Science.gov

Sample records for 2mo sd 2y

  1. β-Nd2Mo4O15

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dan; Li, Fei-Fei; Yao, Yu-Ming; Huan, Chang-An; Zhao, En-Xiao

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, dineodymium(III) tetra­molybdate(VI), has been prepared by a flux technique and is the second polymorph of composition Nd2Mo4O15. The crystal structure is isotypic with those of Ce2Mo4O15 and Pr2Mo4O15. It features a three-dimensional network composed of distorted edge- and corner-sharing NdO7 polyhedra, NdO8 polyhedra, MoO4 tetra­hedra and MoO6 octa­hedra. PMID:21589208

  2. Preparation in Acidic and Alkaline Conditions and Characterization of α-Bi2Mo3O12 and γ-Bi2MoO6 Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Wang, Mao-Hua; Ma, Xiao-Yu

    2016-08-01

    α-Bi2Mo3O12 and γ-Bi2MoO6 powders have been successfully fabricated via a sol-gel method starting from bismuth nitrate and ammonium molybdate. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction analysis, thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The results indicated the formation of α-Bi2Mo3O12 and γ-Bi2MoO6 powders in acidic (pH 5) and alkaline (pH 9) conditions, respectively. α-Bi2Mo3O12 exhibited irregular shape, while γ-Bi2MoO6 showed approximately flake-like morphology. The bandgap of pure α-Bi2Mo3O12 and γ-Bi2MoO6 was estimated to be about 2.83 eV and 2.85 eV, respectively, according to UV-Vis studies. The slight shift of the absorption edge towards longer wavelength for α-Bi2Mo3O12 indicated a decrease of the optical bandgap. Photocatalytic experiments showed that γ-Bi2MoO6 exhibited higher photodegradation activity of methylene blue compared with α-Bi2Mo3O12.

  3. Na2MoO2As2O7

    PubMed Central

    Jouini, Raja; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Disodium molybdenum dioxide diarsenate, Na2MoO2As2O7, has been synthesized by a solid-state reaction. The structure is built up from MoAs2O12 linear units sharing corners to form a three-dimensional framework containing tunnels running along the a-axis direction in which the Na+ cations are located. In this framework, the AsV atoms are tetra­hedrally coordinated and form an As2O7 group. The MoVI atom is displaced from the center of an octa­hedron of O atoms. Two Na+ cations are disordered about inversion centres. Structural relationships between different compounds: A 2MoO2As2O7 (A = K, Rb), AMOP2O7 (A = Na, K, Rb; M = Mo, Nb) and MoP2O7 are discussed. PMID:23468669

  4. Neutron Studies of Tb2Mo2O7

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Jason; Ehlers, Georg; Diallo, Souleymane Omar

    2012-01-01

    We have used the new high energy resolution spectrometer (BaSiS), at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge, to conclusively prove the existence of a low energy mode at 0.34(1) meV in the spin glass Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}. This mode is reminiscent of the excitation observed in the ordered phases of both Tb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Tb{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The dynamical nature of the transition seen in the magnetization at {approx} 25 K suggests that this frustrated magnet shows a dynamic crossover between a high-temperature phase of poorly correlated, quickly relaxing spins to a low-temperature regime with much slower, short ranged spin correlations extending no further than to the next nearest neighbor. Existing theories explain the spin glass transition in terms of a phase transition and order parameters, and assume the existence of a distinct spin glass phase. There is no evidence for such a phase in Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}.

  5. Magnetoresistance of Tl_2Mo_6Se_6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuh, Jayong; Mengistu, E. H.; McCarten, J. C.; Tessema, G. X.; Skove, M. J.; Saffar, Hugo

    1997-03-01

    We present results of high precision R vs T and magnetoresistance measurements on Tl_2Mo_6Se_6. The high precision resistance results corroborate the thermopwer and Hall results which indicate that an electronic instability of a density wave type develops in this compound around 80 K^1. This is further confirmed by the high field, up to 20T, magnetoresistance for 2K

  6. Efficient Charge Separation between Bi and Bi2 MoO6 for Photoelectrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Jia, Yulong; Wang, Lina; Yang, Min; Bi, Yingpu; Qi, Yanxing

    2016-04-18

    Herein, porous Bi/Bi2 MoO6 nanoparticles have been prepared by a facile in-situ reduction approach. Moreover, the morphology and Bi content of product could be controlled by varying the reaction time. By controlled fabrication, the desired porous Bi2 MoO6 nanostructure with incorporation of Bi was obtained and exhibited high photoelectric and photocatalytic activity. In particular, the samples yield a photocurrent density of 320 μA cm(-2) , which is 3.2 times that of the pure Bi2 MoO6 nanosheet (100 μA cm(-2) ) under the same conditions. UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analysis confirmed the surface plasmon resonance in the as-prepared porous nanoparticles. The improved photoelectric properties could be the synergistic effect of the porous structure with large surface area and effective electron-hole separations between Bi and Bi2 MoO6 .

  7. Reduction Kinetics of La2Mo2O9 and Phase Evolution during Reduction and Reoxidation.

    PubMed

    Buvat, Gaëtan; Sellemi, Houssem; Ravella, Uday K; Barré, Maud; Coste, Sandrine; Corbel, Gwenaël; Lacorre, Philippe

    2016-03-07

    An amorphous reduced form of oxide ion conductor La2Mo2O9 had been proposed as sulfur-tolerant anode material for solid oxide fuel cell, but its oxygen content was not known. In this paper, we investigate the reduction kinetics by diluted hydrogen of La2Mo2O9 to amorphous, and the oxygen range of the amorphous form. The reduction kinetics is studied as a function of the powder specific surface area and of the temperature, on powders synthesized by solid state reaction and by polyol process using two different solvents. The reduction process was carried out by TGA under 10% H2 diluted in argon, and its kinetics is analyzed and modeled. As expected, small particles and high temperature lead to higher reduction rates. Several reduction steps were identified by XRD during the process. At 700 °C La2Mo2O9 is directly reduced into the amorphous phase La2Mo2O7-y, whereas at 760 °C reduction occurs through an intermediate crystallized La7Mo7O30 (≅ La2Mo2O8.57) phase before amorphization. In both cases, further reduction of La2Mo2O6.2 amorphous phase leads to an exsolution of metallic molybdenum and a molybdenum deficiency in the amorphous phase. Reoxidation of amorphous La2Mo2O7-y was studied by TGA, DTA and XRD. At low temperature in air, the reduced compounds are reoxidized while remaining amorphous. The annealing for 60 h at 350 °C in air of reduced La2Mo2O6.66, obtained beforehand by solid state reaction, gives an amorphous phase with composition La2Mo2O8.85. The existence domain of the reduced amorphous phase in terms of oxygen content therefore ranges at least from O6.2 to O8.85, thus including the composition La2Mo2O8.50 of the amorphous surface layer at the origin of a huge increase of ionic conductivity recently reported in nanowires of La2Mo2O9.

  8. A WSe{sub 2}/MoSe{sub 2} heterostructure photovoltaic device

    SciTech Connect

    Flöry, Nikolaus; Jain, Achint; Bharadwaj, Palash; Parzefall, Markus; Novotny, Lukas; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji

    2015-09-21

    We report on the photovoltaic effect in a WSe{sub 2}/MoSe{sub 2} heterojunction, demonstrating gate tunable current rectification with on/off ratios of over 10{sup 4}. Spatially resolved photocurrent maps show the photovoltaic effect to originate from the entire overlap region. Compared to WSe{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} heterostructures, our devices perform better at long wavelengths and yield higher quantum efficiencies, in agreement with Shockley-Queisser theory.

  9. Partial substitution of Mo{sup 6+} by S{sup 6+} in the fast oxide ion conductor La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}: Synthesis, structure and sulfur depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Mhadhbi, Noureddine; Corbel, Gwenaeel; Lacorre, Philippe; Bulou, Alain

    2012-06-15

    Powder-solid state reaction route using La{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} as sulfur source was used to prepare compositions of the solid solution La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9}. Single phases were only obtained in the substitution range extending up to y=0.8 (40 mol% S) at the annealing temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C with regard to the limit of stability of the lanthanum sulphate reactant. Within the synthesis conditions, a stabilization of the high temperature {beta}-form is observed from and above y=0.1 (5 mol% S). Temperature-controlled X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses have shown that La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders undergo thermal decompositions in two steps. Heating above 900 Degree-Sign C, a sulfur depletion to the benefit of molybdenum in La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders leads to the formation of La{sub 2}SO{sub 6}. At higher temperature, the exsolved La{sub 2}SO{sub 6} phase then decomposes into La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which in turn reacts with the sulfur-depleted La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase to form La{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. The present study also reveals that depending on the substitution rate y, the sulfur depletion can be induced by ball-milling of raw powders. Along the La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} series, the isovalent substitution of molybdenum by sulfur tends to restrict in magnitude, or even to suppress above 400 Degree-Sign C, the distortive thermal expansion of the cubic {beta}-type structure, thus strongly decreasing the conductance at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MoO{sub 3}-'SO{sub 3}' ternary phase diagram showing the exsolution path at low temperature (white arrows) and the total decomposition path at high temperature (black arrows) of {beta}-La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isovalent substitution of molybdenum by sulfur in La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} up to 40 mol%. Black

  10. Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1: The Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1 aircraft were used as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. This N2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note that the vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA work. This N2Y was used for landing gear tests.

  11. High pressure Raman scattering study on Sm2Mo4O15 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Santos, S. D.; Paraguassu, W.; Maczka, M.; Freire, P. T. C.

    2017-03-01

    High-pressure Raman experiments were performed on Sm2Mo4O15 system up to 7.9 GPa. We show that this system exhibits an irreversible structural amorphization at 5.0 GPa. In contrast to any other molybdates and tungstates experiencing pressure-induced amorphization, this structural change in Sm2Mo4O15 has strongly first-order character. This amorphous phase can be originated from the hindrance of a crystalline structural phase transition from the P 1 bar to P2/m structure. Additionally, the assignment of Raman modes of the ambient-pressure phase of Sm2Mo4O15 was proposed based on lattice dynamics calculations.

  12. Non-centrosymmetric Rb2Mn2(MoO4)3

    PubMed Central

    Bouzidi, Chahira; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed; Souilem, Amira

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, dirubidium dimanganese(II) tris­(tetra­oxo­molyb­date), Rb2Mn2(MoO4)3, was prepared by solid-state reactions. The structure can be described as being composed of MnO6 octa­hedra sharing corners with MoO4 tetra­hedra. The three-dimensional framework contains cavities in which the rubidium ions are located. The Rb+ cations are within distorted nine- and 12-vertex polyhedra. The pairs of different Mn2+ and Rb+ cations are each located on threefold rotation axes.. Rb2Mn2(MoO4)3 is isotypic with compounds of the Cs2 M 2Mo3O12 (M = Ni, Fe) family. A comparative structural description is provided between the structure of the title compound and those of related phases. Differences with structures such as alluaudite are discussed. PMID:25161508

  13. Molecular quantum magnetism in LiZn2Mo3O8

    SciTech Connect

    Mourigal, Martin; Fuhrman, W. T.; Sheckelton, J. P.; Wartelle, A.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J A; Abernathy, Douglas L; McQueen, T. M.; Broholm, Collin L

    2014-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering for temperatures below 30 K from a powder of LiZn2Mo3O8 demonstrates this triangular-lattice antiferromagnet hosts collective magnetic excitations from spin 1/2 Mo3O13 molecules. Apparently gapless ( \\Delta < 0.2 meV) and extending at least up to 2.5 meV, the low energy magnetic scattering cross section is surprisingly broad in momentum space and involves one third of the spins present above 100 K. The data are compatible with the presence of valencebonds involving nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor spins forming a disordered or dynamic state.

  14. Li2MoO4 crystal growth from solution activated by low-frequency vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barinova, Olga; Sadovskiy, Andrey; Ermochenkov, Ivan; Kirsanova, Svetlana; Sukhanova, Ekaterina; Kostikov, Vladimir; Belov, Stanislav; Mozhevitina, Elena; Khomyakov, Andrew; Kuchuk, Zhanna; Zharikov, Eugeny; Avetissov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of Li2MoO4 crystal growth from aqueous solutions activated by axial vibrational control (AVC) technique was investigated. It was found out that a low-frequency mechanical activation of the solution led to an increase of Li2MoO4 equilibrium solubility in aqueous solution for 11 rel% in the 25-29 °C temperature range. The changes in solution structure were analyzed in situ by Raman study of the solution. The AVC activation of solution resulted in a re-faceting of growing crystals, a smoothing of a face surface morphology and reduction of water content in the crystal.

  15. The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1 was a Fleet 1 trainer purchased by the Navy for evaluation. The purchase of several N2Y-1 aircraft followed, for use as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. The XN2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note the that vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA spin work.

  16. Freestanding MoO2/Mo2C imbedded carbon fibers for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqin; Ye, Haijun; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Chuanyi; Yin, Jiao; Zhu, Hui

    2017-01-25

    Flexible and freestanding MoO2/Mo2C imbedded carbon fibers (MoO2/Mo2C ICFs) have been successfully synthesized via an integrated procedure including electrospinning, thermo-plastication in air and reduction/carbonization at high temperature. A series of techniques such as SEM, TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, XRD, TGA, IR and XPS have been employed to systemically characterize the MoO2/Mo2C ICFs. In particular, it is observed that the MoO2/Mo2C ICFs derived from phosphomolybdic acid have more highly porous structures than those derived from molybdic acid. Most impressively, the obtained MoO2/Mo2C ICFs are directly used as binder- and current collector-free anode materials for LIBs, which exhibit desirable rate capability and satisfactory cycling performance. The electrochemical investigations illustrated that the MoO2/Mo2C ICFs could deliver an initial discharging capacity of 1422.0 mA h g(-1) with an original coulombic efficiency of 63.3%, and the subsequent reversible capacity could reach as high as 1103.6 mA h g(-1) even after 70 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1). Such a capacity is larger than the theoretical capacity of MoO2 (838 mA h g(-1)) and pure carbon fibers (460.5 mA h g(-1)). More importantly, the MoO2/Mo2C ICFs exhibited an excellent rate performance with a capacity of 445.4 mA h g(-1) even at a charging current density of 1.6 A g(-1). The remarkable enhancement in rate capability and long cycling performance resulted from a synergistic effect between the MoO2 nanoparticles and porous carbon fiber matrix. This methodology can be widely extended to fabricate other metal oxide/carbon composites for significant energy storage and conversion applications.

  17. The local and long-range structural order of the spin-glass pyrochlore, Tb2Mo2O7

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, Georg; Jiang, Yu; Booth, Corwin H; Greedan, John E; Gardner, Jason; Huq, Ashfia

    2011-01-01

    To understand the origin of the spin-glass state in molybdate pyrochlores, the structure of Tb2Mo2O7 is investigated using two techniques: the long-range lattice structure was measured using neutron powder diffraction (NPD), and the local structure information was obtained from extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. While the long-range structure appears well ordered, apart from some enhanced mean-squared site displacements, the local structure measurements indicate nearest-neighbor disorder exists, similar to that found in the related spinglass pyrochlore, Y2Mo2O7. Although the freezing temperature in Tb2Mo2O7, 25 K, is slightly higher than in Y2Mo2O7, 22 K, the degree of local bond disorder is actually less in Tb2Mo2O7. This apparaent contradiction is considered in light of the interactions involved in the freezing process.

  18. Detection of Rsp and modifier variation in the meiotic drive system Segregation distorter (SD) of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, T W; Brittnacher, J G; Ganetzky, B

    1986-09-01

    Identification of allelic variability at the two major loci (Sd and Rsp) that interact to cause sperm dysfunction in Segregation distorter (SD) males of D. melanogaster has been hampered by the difficulty in separating the elements recombinationally. In addition, small differences in the strength of Sd alleles or sensitivities of Rsp alleles to Sd are difficult to measure against background genetic or environmental variation. Viability effects of the markers used to score progeny classes may also introduce a bias. Removal of Sd and E(SD) from their second chromosome location to create a Dp(2;Y)Sd E(SD) chromosome eliminates these problems, since any combination of Rsp alleles can be easily tested without resorting to recombinational techniques. Further, since these pairs of Rsp alleles are compared in their response to Dp Sd E(SD) in the same individual males, background variation and viability effects can be easily removed to allow fine-scale resolution of Rsp differences. Tests of all possible pairwise combination of six laboratory chromosomes in this way revealed at least three and possibly four different Rsp allelic classes. In addition, the hierarchical nature of the tests further allowed for determination of the presence of linked suppressors or enhancers of Sd activity. A sample of 11 second chromosomes selected from a group recently isolated from a natural population was also unambiguously ordered as to Rsp allelic status using this approach. The resultant pattern was similar to that obtained for the laboratory chromosomes, except for the not unexpected observation that the natural population apparently harbored more drive suppressors. The pattern of results obtained from these pairwise combinations of Rsp alleles supports the notion that there are no dominance interactions within the group, but that each responds more or less independently to Sd in giving sperm dysfunction.

  19. Phonon dispersion in austenitic stainless steel Fe18Cr12Ni2Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzel, M.; Danilkin, S. A.; Hoser, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; Wieder, T.; Fuess, H.

    The phonon dispersion of Fe18Cr12Ni2Mo austenitic stainless steel was measured along the symmetry directions [001], [110] and [111]. Data were analysed in the frame of the Born-von Karman model of lattice dynamics. The obtained force constants were used to evaluate the elastic constants and the engineering elastic moduli. Our results for the elastic constants confirm empirical relationships between the elastic constants found for FCC FeCrNi alloys.

  20. Ferromagnetic superexchange in insulating Cr2MoO6 by controlling orbital hybridization

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, M.; Do, D.; Dela Cruz, Clarina R.; ...

    2015-09-11

    We report the magnetic and electronic structures of the newly synthesized inverse-trirutile compound Cr2MoO6. Despite the same crystal symmetry and similar bond-lengths and bond-angles to Cr2TeO6, Cr2MoO6 possesses a magnetic structure of the Cr2MoO6 type, different from that seen in Cr2TeO6. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations show that the sign and strength of the Cr-O-Cr exchange coupling is strongly influenced by the hybridization between Mo 4d and O 2p orbitals. This result further substantiates our recently proposed mechanism for tuning the exchange interaction between two magnetic atoms by modifying the electronic states of the non-magnetic atoms in the exchange path throughmore » orbital hybridization. This approach is fundamentally different from the conventional methods of controlling the exchange interaction by either carrier injection or through structural distortions.« less

  1. Magnetically induced ferroelectricity in single crystalline ferrimagnet, Mn2Mo3O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikara, Shalinee; Singleton, John; Gao, Bin; Wang, Yazhong; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Zapf, Vivien

    We present magnetization and electric polarization results on multiferroic ferrimagnet molybdate system, Mn2Mo3O8 in pulsed magnetic fields. Mn2Mo3O8, also known as the mineral isiemite crystallizes in a hexagonal P63 mc space group. The magnetism is attributed to the Mn ions whereas the Mo is diamagnetic. The Mo and Mn atoms are stacked alternately along c-axis. The Mn ions form a hexagonal lattice and occur in octahedral and tetragonal coordination. The spins on two different Mn sites give rise to ferrimagnetism. The system orders at about 42 K accompanied by a lambda like anomaly in heat capacity. Mn2Mo3O8 shows anisotropic magnetization with a change in slope at 40 K signaling possibly an AFM to ferrimagnet ordering. We observe magnetic field induced electric polarization in our preliminary results and an anomaly at 40 K corresponding to TN. A portion of this work was performed at the NHMFL, which is supported by National Science Foundation Cooperative Agreement No. DMR-1157490, the State of Florida, and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Attapulgite-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiazhang; Zhang, Zuosong; Yao, Chao; Lu, Xiaowang; Zhao, Xiaobing; Ni, Chaoying

    2016-02-01

    Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO2/MoS2 composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO2 to MoS2 on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO2 particles and MoS2 nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO2/MoS2 is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  3. Relationships between elastic anisotropy and thermal expansion in A2Mo3O12 materials.

    PubMed

    Romao, Carl P; Donegan, S P; Zwanziger, J W; White, Mary Anne

    2016-11-09

    We report calculated elastic tensors, axial Grüneisen parameters, and thermal stress distributions in Al2Mo3O12, ZrMgMo3O12, Sc2Mo3O12, and Y2Mo3O12, a series of isomorphic materials for which the coefficients of thermal expansion range from low-positive to negative. Thermal stress in polycrystalline materials arises from interactions between thermal expansion and mechanical properties, and both can be highly anisotropic. Thermal expansion anisotropy was found to be correlated with elastic anisotropy: axes with negative thermal expansion were less compliant. Calculations of axial Grüneisen parameters revealed that the thermal expansion anisotropy in these materials is in part due to the Poisson effect. Models of thermal stress due to thermal expansion anisotropy in polycrystals following cooling showed thermal stresses of sufficient magnitude to cause microcracking in all cases. The thermal expansion anisotropy was found to couple to elastic anisotropy, decreasing the bulk coefficient of thermal expansion and leading to lognormal extremes of the thermal stress distributions.

  4. Hierarchical nanosheet-based Bi2MoO6 nanotubes with remarkably improved electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ying; Jia, Yulong; Wang, Lina; Yang, Min; Bi, Yingpu; Qi, Yanxing

    2016-11-01

    In this work, novel hierarchical Bi2MoO6 nanotubes constructed from interconnected nanosheets have been fabricated and investigated as a high-performance electrochemical material. A facile template-engaged strategy has been utilized to controllably synthesize Bi2MoO6 nanotubes by a reflux reaction. The nanotubes with a high surface area of 68.96 m2/g were constructed of highly ordered ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of about 5 nm. Benefitting from the structural advantages including ultrathin nanosheets, large exposed surface, and unique three-dimensional tubular structure, the as-obtained hierarchical Bi2MoO6 nanotubes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. The specific capacitance of the hierarchical nanotubes can be up to 171.3 F g-1 at a current density of 0.585 A g-1 and excellent stability with 92.4% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles, which is much better than that of nanosheets (18.7 F g-1 at a current density of 0.585 A g-1, 69.5% capacitance retention).

  5. Preparation, characterization and activity evaluation of Ag2Mo4O13 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ji, Mingsong; Chen, Shifu

    2011-02-28

    Ag(2)Mo(4)O(13) photocatalyst was prepared by the hydrothermal method using AgNO(3) and (NH(4))(2)MoO(4) as raw materials in one step. The Ag(2)Mo(4)O(13) photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, N(2) adsorption measurements, and terephthalic acid photoluminescence (TA-PL) probing technique. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was evaluated by photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange and photocatalytic reduction of nitrobenzene. The results showed that, the optimum catalyst concentration is 3 g/L, and the optimum optical thickness is 49.4. When the reaction solution was illuminated for 60 min and 10 h, and the amount of photocatalyst was 2.0 g/L, the methyl orange conversion and aniline yield were 76.4% and 63.3%, respectively. The effect of different heat treatment conditions on the photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was also investigated. The best preparation condition is heat treatment at 500°C for 10 h. Compared with those photocatalysts prepared at any other conditions, the photoabsorption wavelength range of the photocatalyst calcined at 500°C for 10 h extends greatly towards visible light and it also improves the utilization of the total spectrum. The mechanisms of influence on the photocatalytic activity were also discussed.

  6. Air sensitivity of MoS2, MoSe2, MoTe2, HfS2, and HfSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabelli, Gioele; McGeough, Conor; Schmidt, Michael; McCarthy, Eoin K.; Monaghan, Scott; Povey, Ian M.; McCarthy, Melissa; Gity, Farzan; Nagle, Roger; Hughes, Greg; Cafolla, Attilio; Hurley, Paul K.; Duffy, Ray

    2016-09-01

    A surface sensitivity study was performed on different transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) under ambient conditions in order to understand which material is the most suitable for future device applications. Initially, Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were carried out over a period of 27 days on mechanically exfoliated flakes of 5 different TMDs, namely, MoS2, MoSe2, MoTe2, HfS2, and HfSe2. The most reactive were MoTe2 and HfSe2. HfSe2, in particular, showed surface protrusions after ambient exposure, reaching a height and width of approximately 60 nm after a single day. This study was later supplemented by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) cross-sectional analysis, which showed hemispherical-shaped surface blisters that are amorphous in nature, approximately 180-240 nm tall and 420-540 nm wide, after 5 months of air exposure, as well as surface deformation in regions between these structures, related to surface oxidation. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of atmosphere exposed HfSe2 was conducted over various time scales, which indicated that the Hf undergoes a preferential reaction with oxygen as compared to the Se. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy showed that the blisters are Se-rich; thus, it is theorised that HfO2 forms when the HfSe2 reacts in ambient, which in turn causes the Se atoms to be aggregated at the surface in the form of blisters. Overall, it is evident that air contact drastically affects the structural properties of TMD materials. This issue poses one of the biggest challenges for future TMD-based devices and technologies.

  7. Plasmonic Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag composite: Excellent photocatalytic performance and possible photocatalytic mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongliao; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lv, Jiali; Dai, Kai; Liang, Changhao

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag composite is fabricated by in-situ ion exchange and reduction methods at room temperature. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DRS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The results show that butterfly-like Ag2MoO4 nanosheets served as the precursor, and Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag is formed in phase transformation with MoO42- displaced by Br-. The ternary Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag composite photocatalysts show greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation compared with AgBr and Ag2MoO4. The pseudo-first-order rate constant kapp of Ag2MoO4/AgBr/Ag is 0.602 min-1, which is 11.6 and 18.3 times as high as that of AgBr and Ag2MoO4, respectively. Meanwhile, the efficiency of degradation still kept 90% after ten times cyclic experiments. Eventually, possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.

  8. Solvothermal synthesis of ternary Cu2 MoS4 nanosheets: structural characterization at the atomic level.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenxing; Chen, Haiping; Zhu, Hangtian; Gao, Qingqing; Luo, Jun; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Chengming; Xiong, Yujie; Wu, Yanfei; Zheng, Xusheng; Chu, Wangsheng; Song, Li; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-11-01

    Cu2 MoS4 nanosheets are synthesized by a solvothermal method in which the Cu2 O starting material acts as a sacrificial template. The microstructure of the Cu2 MoS4 nanosheets is characterized at the atomic level, and the growth mechanism is monitored at the nanoscale through systematic time-dependent experiments. As a result, the unprecedented observation of the allotropic phase change in Cu2 MoS4 that occurs during the solvothermal process is possible.

  9. Experimental study of upper sd shell nuclei and evolution of sd-fp shell gap

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, M. Saha

    2012-06-27

    The intruder orbitals from the fp shell play important role in the structure of nuclei around the line of stability in the upper sd shell. Experimentally we have studied {sup 35}Cl, {sup 30}P, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 37}Ar and {sup 34}Cl in this mass region using the INGA setup. Large basis cross-shell shell model calculations have indicated the need for change of the sd-fp energy gap for reliable reproduction of negative parity and high spin positive parity states. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. Theoretical interpretation of these states has been discussed.

  10. Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of multiferroic β‧-Tb2(MoO4)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Aleksandrovsky, A. S.; Chimitova, O. D.; Krylov, A. S.; Molokeev, M. S.; Bazarov, B. G.; Bazarova, J. G.; Xia, Zhiguo

    2014-08-01

    Orthorhombic terbium molybdate, β‧-Tb2(MoO4)3, microcrystals have been fabricated by solid state synthesis at T = 750-1270 K for t = 290 h. The crystal structure β‧-Tb2(MoO4)3 has been refined by Rietveld method in space group Pba2 with cell parameters of a = 10.35387(6), b = 10.38413(6) and c = 10.65695(7) Å (RB = 1.83%). About 40 narrow Raman lines have been observed in the Raman spectrum recorded for the β‧-Tb2(MoO4)3 powder sample. The luminescence spectrum of β‧-Tb2(MoO4)3 has been measured under the excitation at 355 nm, and the intensive photoluminescence band at 540-550 nm has been found.

  11. Electronic and dielectric properties of MoS2-MoX2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Munish; Jamdagni, Pooja; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a comparative study of electronic and dielectric properties of MoS2-MoX2 heteostructures (where X=S, Se, Te) within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Electronic band structure, real & imaginary part of dielectric function, electron energy loss spectra and static dielectric constant have been calculated for each system and compared with one another. A systematic decrease/increase in band gap/static dielectric constant is observed as the X changes from S to Te. These results provide a physical basis for the potential applications of these heterostructures in optoelectronic devices.

  12. Chemical structures of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo and Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2/Mo interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bär, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C.; Nishiwaki, S.; Shafarman, W. N.

    2008-08-01

    Using a suitable lift-off technique, we have investigated the chemical properties of the interface between Mo and chalcopyrite compound semiconductors by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray excited Auger-electron spectroscopy. By a systematic comparison of interfaces between S-free [ Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe)] as well as S-containing [ Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe)] chalcopyrites and Mo, we find that the chemical structure at the CIG(S)Se/Mo interface is strongly influenced by the presence or absence of S. We observe an interfacial MoSe2 [Mo(SZSe1-Z)2] layer formed between CIGSe [CIGSSe] and the Mo layer. The Mo(SZSe1-Z)2 layer appears significantly thinner than the MoSe2 layer and exhibits a different S/(S+Se) ratio [Z=0.9(1)] than the CIGSSe back side [0.5(7)], giving insight into the “competition” between S and Se during contact formation. Furthermore, we find a significant Ga accumulation at the Mo back contact, which points to pronounced chemical interactions during the formation of the CIG(S)Se/Mo interface.

  13. Structural and electrochemical stability of Li-rich layer structured Li2MoO3 in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Gao, Yurui; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-07-01

    Li2MnO3 is an important component of the Li-rich Mn-based high-capacity cathode material for lithium ion batteries, xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiM‧O2 composites. Replacing Li2MnO3 with iso-structured Li2MoO3 is expected to improve the rate performance and suppress the oxygen release of the composites at high potentials due to the higher electric conductivity of Li2MoO3 and its more facile charge compensation (by Mo4+/Mo6+ redox) upon Li removal than that of Li2MnO3. As part of our series work on the Li2MoO3-based Li-rich layer structured cathode materials, this article is to study the structural and performance stability of Li2MoO3 in air. The obtained information will shed light on the development and application of xLi2MoO3·(1 - x)LiM‧O2 composite cathode materials though Li2MoO3 will not be applied as an independent cathode material.

