the effects of combinations of the cell cycle inhibitors with MG132 and obtained data suggesting that MG132 may also boost transduction by causing G2/M cell cycle arrest. These data document that cell cycle arrest in G2/M boosts the early steps of HIV infection and suggests methods for increasing transduction with HIV-based vectors. PMID:15827184

  18. A Microstructural and Kinetic Investigation of the KCl-Induced Corrosion of an FeCrAl Alloy at 600 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Israelsson, Niklas; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hellström, K.; Jonsson, T.; Norell, M.; Svensson, J. -E.; Johansson, L. -G.

    2015-03-18

    In this paper, the corrosion behaviour of a FeCrAl alloy was investigated at 600 °C in O2 + H2O with solid KCl applied. A kinetics and microstructural investigation showed that KCl accelerates corrosion and that potassium chromate formation depletes the protective scale in Cr, thus triggering the formation of a fast-growing iron-rich scale. Iron oxide was found to grow both inward and outward, on either side of the initial oxide. A chromia layer is formed with time underneath the iron oxide. Finally, it was found that although the alloy does not form a continuous pure alumina scale at the investigated temperature, aluminium is, however, always enriched at the oxide/alloy interface.

  19. Investigation of concentration-dependence of thermodynamic properties of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium and terbium in eutectic LiCl-KCl molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yafei; Zhou, Wentao; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties of rare earth metals in LiCl-KCl molten salt electrolyte are crucial to the development of electrochemical separation for the treatment of used nuclear fuels. In the present study, activity coefficient, apparent potential, and diffusion coefficient of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium, and terbium in the molten salt (58 at% LiCl and 42 at% KCl) were calculated by the method of molecular dynamics simulation up to a concentration around 3 at% at temperatures of 723 K and 773 K. It was found that the activity coefficient and the apparent potential increase with the species concentration while diffusion coefficient shows a trend of increase followed by decrease. The calculated results were validated by available measurement data of dilution cases. This research extends the range of data to a wide component and would provide further insight to the pyroprocessing design and safeguards.

  20. The chemical stability of L-isoleucine, L-threonine, and L-serine in aqueous solutions of KCl at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sanjay; Dolui, Bijoy Krishna

    2016-06-01

    The experimental saturated solubilities of L-isoleucine, L-threonine, and L-serine in aqueous mixtures of a KCl solution at 298.15 K are presented in this article. The solubilities are measured by gravimetric method. In the present study the theoretical calculation of the standard transfer Gibbs free energy, cavity forming enthalpy of transfer, cavity forming transfer Gibbs free energy, dipole-dipole interaction effect have been computed. The chemical effects of the transfer Gibbs energies for the present amino acids have been obtained by subtracting the cavity effects and dipole-dipole interaction effects from the Δ G t 0 ( i). The stability of the experimental amino acids in aqueous KCl in terms of thermodynamic parameters is explained.

  1. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Influence of Ca and Pb impurities on the bulk optical strength of ultrapure NaCl and KCl crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, An V.; Voszka, R.; Kovalev, Valerii I.; Faĭzullov, F. S.; Janszky, J.

    1987-06-01

    A significant increase (by a factor of about 3) of the bulk damage threshold in the case of interaction of CO2 laser radiation pulses with ultrapure NaCl and KCl crystals grown in a reactive atmosphere was observed on introduction of divalent metal ions Ca and Pb in concentrations of 10-5-10-6 mol/mol. Impurities were introduced in concentrations of 10-8-10-3 and 2×10-7-10-4 mol/mol into the melts of KCl and NaCl, respectively. The concentration of other impurities (including OH) did not exceed ~10-6 mol/mol. A physical model was developed to account for the observed dependence on the basis of an analogy between a system of colloidal particles and F centers in a crystal and a liquid-vapor system.

  2. Electrochemical Study on the Electrodeposition of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a Liquid Cadmium Cathode in a LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Sung Bin Park; Jong Hyeon Lee; Sung Chan Hwang; Young Ho Kang; Joon Bo Shim; Han Soo Lee; Eung Ho Kim; Seong Won Park

    2007-07-01

    Electro-depositions of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a liquid cadmium cathode in a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were studied by using an electrolytic cell. For the LiCl-KCl-UCl{sub 3}- NdCl{sub 3}-CeCl{sub 3}-LaCl{sub 3}-YCl{sub 3}/Cd system, cyclic voltammograms and polarization curves were measured and the electrochemical properties of the system were discussed. From the results of the electro-depositions of U and rare earth metals on the LCC, separation factors and recovery ratios of U and REs were obtained and co-electro-depositions of U and REs were investigated. (authors)

  3. An experimental study of the burn rate of TiH/sub 1. 65//KClO/sub 4/ pyrotechnic under confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Hingorani-Norenberg, S.L.R.

    1988-11-01

    Titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate is a pyrotechnic powder used extensively in valve actuators. The linear burn rate behavior of this material is of interest in the design of these actuators. In this study, the variation of the burn rate of TiH/sub 1.65//KClO/sub 4/ with bulk density in a zero-free-volume closed bomb is investigated. The data collected indicate that the burn rate of TiH/sub 1.65//KClO/sub 4/ increases with increasing bulk density to a maximum of approximately 700 m/s near 70% of the theoretical maximum density (TMD). Any additional increase in density appears to decrease the burn rate. This variation of burn rate with bulk density and the results of gas permeability measurements are discussed in terms of conductive and convective burning. 44 refs., 18 figs.

  4. A Microstructural and Kinetic Investigation of the KCl-Induced Corrosion of an FeCrAl Alloy at 600 °C

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Israelsson, Niklas; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hellström, K.; Jonsson, T.; Norell, M.; Svensson, J. -E.; Johansson, L. -G.

    2015-03-18

    In this paper, the corrosion behaviour of a FeCrAl alloy was investigated at 600 °C in O2 + H2O with solid KCl applied. A kinetics and microstructural investigation showed that KCl accelerates corrosion and that potassium chromate formation depletes the protective scale in Cr, thus triggering the formation of a fast-growing iron-rich scale. Iron oxide was found to grow both inward and outward, on either side of the initial oxide. A chromia layer is formed with time underneath the iron oxide. Finally, it was found that although the alloy does not form a continuous pure alumina scale at the investigatedmore » temperature, aluminium is, however, always enriched at the oxide/alloy interface.« less

  5. Temperature Dependence of Behavior of Interface Between Molten Sn and LiCl-KCl Eutectic Melt Due to Rising Gas Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsui, Shungo; Nashimoto, Ryota; Takai, Hifumi; Kumagai, Takehiko; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of the interface between molten Sn and the LiCl-KCl eutectic melt system was observed directly. We found that the transient behavior of the interface exhibits considerable temperature dependence through a change in its physical properties. The "metal film" generated in the upper molten salt phase significantly influences the shape of the interface. Although the lifetime of the metal film depends on the gas flow rate, it is not affected by the buoyancy if the interfacial tension is dominant.

  6. Part 2: Sensitivity comparisons of the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna using standard reference toxicants; NaCl, KCl and CuSO4.

    PubMed

    Struewing, Katherine A; Lazorchak, James M; Weaver, Paul C; Johnson, Brent R; Funk, David H; Buchwalter, David B

    2015-11-01

    Criteria for establishing water quality standards that are protective for 95% of the native species are generally based upon laboratory toxicity tests. These tests utilize common model organisms that have established test methods. However, for invertebrates these species represent mostly the zooplankton community and are not inclusive of all taxa. In order to examine a potential under-representation in emerging aquatic invertebrates the US Environmental Protection Agency has cultured a parthenogenetic mayfly, Centroptilum triangulifer (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). This study established a 48h acute and a 14-day short-term chronic testing procedure for C. triangulifer and compared its sensitivity to two model invertebrates, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna. Toxicity tests were conducted to determine mortality and growth effects using standard reference toxicants: NaCl, KCl and CuSO4. In 48-h acute tests, the average LC50 for the mayfly was 659mgL(-1) NaCl, 1957mgL(-1) KCl, and 11μgL(-1) CuSO4. IC25 values, using dry weight as the endpoint, were 228mgL(-1) NaCl, 356mgL(-1) KCl and 5μgL(-1) CuSO4. C. triangulifer was the most sensitive species in NaCl acute and chronic growth tests. At KCl concentrations tested, C. triangulifer was less sensitive for acute tests but was equally or more sensitive than C. dubia and D. magna for growth measurements. This study determined C. triangulifer has great potential and benefits for use in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:24932778

  7. Thermochemical properties of lanthanides (Ln = La, Nd) and actinides (An = U, Np, Pu, Am) in the molten LiCl KCl eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masset, Patrick; Konings, Rudy J. M.; Malmbeck, Rikard; Serp, Jérôme; Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2005-09-01

    The electrochemical reduction of actinides (U, Pu, Np and Am) and lanthanides (La and Nd) chlorides was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry at different temperatures in LiCl-KCl eutectic. The diffusion coefficients of these metallic cations were estimated as well as their apparent standard potentials. These values of potentials are compared with existing data measured also by transient electrochemical techniques or e.m.f. measurements.

  8. Generation of KCL021 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a ΔF508 mutation in the CFTR gene.

    PubMed

    Miere, Cristian; Hewitson, Heema; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-01-01

    The KCL021 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried a ΔF508 mutation affecting the CFTR gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays. PMID:27345808

  9. Assessment of CO2 flux measurements in different soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Szlavecz, K.; Musaloiu, R.; Cupchup, J.; Pitz, S.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate measurements of soil CO2 efflux are extraordinarily challenging due to the very properties of CO2 transport in a porous medium of soil. The most commonly used method today is the chamber method, which provides direct measurements of CO2 efflux at the soil surface, but it can not measure the soil CO2 flux continuously. In order to develop new measurement methods in soil CO2 efflux, small solid-state CO2 sensors have been used to continuously to monitor soil CO2 profiles by burying these sensors at different soil depths. Using this method we compared soil CO2 efflux of four different soil types: forests soil, grassland soil (collected in Maryland) commercial potting soil and pure sand as control. CO2 concentration varied between 500 ppm in sand and 8000 ppm in forest soil at depth 12 cm. CO2 flux had the following order: Forest (0.3~0.4 mg CO2 m-2 s-1), potting soil (0.1~0.14 mg CO2 m-2 s-1 ), grassland (0.03~0.05 mg CO2 m-2 s-1), sand ( 0 mg CO2 m-2 s-1 ). Exponential relationship between temperature and CO2 flux was established for forest soil and potting soil only. Leaf litter, often thick layer in many terrestrial ecosystems and a significant source of CO2 production, is not part of the of the diffusivity models. We are currently conducting experiments which include the effect of leaf litter and soil invertebrates into soil respiration.

  10. The Octahedral Sheet of Metamorphic 2M 1-Phengites: a Combined EMPA And AXANES Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cibin, G.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Mottana, A.; Sassi, R.

    2009-05-12

    Two types of metamorphic phengites are known: one is linked to high pressure and is 3T; the other is 2M{sub 1}, and its composition is linked to rock-compositional constraints. This work investigates the octahedral sheet crystal-chemical differences between the two phengite types. Seven dioctahedral micas were studied: (1) one 3T phengite from an ultrahigh-pressure metagranitoid in the Dora Maira massif, Italy (P {approx} 4.3 GPa, T {approx} 730 C); (2) five 2M{sub 1} phengites from medium-P orthogneisses in the Eastern Alps metamorphic basement, Italy (P {le} 0.7 GPa, T {approx} 500-600 C); and (3) one 2M{sub 1} ferroan muscovite from pegmatite in Antarctica (P {le} 0.2 GPa, T {approx}500 C). All micas display significant extents of celadonite substitution. In particular, the 2M{sub 1}-phengite formulae (calculated on the basis of 11 O) have 0.68 < {sup IV}Al < 0.82 atoms per formula unit (apfu); octahedral atoms are dominated by Al (1.6-1.8 apfu), with minor and variable Fe (0.20-0.35 apfu) and Mg (0.05-0.17 apfu), and very minor Ti, Mn, and Cr. Total octahedral occupancies are slightly above 2.00 apfu, i.e., there seems to be partial occupancy of the third M site. For all micas, we recorded XAFS spectra on mosaics of carefully separated flakes oriented flat on a plastic support that could be rotated so as to account for the polarization of the synchrotron radiation beam, and we processed them on the basis of the AXANES theory. Spectra show angle-dependent absorption variations for Al and Fe, which can be deconvoluted and fitted by dichroic effects. Pre-edges consistently show most Fe to be Fe{sup 3+} and little angle-dependent intensity variations. The 2M{sub 1}-ferroan muscovite from Antarctica displays the same AXANES behavior as 2M{sub 1}-phengites. By contrast, the ultrahigh-pressure 3T-phengite from Dora Maira (having {sup IV}Al = 0.42 apfu, and Al and Mg as the dominant octahedral constituents) has XAFS spectra that differ significantly. Not only is the

  11. Size-dependent plasticity in KCl and LiF single crystals: influence of orientation, temperature, pre-straining and doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yu; Spolenak, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    Size effects in plasticity are mostly studied in metallic systems, but they are rarely investigated in ionic crystals. In this study, single-crystalline KCl and LiF pillars were fabricated by focused ion beam technique and compressed using a flat punch tip in a nanoindenter. The materials were investigated with regards to crystal orientation, test temperature, pre-straining and doping. The results show: (1) [1 1 1] LiF pillars do exhibit size effect with an exponent of -0.38, in contrary to no size effect in [1 1 1] LiF reported in literature; (2) [0 0 1] LiF, and [0 0 1] and [1 1 1] KCl have similar size-effect exponents of -0.68, -0.71 and -0.65, respectively; (3) the size effect of [1 1 1] LiF pillars is more sensitive to the temperature change than that of [0 0 1] LiF pillars; (4) pre-straining of [1 1 1] LiF pillars results in a reduced size effect; (5) the 0.05 mol% CaCl2 doping in [0 0 1] KCl slightly increases strength levels and does not change the size effect much. The magnitude of the size effects in ionic crystals can be attributed to the bulk stress level, but not the slip systems. In addition, a correlation between critical temperatures and size-effect slopes is illustrated, and the additivity of strengthening mechanisms is critically discussed.

  12. Interplay between structure and transport properties of molten salt mixtures of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manga, Venkateswara Rao; Swinteck, Nichlas; Bringuier, Stefan; Lucas, Pierre; Deymier, Pierre; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Molten mixtures of network-forming covalently bonded ZnCl2 and network-modifying ionically bonded NaCl and KCl salts are investigated as high-temperature heat transfer fluids for concentrating solar power plants. Specifically, using molecular dynamics simulations, the interplay between the extent of the network structure, composition, and the transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion) of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl molten salts is characterized. The Stokes-Einstein/Eyring relationship is found to break down in these network-forming liquids at high concentrations of ZnCl2 (>63 mol. %), while the Eyring relationship is seen with increasing KCl concentration. Further, the network modification due to the addition of K ions leads to formation of non-bridging terminal Cl ions, which in turn lead to a positive temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in these melts. This new understanding of transport in these ternary liquids enables the identification of appropriate concentrations of the network formers and network modifiers to design heat transfer fluids with desired transport properties for concentrating solar power plants.

  13. Evaluation of 2.25Cr-1Mo Alloy for Containment of LiCl/KCl Eutectic during the Pyrometallurgical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    B.R. Westphal; S.X. Li; G.L. Fredrickson; D. Vaden; T.A. Johnson; J.C. Wass

    2011-03-01

    Recovery of uranium from the Mk-IV and Mk-V electrorefiner vessels containing a LiCl/KCl eutectic salt has been on-going for 14 and 12 years, respectively, during the pyrometallurgical processing of used nuclear fuel. Although austenitic stainless steels are typically utilized for LiCl/KCl salt systems, the presence of cadmium in the Mk-IV electrorefiner dictates an alternate material. A 2.25Cr-1Mo alloy (ASME SA-387) was chosen due to the absence of nickel in the alloy which has a considerable solubility in cadmium. Using the transition metal impurities (iron, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and manganese) in the electrorefined uranium products, an algorithm was developed to derive values for the contribution of the transition metals from the various input sources. Weight loss and corrosion rate data for the Mk-V electrorefiner vessel were then generated based on the transition metal impurities in the uranium products. To date, the corrosion rate of the 2.25Cr-1Mo alloy in LiCl/KCl eutectic is outstanding assuming uniform (i.e. non-localized) conditions.

  14. Epitaxial crystal growth and solid-state polymerization of piperonyl muconate on the {001} surface of KCl crystal for controlling polymer chain alignment.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Katsuya; Tanioku, Chiaki; Matsumoto, Akikazu

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the crystal growth of piperonyl (E,E)-muconate [bis(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) (E,E)-muconate, MDO] on inorganic crystalline substrates during vapor deposition for the control of polymer chain alignment by the subsequent solid-state photopolymerization of the MDO monomer thin films deposited on the substrate. We controlled the arrangement of the MDO molecules and the polymer chains produced on the substrate, depending on the lattice parameters of the substrate surfaces used. The epitaxial crystal growth of MDO on the {001} plane of a KCl single crystal was observed under the condition that the crystal lattice lengths of MDO agreed well with the specific space distance of the substrate; i.e., the KCl cubic crystal resulted in a d(110) value of 4.45 Å, which was very close to the value of the monomer stacking distance in the MDO crystal (d(s) = 4.43 Å). On the other hand, slightly large and too small d(110) values for KBr and NaCl, respectively, resulted in the less controlled and no epitaxial crystal growth of MDO. The irradiation of polarized UV light on the MDO thin-film crystal produced highly regulated polymer alignment in a specific direction on the KCl substrate. PMID:22476888

  15. Interplay between structure and transport properties of molten salt mixtures of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl: A molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Manga, Venkateswara Rao; Swinteck, Nichlas; Bringuier, Stefan; Lucas, Pierre; Deymier, Pierre; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Molten mixtures of network-forming covalently bonded ZnCl2 and network-modifying ionically bonded NaCl and KCl salts are investigated as high-temperature heat transfer fluids for concentrating solar power plants. Specifically, using molecular dynamics simulations, the interplay between the extent of the network structure, composition, and the transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion) of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl molten salts is characterized. The Stokes-Einstein/Eyring relationship is found to break down in these network-forming liquids at high concentrations of ZnCl2 (>63 mol. %), while the Eyring relationship is seen with increasing KCl concentration. Further, the network modification due to the addition of K ions leads to formation of non-bridging terminal Cl ions, which in turn lead to a positive temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in these melts. This new understanding of transport in these ternary liquids enables the identification of appropriate concentrations of the network formers and network modifiers to design heat transfer fluids with desired transport properties for concentrating solar power plants. PMID:26957165

  16. The Construction of M2M System with Sensor Networks Using Digital Plethysmograph Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Norihisa; Asakawa, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Yoshitsugu; Yamada, Tomoko; Togashi, Atsushi; Sawamoto, Jun

    In recent years, the research of sensor networks advances and it is expected to be used in a wide variety of fields such as traceability system of products, environmental monitoring, health care, etc. We develop a M2M system with the sensor network technology for collection and analysis of the state of health and feedback of advices for better physical activity without human intervention. The system detects abnormality from pulse wave data from pulse wave sensor attached to the user. In this paper, we construct M2M sensor network system with continuous monitoring of arterial pulse wave and an advice generation function based on pr-installed rules, then we evaluate the usefulness of the system through experiment.

  17. VLSI architectures for computing multiplications and inverses in GF(2m).

    PubMed

    Wang, C C; Truong, T K; Shao, H M; Deutsch, L J; Omura, J K; Reed, I S

    1985-08-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of Reed-Solomon coders and in some cryptographic algorithms. There is a need for good multiplication and inversion algorithms that can be easily realized on VLSI chips. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for Galois fields based on a normal basis representation. In this paper, a pipeline structure is developed to realize the Massey-Omura multiplier in the finite field GF(2m). With the simple squaring property of the normal basis representation used together with this multiplier, a pipeline architecture is developed for computing inverse elements in GF(2m). The designs developed for the Massey-Omura multiplier and the computation of inverse elements are regular, simple, expandable, and therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation. PMID:11539660

  18. VLSI architectures for computing multiplications and inverses in GF(2-m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.; Truong, T. K.; Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.; Omura, J. K.; Reed, I. S.

    1983-01-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of Reed-Solomon coders and in some cryptographic algorithms. There is a need for good multiplication and inversion algorithms that are easily realized on VLSI chips. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for Galois fields based on a normal basis representation. A pipeline structure is developed to realize the Massey-Omura multiplier in the finite field GF(2m). With the simple squaring property of the normal-basis representation used together with this multiplier, a pipeline architecture is also developed for computing inverse elements in GF(2m). The designs developed for the Massey-Omura multiplier and the computation of inverse elements are regular, simple, expandable and, therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  19. VLSI architectures for computing multiplications and inverses in GF(2m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.; Truong, T. K.; Shao, H. M.; Deutsch, L. J.; Omura, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of Reed-Solomon coders and in some cryptographic algorithms. There is a need for good multiplication and inversion algorithms that are easily realized on VLSI chips. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for Galois fields based on a normal basis representation. A pipeline structure is developed to realize the Massey-Omura multiplier in the finite field GF(2m). With the simple squaring property of the normal-basis representation used together with this multiplier, a pipeline architecture is also developed for computing inverse elements in GF(2m). The designs developed for the Massey-Omura multiplier and the computation of inverse elements are regular, simple, expandable and, therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  20. THE WHITE DWARF COMPANION OF A 2 M{sub sun} NEUTRON STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalerao, Varun B.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2011-08-10

    We report the optical discovery of the companion to the 2 M{sub sun} millisecond pulsar PSR J1614-2230. The optical colors show that the 0.5 M{sub sun} companion is a 2.2 Gyr old He-CO white dwarf. We infer that M-dot during the accretion phase is <10{sup -2} M-dot{sub edd}. We show that the pulsar was born with a spin close to its current value, well below the rebirth line. The spin-down parameters, the mass of the pulsar, and the age of the system challenge the simple recycling model for the formation of millisecond pulsars.

  1. Rate constant for formation of chlorine nitrate by the reaction ClO + NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M. T.; Lin, C. L.; Demore, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    The pseudo-first-order decay of ClO in a large excess of NO2 was monitored in a discharge flow/mass-spectrometer apparatus in order to measure the rate constant of the reaction ClO + NO2 + M yields ClONO2 + M for M = He, Ar, and N2 over the temperature range from 248 to 417 K. Numerical results are given for He at 248, 299, 360, and 417 K (1 to 9 torr); for Ar at 298 K (1 to 4 torr); and for N2 at 299, 360, and 417 K (1 to 6 torr). Systematic errors are estimated, and identification of the reaction product is discussed. The results obtained are shown to be in excellent agreement with other recent measurements of the same rate constant.

  2. On the Diophantine equation x^2+q^2m=2y^p

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengely, Sz

    In this paper we consider the Diophantine equation $x^2+q^{2m}=2y^p$ where $m,p,q,x,y$ are integer unknowns with $m>0,$ $p$ and $q$ are odd primes and $\\gcd(x,y)=1.$ We prove that there are only finitely many solutions $(m,p,q,x,y)$ for which $y$ is not a sum of two consecutive squares. We also study the above equation with fixed $y$ and with fixed $q.$

  3. E2/M1 ratio of the N to Delta transition in a modified Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Anthony Randolph

    1997-08-01

    I use a chiral effective Lagrangian to find the E2/M1 ratio. This ratio is a measure of the deformation of the nucleon. The Lagrangian is a modified Skyrme model (1). Its construction is guided by chiral symmetry and the symmetries of QCD, which dictates the addition of the Wess-Zumino term. The current is quantized using collective coordinates (2). I find the ratio to be - .118%, which is smaller than most other models.

  4. Industry 4.0, M2m, Iot&S - All Equal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrin, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Similarity between Industry 4.0, M2M, IOT&S. Advantages and disadvantages obtained using this three important methods. Decreasing costs while components are getting smaller and smaller in a world with better networking. Influence of business management applications integrated in smart factory logistic. The most important impacts in merging virtual and real production world, with the improvement of best processes having the same goal: creating value by open innovation

  5. Operation of the University of Hawaii 2.2M Telescope on Mauna Kea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaren, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a final report from March 1, 1997-February 28, 1999 on the Operation of the University of Hawaii 2.2M Telescope on Mauna Kea. The topics include: 1) Telescope and Instrumentation (Newsletter and Documentation, Scheduling Periods); and 2) Scientific Highlights (The Outer Solar System-Trans-Neptunian Objects and the Kuiper Belt, Comet Hale-Bopp, Near-Earth Asteroids, Asteroid Families, and Galileo Mission Support).

  6. Differential distribution of ELMO1 and ELMO2 mRNAs in the developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Ishida, Chisaki; Ishikawa, Yukio; Negishi, Manabu

    2006-02-16

    ELMO is an upstream regulator of the Rho family small GTPase Rac. We investigated the distributions of mRNAs of two subtypes of ELMO, ELMO1 and ELMO2, in the developing mouse brain. Both ELMO1 and ELMO2 mRNAs are widely distributed in the developing mouse brain, but they were expressed in different neuronal populations in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum. Thus, ELMO1 and ELMO2 may play different roles during brain development. PMID:16443196

  7. 25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply room; computer power supply on left and water flow on right. This room is directly below data processing area (room #318). Sign on right reads: High purity water digital rack - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  8. The Irradiation Facility at the IBR-2M Reactor in Dubna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulavin, M.; Cheplakov, A.; Kulikov, S.; Kukhtin, V.; Shabalin, E.; Verhoglyadov, A.

    2014-06-01

    After renovation neutron pulsed reactor was successfully put into operation. In view of HL-LHC development, the irradiation facility at the IBR-2m, previously used for the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters electronics and materials certification, has been upgraded to permit accumulation in the warm temperature conditions of the fast neutrons fluences up to k*1017 n/cm2 per one standard reactor operation cycle - 11 days. The first test of materials for ATLAS was conducted.

  9. Development of Lunar Highland REgolith Simulants, NU-LHT-1M,-2M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, D. B.; Wilson, S. A.; Fikes, J.; McLemore, C.; Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    As part of a collaborative agreement between the U.S, Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) lunar highland simulants are being produced to support engineers and scientists in developing the technologies required to put a base on the moon by 2024. Two simulants have been produced to date: NU-LHT-1M and -2M (NASA/USGS-Lunar Highlands Type-l & 2 Medium-grained). Using starting material chiefly collected from the Stillwater Mine, Nye, MT, blending protocols were developed based on normative mineralogy calculated from average chemistry, for the Apollo 16 regolith. New technologies using a high temperature remotely coupled plasma melter were developed to generate both high quality and agglutinitic glasses that simulate the glassy components of the regolith. Detailed chemical, mineralogical and physical properties analysis of NU-LHT-1M indicate that it is overall a good surrogate for highlands lunar regolith (our new simulant LHT-2M has not be analyzed yet). The primary difference between 1M and 2M was the inclusion of trace mineralogy (phosphates and sulfide). Plans will also be presented on the future direction of the simulant project.

  10. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  11. On the age of the TW Hydrae association and 2M1207334-393254

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrado Y Navascués, D.

    2006-11-01

    Aims.We have estimated the age of the young moving group TW Hydrae Association, a cohort of a few dozen stars and brown dwarfs located near the Sun which share the same kinematic properties and, presumably, the same origin and age. Methods: .The chronology has been determined by analyzing different properties (magnitudes, colors, activity, lithium) of its members and comparing them with several well-known star forming regions and open clusters, as well as theoretical models. In addition, by using medium-resolution optical spectra of two M8 members of the association (2M1139 and 2M1207 - an accreting brown dwarf with a planetary mass companion), we have derived spectral types and measured Hα and lithium equivalent widths. We have also estimated their effective temperature and gravity, which were used to produce an independent age estimation for these two brown dwarfs. We have also collected spectra of 2M1315, a candidate member with a L5 spectral type and measured its Hα equivalent width. Results: .Our age estimate for the association, 10+10-7 Myr, agrees with previous values cited in the literature. In the case of the two brown dwarfs, we have derived an age of 15+15-10 Myr, which also agree with our estimate for the whole group. Conclusions: .We compared our results with recent articles published on the same subject using other techniques, and discuss the limits of the age-dating techniques.

  12. S2M: A Stochastic Simulation Model of Poliovirus Genetic State Transition

    PubMed Central

    Ecale Zhou, Carol L.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling the molecular mechanisms that govern genetic variation can be useful in understanding the dynamics that drive genetic state transition in quasispecies viruses. For example, there is considerable interest in understanding how the relatively benign vaccine strains of poliovirus eventually revert to forms that confer neurovirulence and cause disease (ie, vaccine-derived poliovirus). This report describes a stochastic simulation model, S2M, which can be used to generate hypothetical outcomes based on known mechanisms of genetic diversity. S2M begins with predefined genotypes based on the Sabin-1 and Mahoney wild-type sequences, constructs a set of independent cell-based populations, and performs in-cell replication and cell-to-cell infection cycles while quantifying genetic changes that track the transition from Sabin-1 toward Mahoney. Realism is incorporated into the model by assigning defaults for variables that constrain mechanisms of genetic variability based roughly on metrics reported in the literature, yet these values can be modified at the command line in order to generate hypothetical outcomes driven by these parameters. To demonstrate the utility of S2M, simulations were performed to examine the effects of the rates of replication error and recombination and the presence or absence of defective interfering particles, upon reaching the end states of Mahoney resemblance (semblance of a vaccine-derived state), neurovirulence, genome fitness, and cloud diversity. Simulations provide insight into how modeled biological features may drive hypothetical outcomes, independently or in combination, in ways that are not always intuitively obvious. PMID:27385911

  13. Product analysis of the OH + NO/sub 2/ + M reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, J.B.; Hammer, P.D.; Howard, C.J.

    1987-04-09

    A high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer optically coupled to a fast flow multipass absorption cell was used to spectroscopically study the products of OH + NO/sub 2/ + M ..-->.. HONO/sub 2/ + M (1a) and OH + NO/sub 2/ + M ..-->.. HOONO + M (1b). Infrared absorption spectra of the products of reaction 1 were recorded over the range 1850-3850 cm/sup -1/ for the following conditions: pressure 3 to 850 Torr, temperature 248 to 298 K, and (OH)/sub 0/ = (5 to 100) x 10/sup 11/ molecules cm/sup -3/. The infrared absorption spectrum of HOONO was not observed under these conditions. If the OH stretch band strength of HOONO is equal to that of HONO/sub 2/ this indicates <5% HOONO formation in reaction 1. Quantitative measurements of the conversion of OH to HONO/sub 2/ show that 75/sup +25//sub -10/% of reaction 1 forms HONO/sub 2/. These results are compared with predictions of the branching ratio of reaction 1 obtained from statistical theory.

  14. Dynamic RACH Partition for Massive Access of Differentiated M2M Services

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qinghe; Li, Wanyu; Liu, Lingjia; Ren, Pinyi; Wang, Yichen; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    In machine-to-machine (M2M) networks, a key challenge is to overcome the overload problem caused by random access requests from massive machine-type communication (MTC) devices. When differentiated services coexist, such as delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services, the problem becomes more complicated and challenging. This is because delay-sensitive services often use more aggressive policies, and thus, delay-tolerant services get much fewer chances to access the network. To conquer the problem, we propose an efficient mechanism for massive access control over differentiated M2M services, including delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services. Specifically, based on the traffic loads of the two types of services, the proposed scheme dynamically partitions and allocates the random access channel (RACH) resource to each type of services. The RACH partition strategy is thoroughly optimized to increase the access performances of M2M networks. Analyses and simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of our design. The proposed scheme can outperform the baseline access class barring (ACB) scheme, which ignores service types in access control, in terms of access success probability and the average access delay. PMID:27043568

  15. CyclinB1/Cdk1 Coordinates Mitochondrial Respiration for Cell Cycle G2/M Progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoqing; Fan, Ming; Candas, Demet; Zhang, Tie-Qiao; Eldridge, Angela; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Chromy, Brett A.; Nantajit, Danupon; Duru, Nadire; He, Fuchu; Chen, Min; Finkel, Toren; Weinstein, Lee S.; Li, Jian Jian

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A substantial amount of mitochondrial energy is required for cell cycle progression. However, the mechanisms coordinating the mitochondrial respiration with G2/M transition, a critical step in cell division, remains to be elucidated. Here we show that a fraction of cell cycle CyclinB1/Cdk1 proteins localizes into the matrix of mitochondria and phosphorylates a cluster of mitochondrial proteins including the complex I (CI) subunits in the respiratory chain. The CyclinB1/Cdk1-mediated CI subunit phosphorylation enhances CI activity, whereas deficiency of such phosphorylation in each of the relevant CI subunits results in impairment of CI function. Mitochondria-targeted CyclinB1/Cdk1 increases mitochondrial respiration with enhanced oxygen consumption and ATP generation, which provides cells with efficient bioenergy for G2/M transition and shortens overall cycling time. Thus, CyclinB1/Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of mitochondrial substrates allows cells to sense and respond to an increased energy demand for G2/M transition, and subsequently to up-regulate mitochondrial respiration for a successful cell cycle progression. PMID:24746669

  16. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  17. Dynamic RACH Partition for Massive Access of Differentiated M2M Services.

    PubMed

    Du, Qinghe; Li, Wanyu; Liu, Lingjia; Ren, Pinyi; Wang, Yichen; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    In machine-to-machine (M2M) networks, a key challenge is to overcome the overload problem caused by random access requests from massive machine-type communication (MTC) devices. When differentiated services coexist, such as delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services, the problem becomes more complicated and challenging. This is because delay-sensitive services often use more aggressive policies, and thus, delay-tolerant services get much fewer chances to access the network. To conquer the problem, we propose an efficient mechanism for massive access control over differentiated M2M services, including delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant services. Specifically, based on the traffic loads of the two types of services, the proposed scheme dynamically partitions and allocates the random access channel (RACH) resource to each type of services. The RACH partition strategy is thoroughly optimized to increase the access performances of M2M networks. Analyses and simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of our design. The proposed scheme can outperform the baseline access class barring (ACB) scheme, which ignores service types in access control, in terms of access success probability and the average access delay. PMID:27043568

  18. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: primary mirror characterization by deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Giorgia; Canestrari, Rodolfo

    2015-09-01

    In 2014 the ASTRI Collaboration, led by the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics, has constructed an end-to-end prototype of a dual-mirror imaging air Cherenkov telescope, proposed for the small size class of telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, has been installed at the observing station located at Serra La Nave (Italy). In this project the Brera Astronomical Observatory was responsible for the production and the testing of the primary mirror. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope's primary mirror has an aperture of ~ 4 m, a polynomial design, and consists of 18 individual hexagonal facets. These characteristics require the production and testing of panels with a typical size of ~1 m vertex-to-vertex and with an aspheric component of up to several millimetres. The mirror segments were produced assembling a sandwich of thin glass foils bent at room temperature to reach the desired shape. For the characterization of the mirrors we developed an ad-hoc deflectometry facility that works as an inverse Ronchi test in combination with a ray-tracing code. In this contribution we report the results of the deflectometric measurements performed on the primary mirror segments of the ASTRI SST-2M dual mirror telescope. The expected point spread function and the contributions to the degradation of the image quality are studied.

  19. Signature of the Superatom to Superhalogen Behavior of Aun(BO2)m clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandalam, Anil; Gotz, Matthias; Willis, Mary; Gantefor, Gerd; Jena, Puru

    2010-03-01

    We report the discovery of a new class of clusters consisting of Aun(BO2)m which formed during the oxygenation of gold clusters when boron nitride was used as insulation in the pulsed arc cluster ion source (PACIS). Using DFT based calculations, we trace the origin of these species to be due to the unusual stability of the BO2 moiety as well as shed light on their formation process. PES measurements and the corresponding DFT calculations further reveal some rather remarkable properties of Aun(BO2)m clusters such as large HOMO-LUMO gaps in the range of 3.00 eV -- 3.95 eV and electron affinities substantially larger than that of F, the most electronegative element in the periodic table. In addition, some of the most predominant features of the electronic structure of the bare Au clusters, namely odd-even alternation in the electron affinity, are preserved in the Aun(BO2) species. The synergy between theory and experiment illustrates that Aun(BO2)m clusters, behave as superatoms and superhalogens, opening the door for the synthesis of a new class of cluster-assembled materials.

  20. Improvement of the method to search low-melting solvents for the crystals MBaNa(BO3)2 (M = Sc,Y) growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsyk, Vasily; Zelenaya, Anna

    2012-11-01

    Matrix interrelation of subsystems coordinates in M-Ba-Na-B-O (M = Sc,Y) system with the compound MBANa(BO3)2 are derived. Imitation of quaternary eutectic points search by a set of one-dimensional tetrahedron sections (nonplanar tie-lines method) is performed in system (KCl)2-R1-R2-(LiBO2)2 (R1 = LiKWO4, R2 = LiKSO4), which separates the pentatops (KCl)2-K2SO4-R1--R2-(LiBO2)2 and (KCl)2-(LiBO2)2-R1-R2-Li2WO4 of system Li,K||Cl,SO4,WO4,BO2. Triangulation of systems A,B,C||X,Y with binary compounds by new algorithms has been considered.

  1. Automated Potentiometric Titrations in KCl/Water-Saturated Octanol: Method for Quantifying Factors Influencing Ion-Pair Partitioning

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge base of factors influencing ion pair partitioning is very sparse, primarily because of the difficulty in determining accurate log PI values of desirable low molecular weight (MW) reference compounds. We have developed a potentiometric titration procedure in KCl/water-saturated octanol that provides a link to log PI through the thermodynamic cycle of ionization and partitioning. These titrations have the advantage of being independent of the magnitude of log P, while maintaining a reproducibility of a few hundredths of a log P in the calculated difference between log P neutral and log P ion pair (diff (log PN − I)). Simple model compounds can be used. The titration procedure is described in detail, along with a program for calculating pKa′′ values incorporating the ionization of water in octanol. Hydrogen bonding and steric factors have a greater influence on ion pairs than they do on neutral species, yet these factors are missing from current programs used to calculate log PI and log D. In contrast to the common assumption that diff (log PN − I) is the same for all amines, they can actually vary more than 3 log units, as in our examples. A major factor affecting log PI is the ability of water and the counterion to approach the charge center. Bulky substituents near the charge center have a negative influence on log PI. On the other hand, hydrogen bonding groups near the charge center have the opposite effect by lowering the free energy of the ion pair. The use of this titration method to determine substituent ion pair stabilization values (IPS) should bring about more accurate log D calculations and encourage species-specific QSAR involving log DN and log DI. This work also brings attention to the fascinating world of nature’s highly stabilized ion pairs. PMID:19265385

  2. Comparison of Reactive Mercury Concentrations Measured Simultaneously Using KCl-coated Denuders, Nylon Membranes, and Cation Exchange Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustin, M. S.; Huang, J.; Miller, M. B.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    There is much debate about the chemistry of reactive gaseous and particle bound mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere, and the processes associated with formation. In addition, there are concerns regarding the interferences and calibration of the widely used Tekran® 2537/1130/1135 Hg measurement system. To investigate these we developed simple laboratory and field sampling systems designed to collect and analyze reactive Hg (Hg (II), Hg (I) and/or particle bound). A manifold system was applied in the laboratory, and in the field, in-series and -parallel membranes, flow controllers and pumps were utilized. Both systems actively collected reactive Hg using nylon membranes and cation exchange membranes alongside measurements made using the Tekran® system. The analytical system consisted of step wise 2.5 minute thermo-desorption and Hg quantification by cold vapor atomic fluorescence. In the laboratory, we compared the efficiency of these surfaces for collection of HgO, HgCl2, and HgBr2 when permeated into Hg and oxidant free air, and ambient filtered air. Other tests are ongoing. Thus far, results show concentrations measured by the cation exchange membrane were two-to-three fold greater than that measured by the nylon membranes, and three-to -four fold greater than that measured by the KCl-coated annual denuder. Thermo-desorption profiles obtained using nylon membranes show slightly different patterns associated with the reactive Hg compounds as permeated and tested. Field measurements were made at two locations in Reno, Nevada (a high traffic site and an agricultural area) and at Elkhorn Slough, California (marine site). Desorption profiles from nylon membrane differed by site and by time of year. Although the influence of aerosol on this measurement has not been explored, field results suggest different forms of reactive Hg were present in the atmosphere as a function of season and location.

  3. Uranium isotopic composition and uranium concentration in special reference material SRM A (uranium in KCl/LiCl salt matrix)

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Sabau, C.S.; Smith, F.P.; Bowers, D.L.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    To help assure that analysis data of known quality will be produced in support of demonstration programs at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (Idaho Falls, ID), a special reference material has been prepared and characterized. Designated SRM A, the material consists of individual units of LiCl/KCl eutectic salt containing a nominal concentration of 2.5 wt. % enriched uranium. Analyses were performed at Argonne National Laboratory-East (Argonne, IL) to determine the uniformity of the material and to establish reference values for the uranium concentration and uranium isotopic composition. Ten units from a batch of approximately 190 units were analyzed by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique to determine their uranium concentration. These measurements provided a mean value of 2.5058 {+-} 0.0052 wt. % U, where the uncertainty includes estimated limits to both random and systematic errors that might have affected the measurements. Evidence was found of a small, apparently random, non-uniformity in uranium content of the individual SRM A units, which exhibits a standard deviation of 0.078% of the mean uranium concentration. Isotopic analysis of the uranium from three units, by means of thermal ionization mass spectrometry with a special, internal-standard procedure, indicated that the uranium isotopy is uniform among the pellets with a composition corresponding to 0.1115 {+-} 0.0006 wt. % {sup 234}U, 19.8336 {+-} 0.0059 wt. % {sup 235}U, 0.1337 {+-} 0.0006 wt. % {sup 236}U, and 79.9171 {+-} 0.0057 wt. % {sup 238}U.

  4. Soil Evaporation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil evaporation can significantly influence energy flux partitioning of partially vegetated surfaces, ultimately affecting plant transpiration. While important, quantification of soil evaporation, separately from canopy transpiration, is challenging. Techniques for measuring soil evaporation exis...

  5. CNP2 mRNA directs synthesis of both CNP1 and CNP2 polypeptides.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, R C; Minuk, J; Cox, M E; Braun, P E; Gravel, M

    1997-10-15

    The ribosome scanning model for translational initiation predicts that eukaryotic mRNAs should, as a rule, be monocistronic. However, cases have recently been described of eukaryotic mRNAs producing more than one protein through alternative translational initiation at several different AUG codons. The present work reports the occurrence of two translational start sites on the mRNA encoding isoform 2 of the myelin marker enzyme 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) in rat and mouse. We show that the CNP2 mRNA is able to direct synthesis of not only CNP2, but also CNP1 polypeptide. Immunoprecipitation experiments using a polyclonal antibody directed against CNP detect both CNP isoforms in tissues or cell lines expressing only the CNP2 transcript. Thus, the synthesis of CNP1 and CNP2 polypeptides must be encoded by the CNP2 transcript. In vitro translation of synthetic CNP2 mRNA demonstrates that both CNP isoforms are synthesized by initiation at different AUG codons. Furthermore, by introducing mutations to "switch off" translation from the second in-frame AUG codon in the CNP2 cDNA, and transfecting 293T cells with those constructs, we are able to correlate the production of CNP1 and CNP2 with different translational start sites. These results lead us to conclude that the CNP2 mRNA is able to produce both CNP1 and CNP2 polypeptides. This investigation has altered our understanding of the temporal expression of the CNP protein isoforms during development of the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:9373034

  6. The mini-array of ASTRI SST-2M telescopes, precursors for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Vercellone, Stefano; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Observatory, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) has recently inaugurated in Sicily (Italy), at the Serra La Nave astronomical site on the slopes of Mount Etna, a large field of view (FoV, ~ 9.6°) dual-mirror prototype (ASTRI SST-2M) of the CTA small size class of telescopes (SST). The CTA plans to install about 70 SST in the southern site to allow the study of the gamma rays from a few TeV up to hundreds of TeV. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype has been developed following an end-to-end approach, since it includes the entire system of structure, mirrors optics (primary and secondary mirrors), camera, and control/acquisition software. A remarkable performance improvement could come from the operation of the ASTRI mini-array, led by INAF in synergy with the Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the North-West University (South Africa). The ASTRI mini-array will be composed of nine ASTRI SST-2M units and it is proposed as a precursor and initial seed of the CTA to be installed at the final CTA southern site. Apart from the assessment of a number of technological aspects related to the CTA, the ASTRI mini-array will, if compared for instance to H.E.S.S., extend the point source sensitivity up to ~ 100 TeV, also improving it above 5-10 TeV. Moreover, the unprecedented width of the FoV, with its homogeneous acceptance and angular resolution, will significantly contribute to the achievement of original results during the early CTA science phase.

  7. Towards Efficient Mobile M2M Communications: Survey and Open Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone's battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways. PMID:25333291

  8. Towards efficient mobile M2M communications: survey and open challenges.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone's battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways. PMID:25333291

  9. Results on E+ E- to Hadrons Cross Sections from VEPP-2M and BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Solodov, E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2011-11-22

    In 1992-2000, data on e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation into hadrons were collected in the energy range 0.36 < {radical}s < 1.4 GeV with the CMD-2 and SND detectors at the VEPP-2M collider in Novosibirsk. The results of the R(s) measurements in these experiments are presented. The radiative return program at BaBar also allows to study low energy e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation and overview of the results are presented in this paper.

  10. A 2 m inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer at CMC-XOR, Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. P.; Coburn, D. S.; Kim, Y. J.; Gog, T.; Casa, D. M.; Kodituwakku, C. N.; Sinn, H.; X-Ray Science Division; BNL; Univ. of Toronto

    2007-07-01

    The design and commissioning of an inelastic X-ray scattering instrument at CMC-XOR at the Advanced Photon Source is reported. The instrument features a 2 m vertical-scattering arm with a novel counterweight design to reduce the twisting moment as the arm is moved in the scattering plane. A Ge(733) spherical analyzer was fabricated and an overall resolution of 118 meV (FWHM) was obtained with a Si(444) monochromator and a Si(111) pre-monochromator. Early results from a representative cuprate, La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}, are reported.

  11. The r-step Fibonacci-Hurwitz sequences in the binary polyhedral group <2, m, 2>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveci, Ömür; Ćiçekci, Deniz

    2016-04-01

    In [1], Deveci et al. defined the r-step Fibonacci-Hurwitz sequences from the Hurwitz matrices obtained from the characteristic polynomial of the k-step Fibonacci sequence. Also, they extended the r-step Fibonacci-Hurwitz sequences to groups. In this work, we obtain the periods of the r-step Fibonacci-Hurwitz sequences in the binary polyhedral group <2, m, 2> for generating triple {x, y, z} and generating pair {y, z} by the aid of the periods of the r-step Fibonacci-Hurwitz sequences according to modulo m.

  12. Robotic operation of the DAO 1.2-m telescope and McKellar spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monin, D.; Saddlemyer, L.; Bohlender, D.

    2014-12-01

    The DAO 1.2-m telescope has been successfully used to obtain astronomical spectra in unattended robotic mode for a decade and approximately 2/3 of the nights scheduled on the telescope are now used in this fashion. The availability of such robotic operation has boosted the telescope's subscription rate by approximately 50% since telescope users no longer have to travel to the DAO in order to conduct their observing programs. An overview of the robotic system and some details of its operation are presented.

  13. The New 2-M RCC Telescope in the Northern Caucasus for Modern Astronomical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarady, V. K.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    A new 2-m Ritchey-Chretien-Coude (RCC) telescope in the Northern Caucasus (the Kabardin-Balkar Republic, Russian Federation) is nearing being put into operation. It has been developed by the National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine on the Terskol peak (near Elbrus) which seems to be one of the best sites for astronomical ground observations in terms of its astroclimate. This paper describes the present status of the telescope, its instrumentation and outlines the scientific problems that can be solved using the telescope.

  14. Observation of Surface Composition during ECR Discharge Cleaning in JFT-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Yoshimi; Ohtsuka, Hideo

    1986-03-01

    Surface composition on a molybdenum sample has been observed during ECR discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) by Auger electron spectroscopy in JFT-2M. ECR-DC reduces oxygen levels to one-thrid of those before exposure within thirty minutes, and the molybdenum concentration increases up to a factor of three during ECR-DC. Carbon levels decrease once, then increase gradually. In the later phase Auger line shapes are similar to pure carbon. Sulfur, which appears under 120°C baking, surfaces from the stainless steel of the chamber as a result of the baking, and is sputtered by plasmas and deposited on the sample.

  15. Temperature and Pressure Dependence of the Reaction S + CS (+M) → CS2 (+M).

    PubMed

    Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul; Troe, Jürgen

    2015-07-16

    Experimental data for the unimolecular decomposition of CS2 from the literature are analyzed by unimolecular rate theory with the goal of obtaining rate constants for the reverse reaction S + CS (+M) → CS2 (+M) over wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results constitute an important input for the kinetic modeling of CS2 oxidation. CS2 dissociation proceeds as a spin-forbidden process whose detailed properties are still not well understood. The role of the singlet-triplet transition involved is discussed. PMID:25669352

  16. Ion heat pulse after sawtooth crash in the JFT-2M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Okano, F.; Suzuki, N.; Mori, M.; Hoshino, K.; Maeda, H.; Takizuka, T.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.

    1993-08-01

    The ion heat pulse after sawtooth crash is studied with the time-of-flight neutral measurement on the JFT-2M tokamak. The rapid change of the bulk ion energy distribution near the edge is observed after sawtooth crash. The delay time is measured and the effective measuring position is estimated by a neutral transport code, then the thermal conductivity, chi(sub i)(exp HP), of about 15 +/- 10 sq m/sec is evaluated for the L-mode plasma. The simple diffusive model with constant chi(sub i)(exp HP), however, does not explain the amplitude of the pulse in the ion energy distribution.

  17. Chlorine nitrate - The sole product of the ClO + NO2 + M recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margitan, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    A laser operating at 266 nm is used to photolyze the product of the ClO + NO2 + M reaction, and the yield of Cl atoms, measured by resonance fluorescence, is found to be identical with that from equivalent concentrations of ClONO2. This is interpreted as a strong indication that no other isomers are formed in the recombination reaction. Evidence for isomers is surveyed, and the apparent forward-and-reverse-rate constant discrepancy is explained as a probable uncertainty in the thermochemistry.

  18. Credit WCT. Original 2A" x 2M" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-A" x 2-M" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. Photo shows John Morrow in charge of milling operations on coupons ("dogbones") of propellant on an Index milling machine. Coupons were milled to precise dimensions for tensile tests. Note that two sprinkler heads have been placed in very close proximity to the milling table for fire suppression purposes (JPL negative no. JPL-10283AC, 27 January 1989) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Preparation Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Adenosine induces G2/M cell-cycle arrest by inhibiting cell mitosis progression.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kun-Zhi; Tang, Bo; Yu, Lu; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Jian-Fa; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2010-01-01

    Cellular adenosine accumulates under stress conditions. Few papers on adenosine are concerned with its function in the cell cycle. The cell cycle is the essential mechanism by which all living things reproduce and the target machinery when cells encounter stresses, so it is necessary to examine the relationship between adenosine and the cell cycle. In the present study, adenosine was found to induce G-2/M cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, adenosine was found to modulate the expression of some important proteins in the cell cycle, such as cyclin B and p21, and to inhibit the transition of metaphase to anaphase in mitosis. PMID:19947935

  20. Desorption kinetics of cesium from Fukushima soils.

    PubMed

    Murota, Kento; Saito, Takumi; Tanaka, Satoru

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the behaviors of Cs(+) in soils is crucial for evaluation of the impacts of disposal of soils contaminated by radiocesium, (137)Cs. The desorption rate of Cs(+) evaluated in relatively short periods of time may not be adequate for such a purpose. In this study, we investigated long-term desorption kinetics of (137)Cs and (133)Cs from soils collected in Fukushima Prefecture by batch desorption experiments in the presence of cation exchange resin as a sorbent. The sorbent can keep the concentration of Cs(+) in the aqueous phase low and prevent re-sorption of desorbed Cs(+). Up to 60% of (137)Cs was desorbed after 139 d in dilute KCl media, which was larger than the desorption by conventional short-term extraction with 1 M ammonium acetate. Desorption of (137)Cs continued even after this period. It was also found that high concentration of K(+) prevented desorption of Cs(+) in the initial stage of desorption, but the effect was alleviated with time. The desorbed fraction of stable Cs was smaller than that of (137)Cs. This indicated that (137)Cs may gradually move to more stable states in soils. The half-life of (137)Cs desorption from the slowest sorption site was estimated to be at least two years by a three-site desorption model. PMID:26773507

  1. Machine to machine (M2M) technology in demand responsive commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David S.; Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Motegi, Naoya; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    Machine to Machine (M2M) is a term used to describe the technologies that enable computers, embedded processors, smart sensors, actuators and mobile devices to communicate with one another, take measurements and make decisions--often without human intervention. M2M technology was applied to five commercial buildings in a test. The goal was to reduce electric demand when a remote price signal rose above a predetermine price. In this system, a variable price signal was generated from a single source on the Internet and distributed using the meta-language, XML (Extensible Markup Language). Each of five commercial building sites monitored the common price signal and automatically shed site-specific electric loads when the price increased above predetermined thresholds. Other than price signal scheduling, which was set up in advance by the project researchers, the system was designed to operate without human intervention during the two-week test period. Although the buildings responded to the same price signal, the communication infrastructures used at each building were substantially different. This study provides an overview of the technologies used at each building site, the price generator/server, and each link in between. Network architecture, security, data visualization and site-specific system features are characterized. The results of the test are discussed, including: functionality at each site, measurement and verification techniques, and feedback from energy managers and building operators. Lessons learned from the test and potential implications for widespread rollout are provided.

  2. Role of reactive oxygen species and MAPKs in vanadate-induced G(2)/M phase arrest.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Leonard, Stephen S; Huang, Chuanshu; Vallyathan, Val; Castranova, Vince; Shi, Xianglin

    2003-05-15

    Cell growth arrest is an important mechanism in maintaining genomic stability and integrity in response to environmental stress. Using the human lung alveolar epithelial cancer cell line A549, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), and p38 protein kinase in vanadate-induced cell growth arrest. Exposure of cells to vanadate led to cell growth arrest at the G(2)/M phase and caused upregulation of p21 and phospho-cdc2 and degradation of cdc25C in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Vanadate stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) family members, as determined by the phosphorylation of ERK and p38. PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK, and SB202190, an inhibitor of p38, inhibited vanadate-induced cell growth arrest, upregulation of p21 and cdc2, and degradation of cdc25C. In addition to hydroxyl radical ((*)OH) formation, cellular reduction of vanadate generated superoxide radical (O(2)(*)(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), as determined by confocal microscopy using specific dyes. Generation of O(2)(*)(-) and H(2)O(2) was inhibited by specific antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively. ROS activate ERK and p38, which in turn upregulate p21 and cdc2 and cause degradation of cdc25C, leading to cell growth arrest at the G(2)/M phase. Specific ROS affect different MAPK family members and cell growth regulatory proteins with different potencies. PMID:12726921

  3. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: opto-mechanical test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canestrari, Rodolfo; Giro, Enrico; Antolini, Elisa; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Cascone, Enrico; La Palombara, Nicola; Leto, Giuseppe; Pareschi, Giovanni; Scuderi, Salvo; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino

    2015-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory, with a combination of large-, medium-, and small-size telescopes (LST, MST and SST, respectively), will represent the next generation of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. It will explore the very high-energy domain from a few tens of GeV up to few hundreds of TeV with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution and imaging resolution. In this framework, the Italian ASTRI program, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF), is currently developing a scientific and technological SST dual-mirror end-to-end prototype named ASTRI SST-2M. It is a 4-meter class telescope; it adopts an aplanatic, wide-field, double-reflection optical layout in a Schwarzschild-Couder configuration. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope structure and mirrors have been already installed at the INAF observing station at Serra La Nave, on Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy). In this contribution we report about the on-site deployment and the latest results on the opto-mechanical performance test conducted soon after the telescope installation

  4. HERSCHEL/HIFI OBSERVATIONS OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE TOWARD SAGITTARIUS B2(M)

    SciTech Connect

    Monje, R. R.; Emprechtinger, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Lis, D. C.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Bergin, E. A.; Bell, T. A.; Neufeld, D. A.; Sonnentrucker, P.

    2011-06-10

    Herschel/HIFI observations have revealed the presence of widespread absorption by hydrogen fluoride (HF) J = 1-0 rotational transition, toward a number of Galactic sources. We present observations of HF J = 1-0 toward the high-mass star-forming region Sagittarius B2(M). The spectrum obtained shows a complex pattern of absorption, with numerous features covering a wide range of local standard of rest velocities (-130 to 100 km {sup -1}). An analysis of this absorption yields HF abundances relative to H{sub 2} of {approx}1.3 x 10{sup -8}, in most velocity intervals. This result is in good agreement with estimates from chemical models, which predict that HF should be the main reservoir of gas-phase fluorine under a wide variety of interstellar conditions. Interestingly, we also find velocity intervals in which the HF spectrum shows strong absorption features that are not present, or are very weak, in spectra of other molecules, such as {sup 13}CO (1-0) and CS (2-1). HF absorption reveals components of diffuse clouds with small extinction that can be studied for the first time. Another interesting observation is that water is significantly more abundant than hydrogen fluoride over a wide range of velocities toward Sagittarius B2(M), in contrast to the remarkably constant H{sub 2}O/HF abundance ratio with average value close to unity measured toward other Galactic sources.

  5. Utilizing G2/M retention effect to enhance tumor accumulation of active targeting nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guanlian; Cun, Xingli; Ruan, Shaobo; Shi, Kairong; Wang, Yang; Kuang, Qifang; Hu, Chuan; Xiao, Wei; He, Qin; Gao, Huile

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, active targeting strategies by ligand modification have emerged to enhance tumor accumulation of NP, but their clinical application was strictly restricted due to the complex preparation procedures, poor stability and serious toxicity. An effective and clinical translational strategy is required to satisfy the current problems. Interestingly, the internalization of NP is intimately related with cell cycle and the expression of receptors is not only related with cancer types but also cell cycle progression. So the cellular uptake of ligand modified NP may be related with cell cycle. However, few investigations were reported about the relationship between cell cycle and the internalization of ligand modified NP. Herein, cellular uptake of folic acid (FA) modified NP after utilizing chemotherapeutic to retain the tumor cells in G2/M phase was studied and a novel strategy was designed to enhance the active targeting effect. In our study, docetaxel (DTX) notably synchronized cells in G2/M phase and pretreatment with DTX highly improved in vitro and in vivo tumor cell targeting effect of FA decorated NP (FANP). Since FA was a most common used tumor active targeting ligand, we believe that this strategy possesses broader prospects in clinical application for its simplicity and effectiveness. PMID:27273770

  6. Study of the Polarization Strategy for Electron Cyclotron Heating Systems on HL-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Huang, M.; Xia, D. H.; Song, S. D.; Wang, J. Q.; Huang, B.; Wang, H.

    2016-06-01

    As important components integrated in transmission lines of electron cyclotron heating systems, polarizers are mainly used to obtain the desired polarization for highly efficient coupling between electron cyclotron waves and plasma. The polarization strategy for 105-GHz electron cyclotron heating systems of HL-2M tokamak is studied in this paper. Considering the polarizers need high efficiency, stability, and low loss to realize any polarization states, two sinusoidal-grooved polarizers, which include a linear polarizer and an elliptical polarizer, are designed with the coordinate transformation method. The parameters, the period p and the depth d, of two sinusoidal-grooved polarizers are optimized by a phase difference analysis method to achieve an almost arbitrary polarization. Finally, the optimized polarizers are manufactured and their polarization characteristics are tested with a low-power test platform. The experimental results agree well with the numerical calculations, indicating that the designed polarizers can meet the polarization requirements of the electron cyclotron heating systems of HL-2M tokamak.

  7. IEEE802.15.6 NB portable BAN clinic and M2M international standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Nohara, Yasunobu

    2013-01-01

    The increase of non communicable diseases (NCDs) will change the direction of health services to emphasize the role of preventive medicine in healthcare services. The first short-range medical body are network (BAN) standard IEEE802.15.6 is expected to be used for secure and user-friendly sensor devices for portable medical equipment. A BAN is an enabler for uploading medical data to a backend system for remote diagnoses and treatment. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) infrastructure is also a key technology for providing flexible and affordable services extending electronic health record (EHR) systems. This paper proposes a BAN-based portable clinic that collects health-check data from user-friendly medical devices and sensors and sends the data to a local backend server, and it evaluates the clinic in fields of actual usage. We discuss issues experienced from actual deployment of the system and focus on integrating it into upcoming healthcare M2M infrastructure to achieve affordable and dependable clinic services. We explain the components and workflow of the clinic and the system model. The system is set up at a temporary health center and has a network link to a remote medical help center. The paper concludes with our plan to introduce our system to contribute to internationally standardized preventive medicine. PMID:24110023

  8. Reprogramming the Dynamin 2 mRNA by Spliceosome-mediated RNA Trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    Trochet, Delphine; Prudhon, Bernard; Jollet, Arnaud; Lorain, Stéphanie; Bitoun, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Dynamin 2 (DNM2) is a large GTPase, ubiquitously expressed, involved in membrane trafficking and regulation of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. DNM2 mutations cause autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy which is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by skeletal muscle weakness and histopathological features including nuclear centralization in absence of regeneration. No curative treatment is currently available for the DNM2-related autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy. In order to develop therapeutic strategy, we evaluated here the potential of Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing technology to reprogram the Dnm2-mRNA in vitro and in vivo in mice. We show that classical 3'-trans-splicing strategy cannot be considered as accurate therapeutic strategy regarding toxicity of the pre-trans-splicing molecules leading to low rate of trans-splicing in vivo. Thus, we tested alternative strategies devoted to prevent this toxicity and enhance frequency of trans-splicing events. We succeeded to overcome the toxicity through a 5'-trans-splicing strategy which also allows detection of trans-splicing events at mRNA and protein levels in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that the Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing strategy may be used to reprogram mutated Dnm2-mRNA but highlight the potential toxicity linked to the molecular tools which have to be carefully investigated during preclinical development. PMID:27623444

  9. Soil carbon sequestration by three perennial legume pastures is greater in deeper soil layers than in the surface soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.-K.; Turner, N. C.; Song, L.; Gu, Y.-J.; Wang, T.-C.; Li, F.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a vital role as both a sink for and source of atmospheric carbon. Revegetation of degraded arable land in China is expected to increase soil carbon sequestration, but the role of perennial legumes on soil carbon stocks in semiarid areas has not been quantified. In this study, we assessed the effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and two locally adapted forage legumes, bush clover (Lespedeza davurica S.) and milk vetch (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) on the SOC concentration and SOC stock accumulated annually over a 2 m soil profile, and to estimate the long-term potential for SOC sequestration in the soil under the three forage legumes. The results showed that the concentration of SOC of the bare soil decreased slightly over the 7 years, while 7 years of legume growth substantially increased the concentration of SOC over the 0-2.0 m soil depth measured. Over the 7 year growth period the SOC stocks increased by 24.1, 19.9 and 14.6 Mg C ha-1 under the alfalfa, bush clover and milk vetch stands, respectively, and decreased by 4.2 Mg C ha-1 under bare soil. The sequestration of SOC in the 1-2 m depth of soil accounted for 79, 68 and 74 % of SOC sequestered through the upper 2 m of soil under alfalfa, bush clover and milk vetch, respectively. Conversion of arable land to perennial legume pasture resulted in a significant increase in SOC, particularly at soil depths below 1 m.

  10. Extensive lesions in rat insular cortex significantly disrupt taste sensitivity to NaCl and KCl and slow salt discrimination learning.

    PubMed

    Blonde, Ginger D; Bales, Michelle B; Spector, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    While studies of the gustatory cortex (GC) mostly focus on its role in taste aversion learning and memory, the necessity of GC for other fundamental taste-guided behaviors remains largely untested. Here, rats with either excitotoxic lesions targeting GC (n = 26) or sham lesions (n = 14) were assessed for postsurgical retention of a presurgically LiCl-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to 0.1M sucrose using a brief-access taste generalization test in a gustometer. The same animals were then trained in a two-response operant taste detection task and psychophysically tested for their salt (NaCl or KCl) sensitivity. Next, the rats were trained and tested in a NaCl vs. KCl taste discrimination task with concentrations varied. Rats meeting our histological inclusion criterion had large lesions (resulting in a group averaging 80% damage to GC and involving surrounding regions) and showed impaired postsurgical expression of the presurgical CTA (LiCl-injected, n = 9), demonstrated rightward shifts in the NaCl (0.54 log10 shift) and KCl (0.35 log10 shift) psychometric functions, and displayed retarded salt discrimination acquisition (n = 18), but eventually learned and performed the discrimination comparable to sham-operated animals. Interestingly, the degree of deficit between tasks correlated only modestly, if at all, suggesting that idiosyncratic differences in insular cortex lesion topography were the root of the individual differences in the behavioral effects demonstrated here. This latter finding hints at some degree of interanimal variation in the functional topography of insular cortex. Overall, GC appears to be necessary to maintain normal taste sensitivity to NaCl and KCl and for salt discrimination learning. However, higher salt concentrations can be detected and discriminated by rats with extensive damage to GC suggesting that the other resources of the gustatory system are sufficient to maintain partial competence in these tasks, supporting the view that

  11. Extensive Lesions in Rat Insular Cortex Significantly Disrupt Taste Sensitivity to NaCl and KCl and Slow Salt Discrimination Learning

    PubMed Central

    Blonde, Ginger D.; Bales, Michelle B.; Spector, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    While studies of the gustatory cortex (GC) mostly focus on its role in taste aversion learning and memory, the necessity of GC for other fundamental taste-guided behaviors remains largely untested. Here, rats with either excitotoxic lesions targeting GC (n = 26) or sham lesions (n = 14) were assessed for postsurgical retention of a presurgically LiCl-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to 0.1M sucrose using a brief-access taste generalization test in a gustometer. The same animals were then trained in a two-response operant taste detection task and psychophysically tested for their salt (NaCl or KCl) sensitivity. Next, the rats were trained and tested in a NaCl vs. KCl taste discrimination task with concentrations varied. Rats meeting our histological inclusion criterion had large lesions (resulting in a group averaging 80% damage to GC and involving surrounding regions) and showed impaired postsurgical expression of the presurgical CTA (LiCl-injected, n = 9), demonstrated rightward shifts in the NaCl (0.54 log10 shift) and KCl (0.35 log10 shift) psychometric functions, and displayed retarded salt discrimination acquisition (n = 18), but eventually learned and performed the discrimination comparable to sham-operated animals. Interestingly, the degree of deficit between tasks correlated only modestly, if at all, suggesting that idiosyncratic differences in insular cortex lesion topography were the root of the individual differences in the behavioral effects demonstrated here. This latter finding hints at some degree of interanimal variation in the functional topography of insular cortex. Overall, GC appears to be necessary to maintain normal taste sensitivity to NaCl and KCl and for salt discrimination learning. However, higher salt concentrations can be detected and discriminated by rats with extensive damage to GC suggesting that the other resources of the gustatory system are sufficient to maintain partial competence in these tasks, supporting the view that

  12. Conserving Soil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Designed as enrichment materials for grades six through nine, this program is an interdisciplinary study of soils. As part of the program students: (1) examine soil organisms; (2) research history of local Native Americans to see how they and others have used the land and its soils; (3) investigate how soils are degraded and how they are conserved…

  13. High Beta Steady State Research and Future Directions on JT-60U and JFT-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Shinichi

    2003-10-01

    JT-60U and JFT-2M research is focused on high beta steady state operation towards economically and environmentally attractive reactors. In JT-60U, a high-βp H-mode plasma was sustained with βN 2.7 for 7.4 s in which neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) limited the attainable β_N. Real-time tracking NTM stabilization system using ECCD demonstrated complete suppression of NTM leading to recovery of βN before onset of NTM. Performance in a fully non-inductive H-mode plasma was improved up to n_i(0) τE T_i(0) = 3.1 x 10^20 keV s m-3 using N-NBCD with βN 2.4, HH_y,2=1.2 and bootstrap fraction f_BS 0.5. ECH experiments extended the confinement enhancement for dominantly electron heated reversed shear plasmas up to HH_y,2 2 at T_e/Ti 1.25. A world record ECCD efficiency, 4.2 x 10^18 A/W/m^2, was achieved at Te 23 keV with a highly localized central current density. Innovative initiation and current build-up without center solenoid currents were established by LHCD/ECH and bootstrap current up to f_BS 0.9. In JFT-2M, the inside of the vacuum vessel wall was fully covered with low-activation ferritic steel plates to investigate their use in plasmas near fusion conditions. High βN plasmas were produced up to βN = 3.3 with an internal transport barrier (ITB) and a steady H-mode edge. A new H-mode regime with steady high recycling (HRS) and an ITB was exploited leading to βN H_89P 6.2 at n_e/nG 0.7. In 2003, JT-60U will be able to operate for the duration up to 65 s at 1 MA/2.7 T and the heating/current-drive duration up to 30 s at 17 MW to prolong high-βN and/or high-f_BS discharges with feedback controls. JFT-2M is planning to implement wall stabilization experiments in 2004 to pursue plasmas above the ideal no-wall limit using a ferritic wall. The modification of JT-60 to a fully superconducting tokamak is under discussion to explore high-β steady state operation in collision-less plasmas well above no-wall limit with ferritic wall in a steady state.

  14. Model and Mockup of DEMO Ceramic Breeding Zone for Testing in the IVV-2M Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kapychev, V.; Gorokhov, V.; Davydov, D.

    2001-01-15

    A model of a ceramic breeding zone has been designed and manufactured for testing in the IVV-2M fission reactor. The model contains both lithium orthosilicate and beryllium spheroid particles 1 to 2 mm in diameter. The structural material is ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. In addition, a mockup of the model for verification of neutronics calculation methods has been designed and manufactured. A special facility (Functional In-Reactor Investigations of Tritium-Breeding Models) has been designed, fabricated, and assembled at the reactor for studying the kinetics of tritium extraction from the ceramic material under irradiation. Neutronic and thermo-hydraulic calculations and an initial measurement of tritium release from the model under reactor irradiation have been performed.