  14. Mechanism of corrosion of Ni base superalloys by molten Na2MoO4 at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.; Stearns, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion of nickel base superalloy, U-700, by molten Na2MoO4 was studied in the temperature range of 750 deg to 950 deg C. After an induction period, the rate of corrosion is linear and catastrophic corrosion is observed. It is shown that the induction period is associated with the attainment of a minimum MoO3 activity in the melt, which corresponds to the equilibrium MoO3 activity for the reaction, 2MoO3(l) + Mo = 3MoO2(s). A mechanism is proposed to describe the catastrophic nature of corrosion, which involves transport of Ni++ through the melt resulting in formulation of NiO at the melt gas interface and basic fluxing of Cr2O3. The effect of the amount of Na2MoO4 on the corrosion kinetics was also studied. It is found that evaporation and the thermodynamic calculations for the Na2MoO4 - MoO3 system the activity of MoO3 is reduced considerably when dissolved in Na2MoO4, which causes a sharp decrease in the rate of evaporation of MoO3 from a Na2MoO4 - MoO3 melt.

  15. Participation of peripheral P2Y1, P2Y6 and P2Y11 receptors in formalin-induced inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Barragán-Iglesias, Paulino; Mendoza-Garcés, Luis; Pineda-Farias, Jorge Baruch; Solano-Olivares, Verónica; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Rocha-González, Héctor Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Metabotropic P2Y receptors subfamily consists of eight functional mammalian receptors. Specifically, P2Y1, P2Y6 and P2Y11 receptors have been described in the sensory nervous system, but their participation, at peripheral level, in behavioral pain models is scarcely understood. This study assessed the role of peripheral P2Y1, P2Y6 and P2Y11 receptors in formalin-induced inflammatory pain. Ipsilateral, but not contralateral peripheral pre-treatment with the endogenous P2Y1 (ADP, 100-1000nmol/paw), P2Y6 (UDP, 180-300nmol/paw) and P2Y11 (ATP, 100-1000nmol/paw), or selective P2Y1 (MRS2365, 0.1-10nmol/paw), P2Y6 (PSB0474, 0.1-0.10pmol/paw) and P2Y11 (NF546, 0.3-3nmol/paw) receptor agonists increased 0.5% formalin-induced flinching behavior. Concordantly, peripheral pre-treatment with the selective P2Y1 (MRS2500, 0.01-10pmol/paw), P2Y6 (MRS2578, 3-30nmol/paw) and P2Y11 (NF340, 1-10nmol/paw) receptor antagonists significantly decreased 1% formalin-induced flinching behavior. Furthermore, the pronociceptive effect of ADP (100nmol/paw) or MRS2365 (10nmol/paw), UDP (300nmol/paw) or PSB0474 (10pmol/paw) and ATP (1000nmol/paw) or NF546 (3nmol/paw) was blocked by the selective P2Y1 (MRS2500, 0.01nmol/paw), P2Y6 (MRS2578, 3nmol/paw), and P2Y11 (NF340, 1nmol/paw) receptor antagonists, respectively. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of P2Y1 (66kDa), P2Y6 (36kDa) and P2Y11 (75kDa) receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sciatic nerve. Results suggest that peripheral activation of P2Y1, P2Y6 and P2Y11 receptors plays a pronociceptive role in formalin-induced pain.

  16. Suppressed phase transition and giant ionic conductivity in La2Mo2O9 nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Pan, Wei; Luo, Jian; Godfrey, Andy; Ou, Gang; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Improving the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes at low temperatures represents a major challenge and an opportunity for enabling a variety of solid-state ionic devices for energy conversion and storage, as well as for environmental protection. Here we report a giant ionic conductivity of 0.20 Scm−1, achieved at 500 °C, in the La2Mo2O9 nanowires with a bamboo-wire morphology, corresponding to a 1000-fold enhancement in conductivity over conventional bulk material. Stabilization of the high-temperature phase is observed to account for about a 10-fold increase in the conductivity. We further demonstrate that fast surface conduction in ∼3 nm thick, partially ordered, surface ‘amorphous' films, under strain on the curved surfaces of the nanowires (as a non-autonomous surface phase or complexion), contributes to an enhancement of the conductivity by another two orders of magnitude. Exemplified here by the study of the La2Mo2O9 nanowires, new possibilities for improvement of conductivity and for miniaturization of solid-state ionic devices by the careful use of one-dimensional nanomaterials can be envisioned. PMID:26380943

  17. Suppressed phase transition and giant ionic conductivity in La2Mo2O9 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Pan, Wei; Luo, Jian; Godfrey, Andy; Ou, Gang; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-09-18

    Improving the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes at low temperatures represents a major challenge and an opportunity for enabling a variety of solid-state ionic devices for energy conversion and storage, as well as for environmental protection. Here we report a giant ionic conductivity of 0.20 Scm(-1), achieved at 500 °C, in the La2Mo2O9 nanowires with a bamboo-wire morphology, corresponding to a 1000-fold enhancement in conductivity over conventional bulk material. Stabilization of the high-temperature phase is observed to account for about a 10-fold increase in the conductivity. We further demonstrate that fast surface conduction in ∼3 nm thick, partially ordered, surface 'amorphous' films, under strain on the curved surfaces of the nanowires (as a non-autonomous surface phase or complexion), contributes to an enhancement of the conductivity by another two orders of magnitude. Exemplified here by the study of the La2Mo2O9 nanowires, new possibilities for improvement of conductivity and for miniaturization of solid-state ionic devices by the careful use of one-dimensional nanomaterials can be envisioned.

  18. Pressure-induced transition in Tl{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Machon, Denis; Friese, Karen; Breczewski, Tomasz; Grzechnik, Andrzej

    2010-11-15

    Tl{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} has been studied under high-pressure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and optical absorption measurements. A first-order phase transition is observed at 3.5{+-}0.5 GPa. The nature (ordered vs. disordered) of the high-pressure phase strongly depends on the local hydrostatic conditions. Optical absorption measurements tend to show that this transition is concomitant with an electronic structure transformation. Prior to the transition, single crystal X-ray diffraction shows that pressure induces interactions between MoO{sub 4} fragments and the Mo coordination number tends to increase. In addition, the stereoactivity of the lone-pair electrons on the three symmetrically independent Tl-sites is not uniform; while for two sites the stereoactivity decreases with increasing pressures for the third site the stereoactivity increases. - Graphical Abstract: (up) Structural evolutions of Tl{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} in the low-pressure phase. (Down) Optical properties of the high-pressure phase as a function of pressure. Display Omitted

  19. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol Denat. is the generic term used by the cosmetics industry to describe denatured alcohol. Alcohol Denat. and various specially denatured (SD) alcohols are used as cosmetic ingredients in a wide variety of products. Many denaturants have been previously considered, on an individual basis, as cosmetic ingredients by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, whereas others, including Brucine and Brucine Sulfate, Denatonium Benzoate, and Quassin, have not previously been evaluated. Quassin is a bitter alkaloid obtained from the wood of Quassia amara. Quassin has been used as an insect antifeedant and insecticide and several studies demonstrate its effectiveness. At oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg using rats, Quassin was not toxic in acute and short-term tests, but some reversible piloerection, decrease in motor activity, and a partial loss of righting reflex were found in mice at 500 mg/kg. At 1000 mg/kg given intraperitoneally (i.p.), all mice died within 24 h of receiving treatment. In a cytotoxicity test with brine shrimp, 1 mg/ml of Quassin did not possess any cytotoxic or antiplasmodial activity. Quassin administered to rat Leydig cells in vitro at concentrations of 5-25 ng/ml inhibited both the basal and luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testosterone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Quassin at doses up to 2.0 g/kg in drinking water using rats produced no significant effect on the body weights, but the mean weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the weights of the anterior pituitary glands were significantly increased. The sperm counts and levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were significantly lower in groups treated with Quassin. Brucine is a derivative of 2-hydroxystrychnine. Swiss-Webster mice given Brucine base, 30 ml/kg, had an acute oral LD(50) of 150 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression followed by convulsions and seizures in some cases. In those

  20. Construction of High-Quality SnO2@MoS2 Nanohybrids for Promising Photoelectrocatalytic Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Yang, Yawei; Ding, Shujiang; Que, Wenxiu; Zheng, Zhiping; Du, Yaping

    2017-03-20

    High-quality three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical SnO2@MoS2 nanohybrids were successfully obtained via a facile but effective wet chemistry synthesis method. Meanwhile, the SnO2@MoS2 hybrid film was fabricated through an electrophoretic deposition method to promote photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) efficiency and solve the recovery problem. Compared with the pure SnO2 and MoS2 films, the SnO2@MoS2 heterostructures could decrease the rate of the photoelectron-hole pair's recombination, which resulted in the superior PEC pollutant degradation and water splitting activities. Meanwhile, the SnO2@MoS2 hybrid films with well-defined 3D hierarchical configurations have large surface areas, abundant active edge sites, and defects on the basal surfaces, which were also advantageous for the PEC activities (for pollutant degradation, apparent rate constant k = 5.91 h(-1); for water splitting, onset potential = -0.05 V and current density = 10 mA/cm(2)). Therefore, the SnO2@MoS2 hybrid film proved to be a superior structure for PEC applications.

  1. β-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals: Characterization, antibacterial properties and modulation analysis of antibiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Moura, J V B; Freitas, T S; Cruz, R P; Pereira, R L S; Silva, A R P; Santos, A T L; da Silva, J H; Luz-Lima, C; Freire, P T C; Coutinho, H D M

    2017-02-01

    This study reports the antibacterial properties and modulation analysis of antibiotic activity by β-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals as well as their structural and vibrational characterization. The silver molybdate was obtained by the conventional hydrothermal method, and the structural, vibrational and morphological properties of the sample were determined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy images. β-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals obtained show spinel-type cubic structure (Fd-3m) with irregular shapes. The evaluation of antibacterial and modulatory-antibiotic activity was performed using the microdilution method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the β-Ag2MoO4 and antibiotics alone and associated with the silver molybdate. The β-Ag2MoO4 modulates the antibiotic activity against all bacteria assayed in a synergistic (as the norfloxacin and gentamicin against S. aureus and gentamicin against E. coli) or an antagonistic form (as the norfloxacin against E.coli and P. aeruginosa). The reversion of antibiotic resistance by combinations with Ag2MoO4 could be a novel strategy to combat infections caused by multiple drug resistance (MDR) pathogens. Our results indicate that these silver molybdates present a clinically relevant antibacterial activity and enhanced the antibiotic activity of some antibiotics against MDR strain of S. aureus and E. coli, being an interesting alternative to combat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infectious agents.

  2. Development of a Li2MoO4 scintillating bolometer for low background physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Nagorny, S.; Pattavina, L.; Piperno, G.; Barinova, O. P.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Danevich, F. A.; Di Domizio, S.; Gironi, L.; Kirsanova, S. V.; Orio, F.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Rusconi, C.; Tomei, C.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vignati, M.

    2013-10-01

    We present the performance of a 33 g Li2MoO4 crystal working as a scintillating bolometer. The crystal was tested for more than 400 h in a dilution refrigerator installed in the underground laboratory of Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). This compound shows promising features in the frame of neutron detection, dark matter search (solar axions) and neutrinoless double-beta decay physics. Low temperature scintillating properties were investigated by means of different α, β/γ and neutron sources, and for the first time the Light Yield for different types of interacting particle is estimated. The detector shows great ability of tagging fast neutron interactions and high intrinsic radiopurity levels ( < 90 μBq/kg for 238U and < 110 μBq/kg for 232Th).

  3. Unveiling hidden ferrimagnetism and giant magnetoelectricity in polar magnet Fe2Mo3O8.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yazhong; Pascut, Gheorghe L; Gao, Bin; Tyson, Trevor A; Haule, Kristjan; Kiryukhin, Valery; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2015-07-21

    Magnetoelectric (ME) effect is recognized for its utility for low-power electronic devices. Largest ME coefficients are often associated with phase transitions in which ferroelectricity is induced by magnetic order. Unfortunately, in these systems, large ME response is revealed only upon elaborate poling procedures. These procedures may become unnecessary in single-polar-domain crystals of polar magnets. Here we report giant ME effects in a polar magnet Fe2Mo3O8 at temperatures as high as 60 K. Polarization jumps of 0.3 μC/cm(2), and repeated mutual control of ferroelectric and magnetic moments with differential ME coefficients on the order of 10(4) ps/m are achieved. Importantly, no electric or magnetic poling is needed, as necessary for applications. The sign of the ME coefficients can be switched by changing the applied "bias" magnetic field. The observed effects are associated with a hidden ferrimagnetic order unveiled by application of a magnetic field.

  4. Structural Refinement of the High Temperature Form of Bi 2MoO 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttrey, D. J.; Vogt, T.; Wildgruber, U.; Robinson, W. R.

    1994-07-01

    The structure of the high temperature polymorph of Bi 2MoO 6 has been determined by Rietveld powder refinement of high-resolution neutron diffraction data from the H1A diffractometer at the Brookhaven HFBR (high flux beam reactor). The cation distribution forms a fluorite-related supercell with infinite channels of bismuth polyhedra surrounded by molybdenum tetrahedra, in agreement with previously proposed models. The structure is refined in the monoclinic space group P 2 1/ c to Rwp = 0.134 and R1 = 0.084 ( Rexp = 0.024) from 2559 reflections: a = 17.2627(1) Å, b = 22.4296(2) Å, c = 5.58489(5) Å, β = 90.4974(6)°, Z = 16. Bond valence sums and site potentials have been calculated which reveal evidence for significant charge transfer in this structure. The relationship of this phase to other catalytically-active bismuth molybdates is discussed.

  5. AgNa2Mo3O9AsO4

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Hamadi; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, silver disodium trimolybdenum(VI) nonaoxide arsenate, AgNa2Mo3O9AsO4, was prepared by a solid-state reaction at 808 K. The structure consists of an infinite (Mo3AsO13)n ribbon, parallel to the c axis, composed of AsO4 tetra­hedra and MoO6 octa­hedra sharing edges and corners. The Na and Ag ions partially occupy several independent close positions, with various occupancies, in the inter-ribbon space delimited by the one-dimensional framework. The composition was refined to Ag1.06(1)Na1.94(1)Mo3O9AsO4. PMID:22219728

  6. Two-step growth of two-dimensional WSe2/MoSe2 heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Gong, Yongji; Lei, Sidong; Lou, Jun; ...

    2015-08-03

    Two dimensional (2D) materials have attracted great attention due to their unique properties and atomic thickness. Although various 2D materials have been successfully synthesized with different optical and electrical properties, a strategy for fabricating 2D heterostructures must be developed in order to construct more complicated devices for practical applications. Here we demonstrate for the first time a two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for growing transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterostructures, where MoSe2 was synthesized first and followed by an epitaxial growth of WSe2 on the edge and on the top surface of MoSe2. Compared to previously reported one-step growth methods, thismore » two-step growth has the capability of spatial and size control of each 2D component, leading to much larger (up to 169 μm) heterostructure size, and cross-contamination can be effectively minimized. Furthermore, this two-step growth produces well-defined 2H and 3R stacking in the WSe2/MoSe2 bilayer regions and much sharper in-plane interfaces than the previously reported MoSe2/WSe2 heterojunctions obtained from one-step growth methods. The resultant heterostructures with WSe2/MoSe2 bilayer and the exposed MoSe2 monolayer display rectification characteristics of a p-n junction, as revealed by optoelectronic tests, and an internal quantum efficiency of 91% when functioning as a photodetector. As a result, a photovoltaic effect without any external gates was observed, showing incident photon to converted electron (IPCE) efficiencies of approximately 0.12%, providing application potential in electronics and energy harvesting.« less

  7. Structure and properties of α-AgFe 2(MoO 4) 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsanova, L.; Mikhailova, D.; Senyshyn, A.; Trots, D.; Fuess, H.; Lottermoser, W.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2009-06-01

    Silver diiron tris(oxomolybdate), α-AgFe 2(MoO 4) 3, was synthesized in sealed silica tubes at 1050 K and is isostructural to α-NaFe 2(MoO 4) 3, determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (space group P-1, a = 6.9320(7) Å, b = 6.9266(6) Å, c = 10.9732(13) Å, α = 81.197(8)°, β = 83.456(9)°, γ = 81.352(8)° at 300 K, Z = 2). The crystal structure is built up from both monomers and edge-sharing dimers of [FeO 6]-octahedra, which are linked with each other by isolated [MoO 4]-tetrahedra to a three-dimensional network. Ag ions are situated on a site with four near oxygen neighbours. Thermal expansion is most pronounced along the c-axis, while the angle α decreases with increasing temperature. Antiferromagnetic ordering is indicated by a sharp maximum in the temperature dependence of magnetization at 21.5(5) K, and a magnetic moment of 5.36(1) μ B per Fe-ion was derived from the Curie constant in the paramagnetic region. The collinear antiferromagnetic structure with propagation vector k = (0,½,½) and an ordered magnetic moment of 4.62(9) μ B per Fe-ion were deduced from neutron powder diffraction data and give evidence for an underlying magnetic interaction mechanism, resulting in rather strong and long-ranged couplings. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows a change in the electronic configuration on the two distinct Fe sites between room temperature and 150 K, accompanied by an increase of the average Fe-O distance for one site and a shrinking one for the other as expected for charge ordering in a mixed valence compound with Fe(II) and Fe(III).

  8. Morphology and Photocatalytic Properties of γ-Bi2MoO6 Tuned by Stirring and Surfactant EDTA Assistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Jing Jing; Zheng, Gan Hong; Ma, Yong Qin

    2017-01-01

    Visible light-driven photocatalyst γ-Bi2MoO6 was prepared by a hydrothermal process, with stirring in the preparation process, and surfactant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition in precursors. The obtained samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy, technology electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffraction reflectance spectra. The obtained results suggest that the stirring and EDTA addition have one strong influence on the morphology. Meanwhile, the formation mechanism of γ -Bi2MoO6 with different morphologies was also discussed. The catalytic activation of γ -Bi2MoO6 photocatalysts was evaluated by methyl blue under visible light irradiation. It was found that the photocatalytic properties change largely with surfactant assistant.

  9. Comparative analysis of P2Y4 and P2Y6 receptor architecture in native and transfected neuronal systems.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosi, Nadia; Iafrate, Monia; Saba, Elena; Rosa, Patrizia; Volonté, Cinzia

    2007-06-01

    Although extensive studies provided molecular and pharmacological characterization of metabotropic P2Y receptors for extracellular nucleotides, little is still known about their quaternary structure. By the use of transfected cellular systems and SDS-PAGE, in our previous work we established the propensity of P2Y(4) receptor to form dimeric interactions. Here we focused on endogenously expressed P2Y(4) and P2Y(6) subtypes, comparing their oligomeric complexes under Blue Native (BN) gel electrophoresis. We provided evidence that P2Y(4) and P2Y(6) receptors form high order complexes in native neuronal phenotypes and that the oligomers can be disaggregated down to the dimeric P2Y(4) or to the dimeric and monomeric P2Y(6) receptor. Moreover, dimeric P2Y(4) and monomeric P2Y(6) proteins display selective microdomain partitioning in lipid rafts from specialized subcellular compartments such as synaptosomes. Ligand activation by UTP shifted the oligomerization of P2Y(6) but not of P2Y(4) receptor, as analysed by BN electrophoresis. Finally, whereas transfected P2Y(4) and P2Y(6) proteins homo-interact and posses the appropriate domains to associate with all P2Y(1,2,4,6,11) subtypes, in naive PC12 cells the endogenous P2Y(4) forms hetero-oligomers only with the P2Y(6) subunit. In conclusion, our results indicate that quaternary structure distinguishing P2Y(4) from P2Y(6) receptors might be crucial for specific ligand activation, membrane partitioning and consequent functional regulation.

  10. Structure-Directing Effect of Alkali Metal Cations in New Molybdenum Selenites, Na2Mo2O5(SeO3)2, K2Mo2O5(SeO3)2, and Rb2Mo3O7(SeO3)3.

    PubMed

    Bang, Seong-eun; Ok, Kang Min

    2015-09-08

    Both single crystals and pure polycrystalline samples of three new quaternary alkali metal molybdenum selenites, Na2Mo2O5(SeO3)2, K2Mo2O5(SeO3)2, and Rb2Mo3O7(SeO3)3, have been synthesized through hydrothermal and solid-state reactions using A2CO3 (A = Na, K, and Rb), MoO3, and SeO2 as reagents. The frameworks of all three materials consist of both families of second-order Jahn-Teller distortive cations, i.e., the d(0) cation (Mo(6+)) and the lone pair cation (Se(4+)). Although the extent of framework distortions and the resulting occupation sites of alkali metal cations are dissimilar, Na2Mo2O5(SeO3)2 and K2Mo2O5(SeO3)2 exhibit similar three-dimensional networks that are composed of highly asymmetric Mo2O11 dimers and SeO3 polyhedra. Rb2Mo3O7(SeO3)3 reveals a two-dimensional structure that is built with Mo3O15 trimers and SeO3 intralayer linkers. Close structural examinations suggest that the structure-directing effect of alkali metal cations is significant in determining the framework distortions and the dimensions of the molybdenum selenites. UV-vis diffuse reflectance and infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, and ion-exchange reactions are reported, as are out-of-center distortion and dipole moment calculations.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic performance of hierarchical Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} microspheres using BiOI microspheres as self-sacrificing templates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ming; Zhang, Wei-De

    2015-07-15

    Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} hierarchical microspheres were successfully prepared through phase transformation from BiOI microspheres with the assistance of sodium citrate under hydrothermal condition. The possible formation mechanism for the conversion of BiOI to Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} is discussed here. After being annealed at 300 °C for 2 h, the obtained Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} microspheres exhibited remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of rhodamine B and phenol. The superior catalytic performance can be attributed to its larger surface area and higher crystallinity. In addition, Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} microspheres are stable during the degradation reaction and can be used repeatedly. - Graphical abstract: Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} hierarchical microspheres were successfully prepared through a facile partial anion exchange strategy using BiOI microspheres as self-sacrificing templates. The Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} microspheres show high visible light photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} microspheres were prepared via self-sacrificing template anion exchange. • Sodium citrate-assisted anion exchange for preparation of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalyst. • Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} catalysts show high visible light photocatalytic activity.

  12. Mechanism of charging of Au atoms and nanoclusters on Li doped SiO2/Mo(112) films.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Umberto; Giordano, Livia; Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of supercell DFT calculations on the adsorption properties of Au atoms and small clusters (Au(n), n < or = 5) on a SiO(2)/Mo(112) thin film and on the same system modified by doping with Li atoms. The adsorbed Li atoms penetrate into the pores of the silica film and become stabilized at the interface where they donate one electron to the Mo metal. As a consequence, the work function of the Li-doped SiO(2)/Mo(112) film is reduced and results in modified adsorption properties. In fact, while on the undoped SiO(2)/Mo(112) film Au interacts only very weakly, on the Li-doped surface Au atoms and clusters bind with significant bond strengths. The calculations show that this is due to the occurrence of an electron transfer from the SiO(2)/Mo(112) interface to the adsorbed gold. The occurrence of the charge transfer is related to the work function of the support but also to the possibility for the silica film to undergo a strong polaronic distortion.

  13. Single-crystal structure of vanadium-doped La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseeva, O. A. Antipin, A. M.; Gagor, A.; Pietraszko, A.; Novikova, N. E.; Sorokina, N. I.; Kharitonova, E. P.; Voronkova, V. I.

    2013-11-15

    A high-precision X-ray diffraction study of single crystals of two compositions-La{sub 2}Mo{sub 1.78}V{sub 0.22}O{sub 8.89} and La{sub 2}Mo{sub 1.64}V{sub 0.36}O{sub 8.82}-was performed. In the vanadium-doped compounds, as in the structure of the metastable {beta}{sub ms} phase of pure La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}, the La and Mo atoms and one of the three oxygen atoms are displaced from the threefold axis, on which they are located in the high-temperature {beta} phase. The structure contains two partially occupied oxygen sites. It was shown that molybdenum atoms are partially replaced by vanadium atoms, which are not involved in the disordering, are located on the threefold axis, and are shifted toward one of the oxygen atoms. This is consistent with the temperature-induced changes in the structure of La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} and the changes in the properties of these crystals caused by the introduction of vanadium atoms into the structure.

  14. Polarized spectroscopic properties of Er3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Gong, X. H.; Chen, Y. J.; Lin, Y. F.; Huang, J. H.; Luo, Z. D.; Huang, Y. D.

    2012-05-01

    An Er3+:BaGd2(MoO4)4 single crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method. The polarized absorption spectra, polarized fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curves were measured. In the framework of Judd-Ofelt theory, intensity parameters, spontaneous emission probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios, and radiative lifetimes were calculated. Besides, green upconversion fluorescence was also observed.

  15. Compatibility evaluation between La 2Mo 2O 9 fast oxide-ion conductor and Ni-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbel, Gwenaël; Lacorre, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    The chemical reactivity of La 2NiO 4+δ and nickel metal or nickel oxide with fast oxide-ion conductor La 2Mo 2O 9 is investigated in the annealing temperature range between 600 and 1000 °C, using room temperature X-ray powder diffraction. Within the La 2NiO 4+δ/La 2Mo 2O 9 system, subsequent reaction is evidenced at relatively low annealing temperature (600 °C), with formation of La 2MoO 6 and NiO. The reaction is complete at 1000 °C. At reverse, no reaction occurs between Ni or NiO and La 2Mo 2O 9 up to 1000 °C. Together with a previous work [G. Corbel, S. Mestiri, P. Lacorre, Solid State Sci. 7 (2005) 1216], the current study shows that Ni-CGO cermets might be chemically and mechanically compatible anode materials to work with LAMOX electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells.

  16. The photocatalysis of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} under the irradiation of blue LED

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wenzhong Zhang, Ling; Sun, Songmei

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ·OH trap and hole sink were involved to investigate the active radicals. • Holes play a more important role in the degradation of RhB. • The ·OH were related to the decomposition of phenol. • The ·O{sub 2}-played a leading role in the photodegradation of phenol. • Blue LED is competitive and promising alternative for the future application. - Abstract: Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} has been reported as a promising photocatalyst in wastewater treatment. The active radicals generated over the Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} during the photocatalytic process were thought to be hydroxyl radical (·OH) but have not been proved. Herein, Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} with nanoplate like morphology was synthesized and its photocatalytic performances in the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol as colored and colorless model pollutants respectively were evaluated under the irradiation of blue light emitting diode (LED). The tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as a ·OH trap and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a hole sink were involved to investigate the main active groups that are generated on Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} and function during the photodegradation of RhB and phenol. In addition, it is a competitive and promising alternative plan to use blue LED as light source for the future practical application in environmental remediation.

  17. Orbital Dimer Model for the Spin-Glass State in Y_{2}Mo_{2}O_{7}.

    PubMed

    Thygesen, Peter M M; Paddison, Joseph A M; Zhang, Ronghuan; Beyer, Kevin A; Chapman, Karena W; Playford, Helen Y; Tucker, Matthew G; Keen, David A; Hayward, Michael A; Goodwin, Andrew L

    2017-02-10

    The formation of a spin glass generally requires that magnetic exchange interactions are both frustrated and disordered. Consequently, the origin of spin-glass behavior in Y_{2}Mo_{2}O_{7}-in which magnetic Mo^{4+} ions occupy a frustrated pyrochlore lattice with minimal compositional disorder-has been a longstanding question. Here, we use neutron and x-ray pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis to develop a disorder model that resolves apparent incompatibilities between previously reported PDF, extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and NMR studies, and provides a new and physical explanation of the exchange disorder responsible for spin-glass formation. We show that Mo^{4+} ions displace according to a local "two-in-two-out" rule on each Mo_{4} tetrahedron, driven by orbital dimerization of Jahn-Teller active Mo^{4+} ions. Long-range orbital order is prevented by the macroscopic degeneracy of dimer coverings permitted by the pyrochlore lattice. Cooperative O^{2-} displacements yield a distribution of Mo-O-Mo angles, which in turn introduces disorder into magnetic interactions. Our study demonstrates experimentally how frustration of atomic displacements can assume the role of compositional disorder in driving a spin-glass transition.

  18. Unveiling hidden ferrimagnetism and giant magnetoelectricity in polar magnet Fe2Mo3O8

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yazhong; Pascut, Gheorghe L.; Gao, Bin; Tyson, Trevor A.; Haule, Kristjan; Kiryukhin, Valery; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) effect is recognized for its utility for low-power electronic devices. Largest ME coefficients are often associated with phase transitions in which ferroelectricity is induced by magnetic order. Unfortunately, in these systems, large ME response is revealed only upon elaborate poling procedures. These procedures may become unnecessary in single-polar-domain crystals of polar magnets. Here we report giant ME effects in a polar magnet Fe2Mo3O8 at temperatures as high as 60 K. Polarization jumps of 0.3 μC/cm2, and repeated mutual control of ferroelectric and magnetic moments with differential ME coefficients on the order of 104 ps/m are achieved. Importantly, no electric or magnetic poling is needed, as necessary for applications. The sign of the ME coefficients can be switched by changing the applied “bias” magnetic field. The observed effects are associated with a hidden ferrimagnetic order unveiled by application of a magnetic field. PMID:26194108

  19. Unveiling hidden ferrimagnetism and giant magnetoelectricity in polar magnet Fe2Mo3O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yazhong; Pascut, Gheorghe L.; Gao, Bin; Tyson, Trevor A.; Haule, Kristjan; Kiryukhin, Valery; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Rutgers CenterEmergent Materials Team; Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology Collaboration

    Polar magnets, belonging to the polar crystallographic symmetry groups and containing magnetic ions, can exhibit non-trivial magnetoelectric (ME) effects below magnetic ordering temperatures due to the broken time reversal and space inversion symmetries. Mono-domain polar single crystals can often be grown, and eliminate the need for any poling procedures to reveal the possible ME response. Here, we report a giant ME effect in a polar magnet Fe2Mo3O8 at temperature as high as 60 K. Polarization jumps of 0.3 μC/cm2 and repeated mutual control of ferroelectric and magnetic moments with differential ME coefficients on the order of 104ps/m are achieved. The sign of the ME coefficients can be switched by changing the direction of the applied ``bias'' magnetic field. Importantly, no electric or magnetic poling is needed, as necessary for applications. Using first principles calculations, we show that exchange striction is the leading mechanism responsible for the observed ME effect.

  20. Unveiling hidden ferrimagnetism and giant magnetoelectricity in polar magnet Fe2Mo3O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yazhong; Pascut, Gheorghe L.; Gao, Bin; Tyson, Trevor A.; Haule, Kristjan; Kiryukhin, Valery; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2015-07-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) effect is recognized for its utility for low-power electronic devices. Largest ME coefficients are often associated with phase transitions in which ferroelectricity is induced by magnetic order. Unfortunately, in these systems, large ME response is revealed only upon elaborate poling procedures. These procedures may become unnecessary in single-polar-domain crystals of polar magnets. Here we report giant ME effects in a polar magnet Fe2Mo3O8 at temperatures as high as 60 K. Polarization jumps of 0.3 μC/cm2, and repeated mutual control of ferroelectric and magnetic moments with differential ME coefficients on the order of 104 ps/m are achieved. Importantly, no electric or magnetic poling is needed, as necessary for applications. The sign of the ME coefficients can be switched by changing the applied “bias” magnetic field. The observed effects are associated with a hidden ferrimagnetic order unveiled by application of a magnetic field.