  15. Unmasking the masked Universe: the 2M++ catalogue through Bayesian eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Jasche, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a full Bayesian analysis of the Nearby Universe as traced by galaxies of the 2M++ survey. The analysis is run in two sequential steps. The first step self-consistently derives the luminosity-dependent galaxy biases, the power spectrum of matter fluctuations and matter density fields within a Gaussian statistic approximation. The second step makes a detailed analysis of the three-dimensional large-scale structures, assuming a fixed bias model and a fixed cosmology. This second step allows for the reconstruction of both the final density field and the initial conditions at z = 1000 assuming a fixed bias model. From these, we derive fields that self-consistently extrapolate the observed large-scale structures. We give two examples of these extrapolation and their utility for the detection of structures: the visibility of the Sloan Great Wall, and the detection and characterization of the Local Void using DIVA, a Lagrangian based technique to classify structures.

  16. Two color satellite laser ranging upgrades at Goddard's 1.2m telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Mcgarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Varghese, Thomas K.

    1993-01-01

    The ranging laboratory at Goddard's 1.2 m telescope tracking facility has recently been upgraded to include a single photoelectron sensitive Hamamatsu streak camera-based range receiver which uses doubled and tripled Nd:YAG frequencies for satellite laser ranging. Other ranging system upgrades include a new continuum laser, which will deliver up to 30 millijoules (mJ) at both 532 and 355 nm at a pulsewidth of 30 picoseconds (FWHM), and replacement of both ranging and tracking computers with COMPAQ 386 based systems. Preliminary results using a photomultiplier-tube based receiver and waveform digitizer indicate agreement within the accuracy of the measurement with the theoretical Marini and Murray model for atmospheric refraction. Two color streak camera measurements are used to further analyze the accuracy of these and other atmospheric refraction models.

  17. Wavelet analysis of the parameters of edge plasma fluctuations in the L-2M stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, S. A.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Kholnov, Yu V.; Skvortsova, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    Wavelet analysis results are presented for evolution of the spectral fluctuation characteristics of the edge plasma density and potential in the L-2M stellarator for fast and slow transport transitions. The fast transition comes out as a sharp increase of the energy and electron density within ∼0.1ms and the slow one as a weak parameter change during a 0.5 to 1 ms time interval. It is shown that the use of the “Mexican hat” and Morlet wavelets allows one to detect the moment of the fast transition, whereas applying the Haar wavelet adds to this also an estimate of its duration, conforming to the analytical calculations, and reveals the temporal structure of the slow transition.

  18. WARM DUSTY DEBRIS DISKS AND DISTANT COMPANION STARS: V488 PER AND 2M1337

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.

    2015-01-10

    A possible connection between the presence of large quantities of warm (T ≥ 200 K) circumstellar dust at youthful stars and the existence of wide-separation companion stars has been noted in the literature. Here we point out the existence of a distant companion star to V488 Per, a K-type member of the α Persei cluster with the largest known fractional excess infrared luminosity (∼16%) of any main sequence star. We also report the presence of a distant companion to the previously recognized warm dust star 2M1337. With these discoveries the existence of a cause and effect relationship between a distant companion and large quantities of warm dust in orbit around youthful stars now seems compelling.

  19. Active optics system of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiol, Daniele; Capobianco, Gerardo; Fantinel, Daniela; Giro, Enrico; Lessio, Luigi; Loreggia, Davide; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Russo, Federico; Volpicelli, Antonio C.

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) SST-2M is an end-to-end prototype of Small Size class of Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. It will apply a dual mirror configuration to Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. The 18 segments composing the primary mirror (diameter 4.3 m) are equipped with an active optics system enabling optical re-alignment during telescope slew. The secondary mirror (diameter 1.8 m) can be moved along three degrees of freedom to perform focus and tilt corrections. We describe the kinematic model used to predict the system performance as well as the hardware and software design solution that will be implemented for optics control.

  20. Holographic cosmology from a system of M2-M5 branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Faizal, Mir; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the holographic cosmology using a M2-M5 brane configuration. In this configuration, a M2-brane will be placed in between a M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane. The M2-brane will act as a channel for energy to flow from an anti-M5-brane to a M5-brane, and this will increase the degrees of freedom on the M5-brane causing inflation. The inflation will end when the M5-brane and anti-M5-brane get separated. However, at a later stage the distance between the M5-brane and the anti-M5-bran can reduce and this will cause the formation of tachyonic states. These tachyonic states will again open a bridge between the M5-branes and the anti-M5-branes, which will cause further acceleration of the universe.

  1. Change in Edge Fluctuations Synchronized with Heat Pulse in the JFT-2M Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Fujisawa, Akihide; Hoshino, Katsumichi

    2016-06-01

    The change in edge fluctuations synchronized with a heat pulse during Sawtooth oscillation has been investigated in the JFT-2M tokamak using a reciprocating Langmuir probe. Data window of a heat pulse is segmented into a number of time frames, and time traces of auto-power spectra at each frame are calculated. Conditional averaging over a number of heat pulse events in a single discharge is performed in order to reduce the variance of the fluctuation spectra. At each heat pulse event, a reduction in the geodesic acoustic mode fluctuation power and an increase in the turbulence fluctuation power are observed. The change in the fluctuation powers suggests that the edge heat pulse during Sawtooth instability could affect the edge turbulence structure.

  2. Two color satellite laser ranging upgrades at Goddard's 1.2m telescope facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; McGarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Varghese, Thomas K.

    1993-06-01

    The ranging laboratory at Goddard's 1.2 m telescope tracking facility has recently been upgraded to include a single photoelectron sensitive Hamamatsu streak camera-based range receiver which uses doubled and tripled Nd:YAG frequencies for satellite laser ranging. Other ranging system upgrades include a new continuum laser, which will deliver up to 30 millijoules (mJ) at both 532 and 355 nm at a pulsewidth of 30 picoseconds (FWHM), and replacement of both ranging and tracking computers with COMPAQ 386 based systems. Preliminary results using a photomultiplier-tube based receiver and waveform digitizer indicate agreement within the accuracy of the measurement with the theoretical Marini and Murray model for atmospheric refraction. Two color streak camera measurements are used to further analyze the accuracy of these and other atmospheric refraction models.

  3. The design and analysis of 2m telescope's K Mirror system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peng; Zhang, Jingxu; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    During the alt-azimuth telescope tracking, due to the frame structure of tracking support and relative movement of each mirror in Coude optical path, image plane is rotating. To eliminate the effects of image rotation for imaging and subsequent image processing, dove prism or K mirror are generally used. A set of K mirror system designed for 2m telescope. Affected by various errors in the alignment process, the rotating axis K, the optical axis of the K mirror, and the optical axis of the telescope's optical system can't be fully coincide. This causes the track optical axis drawn on the image is not a point, but a Pascal's limacon. The impact caused by the various sources of error were analyzed in this paper and simulation results have important guiding significance for the alignment error distribution.

  4. Ortho/para ratio of H2O+ toward Sagittarius B2(M) revisited.

    PubMed

    Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Higgins, Ronan; Comito, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel satellite has allowed the observation and characterization of light hydrides, the building blocks of interstellar chemistry. In this article, we revisit the ortho/para ratio for H2O(+) toward the Sgr B2(M) cloud core. The line of sight toward this star forming region passes through several spiral arms and the gas in the Bar potential in the inner Galaxy. In contrast to earlier findings, which used fewer lines to constrain the ratio, we find a ratio of 3, which is uniformly consistent with high-temperature formation of the species. In view of the reactivity of this ion, this matches the expectations. PMID:23713712

  5. Proposed structures for poorly characterized phases in C2M carbonaceous chondrite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackinnon, I. D. R.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    A recent investigation of C2M carbonaceous chondrite meteorite matrices using electron microscopy and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) has provided data on the structure and chemistry of Poorly Characterized Phases (PCP). It is suggested that a dominant matrix variety (10 A PCP) has a structure equivalent to iron-rich tochinilite (6Fe0.9S5/Fe, Mg//OHO2/), which consists of coherently intrastratified mackinawite and brucite sheets. In addition, it is proposed that 17 A PCP is a commensurate intergrowth of serpentine and tochinilite layers. Various forms of PCP observed in carbonaceous chondrites appear to be intergrowths of tochinilite, serpentine, and tochinilite-serpentine minerals.

  6. Type 2M and Type 2A von Willebrand Disease: Similar but Different.

    PubMed

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Pasalic, Leonardo; Curnow, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    Analogous to the differentiation between hemophilia A and B, respectively, reflecting deficiency in factor VIII (FVIII) and FIX, and increasing being recognized as reflecting clinically different disorders, types 2A and 2M von Willebrand disease (VWD) can also be shown to express both similarities and differences in their prevalence, genetic defects, laboratory test results, clinical features, and treatment responses. In this narrative review, we explore these two "subtypes" of type 2 VWD, identifying parallels and dissimilarities in various aspects of their presentation to clinicians and to scientists/laboratories. This differential will become increasingly important as we strive to provide personalized approaches to future management of patients with VWD, particularly in the emerging landscape of recombinant von Willebrand factor. PMID:27148841

  7. A cost-effective and serviceable ATLAST 9.2m telescope architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Jones, Andrew; Mosier, Gary; Rioux, Norman; Redding, Dave; Kienlen, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The ATLAST 9.2m architecture has evolved to be more cost effective while also meeting a more thorough understanding of the driving science requirements. The new approach can fit in an existing Delta IV Heavy rocket and makes extensive use of heritage and selective use of technology in order to minimize development time and cost. We have performed a more thorough look at how to meet the stability requirements for both thermal and dynamics and have an approach consistent with an initial error budget. In addition, we have developed concepts to support robotic or human servicing in a cost effective manner through a modular approach that relies on simple, external access and metrology. These refinements to the architecture enable a cost-effective, long-lifecycle, and relatively low risk approach to development.

  8. Spectrofluorimetric determination of cysteine by 5-maleimidyl-2-( m-methylphenyl)benzoxazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shu-Cai; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Hua-Shan

    2002-10-01

    A new thiol weak-fluorescence probe, 5-maleimidyl-2-( m-methylphenyl)benzoxazole (MMPB), gives a highly fluorescence product in the presence of Cys. In this paper, MMPB has been developed for the fluorimetric determination of cysteine (Cys). At λex/ λem=305.6/425.6 nm, the linear range is from 0 to 3.3×10 -7 mol l -1 and the detection limit ( σ=3) of 6.2×10 -10 mol l -1. The main advantage of this method lies in the relative high selectivity compared with the methods using other N-substituted maleimide type of thiol reagents, in which 0.15-fold (molar ratio) of GSH is allowed and most of other amino acids at 100-fold (molar ratio) level had no obvious effect on the results. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Cys in real samples.

  9. Nanodopant-Induced Band Modulation in AgPbmSbTe2+m-Type Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yi; Ke, Xuezhi; Chen, Changfeng; Yang, Jihui; Kent, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    We elucidate the fundamental physics of nanoscale dopants in narrow band-gap thermoelectric nanocomposites XPbmYTe2+m (X=Ag,Na; Y=Sb,Bi) using first-principles calculations. Our re- sults unveil distinct band-structure modulations, most notably a sizable band-gap widening driven by nanodopant-induced lattice strain and a band split-off at the conduction band minimum caused by the spin-orbit interaction of the dopant Sb or Bi atoms. Boltzmann transport calculations demon- strate that these band modulations have significant but competing effects on high-temperature elec- tron transport behavior. These results offer insights for understanding recent experimental findings and suggest principles for optimizing thermoelectric properties of narrow band-gap semiconductors.

  10. A concept for the modernization of a SANS instrument at the IBR-2M pulsed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhan, R. V.; Manoshin, S.; Pepy, G.; Kuklin, A. I.; Belushkin, A. V.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2011-04-01

    We consider a new configuration for a neutron small angle scattering instrument at the pulsed IBR-2M reactor with a mixed (cold and thermal) moderator system. This system provides added-up spectra from the cold and thermal parts of the moderator. We have installed the spectrometer using a special collimation system formed by two parts: primary with neutron optics element (divergent neutron guide) and secondary (installed after the divergent neutron guide) with a multiple pinhole collimation system. Our efforts have the goal to obtain smaller Qmin values (as well as higher resolution) with the possibilities to take advantage of an increased neutron flux compared with the present SANS spectrometer in the limited beam hall size. The Monte Carlo simulations will be used to choose and optimize the spectrometer and extraction system using VITESS software package.

  11. Measurement of cold neutron spectra using a model cryogenic moderator of the IBR-2M reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, S. A.; Kalinin, I. V.; Morozov, V. M.; Novikov, A. G.; Puchkov, A. V.; Chernikov, A. N.; Shabalin, E. P.

    2010-01-01

    The method and results of an experiment to determine the cold neutron spectrum from solid mesitylene at moderator temperatures of 10-50 K are presented. This study was performed at the DIN-2PI spectrometer of the IBR-2 reactor. The objective of the study was to verify the system of constants used in the Monte Carlo simulation of cryogenic neutron moderators of the IBR-2M reactor and to obtain the cold neutron yield as a function of the moderator temperature. Satisfactory agreement between the experimental and calculated neutron spectra at a mesitylene temperature of 20 K has been obtained; the ratio of cold neutron intensities at 10 and 50 K is ˜1.8.

  12. Ripple reduction and surface coating tests with ferritic steel on JFT-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Sato, M.; Kawashima, H.; Miura, Y.; Kimura, H.; Abe, T.; Uehara, K.; Ogawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Shibata, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Koike, T.

    2000-12-01

    Applicability of the low-activation ferritic steel (F82H), which is one of the candidate materials for next generation fusion devices, has been tested in JFT-2M. Ferritic steel boards (FB) were installed between toroidal field coils (TFC) and the vacuum vessel at all toroidal sections. The experiment and the calculation show that the ripple amplitude decreases from 2.2% to 1.1% by the FB installation at R=1.6 m. The ripple reduction results in the reduction of fast ion loss and in the shift of the ripple loss to the outer region. No undesirable effect to the energy confinement and the plasma control was observed. The FB will be installed inside the vacuum vessel in the near future. In preparation, surface coating tests, mainly concerning with an in situ boron coating, are carried out.

  13. IPLA2 mRNA expression by human neutrophils in type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Ayilavarapu, Srinivas; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2014-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide and complications of T2D cause significant systemic and dental morbidity in the susceptible individual. Although T2D has been linked as a significant risk factor for chronic periodontitis (CP), molecular mechanisms explaining the pathogenesis and inflammatory impact of CP in T2D are lacking. iPLA2 is the calcium-independent form of phospholipase A2. In previous studies, we demonstrated that iPLA2 enzyme activity is altered in T2D. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the level of the iPLA2 abnormality in T2D by measuring messenger RNA levels in T2D-associated CP. A total of 53 healthy and T2D subjects with CP were recruited for this study. The clinical periodontal exam included probing pocket depth, clinical attachment levels and bleeding on probing. Peripheral venous blood was collected and neutrophils were isolated. Real time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify iPLA2 mRNA in neutrophils from healthy controls and people with diabetes. Results revealed that the prevalence of moderate to severe CP was increased in people with T2D. The iPLA, mRNA levels in diabetics with different severity of CP were not significantly different compared to healthy controls; 1.07 vs 0.97 (mild CP), 1.07 vs 0.85 (moderate CP) and 1.07 vs 1.05 (severe CP). Collectively, the data suggest that levels of iPLA2 mRNA in T2D are not different than in health and are not directly influenced by periodontal disease status. The impact of inflammation on iPLA2 regulation is at the level of activation of the enzyme rather than expression at the mRNA level. PMID:25654966

  14. hnRNP L binds to CA repeats in the 3'UTR of bcl-2 mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hyoung; Lim, Mi-Hyun; Youn, Dong-Ye; Jung, Seung Eun; Ahn, Young Soo; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Lee, Jeong-Hwa

    2009-05-08

    We previously reported that the CA-repeat sequence in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of bcl-2 mRNA is involved in the decay of bcl-2 mRNA. However, the trans-acting factor for the CA element in bcl-2 mRNA remains unidentified. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNP L), an intron splicing factor, has been reported to bind to CA repeats and CA clusters in the 3'UTR of several genes. We reported herein that the CA repeats of bcl-2 mRNA have the potential to form a distinct ribonuclear protein complex in cytoplasmic extracts of MCF-7 cells, as evidenced by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays (REMSA). A super-shift assay using the hnRNP L antibody completely shifted the complex. Immunoprecipitation with the hnRNP L antibody and MCF-7 cells followed by RT-PCR revealed that hnRNP L interacts with endogenous bcl-2 mRNA in vivo. Furthermore, the suppression of hnRNP L in MCF-7 cells by the transfection of siRNA for hnRNP L resulted in a delay in the degradation of RNA transcripts including CA repeats of bcl-2 mRNA in vitro, suggesting that the interaction between hnRNPL and CA repeats of bcl-2 mRNA participates in destabilizing bcl-2 mRNA.

  15. The role of F A1:Ag+ defects in laser light generation and coadsorption of CO and halogen atoms at the KCl and KBr surface sites. First principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrazik, Safaa; Shalabi, Ahmed

    2007-12-01

    FA1:Ag+ color center at the low coordination (100) and (110) surface sites of KCl and KBr thin films play an important role in providing tunable laser oscillation and adsorbatesubstrate interactions. Double-well potentials at this site are investigated using ab initio molecular electronic structure calculations. The calculated Stokes shifted (optical transition bands), opticaloptical conversion efficiencies, the probability of orientational destruction, exciton (energy) transfer and Glasner-Tompkins empirical rule suggest that laser light generation is sensitive to (i) the lattice anion, (ii) the coordination number of surface ions, and (iii) the choice of the basis set centered on the anion vacancy. The adsorbate-substrate interactions were found to be dependent on the electronegativity of the adatom and on the lattice anion. Optimised geometries and the coadsorption of CO and (F, Cl, Br, I) on KCl and KBr (100) crystals are presented. Calculated chemisorption energies for CO on the (halogen atom/defect free sites of KCl and KBr (100) crystals) showed that the coadsorption of halogen atom tends to block other adsorbate-substrate interactions at the nearest neighbour sites. Thus if halogen atom coverage increases, the CO prefers to be adsorbed on the K+ site of the KCl and KBr (100) surfaces and on KBr relative to KCl.

  16. The role of F A1:Ag+ defects in laser light generation and coadsorption of CO and halogen atoms at the KCl and KBr surface sites. First principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrazik, Safaa Abdelaal; Shalabi, Ahmed Said

    2007-12-01

    F A1:Ag+ color center at the low coordination (100) and (110) surface sites of KCl and KBr thin films play an important role in providing tunable laser oscillation and adsorbatesubstrate interactions. Double-well potentials at this site are investigated using ab initio molecular electronic structure calculations. The calculated Stokes shifted (optical transition bands), opticaloptical conversion efficiencies, the probability of orientational destruction, exciton (energy) transfer and Glasner-Tompkins empirical rule suggest that laser light generation is sensitive to (i) the lattice anion, (ii) the coordination number of surface ions, and (iii) the choice of the basis set centered on the anion vacancy. The adsorbate-substrate interactions were found to be dependent on the electronegativity of the adatom and on the lattice anion. Optimised geometries and the coadsorption of CO and (F, Cl, Br, I) on KCl and KBr (100) crystals are presented. Calculated chemisorption energies for CO on the (halogen atom/defect free sites of KCl and KBr (100) crystals) showed that the coadsorption of halogen atom tends to block other adsorbate-substrate interactions at the nearest neighbour sites. Thus if halogen atom coverage increases, the CO prefers to be adsorbed on the K+ site of the KCl and KBr (100) surfaces and on KBr relative to KCl.

  17. Soil carbonates and soil water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of soil carbonates occurring as solidified masses or dispersed particles can alter soil water dynamics from what would be expected based on non-carbonate soil properties. Carbonate minerals in the soil can be derived from high carbonate parent material, additions in the form of carbonat...

  18. Evaluation of the Electrochemical Behavior of CeCl3 in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic Utilizing Metallic Ce as an Anode

    SciTech Connect

    K. C. Marsden; B. Pesic

    2011-04-01

    A study of the electrochemical behavior of CeCl3 in LiCl-KCl eutectic was performed in the temperature range 653-973K to ascertain if CeCl3 is a suitable surrogate for UCl3 in the development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Reduction of cerium occurs in a single 3-electron step that is quasi-reversible. The diffusion coefficient of Ce(III) was determined by linear sweep voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. The standard potential of Ce(III)/Ce(0) was measured and used to calculate Gibbs free energy and the activity coefficient. The nucleation of cerium on a tungsten substrate was determined to be instantaneous with hemispherical nuclei whose growth is controlled by linear or hemispherical diffusion. The order of magnitude of the exchange current density was determined by the linear polarization method. The electrochemical characteristics of CeCl3 were compared with those of UCl3 in LiCl-KCl to evaluate the potential of cerium as a surrogate for uranium electrorefining development.

  19. The effect of mixed HCl-KCl competitive adsorbate on Pt adsorption and catalytic properties of Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalysts in propane dehydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangeneh, Farnaz Tahriri; Taeb, Abbas; Gholivand, Khodayar; Sahebdelfar, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The effect of competitive adsorbate concentration and combination on the adsorption of H2PtCl6 onto γ-Al2O3 in the preparation and performance of PtSnK/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for propane dehydrogenation was investigated. The catalysts were prepared by sequential impregnation of Sn and Pt precursors. The effect of competitor concentration on Pt adsorption was studied by using hydrochloric acid (0.1-0.3 M) and the effect of pH was studied by using KCl/HCl mixtures at constant (0.1 M) total chloride ion concentration. The catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption, XRD, XRF, SEM and CO chemisorption. The catalytic performance tests were carried out in a fixed-bed quartz reactor under kinetic controlled condition for proper catalyst screening. It was found that the corrosive competitor HCl could be partially substituted with KCl without appreciable impact on catalyst performance with the advantage of lower acid attack on the support and reduced leaching of the deposited tin. A model based on initial concentration and uptake of the adsorbates was developed to obtain the adsorption parameters. Values of 890 μmol/g and 600 lit/mol were obtained for adsorption site concentration of the tin-impregnated support and equilibrium constant for Pt adsorption, respectively, for HCl concentration range of 0.1-0.3 M.

  20. Band structures and charge densities of KCl, NaF, and LiF obtained by the intersecting-spheres model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoci, S.; Mihich, L.

    1980-01-01

    The self-consistent electronic structures of KCl, NaF, and LiF have been calculated by the intersecting-spheres model and the results were compared with band structures calculated by other methods using the approximation of the exchange potential adopted by us. While for KCl close agreement was found between the augmented-plane-wave non-muffin-tin results by De Cicco and the intersecting-spheres-model (ISM) band structure, in the case of LiF differences of even 2.5 eV were found between conduction bands calculated by the ISM and the corresponding levels determined by linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals (LCAO) methods. This disagreement seems to be imputable to a lack of convergence occurring in the LCAO calculations. The Fourier components of the charge densities (scattering factors) were determined using the Kohn-Sham-Gáspár form of the exchange potential. The agreement of the calculated scattering factors with experiment is not much worse than that obtained by Hartree-Fock calculations.

  1. Molten Salt Mixture Properties (KF-ZrF4 and KCl-MgCl2) for Use in RELAP5-3D for High Temperature Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect

    N. A. Anderson; P. Sabharwall

    2012-06-01

    Molten salt coolants are being investigated as primary coolants for a fluoride high-temperature reactor and as secondary coolants for high temperature reactors such as the next generation nuclear plant. This work provides a review of the thermophysical properties of candidate molten salt coolants for use as a secondary heat transfer medium from a high temperature reactor to a processing plant. The molten salts LiF-NaF-KF, KF-ZrF4 and KCl-MgCl2 were considered for use in the secondary coolant loop. The thermophysical properties necessary to add the molten salts KF-ZrF4 and KCl-MgCl2 to RELAP5-3D were gathered for potential modeling purposes. The properties of the molten salt LiF-NaF-KF were already available in RELAP5-3D. The effect that the uncertainty in individual properties had on the Nusselt number was evaluated. This uncertainty in the Nusselt number was shown to be nearly independent of the molten salt temperature.

  2. Separation of CsCl from a Ternary CsCl-LiCl-KCl Salt via a Melt Crystallization Technique for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

    2013-02-01

    A parametric study has been conducted to identify the effects of several parameters on the separation of CsCl from molten LiCl-KCl salt via a melt crystallization process. A reverse vertical Bridgman technique was used to grow the salt crystals. The investigated parameters were: (1) the advancement rate, (2) the crucible lid configuration, (3) the amount of salt mixture, (4) the initial composition of CsCl, and (5) the temperature difference between the high and low furnace zones. From each grown crystal, samples were taken axially and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show that CsCl concentrations at the top of the crystals were low and increased to a maximum at the bottom of the salt. Salt (LiCl-KCl) recycle percentages for the experiments ranged from 50% to 75% and the CsCl composition in the waste salt was low. To increase the recycle percentage and the concentration of CsCl in the waste form, the possibility of using multiple crystallization stages was explored to further optimize the process. Results show that multiple crystallization stages are practical and the optimal experimental conditions should be operated at 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and temperature difference of 200 °C for a total of five crystallization stages. Under these conditions, up to 88% of the salt can be recycled.

  3. Thermal and x-ray diffraction analyses of reactions of B/CaCrO sub 4 and Ti/KClO sub 4 pyrotechnic blends

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.B.; Brown, C.R.; Garrod, M.J.; Sebastian, C.S.; Sullenger, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses have been used in studying reactions of pyrotechnic blends. The reactions were performed in the thermal analysis instrument, and the products were analyzed by XRD. Two pyrotechnic blends -- B/CaCrO{sub 4} and Ti/KClO{sub 4} -- were studied in different reaction environments, including: air, high purity argon, and high vacuum. Thermogravimetric Analysis/Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTA) of a 20/80 wt % B/CaCrO{sub 4} blend in air showed a weight gain (TGA) and an increase in the reaction enthalpy (DTA), compared to reactions in a vacuum or high purity argon. Analyses (TGA/DTA) of a 33/67 wt % Ti/KClO{sub 4} blend in air showed an additional DTA exotherm, following the main reaction peak, accompanied by a small weight gain. Neither was observed in high purity argon or in a vacuum. Reaction products from both blends were determined by XRD. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Soil experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

    1987-01-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

  5. Stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated soils using hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Liao, Xiaoyong; Wei, Binggan; Ye, Bixiong; Zhang, Fengying; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Combination of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium chloride (KCl) was used to stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated mining soils. Pot experiments of chilli (Capsicum annuum) and rape (Brassica rapachinensis) were used to evaluate the stabilization efficiency. The results were the following: (1) the optimal combination decreased the leachable lead by 83.3 and 97.27 %, and decreased leachable cadmium by 57.82 and 35.96% for soil HF1 and soil HF2, respectively; (2) the total lead and cadmium concentrations in both plants decreased 69 and 44 %, respectively; (3) The total lead and cadmium concentrations in the edible parts of both vegetables also decreased significantly. This study reflected that potassium chloride can improve the stabilization efficiency of hydroxyapatite, and the combination of hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride can be effectively used to remediate lead and cadmium contaminated mining soil. PMID:25249043

  6. One-day rate measurements for estimating net nitrification potential in humid forest soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, D.S.; Fredriksen, G.; Jamison, A.E.; Wemple, B.C.; Bailey, S.W.; Shanley, J.B.; Lawrence, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of net nitrification rates in forest soils have usually been performed by extended sample incubation (2-8 weeks), either in the field or in the lab. Because of disturbance effects, these measurements are only estimates of nitrification potential and shorter incubations may suffice. In three separate studies of northeastern USA forest soil surface horizons, we found that laboratory nitrification rates measured over 1 day related well to those measured over 4 weeks. Soil samples of Oa or A horizons were mixed by hand and the initial extraction of subsamples, using 2 mol L-1 KCl, occurred in the field as soon as feasible after sampling. Soils were kept near field temperature and subsampled again the following day in the laboratory. Rates measured by this method were about three times higher than the 4-week rates. Variability in measured rates was similar over either incubation period. Because NO3- concentrations were usually quite low in the field, average rates from 10 research watersheds could be estimated with only a single, 1-day extraction. Methodological studies showed that the concentration of NH4+ increased slowly during contact time with the KCl extractant and, thus, this contact time should be kept similar during the procedure. This method allows a large number of samples to be rapidly assessed. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Global Soil Moisture Analysis at DWD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, M.

    2012-04-01

    Small errors in the daily forecast of precipitation, evaporation and runoff accumulate to uncertainties of soil water content and lead to systematic biases of temperature and humidity profiles in the boundary layer if no corrections are applied. A new soil moisture assimilation scheme has been developed for the global GME model and runs operationally since March 2011. As many other variational schemes implemented at NWP centers (e.g. Canadian Met Service, DWD, ECMWF,, Meteo France) the scheme is based on minimisation of screen level forecast errors by adjusting the soil water content implicitly correcting the partitioning of available energy into latent and sensible heat. The original method proposed by Mahfouf (1991) and described in Hess, 2001 requires at least two additional model forecast runs to calculate the gradient of the cost function i.e. the sensitivity dT2m/dwb with T2m as 2m temperature and wb as the soil water content of the respective top and bottom soil layers. To overcome this computational costly approach in the new scheme the sensitivity of screen level temperature on soil moisture changes is parameterized with derivatives of analytical relations for transpiration from vegetation and bare soil evaporation as motivated by Jacobs and De Bruin (1992). The comparison of both methods shows high correlation of the temperature sensitivity that justifies the approximation. The method will be described in detail and verification results will be presented to demonstrate the impact of soil moisture analysis in GME. Hess, R. 2001: Assimilation of screen-level observations by variational soil moisture analysis. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 77, 145-154. Jacobs, C.M.M. and H.A.R. De Bruin, 1992: The Sensitivity of Regional Transpiration to Land-Surface Characteristics: Significance of Feedback. J. Clim. 5, 683-698. Mahfouf, J-F. 1991. Analysis of soil moisture from near-surface parameters: A feasibility study. J. Appl. Meteorol. 30: 1534-1547.

  8. Reflective and antireflective coatings for the optical chain of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Stringhetti, Luca

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. One of the main aims of the ASTRI Project is the design, construction and on-field verification of a dual mirror (2M) end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype is designed according to the Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, and adopts a camera based on Silicon Photo Multipliers (SiPM); it will be assembled at the INAF astronomical site of Serra La Nave on mount Etna (Catania, Italy) in the second half of 2014, and will start scientific validation phase soon after. With its 4m wide primary dish, the telescope will be sensitive to multi-TeV Very High Energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV and above, with a point spread function of ~2 arcminutes and a wide (semiaperture 4.8°) corrected field of view. The peculiarities of the optical design and of the SiPM bandpass pushed towards specifically optimized choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. Fully dielectric multi-layer coatings have been developed and tested as an option for the primary mirror, aiming to filter out the large Night Sky Background contamination at wavelengths λ>~700 nm. On the other hand, for the large monolithic secondary mirror a simpler design with quartz-overcoated aluminium has been optimized for incidences far from normality. The conformation of the ASTRI camera in turn pushed towards the design of a reimaging system based on thin pyramidal light guides, that could be optionally integrated in the focal surface, aiming to increase the fill factor. An anti-reflective coating optimized for a wide range of incident angles faraway from normality was specifically developed to enhance the UV-optical transparency of these elements. The issues, strategy, simulations and experimental results are thoroughly

  9. Disorder of G2-M Checkpoint Control in Aniline-Induced Cell Proliferation in Rat Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianling; Wang, Gangduo; Khan, M. Firoze

    2015-01-01

    Aniline, a toxic aromatic amine, is known to cause hemopoietic toxicity both in humans and animals. Aniline exposure also leads to toxic response in spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis and the eventual formation of tumors on chronic in vivo exposure. Previously, we have shown that aniline exposure leads to iron overload, oxidative DNA damage, and increased cell proliferation, which could eventually contribute to a tumorigenic response in the spleen. Despite our demonstration that cell proliferation was associated with deregulation of G1 phase cyclins and increased expression of G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), molecular mechanisms, especially the regulation of G2 phase and contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in aniline-induced splenic cellular proliferation remain largely unclear. This study therefore, mainly focused on the regulation of G2 phase in an animal model preceding a tumorigenic response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day) in drinking water or drinking water only (controls) for 30 days, and expression of G2 phase cyclins, CDK1, CDK inhibitors and miRNAs were measured in the spleen. Aniline treatment resulted in significant increases in cell cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclins A, B and CDK1, particularly phosphor-CDK1, and decreases in CDK inhibitors p21 and p27, which could promote the splenocytes to go through G2/M transition. Our data also showed upregulation of tumor markers Trx-1 and Ref-1 in rats treated with aniline. More importantly, we observed lower expression of miRNAs including Let-7a, miR-15b, miR24, miR-100 and miR-125, and greater expression of CDK inhibitor regulatory miRNAs such as miR-181a, miR-221 and miR-222 in the spleens of aniline-treated animals. Our findings suggest that significant increases in the expression of cyclins, CDK1 and aberrant regulation of miRNAs could lead to an accelerated G2/M transition of the splenocytes, and potentially to a

  10. Comparison of electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Lepkova, Katarina; Kubal, Martin

    2006-09-01

    Electrokinetic remediation methods for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils have been subjected for quite intense research during the past years since these methods are well suitable for fine-grained soils where other remediation methods fail. Electrodialytic remediation is an electrokinetic remediation method which is based on applying an electric dc field and the use of ion exchange membranes that ensures the main transport of heavy metals to be out of the pollutes soil. An experimental investigation was made with electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil under the same operational conditions (constant current density 0.2 mA/cm(2) and duration 28 days). The results of the present paper show that caution must be taken when generalising results obtained in spiked kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils, as it was shown that the removal rate was higher in kaolinite than in both spiked soil and industrial polluted soil. The duration of spiking was found to be an important factor too, when attempting to relate remediation of spiked soil or kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils. Spiking for 2 days was too short. However, spiking for 30 days resulted in a pattern that was more similar to that of industrially polluted soils with similar compositions both regarding sequential extraction and electrodialytic remediation result, though the remediation still progressed slightly faster in the spiked soil. Generalisation of remediation results to a variety of soil types must on the other hand be done with caution since the remediation results of different industrially polluted soils were very different. In one soil a total of 76% Cu was removed and in another soil no Cu was removed only redistributed within the soil. The factor with the highest influence on removal success was soil pH, which must be low in order to mobilize Cu, and thus the buffering capacity against acidification was

  11. Diosgenin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongjian; Wang, Xiaorong; Cheng, Silu; Du, Juan; Deng, Zhengting; Zhang, Yani; Liu, Qun; Gao, Jingdong; Cheng, Binbin; Ling, Changquan

    2015-02-01

    Diosgenin is a major compound of Dioscoreaceae plants such as yam, which is used as a drug in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and a common vegetable worldwide. The anticancer effect of diosgenin has been reported in various tumor cells, including leukemia, gastric, colorectal, and breast cancer. However, the activity of diosgenin on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying mechanism have not been completely investigated. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy and associated mechanisms of diosgenin in HCC cells. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine the presence of cell cycle arrest and apopotic cells. Diosgenin significantly inhibited the growth of Bel-7402, SMMC-7721 and HepG2 HCC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Diosgenin treatment for 24 h induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Diosgenin inhibited Akt phosphorylation and upregulated p21 and p27 expression, but did not alter the expression of p53, suggesting diosgenin-induced upregulation of p21 and p57 is p53-independent in HCC cells. Diosgenin induced HCC cell apoptosis by activating caspase cascades -3, -8 and -9. However, diosgenin did not affect Bcl-2 and Bax levels. In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that diosgenin may be an active anti-HCC agent obtained from natural plants and provide new insights in understanding the mechanisms of diosgenin. PMID:25434486

  12. Distributed net-centric architecture of m2m acquisition units with optical GVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Dipnarayan; Choi, Jun; Hassan, Mashfique

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the architecture of a low-latency symmetric multiprocessing optical soft memory system to cluster computing inside the core of an adaptive optical signal processor with the aid of soft decision algebraic polynomial algorithms. The optical system hardware is shown to evolve along with the iterator instantiations of the soft algorithm that forms the core of the memory map. The system enables efficient cache coherence protocols used in unit multiprocessors to be run across a homogeneous cluster in optical soft memory systems. We define a structure called the Optical Generalized Viterbi Algorithm Data Structure (Optical GVA DS) that makes up the system map for adaptive optical signal processing. The system executes transforms where algorithms for handling the entire data vector is processed, shortening the computational complexity effectively. Thus the optical soft memory system as described by the evolving Optical GVA DS iterator instantiates enables the design of parallel processors to handle modulated data in the optical domain. This is of importance in the realization of distributed netcentric architectures and forms the basis of large-scale real-time data processing and acquisition in m2m units.

  13. Phosphorylation-dependent degradation of MEF2C contributes to regulate G2/M transition.

    PubMed

    Badodi, Sara; Baruffaldi, Fiorenza; Ganassi, Massimo; Battini, Renata; Molinari, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2C (MEF2C) transcription factor plays a critical role in skeletal muscle differentiation, promoting muscle-specific gene transcription. Here we report that in proliferating cells MEF2C is degraded in mitosis by the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) and that this downregulation is necessary for an efficient progression of the cell cycle. We show that this mechanism of degradation requires the presence on MEF2C of a D-box (R-X-X-L) and 2 phospho-motifs, pSer98 and pSer110. Both the D-box and pSer110 motifs are encoded by the ubiquitous alternate α1 exon. These two domains mediate the interaction between MEF2C and CDC20, a co-activator of APC/C. We further report that in myoblasts, MEF2C regulates the expression of G2/M checkpoint genes (14-3-3γ, Gadd45b and p21) and the sub-cellular localization of CYCLIN B1. The importance of controlling MEF2C levels during the cell cycle is reinforced by the observation that modulation of its expression affects the proliferation rate of colon cancer cells. Our findings show that beside the well-established role as pro-myogenic transcription factor, MEF2C can also function as a regulator of cell proliferation. PMID:25789873

  14. The New Instrument Suite of the TSU/Fairborn 2m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Maxwell, T.; Williamson, M. W.; Fekel, F. C.; Ge, J.; Kelly, J.; Ghasempour, A.; Powell, S.; Zhao, B.; Varosi, F.; Schofield, S.; Liu, J.; Warner, C.; Jakeman, H.; Avner, L.; Swihart, S.; Harrison, C.; Fishler, D.

    2014-01-01

    Tied with the Liverpool Telescope as the world's largest fully robotic optical research telescope, Tennessee State University's (TSU) 2m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) has recently been upgraded to improve performance and increase versatility by supporting multiple instruments. Its second-generation instrument head enables us to rapidly switch between any of up to twelve fibers optics, each of which can supply light to a different instrument. In 2013 construction was completed on a new temperature-controlled guest instrument building, and two new high resolution spectrographs were commissioned. The current set of instrumentation includes (1) the telescope's original R=30,000 echelle spectrograph (0.38--0.83 microns simultaneous), (2) a single order R=7,000 spectrograph centered at Ca H&K features, (3) a single-mode-fiber fed miniature echelle spectrograph (R=100,000; 0.48--0.62 microns simultaneous), (4) the University of Florida's EXPERT-3 spectrograph (R=100,000; 0.38--0.9 microns simultaneous; vacuum and temperature controlled) and (5) the University of Florida's FIRST spectrograph (R=70,000$; 0.8--1.35 or 1.4--1.8 microns simultaneous; vacuum and temperature controlled). Future instruments include the Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) Testbed, a combination low resolution dispersed spectrograph and Fourier Transform Spectrograph. We welcome inquiries from the community in regards to observing access and/or proposals for future guest instruments.

  15. Numerical investigation of disruption characteristics for the snowflake divertor configuration in HL-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L.; Duan, X. R.; Zheng, G. Y.; Liu, Y. Q.; Pan, Y. D.; Yan, S. L.; Dokuka, V. N.; Lukash, V. E.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2016-05-01

    Cold and hot vertical displacement events (VDEs) are frequently related to the disruption of vertically-elongated tokamaks. The weak poloidal magnetic field around the null-points of a snowflake divertor configuration may influence the vertical displacement process. In this paper, the major disruption with a cold VDE and the vertical disruption in the HL-2M tokamak are investigated by the DINA code. In order to better illustrate the effect from the weak poloidal field, a double-null snowflake configuration is compared with the standard divertor (SD) configuration under the same plasma parameters. Computational results show that the weak poloidal magnetic field can be partly beneficial for mitigating the vertical instability of the plasma under small perturbations. For major disruption, the peak poloidal halo current fraction is almost the same between the snowflake and the SD configurations. However, this fraction becomes much larger for the snowflake in the event of a hot VDE. Furthermore, during the disruption for a snowflake configuration, the distribution of electromagnetic force on a vacuum vessel gets more non-uniform during the current quench.

  16. The 64 Mpixel wide field imager for the Wendelstein 2m telescope: design and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyra, Ralf; Gössl, Claus; Hopp, Ulrich; Lang-Bardl, Florian; Riffeser, Arno; Bender, Ralf; Seitz, Stella

    2014-11-01

    The Wendelstein Observatory of Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich has recently been upgraded with a modern 2m robotic telescope. One Nasmyth port of the telescope has been equipped with a wide-field corrector which preserves the excellent image quality (<0.8 " median seeing) of the site (Hopp et al. 2008) over a field of view of 0.7 degrees diameter. The available field is imaged by an optical imager (WWFI, the Wendelstein Wide Field Imager) built around a customized 2×2 mosaic of 4 k×4 k 15 μm e2v CCDs from Spectral Instruments. This paper provides an overview of the design and the WWFI's performance. We summarize the system mechanics (including a structural analysis), the electronics (and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) protection) and the control software. We discuss in detail detector system parameters, i.e. gain and readout noise, quantum efficiency as well as charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and persistent charges. First on sky tests yield overall good predictability of system throughput based on lab measurements.

  17. HOI-02 induces apoptosis and G2-M arrest in esophageal cancer mediated by ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Liu, K; Yao, K; Reddy, K; Zhang, Y; Fu, Y; Yang, G; Zykova, T A; Shin, S H; Li, H; Ryu, J; Jiang, Y-N; Yin, X; Ma, W; Bode, A M; Dong, Z; Dong, Z

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive molecules that perform essential functions in living organisms. Accumulating evidence suggests that many types of cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of ROS. Conversely, generation of ROS has become an effective method to kill cancer cells. (E)-3-hydroxy-3-(4-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl) indolin-2-one, which is an NO2 group-containing compound designated herein as HOI-02, generated ROS and, in a dose-dependent manner, decreased esophageal cancer cell viability and inhibited anchorage-independent growth, followed by apoptosis and G2-M arrest. Moreover, results of an in vivo study using a patient-derived xenograft mouse model showed that HOI-02 treatment suppressed the growth of esophageal tumors, without affecting the body weight of mice. The expression of Ki-67 was significantly decreased with HOI-02 treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of c-Jun, and expression of p21, cleaved caspase 3, and DCFH-DA were increased in the HOI-02-treated group compared with the untreated control group. In contrast, treatment of cells with (E)-3-(4-(4-aminophenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl)-3-hydroxyindolin-2-one, which is an NH2 group-containing compound designated herein as HOI-11, had no effect. Overall, we identified HOI-02 as an effective NO2 group-containing compound that was an effective therapeutic or preventive agent against esophageal cancer cell growth. PMID:26469961

  18. Probe measurements of hydrogen fluxes during discharge cleaning in JFT-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JFT-2M Team; Maeda, H.; Susuki, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Honda, A.; Ishibori, I.; Kashiwa, Y.; Kazawa, M.; Kikuchi, K.; Ohuchi, K.; Okano, F.; Sato, E.; Shibata, T.; Tani, T.; Uno, S.; Hoshino, K.; Kasai, S.; Kawakami, T.; Kawashima, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Miura, Y.; Mori, M.; Nakazawa, I.; Odajima, K.; Ogawa, H.; Ogawa, T.; Ohasa, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Sengoku, S.; Shoji, T.; Suzuki, N.; Tamai, H.; Uesugi, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamauchi, T.; Matsuzaki, Y.

    1989-04-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) has been applied during discharge cleaning in the JFT-2M tokamak to measure hydrogen fluxes. The TDS carbon sample, thickness 0.13 mm, was heated to 1000°C by direct current and the temperature distribution of the sample surface measured by infrared thermography. The probe was exposed to three types of plasma: Taylor-type discharge cleaning (TDC), ECR discharge cleaning (ECR-DC), and glow discharge cleaning (GDC). The TDS spectra show peak desorption at around 800°C. The hydrogen flux, obtained by integration of the TDS spectrum, decreases exponentially in the radial direction with decay length 7.4 cm and 5.8 cm in TDC and ECR-DC, respectively. The relation between hydrogen fluxes and water vapour production was investigated. In TDC, the amount of water vapour depends more strongly on the electron temperature of the plasma than on the hydrogen flux. In ECR-DC, the production of water vapour increases approximately linearly with the hydrogen-flux. In GDC, hydrogen fluxes were measured by TDS but no water vapour could be detected in the residual gases during the discharge.

  19. 1.2 m Shielded Cassegrain Antenna for Close-Packed Radio Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Patrick M.; Raffin, Philippe; Huang, Yau-De; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Kai-Yang; Altamirano, Pablo; Granet, Christophe; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Kesteven, Michael; Li, Chao-Te; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Ong, Ching-Long; Oshiro, Peter; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei

    2011-02-01

    Interferometric millimeter observations of the cosmic microwave background and clusters of galaxies with arcminute resolutions require antenna arrays with short spacings. Having all antennas co-mounted on a single steerable platform sets limits to the overall weight. A 25 kg lightweight novel carbon-fiber design for a 1.2 m diameter Cassegrain antenna is presented. The finite element analysis predicts excellent structural behavior under gravity, wind, and thermal load. The primary- and secondary-mirror surfaces are aluminum-coated with a thin TiO2 top layer for protection. A low beam sidelobe level is achieved with a Gaussian feed-illumination pattern with edge taper, designed based on feed-horn antenna simulations and verified in a far-field beam-pattern measurement. A shielding baffle reduces interantenna coupling to below ~-135 dB. The overall antenna efficiency, including a series of efficiency factors, is estimated to be around 60%, with major losses coming from the feed spillover and secondary blocking. With this new antenna, a detection rate of about 50 clusters yr-1 is anticipated in a 13-element array operation.

  20. Rates of E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions in Ni II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Hibbert, A.; Ramsbottom, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We present rates for all E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions among the 295 fine-structure levels of the configurations 3d9, 3d84s, 3d74s2, 3d84p, and 3d74s4p, determined through an extensive configuration interaction calculation. Methods: The CIV3 code developed by Hibbert and coworkers is used to determine for these levels configuration interaction wave functions with relativistic effects introduced through the Breit-Pauli approximation. Results: Two different sets of calculations have been undertaken with different 3d and 4d functions to ascertain the effect of such variation. The main body of the text includes a representative selection of data, chosen so that key points can be discussed. Some analysis to assess the accuracy of the present data has been undertaken, including comparison with earlier calculations and the more limited range of experimental determinations. The full set of transition data is given in the supplementary material as it is very extensive. Conclusions: We believe that the present transition data are the best currently available. Full Table 4 and Tables 5-8 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A107

  1. Edge plasma dynamics during L-H transition in the JFT-2M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Itoh, K.; Ido, T.; Kamiya, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Miura, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Inagaki, S.; Ida, K.; Hoshino, K.

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a radial electric field measurement by a heavy ion beam probe in the JFT-2M tokamak, during the L-H transition. An abrupt increase (time scale of O(100 µs)) of the strong edge radial electric field (localized in the radius with FWHM ∼7 mm) results in the increase of density gradient and turbulence reduction. Rapid inward propagation of the turbulence suppression front is observed at the transition. After the transition, the electric field structure in the tiny edge localized modes (ELMs) is analyzed. Transport self-regulation events observed in the vicinity of the L-H transition, i.e. the limit cycle oscillation (LCO) in the L-mode, the tiny ELM in the H-mode, as well as the L-H transition itself, are summarized in a single Lissajous diagram in the electric field-density gradient space, which provides a comprehensive explanation of the transition dynamics. This article is dedicated to the memory of Professor Tihiro Ohkawa.

  2. McGee Mountain Shallow (2m) Temperature Survey, Humboldt County, Nevada 2009

    DOE Data Explorer

    Richard Zehner

    2009-01-01

    This shapefile contains location and attribute data for a shallow (2 meter) temperature survey conducted by Geothermal Technical Partners, Inc. during late 2008 and early 2009. Temperatures at 2m depth were measured at 192 separate points as outlined by Coolbaugh et al., 2007. The purpose of the survey was to try and detect a shallow thermal anomaly associated with the McGee Mountain geothermal area as discovered by Phillips Petroleum and Earth Power Resources in the late 1970’s. Drilling identified ~120oC temperatures at ~100m depth. This 2-meter survey delineated what was interpreted as a steam-heated fault zone centered along a range front fault in the vicinity of the drilled holes and fumaroles. Coolbaugh, M.F., Sladek, C., Faulds, J.E., Zehner, R.E., and Oppliger, G.L., 2007, Use of rapid temperature measurements at a 2-meter depth to augment deeper temperature gradient drilling: Proceedings, 32nd Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, Jan. 22-24, 2007, p. 109-116. Zehner, R., Tullar, K., and Rutledge, E., 2012, Effectiveness of 2-Meter and geoprobe shallow temperature surveys in early stage geothermal exploration: Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, v. 36, in press.

  3. Anti-GD2 mAb and Vorinostat synergize in the treatment of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, Michiel; Büll, Christian; Gielen, Paul R; Brok, Ingrid C; Armandari, Inna; Wassink, Melissa; Looman, Maaike W G; Boon, Louis; den Brok, Martijn H; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Adema, Gosse J

    2016-06-01

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is a childhood malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system. For high-risk NBL patients, the mortality rate is still over 50%, despite intensive multimodal treatment. Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAB) in combination with systemic cytokine immunotherapy has shown clinical efficacy in high-risk NBL patients. Targeted therapy using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is currently being explored in cancer treatment and already shows promising results. Using our recently developed transplantable TH-MYCN NBL model, we here report that the HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat synergizes with anti-GD2 mAb therapy in reducing NBL tumor growth. Further mechanistic studies uncovered multiple mechanisms for the observed synergy, including Vorinostat-induced specific NBL cell death and upregulation of the tumor antigen GD2 on the cell surface of surviving NBL cells. Moreover, Vorinostat created a permissive tumor microenvironment (TME) for tumor-directed mAb therapy by increasing macrophage effector cells expressing high levels of Fc-receptors (FcR) and decreasing the number and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Collectively, these data imply further testing of other epigenetic modulators with immunotherapy and provide a strong basis for clinical testing of anti-GD2 plus Vorinostat combination therapy in NBL patients. PMID:27471639

  4. Ultrasound assisted ambient temperature synthesis of ternary oxide Ag MO 2 ( M=Fe, Ga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, R.; Tomar, Nobel

    2009-06-01

    The application of ultrasound for the synthesis of ternary oxide Ag MO 2 ( M=Fe, Ga) was investigated. Crystalline α-AgFeO 2 was obtained from the alkaline solutions of silver and iron hydroxides by sonication for 40 minutes. α-AgFeO 2 was found to absorb optical radiation in the 300-600 nm range as shown by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum of α-AgFeO 2 exhibited two bands at 345 and 638 cm -1. When β-NaFeO 2 was sonicated with aqueous silver nitrate solution for 60 minutes, β-AgFeO 2 possessing orthorhombic structure was obtained as the ion-exchanged product. The Raman spectrum of β-AgFeO 2 showed four strong bands at 295, 432, 630 and 690 cm -1. Sonication of β-NaGaO 2 with aqueous silver nitrate solution for 60 minutes resulted in olive green colored, α-AgGaO 2. The diffuse reflectance spectrum and the EDX analysis confirmed that the ion-exchange through sonication was complete. The Raman spectrum of α-AgGaO 2 had weak bands at 471 and 650 cm -1.

  5. Gravitational force modulates G2/M phase exit in mechanically unloaded myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Benavides Damm, Tatiana; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Egli, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged spaceflight gives rise to muscle loss and reduced strength, a condition commonly referred to as space atrophy. During exposure to microgravity, skeletal muscle myoblasts are mechanically unloaded and respond with attenuated cell proliferation, slowed cell cycle progression, and modified protein expression. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which muscle mass declines in response to prolonged microgravity exposure, we grew C2C12 mouse muscle cells under conditions of simulated microgravity (SM) and analyzed their proliferative capacity, cell cycle progression, and cyclin B and D expression. We demonstrated that the retarded cell growth observed in SM was correlated with an approximate 16 h delay in G2/M phase progression, where cells accumulated specifically between the G2 checkpoint and the onset of anaphase, concomitantly with a positive expression for cyclin B. The effect was specific for gravitational mechanical unloading as cells grown under conditions of hypergravity (HG, 4 g) for similar durations of time exhibited normal proliferation and normal cell cycle progression. Our results show that SM and HG exert phenomenological distinct responses over cell cycle progression. The deficits of SM can be restored by terrestrial gravitational force, whereas the effects of HG are indistinguishable from the 1 g control. This suggests that the mechanotransduction apparatus of cells responds differently to mechanical unloading and loading. PMID:23974110

  6. Results from recent hydrogen pellet acceleration studies with a 2-m railgun

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Zhang, D.J.; King, T.; Haywood, R.; Manns, W.; Venneri, F.

    1989-12-01

    A new 3.2-mm-diameter, two-stage, fuseless, plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun has been designed, constructed, and successfully operated to achieve a record velocity of 2.67 km/s({sup b}) for 3.2 mmD {times} 4 mmL solid hydrogen pellet. The first stage of this hydrogen pellet injector is a combination of a hydrogen pellet generator and a gas fun. The second stage is a 2-m-long railgun which serves as a booster accelerator. The gas fun accelerates a frozen hydrogen pellet to a medium velocity and injects it into the railgun through a perforated coupling piece, which also serves a pressure-relieving mechanism. An electrical breakdown of the propellant gas, which has followed the pellet from the gas fun into the railgun, forms a conducting plasma-arc armature immediately behind the pellet allowing for fuseless operation of the railgun. Study of the pressure profile and the behavior of the plasma-arc armature inside the railgun bore led to elimination of spurious arcing, which prevents operation of the railgun at high voltages (and, therefore, at high currents). A timing circuit that can automatically measure the pellet input velocity and allows for accurate control of arc initiation behind the pellet helps prevent pellet disintegration and mistriggering of the arc initiation circuit. Results from the recent cryogenic operation of the two-stage pellet acceleration system are reported. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Cummingtonite: A reversible, nonquenchable transition from P21/m to C2/m symmetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prewitt, C.T.; Papike, J.J.; Ross, M.

    1970-01-01

    Cummingtonite from the Gouverneur, New York, talc district (Sample No. U.S.N.M. 115046) with the composition, (Ca0.36Na0.06Mn0.96Mg0.57) Mg5Si8O22 (OH)2, unit cell parameters a = 9.550 ?? 0.001, b = 18.007 ?? 0.003, c = 5.298 ?? 0.001 A ??, ?? = 102??39??? ?? 1???, and space group P21/m, has been used in a high-temperature, single-crystal, X-ray diffraction study. When diffraction patterns are taken of the crystals heated in a sealed silica capillary to 45??C or higher, these reflections disappear, indicating a transition to C2/m symmetry. The transition appears to be analogous to the P21/c to C2/c transition between 700?? and 800??C discovered recently in (Mg0.30Fe0.70) SiO3 clinopyroxene. In addition to the cummingtonite transition, we have also found a transition in pigeonite at higher temperatures. The transition occurs in this pigeonite (Gunflint Iron Formation, Minnesota, (Ca0.04Fe0.78Mg0.18)SiO3) at about 670??C. This is a significantly lower temperature than was found for the Ca-poor clinopyroxene. ?? 1970.

  8. Aerodynamic performance of a new LM 17.2 m rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, F.

    1985-03-01

    The aerodynamic properties of a 17.2 m diameter rotor mounted on a 55 kW windmill were measured. Power curves were measured for a range of blade tip angles to find the best angle in relation to energy production and stalling characteristics. With this optimum blade setting the flapwise blade root bending moment was measured as a function of wind speed. The drag coefficient at 90 deg angle of attack was calculated from measurements of the integrated value, i.e., the flapwise blade root bending moment as a function of wind speed during stand still. Profile properties are estimated from aerodynamic calculations, and the results compared to profile data from three dimensional wind tunnel measurements. The flapwise blade root bending moment versus blade angular position during one revolution was measured in skew wind and compared with calculations. The influence of surface roughnes introduced at a certain percentage of the section chord and the dependency on the Reynolds number is investigated, and discussed from observed discrepancies in the measured power curves.

  9. HOI-02 induces apoptosis and G2-M arrest in esophageal cancer mediated by ROS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, C; Liu, K; Yao, K; Reddy, K; Zhang, Y; Fu, Y; Yang, G; Zykova, T A; Shin, S H; Li, H; Ryu, J; Jiang, Y-n; Yin, X; Ma, W; Bode, A M; Dong, Z; Dong, Z

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive molecules that perform essential functions in living organisms. Accumulating evidence suggests that many types of cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of ROS. Conversely, generation of ROS has become an effective method to kill cancer cells. (E)-3-hydroxy-3-(4-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl) indolin-2-one, which is an NO2 group-containing compound designated herein as HOI-02, generated ROS and, in a dose-dependent manner, decreased esophageal cancer cell viability and inhibited anchorage-independent growth, followed by apoptosis and G2-M arrest. Moreover, results of an in vivo study using a patient-derived xenograft mouse model showed that HOI-02 treatment suppressed the growth of esophageal tumors, without affecting the body weight of mice. The expression of Ki-67 was significantly decreased with HOI-02 treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of c-Jun, and expression of p21, cleaved caspase 3, and DCFH-DA were increased in the HOI-02-treated group compared with the untreated control group. In contrast, treatment of cells with (E)-3-(4-(4-aminophenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl)-3-hydroxyindolin-2-one, which is an NH2 group-containing compound designated herein as HOI-11, had no effect. Overall, we identified HOI-02 as an effective NO2 group-containing compound that was an effective therapeutic or preventive agent against esophageal cancer cell growth. PMID:26469961

  10. Distributions of labeled nitrogen in the profile of a fertilized sandy soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mansell, R.S.; Fiskell, J.G.A.; Calvert, D.V.; Rogers, J.S.

    1986-02-01

    Isotopically labeled (/sup 15/N-depleted) ammonium sulfate (115 kg N ha/sup -1/) was applied to a Spodosol in a citrus grove, to determine the fate and subsequent distributions of NO/sub 3/-N and NH/sub 4/-N in the soil profile. The soil was tile-drained, and citrus trees were located on soil beds. The authors examined three soil management treatments: the original A1 horizon (ST): deep mixing of A1 and A2 horizons with the underlying Spodic horizon (DT); and incorporation of 56 Mg ha/sup -1/ of dolomitic limestone, along with deep mixing (DTL) of the profile. Soil samples were taken to the 70-cm depth in ST and to the 95-cm depth in DT and DTL soils and were extracted with 1 M KCl. Extracts were chemically analyzed for NH/sub 4/-N and NO/sub 3/-N concentrations and isotopic analysis was performed by mass spectroscopy. At 12 d after fertilization, both NH/sub 4/-N and NO/sub 3/-N values in the ST soil profile exceeded corresponding values for DT and DTL soils. This N was derived primarily from the fertilizer. With time, concentrations of both NH/sub 4/-N and NO/sub 3/-N decreased in profiles for all three soils; however, N concentrations in the ST soil consistently exceeded corresponding values for DT and DTL profiles.

  11. Vapor-liquid phase equilibria of potassium chloride-water mixtures: Equation-of-state representation for KCl-H2O and NaCl-H2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.; Tanger, J.C., IV; Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of isothermal vapor-liquid compositions for KCl-H2O as a function of pressure are reported. An equation of state, which was originally proposed by Pitzer and was improved and used by Tanger and Pitzer to fit the vapor-liquid coexistence surface for NaCl-H2O, has been used for representation of the KCl-H2O system from 300 to 410??C. Improved parameters are also reported for NaCl-H2O from 300 to 500??C. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  12. [Variation characteristic in soil respiration of apple orchard and its biotic and abiotic influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Liu, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Ru-Jian

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the orchard variability of soil respiration and the response of soil respiration to its influencing factors is helpful for a deep understanding about the effects of converting cropland to apple orchard. A field experiment was conducted in the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Station. Soil respiration, soil temperature, soil moisture and roots biomasses were periodically measured in a mature apple orchard during 2011 and 2012. Soil respiration decreased as the distance from the trunk increased. The cumulative soil respiration in the 0.5 m-distance from the trunk was 20% and 31% higher than that in the 2 m-distance from the trunk, respectively in 2011 and 2012. The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) was relatively lower in the 2 m-distance than that in the 0. 5 m-distance in both years. Soil temperature and soil moisture were slightly higher in the 2 m-distance, but there was no significant difference between the 2 m-distance and the 0. 5 m-distance. Soil respiration and soil temperature showed a significant exponential relationship, but there was no positive correlation between soil moisture and soil respiration. Soil temperature changes can explain seasonal variation of soil respiration well, but it could not explain its spatial variability. Root density was an important factor for the spatial variability of soil respiration and Q15. Variation of soil respiration coefficient was 23% -31%. Therefore, the distance from the trunk should be considered when estimating orchards soil respiration. PMID:25055686

  13. The NEON Soil Archive - A community resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, E.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a 30-year National Science Foundation-funded facility for understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, and ecohydrology. NEON will measure a wide range of properties at 60 terrestrial and 36 aquatic sites throughout the US using in situ sensors, sample collection/lab analysis, and remote sensing, and all data will be made freely available. The Observatory is currently under construction and will be fully operational by 2017, however, limited data collection and release will begin in 2013. In addition, NEON is archiving large numbers of samples, including surface soils (top ~30 cm) collected from locations across each site, and soils collected by horizon to 2 m deep from a single soil pit at each site. Here I present information about the latter, focusing on sampling and processing, metadata, and currently available samples. At each terrestrial site the soil pit is dug in the locally dominant soil type and soil is collected by horizon, mixed, and ~4-8 liters soil is sent for processing. Soil samples are air-dried and sieved (mineral soil) or air-dried (organic soil) and 1.2 kg is split between 4 glass jars for archiving (protocol available upon request). To date 15 soil pits have been sampled, representing 7 soil orders, and soils from 110 horizons have been archived or are being processed. Metadata associated with each archive sample include a soil profile description, photos, and soil properties (total C, N, S, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, Sr, Ti, Zr, bulk density, pH, and texture). The procedure for requesting samples from the archive is under development and I encourage scientists to use the archive in their future research. Collecting and processing samples for the NEON Soil Archive

  14. Soil penetrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, E. A.; Hotz, G. M.; Bryson, R. P. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    An auger-type soil penetrometer for burrowing into soil formations is described. The auger, while initially moving along a predetermined path, may deviate from the path when encountering an obstruction in the soil. Alterations and modifications may be made in the structure so that it may be used for other purposes.

  15. Existence of stable solutions to (- Δ) m u =eu in RN with m ≥ 3 and N > 2m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xia; Ye, Dong

    2016-04-01

    We consider the polyharmonic equation (- Δ) m u =eu in RN with m ≥ 3 and N > 2 m. We prove the existence of many entire stable solutions. This answers some questions raised by Farina and Ferrero in [7].

  16. Genetic Control of the Trigger for the G2/M Checkpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Eric J.; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Young, Erik F.

    2013-10-01

    system, the engagement of the G2/M checkpoint only occurs at doses where most of the cells are bound for mitotic catastrophe. Further, compound haploinsufficiency of various radiosensitizing genes does not impact the threshold of activation. The experiments confirm a threshold of activation for the G2/M checkpoint, hinting at two separate radiation response programs acting below and above this threshold. Small RNA transfer in bystander effect biology: Small regulatory RNA molecules have now risen in prominence and utility. Specific examples are small interfering RNAs (siRNA) which are employed in cell level expression ablation projects and micro-RNAs (miRNA) which are a pool of short transcription products which serve to modulate the expression of other transcripts emerging from the genome in a meta-regulatory fine tuning of gene expression. The existing tenets of bystander effect radiation biology involve the communication of inflammatory mediators or direct intercellular communication of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species in cell-to-cell communicative organelles called gap junctions. By ablating gap junctions, reducing the ROS/inflammatory cytokine expression one can attenuate bystander effect signaling in cell culture systems. We hypothesized that miRNAs are a competent intercellular communication molecule and therefore a possible component of the bystander response. This view is supported by the observation that miRNA are secreted from cells in exosomes found in the circulation. This circulating pool reports disease type and severity in humans. We proposed use of microbeam irradiation technology at our facilities and enhancement of this capability with a new sorting technology which would allow us to sort irradiated and non-irradiated cells with absolute fidelity. Pursuing direct quantitative transfer assessment, we succeeded in designing and constructing a new add-on sorting appliance which harmonized with our existing instruments. The sorter allowed us to gently sort

  17. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: camera DAQ software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, Vito; Trifoglio, Massimo; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tacchini, Alessandro; Zoli, Andrea; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Capalbi, Milvia; Catalano, Osvaldo

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a Flagship Project financed by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, and led by INAF, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing an end-to-end prototype of a Small Size dual-mirror Telescope. In a second phase the ASTRI project foresees the installation of the first elements of the array at CTA southern site, a mini-array of 7 telescopes. The ASTRI Camera DAQ Software is aimed at the Camera data acquisition, storage and display during Camera development as well as during commissioning and operations on the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype that will operate at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on the Mount Etna (Sicily). The Camera DAQ configuration and operations will be sequenced either through local operator commands or through remote commands received from the Instrument Controller System that commands and controls the Camera. The Camera DAQ software will acquire data packets through a direct one-way socket connection with the Camera Back End Electronics. In near real time, the data will be stored in both raw and FITS format. The DAQ Quick Look component will allow the operator to display in near real time the Camera data packets. We are developing the DAQ software adopting the iterative and incremental model in order to maximize the software reuse and to implement a system which is easily adaptable to changes. This contribution presents the Camera DAQ Software architecture with particular emphasis on its potential reuse for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array.

  18. Uncoupling protein-2 mRNA expression in mice subjected to intermittent hypoxia*

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Luciana Rodrigues; Martinez, Denis; Forgiarini, Luiz Felipe; da Rosa, Darlan Pase; de Muñoz, Gustavo Alfredo Ochs; Fagundes, Micheli; Martins, Emerson Ferreira; Montanari, Carolina Caruccio; Fiori, Cintia Zappe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia-a model of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-on pancreatic expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), as well as on glycemic and lipid profiles, in C57BL mice. Methods: For 8 h/day over a 35-day period, male C57BL mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (hypoxia group) or to a sham procedure (normoxia group). The intermittent hypoxia condition involved exposing mice to an atmosphere of 92% N and 8% CO2 for 30 s, progressively reducing the fraction of inspired oxygen to 8 ± 1%, after which they were exposed to room air for 30 s and the cycle was repeated (480 cycles over the 8-h experimental period). Pancreases were dissected to isolate the islets. Real-time PCR was performed with TaqMan assays. Results: Expression of UCP2 mRNA in pancreatic islets was 20% higher in the normoxia group than in the hypoxia group (p = 0.11). Fasting serum insulin was higher in the hypoxia group than in the normoxia group (p = 0.01). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance indicated that, in comparison with the control mice, the mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia showed 15% lower insulin resistance (p = 0.09) and 21% higher pancreatic β-cell function (p = 0.01). Immunohistochemical staining of the islets showed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the area or intensity of α- and β-cell staining for insulin and glucagon. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of intermittent hypoxia on UCP2 expression. Our findings suggest that UCP2 regulates insulin production in OSA. Further study of the role that UCP2 plays in the glycemic control of OSA patients is warranted. PMID:25909153

  19. On the behavior of plasma with a negative current in the L-2M stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Shchepetov, S. V. Khol’nov, Yu. V.; Vasil’kov, D. G.

    2015-09-15

    The behavior of plasma with a negative current in the range of 5 kA ≤ vertical bar J vertical bar ≤ 16 kA in the L-2M stellarator is studied. Plasma is created and heated by means of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). Here, the definition “negative” stands for a toroidal current directed in such a way that it reduces the initial rotational transform µ in absolute value. It is shown that, only at relatively small values of the negative current ( vertical bar J vertical bar ∼ 6 kA), the increase in the shear leads to a reduction in electromagnetic turbulence. As vertical bar J vertical bar rises, the average level of magnetic fluctuations in the stationary phase of the discharge gradually increases. After ECRH is switched off (i.e., when plasma cools down), there is a time interval in which the amplitude of magnetic field fluctuations increases. No coherent three-dimensional modes (e.g., double tearing modes) that could accompany the penetration of the current into the plasma were observed. As for axisymmetric perturbations with m ≠ 0, analysis of the experimental data shows that they are absent at vertical bar J vertical bar ≤ 8 kA, appear in some discharges at vertical bar J vertical bar = 9 kA, and are observed in each discharge at vertical bar J vertical bar ≥ 10 kA. The frequency of these oscillations is on the order of 10 kHz, the poloidal mode number is m = 2, and the duration is 4–6 ms. The absence of oscillations with m = 1 and the small value of the external magnetic field for the m = 2 perturbation indicate that the radial size of the magnetic island is less than 1 cm. This, in turn, suggests that the radial profile of the plasma current changes with increasing vertical bar J vertical bar.

  20. The Protein Kinase Cδ Catalytic Fragment Is Critical for Maintenance of the G2/M DNA Damage Checkpoint*

    PubMed Central

    LaGory, Edward L.; Sitailo, Leonid A.; Denning, Mitchell F.