  1. Orbital Dimer Model for the Spin-Glass State in Y2 Mo2 O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thygesen, Peter M. M.; Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Zhang, Ronghuan; Beyer, Kevin A.; Chapman, Karena W.; Playford, Helen Y.; Tucker, Matthew G.; Keen, David A.; Hayward, Michael A.; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2017-02-01

    The formation of a spin glass generally requires that magnetic exchange interactions are both frustrated and disordered. Consequently, the origin of spin-glass behavior in Y2 Mo2 O7 —in which magnetic Mo4 + ions occupy a frustrated pyrochlore lattice with minimal compositional disorder—has been a longstanding question. Here, we use neutron and x-ray pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis to develop a disorder model that resolves apparent incompatibilities between previously reported PDF, extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and NMR studies, and provides a new and physical explanation of the exchange disorder responsible for spin-glass formation. We show that Mo4 + ions displace according to a local "two-in-two-out" rule on each Mo4 tetrahedron, driven by orbital dimerization of Jahn-Teller active Mo4 + ions. Long-range orbital order is prevented by the macroscopic degeneracy of dimer coverings permitted by the pyrochlore lattice. Cooperative O2 - displacements yield a distribution of Mo-O-Mo angles, which in turn introduces disorder into magnetic interactions. Our study demonstrates experimentally how frustration of atomic displacements can assume the role of compositional disorder in driving a spin-glass transition.

  2. Material characterization of superplastically formed titanium (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo) sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ossa, William A.; Royster, Dick M.

    1987-01-01

    The aerospace industry has focused considerable interest on the near-alpha titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (Ti-6242) because of both its high-temperature properties and its superplastic forming (SPF) capabilities. This paper describes current research to characterize selected mechanical properties of Ti-6242 sheet in the SPF-strained condition, both with and without heat treatment, and compares the results with those obtained on as-received material. Tensile and creep tests were conducted, and metallographic analysis was performed to show the effect of 100 to 700 percent SPF strain on titanium properties. Analysis shows that as a result of SPF processing, both tensile and yield strengths, as well as elongation, are moderately reduced. Creep tests at 800 F and 1000 F show that the SPF processed material displays superior creep resistance compared with the as-received material. A post-SPF duplex-anneal heat treatment had no beneficial effect on tensile and creep properties.

  3. Free energy landscapes for S-H bonds in Cp*2Mo2S4 complexes.

    PubMed

    Appel, Aaron M; Lee, Suh-Jane; Franz, James A; DuBois, Daniel L; DuBois, M Rakowski

    2009-04-15

    An extensive family of thermochemical data is presented for a series of complexes derived from Cp*Mo(mu-S)(2)(mu-SMe)(mu-SH)MoCp* and Cp*Mo(mu-S)(2)(mu-SH)(2)MoCp*. These data include electrochemical potentials, pK(a) values, homolytic solution bond dissociation free energies (SBDFEs), and hydride donor abilities in acetonitrile. Thermochemical data ranged from +0.6 to -2.0 V vs FeCp(2)(+/o) for electrochemical potentials, 5 to 31 for pK(a) values, 43 to 68 kcal/mol for homolytic SBDFEs, and 44 to 84 kcal/mol for hydride donor abilities. The observed values for these thermodynamic parameters are comparable to those of many transition metal hydrides, which is consistent with the many parallels in the chemistry of these two classes of compounds. The extensive set of thermochemical data is presented in free energy landscapes as a useful approach to visualizing and understanding the relative stabilities of all of the species under varying conditions of pH and H(2) overpressure. In addition to the previously studied homogeneous reactivity and catalysis, Mo(2)S(4) complexes are also models for heterogeneous molybdenum sulfide catalysts, and therefore, the present results demonstrate the dramatic range of S-H bond strengths available in both homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction pathways.

  4. 77 FR 46284 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lemmon, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lemmon, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Lemmon, SD, area, creating...

  5. Credit WCT. Original 2Y4" x 2Y4" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-Y4" x 2-Y4" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. JPL staff members Harold Anderson and John Morrow cast grain from the 1-gallon BakerPerkins model 4-PU mixer. A 1-pint Baker-Perkins model 2-PX mixer stands to the left in this view (JPL negative no. JPL-10295BC, 27 January 1989) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Mixer & Casting Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. User's Manual for Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfer, N. C.

    1996-01-01

    A unique collection of computer codes, Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF), have been developed to assist in the design and analysis of space debris protection systems. SD_SURF calculates and summarizes a vehicle's vulnerability to space debris as a function of impact velocity and obliquity. An SD_SURF analysis will show which velocities and obliquities are the most probable to cause a penetration. This determination can help the analyst select a shield design which is best suited to the predominant penetration mechanism. The analysis also indicates the most suitable parameters for development or verification testing. The SD_SURF programs offer the option of either FORTRAN programs and Microsoft EXCEL spreadsheets and macros. The FORTRAN programs work with BUMPERII version 1.2a or 1.3 (Cosmic released). The EXCEL spreadsheets and macros can be used independently or with selected output from the SD_SURF FORTRAN programs.

  7. SdAb heterodimer formation using leucine zippers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Ellen R.; Anderson, George P.; Brozozog-Lee, P. Audrey; Zabetakis, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Single domain antibodies (sdAb) are variable domains cloned from camel, llama, or shark heavy chain only antibodies, and are among the smallest known naturally derived antigen binding fragments. SdAb derived from immunized llamas are able to bind antigens with high affinity, and most are capable of refolding after heat or chemical denaturation to bind antigen again. We hypothesized that the ability to produce heterodimeric sdAb would enable reagents with the robust characteristics of component sdAb, but with dramatically improved overall affinity through increased avidity. Previously we had constructed multimeric sdAb by genetically linking sdAb that bind non-overlapping epitopes on the toxin, ricin. In this work we explored a more flexible approach; the construction of multivalent binding reagents using multimerization domains. We expressed anti-ricin sdAb that recognize different epitopes on the toxin as fusions with differently charged leucine zippers. When the initially produced homodimers are mixed the leucine zipper domains will pair to produce heterodimers. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to confirm heterodimer formation. Surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, and fluid array assays were used to characterize the multimer constructs, and evaluate their utility in toxin detection.

  8. Heat capacity, entropy of Ln2(MoO4)3 (Ln = La, Sm, and Gd), and the high-temperature enthalpy of Ln2(MoO4)3 (Ln = Eu, Dy, and Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarev, V. M.; Suponitskiy, Y. L.; Liashenko, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The low-temperature heat capacity of Ln2(MoO4)3 (Ln = La, Sm, and Gd) is investigated by means of adiabatic calorimetry within the range of 60-300 K. The temperature dependences of the heat capacity are found and the values of the standard entropy are calculated, based on extrapolations to 0 K. Characteristic temperatures for molybdates are determined from the results of IR spectroscopic studies. The high-temperature enthalpy of Ln2(MoO4)3 (Ln = Eu, Dy, and Ho) is measured via high-temperature microcalorimetry, and the temperature dependence of heat capacity is calculated in the range of 298-1000 K. Since samarium and gadolinium molybdates are of the same structural type as terbium molybdate, we can estimate the anomaly of the heat capacity in the low-temperature region using the data for terbium molybdate and find the entropy of samarium and gadolinium molybdates.

  9. Effects of Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 on molybdenum and tungsten electrodes for the alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Wheeler, B. L.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Loveland, M. E.; Bankston, C. P.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of adding Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 to porous Mo and W electrodes, respectively, on the performance and impedance characteristics of the electrodes in an alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) were investigated. It was found that corrosion of the porous electrode by Na2MoO4 or Na2WO4 to form Na2MO3O6 and WO2, respectively, and recrystallization of the Mo or W as the salt evaporates, result in major morphological changes including a loss of columnar structure and a significant increase in porosity. This effect is more pronounced in Na2MoO4/Mo electrodes, due to the lower stability of Na2MoO4.

  10. 76 FR 34286 - South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... the following areas as adversely affected by the disaster. Primary Counties: Stanley. All...

  11. RadNet Air Data From Rapid City, SD

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Rapid City, SD from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  12. RadNet Air Data From Pierre, SD

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Pierre, SD from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  13. SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xue; Guo, Xiaoyu; Liu, Di; Wang, Qingwei; Zhai, Hongju; Chang, Limin

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} composite photocatalysts were synthesized. • SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} showed better photocatalytic performance than pure SiO{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. • The photocatalytic mechanism of SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} composite was also proposed. - Abstract: The effect of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalytic performance was described. The results indicated that SiO{sub 2} nanospheres were dispersed on Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanosheets to form heterostructures with higher specific surface area and more intensive absorption within the visible light range in comparison with pure Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. These excellent structural and spectral properties endowed the SiO{sub 2}–Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} composites with enhanced photocatalytic activities. The photocatalytic results for the degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) indicated that the most active composite proportion is 13.4%SiO{sub 2}–Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. The high visible light photocatalytic performance was attributed to the synergistic effect between SiO{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}, intensive absorption within the visible light range, and high specific surface area. It was also found that the photodegradation of Rh B molecules is mainly attributed to the oxidation action of the generated O{sub 2}·{sup −} radicals and partly to the action of h{sub vb}{sup +} through direct hole oxidation process.

  14. Oxygen partial pressure dependence of electrical conductivity in {gamma}'-Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, C.M.C. Aragon, R.

    2008-05-15

    The electrical conductivity of {gamma}'-Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} was surveyed between 450 and 750 deg. C as a function of oxygen partial pressure, in the range 0.01-1 atm. A -1/6 power law dependence, consistent with a Frenkel defect model of doubly ionized oxygen vacancies and interstitials, is evidence for an n-type semiconductive component, with an optical band gap of 2.9 eV. The absence of this dependence is used to map the onset of dominant ionic conduction. - Graphical abstract: Temporal dependence of electrical conductivity at 500 deg. C for {gamma}'-Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} at controlled partial pressures of oxygen.

  15. Tunable properties of spin waves in magnetoelastic {NiFe}/{{Gd}}_{2}{({{MoO}}_{4})}_{3} heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, Piotr; Trzaskowska, Aleksandra; Załȩski, Karol; Mróz, Bogusław

    2016-07-01

    Full ferroelastic and simultaneously ferroelectric materials are interesting candidates for applications in devices based on multiferroic heterostructures. They should allow for non-volatile and low-power writing of data bits in magnetoelectric random access memories. Moreover, ferroelasticity, in contrast to piezoelectric material, make magnetic information in ferromagnetic film resistant to external fields. As an example for such a system, we have studied the magnetoelastic interaction between a thin ferromagnetic layer of {{Ni}}85{{Fe}}15 with a full ferroelastic-ferroelectric gadolinium molybdate {{Gd}}2{({{MoO}}4)}3 crystal. We have investigated the influence of {{Gd}}2{({{MoO}}4)}3 spontaneous strain onto magnetic properties of thin ferromagnetic film. Particularly, we have shown by Brillouin spectroscopy, that it is possible to modulate surface spin wave frequency of {{Ni}}85{{Fe}}15 by spontaneous strain of gadolinium molybdate substrate.

  16. Deformation behavior of metastable β-type Ti-25Nb-2Mo-4Sn alloy for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Guo, S; Meng, Q K; Cheng, X N; Zhao, X Q

    2014-10-01

    The deformation behavior of metastable β-type Ti-25Nb-2Mo-4Sn (wt%) alloy subjected to different thermo-mechanical treatments was discussed by the combining results from transmission electron microscope, tensile test and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Visible "double yielding" behavior, which is characterized by the presence of stress-plateau, was observed in the solution treated specimen. Upon a cold rolling treatment, the Ti-25Nb-2Mo-4Sn alloy performs nonlinear deformation because of the combined effects of elastic deformation and stress-induced α″ martensitic transformation. After the subsequent annealing, the β phase is completely stabilized and no stress-induced martensitic transformation takes place on loading due to the inhibitory effect of grain boundaries and dislocations on martensitic transformation. As a result, the annealed specimen exhibits linear elastic deformation.

  17. Electronic properties and transistors of the NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 nanoribbon heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; OuYang, Fangping; Yang, Zhixiong; Peng, Shenglin; Zhou, Wenzhe; Zou, Hui; Long, Mengqiu; Pan, Jiangling

    2016-12-13

    Based on density function theory(DFT) and nonequilibrium Green's functions(NEGF), we construct a NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 nanoribbon inplane heterostructure. The effects of the channel length, width, chirality and vacancy of the heterostructure on the transport properties are systematically investigated. The electron transport of the armchair-edge heterostructure device shows ballistic transport properties, while the zigzag-edge heterostructure device exhibits resonance tunneling transport properties. Further study indicates the NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 field effect transistors(FETs) to be excellent ambipolar transistors. The FETs have high performances with current on/off ratio 4.7×10(5) and subthreshold swing 90mV/decade with the channel length m=16 and width n=6. The increase of the channel length will sharply reduce the off-state current and enhance the performances of the devices significantly.

  18. Electronic properties and transistors of the NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 NR heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Ouyang, Fangping; Yang, Zhixiong; Peng, Shenglin; Zhou, Wenzhe; Zou, Hui; Long, Mengqiu; Pan, Jiangling

    2017-02-01

    Based on density function theory and nonequilibrium Green’s functions, we construct a NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 NR inplane heterostructure. The effects of channel length, width, chirality and vacancy of the heterostructure on transport properties are systematically investigated. The electron transport of the armchair-edge heterostructure device shows ballistic transport properties, while the zigzag-edge heterostructure device exhibits resonance tunneling transport properties. Further study indicates NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 field effect transistors (FETs) to be excellent ambipolar transistors. The FETs have high performances with current on/off ratio 4.7 × 105 and subthreshold swing 90 mV/decade with channel length m = 16 and width n = 6. Increases in the channel length sharply reduce the off-state current and enhance the performance of the devices significantly.

  19. Theoretical study of negative thermal expansion in Y2Mo3O12: effect of water absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Wu, Mingyi; Wang, Lei; Jia, Yu

    2013-03-01

    Y2Mo3O12 exhibits negative thermal expansion (NTE) in a large temperature range (473 ~ 1173 K). However, the material strongly absorb water and form a stable trihydrate structure, where the NTE disappears. Raman spectra revealed that some vibrational modes were missing in the hydrated structure. By DFT calculations, absorption of water in Y2Mo3O12 has been studied. Our results showed that water can strongly absorb in Y2Mo3O12 with O end of the water binding to Y cation, while one hydrogen approaches to the bridge O, which shared by polyhedrons YO6 and MoO4, and forms hydrogen bond. The absorption of water leads the angle of Y-O-Mo reduced, decreasing Y-Mo distance and consequently the volume of the material contracted. Calculated phonon spectra showed that the transverse vibration of Y-O-Mo is restricted due to water absorption. As a result, the NTE, originated from the vibrational mode, is hindered. Our MD simulations also revealed that water can easily diffuse and cross different channels in the material with the aid of Y cations.

  20. Self-assembled Bi2MoO6/TiO2 nanofiber heterojunction film with enhanced photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Zhang, Tianxi; Pan, Chao; Pu, Chenchen; Hu, Yang; Hu, Xiaoyun; Liu, Enzhou; Fan, Jun

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 nanofiber film (TiO2 NFF) was successfully fabricated by an ethylene glycol-assisted hydrothermal method, and then self-assembled flake-like Bi2MoO6 was grown on the surface of TiO2 nanofiber under alcohol thermal condition. The investigations indicate that the nanofiber structure of TiO2 films exhibits excellent visible light scattering property, the scattering light overlaps with the absorption band of Bi2MoO6, which can enhance the utility of incident light. The prepared Bi2MoO6/TiO2 composites show obviously enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB) degradation compared with pure TiO2 nanofiber under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The enhanced photocatalytic activity is primarily attributed to the synergistic effect of visible light absorption and effective electron-hole separation at the interfaces of the two semiconductors, which is confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemical tests.

  1. High-temperature behavior of dicesium molybdate Cs2MoO4: Implications for fast neutron reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallez, Gilles; Raison, Philippe E.; Smith, Anna L.; Clavier, Nicolas; Dacheux, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    Dicesium molybdate (Cs2MoO4)'s thermal expansion and crystal structure have been investigated herein by high temperature X ray diffraction in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy. This first crystal-chemical insight at high temperature is aimed at predicting the thermostructural and thermomechanical behavior of this oxide formed by the accumulation of Cs and Mo fission products at the periphery of nuclear fuel rods in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Within the temperature range of the fuel's rim, Cs2MoO4 becomes hexagonal P63/mmc, with disordered MoO4 tetrahedra and 2D distribution of Cs-O bonds that makes thermal axial expansion both large (50≤αl≤70 10-6 °C-1, 500-800 °C) and highly anisotropic (αc-αa=67×10-6 °C-1, hexagonal form). The difference with the fuel's expansion coefficient is of potential concern with respect to the cohesion of the Cs2MoO4 surface film and the possible release of cesium radionuclides in accidental situations.

  2. Protein-Assisted Formation of Molybdenum Heterometallic Clusters: Evidence for the Formation of S2MoS2-M-S2MoS2 Clusters with M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, or Cd within the Orange Protein.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Biplab K; Maia, Luisa B; Pauleta, Sofia R; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J G

    2017-02-20

    The Orange Protein (ORP) is a small bacterial protein, of unknown function, that harbors a unique molybdenum/copper (Mo/Cu) heterometallic cluster, [S2Mo(VI)S2Cu(I)S2Mo(VI)S2](3-), noncovalently bound. The apo-ORP is able to promote the formation and stabilization of this cluster, using Cu(II)- and Mo(VI)S4(2-) salts as starting metallic reagents, to yield a Mo/Cu-ORP that is virtually identical to the native ORP. In this work, we explored the ORP capability of promoting protein-assisted synthesis to prepare novel protein derivatives harboring molybdenum heterometallic clusters containing iron, cobalt, nickel, or cadmium in place of the "central" copper (Mo/Fe-ORP, Mo/Co-ORP, Mo/Ni-ORP, or Mo/Cd-ORP). For that, the previously described protein-assisted synthesis protocol was extended to other metals and the Mo/M-ORP derivatives (M = Cu, Fe, Co, Ni, or Cd) were spectroscopically (UV-visible and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)) characterized. The Mo/Cu-ORP and Mo/Cd-ORP derivatives are stable under oxic conditions, while the Mo/Fe-ORP, Mo/Co-ORP, and Mo/Ni-ORP derivatives are dioxygen-sensitive and stable only under anoxic conditions. The metal and protein quantification shows the formation of 2Mo:1M:1ORP derivatives, and the visible spectra suggest that the expected {S2MoS2MS2MoS2} complexes are formed. The Mo/Cu-ORP, Mo/Co-ORP, and Mo/Cd-ORP are EPR-silent. The Mo/Fe-ORP derivative shows an EPR S = (3)/2 signal (E/D ≈ 0.27, g ≈ 5.3, 2.5, and 1.7 for the lower M= ±(1)/2 doublet, and g ≈ 5.7 and 1.7 (1.3 predicted) for the upper M = ±(3)/2 doublet), consistent with the presence of either one S = (5)/2 Fe(III) antiferromagnetically coupled to two S = (1)/2 Mo(V) or one S = (3)/2 Fe(I) and two S = 0 Mo(VI) ions, in both cases in a tetrahedral geometry. The Mo/Ni-ORP shows an EPR axial S = (1)/2 signal consistent with either one S = (1)/2 Ni(I) and two S = 0 Mo(VI) or one S = (1)/2 Ni(III) antiferromagnetically coupled to two S = (1)/2 Mo(V) ions, in both

  3. P2Y Receptors Sensitize Mouse and Human Colonic Nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Hockley, James R. F.; Tranter, Michael M.; McGuire, Cian; Boundouki, George; Cibert-Goton, Vincent; Thaha, Mohamed A.; Blackshaw, L. Ashley; Michael, Gregory J.; Baker, Mark D.; Knowles, Charles H.; Winchester, Wendy J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of visceral nociceptors by inflammatory mediators contributes to visceral hypersensitivity and abdominal pain associated with many gastrointestinal disorders. Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides (e.g., ATP and UTP) are strongly implicated in this process following their release from epithelial cells during mechanical stimulation of the gut, and from immune cells during inflammation. Actions of ATP are mediated through both ionotropic P2X receptors and metabotropic P2Y receptors. P2X receptor activation causes excitation of visceral afferents; however, the impact of P2Y receptor activation on visceral afferents innervating the gut is unclear. Here we investigate the effects of stimulating P2Y receptors in isolated mouse colonic sensory neurons, and visceral nociceptor fibers in mouse and human nerve-gut preparations. Additionally, we investigate the role of Nav1.9 in mediating murine responses. The application of UTP (P2Y2 and P2Y4 agonist) sensitized colonic sensory neurons by increasing action potential firing to current injection and depolarizing the membrane potential. The application of ADP (P2Y1, P2Y12, and P2Y13 agonist) also increased action potential firing, an effect blocked by the selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500. UTP or ADP stimulated afferents, including mouse and human visceral nociceptors, in nerve-gut preparations. P2Y1 and P2Y2 transcripts were detected in 80% and 56% of retrogradely labeled colonic neurons, respectively. Nav1.9 transcripts colocalized in 86% of P2Y1-positive and 100% of P2Y2-positive colonic neurons, consistent with reduced afferent fiber responses to UTP and ADP in Nav1.9−/− mice. These data demonstrate that P2Y receptor activation stimulates mouse and human visceral nociceptors, highlighting P2Y-dependent mechanisms in the generation of visceral pain during gastrointestinal disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic visceral pain is a debilitating symptom of many gastrointestinal disorders. The activation of

  4. Electronic and optical properties of β'-Tb2(MoO4)3: DFT+U approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshak, A. H.

    2016-11-01

    The ground state properties of β'-Tb2(MoO4)3 are investigated using the density functional theory plus U-Hubbard Hamiltonian. To ascertain the influence of the spin-polarization on the ground state properties of orthorhombic β'-Tb2(MoO4)3, we have performed spin-polarization calculations and the spin-polarized electronic band structure for spin-up (↑) and spin-down (↓) are calculated. It has been found that for spin-up (↑) and spin-down (↓) the β'-Tb2(MoO4)3 compound possesses indirect energy band gap, as the valence band maximum (VBM) is located at Y point of the Brillouin zone (BZ) and the conduction band minimum (CBM) at the center of the BZ. The calculated value of the band gap is 3.61 eV for spin-up (↑) and spin-down (↓), and it is in close agreement with the measured one (3.76 eV). It is clear that the electronic band structure for spin-up (↑) and spin-down (↓) cases presents identical configuration. Therefore, we can conclude that the spin-polarization has identical influence on the ground state properties of β'-Tb2(MoO4)3. To ascertain this observation, we have presented and explained the necessary ingredients of the calculated total and atom-resolved density of states. It has been noticed that the calculated total density of states (TDOS) for spin-up (↑) and spin-down (↓) cases are identical confirming that the spin-polarization has identical influence on the ground state properties of β'-Tb2(MoO4)3. For more details, in order to have deep insight into the electronic structure, we have presented the atom-resolved density of states which show identical features for spin-up (↑) and spin-down (↓). The angular momentum projected density of states (PDOS) helps to identify the angular momentum character of the various structures. To obtain more details about the electronic structure and, hence, the ground state properties, the complex first-order linear optical dispersion is calculated for spin-up (↑) and spin-down (↓) cases to

  5. Decay out of SD Band in ^192Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNabb, D. P.; Cizewski, J. A.; Ding, K. Y.; Fotiades, N.; Archer, D. E.; Becker, J. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; Hauschild, K.; Younes, W.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; MacLeod, R. W.

    1997-04-01

    Gamma-ray transitions linking the yrast SD bands to the known (ND) levels have been found in ^194Pb(M. J. Brinkman, et al., Phys. Rev. C53), R1461 (1996), A. Lopez-Martens, et al., Phys. Lett. B380, 18 (1996) and K. Hauschild, et al., submitted to Phys. Rev. C (1996). and ^194Hg.(T. L. Khoo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 1583 (1996). The spin, parity and excitation energy of these SD bands were established. Linking transitions are understood as arising from ND states nearby in excitation energy which are admixed with the SD states.(E. Vigezzi, et al., Phys. Lett. B249), 163 (1990). We anticipate a smaller phase space for quasicontinuous decay of the SD band in ^192Pb because it is predicted to lie lower in excitation than the SD band in ^194Pb.footnote S. J. Krieger, et al. Nucl. Phys. A542, 43 (1992). To search for linking transitions in ^192Pb we used the Gammasphere array at LBNL and the ^24Mg(^173Yb,5n) reaction at 134 MeV. Candidates for linking transitions and general features of the decay will be discussed.

  6. SD-CAS: Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System.

    PubMed

    Filip, Xenia; Filip, Claudiu

    2010-11-01

    A computer algebra tool for describing the Liouville-space quantum evolution of nuclear 1/2-spins is introduced and implemented within a computational framework named Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System (SD-CAS). A distinctive feature compared with numerical and previous computer algebra approaches to solving spin dynamics problems results from the fact that no matrix representation for spin operators is used in SD-CAS, which determines a full symbolic character to the performed computations. Spin correlations are stored in SD-CAS as four-entry nested lists of which size increases linearly with the number of spins into the system and are easily mapped into analytical expressions in terms of spin operator products. For the so defined SD-CAS spin correlations a set of specialized functions and procedures is introduced that are essential for implementing basic spin algebra operations, such as the spin operator products, commutators, and scalar products. They provide results in an abstract algebraic form: specific procedures to quantitatively evaluate such symbolic expressions with respect to the involved spin interaction parameters and experimental conditions are also discussed. Although the main focus in the present work is on laying the foundation for spin dynamics symbolic computation in NMR based on a non-matrix formalism, practical aspects are also considered throughout the theoretical development process. In particular, specific SD-CAS routines have been implemented using the YACAS computer algebra package (http://yacas.sourceforge.net), and their functionality was demonstrated on a few illustrative examples.

  7. Broadband sensitized white light emission of g-C3N4/Y2MoO6:Eu3+ composite phosphor under near ultraviolet excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bing; Xue, Yongfei; Li, Pengju; Zhang, Jingtao; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Hengzhen

    2015-12-01

    The g-C3N4/Y2MoO6:Eu3+ composite phosphors were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible diffuse reflection spectra, photoluminescence spectra and luminescence decay curves. Under the excitation of 360 nm near ultraviolet light, these composite phosphors show tunable emission from blue to red region, in which white light emission can be obtained in term of appropriate quality proportion of Y2MoO6:Eu3+ relative to g-C3N4/Y2MoO6:Eu3+. In addition, the emission color can be also dependent on the excitation wavelength in g-C3N4/Y2MoO6:Eu3+ composite phosphor.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic performance of hierarchical Bi2MoO6 microspheres using BiOI microspheres as self-sacrificing templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Zhang, Wei-De

    2015-07-01

    Bi2MoO6 hierarchical microspheres were successfully prepared through phase transformation from BiOI microspheres with the assistance of sodium citrate under hydrothermal condition. The possible formation mechanism for the conversion of BiOI to Bi2MoO6 is discussed here. After being annealed at 300 °C for 2 h, the obtained Bi2MoO6 microspheres exhibited remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of rhodamine B and phenol. The superior catalytic performance can be attributed to its larger surface area and higher crystallinity. In addition, Bi2MoO6 microspheres are stable during the degradation reaction and can be used repeatedly.

  9. In-situ determination of austenite and martensite formation in 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Bojack, A.; Zhao, L.; Morris, P.F.; Sietsma, J.

    2012-09-15

    In-situ analysis of the phase transformations in a 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel (X2CrNiMoV13-5-2) was carried out using a thermo-magnetic technique, dilatometry and high temperature X-ray diffractometry (HT-XRD). A combination of the results obtained by the three applied techniques gives a valuable insight in the phase transformations during the austenitization treatment, including subsequent cooling, of the 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel, where the magnetic technique offers a high accuracy in monitoring the austenite fraction. It was found by dilatometry that the austenite formation during heating takes place in two stages, most likely caused by partitioning of Ni into austenite. The in-situ evolution of the austenite fraction is monitored by high-temperature XRD and dilatometry. The progress of martensite formation during cooling was described with a Koistinen-Marburger relation for the results obtained from the magnetic and dilatometer experiments. Enhanced martensite formation at the sample surface was detected by X-ray diffraction, which is assumed to be due to relaxation of transformation stresses at the sample surface. Due to the high alloy content and high thermodynamic stability of austenite at room temperature, 4 vol.% of austenite was found to be stable at room temperature after the austenitization treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We in-situ analyzed phase transformations and fractions of a 13Cr6Ni2Mo SMSS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher accuracy of the austenite fraction was obtained from magnetic technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Austenite formation during heating takes place in two stages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced martensite formation at the sample surface detected by X-ray diffraction.

  10. P2Y receptors in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Erlinge, David

    2011-01-01

    The purine- and pyrimidine-sensitive P2Y receptors belong to the large group of G-protein-coupled receptors that are the target of approximately one-third of the pharmaceutical drugs used in the clinic today. It is therefore not unexpected that the P2Y receptors could be useful targets for drug development. This chapter will discuss P2Y receptor-based therapies currently used, in development and possible future developments. The platelet inhibitors blocking the ADP-receptor P2Y(12) reduce myocardial infarction, stroke, and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. Clopidogrel (Plavix) was for many years the second most selling drug in the world. The improved P2Y(12) inhibitors prasugrel, ticagrelor, and elinogrel are now entering the clinic with even more pronounced protective effects. The UTP-activated P2Y(2) receptor stimulates ciliary movement and secretion from epithelial cells. Cystic fibrosis is a monogenetic disease where reduced chloride ion secretion results in a severe lung disease and early death. No specific treatment has been available, but the P2Y(2) agonist Denufosol has been shown to improve lung function and is expected to be introduced as treatment for cystic fibrosis soon. In preclinical studies, there are indications that P2Y receptors can be important for diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular, and atherosclerotic disease. In conclusion, P2Y receptors are important for the health of humans for many diseases, and we can expect even more beneficial drugs targeting P2Y receptors in the future.

  11. 78 FR 39820 - Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Disaster #SD-00058

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Disaster SD-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Assistance Only for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation (FEMA-4123-DR), dated 06/25/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Area: Standing Rock Indian Reservation. The Interest Rates...

  12. 75 FR 4417 - Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, SD AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of... Statement, Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, South Dakota. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 102(2)(C) of... Environmental Impact Statement (Plan), Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, South Dakota. On December 3,...