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) is an essential component of the intrinsic apoptotic program. Following DNA damage, such as exposure to UV radiation, PKCδ is cleaved in a caspase-dependent manner, generating a constitutively active catalytic fragment (PKCδ-cat), which is necessary and sufficient for keratinocyte apoptosis. We found that in addition to inducing apoptosis, expression of PKCδ-cat caused a pronounced G2/M cell cycle arrest in both primary human keratinocytes and immortalized HaCaT cells. Consistent with a G2/M arrest, PKCδ-cat induced phosphorylation of Cdk1 (Tyr15), a critical event in the G2/M checkpoint. Treatment with the ATM/ATR inhibitor caffeine was unable to prevent PKCδ-cat-induced G2/M arrest, suggesting that PKCδ-cat is functioning downstream of ATM/ATR in the G2/M checkpoint. To better understand the role of PKCδ and PKCδ-cat in the cell cycle response to DNA damage, we exposed wild-type and PKCδ null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to UV radiation. Wild-type MEFs underwent a pronounced G2/M arrest, Cdk1 phosphorylation, and induction of apoptosis following UV exposure, whereas PKCδ null MEFs were resistant to these effects. Expression of PKCδ-green fluorescent protein, but not caspase-resistant or kinase-inactive PKCδ, was able to restore G2/M checkpoint integrity in PKCδ null MEFs. The function of PKCδ in the DNA damage-induced G2/M cell cycle checkpoint may be a critical component of its tumor suppressor function. PMID:19917613

  1. High temperature (35)Cl nuclear magnetic resonance study of the LiCl-KCl system and the effect of CeCl3 dissolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Farnan, I

    2016-08-15

    This paper examines the dynamics of the LiCl-KCl system over a range of temperatures in order to understand the local structure surrounding chlorine, which is the common ion in these systems, during molten salt pyro-processing. Chlorine-35 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is sensitive to the local environments of the resonant nuclei and their motion on a diffusive timescale. Thus, it is a good probe of the atomic scale processes controlling the viscosities, diffusivities and conductivities of these molten salts. The average isotropic chemical shifts (((35)Cl)δ) and spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of (35)Cl in (Li,K)Cl salt mixtures have been obtained over a compositional range of 0-100 mol% KCl with an interval of 10 mol% using high temperature nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy from room temperature up to 890 °C. The ((35)Cl)δ in the two end member salts are consistent with the cation-anion radius ratio as previously measured on the solid halides and the average radius ratio of cation to anion, can be used to explain the variation of ((35)Cl)δ with composition. The quadrupolar interaction is found to be responsible for the spin-lattice relaxation of the (35)Cl, and the activation energies for T1 relaxation have been obtained for all compositions. The measured T1 ((35)Cl) activation energies do not vary linearly with composition and peak at 50% KCl, which also coincides with the Chemla point for this system. They also are in good agreement with the values from equivalent conductivity measurements. To investigate the response of the system to solutes, 8 wt% of CeCl3 was added to the pure LiCl as a surrogate actinide. The shift induced was 120 ppm and the activation energy for the T1 ((35)Cl) increased by a factor of four. This is a promising preliminary result for probing the effect of actinide dissolution on the dynamics of these pyro-processing salts. PMID:27212395

  2. Electrochemistry and Spectroelectrochemistry of Europium(III) chloride in 3 LiCl – 2KCl from 643 to 1123 K

    SciTech Connect

    Schroll, Cynthia A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Heineman, William R.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2013-09-09

    The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of Europium(III) chloride in a molten salt eutectic, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, over a temperature range of 643 – 1123 K using differential pulse voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, potential step chronoabsorptometry, and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry is reported. The electrochemical reaction was determined to be the one electron reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ at all temperatures. The redox potential of Eu3+/2+ shifts to more positive potentials and the diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ increases as temperature increases. The results for the number of electrons transferred, redox potential and diffusion coefficient are in good agreement between the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques.

  3. Separation of actinides from irradiated An-Zr based fuel by electrorefining on solid aluminium cathodes in molten LiCl-KCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souček, P.; Murakami, T.; Claux, B.; Meier, R.; Malmbeck, R.; Tsukada, T.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2015-04-01

    An electrorefining process for metallic spent nuclear fuel treatment is being investigated in ITU. Solid aluminium cathodes are used for homogeneous recovery of all actinides within the process carried out in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at a temperature of 500 °C. As the selectivity, efficiency and performance of solid Al has been already shown using un-irradiated An-Zr alloy based test fuels, the present work was focused on laboratory-scale demonstration of the process using irradiated METAPHIX-1 fuel composed of U67-Pu19-Zr10-MA2-RE2 (wt.%, MA = Np, Am, Cm, RE = Nd, Ce, Gd, Y). Different electrorefining techniques, conditions and cathode geometries were used during the experiment yielding evaluation of separation factors, kinetic parameters of actinide-aluminium alloy formation, process efficiency and macro-structure characterisation of the deposits. The results confirmed an excellent separation and very high efficiency of the electrorefining process using solid Al cathodes.

  4. Flexible electromagnetic wave sensor operating at GHz frequencies for instantaneous concentration measurements of NaCl, KCl, MnCl2 and CuCl solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Ortoneda-Pedrola, M.; Mason, A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    A novel electromagnetic wave sensor operating at GHz frequencies for real-time chlorides concentration analysis is reported. The sensor response to deionized water, NaCl, KCl, MnCl2 and CuCl solutions at various concentrations was tested. The sensing element, in the form of a silver pattern antenna that emits an electromagnetic field, was printed on a polyimide flexible laminate substrate to form a sensor to suit a broad range of applications, where a sensor could be placed in water reservoirs or fluid-carrying pipes for continuous analysis. The developed system confirmed the viability of using microwaves for real-time chloride solutions monitoring as the reflected signals represented by S11 parameters were unique with clearly observed shifts in the resonant frequencies and amplitude changes when placed in direct contact with 20 µl of each solution. This paper was an invited article at the Sensors and Applications XVII conference.

  5. Magnetic anisotropy induced by crystal distortion in Ge{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te/PbTe//KCl (001) ferromagnetic semiconductor layers

    SciTech Connect

    Knoff, W. Łusakowski, A.; Domagała, J. Z.; Minikayev, R.; Taliashvili, B.; Łusakowska, E.; Pieniążek, A.; Szczerbakow, A.; Story, T.

    2015-09-21

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) study of magnetic anisotropy is presented for thin layers of IV-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor Ge{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te with x = 0.14 grown by molecular beam epitaxy on KCl (001) substrate with a thin PbTe buffer. Analysis of the angular dependence of the FMR resonant field reveals that an easy magnetization axis is located near to the normal to the layer plane and is controlled by two crystal distortions present in these rhombohedral Ge{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te layers: the ferroelectric distortion with the relative shift of cation and anion sub-lattices along the [111] crystal direction and the biaxial in-plane, compressive strain due to thermal mismatch.

  6. Environmentally friendly growth of single-crystalline K{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} nanoribbons from KCl flux

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Lianqiang; Cheng Li

    2010-02-15

    Single-crystalline K{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} nanoribbons with typical width ranging from one hundred nanometers to a few hundred nanometers and length up to tens of microns were prepared from KCl flux. The nanoribbons were characterized by a range of methods including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible experiments showed that the K{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} nanoribbons were wide-band semiconductors with a band width E{sub g} = 3.4 eV. The mechanism of one-dimensional growth of the nanoribbons was attributed to the oriented attachment mechanism.

  7. Consequence of condensed-phase formation in transient burning of TiH/sub x//KClO/sub 4/ in a closed system

    SciTech Connect

    Razani, A.; Shahinpoor, M.; Hingorani-Norenberg, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Transient burning of TiH/sub X//KClO/sub 4/ in a closed system is formulated including the effect of condensed species. Thermodynamic properties are evaluated using both BLAKE and TIGER computer codes. Three different equations of state for gaseous species are used and their effect on the burning rate is evaluated. For more accurate transient burning analysis, a pressure dependent covolume for gaseous species is generated. The effect of pressure dependent covolume as well as the condensed species on transient burning is evaluated. Both parameters are found to be important when the burning rate at high loading densities in a closed system is considered. At high loading densities, condensed species become important not only because of the their effect on thermodynamic properties but also due to the volume occupied by these species. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Characterizing Rocky and Gaseous Exoplanets with 2 m Class Space-based Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Marley, Mark S.

    2016-02-01

    Several concepts now exist for small, space-based missions to directly characterize exoplanets in reflected light. While studies have been performed that investigate the potential detection yields of such missions, little work has been done to understand how instrumental and astrophysical parameters will affect the ability of these missions to obtain spectra that are useful for characterizing their planetary targets. Here, we develop an instrument noise model suitable for studying the spectral characterization potential of a coronagraph-equipped, space-based telescope. We adopt a baseline set of telescope and instrument parameters appropriate for near-future planned missions like WFIRST-AFTA, including a 2 m diameter primary aperture, an operational wavelength range of 0.4-1.0 μm, and an instrument spectral resolution of λ/Δλ = 70, and apply our baseline model to a variety of spectral models of different planet types, including Earth twins, Jupiter twins, and warm and cool Jupiters and Neptunes. With our exoplanet spectral models, we explore wavelength-dependent planet-star flux ratios for main-sequence stars of various effective temperatures and discuss how coronagraph inner and outer working angle constraints will influence the potential to study different types of planets. For planets most favorable to spectroscopic characterization—cool Jupiters and Neptunes as well as nearby super-Earths—we study the integration times required to achieve moderate signal-to-noise ratio spectra. We also explore the sensitivity of the integration times required to either detect the bottom or presence of key absorption bands (for methane, water vapor, and molecular oxygen) to coronagraph raw contrast performance, exozodiacal light levels, and the distance to the planetary system. Decreasing detector quantum efficiency at longer visible wavelengths makes the detection of water vapor in the atmospheres of Earth-like planets extremely challenging, and also hinders detections

  9. Recent results from the CMD-2 detector at the VEPP-2M collider

    SciTech Connect

    Solodov, E.P.

    1997-01-01

    The general-purpose detector CMD-2 is taking data at the Novosibirsk VEPP-2M e{sup -}e{sup -} collider in the energy range 360-1400 MeV, with luminosity of {approx} 5.0 x 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for the {phi} resonance region. Data from {approx} 1500 nb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity around 1.02 GeV and {approx}500 nb{sup -1} in the 600-1000 MeV range have been collected and preliminary analyses performed. We present progress in studies of the {phi} meson and K{sub S}K{sub L} systems: (a) measurement of the {phi} meson parameters; (b) searches for {phi} rare decays. The new upper limits B({phi}{yields}{eta}{prime} {gamma}) < 2.4 x 10{sup -4}, B({phi} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) < 1.0 x 10{sup -4}, and B({phi} {yields} f{sub 0}{gamma}) < 8 x 10{sup -4} have been obtained; (c) the study of the K{sub L} interactions in the CsI calorimeter; (d) with the help of 32,340 tagged K{sub S}, the semi-rare decay of K{sub S} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} has been observed with a branching ratio of (1.82 {+-} 0.49)x10{sup -3}; and (e) selection of events with K{sub S}K{sub L} coupled decays and interactions. The regeneration cross section of the low moments K{sub L} was found to be {sigma}{sub reg}{sup Be} = 63 {+-} 19 mb. Data from the 600-1000 MeV energy range are used for high-accuracy measurement of the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation cross section, and the preliminary analysis is presented in this paper.

  10. A statistical approach for estimating the radiocesium interception potential of soils

    SciTech Connect

    Waegeneers, N.; Smolders, E.; Merckx, R.

    1999-05-01

    The solid-liquid distribution of radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) varies extensively among soil types. A statistical approach was used to relate {sup 137}Cs sorption with soil properties. Eighty-eight pasture soils were sampled in Belgium. All soil samples were characterized for texture, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg content, pH and organic C content. Soil samples were equilibrate din a 10{sup {minus}1} M CaCl{sub 2}-5.10{sup {minus}4} M KCl solution. Adsorption of {sup 137}Cs was measured after 16 h in this medium. The solid-liquid concentration ratio, K{sub D}, of {sup 137}Cs in this specific ionic scenario allows for the calculation of the Radiocesium Interception Potential (RIP), which in turn can be used for K{sub D} predictions for a wide range of different ionic scenarios. The RIP varied from 54 to 11,200 mmol{sub c} kg{sup {minus}1}. Stepwise multiple regression between RIP and soil characteristics yielded statistically significant models for samples from each northern and southern Belgium. For northern Belgium the regression model only included texture fractions whereas for southern Belgium the regressors were texture fractions and soil pH. The correlations between the RIP and soil characteristics depend strongly on the geological origin of the soil.

  11. Seizure sensitivity is ameliorated by targeted expression of K+-Cl- cotransporter function in the mushroom body of the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Mercado, Adriana; Fajilan, Adriel A; Lee, Ann W; Hsu, Richard; Mount, David B; Tanouye, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    The kcc(DHS1) allele of kazachoc (kcc) was identified as a seizure-enhancer mutation exacerbating the bang-sensitive (BS) paralytic behavioral phenotypes of several seizure-sensitive Drosophila mutants. On their own, young kcc(DHS1) flies also display seizure-like behavior and demonstrate a reduced threshold for seizures induced by electroconvulsive shock. The product of kcc shows substantial homology to KCC2, the mammalian neuronal K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter. The kcc(DHS1) allele is a hypomorph, and its seizure-like phenotype reflects reduced expression of the kcc gene. We report here that kcc functions as a K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter when expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes: under hypotonic conditions that induce oocyte swelling, oocytes that express Drosophila kcc display robust ion transport activity observed as a Cl(-)-dependent uptake of the K(+) congener (86)Rb(+). Ectopic, spatially restricted expression of a UAS-kcc(+) transgene was used to determine where cotransporter function is required in order to rescue the kcc(DHS1) BS paralytic phenotype. Interestingly, phenotypic rescue is largely accounted for by targeted, circumscribed expression in the mushroom bodies (MBs) and the ellipsoid body (EB) of the central complex. Intriguingly, we observed that MB induction of kcc(+) functioned as a general seizure suppressor in Drosophila. Drosophila MBs have generated considerable interest especially for their role as the neural substrate for olfactory learning and memory; they have not been previously implicated in seizure susceptibility. We show that kcc(DHS1) seizure sensitivity in MB neurons acts via a weakening of chemical synaptic inhibition by GABAergic transmission and suggest that this is due to disruption of intracellular Cl(-) gradients in MB neurons. PMID:19884312

  12. Electrochemical Codeposition of Al-Li-Mg Alloys at Solid Aluminum Electrode from LiCl-KCl-MgCl2 Molten Salt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ke; Zhang, Mi Lin; Chen, Ye; Han, Wei; de Yan, Yong; Cao, Peng

    2010-06-01

    The electrochemical codeposition of Mg and Li at an aluminium electrode in LiCl-KCl (50:50 wt pct) melts containing different concentrations of MgCl2 at 893 K (620 °C) to form Al-Li-Mg alloys was investigated. Cyclic voltammograms showed that the potential of Li metal deposition at an Al electrode, before the addition of MgCl2, is more positive than that of Li metal deposition at an Mo electrode, which indicated the formation of an Al-Li alloy. The underpotential deposition of magnesium at an aluminium electrode leads to the formation of Al-Mg alloys, and the succeeding underpotential deposition of lithium on predeposited Al-Mg alloys leads to the formation of Al-Li-Mg alloys. Chronopotentiometric measurements indicated that the codeposition of Mg and Li occurs at current densities lower than -0.668 A cm-2 in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2 (8 wt pct) melts at an aluminium electrode. The chronoamperometric studies indicated that the onset potential for the codeposition of Mg and Li is -2.000 V, and the codeposition of Mg and Li at an aluminium electrode is formed into Al-Li-Mg alloys when the applied potentials are more negative than -2.000 V. X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma analysis indicated that Al-Li-Mg alloys with different lithium and magnesium contents were prepared via potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis. The microstructure of typical dual phases of the Al-Li-Mg alloy was characterized by an optical microscope and by scanning electron microscopy. The analysis of energy dispersive spectrometry showed that the elements of Al and Mg distribute homogeneously in the Al-Li-Mg alloy. The lithium and magnesium contents of Al-Li-Mg alloys can be controlled by MgCl2 concentrations and by electrolytic parameters.

  13. Deep sub-threshold K*(892)0 production in collisions of Ar + KCl at 1.76 A GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A.; Bassini, R.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A. V.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Destefanis, M.; Díaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Eberl, T.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O. V.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gil, A.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heilmann, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Huck, P.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Kirschner, D.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Lang, S.; Lange, J. S.; Lapidus, K.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Mishra, D.; Morinière, E.; Mousa, J.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pérez Cavalcanti, T.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y. V.; Zumbruch, P.

    2013-03-01

    Results on the deep sub-threshold production of the short-lived hadronic resonance K*(892)0 are reported for collisions of Ar + KCl at 1.76A GeV beam energy, studied with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at SIS18/GSI. The K*(892)0 production probability per central collision of P_{K^{*0}}=(4.4± 1.1 ± 0.5)× 10^{-4} and the K*(892)0/K0 ratio of P_{K^{*0}}/P_{K^0}=(1.9± 0.5± 0.3)× 10^{-2} are determined at the lowest energy so far ( i.e. deep below the threshold for the corresponding production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, sqrt{s_{NN}}-sqrt{s_{thr}}=-340 MeV). The K*0/K0 ratio is compared with results of other experiments and with the predictions of the UrQMD transport approach and of the statistical hadronization model. The experimental K*0 yield and the K*0/K0 ratio are overestimated by the transport model by factors of about five and two, respectively. In a chemically equilibrated medium the ratio corresponds to a temperature of the thermalized system being systematically lower than the value determined by the yields of the stable and long-lived hadrons produced in Ar + KCl collisions. From the present measurement, we conclude that sub-threshold K* production either cannot be considered to proceed in a system being in thermal equilibrium or these short-lived resonances appear undersaturated, for example as a result of the rescattering of the decay particles in the ambient hadronic medium.

  14. Auxiliary instruments for the absolute calibration of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Maria C.; Segreto, Alberto; Catalano, Osvaldo; La Rosa, Giovanni; Russo, Francesco; Sottile, Giuseppe; Gargano, Carmelo; Biondo, Benedetto; Fiorini, Mauro; Incorvaia, Salvatore; Toso, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is the end-to-end prototype telescope under development by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF, proposed for the investigation of the highest-energy gamma-ray band in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be installed in Italy at the INAF station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna during Fall 2014. The calibration and scientific validation phase will start soon after. The calibration of a Cherenkov telescope includes several items and tools. The ASTRI SST- 2M camera is equipped with an internal fiber illumination system that allows to perform the relative calibration through monitoring of gain and efficiency variations of each pixel. The absolute calibration of the overall system, including optics, will take advantage from auxiliary instrumentation, namely UVscope and UVSiPM, two small-aperture multi-pixels photon detectors NIST calibrated in lab. During commissioning phase, to measure the main features of ASTRI SST-2M, as its overall spectral response, the main telescope and the auxiliary UVscope-UVSiPM will be illuminated simultaneously by a spatially uniform flux generated by a ground-based light source, named Illuminator, placed at a distance of few hundreds meters. Periodically, during clear nights, the flux profiles of a reference star tracked simultaneously by ASTRI SST-2M and UVscope-UVSiPM will allow to evaluate the total atmospheric attenuation and the absolute calibration constant of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype. In this contribution we describe the auxiliary UVscope-UVSiPM and Illuminator sub-system together with an overview of the end-to-end calibration procedure foreseen for the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype.

  15. The variability of standard artificial soils: effects on the survival and reproduction of springtail (Folsomia candida) and potworm (Enchytraeus crypticus).

    PubMed

    Vašíčková, Jana; Váňa, Martin; Komprdová, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have documented significant variability in the basic properties of artificial soil which is used as a standard medium in soil bioassays. Variability in key soil properties could confound the interpretation of toxicity data and bias the output of bioassays. The main aims of this study were (i) to identify the variability in the endpoints survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida and Enchytraeus crypticus related to the artificials soils prepared in different laboratories and (ii) to identify the specific physico-chemical properties of the artificial soils which influence the bioassays results. The results of reproduction tests showed that nearly all tested artificial soils were suitable for the survival and reproduction of both organisms as the validity criteria from the test standards were fulfilled. However, numbers of juveniles varied significantly among soils. The most important factor for F. candida performance was a coarser soil structure. C:N ratio (<22.6) were important for the reproduction of E. crypticus. Both species tolerated a pH (KCl) of artificial soils in the range of 4.27-6.8 and even low TOC (1.5%). Thus, it is possible to reduce peat content in artificial soils, which may increase the comparability of results to those for natural soils. PMID:25600713

  16. Soil carbon stocks in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, E; Eswaran, H; Reich, P F

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas emission and climate change has led to research to identify and manage the natural sources and sinks of the gases. CO2, CH4, and N2O have an anthropic source and of these CO2 is the least effective in trapping long wave radiation. Soil carbon sequestration can best be described as a process of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and relocating into soils in a form that is not readily released back into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to estimate carbon stocks available under current conditions in Sarawak, Malaysia. SOC estimates are made for a standard depth of 100 cm unless the soil by definition is less than this depth, as in the case of lithic subgroups. Among the mineral soils, Inceptisols tend to generally have the highest carbon contents (about 25 kg m(-2) m(-1)), while Oxisols and Ultisols rate second (about 10-15 kg m(-2) m(-1)). The Oxisols store a good amount of carbon because of an appreciable time-frame to sequester carbon and possibly lower decomposition rates for the organic carbon that is found at 1m depths. Wet soils such as peatlands tend to store significant amounts of carbon. The highest values estimated for such soils are about 114 kg m(-2) m(-1). Such appreciable amounts can also be found in the Aquepts. In conclusion, it is pertinent to recognize that degradation of the carbon pool, just like desertification, is a real process and that this irreversible process must be addressed immediately. Therefore, appropriate soil management practices should be instituted to sequester large masses of soil carbon on an annual basis. This knowledge can be used effectively to formulate strategies to prevent forest fires and clearing: two processes that can quickly release sequestered carbon to the atmosphere in an almost irreversible manner. PMID:23541401

  17. Modulation of radiation-induced apoptosis and G{sub 2}/M block in murine T-lymphoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Palayoor, S.T.; Macklis, R.M.; Bump, E.A.; Coleman, C.N.

    1995-03-01

    Radiation-induced apoptosis in lymphocyte-derived cell lines is characterized by endonucleolytic cleavage of cellular DNA within hours after radiation exposure. We have studied this phenomenon qualitatively (DNA gel electrophoresis) and quantitatively (diphenylamine reagent assay) in murine EL4 T-lymphoma cells exposed to {sup 137}Cs {gamma} irradiation. Fragmentation was discernible within 18-24 h after exposure. It increased with time and dose and reached a plateau after 8 Gy of {gamma} radiation. We studied the effect of several pharmacological agents on the radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M block and DNA fragmentation. The agents which reduced the radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M-phase arrest (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and 2-aminopurine) enhanced the degree of DNA fragmentation at 24 h. In contrast, the agents which sustained the radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M-phase arrest (TPA, DBcAMP, IBMX and 3-aminobenzamide) inhibited the DNA fragmentation at 24 h. These studies on EL4 lymphoma cells are consistent with the hypothesis that cells with radiation-induced genetic damage are eliminated by apoptosis subsequent to a G{sub 2}/M block. Furthermore, it may be possible to modulate the process of radiation-induced apoptosis in lymphoma cells with pharmacological agents that modify the radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M block, and to use this effect in the treatment of patients with malignant disease. 59 refs., 7 figs.

  18. The telescope control of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov telescope Array: hardware and software design architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, Elisa; Cascone, Enrico; Schwarz, Joseph; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Aisa, Damiano; Aisa, Simone; Bagaglia, Marco; Busatta, Andrea; Campeggi, Carlo; Cefala, Marco; Farnesini, Lucio; Giacomel, Stefano; Marchiori, Gianpiero; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Nucciarelli, Giuliano; Piluso, Antonfranco

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF). One of its aims is to develop, within the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) framework, an end-to-end small-sized telescope prototype in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) in order to investigate the energy range E ~ 1-100 TeV. A long-term goal of the ASTRI program is the production of an ASTRI/CTA mini-array composed of seven SST-2M telescopes. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, is seen as a standalone system that needs only network and power connections to work. The software system that is being developed to control the prototype is the base for the Mini-Array Software System (MASS), which has the task to make possible the operation of both the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and the ASTRI/CTA mini-array. The scope of this contribution is to give an overview of the hardware and software architecture adopted for the ASTRI SST- 2M prototype, showing how to apply state of the art industrial technologies to telescope control and monitoring systems.

  19. THE YOUNG PLANET-MASS OBJECT 2M1207b: A COOL, CLOUDY, AND METHANE-POOR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Barman, Travis S.; Macintosh, Bruce; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marois, Christian

    2011-07-10

    The properties of 2M1207b, a young ({approx}8 Myr) planet-mass companion, have lacked a satisfactory explanation for some time. The combination of low luminosity, red near-IR colors, and L-type near-IR spectrum (previously consistent with T{sub eff} {approx} 1600 K) implies an abnormally small radius. Early explanations for the apparent underluminosity of 2M1207b invoked an edge-on disk or the remnant of a recent protoplanetary collision. The discovery of a second planet-mass object (HR8799b) with similar luminosity and colors as 2M1207b indicates that a third explanation, one of a purely atmospheric nature, is more likely. By including clouds, non-equilibrium chemistry, and low gravity, an atmosphere with effective temperature consistent with evolution cooling-track predictions is revealed. Consequently, 2M1207b, and others like it, requires no new physics to explain nor do they belong to a new class of objects. Instead they most likely represent the natural extension of cloudy substellar atmospheres down to low T{sub eff} and log (g). If this atmosphere only explanation for 2M1207b is correct, then very young planet-mass objects with near-IR spectra similar to field T dwarfs may be rare.

  20. (Contaminated soil)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  1. DFT study on oxidation of HS(CH2) m SH ( m = 1-8) in oxidative desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. Z.; Song, J. J.; Zhao, T. T.; Chen, C. Y.; He, M.; Du, J.

    2016-06-01

    Density functional theory was employed for calculation of HS(CH2) m SH ( m = 1-8) and its derivatives at B3LYP method at 6-31++g ( d, p) level. Using eigenvalues of LUMO and HOMO for HS(CH2) m SH, the standard electrode potentials were estimated by a stepwise multiple regression techniques (MLR), and obtained as E° = 1.500 + 7.167 × 10-3 HOMO-0.229 LUMO with high correlation coefficients of 0.973 and F values of 43.973.

  2. Variation in Soil Respiration Across an Alpine Soil Moisture and Vegetation Community Gradient at Niwot Ridge, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, J. F.; Blanken, P.; Williams, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    The alpine tundra is a mosaic of comingled vegetation communities that vary predominantly as a function of landscape position, micro-scale topography, subsurface permeability, and resultant soil moisture availability. We characterized the spatio-temporal variability of soil respiration from 17 alpine tundra sites across an irregular soil moisture gradient within the footprint of ongoing eddy covariance measurements over the 2011 (wet year) and 2012 (dry year) growing seasons. We then used a soil moisture threshold as a proxy to separate the sites into fellfield, dry/moist meadow, and wet meadow tundra vegetation communities. Soil moisture and soil respiration were significantly correlated across all communities (p << 0.001), but increasing soil moisture invoked a bidirectional response from fellfield and dry/moist meadow communities (directly proportional) relative to wet meadow communities (inversely proportional). Soil temperature and soil respiration were not significantly correlated. Linearly interpolating between sampling dates, the cumulative soil respiration flux over the two growing seasons ranged from 595 to 3177 g CO2 m-2, and median fluxes were 1114, 1679, and 1400 g CO2 m-2 for fellfield, dry/moist meadow, and wet meadow sites, respectively. Ecosystem respiration from nighttime eddy covariance measurements was 618 g CO2 m-2 over the same period, suggesting that soil respiration fluxes from very dry fellfield tundra disproportionately influenced the eddy covariance data. Overall, cumulative soil respiration was 50% greater in the wet year (2011) relative to the dry year (2012); therefore increased precipitation has the potential to increase soil respiration from alpine tundra as a whole.

  3. The role of snow cover and soil freeze/thaw cycles affecting boreal-arctic soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Y.; Kimball, J. S.; Rawlins, M. A.; Moghaddam, M.; Euskirchen, E. S.

    2015-07-01

    Northern Hemisphere permafrost affected land areas contain about twice as much carbon as the global atmosphere. This vast carbon pool is vulnerable to accelerated losses through mobilization and decomposition under projected global warming. Satellite data records spanning the past 3 decades indicate widespread reductions (∼ 0.8-1.3 days decade-1) in the mean annual snow cover extent and frozen season duration across the pan-Arctic domain, coincident with regional climate warming trends. How the soil carbon pool responds to these changes will have a large impact on regional and global climate. Here, we developed a coupled terrestrial carbon and hydrology model framework with detailed 1-D soil heat transfer representation to investigate the sensitivity of soil organic carbon stocks and soil decomposition to changes in snow cover and soil freeze/thaw processes in the Pan-Arctic region over the past three decades (1982-2010). Our results indicate widespread soil active layer deepening across the pan-Arctic, with a mean decadal trend of 6.6 ± 12.0 (SD) cm, corresponding with widespread warming and lengthening non-frozen season. Warming promotes vegetation growth and soil heterotrophic respiration, particularly within surface soil layers (≤ 0.2 m). The model simulations also show that seasonal snow cover has a large impact on soil temperatures, whereby increases in snow cover promote deeper (≥ 0.5 m) soil layer warming and soil respiration, while inhibiting soil decomposition from surface (≤ 0.2 m) soil layers, especially in colder climate zones (mean annual T ≤ -10 °C). Our results demonstrate the important control of snow cover in affecting northern soil freeze/thaw and soil carbon decomposition processes, and the necessity of considering both warming, and changing precipitation and snow cover regimes in characterizing permafrost soil carbon dynamics.

  4. Soil Tilth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tilth has and continues to be an interesting term. The term intrigues people because of its connection with the soil and yet confuses people because of the inability to provide an exact definition or measurement. As a term that describes a soil property it is better visualized than quantified; howev...

  5. [Influences of cation species on adsorption and desorption of oxytetracycline in two typical soils of China].

    PubMed

    Bao, Yan-Yu; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Zhang, Hao

    2009-02-15

    On the basis of the OECD Guideline 106, batch sorption methods were employed to reveal the effect of different cations (0.01 mol x L(-1) Ca2+, K+ and Na+) on oxytetracycline (OTC) adsorption and desorption process in two tested soils (cinnamon soil and red soil). Results show that the Freundlich model is the best isotherm to describe the experimental data of adsorption and desorption, and the average fitting correlation coefficient is 0.989. Except for the adsorption isotherm of cinnamon soil on OTC in 0.01 mol x L(-1) KCl, the other isotherms resemble the L-type curves. To the same cation, OTC adsorption capacity (lgKf) in the red soil (ranging from 2.907 to 3.173) is always higher than in the cinnamon soil (ranging from 2.577 to 2.885), and the adsorption strength (1/n) in the red soil (ranging from 0.672 to 0.825) is always lower than the cinnamon (ranging from 0.713 to 1.005). The dominant mechanism is physical adsorption in two soils. To the same soil, cation species don't affect OTC adsorption capacity (lgKf) (p > 0.05). And Ca2+ can reduce significantly the adsorption strength (p < 0.05), comparing with K+ and Na+. The apparent adsorption-desorption hysteresis is found, and the average hysteresis index (HI) in all soils are from 0.015 to 0.053. To the same cation, OTC HI is significantly higher than that of red soil (p < 0.05). In cinnamon soil, there is significantly HI difference (p < 0.01) between K+ and Ca2+, Na+. However, three cations have no significantly difference effect on HI in red soil. PMID:19402514

  6. Some aspects of lunar photography with an 8-inch (0.2m) Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, J. C. D.

    1992-04-01

    A brief review of telescope properties and basic data on the Moon leads to some pragmatic conclusions on how to take a high resolution photograph of the lunar surface through an 8-inch (0.2m) Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope using a single lens reflex camera body as the film holder.

  7. A polyphenol mixture from cinnamon targets p38 MAP kinase-regulated signaling pathways to produce G2/M arrest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently demonstrated that treatment of three leukemic cell lines with an aqueous extract of cinnamon (CE) for 24 h produced dose-dependent arrests in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. To accomplish the goal of understanding underlying mechanisms, we selected the cell line most responsive to the...

  8. Histone acetyltransferase HAT4 modulates navigation across G2/M and re-entry into G1 in Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Aarti; Chandra, Udita; Saha, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases impact multiple processes. This study investigates the role of histone acetyltransferase HAT4 in Leishmania donovani. Though HAT4 was dispensable for survival, its elimination decreased cell viability and caused cell cycle defects, with HAT4-nulls experiencing an unusually long G2/M. Survival of HAT4-nulls in macrophages was also substantially compromised. DNA microarray analysis revealed that HAT4 modestly regulated the expression of only a select number of genes, thus not being a major modulator of global gene expression. Significantly, cdc20 was among the downregulated genes. To ascertain if decreased expression of cdc20 was responsible for HAT4-null growth and cell cycle defects we expressed LdCdc20 ectopically in HAT4-nulls. We found this to alleviate the aberrant growth and cell cycle progression patterns displayed by HAT4-nulls, with cells navigating G2/M phase and re-entering G1 phase smoothly. HAT4-nulls expressing LdCdc20 ectopically showed survival rates comparable to wild type within macrophages, suggesting that G2/M defects were responsible for poor survival of HAT4-nulls within host cells also. These are the first data analyzing the in vivo functional role of HAT4 in any trypanosomatid. Our results directly demonstrate for the first time a role for Cdc20 in regulating trypanosomatid G2/M events, opening avenues for further research in this area. PMID:27272906

  9. Grazing-incidence monochromator for the 15--800 A wavelength range at the storage ring VEPP-2M

    SciTech Connect

    Gluskin, E. S.; Kuzminykh, V. S.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Koscheev, S. V.; Devyatov, V. G.; Cherkashin, A. E.; Blau, W.; Meisel, A.; Ehrhardt, H.

    1989-07-01

    A new Rowland monochromator with a fixed output slit, which operates according to the grazing-incidence scheme, is described. The device is notable for the capability to change the Rowland radius within 1--3 m. The monochromator was tested using synchrotron radiation from the storage ring VEPP-2M.

  10. Histone acetyltransferase HAT4 modulates navigation across G2/M and re-entry into G1 in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Aarti; Chandra, Udita; Saha, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases impact multiple processes. This study investigates the role of histone acetyltransferase HAT4 in Leishmania donovani. Though HAT4 was dispensable for survival, its elimination decreased cell viability and caused cell cycle defects, with HAT4-nulls experiencing an unusually long G2/M. Survival of HAT4-nulls in macrophages was also substantially compromised. DNA microarray analysis revealed that HAT4 modestly regulated the expression of only a select number of genes, thus not being a major modulator of global gene expression. Significantly, cdc20 was among the downregulated genes. To ascertain if decreased expression of cdc20 was responsible for HAT4-null growth and cell cycle defects we expressed LdCdc20 ectopically in HAT4-nulls. We found this to alleviate the aberrant growth and cell cycle progression patterns displayed by HAT4-nulls, with cells navigating G2/M phase and re-entering G1 phase smoothly. HAT4-nulls expressing LdCdc20 ectopically showed survival rates comparable to wild type within macrophages, suggesting that G2/M defects were responsible for poor survival of HAT4-nulls within host cells also. These are the first data analyzing the in vivo functional role of HAT4 in any trypanosomatid. Our results directly demonstrate for the first time a role for Cdc20 in regulating trypanosomatid G2/M events, opening avenues for further research in this area. PMID:27272906

  11. Zinc Induced G2/M Blockage is p53 and p21 Dependent in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The involvement of the p53 and p21 signal pathway in the G2/M cell cycle progression of zinc supplemented normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells was examined using the siRNA approach. Cells were cultured for one passage in different concentrations of zinc: <0.4 microM (ZD) as zinc-deficient;...

  12. Phenol-soluble modulin α induces G2/M phase transition delay in eukaryotic HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Deplanche, Martine; Filho, Rachid Aref El-Aouar; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Ladier, Emilie; Jardin, Julien; Henry, Gwénaële; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Beraud, Laetitia; Laurent, Frederic; Lina, Gerard; Vandenesch, François; Steghens, Jean-Paul; Le Loir, Yves; Otto, Michael; Götz, Friedrich; Berkova, Nadia

    2015-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide range of infections. Host cell cycle alteration is a sophisticated mechanism used by pathogens to hijack the defense functions of host cells. We previously demonstrated that S. aureus MW2 (USA400) bacteria induced a G2/M phase transition delay in HeLa cells. We demonstrate here that this activity is triggered by culture supernatant compounds. Using size exclusion chromatography of the MW2 supernatant, followed by mass spectroscopy analysis of corresponding peaks, we identified phenol-soluble modulin α (PSMα) peptides as the likely candidates for this effect. Indeed, synthetic PSMα1 and PSMα3 caused a G2/M phase transition delay. The implication of PSMα in cell cycle alteration was confirmed by comparison of S. aureus Los Angeles County clone (LAC) wild-type with the isogenic mutant LAC∆psmα, which lacks the psmα operon encoding PSMα1-4. PSMα-induced G2/M transition delay correlated with a decrease in the defensin genes expression suggesting a diminution of antibacterial functions of epithelial cells. By testing the supernatant of S. aureus human clinical isolates, we found that the degree of G2/M phase transition delay correlated with PSMα1 production. We show that PSMs secreted by S. aureus alter the host cell cycle, revealing a newly identified mechanism for fostering an infection. PMID:25648996

  13. Insulin delays the progression of Drosophila cells through G2/M by activating the dTOR/dRaptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mary Y W; Cully, Megan; Andersen, Ditte; Leevers, Sally J

    2007-01-01

    In Drosophila and mammals, insulin signalling can increase growth, progression through G1/S, cell size and tissue size. Here, we analyse the way insulin affects cell size and cell-cycle progression in two haemocyte-derived Drosophila cell lines. Surprisingly, we find that although insulin increases cell size, it slows the rate at which these cells increase in number. By using BrdU pulse-chase to label S-phase cells and follow their progression through the cell cycle, we show that insulin delays progression through G2/M, thereby slowing cell division. The ability of insulin to slow progression through G2/M is independent of its ability to stimulate progression through G1/S, so is not a consequence of feedback by the cell-cycle machinery to maintain cell-cycle length. Insulin's effects on progression through G2/M are mediated by dTOR/dRaptor signalling. Partially inhibiting dTOR/dRaptor signalling by dsRNAi or mild rapamycin treatment can increase cell number in cultured haemocytes and the Drosophila wing, respectively. Thus, insulin signalling can influence cell number depending on a balance between its ability to accelerate progression through G1/S and delay progression through G2/M. PMID:17183368

  14. Environmental Solutions: A Summary of Contributions for FY05: PNNL Contributions to CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, Thomas M.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2006-03-01

    This booklet describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's scientific and technical contributions in fiscal year 2005 to the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection's primte contractor for the Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks.

  15. Environmental Solutions, A Summary of Contributions for FY04: PNNL Contributions to CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2005-03-08

    In 2004, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided analyses, reviews, testing, and new tools to assist CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. in accomplishing their River Protection Project objectives. These objectives are safe storage, retrieval, and treatment of radioactive waste from Hanford's tanks, closure of tanks, and disposal of treated wastes.

  16. Generation of Pediatric Leukemia Xenograft Models in NSG-B2m Mice: Comparison with NOD/SCID Mice.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnapillai, Anilkumar; Kolb, E Anders; Dhanan, Priyanka; Bojja, Aruna Sri; Mason, Robert W; Corao, Diana; Barwe, Sonali P

    2016-01-01

    Generation of orthotopic xenograft mouse models of leukemia is important to understand the mechanisms of leukemogenesis, cancer progression, its cross talk with the bone marrow microenvironment, and for preclinical evaluation of drugs. In these models, following intravenous injection, leukemic cells home to the bone marrow and proliferate there before infiltrating other organs, such as spleen, liver, and the central nervous system. Moreover, such models have been shown to accurately recapitulate the human disease and correlate with patient response to therapy and prognosis. Thus, various immune-deficient mice strains have been used with or without recipient preconditioning to increase engraftment efficiency. Mice homozygous for the severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mutation and with non-obese diabetic background (NOD/SCID) have been used in the majority of leukemia xenograft studies. Later, NOD/SCID mice deficient for interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain (IL2Rγ) gene called NSG mice became the model of choice for leukemia xenografts. However, engraftment of leukemia cells without irradiation preconditioning still remained a challenge. In this study, we used NSG mice with null alleles for major histocompatibility complex class I beta2-microglobulin (β2m) called NSG-B2m. This is a first report describing the 100% engraftment efficiency of pediatric leukemia cell lines and primary samples in NSG-B2m mice in the absence of host preconditioning by sublethal irradiation. We also show direct comparison of the engraftment efficiency and growth rate of pediatric acute leukemia cells in NSG-B2m and NOD/SCID mice, which showed 80-90% engraftment efficiency. Secondary and tertiary xenografts in NSG-B2m mice generated by injection of cells isolated from the spleens of leukemia-bearing mice also behaved similar to the primary patient sample. We have successfully engrafted 25 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 5 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples with

  17. Generation of Pediatric Leukemia Xenograft Models in NSG-B2m Mice: Comparison with NOD/SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnapillai, Anilkumar; Kolb, E. Anders; Dhanan, Priyanka; Bojja, Aruna Sri; Mason, Robert W.; Corao, Diana; Barwe, Sonali P.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of orthotopic xenograft mouse models of leukemia is important to understand the mechanisms of leukemogenesis, cancer progression, its cross talk with the bone marrow microenvironment, and for preclinical evaluation of drugs. In these models, following intravenous injection, leukemic cells home to the bone marrow and proliferate there before infiltrating other organs, such as spleen, liver, and the central nervous system. Moreover, such models have been shown to accurately recapitulate the human disease and correlate with patient response to therapy and prognosis. Thus, various immune-deficient mice strains have been used with or without recipient preconditioning to increase engraftment efficiency. Mice homozygous for the severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mutation and with non-obese diabetic background (NOD/SCID) have been used in the majority of leukemia xenograft studies. Later, NOD/SCID mice deficient for interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain (IL2Rγ) gene called NSG mice became the model of choice for leukemia xenografts. However, engraftment of leukemia cells without irradiation preconditioning still remained a challenge. In this study, we used NSG mice with null alleles for major histocompatibility complex class I beta2-microglobulin (β2m) called NSG-B2m. This is a first report describing the 100% engraftment efficiency of pediatric leukemia cell lines and primary samples in NSG-B2m mice in the absence of host preconditioning by sublethal irradiation. We also show direct comparison of the engraftment efficiency and growth rate of pediatric acute leukemia cells in NSG-B2m and NOD/SCID mice, which showed 80–90% engraftment efficiency. Secondary and tertiary xenografts in NSG-B2m mice generated by injection of cells isolated from the spleens of leukemia-bearing mice also behaved similar to the primary patient sample. We have successfully engrafted 25 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 5 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples with

  18. Lack of interaction between LRP1 and A2M polymorphisms for the risk of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Elisa; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Le Pira, Francesco; Maci, Tiziana; Mostile, Giovanni; Andreoli, Virginia; Quattrone, Aldo; Zappia, Mario

    2010-09-27

    Alzheimer disease (AD) has a heterogeneous aetiology, involving genetic and environmental factors. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) are involved in molecular pathways leading to beta-amyloid deposition. Three polymorphic sites in these genes (APOE-epsilon 2/epsilon 3/epsilon 4, A2M-Ile/Val and LRP1-C/T) have been associated with AD, but the results were not univocal. We carried out a case-control study to investigate the association between these polymorphisms and the risk of developing AD and their possible interaction. We recruited 125 AD patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria proposed by NINCDS-ADRDA for probable or possible AD and 310 controls subjects. PCR was used to detect the polymorphisms. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using logistic regression analysis. The OR for subjects carrying at least one allele Val (A2M-Val+) in their genotypes was 1.52 (95% CI 1.00-2.31; p=0.05); for subjects carrying at least one allele C (LRP1-C+), 1.58 (95% CI 1.00-2.50; p=0.05); for subjects carrying at least one allele epsilon 4 (APOE-epsilon 4+), 3.1 (95%CI 1.87-5.00; p<0.001). The coexistence of at least one allele Val (A2M-Val+) and one allele C (LRP1-C+) increased up two times the risk of AD (OR 2.32; 95% CI 1.23-4.35; p<0.009). No evidence of significant interaction has been found between the studied polymorphisms (p>0.05). In conclusion our study suggests that LRP1-C/T, A2M-Ile/Val and APOE-epsilon 2/epsilon 3/epsilon 4 polymorphisms are associated with AD. PMID:20637261

  19. Bud-Localization of CLB2 mRNA Can Constitute a Growth Rate Dependent Daughter Sizer.

    PubMed

    Spiesser, Thomas W; Kühn, Clemens; Krantz, Marcus; Klipp, Edda

    2015-04-01

    Maintenance of cellular size is a fundamental systems level process that requires balancing of cell growth with proliferation. This is achieved via the cell division cycle, which is driven by the sequential accumulation and destruction of cyclins. The regulatory network around these cyclins, particularly in G1, has been interpreted as a size control network in budding yeast, and cell size as being decisive for the START transition. However, it is not clear why disruptions in the G1 network may lead to altered size rather than loss of size control, or why the S-G2-M duration also depends on nutrients. With a mathematical population model comprised of individually growing cells, we show that cyclin translation would suffice to explain the observed growth rate dependence of cell volume at START. Moreover, we assess the impact of the observed bud-localisation of the G2 cyclin CLB2 mRNA, and find that localised cyclin translation could provide an efficient mechanism for measuring the biosynthetic capacity in specific compartments: The mother in G1, and the growing bud in G2. Hence, iteration of the same principle can ensure that the mother cell is strong enough to grow a bud, and that the bud is strong enough for independent life. Cell sizes emerge in the model, which predicts that a single CDK-cyclin pair per growth phase suffices for size control in budding yeast, despite the necessity of the cell cycle network around the cyclins to integrate other cues. Size control seems to be exerted twice, where the G2/M control affects bud size through bud-localized translation of CLB2 mRNA, explaining the dependence of the S-G2-M duration on nutrients. Taken together, our findings suggest that cell size is an emergent rather than a regulatory property of the network linking growth and proliferation. PMID:25910075

  20. Phenol-soluble modulin α induces G2/M phase transition delay in eukaryotic HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    Deplanche, Martine; Filho, Rachid Aref El-Aouar; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Ladier, Emilie; Jardin, Julien; Henry, Gwénaële; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Beraud, Laetitia; Laurent, Frederic; Lina, Gerard; Vandenesch, François; Steghens, Jean-Paul; Le Loir, Yves; Otto, Michael; Götz, Friedrich; Berkova, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide range of infections. Host cell cycle alteration is a sophisticated mechanism used by pathogens to hijack the defense functions of host cells. We previously demonstrated that S. aureus MW2 (USA400) bacteria induced a G2/M phase transition delay in HeLa cells. We demonstrate here that this activity is triggered by culture supernatant compounds. Using size exclusion chromatography of the MW2 supernatant, followed by mass spectroscopy analysis of corresponding peaks, we identified phenol-soluble modulin α (PSMα) peptides as the likely candidates for this effect. Indeed, synthetic PSMα1 and PSMα3 caused a G2/M phase transition delay. The implication of PSMα in cell cycle alteration was confirmed by comparison of S. aureus Los Angeles County clone (LAC) wild-type with the isogenic mutant LAC∆psmα, which lacks the psmα operon encoding PSMα1–4. PSMα-induced G2/M transition delay correlated with a decrease in the defensin genes expression suggesting a diminution of antibacterial functions of epithelial cells. By testing the supernatant of S. aureus human clinical isolates, we found that the degree of G2/M phase transition delay correlated with PSMα1 production. We show that PSMs secreted by S. aureus alter the host cell cycle, revealing a newly identified mechanism for fostering an infection.—Deplanche, M., Filho. R. A. E.–A., Alekseeva, L., Ladier, E., Jardin, J., Henry, G., Azevedo, V., Miyoshi, A., Beraud, L., Laurent, F., Lina, G., Vandenesch, F., Steghens, J.-P., Le Loir, Y., Otto, M., Götz, F., Berkova, N. Phenol-soluble modulin α induces G2/M phase transition delay in eukaryotic HeLa cells. PMID:25648996

  1. Continuous Monitoring of Soil Respiration in Black Spruce Forest Soils, Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Kim, W.

    2009-12-01

    This research was carried out to estimate the continuous monitoring of soil respiration using automatic chamber system that was equipped with a control system, a compressor, and seven chambers (50 cm diameter, 30 cm high) set in sphagnum moss, feather moss, lichen, and tussock in black spruce forest soils, interior Alaska during growing season of 2008. The average daily soil respirations were 0.050±0.012 (standard deviation, CV 23%), 0.022±0.020 (91%), 0.082±0.035 (43%), and 0.027±0.010 mgCO2/m2/s (37%) in lichens, sphagnum moss, tussock and feather moss on black spruce forest soils with light chamber made by transparent material. The temporal variation of soil respiration in different vegetation types on black spruce forest soils during the growing season of 2008 is shown in Figure 1. The accumulative daily soil respiration was 5.2, 9.5, 2.3, and 2.8 mgCO2/m2/s in lichen, tussock, sphagnum moss, and feather moss of black spruce forest ground during the growing periods of 103 days, 2008 (Figure 2). Therefore, averaged regional soil respiration rate is 0.19±0.18 and 0.12±0.08 kgC/m2/(growing season) of 2007 and 2008 in black spruce forest soils, interior Alaska. The winter soil respiration was 0.049±0.013 gC/m2/(winter season), corresponding from 21±7% to 29±13% of the annual CO2 emitted from black spruce forest soils, interior Alaska.

  2. Compositional equivalence of DAS-444Ø6-6 (AAD-12 + 2mEPSPS + PAT) herbicide-tolerant soybean and nontransgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Lepping, Miles D; Herman, Rod A; Potts, Brian L

    2013-11-20

    Soybeans from transgenic event DAS-444Ø6-6 are the first to express three proteins that provide tolerance to broad-spectrum herbicides. DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme from the soil bacterium Delftia acidovorans , which provides tolerance to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); the double-mutant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) enzyme encoded by a modified version of the epsps gene from maize ( Zea mays ), which provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate; and the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes , which provides tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nutrient and antinutrient composition of forage and grain from DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean are similar to those of nontransgenic soybean. Forage was analyzed for proximates, fiber, and minerals; grain analyses further included vitamins, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, and antinutrients and bioactive components (lectin, phytic acid, raffinose, stachyose, trypsin inhibitor, and isoflavones). Results indicate that DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. Findings are consistent with similar studies for other input traits, as endogenous plant metabolic pathways that influence composition are expected to be less affected by transgenesis compared with traditional plant-breeding methods. PMID:24191699

  3. Soil biology for resilient healthy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What is a resilient healthy soil? A resilient soil is capable of recovering or adapting to stress; the health of the living/biological component of the soil is crucial for soil resiliency. Soil health is tightly coupled to the concept of soil quality (Text Box 1) and the terms are frequently used ...

  4. SOIL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The term "Soil Biology", the study of organism groups living in soil, (plants, lichens, algae, moss, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and arthropods), predates "Soil Ecology", the study of interactions between soil organisms as mediated by the soil physical environment. oil ...

  5. Assessment relative soil erodibility index by rainfall simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Jorge; Alonso, Gustavo; Leal, Zuzell; Ruiz, María. Elena; Almoza, Yeleine; Cornelis, Wim; Gabriels, Donald

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion in agricultural fields is identified as the main source of sediments to the Cuyaguateje River, located in the western part of Cuba. The soil is highly variable across the whole watershed and an accurate estimate of soil erodibility is difficult to asses. A rainfall simulation experiment was carrying out in 16 different soils. Plots of 5 m long by 2 m wide with similar treatments and slope ranging from 5 to 15 % were selected. A constant rainfall intensity of 120 mm/h and 60 J/m2 h of kinetic energy, for 25 minutes was applied. Runoff and sediment concentration were measured every 2 minutes. Different behavior through the rainfall event was observed denoting differences in the mechanism driving the erosion process. The total soil lost during this event is reported as a relative index of soil erodibility. There is practically no correlation between this relative index and others soil erodibility index commonly applied in literature.

  6. Heterometallic alumo- and gallodisilicates with M(O-Si-O)2M' and [M(O-Si-O)2]2M' cores (M = Al, Ga; M' = Ti, Zr, Hf).

    PubMed

    Huerta-Lavorie, Raúl; Solis-Ibarra, Diego; Báez-Rodríguez, Dana Victoria; Reyes-Lezama, Marisol; de las Nieves Zavala-Segovia, M; Jancik, Vojtech

    2013-06-17

    The synthesis and stabilization of alumo- and gallodisilicates [HC{C(Me)N(2,6-iPr2C6H3)}2]M[(μ-O)Si(OH)(OtBu)2]2 [M = Al (1), Ga (2)] containing two silicate subunits have been achieved through reactions between 2 equiv of the silanediol (tBuO)2Si(OH)2 and the aluminum hydride [HC{C(Me)N(2,6-iPr2C6H3)}2]AlH2 or the gallium amide [HC{C(Me)N(2,6-iPr2C6H3)}2]Ga(NHEt)2, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit M(O-SiO2-OH)2 moiety and represent the first molecular metallosilicate-based analogues of neighboring silanol groups found in silicate surfaces. The substitution of both SiOH groups led to the formation of bimetallic compounds with 4R topologies, which are regularly found in zeolitic materials. Thus, reactions between group 4 metal amides M'(NEt2)4 (M' = Ti, Zr, Hf) and 1 and 2 resulted in the formation of nine heterometallic silicates (3-11) containing inorganic M(O-Si-O)2M' and [M(O-Si-O)2]2M' cores with 4R and spiro-4R topologies, respectively. The latter have M···M distances of 0.81 nm. NMR studies of the heterometallic derivatives showed a fluxional behavior at room temperature due to a high flexibility of the eight-membered ring. PMID:23718324

  7. Soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Bromwell, L. G.; Durgunoglu, H. T.; Hovland, H. J.; Treadwell, D. D.; Costes, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of an investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil on the Descartes slopes, and the Cayley Plains in the vicinity of the LM for Apollo 16. The soil mechanics data were derived form (1) crew commentary and debriefings, (2) television, (3) lunar surface photography, (4) performance data and observations of interactions between soil and lunar roving vehicle, (5) drive-tube and deep drill samples, (6) sample characteristics, and (7) measurements using the SRP. The general characteristics, stratigraphy and variability are described along with the core samples, penetrometer test results, density, porosity and strength.

  8. Soil investigation in cities of West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidló, A.; Szżcs, P.; Horváth, A.; Kámán, O.; Németh, E.

    2012-04-01

    The antropogene effects have an influence on the environment since the flow of materials and energy is continuous and mutual. In order to investigate the soil properly we have collected samples from sample spots in three West Hungarian cities (Sopron, Szombathely and Székesfehévár). The soil samples were taken from 0-10 and 10-20 cms depth in each city within a standard network and also at industrial territories. The number of the sampling spots were between 104 and 144, depending on the size of the city and the problematic places in town. We have noted the GPS-coordinates of the point, the elevation over sea level, the date of collecting, the type of the urban area, the information about land usage, vegetation, grass covering, the type of cover and the origin of soil. We described the following characters of soil: the borderline between two layers, the amount of humus, the structure, the compactness, the root system, the skeletal percent, the color, the physical assortment, the separated element and the soil defect. We measured the soil samples in laboratory according to the following parameters: acidity (pHH2O, pHKCl), lime content, hidrolitical and exchange acidity, amount of exchangeable cation, the humus content, the total nitrogen content, the ammonium-lactat-acetous acid (AL) solvent potassium and phosphorus content, the KCl solvent magnesium and calcium content, the strength of ethylene-diamin-tetra-acetous (EDTA) and diethylene-triamin-penta-acetous (DTPA) measurements of manganese, copper, zinc and iron element, as well as the particle size distribution. The results of field and laboratory investigation are represented in a GIS system. We attempted to draw a conclusion in connection with the condition, contamination and history of contamination of soil. The results showed that there is close connection between the soil parameters and geological conditions. However, this connection shows a decrease in the centre of the city. The acidity and calcic soils

  9. Microbial and enzymatic activity of soil contaminated with azoxystrobin.

    PubMed

    Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2015-10-01

    The use of fungicides in crop protection still effectively eliminates fungal pathogens of plants. However, fungicides may dissipate to various elements of the environment and cause irreversible changes. Considering this problem, the aim of the presented study was to evaluate changes in soil biological activity in response to contamination with azoxystrobin. The study was carried out in the laboratory on samples of sandy loam with a pH of 7.0 in 1 Mol KCl dm(-3). Soil samples were treated with azoxystrobin in one of four doses: 0.075 (dose recommended by the manufacturer), 2.250, 11.25 and 22.50 mg kg(-1) soil DM (dry matter of soil). The control soil sample did not contain fungicide. Bacteria were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and fungi were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing. The study revealed that increased doses of azoxystrobin inhibited the growth of organotrophic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. The fungicide also caused changes in microbial biodiversity. The lowest values of the colony development (CD) index were recorded for fungi and the ecophysiological (EP) index for organotrophic bacteria. Azoxystrobin had an inhibitory effect on the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. Dehydrogenases were found to be most resistant to the effects of the fungicide, while alkaline phosphatase in the soil recovered the balance in the shortest time. Four species of bacteria from the genus Bacillus and two species of fungi from the genus Aphanoascus were isolated from the soil contaminated with the highest dose of azoxystrobin (22.50 mg kg(-1)). PMID:26343782

  10. Temporal changes of selected chemical properties in three manure - amended soils of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Escobar, M E; Hue, N V

    2008-12-01

    Soil amendment with organic materials (crop residues animal manure, and green manure) reportedly has positive effects on soil properties, from acidity to plant-nutrient availability. To examine that hypothesis, an incubation study was conducted to assess the changes in some chemical properties of three different tropical soils (Andisol, Ultisol, and Oxisol) amended with chicken manure and green manure (Leucaena leucocephala) at the rate of 10tha(-1). The results showed that organic amendments raised soil pH and EC, regardless of the type of manure used. Manuring lowered the concentrations of Mehlich-3 extractable Ca, P, Mn and Si in all soils and decreased the concentration of Mg in the Ultisol and Oxisol. However, manure amendment led to increases in the concentrations of Mg and K in the Andisol. Organic amendments caused a decrease in KCl extractable Al. Initial soluble C levels were highest in the Oxisol (60micromolg(-1)) and lowest in the Andisol (20micromolg(-1)). The concentration of soluble C decreased exponentially with duration of incubation. Three low molecular weight organic molecules (acetic acid, catechol and oxalic acid) out of the eight tested were found in all manure-amended soils. This study quantified the release of some Al chelating organic acids, the reduction of exchangeable Al, and the changes in major plant-nutrients when organic materials were added to nutrient poor, tropical acid soils. PMID:18550367

  11. Short-term alleviation of aluminum phytotoxicity by urea application in acid soils from south China.

    PubMed

    Qing-ru, Zeng; Bo-han, Liao; Li-tian, Zhang; Xi-hong, Zhou; Hong-xiao, Tang

    2006-05-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study effects of urea fertilizer on the chemical composition of soil solutions over time, and to determine Al toxicity as a function of rates of urea application. The experiment revealed that addition of urea fertilizer to soils caused drastic changes in soil pH during the hydrolysis and nitrification stages of urea transformation in the experiment. These pH changes, depending on the N rate of urea application and time courses, had variable effects on soil exchangeable Al, extracted with artificial solutions containing 1 mol l(-1) KCl. The Al mobilization rate could be resolved into two phases: A declining phase for Al was attributed to the urea-induced hydrolysis while a second rising phase was dependent with the nitrification of added N fertilizer. The decreases in exchangeable Al reached the greatest in 4-7 days after fertilization, consistent with soil pH increase. Decreased Al availability had been observed as a consequence of increasing urea addition and soil pH when using Root elongation of maize seedlings as the estimators. Results from the present study demonstrate that urea fertilizer to the surface of soils may lead to a temporary immobilization of Al and, therefore, alleviated Al toxicity to plant seedlings. PMID:16169044

  12. Convective solution transport — An improved technique for the growth of big crystals of the superconducting α-FeSe using KCl as solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. M.; Mok, B. H.; Ling, M. C.; Ke, C. T.; Chen, T. K.; Tsai, I.-M.; Lin, Y.-L.; Liu, H. L.; Chen, C. L.; Hsu, F. C.; Huang, T. W.; Wu, T. B.; Wu, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    An improved technique of convective solution transport using KCl as solvent at 840-790 °C (where mass transport takes place across a vertical temperature gradient) is described for the growth of crystals of the recently discovered superconductor α-FeSex (x = 1-0.8). The crystals were annealed in situ at 400-350 °C for 20-30 h to improve the superconducting properties. Hexagonal plate like crystals measuring 5-6 mm across and 0.25-0.5 mm thick were obtained. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements show good crystallinity and the energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) gives a composition very close to the starting powders. The zero resistance temperature of the crystals was found to increase from 6.5 to 9 K as the composition is decreased from x = 0.95 to 0.9 and decrease thereafter. Similar behavior was also observed in the powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectra with the main peak shifting to higher value until 0.9 and decrease thereafter. In addition the XRD patterns show reducing hexagonal phase reflections as x decreases to 0.9. Anisotropic magnetic behavior was observed when the magnetic field is applied parallel and perpendicular to the (101) face.

  13. Electrochemical Formation of Mg-Li-Sm Alloys by Codeposition from LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-SmCl3 Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Wang, Fengli; Tian, Yang; Zhang, Milin; Yan, Yongde

    2011-12-01

    In this article, the electrochemical method of preparing Mg-Li-Sm alloys by codeposition in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-SmCl3 melts was investigated. Transient electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and chronoamperometry were used to explore the electrochemical formation of Mg-Li-Sm alloys. Chronopotentiograms demonstrated that the codepositon of Mg, Li, and Sm occurred when current densities were more negative than -0.31 A cm-2. Chronoamperograms indicated that the onset potential for the codeposition of Mg, Li, and Sm was -2.40 V, and the codeposition of Mg, Li, and Sm was formed when the applied potentials were more negative than -2.40 V. The different phases of Mg-Li-Sm alloys were prepared by galvanostatic electrolysis and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis showed that the lithium and samarium contents in Mg-Li-Sm alloys could be controlled by the concentrations of MgCl2 and SmCl3. The results demonstrated that Sm could refine the grains dramatically. When the Sm content was 0.8 wt pct, the grain size was the finest.

  14. Electrochemical characterisation of CaCl2 deficient LiCl-KCl-CaCl2 eutectic melt and electro-deoxidation of solid UO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sri Maha Vishnu, D.; Sanil, N.; Mohandas, K. S.; Nagarajan, K.

    2016-03-01

    The CaCl2 deficient ternary eutectic melt LiCl-KCl-CaCl2 (50.5: 44.2: 5.3 mol %) was electrochemically characterised by cyclic voltammetry and polarization techniques in the context of its probable use as the electrolyte in the electrochemical reduction of solid UO2 to uranium metal. Tungsten (cathodic polarization) and graphite (anodic polarization) working electrodes were used in these studies carried out in the temperature range 623 K-923 K. The cathodic limit of the melt was observed to be set by the deposition of Ca2+ ions followed by Li+ ions on the tungsten electrode and the anodic limit by oxidation of chloride ions on the graphite electrode (chlorine evolution). The difference between the onset potential of deposition of Ca2+ and Li+ was found to be 0.241 V at a scan rate of 20 mV/s at 623 K and the difference decreased with increase in temperature and vanished at 923 K. Polarization measurements with stainless steel (SS) cathode and graphite anode at 673 K showed the possibility of low-energy reactions occurring on the UO2 electrode in the melt. UO2 pellets were cathodically polarized at 3.9 V for 25 h to test the feasibility of electro-reduction to uranium in the melt. The surface of the pellets was found reduced to U metal.

  15. Response of isolated rat liver mitochondria to variation of external osmolarity in KCl medium: regulation of matrix volume and oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Devin, A; Guérin, B; Rigoulet, M

    1997-12-01

    When isolated rat liver mitochondria are incubated in KCI medium, matrix volume, flux, and forces in both hypo- and hyperosmolarity are time-dependent. In hypoosmotic KCl medium, matrix volume is regulated via the K+/H+ exchanger. In hyperosmotic medium, the volume is regulated in such a manner that at steady state, which is reached within 4 min, it is maintained whatever the hyperosmolarity. This regulation is Pi- and deltamuH+-dependent, indicating Pi-K salt entry into the matrix. Under steady state, hyperosmolarity has no effect on isolated rat liver mitochondria energetic parameters such as respiratory rate, proton electrochemical potential difference, and oxidative phosphorylation yield. Hypoosmolarity decreases the NADH/NAD+ ratio, state 3 respiratory rate, and deltamuH+, while oxidative phosphorylation yield is not significantly modified. This indicates kinetic control upstream the respiratory chain. This study points out the key role of potassium on the regulation of matrix volume, flux, and forces. Indeed, while matrix volume is regulated in NaCl hyperosmotic medium, flux and force restoration in hyperosmotic medium occurs only in the presence of external potassium. PMID:9559859

  16. Effect of KCl, NaCl and CaCl{sub 2} mixture on volume combustion synthesis of TiB{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Nekahi, Atiye; Firoozi, Sadegh

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} A low melting diluent lowers the ignition temperature in combustion synthesis. {yields} Deagglomerated synthesized products are formed as the result of diluent addition. {yields} Addition of 45% salt mixture resulted in formation of 70 nm TiB{sub 2} nanoparticles. {yields} Thermodynamically unstable Mg{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} and Mg{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 6} by-products were formed. {yields} Small change in particle size was observed with addition of salt mixture. -- Abstract: Preparation of titanium diboride (TiB{sub 2}) nanoparticles was carried out by volume combustion synthesis. TiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and elemental Mg were mixed with 0-60% salt mixture of KCl, NaCl and CaCl{sub 2} with increment of 15% as a low melting temperature diluent. Compressed samples were synthesized in a tubular furnace at a constant heating rate under argon atmosphere. Thermal analysis of the process showed that the addition of the low melting temperature salts mixture led to a significant decrease in ignition and combustion temperatures. Synthesized samples were then leached by nitric and hydrochloric acids to remove impurities. The samples were examined by XRD, SEM and DLS analysis. The results showed the formation of fine deagglomerated particles with the addition of the salts mixture. The results revealed that 45% salts mixture had the smallest average particle size of about 90 nm.

  17. Determination of the E-pO 2- stability diagram of plutonium in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic at 450 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caravaca, Concha; Laplace, Annabelle; Vermeulen, Jackie; Lacquement, Jérôme

    2008-07-01

    Plutonium trichloride solution in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic was prepared by carbochlorination of plutonium oxide. Kinetics of this reaction was compared in different conditions in the range of 443-550 °C. Using this molten salt solution, the redox potential of the Pu(III)/Pu couple at inert tungsten electrode was measured at 450 °C by electromotive force measurement and was found to be E‧○ = -2.76 V vs. the Cl2(g)(1 atm)/Cl- reference electrode (molar fraction scale). Reaction between plutonium trichloride and oxide ions was studied by potentiometric titration, using yttria stabilized electrodes. In our experimental conditions, the titration curves indicate the precipitation of the sesquioxide Pu2O3. The solubility product cologarithm calculated from these curves is found to be pKs(Pu2O3) = 22.8 ± 1.1 (molality scale). Using the experimentally obtained values for E‧○, activity coefficient and pKs joined to the published thermodynamic data, the stability phase diagram of the Pu-O species was then drawn.

  18. Insulin-like growth factor 1 stimulates KCl cotransport, which is necessary for invasion and proliferation of cervical cancer and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Meng-Ru; Lin, Ai-Chien; Hsu, Yueh-Mei; Chang, Tsui-Jung; Tang, Ming-Jer; Alper, Seth L; Ellory, J Clive; Chou, Cheng-Yang

    2004-09-17

    The mechanisms by which insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) cooperates with membrane ion transport system to modulate epithelial cell motility and proliferation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of electroneutral KCl cotransport (KCC), in IGF-1-dependent invasiveness and proliferation of cervical and ovarian cancer cells. IGF-1 increased KCC activity and mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in parallel with the enhancement of regulatory volume decrease. IGF-1 treatment triggers phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades leading to the activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2), respectively. The activated Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways are differentially required for IGF-1-stimulated biosyn-thesis of KCC polypeptides. Specific reduction of Erk1/2 protein levels with small interference RNA abolishes IGF-1-stimulated KCC activity. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic modification of KCC activity demonstrate that KCC is necessary for IGF-1-induced cancer cell invasiveness and proliferation. IGF-1 and KCC colocalize in the surgical specimens of cervical cancer (n = 28) and ovarian cancer (n = 35), suggesting autocrine or paracrine IGF-1 stimulation of KCC production. Taken together, our results indicate that KCC activation by IGF-1 plays an important role in IGF-1 signaling to promote growth and spread of gynecological cancers. PMID:15262997

  19. Thermodynamic properties and single-electrode Peltier heats of a Li-Al alloy in a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt

    SciTech Connect

    Amezawa, Koji; Yamamoto, Naoichi; Tomii, Yoichi; Ito, Yasuhiko

    1999-03-01

    Thermodynamic properties of a Li-Al alloy in the two-phase ({alpha}Al + {beta}LiAl), ({beta}LiAl + {gamma}Li{sub 3}Al{sub 2}), and ({gamma}Li{sub 3}Al{sub 2} + liquid) regions, and in the single {beta}LiAl phase region were determined from electromotive force measurements in a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt at temperatures from 650 to 76f0 K. From the obtained thermodynamic properties, the single-electrode Peltier heat of a Li-Al alloy electrode was evaluated as a function of the alloy composition. It turned out that the single-electrode Peltier heat of a Li-Al alloy electrode exhibits discontinuities at the compositions of coexisting-single phase boundaries. The change of the single-electrode Peltier heat on a phase boundary was interpreted thermodynamically and was found to follow from thermodynamic data for the single phases and the phase diagram data.