  13. 76 FR 67596 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Spearfish, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Procedures at Black Hills Airport--Clyde Ice Field, and updates the geographic coordinates of the airport... additional controlled airspace at Black Hills Airport--Clyde Ice Field (76 FR 43610) Docket No. FAA-2011-0431... procedures at Black Hills Airport--Clyde Ice Field, Spearfish, SD. This action is necessary for the...

  14. 76 FR 35935 - South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Doc No: 2011-15140] U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12590 and 12591] South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement...

  15. 76 FR 35936 - South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...: 2011-15124] U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12590 and 12591] South Dakota Disaster Number SD-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport...

  16. 78 FR 48764 - South Dakota Disaster # SD-00061

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION South Dakota Disaster SD-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and...

  17. 78 FR 48302 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Wagner,...

  18. A Study on Alpha-Case Depth in Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McReynolds, Kevin S.; Tamirisakandala, Seshacharyulu

    2011-07-01

    Isothermal oxidation experiments in air were performed on Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (Ti-6242) with a bimodal microstructure in the temperature range 811 K to 922 K (538 °C to 649 °C) for up to 500 hours, and α-case depths were quantified using metallography. Alpha-case depth followed a parabolic variation with time. Alpha-case depths in excess of 10 μm formed above 811 K (538 °C) and 100-hour exposures. An activation energy of 244 kJ/mol was estimated for diffusion of oxygen in the α phase of Ti-6242.

  19. The effects of Gd3+ doping on the physical structure and photocatalytic performance of Bi2MoO6 nanoplate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Changlin; Wu, Zhen; Liu, Renyue; He, Hongbo; Fan, Wenhong; Xue, Shuangshuang

    2016-06-01

    Gd3+ doped Bi2MoO6 nanoplate crystals were fabricated by solvothermal combined calcination method. The effects of Gd3+ doping with different concentrations on the texture, crystal and optical properties of Bi2MoO6 were investigated by N2 physical adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectrum (UV-vis DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Under simulated solar light irradiation, the influences of Gd3+doping on photocatalytic activity of Bi2MoO6 were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B. The characterization results showed that with Gd3+ doping, a contraction of lattice and a decrease in crystallite size occurred. Meanwhile, an increase in surface area over Gd3+ doped Bi2MoO6 was observed. Moreover, Gd3+ doping could obviously enhance the visible light harvesting of Bi2MoO6 and promoted the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. With optimum Gd3+(6 wt%) doping, Gd/Bi2MoO6 exhibited the best activity and stability in degradation of Rhodamine B.

  20. Facile synthesis of Fe2O3 nanoparticles anchored on Bi2MoO6 microflowers with improved visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shijie; Hu, Shiwei; Zhang, Junlei; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Jianshe

    2017-07-01

    Constructing novel semiconductor heterojunctions is emerging as one of the efficient methods to develop excellent photocatalysts. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of Bi2MoO6 microflowers decorated by Fe2O3 nanoparticles as an efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst via a simple solvothermal precipitation-calcination method. The as-prepared Fe2O3/Bi2MoO6 heterojunctions were systematically characterized by using several techniques. The photocatalytic properties of these heterojunctions were estimated by degrading rhodamine B (RhB) and para-chlorophenol (4-CP) under visible light (λ>400nm). They showed much higher photocatalytic activity than pure Fe2O3 or Bi2MoO6. The heterojunction with Fe/Bi molar ratio of 0.2 presented the highest activity. The RhB degradation rate constant was about 4.8 times or 3.8 times higher than that of Bi2MoO6 or a mechanical mixture of Fe2O3 and Bi2MoO6. The remarkable enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to the effective suppression of electron-hole recombination. The photogenerated holes (h(+)) and superoxide radical anions (O2(-)) were found to be the major active species. Fe2O3/Bi2MoO6 has great potential as an effective and stable visible-light-driven photocatalysts for wastewater treatment.

  1. A plate-on-plate sandwiched Z-scheme heterojunction photocatalyst: BiOBr-Bi2MoO6 with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengyao; Yang, Xianglong; Zhang, Xuehao; Ding, Xing; Yang, Zixin; Dai, Ke; Chen, Hao

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a direct Z-scheme heterojunction BiOBr-Bi2MoO6 with greatly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance was fabricated via a two-step coprecipitation method. It was indicated that a plate-on-plate heterojunctions be present between BiOBr and Bi2MoO6 through different characterization techniques including X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoelectrochemical measurements. The crystal structure and morphology analysis revealed that the heterointerface in BiOBr-Bi2MoO6 occurred mainly on the (001) facets of BiOBr and (001) facets of Bi2MoO6. The photocatalytic activity of the BiOBr-Bi2MoO6 was investigated by degradation of RhB and about 66.7% total organic carbon (TOC) could be removed. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) was employed to rule out the photosensitization. It was implied that the higher activity of BiOBr-Bi2MoO6 could be attribute to the strong redox ability in the Z-scheme system, which was subsequently confirmed by photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and active spices trapping experiments. This study provides a promising platform for Z-scheme heterojunction constructing and also sheds light on highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts designing.

  2. Controlled synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence property of olive-like tetragonal α-Nd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Youjin; Zheng, Ao; Yang, Xiaozhi; He, Hongmei; Fan, Yun

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► The olive-like tetragonal α-Nd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} was gained with EDTA assisted hydrothermal method. ► The product was characterized by XRD, XPS, FTIR, FESEM, and PL. ► The possible formation mechanism for olive-like α-Nd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} was proposed. ► The PL in visible region of the olive-like α-Nd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} was studied. -- Abstract: The olive-like tetragonal α-Nd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} was obtained by a convenient and facile complex agent assisted hydrothermal method. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and photoluminescence (PL). The possible formation mechanism of the olive-like α-Nd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} was proposed. The photoluminescence property in visible region of the olive-like tetragonal α-Nd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} was studied.

  3. Ag2Mo3O10 Nanorods Decorated with Ag2S Nanoparticles: Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity, Photostability, and Charge Transfer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianjie; Liu, Fenglin; Yan, Xiaodong; Yang, Yang; Chen, Qian; Wan, Juan; Tian, Lihong; Xia, Qinghua; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-12-14

    Ag2Mo3O10 nanorods decorated with Ag2 S nanoparticles have been synthesized by an anion-exchange route. With thiourea as the sulfur source, sulfur ions replace [Mo3O10](2-) units of active sites on the surface of Ag2Mo3O10 nanorods, forming Ag2Mo3O10 nanorods decorated with Ag2S nanoparticles. This induces enhanced absorption in the visible-light region. Ag2 S nanoparticles decorate the surface of Ag2Mo3O10 nanorods uniformly with a suitable amount of thiourea. The Ag2S/Ag2Mo3O10 nanoheterostructure enhances the photocatalytic activity on the degradations of Rhodamine B and glyphosate under visible light. This enhancement is attributed to the improved absorption of visible light and effective separation of charge carriers in the nanoheterostructure. Meanwhile, the Ag2S/Ag2Mo3O10 nanoheterostructure displays good photocatalytic stability based on cyclic photocatalytic experiments.

  4. Preparation, crystal structure, and magnetic studies of Na 3Fe 2Mo 5O 16, a new oxide containing Mo 3O 13 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramnik, K. G.; Muessig, E.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2003-11-01

    The complex oxide Na 3Fe 2Mo 5O 16 has been synthesized, and its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (space group (SG) P-3 m1; a=5.7366(6) Å, c=22.038(3) Å; Z=2). The compound can be considered as a new structure type containing Mo 3O 13 cluster units, which can be derived from the Na 2In 2Mo 5O 16 structure model by doubling of the cell along the c-axis. Na 3Fe 2Mo 5O 16 crystallizes in centrosymmetric SG ( P-3 m1) and the positions of the sodium atoms are fully occupied in contrast to the proposed Na 2In 2Mo 5O 16 model SG ( P3 m1). Magnetic properties of Na 3Fe 2Mo 5O 16 were studied by superconducting quantum interference device measurements, revealing antiferromagnetic ordering below Tχmax=10(1) K. Thermal stability in air was investigated by in situ high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. Structural relationships to Na 2In 2Mo 5O 16 and NaFe(MoO 4) 2 are discussed.

  5. Monodispersed Ag3PO4 nanocrystals loaded on the surface of spherical Bi2MoO6 with enhanced photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang-Sen; Zhang, Wei-De

    2013-01-28

    Spherical Bi(2)MoO(6) nanoarchitectures with scale of 500 nm-2 μm were prepared by a solvothermal reaction using bismuth nitrate and ammonium molybdate as precursors. Ag(3)PO(4) nanoparticles were then deposited onto the surface of Bi(2)MoO(6)via a facile deposition-precipitation technique. The photocatalytic tests display that the Ag(3)PO(4)/Bi(2)MoO(6) nanocomposites possess a much higher rate for degradation of rhodamine B and methylene blue than the pure Ag(3)PO(4) nanoparticles and Bi(2)MoO(6) under visible light. The catalytic activity of the composite photocatalysts is greatly influenced by the loading level of Ag(3)PO(4). The 50 mol% Ag(3)PO(4)-loaded Bi(2)MoO(6) spheres exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity in both the decolorization of RhB and MB. The observed improvement in photocatalytic activity is associated with the extended absorption in the visible light region resulting from the Ag(3)PO(4) nanoparticles, and the effective separation of photogenerated carriers at the Ag(3)PO(4)/Bi(2)MoO(6) interfaces. In addition, the composite can be easily reclaimed by sedimentation without any loss of its stability. Moreover, the tests of radical scavengers confirmed that h(+) and ˙OH were the main reactive species for the degradation of RhB.

  6. Nanotube Li2MoO4: a novel and high-capacity material as a lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xudong; Lyu, Yingchun; Zhang, Zhihua; Li, Hong; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Zhao, Yanming; Kuang, Quan; Dong, Youzhong; Liang, Zhiyong; Fan, Qinghua; Chen, Liquan

    2014-10-01

    Carbon-coated Li2MoO4 hexagonal hollow nanotubes were fabricated via a facile sol-gel method involving the solution synthesis of Li2MoO4 with subsequent annealing under an inert atmosphere to decompose the organic carbon source. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of Li2MoO4 nanotubes. More significantly, we have found that Li2MoO4 can be used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). When evaluated as an anode material, the carbon-coated Li2MoO4 hollow nanotubes show an excellent electrochemical performance with a high reversible capacity (~550 mA h g-1) after 23 cycles, good rate capability and cycling stability. Meanwhile, carbon-free Li2MoO4 sample, fabricated via a solid state reaction, was also prepared for comparison. The Li storage mechanism has been investigated in-detail by advanced XPS, in situ XRD and HRTEM.

  7. Role of P2Y12 Receptor in Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqi; Zhang, Si; Ding, Zhongren

    2017-01-01

    P2Y12 receptor is a 342 amino acid Gi-coupled receptor predominantly expressed on platelets. P2Y12 receptor is physiologically activated by ADP and inhibits adenyl cyclase (AC) to decrease cyclic AMP (cAMP) level, resulting in platelet aggregation. It also activates PI3 kinase (PI3K) pathway leading to fibrinogen receptor activation, and may protect platelets from apoptosis. Abnormalities of P2Y12 receptor include congenital deficiencies or high activity in diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), exposing such patients to a prothrombotic condition. A series of clinical antiplatelet drugs, such as clopidogrel and ticagrelor, are designed as indirect or direct antagonists of P2Y12 receptor to reduce incidence of thrombosis mainly for patients of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are at high risk of thrombotic events. Studies on novel dual-/multi-target antiplatelet agents consider P2Y12 receptor as a promising part in combined targets. However, the clinical practical phenomena, such as "clopidogrel resistance" due to gene variations of cytochrome P450 or P2Y12 receptor constitutive activation, call for better antiplatelet agents. Researches also showed inverse agonist of P2Y12 receptor could play a better role over neutral antagonists. Personalized antiplatelet therapy is the most ideal destination for antiplatelet therapy in ACS patients with or without other underlying diseases like DM or CKD, however, there is still a long way to go.

  8. Luminescence and luminescence quenching of highly efficient Y2Mo4O15:Eu3+ phosphors and ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Janulevicius, Matas; Marmokas, Paulius; Misevicius, Martynas; Grigorjevaite, Julija; Mikoliunaite, Lina; Sakirzanovas, Simas; Katelnikovas, Arturas

    2016-01-01

    A good LED phosphor must possess strong enough absorption, high quantum yields, colour purity, and quenching temperatures. Our synthesized Y2Mo4O15:Eu3+ phosphors possess all of these properties. Excitation of these materials with near-UV or blue radiation yields bright red emission and the colour coordinates are relatively stable upon temperature increase. Furthermore, samples doped with 50% Eu3+ showed quantum yields up to 85%, what is suitable for commercial application. Temperature dependent emission spectra revealed that heavily Eu3+ doped phosphors possess stable emission up to 400 K and lose half of the efficiency only at 515 K. In addition, ceramic disks of Y2Mo4O15:75%Eu3+ phosphor with thickness of 0.71 and 0.98 mm were prepared and it turned out that they efficiently convert radiation of 375 and 400 nm LEDs to the red light, whereas combination with 455 nm LED yields purple colour. PMID:27180941

  9. Electronic properties of MoS2 / MoOx interfaces: Implications in Tunnel Field Effect Transistors and Hole Contacts

    DOE PAGES

    Santosh, K. C.; Longo, Roberto; Addou, Rafik; ...

    2016-09-26

    In an electronic device based on two dimensional (2D) transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), finding a low resistance metal contact is critical in order to achieve the desired performance. However, due to the unusual Fermi level pinning in metal/2D TMD interface, the performance is limited. Here, we investigate the electronic properties of TMDs and transition metal oxide (TMO) interfaces (MoS2/MoO3) using density functional theory (DFT). Our results demonstrate that, due to the large work function of MoO3 and the relative band alignment with MoS2, together with small energy gap, the MoS2/MoO3 interface is a good candidate for a tunnel field effectmore » (TFET)-type device. Moreover, if the interface is not stoichiometric because of the presence of oxygen vacancies in MoO3, the heterostructure is more suitable for p-type (hole) contacts, exhibiting an Ohmic electrical behavior as experimentally demonstrated for different TMO/TMD interfaces. Our results reveal that the defect state induced by an oxygen vacancy in the MoO3 aligns with the valance band of MoS2, showing an insignificant impact on the band gap of the TMD. This result highlights the role of oxygen vacancies in oxides on facilitating appropriate contacts at the MoS2 and MoOx (x < 3) interface, which consistently explains the available experimental observations.« less

  10. Electronic properties of MoS2/MoOx interfaces: Implications in Tunnel Field Effect Transistors and Hole Contacts.

    PubMed

    K C, Santosh; Longo, Roberto C; Addou, Rafik; Wallace, Robert M; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2016-09-26

    In an electronic device based on two dimensional (2D) transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), finding a low resistance metal contact is critical in order to achieve the desired performance. However, due to the unusual Fermi level pinning in metal/2D TMD interface, the performance is limited. Here, we investigate the electronic properties of TMDs and transition metal oxide (TMO) interfaces (MoS2/MoO3) using density functional theory (DFT). Our results demonstrate that, due to the large work function of MoO3 and the relative band alignment with MoS2, together with small energy gap, the MoS2/MoO3 interface is a good candidate for a tunnel field effect (TFET)-type device. Moreover, if the interface is not stoichiometric because of the presence of oxygen vacancies in MoO3, the heterostructure is more suitable for p-type (hole) contacts, exhibiting an Ohmic electrical behavior as experimentally demonstrated for different TMO/TMD interfaces. Our results reveal that the defect state induced by an oxygen vacancy in the MoO3 aligns with the valance band of MoS2, showing an insignificant impact on the band gap of the TMD. This result highlights the role of oxygen vacancies in oxides on facilitating appropriate contacts at the MoS2 and MoOx (x < 3) interface, which consistently explains the available experimental observations.

  11. Electronic properties of MoS2/MoOx interfaces: Implications in Tunnel Field Effect Transistors and Hole Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K. C., Santosh; Longo, Roberto C.; Addou, Rafik; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2016-09-01

    In an electronic device based on two dimensional (2D) transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), finding a low resistance metal contact is critical in order to achieve the desired performance. However, due to the unusual Fermi level pinning in metal/2D TMD interface, the performance is limited. Here, we investigate the electronic properties of TMDs and transition metal oxide (TMO) interfaces (MoS2/MoO3) using density functional theory (DFT). Our results demonstrate that, due to the large work function of MoO3 and the relative band alignment with MoS2, together with small energy gap, the MoS2/MoO3 interface is a good candidate for a tunnel field effect (TFET)-type device. Moreover, if the interface is not stoichiometric because of the presence of oxygen vacancies in MoO3, the heterostructure is more suitable for p-type (hole) contacts, exhibiting an Ohmic electrical behavior as experimentally demonstrated for different TMO/TMD interfaces. Our results reveal that the defect state induced by an oxygen vacancy in the MoO3 aligns with the valance band of MoS2, showing an insignificant impact on the band gap of the TMD. This result highlights the role of oxygen vacancies in oxides on facilitating appropriate contacts at the MoS2 and MoOx (x < 3) interface, which consistently explains the available experimental observations.

  12. Electronic properties of MoS2/MoOx interfaces: Implications in Tunnel Field Effect Transistors and Hole Contacts

    PubMed Central

    K. C., Santosh; Longo, Roberto C.; Addou, Rafik; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2016-01-01

    In an electronic device based on two dimensional (2D) transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), finding a low resistance metal contact is critical in order to achieve the desired performance. However, due to the unusual Fermi level pinning in metal/2D TMD interface, the performance is limited. Here, we investigate the electronic properties of TMDs and transition metal oxide (TMO) interfaces (MoS2/MoO3) using density functional theory (DFT). Our results demonstrate that, due to the large work function of MoO3 and the relative band alignment with MoS2, together with small energy gap, the MoS2/MoO3 interface is a good candidate for a tunnel field effect (TFET)-type device. Moreover, if the interface is not stoichiometric because of the presence of oxygen vacancies in MoO3, the heterostructure is more suitable for p-type (hole) contacts, exhibiting an Ohmic electrical behavior as experimentally demonstrated for different TMO/TMD interfaces. Our results reveal that the defect state induced by an oxygen vacancy in the MoO3 aligns with the valance band of MoS2, showing an insignificant impact on the band gap of the TMD. This result highlights the role of oxygen vacancies in oxides on facilitating appropriate contacts at the MoS2 and MoOx (x < 3) interface, which consistently explains the available experimental observations. PMID:27666523

  13. How Changes in Anti-SD Sequences Would Affect SD Sequences in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Abolbaghaei, Akram; Silke, Jordan R; Xia, Xuhua

    2017-03-31

    The 3' end of the small ribosomal RNAs (ssu rRNA) in bacteria is directly involved in the selection and binding of mRNA transcripts during translation initiation via well-documented interactions between a Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence located upstream of the initiation codon and an anti-SD (aSD) sequence at the 3' end of the ssu rRNA. Consequently, the 3' end of ssu rRNA (3'TAIL) is strongly conserved among bacterial species because a change in the region may impact the translation of many protein-coding genes. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis differ in their 3' ends of ssu rRNA, being GAUCACCUCCUUA3' in E. coli and GAUCACCUCCUUUCU3' or GAUCACCUCCUUUCUA3' in B. subtilis Such differences in 3'TAIL lead to species-specific SDs (designated SDEc for E. coli and SDBs for B. subtilis) that can form strong and well-positioned SD/aSD pairing in one species but not in the other. Selection mediated by the species-specific 3'TAIL is expected to favour SDBs against SDEc in B. subtilis but favour SDEc against SDBs in E. coli Among well-positioned SDs, SDEc is used more in E. coli than in B. subtilis, and SDBs more in B. subtilis than in E. coli Highly expressed genes and genes of high translation efficiency tend to have longer SDs than lowly expressed genes and genes with low translation efficiency in both species, but more so in B. subtilis than in E. coli Both species overuse SDs matching the bolded part of 3'TAIL shown above. The 3'TAIL difference contributes to host-specificity of phages.

  14. The Independent Distorting Ability of the Enhancer of Segregation Distortion, E(sd), in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Temin, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Segregation distortion is a meiotic drive system, discovered in wild populations, in which males heterozygous for an SD chromosome and a sensitive SD(+) homolog transmit the SD chromosome almost exclusively. SD represents a complex of three closely linked loci in the centromeric region of chromosome 2: Sd, the Segregation distorter gene; E(SD), the Enhancer of Segregation Distortion, required for full expression of drive; and Rsp, the target for the action of Sd, existing in a continuum of states classifiable into sensitive (Rsp(s)) and insensitive (Rsp(i)). In an SD/SD(+) male which is Sd E(SD) Rsp(i)/Sd(+) E(SD)(+) Rsp(s), the Sd and E(SD) elements act jointly to induce the dysfunction of those spermatids receiving the Rsp(s) chromosome. By manipulating the number of copies and the position of the Enhancer region, I demonstrated that: (1) E(SD), whether in its normal position or translocated to the Y chromosome, is able to enhance the degree of Sd-caused distortion in a dosage-dependent manner; (2) even in the absence of Sd, the E(SD) allele in two doses can cause significant distortion, in Sd(+) or Df(Sd)-bearing genotypes; (3) quantitative differences among Enhancers of different sources suggest allelic variation at E(SD), which could account at least in part for differences among wild SD chromosomes in strength of distortion; (4) E(SD)/E(SD)-mediated distortion, like that of Sd, is directed at the Rsp target, whether Rsp is on the second or the Y chromosome; (5) E(SD), like Sd, is suppressed by an unlinked dominant suppressor of SD action. These results show that E(SD) is independently capable of acting on Rsp and is not a simple modifier of the action of Sd. E(SD) provides an example of a trans-acting gene embedded in heterochromatin that can interact with another heterochromatic gene, Rsp, as well as parallel the effect of a euchromatic gene, Sd. PMID:1906417

  15. Microscopic Shell Model Calculations for sd-Shell Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Bruce R.; Dikmen, Erdal; Maris, Pieter; Shirokov, Andrey M.; Smirnova, Nadya A.; Vary, James P.

    Several techniques now exist for performing detailed and accurate calculations of the structure of light nuclei, i.e., A ≤ 16. Going to heavier nuclei requires new techniques or extensions of old ones. One of these is the so-called No Core Shell Model (NCSM) with a Core approach, which involves an Okubo-Lee-Suzuki (OLS) transformation of a converged NCSM result into a single major shell, such as the sd-shell. The obtained effective two-body matrix elements can be separated into core and single-particle (s.p.) energies plus residual two-body interactions, which can be used for performing standard shell-model (SSM) calculations. As an example, an application of this procedure will be given for nuclei at the beginning ofthe sd-shell.

  16. What's the Nature of sdA Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelisoli, I.; Kepler, S. O.; Koester, D.; Romero, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    White dwarfs with log g lower than 7.0 are called Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs (ELMs). They were first found as companions to pulsars, then to other white dwarfs and main sequence stars (The ELM Survey: 2010 to 2016), and can only be formed in interacting binaries in the age of the Universe. In our SDSS DR12 white dwarf catalog (Kepler et al. 2016), we found a few thousand stars in the effective temperature and surface gravity ranges attributed to ELMs. We have called these objects sdAs, alluding to their narrow hydrogen line spectra showing sub-main sequence log g. One possible explanation for the sdAs is that they are ELMs. Increasing the ELMs sample would help constrain the number of close binaries in the Galaxy. Interestingly, if they turn out to be A stars with an overestimated log g, the distance modulus would put these young stars in the Galaxy's halo.

  17. Stochastic Dynamic Mixed-Integer Programming (SD-MIP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-05

    door to stochastic optimization models, which are typically dynamic in nature. This project lays the foundation for stochastic dynamic mixed...project lays the foundation for stochastic dynamic mixed-integer and linear programming (SD-MIP). This project has produced several new ideas in...models. Recent research has opened the door to stochastic optimization models, which are typically dynamic in nature. This project lays the foundation for

  18. Evaluation of microvision SD2500 scanning laser display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; Dennis, Scott J.

    2006-05-01

    Microvision's Spectrum TM SD2500 is a candidate technology for the Modular Integrated Helmet Display System (MIHDS)program. This HMD design is intended to provide a full-color, see-through, daylight and night-readable, moderate-resolution (800X600 pixels) display. The employed technology is that of scanning lasers. This paper presents the testing results for the latest version of this prototype system.

  19. Shell Model Depiction of Isospin Mixing in sd Shell

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Yi Hua; Smirnova, Nadya A.; Caurier, Etienne

    2011-11-30

    We constructed a new empirical isospin-symmetry breaking (ISB) Hamiltonian in the sd(1s{sub 1/2}, 0d{sub 5/2} and 0d{sub 3/2}) shell-model space. In this contribution, we present its application to two important case studies: (i){beta}-delayed proton emission from {sup 22}Al and (ii) isospin-mixing correction to superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}-decay ft-values.

  20. sd(2) Graphene: Kagome band in a hexagonal lattice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Miao; Liu, Zheng; Ming, Wenmei; Wang, Zhengfei; Liu, Feng

    2014-12-05

    Graphene, made of sp^{2} hybridized carbon, is characterized with a Dirac band, representative of its underlying 2D hexagonal lattice. The fundamental understanding of graphene has recently spurred a surge in the search for 2D topological quantum phases in solid-state materials. Here, we propose a new form of 2D material, consisting of sd^{2} hybridized transition metal atoms in hexagonal lattice, called sd^{2} "graphene." The sd^{2} graphene is characterized by bond-centered electronic hopping, which transforms the apparent atomic hexagonal lattice into the physics of a kagome lattice that may exhibit a wide range of topological quantum phases. Based on first-principles calculations, room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall states with an energy gap of ∼0.1  eV are demonstrated for one such lattice made of W, which can be epitaxially grown on a semiconductor surface of 1/3 monolayer Cl-covered Si(111), with high thermodynamic and kinetic stability.

  1. High-temperature behavior of dicesium molybdate Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}: Implications for fast neutron reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wallez, Gilles; Raison, Philippe E.; Smith, Anna L.; Clavier, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    Dicesium molybdate (Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4})'s thermal expansion and crystal structure have been investigated herein by high temperature X ray diffraction in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy. This first crystal-chemical insight at high temperature is aimed at predicting the thermostructural and thermomechanical behavior of this oxide formed by the accumulation of Cs and Mo fission products at the periphery of nuclear fuel rods in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Within the temperature range of the fuel's rim, Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} becomes hexagonal P6{sub 3}/mmc, with disordered MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra and 2D distribution of Cs–O bonds that makes thermal axial expansion both large (50≤α{sub l}≤70 10{sup −6} °C{sup −1}, 500–800 °C) and highly anisotropic (α{sub c}−α{sub a}=67×10{sup −6} °C{sup −1}, hexagonal form). The difference with the fuel's expansion coefficient is of potential concern with respect to the cohesion of the Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} surface film and the possible release of cesium radionuclides in accidental situations. - Graphical abstract: The weakness of the Cs–O bonds and the disordering of the MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra array in the high-temperature form are responsible for the huge thermal expansion of Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} along the c-axis. - Highlights: • Thermomechanical behavior of Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} fission products compound is studied. • High-temperature form of Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is characterized by XRD and Raman. • Thermal expansion appears very high and anisotropic. • Cohesion between Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and nuclear fuel seems questionable, and Cs release is expected.

  2. Structural investigation of R2Mo4O15 (R=La, Nd, Sm), and polymorphs of the R2Mo4O15 (R=rare earth) family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruke, H.; Yamase, T.

    2003-07-01

    Pyrolysis of rare earth (R) polyoxomolybdate, [R2(H2O)12Mo8O27].xH2O (R=La, Nd and Sm), at 750°C for 2-8h results in crystallization of R2Mo4O15 compounds. β-La2Mo4O15 crystallizes together with an α-form in monoclinic P21/a (No. 14), /a=13.8893(5), /b=13.0757(4), /c=20.0927(8)Å, /β=95.199(2)°, /V=3634.1(2)Å3, /Z=12, R1(I>2σ(I))=0.048, Rw (all data)=0.116. The structure is built up with {LaOn} (/n=9, 10) and {MoOn'} (/n'=4-6) polyhedral units. The {LaOn} units are polymerized into a linear {La6O39}∞ chain, while the {MoOn} are connected together to form {Mo4O15} and {Mo7O26} groups. The structure can be related to the /α-form by partial rearrangement of O atoms and small shifts of La and Mo atoms. The R2Mo4O15 (R=Nd and Sm) compounds are isomorphous with the previously reported R=Eu and Gd analogs, crystallizing in triclinic, /P1¯ (No. 2), /a=9.4989(5) and 9.4076(7), /b=11.0088(7) and 10.9583(8), /c=11.5665(6) and 11.5234(8)Å, /α=104.141(3) and 104.225(3), /β=109.838(3) and 109.603(3), /γ=108.912(3) and 108.999(3)°, /V=987.3(1) and 970.5(1)Å3, /Z=3, R1(I>2σ(I))=0.028 and 0.030, Rw (all data)= 0.079 and 0.094, respectively. The crystal structure is composed of {RO8} and {MoOn'} (/n'=4-6) polyhedral units. The molybdate units are condensed to give a corrugated {Mo4O17}∞ chain. The square-antiprismatic {RO8} units share their trigonal and square faces, forming {R2O13} and {R2O12} groups, respectively. A very short R⋯R distance (3.557(6)Å for R=Nd; 3.4956(6)Å for R=Sm) is achieved in the latter unusual {R2O12} group. A common cationic arrangement was found in all the structures in the R2Mo4O15 family: a R-R pair with the shortest separation and surrounding 12 Mo atoms. The symmetry of the cationic arrangement was reduced with an increase of atomic number of R, viz. La>Ce, Pr>Nd-Gd~Tb, Ho.

  3. Spontaneous polarization and pyroelectric effect in the improper ferroelectrics-ferroelastics Gd2(MoO4)3 and Tb2(MoO4)3 at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyjasik, S.; Shaldin, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    The experimental variations in the spontaneous polarization ΔPs(T) and pyroelectric coefficient γs(T) for Gd2(MoO4)3 (GMO) and Tb2(MoO4)3 (TMO) at low temperatures reported here differ from those for intrinsic ferroelectrics. A fundamental difference is found in the repolarization behavior of samples of GMO and TMO at fixed temperatures of 300 and 4.2 K. While the single domain formation temperature essentially has no effect on the measurements for TMO, a fundamental difference is observed in the case of GMO: single domain formation in the latter at 4.2 K leads to an order of magnitude increase in ΔPs at T > 85 K and distinct anomalies are observed in γs(T), at one of which the pyroelectric coefficient reaches a record peak of 3 × 10-4 C/(m2.K) at T = 25 K. At T = 200 K the pyroelectric coefficients equal -1.45 and -1.8 in units of 10-6 C/(m2.K). Based on these results and taking published data on the rotational structural transformation in the (001) plane and symmetry considerations into account, we propose a crystal physical model for GMO-type improper ferroelectrics consisting of four mesotetrahedra, each of which is made up of three different types (a, b, c) of MoO4 coordination tetrahedra. The physical significance of the pseudodeviator coefficient Q12*, which initiates the phase transition at T > 433 K from one non-centrally symmetric phase (mm2) into another (4¯2m), is discussed in terms of this model.