  20. Electrochemistry and the mechanisms of nucleation and growth of neodymium during electroreduction from LiCl-KCl eutectic salts on Mo substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hao; Pesic, Batric

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical behavior of NdCl3 was studied on a Mo electrode in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salts. The electroreduction of Nd(III)/Nd(0) involved two reaction steps, as confirmed by three different electrochemical techniques. In the first reaction step, Nd(III) is converted into soluble Nd(II), which undergoes further reduction into metallic Nd(0) in the second reaction step. The standard reaction rate constants for each reaction step were determined by Nicholson method. The rate constant values were used in Matsuda-Ayabe's criteria for testing the electrochemical reversibility. Accordingly, both reaction steps were quasi-reversible redox reactions. The nucleation mechanisms of neodymium metal deposited on a Mo substrate were predicted by using Scharifker-Hill model, and tested for the first time by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the electrode surface. The SEM studies confirmed that for the low initial concentration of NdCl3, neodymium nucleates and grows progressively, while for higher NdCl3 concentrations, the related mechanism is instantaneous. Both are governed by the aggregative growth mechanisms based on surface mobility of formed nanoclusters.

  1. Visible and near-IR spectroscopic studies of uranium(IV) oxychloride in a MgCl{sub 2}-KCl melt

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, S.; Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1995-01-04

    Although the chemistry of uranium(IV) chloride complexes in molten chloride melts has been widely investigated, no studies of uranium(IV) oxychloride complexes in these melts have appeared, with the exception of a recent paper from this laboratory. In that paper, visible and near-IR absorption bands overlapping with those of the uranium(IV) chloride complex are attributed to oxychloride species. Attempts have been made to prepare solutions containing uranium oxychloride by a direct dissolution of UOCl{sub 2} into solvents such as water, acids, and molten pyridinium chloride. However, only uranium(IV) chloride complex species are recovered. This led Ewing to conclude that the uranium-oxygen bond in UOCl{sub 2} is stabilized only in the solid state probably by the lattice energy of the crystal. Here the authors want to report, for the first time, the visible and near-IR spectra of uranium oxychloride in molten MgCl{sub 2}-KCl without interference from those of uranium(IV) chloride complexes. In addition, experimental evidence is provided to confirm that the new uranium(IV) species is an oxygen-containing chloride complex.

  2. The flavonoid chrysin, an endocrine disrupter, relaxes cholecystokinin- and KCl-induced tension in male guinea pig gallbladder strips through multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kline, Loren W; Karpinski, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The bioflavonoids have effects on vascular smooth muscle and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. The flavone and phytoestrogen, chrysin, has been shown to have a vasorelaxant effect on resistance blood vessels. This effect was mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Chrysin inhibited aromatase/estrogen biosynthesis in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to determine if chrysin had an effect on cholecystokinin- or KCl-induced tension in male guinea pig gallbladder strips. In addition, the second messenger(s) system(s) that mediated the effect were to be determined. A pharmacologic approach was used. Male guinea pig gallbladder strips were placed in in vitro chambers filled with Krebs solution, maintained at 37 °C, and gassed with 95% O2-5% CO2. Changes in tension were recorded using a polygraph. It was shown that the PKA/cAMP second messenger system mediated part of the observed chrysin-induced relaxation of cholecystokinin-induced tension, the PKC system also mediated part of the relaxation, and the inhibition of both extracellular Ca(2+) entry and intracellular Ca(2+) release also mediated the chrysin-induced relaxation. This is the first report of chrysin having an effect on gallbladder smooth muscle contraction. PMID:24291637

  3. Thermoluminescence response of new KCl(X)Br(1-X):EuCl3 sintered phosphors exposed to beta and gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Bernal, R; Cruz-Zaragoza, E; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Burruel-Ibarra, S E; Rivera-Flores, M J; Barboza-Flores, M

    2006-01-01

    Alkali halides crystals have been the subject of intense research for an understanding of their radiation-induced defects and luminescence properties. They exhibit noteworthy thermoluminescence (TL) properties when exposed to ionising radiation. Currently, these materials are grown employing expensive and rather complicated techniques. In this work, the results on the TL properties of new alkali halides phosphors fabricated by a simple and inexpensive procedure are presented. The samples were made by mixing KCl, KBr and EuCl3 salts, and compressing them at a pressure of 3.2 x 10(7) Pa during 3 min, followed by sintering at 700 degrees C during 24 h under air atmosphere. The dosimetric response of the samples showed an increase with radiation dose in the 1.5-20.0 Gy dose range for beta and gamma radiation. The TL glow curves in sintered samples presented significant differences in their peak structures compared with monocrystalline samples, indicating that the nature of the trapping states and the recombination mechanisms may be different. PMID:16702244

  4. Disruption of the naturally evolved N conservation strategy in soil under grassland at a sports field in York, UK.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Ambreen; Cresser, Malcolm S

    2014-11-01

    Water- and KCl-extractable ammonium-N and nitrate-N concentrations have been monitored at approximately monthly intervals over a year in soils from 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths under permanent grass at a sports field in York, UK. Measurements were made on both fresh, field-moist soils and after the same soils had been incubated for 7 days at ambient outdoor temperatures, to assess seasonal changes in the capacity of the soils to produce mineral-N species in the absence of plant uptake and other effects. Water extracts allowed potential mobility of N species to be assessed. Comparison of seasonal trends in mineral-N species concentrations in pre- and post-incubation soils confirmed depletion of exchangeable ammonium-N from the winter to summer. Mineral-N in fresh and incubated soils displayed summer minima and also low production in winter, associated with the effects of low temperature on nitrate production and probably microbial immobilization of nitrate produced by residual senescent plant litter with a higher C:N ratio from the previous autumn. The results support the concept that plant/soil systems co-evolved under more pristine conditions to conserve soil N by matching the dynamics of soil mineral N production and plant N uptake, but now N pollution has resulted in a dynamic mismatch. PMID:25170828

  5. The C.elegans MAPK phosphatase LIP-1 is required for the G2/M meiotic arrest of developing oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hajnal, Alex; Berset, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite germline, spatially restricted mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling controls the meiotic cell cycle. First, the MAPK signal is necessary for the germ cells to progress through pachytene of meiotic prophase I. As the germ cells exit pachytene and enter diplotene/diakinesis, MAPK is inactivated and the developing oocytes arrest in diakinesis (G2/M arrest). During oocyte maturation, a signal from the sperm reactivates MAPK to promote M phase entry. Here, we show that the MAPK phosphatase LIP-1 dephosphorylates MAPK as germ cells exit pachytene in order to maintain MAPK in an inactive state during oocyte development. Germ cells lacking LIP-1 fail to arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M boundary, and they enter a mitotic cell cycle without fertilization. LIP-1 thus coordinates oocyte cell cycle progression and maturation with ovulation and fertilization. PMID:12169634

  6. Ideals generated by traces in the algebra of symplectic reflections {H_{1,{v_{1,}}{v_2}}}( {{I_2}( {2m} )} )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstein, S. E.; Tyutin, I. V.

    2016-05-01

    The associative algebra of symplectic reflections H: = {H_{1,{v_{1,}}{v_2}}}( {{I_2}( {2m} )} ) based on the group generated by the root system I 2(2m) depends on two parameters, ν 1 and ν 2. For each value of these parameters, the algebra admits an m-dimensional space of traces. A trace tr is said to be degenerate if the corresponding symmetric bilinear form B tr( x, y) = tr( xy) is degenerate. We find all values of the parameters ν 1 and ν 2 for which the space of traces contains degenerate traces and the algebra H consequently has a two-sided ideal. It turns out that a linear combination of degenerate traces is also a degenerate trace. For the ν 1 and ν 2 values corresponding to degenerate traces, we find the dimensions of the space of degenerate traces.

  7. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramos, José L.; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M. Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  8. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  9. [A case of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2M diagnosed by the occurence of dilated cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Misa; Endo, Takuyuki; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Toshio; Fujimura, Harutoshi

    2015-01-01

    We report a 24-year-old Japanese man initially suspected to have Becker's muscular dystrophy at the age of 6 years, because of a high level of creatine kinase in serum, though he discontinued visiting the hospital. At the age of 23, he was admitted to the hospital for severe dilated cardiomyopathy, and subsequently diagnosed with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy2M (LGMD2M) based on muscle biopsy and gene analysis. It was recently reported that some patients with fukutinopathy develop LGMD. Most of the cases reported in Japan showed mild skeletal muscle involvement despite serious cardiomyopathy, which may sometimes the initial symptom of the disease. Since muscular dystrophy patients can develop severe cardiac failure, irrespective of the severity of skeletal muscle involvement, regular examinations of cardiopulmonary function are necessary. PMID:26050665

  10. The impact of heterogeneous surface temperatures on the 2-m air temperature over the Arctic Ocean in spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, A.; Kaleschke, L.; Lüpkes, C.; Ament, F.; Vihma, T.

    2012-07-01

    The influence of spatial surface temperature changes over the Arctic Ocean on the 2-m air temperature variability is estimated using backward trajectories based on ERA-Interim and the JRA25 wind fields. They are initiated at Alert, Barrow and at the Tara drifting station. Three different methods are used. The first one compares mean ice surface temperatures along the trajectories to the observed 2-m air temperatures at the stations. The second one correlates the observed temperatures to air temperatures obtained using a simple Lagrangian box model which only includes the effect of sensible heat fluxes. For the third method, mean sensible heat fluxes from the model are correlated with the difference of the air temperatures at the model starting point and the observed temperatures at the stations. The calculations are based on MODIS ice surface temperatures and four different sets of ice concentration derived from SSM/I and AMSR-E data. Under nearly cloud free conditions, up to 90% of the 2-m air temperature variance can be explained for Alert, and 60% for Barrow using these methods. The differences are attributed to the different ice conditions, which are characterized by high ice concentration around Alert and lower ice concentration near Barrow. These results are robust for the different sets of reanalyses and ice concentration data. Near-surface winds of both reanalyses show a large inconsistency in the Central Arctic, which leads to a large difference in the correlations between modeled and observed 2-m air temperatures at Tara. Explained variances amount to 70% using JRA and only 45% using ERA. The results also suggest that near-surface temperatures at a given site are influenced by the variability of surface temperatures in a domain of about 150 to 350 km radius around the site.

  11. FOXA2 mRNA expression is associated with relapse in patients with Triple-Negative/Basal-like breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Perez-Balaguer, Ariadna; Ortiz-Martínez, Fernando; García-Martínez, Araceli; Pomares-Navarro, Critina; Lerma, Enrique; Peiró, Gloria

    2015-09-01

    The FOXA family of transcription factors regulates chromatin structure and gene expression especially during embryonic development. In normal breast tissue FOXA1 acts throughout mammary development; whereas in breast carcinoma its expression promotes luminal phenotype and correlates with good prognosis. However, the role of FOXA2 has not been previously studied in breast cancer. Our purpose was to analyze the expression of FOXA2 in breast cancer cells, to explore its role in breast cancer stem cells, and to correlate its mRNA expression with clinicopathological features and outcome in a series of patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma. We analyzed FOXA2 mRNA expression in a retrospective cohort of 230 breast cancer patients and in cell lines. We also knocked down FOXA2 mRNA expression by siRNA to determine the impact on cell proliferation and mammospheres formation using a cancer stem cells culture assay. In vitro studies demonstrated higher FOXA2 mRNA expression in Triple-Negative/Basal-like cells. Further, when it was knocked down, cells decreased proliferation and its capability of forming mammospheres. Similarly, FOXA2 mRNA expression was detected in 10% (23/230) of the tumors, especially in Triple-Negative/Basal-like phenotype (p < 0.001, Fisher's test). Patients whose tumors expressed FOXA2 had increased relapses (59 vs. 79%, p = 0.024, log-rank test) that revealed an independent prognostic value (HR = 3.29, C.I.95% = 1.45-7.45, p = 0.004, Cox regression). Our results suggest that FOXA2 promotes cell proliferation, maintains cancer stem cells, favors the development of Triple-Negative/Basal-like tumors, and is associated with increase relapses. PMID:26298189

  12. Security Aspects of Smart Cards vs. Embedded Security in Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Advanced Mobile Network Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerstein, Mike; Cha, Inhyok; Shah, Yogendra

    The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardisation group currently discusses advanced applications of mobile networks such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. Several security issues arise in these contexts which warrant a fresh look at mobile networks’ security foundations, resting on smart cards. This paper contributes a security/efficiency analysis to this discussion and highlights the role of trusted platform technology to approach these issues.

  13. Prediction of Liquid Sodium Flow Rate through the Core of the IBR-2M Reactor Using Nonlinear Autoregressive Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ososkov, G.; Pepelyshev, Yu.; Tsogtsaikhan, Ts.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an artificial neural network method for long-term prediction of liquid sodium flow rate through the core of the IBR-2M reactor. The nonlinear autoregressive neural network (NAR) with local feedback connection has been considered as the most appropriate tool for such a prediction. The predicted results were compared with experimental values. NAR model predicts slow changes of liquid sodium flow rate up to two days with an error less than 5%.

  14. Human Antigen R Binding and Regulation of SOX2 mRNA in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Elisa; Carelli, Stephana; Caremoli, Filippo; Giallongo, Toniella; Colli, Mattia; Canazza, Alessandra; Provenzani, Alessandro; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2016-02-01

    Since 2005, sex determining region y-box 2 (SOX2) has drawn the attention of the scientific community for being one of the key transcription factors responsible for pluripotency induction in somatic stem cells. Our research investigated the turnover regulation of SOX2 mRNA in human adipose-derived stem cells, considered one of the most valuable sources of somatic stem cells in regenerative medicine. Mitoxantrone is a drug that acts on nucleic acids primarily used to treat certain types of cancer and was recently shown to ameliorate the outcome of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In addition, mitoxantrone has been shown to inhibit the binding of human antigen R (HuR) RNA-binding protein to tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA. Our results show that HuR binds to the 3'-untranslated region of SOX2 mRNA together with the RNA-induced silencing complex miR145. The HuR binding works by stabilizing the interaction between the 3'-untranslated region and the RNA-induced silencing complex. Cell exposure to mitoxantrone leads to HuR detachment and the subsequent prolongation of the SOX2 mRNA half-life. The prolonged SOX2 half-life allows improvement of the spheroid-forming capability of the adipose-derived stem cells. The silencing of HuR confirmed the above observations and illustrates how the RNA-binding protein HuR may be a required molecule for regulation of SOX2 mRNA decay. PMID:26677051

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to HLA-E bind epitopes carried by unfolded β2 m-free heavy chains.

    PubMed

    Tremante, Elisa; Lo Monaco, Elisa; Ingegnere, Tiziano; Sampaoli, Camilla; Fraioli, Rocco; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2015-08-01

    Since HLA-E heavy chains accumulate free of their light β2 -microglobulin (β2 m) subunit, raising mAbs to folded HLA-E heterodimers has been difficult, and mAb characterization has been controversial. Herein, mAb W6/32 and 5 HLA-E-restricted mAbs (MEM-E/02, MEM-E/07, MEM-E/08, DT9, and 3D12) were tested on denatured, acid-treated, and natively folded (both β2 m-associated and β2 m-free) HLA-E molecules. Four distinct conformations were detected, including unusual, partially folded (and yet β2 m-free) heavy chains reactive with mAb DT9. In contrast with previous studies, epitope mapping and substitution scan on thousands of overlapping peptides printed on microchips revealed that mAbs MEM-E/02, MEM-E/07, and MEM-E/08 bind three distinct α1 and α2 domain epitopes. All three epitopes are linear since they span just 4-6 residues and are "hidden" in folded HLA-E heterodimers. They contain at least one HLA-E-specific residue that cannot be replaced by single substitutions with polymorphic HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-F, and HLA-G residues. Finally, also the MEM-E/02 and 3D12 epitopes are spatially distinct. In summary, HLA-E-specific residues are dominantly immunogenic, but only when heavy chains are locally unfolded. Consequently, the available mAbs fail to selectively bind conformed HLA-E heterodimers, and HLA-E expression may have been inaccurately assessed in some previous oncology, reproductive immunology, virology, and transplantation studies. PMID:25982269

  16. H2-M polymorphism in mice susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis involves the peptide binding groove

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.; Loos, M.; Maeurer, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    The ability to develop type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is associated with the major histocompatibility I-A gene and with as yet poorly defined regulatory molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen processing and presentation pathway. H2-M molecules are thought to be involved in the loading of antigenic peptides into the MHC class II binding cleft. We sequenced H2-Ma, H2-Mb1, and H2-Mb2 genes from CIA-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains and identified four different Ma and Mb2 alleles, and three different Mb1 alleles defined by polymorphic residues within the predicted peptide binding groove. Most CIA-resistant mouse strains share common Ma, Mb1, and Mb2 alleles. In contrast, H2-M alleles designated Ma-III, Ma-IV, Mb1-III, and Mb2-IV could be exclusively identified in the CIA-susceptible H2{sup r} and H2{sup q} haplotypes, suggesting that allelic H2-M molecules may modulate the composition of different CII peptides loaded onto MHC class II molecules, presumably presenting {open_quotes}arthritogenic{close_quotes} epitopes to T lymphocytes. 42 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Recent activities on the compatibility of the ferritic steel wall with the plasma in the JFT-2M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Sato, M.; Kawashima, H.; Isei, N.; Kimura, H.; Ogawa, H.; Miyachi, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Shibata, T.

    2002-12-01

    The compatibility of the low activation ferritic steel with a fusion plasma has been investigated in the JFT-2M tokamak. The program consists of three stages. In the first stage, the reduction of fast ion losses was well demonstrated by ferritic steel plates (FPs) outside the vacuum vessel (VV). In the second stage, 20% of the inner surface of the VV was covered by the FPs. The plasma control, stability, and impurity release were preliminary investigated. No deteriorative effect on the plasma was observed at least in the following conditions: partial covering of 20% and the normalized beta value less than 2.8. First boronization was applied to JFT-2M leading to a remarkable decrease of the oxygen impurity. After the boronization, plasmas with the highest normalized beta in JFT-2M were obtained. Thus encouraging results were gained for this stage. In the third stage, the VV was fully covered by FPs, where the ripple reduction and the plasma stability will be investigated as a full scale testing.

  18. Myb controls G2/M progression by inducing cyclin B expression in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Masahiro; Akimaru, Hiroshi; Hou, De-Xing; Takahashi, Tomomi; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2002-01-01

    The c-myb proto-oncogene product (c-Myb) is a transcriptional activator. Vertebrate c-Myb is a key regulator of the G1/S transition in cell cycle, while Drosophila Myb (dMyb) is important for the G2/M transition. Here we report that dMyb induces expression of cyclin B, a critical regulator of the G2/M transition, in Drosophila eye imaginal disc. In the wild-type eye disc, dmyb mRNA was expressed in the stripes both anterior and posterior to the morphogenetic furrow. Ectopic expression of C-terminal-truncated dMyb in the eye disc caused ectopic expression of cyclin B and the rough eye phenotype. This rough eye phenotype correlated with prolonged M phase, caused by overexpression of cyclin B. Cyclin B expression was lost in dmyb-deficient clones. In Schneider cells, the activity of the cyclin B promoter was dramatically reduced by loss of dMyb using the RNA interference method. Mutations of the multiple AACNG sequences in the cyclin B promoter also abolished the promoter activity. These results indicate that dMyb regulates the G2/M transition by inducing cyclin B expression via binding to its promoter. PMID:11847115

  19. Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sakshi; Singh, Ashish; Rajkumar, Raja; Sampath Kumar, Katakam; Kadarkarai Samy, Subburaj; Nizamuddin, Sheikh; Singh, Amita; Ahmed Sheikh, Shahnawaz; Peddada, Vidya; Khanna, Vinee; Veeraiah, Pandichelvam; Pandit, Aridaman; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2016-01-01

    The global distribution of J2-M172 sub-haplogroups has been associated with Neolithic demic diffusion. Two branches of J2-M172, J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 make a considerable part of Y chromosome gene pool of the Indian subcontinent. We investigated the Neolithic contribution of demic dispersal from West to Indian paternal lineages, which majorly consists of haplogroups of Late Pleistocene ancestry. To accomplish this, we have analysed 3023 Y-chromosomes from different ethnic populations, of which 355 belonged to J2-M172. Comparison of our data with worldwide data, including Y-STRs of 1157 individuals and haplogroup frequencies of 6966 individuals, suggested a complex scenario that cannot be explained by a single wave of agricultural expansion from Near East to South Asia. Contrary to the widely accepted elite dominance model, we found a substantial presence of J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 haplogroups in both caste and tribal populations of India. Unlike demic spread in Eurasia, our results advocate a unique, complex and ancient arrival of J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 haplogroups into Indian subcontinent. PMID:26754573

  20. In Candida albicans hyphae, Sec2p is physically associated with SEC2 mRNA on secretory vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Lima, David; Hautbergue, Guillaume M; Wilson, Stuart A; Sudbery, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans hyphae grow in a highly polarized fashion from their tips. This polarized growth requires the continuous delivery of secretory vesicles to the tip region. Vesicle delivery depends on Sec2p, the Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) for the Rab GTPase Sec4p. GTP bound Sec4p is required for the transit of secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi to sites of polarized growth. We previously showed that phosphorylation of Sec2p at residue S584 was necessary for Sec2p to support hyphal, but not yeast growth. Here we show that on secretory vesicles SEC2 mRNA is physically associated with Sec2p. Moreover, we show that the phosphorylation of S584 allows SEC2 mRNA to dissociate from Sec2p and we speculate that this is necessary for Sec2p function and/or translation. During hyphal extension, the growing tip may be separated from the nucleus by up to 15 μm. Transport of SEC2 mRNA on secretory vesicles to the tip localizes SEC2 translation to tip allowing a sufficient accumulation of this key protein at the site of polarized growth. PMID:25231350

  1. Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sakshi; Singh, Ashish; Rajkumar, Raja; Sampath Kumar, Katakam; Kadarkarai Samy, Subburaj; Nizamuddin, Sheikh; Singh, Amita; Ahmed Sheikh, Shahnawaz; Peddada, Vidya; Khanna, Vinee; Veeraiah, Pandichelvam; Pandit, Aridaman; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2016-01-01

    The global distribution of J2-M172 sub-haplogroups has been associated with Neolithic demic diffusion. Two branches of J2-M172, J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 make a considerable part of Y chromosome gene pool of the Indian subcontinent. We investigated the Neolithic contribution of demic dispersal from West to Indian paternal lineages, which majorly consists of haplogroups of Late Pleistocene ancestry. To accomplish this, we have analysed 3023 Y-chromosomes from different ethnic populations, of which 355 belonged to J2-M172. Comparison of our data with worldwide data, including Y-STRs of 1157 individuals and haplogroup frequencies of 6966 individuals, suggested a complex scenario that cannot be explained by a single wave of agricultural expansion from Near East to South Asia. Contrary to the widely accepted elite dominance model, we found a substantial presence of J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 haplogroups in both caste and tribal populations of India. Unlike demic spread in Eurasia, our results advocate a unique, complex and ancient arrival of J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 haplogroups into Indian subcontinent. PMID:26754573

  2. RAD53, DUN1 and PDS1 define two parallel G2/M checkpoint pathways in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, R; Putnam, C W; Weinert, T

    1999-01-01

    Eukaryotic checkpoint genes regulate multiple cellular responses to DNA damage. In this report, we examine the roles of budding yeast genes involved in G2/M arrest and tolerance to UV exposure. A current model posits three gene classes: those encoding proteins acting on damaged DNA (e.g. RAD9 and RAD24), those transducing a signal (MEC1, RAD53 and DUN1) or those participating more directly in arrest (PDS1). Here, we define important features of the pathways subserved by those genes. MEC1, which we find is required for both establishment and maintenance of G2/M arrest, mediates this arrest through two parallel pathways. One pathway requires RAD53 and DUN1 (the 'RAD53 pathway'); the other pathway requires PDS1. Each pathway independently contributes approximately 50% to G2/M arrest, effects demonstrable after cdc13-induced damage or a double-stranded break inflicted by the HO endonuclease. Similarly, both pathways contribute independently to tolerance of UV irradiation. How the parallel pathways might interact ultimately to achieve arrest is not yet understood, but we do provide evidence that neither the RAD53 nor the PDS1 pathway appears to maintain arrest by inhibiting adaptation. Instead, we think it likely that both pathways contribute to establishing and maintaining arrest. PMID:10357828

  3. Project of the new multifunctional reflectometer GRAINS with horizontal sample plane at the IBR-2M pulsed reactor in Dubna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeev, M. V.; Bodnarchuk, V. I.; Lauter-Pasyuk, V. V.; Lauter, H.; Aksenov, V. L.; Yaradaikin, S. P.; Ulyanov, V. A.; Trounov, V. A.; Kalinin, S. I.

    2010-11-01

    The new multifunctional reflectometer GRAINS is under construction at the modernized high flux IBR-2 pulsed reactor (IBR-2M) of the FLNP JINR (Dubna, Russia). The principal feature of this reflectometer, the horizontal sample plane (or vertical scattering plane), enables the study of liquid-containing interfaces. The reflectometer will operate in the time-of-flight regime with constant sample illumination during measurements. The important advantage is the constant angular resolution with unvaried background. The additional modes of the GRAINS reflectometer comprise (1) off-specular scattering and GISANS, which are measured simultaneously in the TOF regime at a 2D position-sensitive detector; (2) angular encoding in the horizontal plane, which is provided by a Larmor precession region limited by current sheets in front of the sample; (3) 3D polarimetry in reflection, which is provided by a Larmor precession region around the sample position. The design of the reflectometer is optimised to take better advantage of an exceptionally broad wavelength band of the new cold moderator at the IBR-2M. The set-up will open up principally new possibilities for investigations in the field of interface nano-science at the IBR-2M reactor.

  4. Gadd45 proteins induce G2/M arrest and modulate apoptosis in kidney cells exposed to hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Mak, Sally K; Kültz, Dietmar

    2004-09-10

    Gadd45 proteins are induced by hyperosmolality in renal inner medullary (IM) cells, but their role for cell adaptation to osmotic stress is not known. We show that a cell line derived from murine renal IM cells responds to moderate hyperosmotic stress (540 mosmol/kg) by activation of G(2)/M arrest without significant apoptosis. If the severity of hyperosmotic stress exceeds the tolerance limit of this cell line (620 mosmol/kg) apoptosis is strongly induced. Using transient overexpression of ectopic Gadd45 proteins and simultaneous analysis of transfected versus non-transfected cells by laser-scanning cytometry, we were able to measure the effects of Gadd45 super-induction during hyperosmolality on G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that induction of all three Gadd45 isoforms inhibits mitosis and promotes G(2)/M arrest during moderate hyperosmotic stress but not in isosmotic controls. Furthermore, all three Gadd45 proteins are also involved in control of apoptosis during severe hyperosmotic stress. Under these conditions Gadd45gamma induction strongly potentiates apoptosis. In contrast, Gadd45alpha/beta induction transiently increases caspase 3/7 and annexin V binding before 12 h but inhibits later stages of apoptosis during severe hyperosmolality. These results show that Gadd45 isoforms function in common but also in distinct pathways during hyperosmolality and that their increased abundance contributes to the low mitotic index and protection of genomic integrity in cells of the mammalian renal inner medulla. PMID:15262964

  5. TinyECCK: Efficient Elliptic Curve Cryptography Implementation over GF(2m) on 8-Bit Micaz Mote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Seog Chung; Han, Dong-Guk; Kim, Hyung Chan; Hong, Seokhie

    In this paper, we revisit a generally accepted opinion: implementing Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC) over GF(2m) on sensor motes using small word size is not appropriate because XOR multiplication over GF(2m) is not efficiently supported by current low-powered microprocessors. Although there are some implementations over GF(2m) on sensor motes, their performances are not satisfactory enough to be used for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We have found that a field multiplication over GF(2m) are involved in a number of redundant memory accesses and its inefficiency is originated from this problem. Moreover, the field reduction process also requires many redundant memory accesses. Therefore, we propose some techniques for reducing unnecessary memory accesses. With the proposed strategies, the running time of field multiplication and reduction over GF(2163) can be decreased by 21.1% and 24.7%, respectively. These savings noticeably decrease execution times spent in Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) operations (signing and verification) by around 15-19%. We present TinyECCK (Tiny Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem with Koblitz curve-a kind of TinyOS package supporting elliptic curve operations) which is the first implementation of Koblitz curve on sensor motes as far as we know. Through comparisons with existing software implementations of ECC built in C or hybrid of C and inline assembly on sensor motes, we show that TinyECCK outperforms them in terms of running time, code size and supporting services. Furthermore, we show that a field multiplication over GF(2m) can be faster than that over GF(p) on 8-bit Atmegal28 processor by comparing TinyECCK with TinyECC, a well-known ECC implementation over GF(p). TinyECCK with sect163kl can generate a signature and verify it in 1.37 and 2.32 secs on a Micaz mote with 13,748-byte of ROM and 1,004-byte of RAM.

  6. Influences of the substituents on the M-M bonding in Cp4Al4 and Cp2M2X2 (M = B, Al, Ga; Cp = C5H5, X = halogen).

    PubMed

    Lu, Feifei; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zheng; Zeng, Yanli; Meng, Lingpeng

    2015-08-21

    Although the geometries of CpAl4 (Cp* = C5Me5) and Cp4Al4 (Cp = C5H5) are similar, CpAl4 is more stable than Cp4Al4. CpAl2I2 is the first complex involving an Al(ii)-Al(ii) bond to be supported by Cp-type ligands. In this work, the stability of CpAl4 and Cp4Al4 (Cp = C5H5), the nature of M-M bonding in Cp2M2X2 (M = B, Al, and Ga), and the influences of the X atom on the M-M bonds have been analyzed and compared within the framework of the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory, electron localization function (ELF), energy decomposition analysis (EDA), and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The calculated results show that CpAl4 is more stable than Cp4Al4 because of HH interactions between the methyl groups on the same and different Cp rings and not because of the Al-Al bonds. In Cp2M2X2, the B-B bond is stronger than the Al-Al and Ga-Ga bonds. The B-B bond is most consistent with covalent bonding, whereas the Al-Al and Ga-Ga bonds are more consistent with metallic bonding. The strengths of the B-B bond increase in the sequence X = F, Cl, Br, and I, whereas the Al-Al and Ga-Ga bonds decrease in the sequence X = F, Cl, Br, and I. The different change tendencies arise from the different M-M bonds and the orbital interactions between atoms X and M. PMID:26171664

  7. What is the story that soil tells us? Environmental and anthropogenic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanskiy, Merrit; Kriiska, Aivar; Oras, Ester

    2015-04-01

    The archaeological studies have shown the evidence of human impact on soils functioning. On the other hand, the changed conditions of normal soil functioning will influence the human settlement in specific area. This study is part of a wider archaeological project on the environmental studies of the Kohtla Iron Age sacrificial site. To obtain a data about soil cover around historical finding some 1500 years ago, special sampling and research were carried out at the study site located in Kohtla Vanaküla, northeastern Estonia where a valuable collection of metal weapons and tools was discovered. The aim of current study was to analyze the site-specific soils to find out the connections between soil records and human mediated historical land degradation. Also, the site specific conditions were studied in order to understand its impact on archaeological artefacts and their preservation conditions. For the current investigation the soil sampling was carried out in July, 2014. The soils were described based on 20 soil pits. The site-specific soil morphological description was finalized and chemical analyses were performed at the laboratory of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Estonian University of Life Science. Soil was air dried and passed through a 2- mm sieve. The chemical elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) were analyzed by using Mehlich 3 extraction by MP-AES analytical performance. Soil pH was measured from the soil suspension with 1M KCl. Ctot was analysed by dry combustion method in a vario MAX CNS elemental analyser (ELEMENTAR, Germany). Organic C was determined with elemental analyzer. According to World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) classification system (FAO, 1998), the soil in the study area belongs to the soils subgroups of Gley soils on yellowish-grey calcareous till. The study area soil cover has strong anthropogenic influence due to different human activities. First, there are agricultural activities in the area. Although the region is currently

  8. Using O2 to study the relationships between soil CO2 efflux and soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angert, A.; Yakir, D.; Rodeghiero, M.; Preisler, Y.; Davidson, E. A.; Weiner, T.

    2014-08-01

    Soil respiration, is the sum of respiration processes in the soil, and is a major flux in the global carbon cycle. It is usually assumed that the CO2 efflux is equal to the soil respiration rate. Here we challenge this assumption by combining measurements of CO2 with high-precision measurements of O2. These measurements were conducted on different ecosystems and soil types, and included measurements of air-samples taken from the soil profile of three Mediterranean sites, a temperate forest, and two alpine forests. Root-free soils from the alpine sites were also incubated at the lab. We found that the ratio between the CO2 efflux to the O2 influx (which we defined as apparent respiratory quotient, ARQ) was in the range of 0.14 to 1.23, which strongly deviates from 0.9 ± 0.1, which is the ratio expected from the elemental composition of average plants and soil organic matter. At the Mediterranean sites these deviations were explained as a result of CO2 dissolution in the soil water and transformation to bi-carbonate in these high pH soils, and by carbonates dissolution and precipitation processes. Thus, correct estimate of the short-term, chamber-based biological respiratory flux in such soils can only be made by dividing the measured CO2 efflux by the average (efflux weighted) soil profile ARQ. We demonstrated that applying this approach to a semiarid pine forest resulted in estimated short-term respiration rate 3.8 times higher than the chamber-measured surface CO2 efflux (8.8 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 instead of 2.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, at the time of measurement). The ARQ values that were often found for the more acidic soils were lower than 0.7, and hence surprising. These values might be the result of the oxidation of reduced iron, which could previously form during times of high soil moisture and local anaerobic conditions inside aggregates. Further research is needed to confirm that low ARQ found in non-calcareous soils, is the result of this process, which can cause

  9. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9–1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5–1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5–1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions. PMID:26730602

  10. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, enhances regulator of G protein signaling 2 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaqiong; Nakagawa, Suguru; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kawabata, Yukari; Suzuki, Etsu; Uehara, Yoshio

    2016-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) reportedly enhances regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2), thus making a negative feedback loop for Ang II signal transduction. However, few studies have reported whether Ang II receptor (ATR) antagonists influence RGS2 mRNA expression. We investigated RGS2 mRNA expression when Ang II binding to ATR was blocked with Ang II subtype-1 receptor (AT1R) blockers using vascular smooth muscle cells from the thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats. RGS2 mRNA expression significantly increased with Ang II stimulation, and this increase was almost completely abolished by olmesartan, a potent AT1R-specific blocker. Ang II subtype-2 receptor (AT2R) was not involved in Ang II-mediated RGS expression. In contrast, the AT1R blocker, losartan, partially decreased Ang II-mediated RGS2 mRNA expression because this antagonist directly stimulated RGS2 mRNA expression in Ang II-free medium. EXP3174, which is an active metabolite of losartan, almost completely blunted Ang II-mediated RGS2 mRNA expression without direct stimulation of RGS2 mRNA expression. Moreover, pretreatment with olmesartan abolished Ang II-mediated RGS2 mRNA expression. Treatment with a protein kinase C inhibitor partially decreased losartan-mediated RGS2 mRNA expression. These results suggest that AT1R blockers inhibit RGS2 mRNA expression in response to Ang II via an AT1R-mediated mechanism. However, the AT1R blocker, losartan, behaves as a direct agonist for RGS2 mRNA expression via AT1R through protein kinase C-dependent and -independent pathways. In conclusion, losartan exhibits dual effects on RGS2 mRNA expression, and the direct upregulation of RGS2 mRNA expression may provide a new strategy for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:26763849

  11. Subsurface drip irrigation emitter spacing effects on soil water redistribution, corn yield, and water productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emitter spacings of 0.3 to 0.6 m are commonly used for subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) of corn on the deep, silt loam soils of the United States Great Plains. Subsurface drip irrigation emitter spacings of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 m were examined for the resulting differences in soil water redistribut...

  12. Lower limits of crop water use in three soil textural classes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate knowledge of the amount of soil water available for crop use allows better management of limited water supplies. Using neutron scattering, we determined the mean lower limit of field soil water use (LL*F, m**3 m**-3) to a depth of 2.2 m at harvest (three seasons each) of short-season maize...

  13. Spatial Distribution of Surface Soil Moisture in a Small Forested Catchment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predicting the spatial distribution of soil moisture is an important hydrological question. We measured the spatial distribution of surface soil moisture (upper 6 cm) using an Amplitude Domain Reflectometry sensor at the plot scale (2 × 2 m) and small catchment scale (0.84 ha) in...

  14. Rutile solubility in NaF-NaCl-KCl-bearing aqueous fluids at 0.5-2.79 GPa and 250-650 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanis, Elizabeth A.; Simon, Adam; Zhang, Youxue; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Hanchar, John M.; Tschauner, Oliver; Shen, Guoyin

    2016-03-01

    during the experiment, and the measured concentration of Zr in the fluid was used to calculate the concentration of Ti (i.e., the solubility of rutile) in the fluid. The salts NaF, NaCl, and KCl were systematically added to the aqueous fluid, and the relative effects of fluid composition, pressure, and temperature on rutile solubility were quantified. The results indicate that fluid composition exerts the greatest control on rutile solubility in aqueous fluid, consistent with previous studies, and that increasing temperature has a positive, albeit less pronounced, effect. The solubility of Zr-rutile in aqueous fluid increases with the addition of halides in the following order: 2 wt% NaF < 30 wt% KCl < 30 wt% NaCl < 3 wt% NaF < (10 wt% NaCl + 2 wt% NaF) < 4 wt% NaF. The solubility of rutile in the fluid increases with the 2nd to 3rd power of the Cl- concentration, and the 3rd to 4th power of the F- concentration. These new data are consistent with observations from field studies of exhumed terranes that indicate that rutile is soluble in complex aqueous fluids, and that fluid composition is the primary control on rutile solubility and HFSE mobility.

  15. Morphological and functional differentiation in BE(2)-M17 human neuroblastoma cells by treatment with Trans-retinoic acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Immortalized neuronal cell lines can be induced to differentiate into more mature neurons by adding specific compounds or growth factors to the culture medium. This property makes neuronal cell lines attractive as in vitro cell models to study neuronal functions and neurotoxicity. The clonal human neuroblastoma BE(2)-M17 cell line is known to differentiate into a more prominent neuronal cell type by treatment with trans-retinoic acid. However, there is a lack of information on the morphological and functional aspects of these differentiated cells. Results We studied the effects of trans-retinoic acid treatment on (a) some differentiation marker proteins, (b) types of voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels and (c) Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter ([3H] glycine) release in cultured BE(2)-M17 cells. Cells treated with 10 μM trans-retinoic acid (RA) for 72 hrs exhibited marked changes in morphology to include neurite extensions; presence of P/Q, N and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels; and expression of neuron specific enolase (NSE), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (nAChR-α7) and other neuronal markers. Moreover, retinoic acid treated cells had a significant increase in evoked Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter release capacity. In toxicity studies of the toxic gas, phosgene (CG), that differentiation of M17 cells with RA was required to see the changes in intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations following exposure to CG. Conclusion Taken together, retinoic acid treated cells had improved morphological features as well as neuronal characteristics and functions; thus, these retinoic acid differentiated BE(2)-M17 cells may serve as a better neuronal model to study neurobiology and/or neurotoxicity. PMID:23597229

  16. Hydrothermal alteration in the Bosumtwi impact structure: Evidence from 2M1-muscovite, alteration veins, and fracture fillings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Michael T.; Newsom, Horton E.; Nelson, Melissa J.; Moore, Duane M.

    Drill-core samples from the Bosumtwi impact structure (1.07 Myr old and 10.5 km in diameter) in Ghana exhibit mineralogical evidence for post-impact hydrothermal alteration. Nine samples of drill core obtained through the 2004 International Continental Scientific Drilling Project (ICDP) were studied, including an uppermost fallback layer overlying impactite breccias, and partly deformed massive meta-graywacke bedrock. The petrographic study revealed alteration veins containing secondary sericitic muscovite (comparable to 2M1-muscovite) crosscutting original bedding in meta-graywacke and forming a matrix between clasts in impactite breccias. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that these impactite samples are rich in 2M1-muscovite, consistent with post-impact fluid deposition and alteration. Optical analysis indicates the presence of a pre-impact stratiform chlorite in meta-graywacke samples and a secondary alteration chlorite occurring in all samples. Secondary illite was detected in upper impactites of drill core LB-08A and samples containing accretionary lapilli. The lower temperature constraint for the hydrothermal event is given by 2M1-muscovite, secondary chlorite, and illite, all of which form at temperatures greater than 280 °C. An absence of recrystallization of quartz and feldspar indicates an upper temperature constraint below 900 °C. The presence of alteration materials associated with fractures and veins in the uppermost impactites of drill cores LB-07A and LB-08A indicates that a post-impact hydrothermal system was present in and adjacent to the central uplift portion of the Bosumtwi impact structure. A sample containing accretionary lapilli obtained from drill core LB-05A exhibits limited evidence that hydrothermal processes were more widespread within the impactites on the crater floor.

  17. Role of an apical K,Cl cotransporter in urine formation by renal tubules of the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Piermarini, Peter M; Hine, Rebecca M; Schepel, Matthew; Miyauchi, Jeremy; Beyenbach, Klaus W

    2011-11-01

    The K,Cl cotransporters (KCCs) of the SLC12 superfamily play critical roles in the regulation of cell volume, concentrations of intracellular Cl(-), and epithelial transport in vertebrate tissues. To date, the role(s) of KCCs in the renal functions of mosquitoes and other insects is less clear. In the present study, we sought molecular and functional evidence for the presence of a KCC in renal (Malpighian) tubules of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Using RT-PCR on Aedes Malpighian tubules, we identified five alternatively spliced partial cDNAs that encode putative SLC12-like KCCs. The majority transcript is AeKCC1-A(1); its full-length cDNA was cloned. After expression of the AeKCC1-A protein in Xenopus oocytes, the Cl(-)-dependent uptake of (86)Rb(+) is 1) activated by 1 mM N-ethylmaleimide and cell swelling, 2) blocked by 100 μM dihydroindenyloxyalkanoic acid (DIOA), and 3) dependent upon N-glycosylation of AeKCC1-A. In Aedes Malpighian tubules, AeKCC1 immunoreactivity localizes to the apical brush border of principal cells, which are the predominant cell type in the epithelium. In vitro physiological assays of Malpighian tubules show that peritubular DIOA (10 μM): 1) significantly reduces both the control and diuretic rates of transepithelial fluid secretion and 2) has negligible effects on the membrane voltage and input resistance of principal cells. Taken together, the above observations indicate the presence of a KCC in the apical membrane of principal cells where it participates in a major electroneutral transport pathway for the transepithelial secretion of fluid in this highly electrogenic epithelium. PMID:21813871

  18. Effect of microwave reflection from the region of electron cyclotron resonance heating in the L-2M stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Batanov, G. M.; Borzosekov, V. D.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Malakhov, D. V.; Petrov, A. E.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Sakharov, A. S. Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Kharchev, N. K.

    2013-11-15

    In experiments on electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating of plasma at the second harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency in the L-2M stellarator, the effect of partial reflection of high-power gyrotron radiation from the ECR heating region located in the center of the plasma column was revealed. The reflection coefficient is found to be on the order of 10{sup −3}. The coefficient of reflection of an extraordinary wave from the second-harmonic ECR region is calculated in the one-dimensional full-wave model. The calculated and measured values of the reflection coefficient are found to coincide in order of magnitude.

  19. Alkynyl bridged cyclometalated Ir2M2 clusters: impact of the heterometal in the photo- and electro-luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cestau, Julio; Giménez, Nora; Lalinde, Elena; Montaño, Patricia; Moreno, M Teresa; Sánchez, Sergio; Weber, Michael D; Costa, Rubén D

    2016-02-28

    We report two unprecedent alkynyl bridging cyclometalated clusters [Ir2M2(ppy)4(μ-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC6H4-OMe3)4] where M is Ag (2) and Cu (3), which display distinctive luminescence properties. While 2 features a green phosphorescence/electroluminescence nature located at the ppy ligands ((3)LC), 3 shows an orange emission confined to the metals and alkynyl groups having a mixed (3)L'C/(3)L'MCT/(3)MMCT (L' = alkynyl) nature. PMID:26827753

  20. [Effects of mixed chelators on the leaching of cadmium in contaminated soils under intercropping system].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-Li; Wu, Qi-Tang; Wei, Ze-Bin; Guo, Xiao-Fang; Qiu, Jin-Rong; Huang, Zhu-Jian

    2011-11-01

    In order to elucidate the influence of chelators on Cd leaching in contaminated soil, outdoor soil column (100 cm) leaching experiments were conducted using two paddy soils irrigated with Pb-Zn mining wastewater. Soil samples which under intercropping systems were collected from Qingyuan City (acid soil with pH 4.63) and Lechang city (neutral soil with pH 6.51), Guangdong Province of China. The mixture of chelators (MC) comprised of citric acid, monosodium glutamate waste liquid, EDTA and KCl with molar ratio of 10 : 1 : 2 : 3 at the concentration of 5 mmol x kg(-1) soil. The intercropping system used in this study was a Zn- and Cd-hyperaccumulator (Sedum alfredii) and a low-accumulating crop (Zea mays). Results showed that at day 2 after the application of MC, the Cd concentrations in leachates from every layer of neutral and acid soils increased significantly in the treatment with intercropping and MC. At day 8 the concentrations of Cd in leachate from layers below 20 cm in the neutral soil and below 60 cm in the acid soil were still significantly higher than those of control. However, the mobility of Cd was decreased greatly compared with that at day 2. At day 2 and day 8 the Cd concentrations in leachates from every layer of neutral and acid soils in the Co-crop + MC treatments exceed the value of the Groundwater Quality Standards (GB/T 14848-93). Cd in all soil columns showed the trend to migrate downwards, especially in the acid soil. The total Cd in the soil layers of 20 cm and 40 cm was decreased by 40% -58% and 39%-49% respectively at the end of the experiments compared to the initial value. After leaching of 100 days,the total Cd in 0-40 cm soil layer of acid soil reached the limit of National Soil Environmental Quality Standards (GB 15618-1995). The results also implied that in Cd-contaminated soil MC addition might enhance the potential risks of Cd contamination in groundwater. PMID:22295648

  1. Extracting Quantitative Data from Lunar Soil Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Pieters, C. M.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Using the modified Gaussian model (MGM) developed by Sunshine et al. [1] we compared the spectral properties of the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) suite of lunar soils [2,3] with their petrologic and chemical compositions to obtain quantitative data. Our initial work on Apollo 17 soils [4] suggested that useful compositional data could be elicited from high quality soil spectra. We are now able to expand upon those results with the full suite of LSCC soils that allows us to explore a much wider range of compositions and maturity states. The model is shown to be sensitive to pyroxene abundance and can evaluate the relative portion of high-Ca and low-Ca pyroxenes in the soils. In addition, the dataset has provided unexpected insights into the nature and causes of absorption bands in lunar soils. For example, it was found that two distinct absorption bands are required in the 1.2 m region of the spectrum. Neither of these bands can be attributed to plagioclase or agglutinates, but both appear to be largely due to pyroxene.

  2. Schoolground Soil Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Charles

    1978-01-01

    Outlined are simple activities for studying soil, which can be conducted in the schoolyard. Concepts include soil profiles, topsoil, soil sizes, making soil, erosion, slope, and water absorption. (SJL)

  3. Methylation-induced G2/M arrest requires a full complement of the mismatch repair protein hMLH1

    PubMed Central

    Cejka, Petr; Stojic, Lovorka; Mojas, Nina; Russell, Anna Marie; Heinimann, Karl; Cannavó, Elda; di Pietro, Massimiliano; Marra, Giancarlo; Jiricny, Josef

    2003-01-01

    The mismatch repair (MMR) gene hMLH1 is mutated in ∼50% of hereditary non-polyposis colon cancers and transcriptionally silenced in ∼25% of sporadic tumours of the right colon. Cells lacking hMLH1 display microsatellite instability and resistance to killing by methylating agents. In an attempt to study the phenotypic effects of hMLH1 downregulation in greater detail, we designed an isogenic system, in which hMLH1 expression is regulated by doxycycline. We now report that human embryonic kidney 293T cells expressing high amounts of hMLH1 were MMR-proficient and arrested at the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint following treatment with the DNA methylating agent N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), while cells not expressing hMLH1 displayed a MMR defect and failed to arrest upon MNNG treatment. Interestingly, MMR proficiency was restored even at low hMLH1 concentrations, while checkpoint activation required a full complement of hMLH1. In the MMR-proficient cells, activation of the MNNG-induced G2/M checkpoint was accompanied by phosphorylation of p53, but the cell death pathway was p53 independent, as the latter polypeptide is functionally inactivated in these cells by SV40 large T antigen. PMID:12727890

  4. Cordycepin induces apoptosis and autophagy in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and BE(2)-M17 cells

    PubMed Central

    LI, YIFAN; LI, RONG; ZHU, SHENGLANG; ZHOU, RUYUN; WANG, LEI; DU, JIHUI; WANG, YONG; ZHOU, BEI; MAI, LIWEN

    2015-01-01

    Cordycepin, also termed 3′-deoxyadenosine, is a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine that represents a potential novel class of anticancer drugs targeting the 3′ untranslated region of RNAs. Cordycepin has been reported to induce apoptosis in certain cancer cell lines, but the effects of cordycepin on human neuroblastoma cells have not been studied. In the present study, an MTT assay revealed that cordycepin inhibits the viability of neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and BE(2)-M17 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, cordycepin increases the early-apoptotic cell population of SK-N-SH cells, as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. The induction of apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells by cordycepin was further confirmed by western blotting, which revealed cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 in the SK-N-SH and BE(2)-M17 cells. Cordycepin also induced the formation of a punctate pattern of light-chain 3 (LC3)-associated green fluorescence in the SK-N-SH cells transfected with a pEGFP-LC3 vector. Furthermore, western blotting revealed cleavage of LC3 A/B in cordycepin-treated neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Taken together, the results indicate that cordycepin significantly increases apoptosis and autophagy in neuroblastoma cells, and may therefore be a drug candidate for neuroblastoma therapy, but requires additional evaluation. PMID:26137103

  5. COX-2, mPGES-1 and EP2 receptor immunohistochemical expression in canine and feline malignant mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Millanta, F; Asproni, P; Canale, A; Citi, S; Poli, A

    2016-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) signalling is involved in human and animal cancer development. PG E2 (PGE2 ) tumour-promoting activity has been confirmed and its production is controlled by Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Evidence suggests that mPGES-1 and COX-2 contribute to carcinogenesis through the EP2 receptor. The aim of our study was to detect by immunohistochemistry COX-2, mPGES-1 and EP2 receptor expression in canine (n = 46) and feline (n = 50) mammary tumours and in mammary non-neoplastic tissues. COX-2 positivity was observed in 83% canine and 81% feline mammary carcinomas, mPGES-1 in 75% canine and 66% feline mammary carcinomas and the EP2 receptor expression was observed in 89% canine and 54% feline carcinomas. The frequency of COX-2, EP2 receptor and mPGES-1 expression was significantly higher in carcinomas than in non-neoplastic tissues and adenomas. COX-2, mPGES-1 and EP2 receptor expression was strongly associated. These findings support a role of the COX-2/PGE2 pathway in the pathogenesis of these tumours. PMID:24824420

  6. Cucurbitacin B Causes Increased Radiation Sensitivity of Human Breast Cancer Cells via G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Duangmano, Suwit; Sae-lim, Phorntip; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Patmasiriwat, Pimpicha; Domann, Frederick E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the effects of cucurbitacin B on the radiation survival of human breast cancer cells and to elucidate the cellular mechanism of radiosensitization if any. Materials and Methods. Human breast carcinoma cell lines were treated with cucurbitacin B before irradiation with 0–10 Gy of 137Cs gamma rays. The effect of cucurbitacin B on cell-survival following irradiation was evaluated by colony-forming assay. Cell cycle distributions were investigated using flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and western blots were performed to investigate the expression of cell cycle checkpoints. Results. Cucurbitacin B inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Only MDA-MB-231 and MCF7:5C cells but not SKBR-3 cells were radiosensitized by cucurbitacin B. Flow cytometric analysis for DNA content indicated that cucurbitacin B resulted in G2/M arrest in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7:5C but not SKBR-3 cells. Moreover, Real-time PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated upregulated p21 expression before irradiation, a likely cause of the cell cycle arrest. Conclusion. Taken together, these findings suggest that cucurbitacin B causes radiosensitization of some breast cancer cells, and that cucurbitacin B induced G2/M arrest is an important mechanism. Therefore, combinations of cucurbitacin B with radiotherapy may be appropriate for experimental breast cancer treatment. PMID:22690217

  7. GADD45γ induces G2/M arrest in human pharynx and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by cucurbitacin E

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chao-Ming; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lin, Chen-Wei; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common form of malignant cancer, for which radiotherapy or chemotherapy are the main treatment methods. Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound-based drug which from the climbing stem of Cucumic melo L (Guadi). Previously shown to be an antifeedant as well as a potent chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer. The present study, investigated anti-proliferation and cell cycle G2/M arrest induced by CuE in Detroit 562 cells (pharynx carcinoma) and HONE-1 (nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cells. Results indicate that the cytotoxicity is associated with accumulation in G2/M cell-cycle phases. CuE produced cell cycle arrest as well as the downregulation of cyclin B1 and CDC2 expression. In addition, treated cells with CuE and GADD45γ SiRNA that also coincided with GADD45γ gene activation in cell cycle arrest. Both effects increased proportionally with the dose of CuE; however, proliferation inhibition and mitosis delay was dependant on the amount of CuE treatment in the cancer cells. PMID:25245461

  8. The Drosophila splicing regulator sex-lethal directly inhibits translation of male-specific-lethal 2 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, F; Merendino, L; Hentze, M W; Valcárcel, J

    1998-01-01

    Male-specific expression of the protein male-specific-lethal 2 (MSL-2) controls dosage compensation in Drosophila. msl-2 gene expression is inhibited in females by Sex-lethal (SXL), an RNA binding protein known to regulate pre-mRNA splicing. An intron present at the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of msl-2 mRNA contains putative SXL binding sites and is retained in female flies. Here we show that SXL plays a dual role in the inhibition of msl-2 expression. Cotransfection of Drosophila Schneider cells with an SXL expression vector and a reporter containing the 5' UTR of msl-2 mRNA resulted in retention of the 5' UTR intron and efficient accumulation of the unspliced mRNA in the cytoplasm, where its translation was blocked by SXL, but not by the intron per se. Both splicing and translation inhibition by SXL were recapitulated in vitro and found to be dependent upon SXL binding to high-affinity sites within the intron, showing that SXL directly regulates these events. Our data reveal a coordinated mechanism for the regulation of msl-2 expression by the same regulatory factor: SXL enforces intron retention in the nucleus and subsequent translation inhibition in the cytoplasm. PMID:9570314

  9. Ultrasound assisted ambient temperature synthesis of ternary oxide AgMO{sub 2} (M=Fe, Ga)

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarajan, R.; Tomar, Nobel

    2009-06-15

    The application of ultrasound for the synthesis of ternary oxide AgMO{sub 2} (M=Fe, Ga) was investigated. Crystalline alpha-AgFeO{sub 2} was obtained from the alkaline solutions of silver and iron hydroxides by sonication for 40 minutes. alpha-AgFeO{sub 2} was found to absorb optical radiation in the 300-600 nm range as shown by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum of alpha-AgFeO{sub 2} exhibited two bands at 345 and 638 cm{sup -1}. When beta-NaFeO{sub 2} was sonicated with aqueous silver nitrate solution for 60 minutes, beta-AgFeO{sub 2} possessing orthorhombic structure was obtained as the ion-exchanged product. The Raman spectrum of beta-AgFeO{sub 2} showed four strong bands at 295, 432, 630 and 690 cm{sup -1}. Sonication of beta-NaGaO{sub 2} with aqueous silver nitrate solution for 60 minutes resulted in olive green colored, alpha-AgGaO{sub 2}. The diffuse reflectance spectrum and the EDX analysis confirmed that the ion-exchange through sonication was complete. The Raman spectrum of alpha-AgGaO{sub 2} had weak bands at 471 and 650 cm{sup -1}. - Graphical abstract: The application of ultrasound in the formation of alpha and beta-forms of AgMO{sub 2} (M=Fe, Ga) has been demonstrated.

  10. An inhibitor of p34cdc2/cyclin B that regulates the G2/M transition in Xenopus extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, T H; Kirschner, M W

    1996-01-01

    The activity of maturation-promoting factor (MPF), a protein kinase complex composed of p34cdc2 and cyclin B, is undetectable during interphase but rises abruptly at the G2/M transition to induce mitosis. After the synthesis of cyclin B, the suppression of MPF activity before mitosis has been attributed to the phosphorylation of p34cdc2 on sites (threonine-14 and tyrosine-15) that inhibit its catalytic activity. We previously showed that the activity of the mitotic p34cdc2/cyclin B complex is rapidly suppressed when added to interphase Xenopus extracts that lack endogenous cyclin B. Here we show that a mutant of p34cdc2 that cannot be inhibited by phosphorylation (threonine-14-->alanine, tyrosine-15-->phenylalanine) is also susceptible to inactivation, demonstrating that inhibitory mechanisms independent of threonine-14 and tyrosine-15 phosphorylation must exist. We have partially characterized this inhibitory pathway as one involving a reversible binding inhibitor of p34cdc2/cyclin B that is tightly associated with cell membranes. Kinetic analysis suggests that this inhibitor, in conjunction with the kinases that mediate the inhibitory phosphorylations on p34cdc2, maintains the interphase state in Xenopus; it may play an important role in the exact timing of the G2/M transition. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8552637

  11. Canthin-6-one displays antiproliferative activity and causes accumulation of cancer cells in the G2/M phase.

    PubMed

    Dejos, Camille; Voisin, Pierre; Bernard, Marianne; Régnacq, Matthieu; Bergès, Thierry

    2014-11-26

    Canthinones are natural substances with a wide range of biological activities, including antipyretic, antiparasitic, and antimicrobial. Antiproliferative and/or cytotoxic effects of canthinones on cancer cells have also been described, although their mechanism of action remains ill defined. To gain better insight into this mechanism, the antiproliferative effect of a commercially available canthin-6-one (1) was examined dose-dependently on six cancer cell lines (human prostate, PC-3; human colon, HT-29; human lymphocyte, Jurkat; human cervix, HeLa; rat glioma, C6; and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, NIH-3T3). Cytotoxic effects of 1 were investigated on the same cancer cell lines by procaspase-3 cleavage and on normal human skin fibroblasts. Strong antiproliferative effects of the compound were observed in all cell lines, whereas cytotoxic effects were very dependent on cell type. A better definition of the mechanism of action of 1 was obtained on PC-3 cells, by showing that it decreases BrdU incorporation into DNA by 60% to 80% and mitotic spindle formation by 70% and that it causes a 2-fold accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Together, the data suggest that the primary effect of canthin-6-one (1) is antiproliferative, possibly by interfering with the G2/M transition. Proapoptotic effects might result from this disturbance of the cell cycle. PMID:25379743

  12. All Sky Camera, LIDAR and Electric Field Meter: Auxiliary instruments for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leto, Giuseppe; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo; Bellassai, Giancarlo; Bruno, Pietro; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Martinetti, Eugenio

    2015-03-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is the end-to-end prototype telescope of the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF, designed to investigate the 10-100 TeV band in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope has been installed in Italy in September 2014, at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna. The telescope is foreseen to be completed and fully operative in spring 2015 including auxiliary instrumentation needed to support both operations and data analysis. In this contribution we present the current status of a sub-set of the auxiliary instruments that are being used at the Serra La Nave site, namely an All Sky Camera, an Electric Field Meter and a Raman Lidar devoted, together with further instrumentation, to the monitoring of the atmospheric and environmental conditions. The data analysis techniques under development for these instruments could be applied at the CTA sites, where similar auxiliary instrumentation will be installed.

  13. Genotoxic Stress Prevents Ndd1-Dependent Transcriptional Activation of G2/M-Specific Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Yelamanchi, Syam Kumar; Veis, Jiri; Anrather, Dorothea; Klug, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Downregulation of specific transcripts is one of the mechanisms utilized by eukaryotic checkpoint systems to prevent cell cycle progression. Here we identified and explored such a mechanism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It involves the Mec1-Rad53 kinase cascade, which attenuates G2/M-specific gene transcription upon genotoxic stress. This inhibition is achieved via multiple Rad53-dependent inhibitory phosphorylations on the transcriptional activator Ndd1 that prevent its chromatin recruitment via interactions with the forkhead factor Fkh2. Relevant modification sites on Ndd1 were identified by mass spectrometry, and corresponding alanine substitutions were able to suppress a methyl methanesulfonate-induced block in Ndd1 chromatin recruitment. Whereas effective suppression by these Ndd1 mutants is achieved for DNA damage, this is not the case under replication stress conditions, suggesting that additional mechanisms must operate under such conditions. We propose that budding yeast cells prevent the normal transcription of G2/M-specific genes upon genotoxic stress to precisely coordinate the timing of mitotic and postmitotic events with respect to S phase. PMID:24324010

  14. The long noncoding RNA ASNR regulates degradation of Bcl-2 mRNA through its interaction with AUF1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiahui; Liu, Lihui; Wei, Guifeng; Wu, Wei; Luo, Huaxia; Yuan, Jiao; Luo, Jianjun; Chen, Runsheng

    2016-01-01

    The identification and characterization of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in diverse biological processes has recently developed rapidly. The large amounts of non-coding RNAs scale consistent with developmental complexity in eukaryotes, indicating that most of these transcripts may have functions in the regulation of biological processes and disorder in the organisms. In particular, Understanding of the overall biological significance of lncRNAs in cancers still remains limited. Here, we found a nuclear-retained lncRNA, termed Lnc_ASNR (apoptosis suppressing-noncoding RNA), which serves as a repressor of apoptosis. Lnc_ASNR was discovered in a set of microarray data derived from four kinds of tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples, and displayed significant up-regulation in the tumor tissues. Using an RNA-pull down assay, we found that Lnc_ASNR interacted with the protein ARE/poly (U)-binding/degradation factor 1(AUF1), which is reported to promote rapid degradation of the Bcl-2 mRNA, an inhibitor of apoptosis. Lnc_ASNR binds to AUFI in nucleus, decreasing the cytoplasmic proportion of AUF1 which targets the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) mRNA. Taken together, the overall effect of Lnc_ASNR expression is thus a decrease in cell apoptosis indicating that Lnc_ASNR may play a vital role in tumorigenesis and carcinogenesis. PMID:27578251

  15. Tetrahydrocurcumin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis involving p38 MAPK activation in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ning; Wang, Miao-Miao; Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Zhe-Nan; Cao, Hong-Rui; Lv, Yuan-Hao; Yang, Yang; Fan, Peng-Hui; Qiu, Feng; Gao, Xiu-Mei

    2014-05-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is a major naturally-occurring polyphenol of Curcuma species, which is commonly used as a yellow coloring and flavoring agent in foods. In recent years, it has been reported that CUR exhibits significant anti-tumor activity in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic features of CUR have indicated poor oral bioavailability, which may be related to its extensive metabolism. The CUR metabolites might be responsible for the antitumor pharmacological effects in vivo. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is one of the major metabolites of CUR. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and associated mechanism of action of THC in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells for the first time. Here, THC exhibited significant cell growth inhibition by inducing MCF-7 cells to undergo mitochondrial apoptosis and G2/M arrest. Moreover, co-treatment of MCF-7 cells with THC and p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, effectively reversed the dissipation in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and blocked THC-mediated Bax up-regulation, Bcl-2 down-regulation, caspase-3 activation as well as p21 up-regulation, suggesting p38 MAPK might mediate THC-induced apoptosis and G2/M arrest. Taken together, these results indicate THC might be an active antitumor form of CUR in vivo, and it might be selected as a potentially effective agent for treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:24593988

  16. PCNA Retention on DNA into G2/M Phase Causes Genome Instability in Cells Lacking Elg1.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Catherine; Gali, Vamsi K; Takahashi, Tatsuro S; Kubota, Takashi

    2016-07-19

    Loss of the genome maintenance factor Elg1 causes serious genome instability that leads to cancer, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Elg1 forms the major subunit of a replication factor C-like complex, Elg1-RLC, which unloads the ring-shaped polymerase clamp PCNA from DNA during replication. Here, we show that prolonged retention of PCNA on DNA into G2/M phase is the major cause of genome instability in elg1Δ yeast. Overexpression-induced accumulation of PCNA on DNA causes genome instability. Conversely, disassembly-prone PCNA mutants that relieve PCNA accumulation rescue the genome instability of elg1Δ cells. Covalent modifications to the retained PCNA make only a minor contribution to elg1Δ genome instability. By engineering cell-cycle-regulated ELG1 alleles, we show that abnormal accumulation of PCNA on DNA during S phase causes moderate genome instability and its retention through G2/M phase exacerbates genome instability. Our results reveal that PCNA unloading by Elg1-RLC is critical for genome maintenance. PMID:27373149

  17. Xanthatin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma MKN-45 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Tao, Li; Ruan, Junshan; Li, Weidong; Wu, Yu; Yan, Linggeng; Zhang, Feng; Fan, Fangtian; Zheng, Shizhong; Wang, Aiyun; Lu, Yin

    2012-06-01

    Xanthatin, a natural bioactive compound of sesquiterpene lactones, was isolated and purified from air-dried aerial part of Xanthium sibiricum Patrin ex Widder. In the present study, we demonstrated the significant antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of xanthatin on human gastric carcinoma MKN-45 cells. MTS assay showed that xanthatin produced obvious cytotoxicity in MKN-45 cells with IC50 values of 18.6, 9.3, and 3.9 µM for 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Results of flow cytometry analysis indicated that the antiproliferative activity induced by xanthatin might be executed via G2/M cell cycle arrest and proapoptosis in MKN-45 cells. Western blot analysis elucidated that: a) xanthatin downregulated expression of Chk1 and Chk2 and phosphorylation of CDC2, which are known as key G2/M transition regulators; b) xanthatin increased p53 activation, decreased the bcl-2/bax ratio and the levels of downstream procaspase-9 and procaspase-3, which are key regulators in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway; c) xanthatin blocked phosphorylation of NF-κB (p65 subunit) and of IκBα, which might contribute to its proapoptotic effects on MKN-45 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that xanthatin may have therapeutic potential against human gastric carcinoma. PMID:22532019

  18. Investigation of the physical properties of the tetragonal CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) compounds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ghimire, N. J.; Ronning, F.; Williams, D. J.; Scott, B. L.; Luo, Yongkang; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E. D.

    2014-12-15

    The synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties studied by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetic, thermal and transport measurements of CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) are reported, along with the electronic structure calculations for LaMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt). These materials adopt a tetragonal crystal structure (space group P4/mmm) comprised of BaAl4 blocks, separated by MAl2 units, stacked along the c-axis. Both CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2 order antiferromagnetically below TN1 = 14 and 16 K, respectively, and undergo a second antiferromagnetic transitition at lower temperature (TN2 = 9 and 14 K, respectively). CePtAl4Si2 orders ferromagnetically below TC = 3 Kmore » with an ordered moment of μsat = 0.8 μB for a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the c-axis. Electronic structure calculations reveal quasi-2D character of the Fermi surface.« less

  19. Correlation Between Pancreatic Islet Uncoupling Protein-2 (UCP2) mRNA Concentration And Insulin Status in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, Nadim; Bernard, Catherine; Pusterla, Aristide; Casteilla, Louis; Pétnicaud, Luc; Richard, Denis; Ricquier, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Hypothesizing that UCP2 may influence insulin secretion by modifying the ATP/ADP ratio within pancreatic islets, we have investigated the expression of intraislet UCP2 gene in rats showing insulin oversecretion (non-diabetic Zucker fa/fa obese rats, glucose-infused Wistar rats) or insulin undersecretion (fasting and mildly diabetic rats). We found that in Zucker fa/fa obese rats, hyperinsulinemia (1222 ± 98 pmol/1 vs. 128 ± 22 pmol/1 in lean Zucker rats) was accompanied by a significant increase in UCP2 mRNA levels. In rat submitted to a 5 day infusion with glucose, hyperinsulinemia (1126 ± 101 pmol/l vs. 215 ± 25 pmol/1 in Wistar control rats), coincided with an enhanced intraislet UCP2 gene expression, whereas a 8h or a 2 day-infusion did not induce significant changes in UCP2 mRNA expression. In rats made hypoinsulinemic and mildly diabetic by the injection of a low dose of streptozotocin, and in 4-day-fasting rats (plasma insulin 28 ± 5 pmol/1) UCP2 gene expression was sharply decreased. A 3-day-fast was ineffective. The data show the existence of a time-dependent correlation between islet mRNA UCP2 and insulin that may be interpreted as an adaptative response to prolonged insulin excess. PMID:11467409

  20. The long noncoding RNA ASNR regulates degradation of Bcl-2 mRNA through its interaction with AUF1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiahui; Liu, Lihui; Wei, Guifeng; Wu, Wei; Luo, Huaxia; Yuan, Jiao; Luo, Jianjun; Chen, Runsheng

    2016-01-01

    The identification and characterization of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in diverse biological processes has recently developed rapidly. The large amounts of non-coding RNAs scale consistent with developmental complexity in eukaryotes, indicating that most of these transcripts may have functions in the regulation of biological processes and disorder in the organisms. In particular, Understanding of the overall biological significance of lncRNAs in cancers still remains limited. Here, we found a nuclear-retained lncRNA, termed Lnc_ASNR (apoptosis suppressing-noncoding RNA), which serves as a repressor of apoptosis. Lnc_ASNR was discovered in a set of microarray data derived from four kinds of tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples, and displayed significant up-regulation in the tumor tissues. Using an RNA-pull down assay, we found that Lnc_ASNR interacted with the protein ARE/poly (U)-binding/degradation factor 1(AUF1), which is reported to promote rapid degradation of the Bcl-2 mRNA, an inhibitor of apoptosis. Lnc_ASNR binds to AUFI in nucleus, decreasing the cytoplasmic proportion of AUF1 which targets the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) mRNA. Taken together, the overall effect of Lnc_ASNR expression is thus a decrease in cell apoptosis indicating that Lnc_ASNR may play a vital role in tumorigenesis and carcinogenesis. PMID:27578251