  4. On the Components of Segregation Distortion in Drosophila Melanogaster. V. Molecular Analysis of the Sd Locus

    PubMed Central

    Powers, P. A.; Ganetzky, B.

    1991-01-01

    Segregation Distorter (SD) is a naturally occurring meiotic drive system comprising at least three distinct loci: Sd, Rsp and E(SD). Heterozygous SD/SD(+) males transmit the SD chromosome in vast excess over the normal homolog. The distorted transmission involves the induced dysfunction of the spermatids that receive the SD(+) chromosome. In the 220-kb region of DNA that contains the Sd gene, we identified a 5-kb tandem duplication that is uniquely associated with all SD chromosomes, absent in SD(+) chromosomes, and detectably altered in Sd revertants. On northern blots, genomic probes from the tandem duplication detect an SD-specific 4-kb transcript in addition to several smaller transcripts present in both SD and SD(+). Seven classes of cDNAs derived from these transcripts have been isolated. All of these cDNAs share extensive sequence identity at their 3' ends but differ at their 5' ends. Sequence analysis indicates that these cDNAs potentially encode four distinct, but related, polypeptides. Introduction of the tandem duplication into SD(+) flies by germline transformation did not confer the dominant gain-of-function Sd phenotype. This result, taken together with our analysis of the Sd cDNAs, suggests that the duplication is part of a much larger gene that encodes several different polypeptides. PMID:1936954

  5. Facile synthesis of Z-scheme graphitic-C3N4/Bi2MoO6 nanocomposite for enhanced visible photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiali; Dai, Kai; Zhang, Jinfeng; Geng, Lei; Liang, Changhao; Liu, Qiangchun; Zhu, Guangping; Chen, Chen

    2015-12-01

    The band engineering of visible-light-driven photocatalysts is a promising route for harnessing of effective solar energy to perform high chemical reactions and to treat environmental pollution. In this study, two narrow band gap semiconductor nanomaterials, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and Bi2MoO6, were selected and coupled to form series of g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6 photocatalysts. Their structure, light absorption wavelength range, charge transport properties and energy level were investigated. Through perfect manipulation of their composition, enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Z-scheme g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6 photocatalysts with efficient reduction of recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes was achieved. The optimized Z-scheme g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6 photocatalysts with 25 wt%g-C3N4 showed apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant kapp as high as 0.0688 min-1, which was 4.8 times and 8.2 times higher than that of g-C3N4 and Bi2MoO6 photocatalyst, respectively.

  6. Discrete Li-occupation versus pseudo-continuous Na-occupation and their relationship with structural change behaviors in Fe2(MoO4)3

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Ji-Li; Zhou, Yong-Ning; Shi, Si-Qi; Shadike, Zulipiya; Huang, Xuan-Qi; Luo, Jun; Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Li, Hong; Gu, Lin; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Zheng-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The key factors governing the single-phase or multi-phase structural change behaviors during the intercalation/deintercalation of guest ions have not been well studied and understood yet. Through systematic studies of orthorhombic Fe2(MoO4)3 electrode, two distinct guest ion occupation paths, namely discrete one for Li and pseudo-continuous one for Na, as well as their relationship with single-phase and two-phase modes for Na+ and Li+, respectively during the intercalation/deintercalation process have been demonstrated. For the first time, the direct atomic-scale observation of biphasic domains (discrete occupation) in partially lithiated Fe2(MoO4)3 and the one by one Na occupation (pseudo-continuous occupation) at 8d sites in partially sodiated Fe2(MoO4)3 are obtained during the discharge processes of Li/Fe2(MoO4)3 and Na/Fe2(MoO4)3 cells respectively. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies bring the new insights for the research and development of intercalation compounds as electrode materials for secondary batteries. PMID:25744589

  7. An Investigation on the Tribological Performances of the SiO2/MoS2 Hybrid Nanofluids for Magnesium Alloy-Steel Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongmei; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Bo; Wang, Qinghang; Xu, Junyao; Pan, Fusheng

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid nano-materials offer potential scope for an increasing numerous novel applications when engineered to deliver availably functional properties. In the present study, the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles with different mass ratios were employed as lubricant additives in the base oil, and their tribological properties were evaluated using a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer for magnesium alloy-steel contacts. The results demonstrate that the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles exhibit superior lubrication performances than individual nano-SiO2 or nano-MoS2 even in high load and diverse velocity cases. The optimal SiO2/MoS2 mixing ratio and the concentration of SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles in the base oil are 0.25:0.75 and 1.00-1.25 wt%, respectively. The excellent lubrication properties of the SiO2/MoS2 hybrid nanoparticles are attributed to the physical synergistic lubricating actions of nano-SiO2 and nano-MoS2 during the rubbing process.

  8. Pd-doped Bi2MoO6 plasmonic photocatalysts with enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangchao; Zhang, Zisheng

    2017-01-01

    Pd-doped Bi2MoO6 was prepared and investigated for the first time. The prepared samples were characterized by their crystal structures, chemical states, atomic compositions, optical properties and morphologies. The photocatalytic activities of prepared samples under visible light irradiation were determined by degradation of phenol, which is widely found in wastewater from many industrial processes and is difficult to destroy. The sample exhibiting the highest removal efficiency with respect to the degradation of phenol contained 2% Pd. The enhancement effect can be interpreted as the integrated effects of a reduction in the rate of electron-hole recombination, surface plasmon resonance, and production of Cl0. This work sheds light on the potential applications of noble metal nanoparticles in visible light-driven photocatalysis.

  9. Microstructure investigation of 13Cr-2Mo ODS steel components obtained by high voltage electric discharge compaction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bogachev, Igor; Yudin, Artem; Grigoryev, Evgeniy; Chernov, Ivan; Staltsov, Maxim; Khasanov, Oleg; Olevsky, Eugene

    2015-11-02

    Refractory oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr-2Mo steel powder was successfully consolidated to near theoretical density using high voltage electric discharge compaction. Cylindrical samples with relative density from 90% to 97% and dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 10–15 mm in height were obtained. Consolidation conditions such as pressure and voltage were varied in some ranges to determine the optimal compaction regime. Three different concentrations of yttria were used to identify its effect on the properties of the samples. It is shown that the utilized ultra-rapid consolidation process in combination with high transmitted energy allows obtaining high density compacts, retaining the initial structure with minimal grain growth. The experimental results indicate some heterogeneity of the structure which may occur in the external layers of the tested samples due to various thermal and electromagnetic in-processing effects. As a result, the choice of the optimal parameters of the consolidation enables obtaining samples of acceptable quality.

  10. Energy landscape and band-structure tuning in realistic MoS2/MoSe2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, Gabriel C.; Hine, Nicholas D. M.

    2015-05-01

    While monolayer forms of two-dimensional materials are well characterized both experimentally and theoretically, properties of bilayer heterostructures are not nearly so well known. We employ high-accuracy linear-scaling density functional theory calculations utilizing nonlocal van der Waals functionals to explore the possible constructions of the MoS2/MoSe2 interface. Utilizing large supercells, we vary rotation, translation, and separation of the layers without introducing unrealistic strain. The energy landscape shows very low variations under rotation, with no strongly preferred alignments. By unfolding the spectral function into the primitive cells, we show that the monolayers are more independent than in homo-bilayers and that the electronic band structure of each layer is tunable through rotation, thus influencing hole effective masses.

  11. Magnetic Properties of Hard Magnetic Alloy Fe - 28% Cr - 13.4% Co - 2% Mo - 0.5% Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vompe, T. A.; Milyaev, I. M.; Yusupov, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The method of regression analysis is used to obtain equations describing the dependences of magnetic hysteresis properties of magnetically hard powder alloy Fe - 28% Cr - 13.4% Co - 2% Mo - 0.5% Si on regimes of thermomagnetic treatment (the temperatures of the start of the treatment and the rates of cooling in magnetic field). The determined treatment modes make it possible to obtain in an alloy with a coercive force H c up to 40 kA/m, a residual induction B r up to 1.2 T, and a maximum energy product ( BH)max up to 25 kJ/m3. The alloy may find application in the production of rotors of synchronous hysteresis-reluctance motors.

  12. Oxidation and alpha-case formation in Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–2Mo alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddam, Raghuveer; Sefer, Birhan; Pederson, Robert; Antti, Marta-Lena

    2015-01-15

    Isothermal heat treatments in ambient air were performed on wrought Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–2Mo (Ti-6242) material at 500, 593 and 700°C for times up to 500 h. In the presence of oxygen at elevated temperatures simultaneous reactions occurred in Ti-6242 alloy, which resulted in the formation of an oxide scale and a layer with higher oxygen concentration (termed as alpha-case). Total weight gain analysis showed that there was a transition in the oxidation kinetics. At 500°C, the oxidation kinetics obeyed a cubic relationship up to 200 h and thereafter changed to parabolic at prolonged exposure times. At 593°C, it followed a parabolic relationship. After heat treatment at 700°C, the oxidation obeyed a parabolic relationship up to 200 h and thereafter changed to linear at prolonged exposure times. The observed transition is believed to be due to the differences observed in the oxide scale. The activation energy for parabolic oxidation was estimated to be 157 kJ/mol. In addition, alpha-case layer was evaluated using optical microscope, electron probe micro-analyser and microhardness tester. The thickness of the alpha-case layer was found to be a function of temperature and time, increasing proportionally, and following a parabolic relationship. The activation energy for the formation of alpha-case layer was estimated to be 153 kJ/mol. - Highlights: • Transition in oxidation kinetics was observed in Ti–6Al–2Sn–4Zr–2Mo alloy in the temperature range 500–700°C. • The activation energy for parabolic oxidation and for alpha-case formation is about 157 kJ/mol and 153 kJ/mol. • Thickness of alpha-case layer estimated by optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis is comparable.

  13. ZrO2/MoS2 heterojunction photocatalysts for efficient photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar Vattikuti, Surya Veerendra; Byon, Chan; Reddy, Chandragiri Venkata

    2016-10-01

    We report a simple solution-chemistry approach for the synthesis of ZrO2/MoS2 hybrid photocatalysts, which contain MoS2 as a cocatalyst. The material is usually obtained by a wet chemical method using ZrO(NO3)2 or (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O and C8H6S as precursors. The structural features of obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (TG-DTA), N2 adsorption-desorption, and photoluminescence (PL). The influence on the photocatalytic activity of the MoS2 cocatalyst concentration with ZrO2 nanoparticles was studied. The MZr-2 hybrid sample had the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), which was 8.45 times higher than that of pristine ZrO2 ascribed to high specific surface area and absorbance efficiency. Recycling experiments revealed that the reusability of the MZr-2 hybrid was due to the low photocorrosive effect and good catalytic stability. PL spectra confirmed the electronic interaction between ZrO2 and MoS2. The photoinduced electrons could be easily transferred from CB of ZrO2 to the MoS2 cocatalyst, which facilitate effective charge separation and enhanced the photocatalytic degradation in the UV region. A photocatalytic mechanism is proposed. It is believed that the ZrO2/MoS2 hybrid structure has promise as a photocatalyst with low cost and high efficiency for photoreactions.

  14. Confinement orientation effects in S/D tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Bailon, C.; Sampedro, C.; Gámiz, F.; Godoy, A.; Donetti, L.

    2017-02-01

    The most extensive research of scaled electronic devices involves the inclusion of quantum effects in the transport direction as transistor dimensions approach nanometer scales. Moreover, it is necessary to study how these mechanisms affect different transistor architectures to determine which one can be the best candidate to implement future nodes. This work implements Source-to-Drain Tunneling mechanism (S/D tunneling) in a Multi-Subband Ensemble Monte Carlo (MS-EMC) simulator showing the modification in the distribution of the electrons in the subbands, and, consequently, in the potential profile due to different confinement direction between DGSOIs and FinFETs.

  15. Development of selective agonists and antagonists of P2Y receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei A.; de Castro, Sonia; Harden, T. Kendall; Ko, Hyojin

    2008-01-01

    Although elucidation of the medicinal chemistry of agonists and antagonists of the P2Y receptors has lagged behind that of many other members of group A G protein-coupled receptors, detailed qualitative and quantitative structure–activity relationships (SARs) were recently constructed for several of the subtypes. Agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors are now known. Selective nonnucleotide antagonists were reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y11, P2Y12, and P2Y13 receptors. At the P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors, nucleotide agonists (5′-diphosphate derivatives) were converted into antagonists of nanomolar affinity by altering the phosphate moieties, with a focus particularly on the ribose conformation and substitution pattern. Nucleotide analogues with conformationally constrained ribose-like rings were introduced as selective receptor probes for P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors. Screening chemically diverse compound libraries has begun to yield new lead compounds for the development of P2Y receptor antagonists, such as competitive P2Y12 receptor antagonists with antithrombotic activity. Selective agonists for the P2Y4, P2Y11, and P2Y13 receptors and selective antagonists for P2Y4 and P2Y14 receptors have not yet been identified. The P2Y14 receptor appears to be the most restrictive of the class with respect to modification of the nucleobase, ribose, and phosphate moieties. The continuing process of ligand design for the P2Y receptors will aid in the identification of new clinical targets. PMID:18600475

  16. Size effect on the magnetic and electronic properties of the monolayer lateral hetero-junction WS2-MoS2 nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yan-Ni; Xia, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Sheng-Li

    2016-05-01

    By using the VASP, we studied the magnetic and electronic properties of the monolayer lateral hetero-junction WS2-MoS2-nanoribbons (WS2-MoS2-NRs). Our results show that the NRs' edge chirality and width affect significantly its magnetic and electronic properties. The monolayer lateral hetero-junction ZZ-WS2-MoS2-NRs(ZZ: zigzag) exhibitmetallic behavior and have considerable magnetic moment. Their magnetic moments decrease in the order of Nz = 2, 6 and 4 (the width of NRs). While, the magnetic moment decreases with the increased rz (the number of the Mo-S chains, rz ≠ 0 and rz ≠ Nz) at the same width Nz. The NA-AC-WS2-NR (AC: armchair) and NA-AC-WS2-MoS2-NR-1 (the number of the Mo-S chain is 1) show metallic behavior when NA = 3 (the width of NRs). The other monolayer lateral hetero-junction AC-WS2-MoS2-NRs remain the nonmagnetic and semiconductingbehavior as bulk. But they are indirect band-gap except for the NA = 3, rA = 2 (the number of the Mo-S chains) and NA = 7, rA = 0 when NA < 9. However they are direct band-gap when NA ≥ 9. Their lowest and highest band gaps are 0.150 eV and 0.581 eV, respectively. These unique magnetic and electronic properties will provide guidanceon the WS2-MoS2 hetero-junction application in nanodevice.

  17. Phase formation in the Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-In{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system and crystal structures of new compounds K{sub 3}InMo{sub 4}O{sub 15} and LiK{sub 2}In(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Khal'baeva, Klara M.; Solodovnikov, Sergey F.; Khaikina, Elena G.; Kadyrova, Yuliya M.; Solodovnikova, Zoya A.; Basovich, Olga M.

    2012-03-15

    XRD study of solid-phase interaction in the Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-In{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system was performed. The boundary K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-In{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system is an non-quasibinary join of the K{sub 2}O-In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MoO{sub 3} system where a new polymolybdate K{sub 3}InMo{sub 4}O{sub 15} isotypic to K{sub 3}FeMo{sub 4}O{sub 15} was found. In the structure (a=33.2905(8), b=5.8610(1), c=15.8967(4) A, {beta}=90.725(1) Degree-Sign , sp. gr. C2/c, Z=8, R(F)=0.0407), InO{sub 6} octahedra, Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} diortho groups and MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra form infinite ribbons {l_brace}[In(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}(Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7})]{sup 3-}{r_brace}{sub {infinity}} along the b-axis. Between the chains, 8- to 10-coordinate potassium cations are located. A subsolidus phase diagram of the Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-In{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system was constructed and a novel triple molybdate LiK{sub 2}In(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} was revealed. Its crystal structure (a=7.0087(2), b=9.2269(3), c=10.1289(3) A, {beta}=107.401(1) Degree-Sign , sp. gr. P2{sub 1}, Z=2, R(F)=0.0280) contains an open framework of vertex-shared MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra, InO{sub 6} octahedra and LiO{sub 5} tetragonal pyramids with nine- and seven-coordinate potassium ions in the framework channels. - Graphical abstract: Exploring the Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-In{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system showed its partial non-quasibinarity and revealed new compounds K{sub 3}InMo{sub 4}O{sub 15} (isotypic to K{sub 3}FeMo{sub 4}O{sub 15}) and LiK{sub 2}In(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} which were structurally studied. An open framework of the latter is formed by vertex-shared MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra, InO{sub 6} octahedra and LiO{sub 5} tetragonal pyramids. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subsolidus phase relations in the Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-In{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} system were explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}-In

  18. Photocatalytic activity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} composite in Rhodamine B decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jue; Zeng, Min E-mail: rhyu@buaa.edu.cn; Dong, Hangrong; Liu, Xiaofang; Yu, Ronghai E-mail: rhyu@buaa.edu.cn; Wang, Yu; He, Jun

    2015-05-07

    Flower-like Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} has been prepared via a facile two-step thermosynthesis method. The composite displays high photocatalytic activity in Rhodamine B decomposition under visible light irradiation. Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} with flower-like structure that has high specific surface area guarantees excellent photocatalytic performance. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} retards electron-hole recombination that contributes to photocatalytic property. Further, the stable composite exhibits remarkable reusability due to the incorporation of magnetic particle.

  19. P2Y nucleotide receptors: Promise of therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP and UTP, have distinct signaling roles through a class of G protein-coupled receptors, termed P2Y. However, the receptor ligands are typically charged molecules of low bioavailability and stability in vivo. Recent progress in the development of selective agonists and antagonists for P2Y receptors and study of knockout mice have led to new drug concepts based on these receptors. The rapidly accelerating progress in this field has already resulted in drug candidates for cystic fibrosis, dry eye disease, and thrombosis. On the horizon are novel treatments of cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, and neurodegeneration. PMID:20594935

  20. Open sd-shell nuclei from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Gustav R.; Signoracci, Angelo J.; Hagen, Gaute; Navratil, Petr

    2016-07-05

    We extend the ab initio coupled-cluster effective interaction (CCEI) method to open-shell nuclei with protons and neutrons in the valence space, and compute binding energies and excited states of isotopes of neon and magnesium. We employ a nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interaction from chiral effective field theory evolved to a lower cutoff via a similarity renormalization group transformation. We find good agreement with experiment for binding energies and spectra, while charge radii of neon isotopes are underestimated. For the deformed nuclei 20Ne and 24Mg we reproduce rotational bands and electric quadrupole transitions within uncertainties estimated from an effective field theory for deformed nuclei, thereby demonstrating that collective phenomena in sd-shell nuclei emerge from complex ab initio calculations.

  1. Open sd-shell nuclei from first principles

    DOE PAGES

    Jansen, Gustav R.; Signoracci, Angelo J.; Hagen, Gaute; ...

    2016-07-05

    We extend the ab initio coupled-cluster effective interaction (CCEI) method to open-shell nuclei with protons and neutrons in the valence space, and compute binding energies and excited states of isotopes of neon and magnesium. We employ a nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interaction from chiral effective field theory evolved to a lower cutoff via a similarity renormalization group transformation. We find good agreement with experiment for binding energies and spectra, while charge radii of neon isotopes are underestimated. For the deformed nuclei 20Ne and 24Mg we reproduce rotational bands and electric quadrupole transitions within uncertainties estimated from an effective field theory formore » deformed nuclei, thereby demonstrating that collective phenomena in sd-shell nuclei emerge from complex ab initio calculations.« less

  2. Charge radii of neon isotopes across the sd neutron shell

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, K.; Geithner, W.; Kappertz, S.; Kloos, S.; Kotrotsios, G.; Neugart, R.; Wilbert, S.; Kowalska, M.; Keim, M.; Blaum, K.; Lievens, P.; Simon, H.

    2011-09-15

    We report on the changes in mean square charge radii of unstable neon nuclei relative to the stable {sup 20}Ne, based on the measurement of optical isotope shifts. The studies were carried out using collinear laser spectroscopy on a fast beam of neutral neon atoms. High sensitivity on short-lived isotopes was achieved thanks to nonoptical detection based on optical pumping and state-selective collisional ionization, which was complemented by an accurate determination of the beam kinetic energy. The new results provide information on the structural changes in the sequence of neon isotopes all across the neutron sd shell, ranging from the proton drip line nucleus and halo candidate {sup 17}Ne up to the neutron-rich {sup 28}Ne in the vicinity of the ''island of inversion.'' Within this range the charge radius is smallest for {sup 24}Ne with N=14 corresponding to the closure of the neutron d{sub 5/2} shell, while it increases toward both neutron shell closures, N=8 and N=20. The general trend of the charge radii correlates well with the deformation effects which are known to be large for several neon isotopes. In the neutron-deficient isotopes, structural changes arise from the onset of proton-halo formation for {sup 17}Ne, shell closure in {sup 18}Ne, and clustering effects in {sup 20,21}Ne. On the neutron-rich side the transition to the island of inversion plays an important role, with the radii in the upper part of the sd shell confirming the weakening of the N=20 magic number. The results add new information to the radii systematics of light nuclei where data are scarce because of the small contribution of nuclear-size effects to the isotope shifts which are dominated by the finite-mass effect.

  3. Anion-exchange engineering of cookie-like Bi2S3/Bi2MoO6 heterostructure for enhanced photocatalytic activities and gas-sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yu; Li, Xiaoguang; Chu, Hang; Ge, Yuancai; Dong, Pei; Baines, Robert; Pei, Liyuan; Ye, Mingxin; Shen, Jianfeng

    2017-04-01

    Developing efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts will advance alternative energy technologies, ultimately curbing the environmental pollution associated with fossil fuels. In this work, Bi2S3/Bi2MoO6 photocatalysts with a heterogeneous cookie-like structure were prepared for the first time by in-situ anion exchange at relatively low temperatures. The catalysts exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity, which we attributed to the photocurrent response, a diminished recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and the existence of a large heterojunction interface. These governing factors were discerned by photoelectrochemical measurements, calculated energy band positions and photoluminescence spectra. Bi2S3/Bi2MoO6 nanocomposites also exhibit better performance in response to gas than bare Bi2MoO6 according to gas sensing tests. Our work, in relaying a feasible method to synthesize Bi2S3/Bi2MoO6-based heterojunction superstructures, and documents a universal preparation method of synthetic heterogeneous complexes, and provides necessary groundwork for the development of next generation semiconductor photocatalytic technology and gas sensor.

  4. Compatibility evaluation between La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} fast oxide-ion conductor and Ni-based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Corbel, Gwenael . E-mail: gwenael.corbel@univ-lemans.fr; Lacorre, Philippe

    2006-05-15

    The chemical reactivity of La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+} {sub {delta}} and nickel metal or nickel oxide with fast oxide-ion conductor La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} is investigated in the annealing temperature range between 600 and 1000 deg. C, using room temperature X-ray powder diffraction. Within the La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+} {sub {delta}} /La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} system, subsequent reaction is evidenced at relatively low annealing temperature (600 deg. C), with formation of La{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} and NiO. The reaction is complete at 1000 deg. C. At reverse, no reaction occurs between Ni or NiO and La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} up to 1000 deg. C. Together with a previous work [G. Corbel, S. Mestiri, P. Lacorre, Solid State Sci. 7 (2005) 1216], the current study shows that Ni-CGO cermets might be chemically and mechanically compatible anode materials to work with LAMOX electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells.

  5. A hierarchical Zn2Mo3O8 nanodots-porous carbon composite as a superior anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanping; Zhong, Yijun; Chen, Gao; Deng, Xiang; Cai, Rui; Li, Li; Shao, Zongping

    2016-08-04

    A hierarchical Zn2Mo3O8 nanodots-porous carbon composite has been successfully synthesized via the ingenious combination of ion exchange and molten salt strategies, and the composite exhibits remarkable performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Functionalized Congeners of P2Y1 Receptor Antagonists:

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, Sonia; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Hong, Kunlun; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Costanzi, Stefano; Hechler, Béatrice; Gachet, Christian; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    The P2Y{sub 1} receptor is a prothrombotic G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by ADP. Preference for the North (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of adenine nucleotide 3',5'-bisphosphate antagonists of the P2Y{sub 1} receptor was established by using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring as a ribose substitute. A series of covalently linkable N{sup 6}-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphates containing extended 2-alkynyl chains was designed, and binding affinity at the human (h) P2Y{sub 1} receptor determined. The chain of these functionalized congeners contained hydrophilic moieties, a reactive substituent, or biotin, linked via an amide. Variation of the chain length and position of an intermediate amide group revealed high affinity of carboxylic congener 8 (K{sub i} 23 nM) and extended amine congener 15 (K{sub i} 132 nM), both having a 2-(1-pentynoyl) group. A biotin conjugate 18 containing an extended {epsilon}-aminocaproyl spacer chain exhibited higher affinity than a shorter biotinylated analogue. Alternatively, click coupling of terminal alkynes of homologous 2-dialkynyl nucleotide derivatives to alkyl azido groups produced triazole derivatives that bound to the P2Y{sub 1} receptor following deprotection of the bisphosphate groups. The preservation of receptor affinity of the functionalized congeners was consistent with new P2Y{sub 1} receptor modeling and ligand docking. Attempted P2Y{sub 1} antagonist conjugation to PAMAM dendrimer carriers by amide formation or palladium-catalyzed reaction between an alkyne on the dendrimer and a 2-iodopurine-derivatized nucleotide was unsuccessful. A dialkynyl intermediate containing the chain length favored in receptor binding was conjugated to an azide-derivatized dendrimer, and the conjugate inhibited ADP-promoted human platelet aggregation. This is the first example of attaching a strategically functionalized P2Y receptor antagonist to a PAMAM dendrimer to

  7. Pressure-induced phase transition on K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}: A Raman scattering study and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Paraguassu, W.; Saraiva, G.D.; Guerini, S.; Freire, P.T.C.; Abagaro, B.T.O.; Mendes Filho, J.

    2012-12-15

    This work reports high pressure Raman scattering results on dipotassium molybdate (K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}). The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the vibrational properties of K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} has been investigated in the pressure range from 0.5 to 7.3 GPa. This study also indicates that K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} crystals exhibit a pressure-induced first-order phase transition at about 2.2 GPa from monoclinic to an unknown symmetry. Calculaions based on density-functional theory (DFT) unveiled the structural changes undergone by the K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} system under hydrostatic pressure. The phase transition is connected with the increase of the polyhedral KO{sub 6} distortion due to an increased anionic interaction as volume decrease, therefore leading to tiltings and/or rotations of the MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The consequence of such tiltings and/or rotations of the MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra is to increase the disorder of these units. The high-pressure phase transforms directly into the ambient-pressure phase as pressure is released. - Graphical Abstract: Dipotassium molybdate (K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) belongs to the class of single molybdates and tungstates with a general composition of the A{sub 2}MO{sub 4} (A=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs; {Mu}=Mo, W). At room temperature and ambient pressure, the crystal of K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is monoclinic and it belongs to the C2/m (C{sub 2h}{sup 3}) space group. This material is attracting a considerable attention due to its interesting structural and thermodynamic properties. This work reports a high pressure study on this system. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reports high pressure Raman scattering results on dipotassium molybdate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our study indicates a pressure-induced first-order phase transition at around 2.16 GPa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DFT calculations indicate that phase transition is connected with the increase of KO{sub 6} distortion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tiltings and/or rotations of the Mo

  8. Photoluminescence properties of a new orange–red emitting Sm{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 15} phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Huajuan; Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jing; Hei, Zhoufei; Li, Mengxue; Noh, Hyeon Mi; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Yu, Ruijin

    2015-08-15

    A series of novel Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 15}:xSm{sup 3+} ( (0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) phosphors for white light-emitting (W-LEDs) were successfully prepared by the solid state reaction technology at 973 K for 12 h. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectra were utilized to characterize the structure and luminescence properties of the as-synthesized phosphors. The emission spectra of the Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 15}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors consisted of some sharp emission peaks of Sm{sup 3+} ions centered at 565 nm, 605 nm, 650 nm, and 712 nm. The strongest one is located at 605 nm due to {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}–{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition of Sm{sup 3+}, generating bright orange–red light. The optimum dopant concentration of Sm{sup 3+} ions in Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 15}:xSm{sup 3+} is around 5 mol% and the critical transfer distance of Sm{sup 3+} is calculated as 23.32 Å. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of the Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 15}:0.05Sm{sup 3+} phosphors were located in the orange reddish region. The Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 15}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors may be potentially used as red phosphors for white light-emitting diodes. - Graphical abstract: The excitation spectrum of Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 15}:Sm{sup 3+} is composed of a broad band and some sharp f–f transitions. Under 407 nm excitation, the phosphor presents some sharp emission peaks of Sm{sup 3+} ions. - Highlights: • An orange–red emitting Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 15}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphor has been firstly synthesized. • Their structures, luminescent properties have also been investigated. • The optical absorption edge for the molybdate lies around 325 nm. • The CIE chromaticity coordinates were located in the orange reddish region.

  9. Effects of the solvent on the structure, morphology and photocatalytic properties of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} in the solvothermal process

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Jinhong; Che, Jiangang; Wu, Ling; Liu, Minghua

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Various nanostructure Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalysts have been prepared by a solvothermal process via simply altering the used solvent. It is revealed that the type of solvents has a strong influence on the morphology of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. This could be understood in terms of the reaction media effect on the crystal growth. The photocatalytic experiments for the decomposition of RhB demonstrate that the samples prepared by different solvents show different photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic activity is obtained by the sample with glycol as solvent. Highlights: ► The used solvent in the synthesis can affect the morphology and size of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. ► Different solvent in the reaction leads to different surface area and pore size. ► The highest photocatalytic activity is obtained by the sample prepared in glycol. ► The high activity is mainly due to the large surface area and small particle size. - Abstract: Visible-light-driven photocatalyst Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} was prepared by a solvothermal process with different kinds of solvent including water, isopropanol and ethylene glycol. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, N{sub 2}-sorption, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that the type of solvent has a strong influence on the morphologies and physico-chemical properties of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. Meanwhile, the formation mechanism of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} with various morphologies was discussed. The photocatalytic activities of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} photocatalysts were evaluated by the decomposition of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). It was found that the sample prepared with glycol as solvent showed the best performance in the photodegradation of RhB under visible light irradiation. This could be ascribed to the large surface area, unique morphology

  10. Nature of point defects on SiO2/Mo(112) thin films and their interaction with Au atoms.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Umberto; Giordano, Livia; Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2006-08-31

    We have studied by means of periodic DFT calculations the structure and properties of point defects at the surface of ultrathin silica films epitaxially grown on Mo(112) and their interaction with adsorbed Au atoms. For comparison, the same defects have been generated on an unsupported silica film with the same structure. Four defects have been considered: nonbridging oxygen (NBO, [triple bond]Si-O(*)), Si dangling bond (E' center, [triple bond]Si(*)), oxygen vacancy (V(O), [triple bond]Si-Si[triple bond]), and peroxo group ([triple bond]Si-O-O-Si[triple bond]), but only the NBO and the V(O) centers are likely to form on the SiO(2)/Mo(112) films under normal experimental conditions. The [triple bond]Si-O(*) center captures one electron from Mo forming a silanolate group, [triple bond]Si-O(-), sign of a direct interaction with the metal substrate. Apart from the peroxo group, which is unreactive, the other defects bind strongly the Au atom forming stable surface complexes, but their behavior may differ from that of the same centers generated on an unsupported silica film. This is true in particular for the two most likely defects considered, the nonbridging oxygen, [triple bond]Si-O(*), and the oxygen vacancy, [triple bond]Si-Si[triple bond].

  11. Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Dong; She, Xiaoyang; Du, Bobo; Yang, Dexing; Zhang, Wending; Song, Kun; Cui, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Biqiang; Peng, Tao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Few-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets are fabricated by a liquid exfoliation technique using sodium deoxycholate bile salt as surfactant, and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated based on a balanced twin-detector measurement scheme. It is demonstrated that both types of nanosheets exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption properties at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. By depositing the nanosheets on side polished fiber (SPF) or mixing the nanosheets with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution, SPF-WSe2 saturable absorber (SA), SPF-MoSe2 SA, PVA-WSe2 SA, and PVA-MoSe2 SA are successfully fabricated and further tested in erbium-doped fiber lasers. The SPF-based SA is capable of operating at the high pump regime without damage, and a train of 3252.65 MHz harmonically mode-locked pulses are obtained based on the SPF-WSe2 SA. Soliton mode locking operations are also achieved in the fiber laser separately with other three types of SAs, confirming that the WSe2 and MoSe2 nanosheets could act as cost-effective high-power SAs for ultrafast optics. PMID:27010509

  12. Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Mao, Dong; She, Xiaoyang; Du, Bobo; Yang, Dexing; Zhang, Wending; Song, Kun; Cui, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Biqiang; Peng, Tao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-03-24

    Few-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets are fabricated by a liquid exfoliation technique using sodium deoxycholate bile salt as surfactant, and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated based on a balanced twin-detector measurement scheme. It is demonstrated that both types of nanosheets exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption properties at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. By depositing the nanosheets on side polished fiber (SPF) or mixing the nanosheets with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution, SPF-WSe2 saturable absorber (SA), SPF-MoSe2 SA, PVA-WSe2 SA, and PVA-MoSe2 SA are successfully fabricated and further tested in erbium-doped fiber lasers. The SPF-based SA is capable of operating at the high pump regime without damage, and a train of 3252.65 MHz harmonically mode-locked pulses are obtained based on the SPF-WSe2 SA. Soliton mode locking operations are also achieved in the fiber laser separately with other three types of SAs, confirming that the WSe2 and MoSe2 nanosheets could act as cost-effective high-power SAs for ultrafast optics.

  13. Concentration quenching of praseodymium ions Pr(3+) in BaGd2(MoO4)4 crystals.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying; Tsuboi, Taiju; Huang, Yanlin; Huang, Wei

    2014-03-07

    The concentration effect on the photoluminescence (PL) of the praseodymium Pr(3+) ion is studied at 298-12 K for barium gadolinium molybdate (BaGd2(MoO4)4, called BGM) crystals with a wide Pr(3+) concentration range of 0.05-25.0 mol%. Three types of concentration dependences are observed for the emissions although all types show PL quenching at high concentrations. The first type (Type A) has the maximum PL intensity at about 10 mol% with a non-zero intensity at high concentrations, which is observed for the (3)P0 emissions except for emission at 621 nm. The second and third types (Type B-1 and B-2) have the maximum at about 1 mol% with a finite residual intensity and nearly zero intensity at high concentrations, respectively, which are observed for the 621 nm emission and all the (1)D2 emissions. It is suggested that the energy migration mechanism is responsible for Type A, while the non-resonant cross-relaxation is responsible for Type B-1 and the resonant cross-relaxation for Type B-2.

  14. Microstructure investigation of 13Cr-2Mo ODS steel components obtained by high voltage electric discharge compaction technique

    DOE PAGES

    Bogachev, Igor; Yudin, Artem; Grigoryev, Evgeniy; ...

    2015-11-02

    Refractory oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr-2Mo steel powder was successfully consolidated to near theoretical density using high voltage electric discharge compaction. Cylindrical samples with relative density from 90% to 97% and dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 10–15 mm in height were obtained. Consolidation conditions such as pressure and voltage were varied in some ranges to determine the optimal compaction regime. Three different concentrations of yttria were used to identify its effect on the properties of the samples. It is shown that the utilized ultra-rapid consolidation process in combination with high transmitted energy allows obtaining high density compacts, retaining themore » initial structure with minimal grain growth. The experimental results indicate some heterogeneity of the structure which may occur in the external layers of the tested samples due to various thermal and electromagnetic in-processing effects. As a result, the choice of the optimal parameters of the consolidation enables obtaining samples of acceptable quality.« less

  15. XANES characterization of UO2/Mo(Pd) thin films as models for epsilon-particles in spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denecke, M. A.; Petersmann, T.; Marsac, R.; Dardenne, K.; Vitova, T.; Prüßmann, T.; Borchert, M.; Bösenberg, U.; Falkenberg, G.; Wellenreuther, G.

    2013-04-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) is recorded for nano- and micro-particles formed in Mo doped UO2 thin films (TFs) prepared by in situ sputter co-deposition and 1000°C tempering. These UO2/Mo TFs are intended to serve as synthetic models for epsilon-particles in spent nuclear fuel. We find that when Si is used as substrate, nano-sized zero-valent Mo particles form as desired. However, these are embedded in USi3, which forms at the high temper temperatures. Micron-sized Mo-particles are formed when SiO2 is used as substrate. Using focussed X-ray beams of varying size (500μm, 25μm and 5μm), these particles are characterized to be predominantly hexavalent Mo oxides, potentially with tetrahedral coordinated [Mo(VI)O4]2- at the surface and a MoO3-like phase in the bulk. These TFs are poor synthetic models for spent fuel epsilon-particles but do offer the opportunity to study changes in surface structures in response to stress/charge as a function of particle size.

  16. Structural anomalies related to changes in the conduction mechanisms of α-Sm2(MoO4)3.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Afonso, C; González-Silgo, C; Torres, M E; Matesanz, E; Mujica, A

    2013-01-23

    Polycrystalline samples of α-phase samarium molybdate were prepared by solid-state synthesis and used for x-ray diffraction (from 300 to 1000 K) and dielectric spectroscopy (from 500 to 900 K and from 10(2) to 10(6) Hz). The electrical conductivity follows the universal dielectric response, and three different regimes of conduction (with semiconductor, polaronic, and ionic characteristics) were ascribed. The polaronic mechanism in the range from 600 to 810 K was probed using the overlapping large polaron model. Above 810 K, the application of scaling laws suggests an ionic conductivity. The thermal dependence of the lattice parameter a shows three different trends in correspondence with the three conduction regimes observed. An analysis using adapted symmetry modes facilitated the Rietveld refinement and the study of the thermal dependence of the distortion arising from the oxygen displacements. We suggest that the transversal displacements of oxygen atoms in Sm-O-Mo bridges joined to the elongation of tetrahedra can help to explain this anomalous behavior. From the calculated bond-valence contour maps, new sites for the oxygen atoms, at higher temperatures, were detected which favor oxygen motion and would then be related to the ionic conduction. This correlation has been compared and extended to α-Eu(2)(MoO(4))(3).

  17. Unipolar resistive switching characteristics and scaling behaviors in La2Mo2O9 thin films for nonvolatile memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Lin, G. T.; Luo, X.; Wei, R. H.; Zhu, X. B.; Song, W. H.; Dai, J. M.; Sun, Y. P.

    2016-12-01

    La2Mo2O9 (LMO) thin films have been deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition and the resistive switching (RS) characteristics of the Au/LMO/Pt devices has been investigated. The Au/LMO/Pt devices show excellent unipolar RS characteristics with high resistance ratio between high resistance state and low resistance state (LRS), good endurance, and retention performances. The results of temperature dependence of resistance and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that the observed RS characteristics can be explained by the formation and rupture of conducting filaments composed of oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, the plot of the reset current (IR) as a function of the third harmonic coefficient (B0) caused by Joule heating during the reset process shows scaling behavior with a power law of I R ∝ B0 - δ . The IR and reset power (PR) can also be scaled to the resistance in LRS (R0), i.e., I R ( P R ) ∝ R0 - α ( β ) . The observed scaling behaviors indicate the importance of the Joule heating for the RS characteristics of Au/LMO/Pt devices. These results demonstrate the potential application of LMO thin film in a nonvolatile memory device.

  18. Structural anomalies related to changes in the conduction mechanisms of α-Sm2(MoO4)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán-Afonso, C.; González-Silgo, C.; Torres, M. E.; Matesanz, E.; Mujica, A.

    2013-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of α-phase samarium molybdate were prepared by solid-state synthesis and used for x-ray diffraction (from 300 to 1000 K) and dielectric spectroscopy (from 500 to 900 K and from 102 to 106 Hz). The electrical conductivity follows the universal dielectric response, and three different regimes of conduction (with semiconductor, polaronic, and ionic characteristics) were ascribed. The polaronic mechanism in the range from 600 to 810 K was probed using the overlapping large polaron model. Above 810 K, the application of scaling laws suggests an ionic conductivity. The thermal dependence of the lattice parameter a shows three different trends in correspondence with the three conduction regimes observed. An analysis using adapted symmetry modes facilitated the Rietveld refinement and the study of the thermal dependence of the distortion arising from the oxygen displacements. We suggest that the transversal displacements of oxygen atoms in Sm-O-Mo bridges joined to the elongation of tetrahedra can help to explain this anomalous behavior. From the calculated bond-valence contour maps, new sites for the oxygen atoms, at higher temperatures, were detected which favor oxygen motion and would then be related to the ionic conduction. This correlation has been compared and extended to α-Eu2(MoO4)3.

  19. Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Dong; She, Xiaoyang; Du, Bobo; Yang, Dexing; Zhang, Wending; Song, Kun; Cui, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Biqiang; Peng, Tao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-03-01

    Few-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets are fabricated by a liquid exfoliation technique using sodium deoxycholate bile salt as surfactant, and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated based on a balanced twin-detector measurement scheme. It is demonstrated that both types of nanosheets exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption properties at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. By depositing the nanosheets on side polished fiber (SPF) or mixing the nanosheets with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution, SPF-WSe2 saturable absorber (SA), SPF-MoSe2 SA, PVA-WSe2 SA, and PVA-MoSe2 SA are successfully fabricated and further tested in erbium-doped fiber lasers. The SPF-based SA is capable of operating at the high pump regime without damage, and a train of 3252.65 MHz harmonically mode-locked pulses are obtained based on the SPF-WSe2 SA. Soliton mode locking operations are also achieved in the fiber laser separately with other three types of SAs, confirming that the WSe2 and MoSe2 nanosheets could act as cost-effective high-power SAs for ultrafast optics.

  20. Blister formation on 13Cr2MoNbVB ferritic-martensitic steel exposed to hydrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, A. V.; Tolstolutskaya, G. D.; Ruzhytskyi, V. V.; Voyevodin, V. N.; Kopanets, I. E.; Karpov, S. A.; Vasilenko, R. L.; Garner, F. A.

    2016-09-01

    The influence of pre-irradiation specimen deformation level on surface blister formation and sub-surface cracking of dual-phase 13Cr2MoNbVB ferritic-martensitic steel was studied using glow discharge hydrogen plasma with ion energy of 1 keV to fluences of 2 × 1025 H/m2. Protium was used for most studies, but deuterium was used for measuring the depth dependence of hydrogen diffusion. Formation of blisters was observed in the temperature range 230-340 K. It was found that pre-irradiation deformation caused changes in the threshold fluences of blister formation and also in blister size distribution. Subsurface cracks located on grain boundaries far beyond the implantation zone were formed concurrently with blisters, arising from hydrogen diffusion and trapping at defects. It was observed that cracks as long as 1 mm in length were formed in 95% deformed steel at depths up to 500 μm from surface.

  1. P2Y Purinergic Regulation of the Glycine Neurotransmitter Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Esperanza; Zafra, Francisco; Pérez-Sen, Raquel; Delicado, Esmerilda G.; Miras-Portugal, Maria Teresa; Aragón, Carmen; López-Corcuera, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    The sodium- and chloride-coupled glycine neurotransmitter transporters (GLYTs) control the availability of glycine at glycine-mediated synapses. The mainly glial GLYT1 is the key regulator of the glycine levels in glycinergic and glutamatergic pathways, whereas the neuronal GLYT2 is involved in the recycling of synaptic glycine from the inhibitory synaptic cleft. In this study, we report that stimulation of P2Y purinergic receptors with 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate in rat brainstem/spinal cord primary neuronal cultures and adult rat synaptosomes leads to the inhibition of GLYT2 and the stimulation of GLYT1 by a paracrine regulation. These effects are mainly mediated by the ADP-preferring subtypes P2Y1 and P2Y13 because the effects are partially reversed by the specific antagonists N6-methyl-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-6-azo(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)-2,4-disulfonate and are totally blocked by suramin. P2Y12 receptor is additionally involved in GLYT1 stimulation. Using pharmacological approaches and siRNA-mediated protein knockdown methodology, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of GLYT regulation. Modulation takes place through a signaling cascade involving phospholipase C activation, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, protein kinase C stimulation, nitric oxide formation, cyclic guanosine monophosphate production, and protein kinase G-I (PKG-I) activation. GLYT1 and GLYT2 are differentially sensitive to NO/cGMP/PKG-I both in brain-derived preparations and in heterologous systems expressing the recombinant transporters and P2Y1 receptor. Sensitivity to 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate by GLYT1 and GLYT2 was abolished by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nitric-oxide synthase. Our data may help define the role of GLYTs in nociception and pain sensitization. PMID:21245148

  2. Product of the SNPP VIIRS SD screen transmittance and the SD BRDF from both yaw maneuver and regular on-orbit data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-09-01

    To assure data quality, the Earth-observing Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) regularly performs on orbit radiometric calibrations of its 22 spectral bands. The primary calibration radiance source for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) is a sunlit solar diffuser (SD). During the calibration process, sunlight goes through a perforated plate (the SD screen) and then strikes the SD. The SD scattered sunlight is used for the calibration, with the spectral radiance proportional to the product of the SD screen transmittance and the SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The BRDF is decomposed to the product of its value at launch and a numerical factor quantifying its change since launch. Therefore, the RSB calibration requires accurate knowledge of the product of the SD screen transmittance and the BRDF (RSB; launch time). Previously, we calculated the product with yaw maneuver data and found that the product had improved accuracy over the prelaunch one. With both yaw maneuver and regular on orbit data, we were able to improve the accuracy of the SDSM screen transmittance and the product for the solar diffuser stability monitor SD view. In this study, we use both yaw maneuver and a small portion of regular on-orbit data to determine the product for the RSB SD view.

  3. Growth Kinetics and Microstructure Evolution of Intermediate Phases in MoSi2-Si3N4-WSi2/Mo Diffusion Couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Houan; Huang, Yu; Lin, Jia; Chen, Ying; Gu, Siyong

    2016-12-01

    The growth kinetics and silicon diffusion coefficients of intermediate silicide phases in MoSi2-3.5 vol.% Si3N4-5.0 vol.% WSi2/Mo diffusion couple prepared by spark plasma sintering were investigated in temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1500 °C. The intermediate silicide phases were characterized by x-ray diffraction. The microstructures and components of the MoSi2-Si3N4-WSi2/Mo composites were investigated using scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. A special microstructure with MoSi2 core surrounded by a thin layer of (Mo,W)Si2 ring was found in the MoSi2-Si3N4-WSi2 composites. The intermediate layers of Mo5Si3 and (Mo,W)5Si3 in the MoSi2-Si3N4-WSi2/Mo diffusion couples were formed at different diffusion stages, which grew parabolically. Activation energy of the growth of intermediate layers in MoSi2-3.5 vol.% Si3N4-5.0 vol.% WSi2/Mo diffusion couple was calculated to be 316 ± 23 kJ/mol. Besides, the hindering effect of WSi2 addition on the growth of intermediate layers was illustrated by comparing the silicon diffusion coefficients in MoSi2-3.5 vol.% Si3N4-5.0 vol.% WSi2/Mo and MoSi2-3.5 vol.% Si3N4/Mo diffusion couples. MoSi2-3.5 vol.% Si3N4-5.0 vol.% WSi2 coating on Mo substrate exhibited a better high-temperature oxidation resistance in air than that of MoSi2-3.5 vol.% Si3N4 coating.

  4. Growth Kinetics and Microstructure Evolution of Intermediate Phases in MoSi2-Si3N4-WSi2/Mo Diffusion Couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Houan; Huang, Yu; Lin, Jia; Chen, Ying; Gu, Siyong

    2017-02-01

    The growth kinetics and silicon diffusion coefficients of intermediate silicide phases in MoSi2-3.5 vol.% Si3N4-5.0 vol.% WSi2/Mo diffusion couple prepared by spark plasma sintering were investigated in temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1500 °C. The intermediate silicide phases were characterized by x-ray diffraction. The microstructures and components of the MoSi2-Si3N4-WSi2/Mo composites were investigated using scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. A special microstructure with MoSi2 core surrounded by a thin layer of (Mo,W)Si2 ring was found in the MoSi2-Si3N4-WSi2 composites. The intermediate layers of Mo5Si3 and (Mo,W)5Si3 in the MoSi2-Si3N4-WSi2/Mo diffusion couples were formed at different diffusion stages, which grew parabolically. Activation energy of the growth of intermediate layers in MoSi2-3.5 vol.% Si3N4-5.0 vol.% WSi2/Mo diffusion couple was calculated to be 316 ± 23 kJ/mol. Besides, the hindering effect of WSi2 addition on the growth of intermediate layers was illustrated by comparing the silicon diffusion coefficients in MoSi2-3.5 vol.% Si3N4-5.0 vol.% WSi2/Mo and MoSi2-3.5 vol.% Si3N4/Mo diffusion couples. MoSi2-3.5 vol.% Si3N4-5.0 vol.% WSi2 coating on Mo substrate exhibited a better high-temperature oxidation resistance in air than that of MoSi2-3.5 vol.% Si3N4 coating.

  5. Theoretical study of hydration in Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12}: Effects on structure and negative thermal expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ming-Yi; Wang, Lei; Jia, Yu; Sun, Qiang; Guo, Zheng-Xiao

    2015-02-15

    We report ab-initio calculations of water absorption in Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The absorption geometry of H{sub 2}O in Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} and the binding property between H{sub 2}O and Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} have been first identified. Our calculated results show that water is chemisorbed in Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} with O of the water binding to the Y{sup 3+} cation, which is further strengthened by hydrogen bonding between each of the hydrogen atoms of H{sub 2}O and the bridge O in Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12}, shared by polyhedrons YO{sub 6} and MoO{sub 4}. The absorption of water leads to a reduced angle of Y-O-Mo and shortened Y-Mo distance, and consequently volume contraction of the material, almost linearly with the increasing number of water molecules per unit cell, up to eight in total. In addition, our phonon calculation show that the transverse vibration of Y-O-Mo is restricted due to water absorption, which in turn hinders the NTE, as it is mainly originated from this vibrational mode. Our results clarify further the fundamental mechanisms of the large volume shrinkage and the lost NTE of the framework oxide due to water absorption.

  6. Warping, extra dimensions, and a slice of AdSd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Kristian L.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the Randall-Sundrum framework we consider a number of phenomenologically relevant model-building questions on a slice of compactified AdSd for d>5. Such spaces are interesting as they enable one to realize the weak scale via warping. We perform the Kaluza-Klein (KK) reduction for gravitons and bulk vectors in these spaces, and for the case of AdS6 consider the KK spectrum of gauge scalars. We further obtain the KK towers for bulk fermions on a slice of AdS7 and AdS9 and show that the Randall-Sundrum approach to flavor generalizes to these spaces with the localization of chiral zero-mode fermions controlled by their bulk Dirac mass parameters. However, for the phenomenologically interesting case where the transverse radius is R-1˜TeV, we show that bulk standard model fields are not viable due to a resulting volume suppression of the gauge-coupling constants. A similar suppression occurs for the case of UV localization. Thus it seems that the standard model fields should be confined to the infrared brane in such spaces. Sterile fields and extended gauge sectors may propagate in the bulk, with the gauge-coupling volume suppression experienced by the latter motivating a weak coupling to standard model fields. We also discuss some issues regarding the effective 4D theory description in these spaces.

  7. Cangrelor: a novel P2Y12 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Norgard, Nicholas B

    2009-08-01

    Antiplatelet therapy is critical in the prevention of thrombotic complications of acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary interventions. Current antiplatelet agents (aspirin, clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists) have demonstrated the capacity to reduce major adverse cardiac events. However, these agents have limitations that compromise their clinical utility. The platelet P2Y12 receptor plays a central role in platelet function and is a focus in the development of antiplatelet therapies. Cangrelor is a potent, competitive inhibitor of the P2Y12 receptor that is administered by intravenous infusion and rapidly achieves near complete inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This investigational drug has been studied for use during coronary procedures and the management of patients experiencing acute coronary syndrome and is undergoing evaluation for use in the prevention of perioperative stent thrombosis.

  8. Spin and valley polarization in MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2 monolayers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Cedric; Wang, Gang; Cadiz, Fabian; Balocchi, Andréa.; Glazov, Mikhail M.; Amand, Thierry; Gerber, Iann; Lagarde, Delphine; Urbaszek, Bernhard; Marie, Xavier

    2016-10-01

    The spectacular progress in controlling the electronic properties of graphene has triggered research in alternative atomically thin two-dimensional crystals. Monolayers (ML) of transition-metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 have emerged as very promising nanostructures for optical and spintronics applications. Inversion symmetry breaking together with the large spin-orbit interaction leads to a coupling of carrier spin and k-space valley physics, i.e., the circular polarization (σ+ or σ-) of the absorbed or emitted photon can be directly associated with selective carrier excitation in one of the two nonequivalent K valleys (K+ or K-, respectively). We have investigated the spin and valley properties for both neutral and charged excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayer MoS2, MoSe2 and WSe2 with cw and time-resolved polarized photoluminescence spectroscopy [1,2]. The key role played by exciton exchange interaction will be presented [3]. We also demonstrate that the optical alignment of excitons ("exciton valley coherence") can be achieved following one or two photon excitation [1,4]. Finally recent results on magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy on MoSe2 and WSe2 in Faraday configuration up to 9 T will be presented; the results will be discussed in the framework of a k.p theory [5]. [1] G. Wang et al, PRL 114, 97403 (2015) [2] G. Wang et al, Nature Com. 6, 10110 (2015) [3] J. P. Echeverry, ArXiv 1601.07351 (2016) [4] G. Wang et al, PRL 115, 117401 (2015) [5] G. Wang et al, 2D Mat. 2, 34002 (2015)

  9. Study of the dynamics of the MoO2-Mo2C system for catalytic partial oxidation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuba Torres, Christian Martin

    On a global scale, the energy demand is largely supplied by the combustion of non-renewable fossil fuels. However, their rapid depletion coupled with environmental and sustainability concerns are the main drivers to seek for alternative energetic strategies. To this end, the sustainable generation of hydrogen from renewable resources such as biodiesel would represent an attractive alternative solution to fossil fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen's lower environmental impact and greater independence from foreign control make it a strong contender for solving this global problem. Among a wide variety of methods for hydrogen production, the catalytic partial oxidation offers numerous advantages for compact and mobile fuel processing systems. For this reaction, the present work explores the versatility of the Mo--O--C catalytic system under different synthesis methods and reforming conditions using methyl oleate as a surrogate biodiesel. MoO2 exhibits good catalytic activity and exhibits high coke-resistance even under reforming conditions where long-chain oxygenated compounds are prone to form coke. Moreover, the lattice oxygen present in MoO2 promotes the Mars-Van Krevelen mechanism. Also, it is introduced a novel beta-Mo2C synthesis by the in-situ formation method that does not utilize external H2 inputs. Herein, the MoO 2/Mo2C system maintains high catalytic activity for partial oxidation while the lattice oxygen serves as a carbon buffer for preventing coke formation. This unique feature allows for longer operation reforming times despite slightly lower catalytic activity compared to the catalysts prepared by the traditional temperature-programmed reaction method. Moreover, it is demonstrated by a pulse reaction technique that during the phase transformation of MoO2 to beta-Mo2C, the formation of Mo metal as an intermediate is not responsible for the sintering of the material wrongly assumed by the temperature-programmed method.

  10. UV photolysis for relieved inhibition of sulfadiazine (SD) to biomass growth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shihui; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Yongming; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-05-01

    UV photolysis was used to relieve inhibition of biomass growth by sulfadiazine (SD), a broad-spectrum anti-microbial. To investigate the effects of SD on biomass growth, three substrates-glucose alone (G), glucose plus sulfadiazine (G+SD), and glucose plus photolyzed SD (G+PSD)-were used to culture the bacteria acclimated to glucose. The biomass was strongly inhibited when SD was added into the glucose solution, but inhibition was relieved to a significant degree when the SD was treated with UV irradiation as a pretreatment. The biomass growth kinetics were described well by the Monod model when glucose was used as a substrate alone, but the kinetics followed a hybrid Aiba model for non-competitive inhibition when SD was added to the solution. When photolyzed SD was added to glucose solution to replace original SD, the growth still followed Aiba inhibition, but inhibition was significantly relieved: the maximum specific growth rate (μ max) increased by 17 %, and the Aiba inhibition concentration increased by 60 %. Aniline, a major product of UV photolysis, supported the growth of the glucose-biodegrading bacteria. Thus, UV photolysis of SD significantly relieved inhibition by lowering the SD concentration and by generating a biodegradable product.

  11. In situ controllable synthesis of novel surface plasmon resonance-enhanced Ag2WO4/Ag/Bi2MoO6 composite for enhanced and stable visible light photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiali; Dai, Kai; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lu, Luhua; Liang, Changhao; Geng, Lei; Wang, Zhongliao; Yuan, Guangyu; Zhu, Guangping

    2017-01-01

    A novel hierarchical Ag2WO4/Ag/Bi2MoO6 ternary visible-light-driven photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by in situ doping Ag2WO4 with Bi2MoO6 nanosheets through a facile hydrothermal and photochemical process. The morphology, structure, optical performance and crystallinity of the products were measured by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that Ag2WO4/Ag was uniformly dispersed on the surface of Bi2MoO6 nanosheets. The photocatalytic performance of Ag2WO4/Ag/Bi2MoO6 heterostructures was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under 410 nm LED arrays. The ternary Ag2WO4/Ag/Bi2MoO6 nanocomposite exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than Bi2MoO6 and Ag2WO4. The synergistic effect of Ag2WO4 and Bi2MoO6 could generated more heterojunctions which promoted photoelectrons transfer from Ag2WO4 to Bi2MoO6, leading to the improvement of photocatalytic performance by photoelectrons-holes recombination suppression. At the same time, the surface plasmon resonance of Ag2WO4/Ag/Bi2MoO6 is another crucial reason for the high photocatalytic performance of organic pollutants degradation. And the 20 wt% Ag2WO4-loaded Bi2MoO6 shows the optimal photocatalytic performance in the degradation of MB. In addition, the ternary composites can be easily reclaimed by precipitation and exhibits high stability of photocatalytic degradation after five recycles.

  12. Novel Na2Mo4O13/α-MoO3 hybrid material as highly efficient CWAO catalyst for dye degradation at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Ruoyan; Gao, Yanshan; Zhao, Yufei; Wang, Junyang; Huang, Liang; Guo, Jiang; Zhou, Tuantuan; Lu, Peng; Guo, Zhanhu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    We report a novel hybrid material Na2Mo4O13/α-MoO3 as highly efficient catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) catalyst, which showed the highest ever activity at room temperature and atmosphere pressure for the degradation of cationic red GTL. SEM and TEM analyses indicated that this hybrid catalyst has bamboo-shaped nanofiber morphology. In view of practical applications, the influence of some key parameters including operation temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, and the volume of dye wastewater have been optimized. The mechanism for the superior catalytic performance was investigated. XRD, XPS, and ESR suggested the Na2Mo4O13/α-MoO3 hybrid catalyst possesses more O2- ions in the oxygen deficient regions than neat α-MoO3, promoting the formation of active .OH radicals and resulting in a higher activity. Considering the facile preparation and its superior activity, this novel catalyst is promising for practical dye wastewater treatment.

  13. Express and low-cost microwave synthesis of the ternary Chevrel phase Cu2Mo6S8 for application in rechargeable magnesium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, Fabrizio; Antitomaso, Philippe; Stievano, Lorenzo; Monconduit, Laure; Berthelot, Romain

    2016-10-01

    The ternary Chevrel phase Cu2Mo6S8 was successfully synthetized using a simple and cost-effective solid-state microwave-assisted reaction. While solid-state routes require days of high-temperature treatment under inert atmosphere, highly pure and crystalline Cu2Mo6S8 could be obtained in only 400 s from this precursor, the Chevrel binary phase Mo6S8 was then obtained by copper removal through acidic leaching, and was evaluated as a positive electrode material for Mg-battery. The electrochemical performance in half-cell configuration shows reversible capacity exceeding 80 mAh/g, which is comparable to previous works carried out with materials synthesized by conventional high-temperature solid-state routes.

  14. Cube-like Cu{sub 2}MoS{sub 4} photocatalysts for visible light-driven degradation of methyl orange

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ke; Chen, Wenxing; Chen, Haiping; Gong, Zhiyu; Chang, Shuo; Ye, Fei; Wang, Tianxing; Chu, Wangsheng; Zou, Chongwen; Song, Li; Wang, Yu; Li, Jiong

    2015-07-15

    Cube-like Cu{sub 2}MoS{sub 4} nanoparticles with low-index facets and high crystallinity were fabricated via a hydrothermal method. The as-obtained nanocubes with an average size of 40-60 nm are composed of stacking-Cu{sub 2}MoS{sub 4} layers separated by a weak Van der Waals gap of 0.5 nm. A strong absorption at visible light region is observed in the nanocube aqueous solution, indicating its optical-band gap of 1.78 eV. The photocatalytic measurements reveal that the nanocubes can thoroughly induce the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation with good structural stability. Our finding may provide a way in design and fabrication of transition metal dichalcogenide nanostructures for practical applications.

  15. Distribution of P2Y6 and P2Y12 receptor: their colocalization with calbindin, calretinin and nitric oxide synthase in the guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhenghua; Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2006-04-01

    The distribution of P2Y(6) and P2Y(12) receptor-immunoreactive (ir) neurons and fibers and their coexistence with calbindin, calretinin and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been investigated with single and double labeling immunostaining methods. The results showed that 30-36% of the ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus are strongly P2Y(6) receptor-ir neurons; they are distributed widely in the myenteric plexus of stomach, jejunum, ileum and colon, but not in the submucosal plexus, with a typical morphology of multipolar neurons with a long axon-like process. About 42-46% of ganglion cells in both the myenteric and submucosal plexuses show P2Y(12) receptor-ir. About 28-35% of P2Y(6) receptor-ir neurons were found to coexist with NOS and 41-47% of them coexist with calretinin, but there was no coexistence of P2Y(6) receptor-ir with calbindin. In contrast, all P2Y(12) receptor-ir neurons were immunopositive for calbindin, although occasionally P2Y(12) receptor-ir neurons without calbindin immunoreactivity were found, while none of the P2Y(12) receptor-ir neurons were found to coexist with calretinin or NOS in the gastrointestinal system of guinea pig. The P2Y(12) receptor-ir neurons coexpressing calbindin-ir in the small intestine are Dogiel type II/AH, intrinsic primary afferent neurons.

  16. From trans-[(eta5-C5Me5)2Mo2S2(mu-S)2] to [(eta5-C5Me5)2Mo2(mu3-S)4(CuMeCN)2]2+ to [(eta5-C5Me5)2Mo2(mu3-S)4Cu2]-based polymeric and dimeric clusters: syntheses, structures and enhanced third-order non-linear optical performances.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Jun-Yi; Song, Ying-Lin; Li, Ni-Ya; Li, Hong-Xi; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Lang, Jian-Ping

    2009-04-14

    Reactions of trans-[(eta5-C5Me5)2Mo2S2(mu-S)2] (1) with 2 equiv. of [Cu(MeCN)4]X (X = PF6-, ClO4-) produced two acetonitrile-coordinated cubane-like cationic clusters [(eta5-C5Me5)2Mo2(mu3-S)4Cu2(MeCN)2]X2 (X = PF6- (2), ClO4- (3)). Treatment of 2 or 3 with 4,4'-bipyridine (4,4'-bipy) or trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene) (bpee) afforded two polymeric clusters {[(eta5-C5Me5)2Mo2(mu3-S)4Cu2(L)]X2}n (4: L = 4,4'-bipy, X = PF6-; 5: L = bpee, X = ClO4-), while analogous reactions of 2 or 3 with 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (bpea), 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphine)ethane (dppe), or 1,4-bis-(diphenylphosphine)butane) (dppb) formed three dimeric clusters [(eta5-C5Me5)2Mo2(mu3-S)4Cu2(L)]2X4 (6: L = bpea; X = PF6-; 7: L = dppe, X = ClO4-; 8: L = dppb, X = ClO4-). Clusters 2-8 consist of a cubane-like [(eta5-C5Me5)2Mo2(mu3-S)4Cu2] core with each Cu being coordinated by one labile MeCN molecule (2, 3) or by bridging dipyridyl or diphosphino ligands (4-8). 4 or 5 has a 1D zigzag chain structure while 6-8 contain cyclic dimeric structures. The third-order non-linear optical (NLO) properties of 2-8 in MeCN were investigated by Z-scan technique at 532 nm. These compounds showed strong third-order NLO absorption effects and self-defocusing properties, and their NLO performances were remarkably enhanced relative to those of 1.

  17. B-site disordering in Ba{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} (Ln=Ho, Er) perovskites: A neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Larregola, S.A.; Alonso, J.A.; Garcia Hernandez, M.; Fernandez-Diaz, M.T.; Pedregosa, J.C.

    2009-06-15

    We describe the preparation, structure determination and magnetic properties of two Ba perovskites containing rare-earth cations at the B-sublattice. Ba{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} (Ln=Ho{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}) were synthesized by ceramic procedures. Joint X-ray (XRPD) and neutron (NPD) powder diffraction refinements were carried out to analyse the crystal structure. At room temperature, both phases are tetragonal, space group I4/mcm, Z=4. Ln and Mo atoms are found to be distributed at random over the octahedral sites of the perovskites. Magnetic measurements at 0.1 T show that both samples are paramagnetic between 3 and 300 K, following a Curie-Weiss law. M vs. H curves show a region of paramagnetic behaviour and above 2.5 T a magnetic saturated system is observed. Finally, the temperature evolution of the NPD patterns of Ba{sub 3}Ho{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} reveals the absence of long-range magnetic ordering down to 2 K. - Graphical Abstract: Preparation, structure and magnetic properties of Ba{sub 3}Ln{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} (Ln=Ho{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}) are descripted. Joint XRPD and NPD refinements confirm a tetragonal I4/mcm structure. Ln and Mo atoms are found to be distributed at random over the octahedral sites of the perovskites.

  18. Fabrication of TiO2/MoS2@zeolite photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiping; Xiao, Xinyan; Zheng, Lili; Wan, Caixia

    2015-12-01

    TiO2/MoS2@zeolite composite photocatalysts with visible-light activity were fabricated via a simple ultrasonic-hydrothermal synthesis method, using TiCl4 as Ti source, MoS2 as a direct sensitizer, glycerol water solution with certain dispersion agent as hydrolytic agent, and zeolite as carrier. The structure, morphology, composition, optical properties, and specific surface area of the as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by using XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDS, TEM, XPS, UV-vis, PL and BET analyzer, respectively. And the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous suspension has been employed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity and degradation kinetics of as-prepared photocatalysts with xenon lamp as irradiation source. The results indicate that: (1) TiO2/MoS2@zeolite composite photocatalysts exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activities for methyl orange (MO) degradation compared to Degussa P25; (2) photocatalytic degradation of MO obeys Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model (pseudo-first order reaction), and its degradation rate constant (kapp) (2.304 h-1) is higher than that of Degussa P25 (0.768 h-1); (3) the heterostructure consisted of zeolite, MoS2 and TiO2 nanostructure could provide synergistic effect for degradation of MO due to the efficient electron transfer process and better absorption property of TiO2/MoS2@zeolite composite photocatalyst.

  19. Electrochemical Performance and Storage Mechanism of Ag2 Mo2 O7 Micro-rods as the Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meina; Gao, Yu; Chen, Nan; Ge, Xin; Chen, Hong; Wei, Yingjin; Du, Fei; Chen, Gang; Wang, Chunzhong

    2017-04-11

    Ag2 Mo2 O7 micro-rods are prepared by one-step hydrothermal method and their lithium electrochemical properties, as the anode for lithium-ion batteries, are comprehensively studied in terms of galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and rate performance measurements. The electrode delivers a high reversible capacity of 825 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) and a superior rate capability with a discharge capacity of 263 mAh g(-1) under the high current density of 2 Ag(-1) . The structural transition and phase evolution of Ag2 Mo2 O7 were investigated by using ex situ XRD and TEM. The Ag2 Mo2 O7 electrode is likely to be decomposed into amorphous molybdenum, Li2 O, and metallic silver based on the conversion reaction. Silver nanoparticles are not involved in the subsequent electrochemical cycles to form a homogeneous conducting network. Such in situ decomposition behavior provides an insight into the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction for the anode materials and would contribute to the design of new electrode materials in future.

  20. Shift from covalent to ionic bonding in Al2MoO(y) (y = 2-4) anion and neutral clusters.

    PubMed

    Mann, Jennifer E; Waller, Sarah E; Jarrold, Caroline Chick

    2013-11-21

    The electronic and molecular structures of Al2MoO(y) (y = 2-4) anion and neutral complexes were studied using anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The spectra are broad, reflecting significant structural changes in the transition from anion to neutral, and the neutral electron affinities determined from the spectra are similar for all three species. The calculations suggest that the lowest energy isomers of the neutral clusters can be described as predominantly (Al(+))2[MoO(y)(-2)] ionic complexes, in which the Al(+) cations bond with O(2-) anions in a way that minimizes repulsion with the positively charged Mo center. The anion structures for all three complexes favor closer Mo-Al and Al-Al internuclear distances, with the extra negative charge distributed more evenly among all three metal centers. Energetically, the fully occupied 3s orbitals on the Al centers are lower than the Mo-local 4d-like orbitals and above the O-local 2p-like orbitals. In the case of Al2MoO2(-), there is direct Al-Al covalent bonding. The calculated spectroscopic parameters for these species are consistent with the observed spectra, though definitive assignments are not possible due to the broad, unresolved spectra observed and predicted.

  1. Nucleotides Acting at P2Y Receptors: Connecting Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kenneth A; Paoletta, Silvia; Katritch, Vsevolod; Wu, Beili; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Zhao, Qiang; Stevens, Raymond C; Kiselev, Evgeny

    2015-08-01

    Eight G protein-coupled P2Y receptor (P2YR) subtypes are important physiologic mediators. The human P2YRs are fully activated by ATP (P2Y2 and P2Y11), ADP (P2Y1, P2Y12, and P2Y13), UTP (P2Y2 and P2Y4), UDP (P2Y6 and P2Y14), and UDP glucose (P2Y14). Their structural elucidation is progressing rapidly. The X-ray structures of three ligand complexes of the Gi-coupled P2Y12R and two of the Gq-coupled P2Y1Rs were recently determined and will be especially useful in structure-based ligand design at two P2YR subfamilies. These high-resolution structures, which display unusual binding site features, complement mutagenesis studies for probing ligand recognition and activation. The structural requirements for nucleotide agonist recognition at P2YRs are relatively permissive with respect to the length of the phosphate moiety, but less so with respect to base recognition. Nucleotide-like antagonists and partial agonists are also known for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y12Rs. Each P2YR subtype has the ability to be activated by structurally bifunctional agonists, such as dinucleotides, typically, dinucleoside triphosphates or tetraphosphates, and nucleoside polyphosphate sugars (e.g., UDP glucose) as well as the more conventional mononucleotide agonists. A range of dinucleoside polyphosphates, from triphosphates to higher homologs, occurs naturally. Earlier modeling predictions of the P2YRs were not very accurate, but recent findings have provided much detailed structural insight into this receptor family to aid in the rational design of new drugs.

  2. Nucleotides Acting at P2Y Receptors: Connecting Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Paoletta, Silvia; Katritch, Vsevolod; Wu, Beili; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Zhao, Qiang; Stevens, Raymond C.; Kiselev, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    Eight G protein–coupled P2Y receptor (P2YR) subtypes are important physiologic mediators. The human P2YRs are fully activated by ATP (P2Y2 and P2Y11), ADP (P2Y1, P2Y12, and P2Y13), UTP (P2Y2 and P2Y4), UDP (P2Y6 and P2Y14), and UDP glucose (P2Y14). Their structural elucidation is progressing rapidly. The X-ray structures of three ligand complexes of the Gi-coupled P2Y12R and two of the Gq-coupled P2Y1Rs were recently determined and will be especially useful in structure-based ligand design at two P2YR subfamilies. These high-resolution structures, which display unusual binding site features, complement mutagenesis studies for probing ligand recognition and activation. The structural requirements for nucleotide agonist recognition at P2YRs are relatively permissive with respect to the length of the phosphate moiety, but less so with respect to base recognition. Nucleotide-like antagonists and partial agonists are also known for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y12Rs. Each P2YR subtype has the ability to be activated by structurally bifunctional agonists, such as dinucleotides, typically, dinucleoside triphosphates or tetraphosphates, and nucleoside polyphosphate sugars (e.g., UDP glucose) as well as the more conventional mononucleotide agonists. A range of dinucleoside polyphosphates, from triphosphates to higher homologs, occurs naturally. Earlier modeling predictions of the P2YRs were not very accurate, but recent findings have provided much detailed structural insight into this receptor family to aid in the rational design of new drugs. PMID:25837834

  3. MODELLING THE P2Y PURINOCEPTOR USING RHODOPSIN AS TEMPLATE

    PubMed Central

    Van Rhee, A. Michiel; Fischer, Bilha; Van Galen, Philip J. M.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The P2Y1 purinoceptor cloned from chick brain (Webb, T. et al. (1993) FEBS Lett., 324, 219–225) is a 362 amino acid, 41 kDa protein. To locate residues tentatively involved in ligand recognition a molecular model of the P2Y purinoceptor has been constructed. The model was based on the primary sequence and structural homology with the G-protein coupled photoreceptor rhodopsin, in analogy to the method proposed by Ballesteros and Weinstein ((1995) Meth. Neurosci. 25, 366–428). Transmembrane helices were constructed from the amino acid sequence, minimized individually, and positioned in a helical bundle. The helical bundle was then minimized using the Amber forcefield in Discover (BIOSYM Technologies) to obtain the final model. Several residues that have been shown to be critical in ligand binding in other GPCRs are conserved in the P2Y1 purinoceptor. According to our model the side chains of these conserved residues are facing the internal cleft in which ligand binding likely occurs. The model also suggests four basic residues (H121 in TM3, H266 and K269 in TM6 and R299 in TM7) near the extracellular surface that might be involved in ligand binding. These basic residues might be essential in coordinating the triphosphate chain of the endogenous ligand adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP). Potential binding sites for agonists have been explored by docking several derivatives (including newly synthesized N6-derivatives) into the model. The N6-phenylethyl substituent is tolerated pharmacologically, and in our model this substituent occupies a region predominantly defined by aromatic residues such as F51 (TM1), Y100 (TM2) and F120 (TM3). The dimethylated analogue of ATP, N6,N6-dimethyl-adenosine 5′-triphosphate, is less well tolerated pharmacologically, and our model predicts that the attenuated activity is due to interference with hydrogen bonding capacity to Q296 (TM7). PMID:8872457

  4. Simultaneous in-situ sludge reduction and nutrient removal in an A(2)MO-M system: Performances, mechanisms, and modeling with an extended ASM2d model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanshan; Guo, Wanqian; Chen, Yidi; Peng, Simai; Du, Juanshan; Zheng, Heshan; Feng, Xiaochi; Ren, Nanqi

    2016-01-01

    Among the existing in-situ sludge reduction processes, the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process is of particular interest because it has shown significant sludge reduction with several advantages. However, an ideal process for practical application must simultaneously incorporate effluent quality with sludge reduction. In this study, an improved OSA system, the stage-aerated anaerobic, anoxic, micro-aerobic, and oxic system combining a micro-aerobic starvation tank (abbreviated as A(2)MO-M system) was developed. Compared with OSA3# (hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h), the A(2)MO-M2# system with optimized HRT of 9 h yielded almost 16.3% less sludge. The average total nitrogen (87.3%) and total phosphorus (91.9%) removal efficiencies in A(2)MO-M2# were 20.6 and 42.2% higher than those in OSA3#. Investigation of the mechanisms of sludge reduction revealed that, except for the main factors of energy uncoupling metabolism (16.7%) and sludge decay (21.2%), enrichment of slow-growing bacteria and lysis-cryptic growth metabolism analyzed by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing were shown to contribute to sludge reduction in the A(2)MO-M system. On the basis of effluent organic matters (EfOM) measurements, soluble microbial products (SMP) were the major components in EfOM; and different reduction-oxidation (redox) potentials controlled in the OSA and A(2)MO-M systems led to different SMP formation mechanisms. To explore the mechanism and kinetics of SMP formation under different redox potentials, three new components (SUAP, SBAP, and XEPS) were integrated in an extended ASM2d model. Experimental and modeling results revealed that biomass-associated products (BAP) supported a substantial population of SMP that were quite sensitive to different redox potentials. The extended ASM2d model further illustrated that more BAP produced in the alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions in the OSA system adversely affected its effluent quality.

  5. 5 7 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of single-crystalline K x Fe2- y S 2 and K x Fe2- y Se 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Yuu; Ikeda, Shugo; Kobayashi, Hisao

    2016-12-01

    We have investigated the physical properties of single-crystalline K x Fe2- y S 2 and K x Fe2- y Se2 samples using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The observed 57Fe Mössbauer spectra were reconstructed using a major antiferromagnetic ordered K2Fe4Se5 phase and a minor paramagnetic phase down to 5 K, despite being superconducting below 32.2 K in K x Fe2- y Se2. The analysis of 57Fe Mössbauer spectrum for K x Fe2- y S 2 at 290 K confirms the presence of a major antiferromagnetic ordered K2Fe4 S 5 phase and a minor paramagnetic phase in the K x Fe2- y S 2 single crystal. The derived hyperfine interaction parameters of the paramagnetic phase in K x Fe2- y S 2 suggest that the microstructure of this phase in K x Fe2- y S 2 is similar to that of the superconducting phase in K x Fe2- y Se2 although the K x Fe2- y S 2 single crystals exhibit no superconductivity down to 5 K.

  6. P2Y2R Deficiency Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis Development

    PubMed Central

    Relvas, Lia Judice M.; Makhoul, Maya; Dewispelaere, Remi; Caspers, Laure; Communi, Didier; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Robaye, Bernard; Bruyns, Catherine; Willermain, François

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to study the role of the nucleotide receptor P2Y2R in the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). EAU was induced in P2Y2+/+ and P2Y2-/- mice by immunization with IRBP peptide or by adoptive transfer of in vitro restimulated semi-purified IRBP-specific enriched T lymphocytes from spleens and lymph nodes isolated from native C57Bl/6 or P2Y2+/+ and P2Y2-/- immunized mice. Clinical and histological scores were used to grade disease severity. Splenocytes and lymph node cell phenotypes were analyzed using flow cytometry. Semi-purified lymphocytes and MACS-purified CD4+ T lymphocytes from P2Y2+/+ and P2Y2-/- immunized mice were tested for proliferation and cytokine secretion. Our data show that clinical and histological scores were significantly decreased in IRBP-immunized P2Y2-/- mice as in P2Y2-/- mice adoptively transfered with enriched T lymphocytes from C57Bl/6 IRBP-immunized mice. In parallel, naïve C57Bl/6 mice adoptively transferred with T lymphocytes from P2Y2-/- IRBP-immunized mice also showed significantly less disease. No differences in term of spleen and lymph node cell recruitment or phenotype appeared between P2Y2-/- and P2Y2+/+ immunized mice. However, once restimulated in vitro with IRBP, P2Y2-/- T cells proliferate less and secrete less cytokines than the P2Y2+/+ one. We further found that antigen-presenting cells of P2Y2-/- immunized mice were responsible for this proliferation defect. Together our data show that P2Y2-/- mice are less susceptible to mount an autoimmune response against IRBP. Those results are in accordance with the danger model, which makes a link between autoreactive lymphocyte activation, cell migration and the release of danger signals such as extracellular nucleotides. PMID:25692550

  7. Expression of P2Y receptors in cell lines derived from the human lung.

    PubMed

    Communi, D; Paindavoine, P; Place, G A; Parmentier, M; Boeynaems, J M

    1999-05-01

    1. Northern blotting experiments have been performed with RNA extracted from several cell lines derived from the human lung in order to detect P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4 and P2Y6 mRNA. We have investigated the 1HAEo- and 16HBE14o- epithelial cell lines derived from the airway epithelium, the A549 cell line displaying properties of type II alveolar epithelial cells, the CALU-3 serous cells, the 6CFSMEo- submucosal cells and the HASMSC1 airway smooth muscle cells. We have also evaluated one pancreatic epithelial cell line called CFPAC-1. These experiments revealed that P2Y2 and P2Y6 mRNA are co-expressed in the IHAEo-, 16HBE14o- and A549 epithelial cell lines. The CFPAC-1 pancreatic cell line was strongly positive for the P2Y2 receptor. No signal was obtained for the P2Y1 and P2Y4 receptors. 2. We have then performed RT-PCR experiments with specific oligonucleotides of these last two P2Y receptors with the RNA used for the Northern blotting experiments. P2Y4 mRNA was detected in five cell lines: 1HAEo-, 16HBE14o-, 6CFSMEo-, HASMSC1 and CFPAC-1. P2Y1 mRNA was only detected in the CALU-3 cell line. 3. Inositol trisphosphates assays have identified a response typical of the P2Y2 receptor in the 1HAEo- and the 16HBE14o- airway epithelial cell lines which co-express P2Y2 and P2Y6 mRNA. By contrast, the 6CFSMEo- submucosal cells expressed a UTP-specific response which displayed pharmacological characteristics compatible with the human P2Y4 receptor: in particular, there was no response to UDP or ATP and the UTP effect was totally inhibited by pertussis toxin.

  8. Elastic-plastic deformations of a beam with the SD-effect

    SciTech Connect

    Pavilaynen, Galina V.

    2015-03-10

    The results for the bending of a cantilever beam with the SD-effect under a concentrated load are discussed. To solve this problem, the standard Bernoulli-Euler hypotheses for beams and the Ilyushin model of perfect plasticity are used. The problem is solved analytically for structural steel A40X. The SD-effect for elastic-plastic deformations is studied. The solutions for beam made of isotropic material and material with the SD-effect are compared.

  9. How UV photolysis accelerates the biodegradation and mineralization of sulfadiazine (SD).

    PubMed

    Pan, Shihui; Yan, Ning; Liu, Xinyue; Wang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yongming; Liu, Rui; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2014-11-01

    Sulfadiazine (SD), one of broad-spectrum antibiotics, exhibits limited biodegradation in wastewater treatment due to its chemical structure, which requires initial mono-oxygenation reactions to initiate its biodegradation. Intimately coupling UV photolysis with biodegradation, realized with the internal loop photobiodegradation reactor, accelerated SD biodegradation and mineralization by 35 and 71 %, respectively. The main organic products from photolysis were 2-aminopyrimidine (2-AP), p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS), and aniline (An), and an SD-photolysis pathway could be identified using C, N, and S balances. Adding An or ABS (but not 2-AP) into the SD solution during biodegradation experiments (no UV photolysis) gave SD removal and mineralization rates similar to intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation. An SD biodegradation pathway, based on a diverse set of the experimental results, explains how the mineralization of ABS and An (but not 2-AP) provided internal electron carriers that accelerated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions of SD biodegradation. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that the mechanism by which intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation accelerated SD removal and mineralization was through producing co-substrates whose oxidation produced electron equivalents that stimulated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions for SD biodegradation.

  10. Cytokeratin 8 in Association with sdLDL and ELISA Development

    PubMed Central

    Ashmaig, Mohmed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cytokeratins (CKs) which may also be expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are generally considered to be markers for the differentiation of epithelial cells. Small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles, also termed LDL-IV, independently predict risk of CVD. Aims: The aims of this study were to develop an analytical method, apart from ultracentrifugation capable of isolating sdLDL in order to study any associated proteins. Materials and Methods: Using modified gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE), de-identified sdLDL-enriched plasma was used to physically elute and isolate sdLDL particles. To validate the finding, additional plasma from 77 normal and 48 higher risk subjects were used to measure sdLDL particles and CK8. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting method were used to identify the characteristics of proteins associated with sdLDL. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was developed and validated for the measurement of CK8 in plasma. Results: The validation of the CK8 ELISA method showed good analytical performance. The isolated sdLDL particles were verified with nondenaturing GGE with the apolipoprotein B component confirmed by Western immunoblotting. Confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting, CK8 was associated with sdLDL. Two-tailed statistical analysis showed that CK8 and sdLDL particles were significantly higher in the high-risk CVD group compared to control group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: This study reports a novel association between CK8 and sdLDL in individuals with CVD who have a predominance of sdLDL. PMID:26713292

  11. Synthesis and Potency of Novel Uracil Nucleotides and Derivatives as P2Y2 and P2Y6 Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyojin; Carter, Rhonda L.; Cosyn, Liesbet; Petrelli, Riccardo; de Castro, Sonia; Besada, Pedro; Zhou, Yixing; Cappellacci, Loredana; Franchetti, Palmarisa; Grifantini, Mario; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    The phosphate, uracil, and ribose moieties of uracil nucleotides were varied structurally for evaluation of agonist activity at the human P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 receptors. The 2-thio modification, found previously to enhance P2Y2 receptor potency, could be combined with other favorable modifications to produce novel molecules that exhibit high potencies and receptor selectivities. Phosphonomethylene bridges introduced for stability in analogues of UDP, UTP and uracil dinucleotides markedly reduced potency. Truncation of dinucleotide agonists of the P2Y2 receptor, in the form of Up4-sugars, indicated that a terminal uracil ring is not essential for moderate potency at this receptor and that specific SAR patterns are observed at this distal end of the molecule. Key compounds reported in this study include: 9, α,β-methylene-UDP, a P2Y6 receptor agonist; 30, Up4-phenyl ester and 34, Up4-[1]glucose, selective P2Y2 receptor agonists; 43, the 2-thio analogue of INS37217 (P1-(uridine 5′)-P4- (2′-deoxycytidine 5′) tetraphosphate), a potent and selective P2Y2 receptor agonist. PMID:18514530

  12. MEGARA Optics: stain removal in PBM2Y prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Aguirre, D.; Izazaga-Pérez, R.; Villalobos-Mendoza, B.; Carrasco, E.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias, J.

    2017-01-01

    MEGARA is the new integral-field and multi-object optical spectrograph for the GTC. For medium and high resolution, the dispersive elements are volume phase holographic gratings, sandwiched between two flat windows and two prisms of high optical precision. The prisms are made of Ohara PBM2Y optical glass. After the prisms polishing process, some stains appeared on the surfaces. For this, in this work is shown the comparative study of five different products (muriatic acid, paint remover, sodium hydroxide, aqua regia and rare earth liquid polish) used for trying to eliminate the stains of the HR MEGARA prisms. It was found that by polishing with the hands the affected area, and using a towel like a kind of pad, and polish during five minutes using rare earth, the stains disappear completely affecting only a 5% the rms of the surface quality. Not so the use of the other products that did not show any apparent result.

  13. P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptor distribution varies along the human placental vascular tree: role of nucleotides in vascular tone regulation

    PubMed Central

    Buvinic, Sonja; Poblete, M Inés; Donoso, M Verónica; Delpiano, Ana María; Briones, René; Miranda, Ramiro; Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo

    2006-01-01

    The expression of purinergic P2Y receptors (P2YRs) along the cord, superficial chorionic vessels and cotyledons of the human placenta was analysed and functional assays were performed to determine their vasomotor activity. Immunoblots for the P2Y1R and P2Y2R revealed a 6- to 8-fold increase in receptor expression from the cord to the chorionic or cotyledon vessels. In the cord and chorionic vessels the receptor distribution was mainly in the smooth muscle, whereas in the cotyledon vessels these receptors were equally distributed between the endothelium and smooth muscle cells. An exception was the P2Y2R at the umbilical artery, which was distributed as in the cotyledon. mRNA coding for the P2Y1R and P2Y2R were detected by RT-PCR and the mRNA coding for the P2Y4R, P2Y6R and P2Y11R was also identified. Application of 2-MeSADP and uridine triphosphate (UTP), preferential P2Y1R and P2Y2R ligands, respectively, resulted in contraction of isolated rings from umbilical and chorionic vessels. The vasoconstriction was blocked in a concentration-dependent manner by 10–100 nm indomethacin or 10 nm GR32191, suggesting the involvement of thromboxane receptors. MRS 2179, a selective P2Y1R antagonist, reduced the 2-MeSADP- but not the UTP-evoked contractions. Perfusion of cotyledons with 2-MeSADP or UTP evoked concentration-dependent reductions in perfusion pressure mediated by the NO–cGMP pathway. Blockade of NO synthase abolished the vasodilatation and the rise in luminal NO elicited by either agonist. MRS 2179 antagonized the dilatation and rise in luminal NO evoked by 2-MeSADP but not by UTP. In summary, P2Y1R and P2Y2R are unevenly distributed along the human placental vascular tree; both receptors are coupled to different signalling pathways in the cord/chorionic vessels versus the cotyledon leading to opposing vasomotor responses. PMID:16543271

  14. Synthesis and photoluminescence characteristics of Ln3+ (Ln = Sm, Er and Dy)-doped BaGd2(MoO4)4 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yaomin; Yi, Shuangping; Wang, Yinhai; Xian, Jieqiang

    2014-06-01

    BaGd2(MoO4)4 phosphor powders activated with the trivalent rare-earth Ln3+ (Ln = Sm, Er and Dy) were synthesized by a traditional high temperature solid-state reaction. The resulted phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD results demonstrate that Ln3+-doped samples can be well indexed to the pure monoclinic scheelite-type structure BaGd2(MoO4)4. The photoluminescence investigations revealed that the phosphors exhibit apparent characteristic emissions from the 4G5/2 to 6H5/2, 7/2, 9/2 state for Sm3+, 2H11/2 and 4S3/2 state to the 4I15/2 ground state for Er3+, 4I15/2, 4F9/2 to 6H15/2 and 4F9/2 to 6H13/2 for Dy3+ under near ultraviolet excitation. BaGd1.95(MoO4)4:0.05Sm3+, BaGd1.93(MoO4)4:0.07Er3+ and BaGd1.90(MoO4)4:0.10Dy3+ emit bright orange-red, green and white light with the CIE coordinates of (0.5381, 0.4544), (0.2307, 0.6096) and (0.3314, 0.3853) respectively. The sharp emission peaks and excellent luminescence properties show that BaGd2(MoO4)4 is a suitable host for rare earth doped phosphors, which may be potentially applied in the applications of the optical materials.

  15. Writing of nonlinear optical Sm{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystal lines at the surface of glass by samarium atom heat processing

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, M.; Benino, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Komatsu, T.; Sato, R.

    2005-06-15

    Some glasses such as 21.25Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}.63.75MoO{sub 3}.15B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol %) giving the formation of nonlinear optical Sm{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals through conventional crystallization in an electric furnace and through continuous-wave Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser (wavelength: 1064 nm) irradiation (samarium atom heat processing) have been developed. It is proposed from x-ray diffraction analyses, micro-Raman-scattering spectra, and second-harmonic generation measurements that the crystal structure of Sm{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} formed by the crystallization is the {beta}{sup '}-phase structure with an orthorhombic (noncentrosymmetric) symmetry. The lines consisting of nonlinear optical {beta}{sup '}-Sm{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals are written at the surface of glasses by YAG laser irradiation (laser power: P=0.4 W, laser scanning speed: S=1-10 {mu}m/s), and, in particular, homogeneous crystal lines are formed at the laser scanning speed of 1 {mu}m/s. Refractive index changes (not crystallization) are also induced by YAG laser irradiation of P=0.4 W and a high laser scanning speed of S=25 {mu}m/s. The crystallization mechanism in the laser-irradiated region has been proposed. The present study demonstrates that the samarium atom heat processing is a technique for the writing of rare earth containing optical nonlinear/ferroelectric crystal lines in glass.

  16. Tunable emission and excited state absorption induced optical limiting in Tb2(MoO4)3: Sm3+/Eu3+ nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Kamal P.; Sreekanth, Perumbilavil; Vimal, G.; Biju, P. R.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Ittyachen, M. A.; Philip, Reji; Joseph, Cyriac

    2016-12-01

    Photoluminescence properties and optical limiting behavior of pure and Sm3+/Eu3+ doped Tb2(MoO4)3 nanophosphors are investigated. The prepared nanophosphors exhibit excellent emission when excited by UV light. Color-tunable emissions in Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 and Tb2-xEux(MoO4)3 are realized by employing different excitation wavelengths or by controlling the doping concentration of Sm3+ and Eu3+. Luminescence quantum yield and CIE chromatic coordinates of the prepared phosphors were also presented. Optical limiting properties of the samples are investigated by open aperture Z-scan technique using 5 ns laser pulses at 532 nm. Numerical fitting of the measured Z-scan data to the relevant nonlinear transmission equations reveals that the nonlinear absorption is arising from strong excited state absorption, along with weak absorption saturation and it is found that the optical nonlinearity of Tb2(MoO4)3 increases with Sm3+/Eu3+doping. Parameters such as saturation fluence, excited state absorption cross section and ground state absorption cross section of the samples have been determined numerically, from which the figure of merit for nonlinear absorption is calculated. The excited state absorption cross-section of the samples is found to be one order of magnitude higher than that of the ground state absorption cross-section, indicating strong reverse saturable absorption. These results indicate that Sm3+/Eu3+ doped Tb2(MoO4)3 nanophosphors are efficient media for UV/n-UV pumped LEDs, and are also potential candidates for designing efficient optical limiting devices for the protection of human eyes and sensitive optical detectors from harmful laser radiation.

  17. 77 FR 68716 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Hot Springs, SD. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Hot Springs...

  18. 78 FR 14911 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD AGENCY... airspace at Hot Springs, SD. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Hot Springs Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking...

  19. 32. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWN IN SD231. BEHIND WALL FRAMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWN IN SD-2-31. BEHIND WALL FRAMING IS SAMPLING ROOM WITH WOOD SAMPLING ELEVATOR. CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ON LEFT (SOUTH). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  20. 76 FR 43610 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Spearfish, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Ice Field. The geographic coordinates of the airport also would be updated. The FAA is taking this... instrument approach procedures at Black Hills Airport-Clyde Ice Field, Spearfish, SD. Controlled airspace is... authority as it would amend controlled airspace at Black Hills Airport-Clyde Ice Field, Spearfish, SD....

  1. Charge Disproportionation in Tetragonal La2MoO5 , a Small Band Gap Semiconductor Influenced by Direct Mo–Mo Bonding

    DOE PAGES

    Colabello, Diane M.; Camino, Fernando E.; Huq, Ashfia; ...

    2014-12-31

    The structure of the novel compound La2MoO5 has been solved from powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data and belongs to the tetragonal space group P4/m (no. 83) with a = 12.6847(3) Å and c = 6.0568(2) Å and with Z = 8. It consists of equal proportions of bioctahedral (Mo2O10) and square prismatic (Mo2O8) dimers, both of which contain direct Mo-Mo bonds and are arranged in 1D chains. The Mo-Mo bond length in the Mo2O10dimers is 2.684(8) Å, while there are two types of Mo2O8 dimers with Mo-Mo bonds lengths of 2.22(2) and 2.28(2) Å. Although the average Mo oxidationmore » state in La2MoO5 is 4+, the very different Mo-Mo distances reflect the fact that the Mo2O10 dimers contain only Mo5+ (d(1)), while the prismatic Mo2O8 dimers only contain Mo3+ (d3), a result directly confirmed by density function theory calculations. This is due to the complete disproportionation of Mo4+, a phenomenon which has not previously been observed in solid-state compounds. La2MoO5 is diamagnetic, behavior which is not expected for a nonmetallic transition-metal oxide whose cation sites have an odd number of d-electrons. The resistivity displays the Arrhenius-type activated behavior expected for a semiconductor with a band gap of 0.5 eV, exhibiting an unusually small transport gap relative to other diamagnetic oxides. Diffuse reflectance studies indicate that La2MoO5 is a rare example of a stable oxide semiconductor with strong infrared absorbance. Lastly, we show that the d-orbital splitting associated with the Mo2O8 and Mo2O10 dimeric units can be rationalized using simple molecular orbital bonding concepts.« less

  2. Absorption enhancement in CH3NH3PbI3 solar cell using a TiO2/MoS2 nanocomposite electron selective contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran Ahmed, Muhammad; Hussain, Zakir; Khalid, Amir; Noman Amin, Hafiz Muhammad; Habib, Amir

    2016-04-01

    In the present contribution, perovskite absorbers have been combined with few layer thick MoS2 semiconductor to put together a solar cell allowing broad spectrum harvesting of solar radiations. Such modification allows to achieve solar light harvesting at the band edges, addressing a drawback of CH3NH3PbI3 absorbers. We recorded an improved efficiency from 3.7% to 4.3% on the back of this methodology. We have also worked out a novel methodology to synthesize TiO2/MoS2 nanocomposite by in situ dispersion of liquid exfoliated MoS2 sheets in the sol gel reaction.

  3. Charge disproportionation in tetragonal La2MoO5, a small band gap semiconductor influenced by direct Mo-Mo bonding.

    PubMed

    Colabello, Diane M; Camino, Fernando E; Huq, Ashfia; Hybertsen, Mark; Khalifah, Peter G

    2015-01-28

    The structure of the novel compound La2MoO5 has been solved from powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data and belongs to the tetragonal space group P4/m (no. 83) with a = 12.6847(3) Å and c = 6.0568(2) Å and with Z = 8. It consists of equal proportions of bioctahedral (Mo2O10) and square prismatic (Mo2O8) dimers, both of which contain direct Mo-Mo bonds and are arranged in 1D chains. The Mo-Mo bond length in the Mo2O10 dimers is 2.684(8) Å, while there are two types of Mo2O8 dimers with Mo-Mo bonds lengths of 2.22(2) and 2.28(2) Å. Although the average Mo oxidation state in La2MoO5 is 4+, the very different Mo-Mo distances reflect the fact that the Mo2O10 dimers contain only Mo(5+) (d(1)), while the prismatic Mo2O8 dimers only contain Mo(3+) (d(3)), a result directly confirmed by density function theory calculations. This is due to the complete disproportionation of Mo(4+), a phenomenon which has not previously been observed in solid-state compounds. La2MoO5 is diamagnetic, behavior which is not expected for a nonmetallic transition-metal oxide whose cation sites have an odd number of d-electrons. The resistivity displays the Arrhenius-type activated behavior expected for a semiconductor with a band gap of 0.5 eV, exhibiting an unusually small transport gap relative to other diamagnetic oxides. Diffuse reflectance studies indicate that La2MoO5 is a rare example of a stable oxide semiconductor with strong infrared absorbance. It is shown that the d-orbital splitting associated with the Mo2O8 and Mo2O10 dimeric units can be rationalized using simple molecular orbital bonding concepts.

  4. Effect of oxygen barrier coatings on oxidation and embrittlement of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo foil in heat shield applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. K.; Unnam, J.; Wiedemann, K. E.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the loss of ductility with exposure to oxidizing conditions, long time applications of titanium alloys have been limited to temperatures below 700 K and short time applications have been limited to temperatures below 815 K. Oxygen barrier coatings for shielding Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo alloy from oxidation during exposure to high temperatures were studied using foil gage specimens. The coatings included micrometer-thick sputtered SiO2 and chemical-vapor-deposited silicate layers both with and without an aluminum basecoat. The oxidation rates and resistance to embrittlement of the coated specimens were significantly better than those of the uncoated specimens.

  5. Self-assembly of ultrathin Cu2MoS4 nanobelts for highly efficient visible light-driven degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Chen, Wenxing; Lin, Yunxiang; Chen, Haiping; Haleem, Yasir A.; Wu, Chuanqiang; Ye, Fei; Wang, Tianxing; Song, Li

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate ultrathin self-assembled Cu2MoS4 nanobelts synthesized by using Cu2O as the starting sacrificial template via a hydrothermal method. The nanobelts exhibit strong light absorption over a broad wavelength spectrum, suggesting their potential application as photocatalysts. The photocatalytic activity of nanobelts is evaluated by the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) dye under visible light irradiation. Notably, the nanobelts can completely degrade 100 mL of 15 mg mL-1 MO in 20 minutes with excellent recycling and structural stability, suggesting their excellent photocatalytic performance. In comparison with a sheet-like sample, the high efficiency of the self-assembled Cu2MoS4 nanobelts is attributed to a high surface area and a unique band gap, agreeing with the nitrogen adsorption analysis and photoluminescence spectra. This study offers a self-assembled synthetic route to create new multifunctional nanoarchitectures composed of atomic layers, and thus may open a window for greatly extending potential applications in water pollution treatment, photocatalytic water-splitting, solar cells and other related fields.We demonstrate ultrathin self-assembled Cu2MoS4 nanobelts synthesized by using Cu2O as the starting sacrificial template via a hydrothermal method. The nanobelts exhibit strong light absorption over a broad wavelength spectrum, suggesting their potential application as photocatalysts. The photocatalytic activity of nanobelts is evaluated by the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) dye under visible light irradiation. Notably, the nanobelts can completely degrade 100 mL of 15 mg mL-1 MO in 20 minutes with excellent recycling and structural stability, suggesting their excellent photocatalytic performance. In comparison with a sheet-like sample, the high efficiency of the self-assembled Cu2MoS4 nanobelts is attributed to a high surface area and a unique band gap, agreeing with the nitrogen adsorption analysis and photoluminescence spectra. This study

  6. How to Make a Singleton sdB Star via Accelerated Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Drew; Wade, Richard A.

    2011-06-01

    Many hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) are in close binaries, and the favored formation channels for subdwarfs rely on mass transfer in a binary system to strip a core He-burning star of its envelope. However, these channels cannot account for sdBs that have been observed in long-period binaries nor the narrow mass distribution of isolated (or "singleton") sdBs. We propose a new formation channel involving the merger of a helium white dwarf and a low-mass, hydrogen-burning star, which addresses these issues. Hierarchical triples whose inner binaries merge and form sdBs by this process could explain the observed long-period subdwarf+main-sequence binaries. This process would also naturally explain the observed slow rotational speeds of singleton sdBs. We also briefly discuss the implications of this formation channel for extreme horizontal branch morphology in globular clusters and the UV upturn in elliptical galaxies.

  7. Mineralogic variation in drill holes USW NRG-6, NRG-7/7a, SD-7, SD-9, SD-12, and UZ{number_sign}14: New data from 1996--1997 analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Chipera, S.J.; Vaniman, D.T.; Bish, D.L.; Carey, J.W.

    1997-05-30

    New quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) mineralogic data have been obtained for samples from drill holes NRG-6, NRG-7/7A, SD-7, SD-9, SD- 12, and UZ{number_sign}14. In addition, new QXRD analyses were obtained on samples located in a strategic portion of drill hole USW H-3. These data improve our understanding of the mineral stratigraphy at Yucca Mountain, and they further constrain the 3-D Mineralogic Model of Yucca Mountain. Some of the unexpected findings include the occurrence of the zeolite chabazite in the vitric zone of USW SD-7, broad overlap of vitric and zeolitic horizons (over vertical ranges up to 70 m), and the previously unrecognized importance of the bedded tuft beneath the Calico Hills Formation as a subunit with generally more extensive zeolitization than the Calico Hills Formation in the southern part of the potential repository area. Reassessment of data from drill hole USW H-5 suggests that the zeolitization of this bedded unit occurs in the northwestern part of the repository exploration block as well. Further analyses of the same interval in USW H-3, however, have not permitted the same conclusion to be reached for the southwestern part of the repository block because of the much poorer quality of the cuttings in H-3 compared with those from H-5. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) chemical data for drill holes USW SD-7, 9, and 12 show that the zeolitic horizons provide a >10 million year record of retardation of Sr transport, although the data also show that simplistic models of one-dimensional downward flow in the unsaturated zone (UZ) are inadequate. Complex interstratification of zeolites and glass, with highly variable profiles between drill cores, point to remaining problems in constructing detailed mineral stratigraphies. However, the new data in this report provide important information for constructing bounding models of zeolite stratigraphy for transport calculations.

  8. 4-Alkyloxyimino Derivatives of Uridine-5′-triphosphate: Distal Modification of Potent Agonists as a Strategy for Molecular Probes of P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Extended N4-(3-arylpropyl)oxy derivatives of uridine-5′-triphosphate were synthesized and potently stimulated phospholipase C stimulation in astrocytoma cells expressing G protein-coupled human (h) P2Y receptors (P2YRs) activated by UTP (P2Y2/4R) or UDP (P2Y6R). The potent P2Y4R-selective N4-(3-phenylpropyl)oxy agonist was phenyl ring-substituted or replaced with terminal heterocyclic or naphthyl rings with retention of P2YR potency. This broad tolerance for steric bulk in a distal region was not observed for dinucleoside tetraphosphate agonists with both nucleobases substituted. The potent N4-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-propyl)oxy analogue 19 (EC50: P2Y2R, 47 nM; P2Y4R, 23 nM) was functionalized for chain extension using click tethering of fluorophores as prosthetic groups. The BODIPY 630/650 conjugate 28 (MRS4162) exhibited EC50 values of 70, 66, and 23 nM at the hP2Y2/4/6Rs, respectively, and specifically labeled cells expressing the P2Y6R. Thus, an extended N4-(3-arylpropyl)oxy group accessed a structurally permissive region on three Gq-coupled P2YRs, and potency and selectivity were modulated by distal structural changes. This freedom of substitution was utilized to design of a pan-agonist fluorescent probe of a subset of uracil nucleotide-activated hP2YRs. PMID:24712832

  9. Weight-loss diets and 2-y changes in circulating amino acids in 2 randomized intervention trials123

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan; Ceglarek, Uta; Huang, Tao; Li, Lerong; Rood, Jennifer; Ryan, Donna H; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Thiery, Joachim; Shai, Iris; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Circulating amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs), have been associated with diabetes risk; however, little is known about how a long-term dietary intervention for weight loss affects circulating amino acids. Objectives: We examined the effects of weight-loss diets on long-term changes in plasma amino acids and the associations of these changes with weight loss and the improvement of insulin resistance. Design: We repeatedly measured plasma amino acid profiles over 2 y in overweight or obese participants from 2 randomized, dietary intervention, weight-loss trials [774 subjects from the POUNDS LOST (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies Trial) and 318 subjects from the DIRECT (Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial)]. Results: Intervention diets consistently lowered most of the amino acid concentrations, including BCAAs and AAAs, in both trials. In the POUNDS LOST, average-protein diets (15% of daily energy) showed stronger effects than did high-protein diets (25% of daily energy) on reducing concentrations of the diabetes-associated BCAA valine at 6 mo independent of the weight change. In both trials, weight loss was directly related to the concurrent reduction of the BCAAs leucine and isoleucine, the AAAs tyrosine and phenylalanine, and 4 other amino acids. For example, per kilogram of weight loss, there was a 0.04-SD decrease in log tyrosine (∼0.6 μmol/L) in both trials. In addition, we showed that reductions in alanine and the AAA tyrosine were significantly related to improved insulin resistance (measured with the use of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), independent of weight loss, in both trials (both P < 0.05). For example, per 1-SD decrease in log tyrosine (∼17 μmol/L), there was a 0.04-SD (∼3%) improvement in insulin resistance in the POUNDS LOST and a 0.13-SD (∼8%) improvement in insulin resistance in the DIRECT. Conclusion: Our findings

  10. Novel Na2Mo4O13/α-MoO3 hybrid material as highly efficient CWAO catalyst for dye degradation at ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Ruoyan; Gao, Yanshan; Zhao, Yufei; Wang, Junyang; Huang, Liang; Guo, Jiang; Zhou, Tuantuan; Lu, Peng; Guo, Zhanhu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel hybrid material Na2Mo4O13/α-MoO3 as highly efficient catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) catalyst, which showed the highest ever activity at room temperature and atmosphere pressure for the degradation of cationic red GTL. SEM and TEM analyses indicated that this hybrid catalyst has bamboo-shaped nanofiber morphology. In view of practical applications, the influence of some key parameters including operation temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, and the volume of dye wastewater have been optimized. The mechanism for the superior catalytic performance was investigated. XRD, XPS, and ESR suggested the Na2Mo4O13/α-MoO3 hybrid catalyst possesses more O2− ions in the oxygen deficient regions than neat α-MoO3, promoting the formation of active ·OH radicals and resulting in a higher activity. Considering the facile preparation and its superior activity, this novel catalyst is promising for practical dye wastewater treatment. PMID:25348943

  11. Redox additives of Na2MoO4 and KI: Synergistic effect and the improved capacitive performances for carbon-based supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dong; Hu, Wei; Sun, Xiao Na; Cui, Peng; Chen, Xiang Ying

    2017-02-01

    A dual system of redox additive by incorporating Na2MoO4 and KI into H2SO4 solution has been developed to highly elevate the capacitance of supercapacitors primarily owing to the synergistic effect between them at the superposed redox voltage. Furthermore, the synergistic effect therein is attributed to the formation of complex substance of (MoxIyO4x)n-Cz, which can promote redox reaction of Mon+ and In- at the interface of carbon electrode and electrolyte. On the other hand, many crucial factors mainly including the molar ratio, concentration of redox additive and voltage window strongly determine the final capacitive behaviors. For example, when adding Na2MoO4 and KI into H2SO4 with the same concentration of 0.1 mol L-1, the resultant capacitance has remarkably increased by 17.4 times, compared with the one without any redox additive, at 3 A g-1 in a two-electrode system. What's more, the homologous energy density can reach up to 65.3 Wh kg-1 at the suitable voltage window (0-1 V). Hence, the present synergism of various kinds of redox additives is intriguing and easily extended to other systems, which could highly elevate the capacitive performances of supercapacitors.

  12. Facile one-pot synthesis of CoS2-MoS2/CNTs as efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Ru; Hu, Wen-Hui; Li, Xiao; Dong, Bin; Shang, Xiao; Han, Guan-Qun; Chai, Yong-Ming; Liu, Yun-Qi; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2016-10-01

    Ternary hybrid cobalt disulfide-molybdenum disulfides supported on carbon nanotubes (CoS2-MoS2/CNTs) electrocatalysts have been prepared via a simple hydrothermal method. CNTs as support may provide good conductivity and low the agglomeration of layered MoS2 structure. CoS2 with intrinsic metallic conductivity may enhance the activity of the ternary hybrid electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirm the formation of ternary hybrid nanocomposites composed of CNTs, CoS2 and amorphous MoS2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that strong combination between MoS2, CNTs and regular orthohexagonal CoS2 has been obtained. The dispersion of each component is good and no obvious agglomeration can be observed. It is found that compared with CoS2/CNTs and MoS2/CNTs, the ternary CoS2-MoS2/CNTs have the better activity for HER with a low onset potential of 70 mV (vs. RHE) and a small Talel slope of 67 mV dec-1, and are extremely stable after 1000 cycles. In addition, the optimal doping ratio of Co to Mo is 2:1, which have better HER activity. It is proved that the introduction of carbon materials and Co atoms could improve the performances of MoS2-based electrocatalysts for HER.

  13. A Deformation Mechanism Map for the 1.23Cr-1.2Mo-0.26V Rotor Steel and Its Verification Using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bano, Nafisa; Koul, Ashok K.; Nganbe, Michel

    2014-04-01

    A deformation mechanism map is constructed for the 1.23Cr-1.2Mo-0.26V rotor steel as a function of temperature, stress, and strain rate using published creep test results and the current understanding of time dependent deformation mechanisms operative in complex engineering alloys. Instead of diffusional creep, grain boundary sliding (GBS) accommodated by different deformation processes is considered dominant at lower strain rates. The GBS dominated region is further sub-divided into two parts, where GBS is accommodated by wedge type cracking at temperatures below 0.5 T/ T m and the accommodation process changes to creep cavitation at temperatures above 0.5 T/ T m. The map is verified using experimental data and artificial neural network modeling. The proposed artificial neural network model is capable of predicting the dominance of different deformation mechanisms in 1.23Cr-1.2Mo-0.26V steel over a wide range of stress and temperature. This modeling procedure can potentially be used to construct or expand deformation mechanism maps for other engineering alloys.

  14. Effects of rare earth substitution on the optical properties of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} for coloring applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, L. Sandhya; Prabhakar Rao, P.; Sameera, S.; James, Vineetha; Koshy, Peter

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • New class of colored compounds BiREMoO{sub 6} (RE = Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb) was synthesized. • The substitution of RE gently red shifts the absorption edge to low energy side. • The differences in band gap depend on the position of the RE f bands. • The yellow colored compounds demonstrated good coloration to plastics. - Abstract: A new class of colored inorganic compounds, BiREMoO{sub 6} (RE = Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) has been synthesized by a solid state route. The substitution of different rare earths for Bi{sup 3+} in Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} produces visible light responsive compounds by gently red shifting the absorption edge to low energy side. The visible light absorption is based on the charge transfer transitions from O{sub 2p} valence band to conduction band made of primary Mo{sub 4d} and secondary Bi{sub 6p}. The substitution of RE{sup 3+} introduces partially occupied 4f electronic levels in between the band gap and the position of 4f level depend on the number of f electrons which allows tuning the band gap. Thus the rare earth substitution provides an opportunity to tailor the band gap of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} from 2.99 eV to 2.19 eV. The developed compounds exhibited different shades of yellow hue and demonstrated good coloration to plastics.

  15. Near infrared to blue upconverting Tm3+/Yb3+/Li+:Gd2(MoO4)3 phosphors for light emitting display devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Anita; Soni, Abhishek Kumar; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Tm3+-Yb3+/Tm3+-Yb3+_Li+ codoped/tridoped Gd2(MoO4)3 phosphors using chemical co-precipitation method have been synthesized and characterised by XRD, FTIR, diffuse reflectance spectra and FE-SEM analysis. The downconversion emission spectra recorded by using 390 nm radiation shows blue colour emission band due to the 1G4 → 3H6 transition of Tm3+ ion. Frequency upconversion emission study show overall intense blue, red and NIR upconversion emission bands due to the 1G4 → 3H6, 1G4 → 3F4 and 3H4 → 3H6 transitions of Tm3+ ion under 980 nm laser diode excitation. The effect of incorporation of Li+ ions in the codoped phosphors produces small shifting in the XRD peaks towards the higher diffraction angle side and also intensity of the blue upconversion emission bands is enhanced around ∼510 times in the Tm3+-Yb3+_Li+:Gd2(MoO4)3 phosphors as compared to the Tm3+ doped phosphors. The confirmation of overall blue colour emission has been identified by colour co-ordinate analysis. The result shows that the developed tri-doped phosphors show improved blue colour emission and hence could be a proper material for near infrared to blue upconverter and blue colour emitting device fabrications.

  16. Exploratory growth in the Li2MoO4-MoO3 system for the next crystal generation of heat-scintillation cryogenic bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez, Matias; Veber, Philippe; Moutatouia, Meryem; de Marcillac, Pierre; Giuliani, Andrea; Loaiza, Pia; Denux, Dominique; Decourt, Rodolphe; El Hafid, Hassan; Laubenstein, Matthias; Marnieros, Stefanos; Nones, Claudia; Novati, Valentina; Olivieri, Emiliano; Poda, Denys V.; Zolotarova, Anastasiia S.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we report on the Czochralski growth of Li2MoO4 crystals up to 230 g for heat-scintillation cryogenic bolometers likely to be used in astroparticle physics and neutron spectroscopy. Their transmission properties, radiopurity levels and detector behavior characterizations were carried out in order to validate the crystal growth process. The melting characteristics, the partition coefficients of a broad range of impurities, the thermal expansion (lattice parameters and dilatometry) and specific heat properties of the crystals were measured, over a broad temperature range for the last two, providing new data likely to be used in crystal growth process numerical simulations. We also investigated the crystal growth of Li4Mo5O17 and determined its melting behavior and specific heat. The physical properties directly relevant to heat-scintillation cryogenic bolometers of Li2MoO4 and Li4Mo5O17 are discussed in the context of the current materials developed for such applications.

  17. Cathodic processes of platinum electrodes during Na/sub 2/MoO/sub 3/-MoO/sub 3/ melt electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Komarov, V.E.; Bove, A.L.; Smolenskii, V.V.; Zyryanov, V.G.

    1985-09-01

    It has been shown previously that during polarization of a platinum cathode in the Na/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/-MoO/sub 3/ system the evolution of molybdenum dioxide is preceded by a wave which, in the authors' opinion, can be attributed to changes in ionic composition of the melt layer next to the cathode, and in particular to the appearance of lower, reduced forms of the ions. In tungstate melts, the evolution of bronze or other products is preceded by alloy electrolysis of molybdate melts. The present work was undertaken in order to elucidate the conditions under which a platinum electrode can be used as an indicator electrode for electrochemical investigations in molybdate melts. The experiments used ''chemically pure'' MoO/sub 3/ and ''analytically pure'' Na/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/.2H/sub 2/O. On the basis of the investigation it is concluded that alloys of platinum with molybdenum are formed at the cathode when the melt contains relatively small amounts of MoO/sub 3/.

  18. Synthesis of Hierarchical Sb2MoO6 Architectures and Their Electrochemical Behaviors as Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuan; Wang, Zhenyu; Lu, Lu; Yang, Guang; Niu, Chunming; Wang, Hongkang

    2016-07-18

    We report a facile microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchical Sb2MoO6 architectures assembled from single-crystalline nanobelts, which are first demonstrated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with superior electrochemical properties. Sb2MoO6 delivers a high initial reversible capacity of ∼1140 mA h/g at 200 mA/g with large initial Coulombic efficiency of ∼89%, and a reversible capacity of ∼878 mA h/g after 100 cycles at 200 mA/g. As a new anode, the electrochemical behaviors are investigated through ex situ TEM and XPS measurements, revealing that the superior electrochemical performance is attributed to the novel hierarchical structures and the synergistic interaction between both the active Sb- and Mo-species, in which the in situ generated Li2O-MoOx serves as matrix and efficiently buffers the volume changes of the Li-Sb alloying-dealloying upon cycling.

  19. Identifying and rationalizing the morphological, structural, and optical properties of -Ag2MoO4 microcrystals, and the formation process of Ag nanoparticles on their surfaces: combining experimental data and first-principles calculations

    PubMed Central

    Fabbro, Maria T; Saliby, Carla; Rios, Larissa R; La Porta, Felipe A; Gracia, Lourdes; Li, Máximo S; Andrés, Juan; Santos, Luís P S; Longo, Elson

    2015-01-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of β-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals. β-Ag2MoO4 samples were prepared by a co-precipitation method. The nucleation and formation of Ag nanoparticles on β-Ag2MoO4 during electron beam irradiation were also analyzed as a function of electron beam dose. These events were directly monitored in real-time using in situ field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The thermodynamic equilibrium shape of the β-Ag2MoO4 crystals was built with low-index surfaces (001), (011), and (111) through a Wulff construction. This shape suggests that the (011) face is the dominating surface in the ideal morphology. A significant increase in the values of the surface energy for the (011) face versus those of the other surfaces was observed, which allowed us to find agreement between the experimental and theoretical morphologies. Our investigation of the different morphologies and structures of the β-Ag2MoO4 crystals provided insight into how the crystal morphology can be controlled so that the surface chemistry of β-Ag2MoO4 can be tuned for specific applications. The presence of structural disorder in the tetrahedral [MoO4] and octahedral [AgO6] clusters, the building blocks of β-Ag2MoO4, was used to explain the experimentally measured optical properties. PMID:27877844

  20. Identifying and rationalizing the morphological, structural, and optical properties of [Formula: see text]-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals, and the formation process of Ag nanoparticles on their surfaces: combining experimental data and first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, Maria T; Saliby, Carla; Rios, Larissa R; La Porta, Felipe A; Gracia, Lourdes; Li, Máximo S; Andrés, Juan; Santos, Luís P S; Longo, Elson

    2015-12-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of β-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals. β-Ag2MoO4 samples were prepared by a co-precipitation method. The nucleation and formation of Ag nanoparticles on β-Ag2MoO4 during electron beam irradiation were also analyzed as a function of electron beam dose. These events were directly monitored in real-time using in situ field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The thermodynamic equilibrium shape of the β-Ag2MoO4 crystals was built with low-index surfaces (001), (011), and (111) through a Wulff construction. This shape suggests that the (011) face is the dominating surface in the ideal morphology. A significant increase in the values of the surface energy for the (011) face versus those of the other surfaces was observed, which allowed us to find agreement between the experimental and theoretical morphologies. Our investigation of the different morphologies and structures of the β-Ag2MoO4 crystals provided insight into how the crystal morphology can be controlled so that the surface chemistry of β-Ag2MoO4 can be tuned for specific applications. The presence of structural disorder in the tetrahedral [MoO4] and octahedral [AgO6] clusters, the building blocks of β-Ag2MoO4, was used to explain the experimentally measured optical properties.

  1. Broadband sensitized white light emission of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Y{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+} composite phosphor under near ultraviolet excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Bing; Xue, Yongfei; Li, Pengju; Zhang, Jingtao; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Hengzhen

    2015-12-15

    The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Y{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+} composite phosphors were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible diffuse reflection spectra, photoluminescence spectra and luminescence decay curves. Under the excitation of 360 nm near ultraviolet light, these composite phosphors show tunable emission from blue to red region, in which white light emission can be obtained in term of appropriate quality proportion of Y{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+} relative to g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Y{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+}. In addition, the emission color can be also dependent on the excitation wavelength in g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Y{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+} composite phosphor. - Graphical abstract: Under the excitation of 360 nm near ultraviolet light, the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Y{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+} composite phosphors show tunable emission from blue to red region, in which white light emission can be obtained. - Highlights: • The g-C3N4/Y2MoO6:Eu{sup 3+} composite phosphors were synthesized and characterized. • White light emission was realized in the g-C3N4/Y2MoO6:Eu{sup 3+} composites under UV excitation. • A novel idea to realize the broadband sensitized white light emission in phosphors was provided.

  2. Identifying and rationalizing the morphological, structural, and optical properties of {\\boldsymbol{\\beta }}-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals, and the formation process of Ag nanoparticles on their surfaces: combining experimental data and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbro, Maria T.; Saliby, Carla; Rios, Larissa R.; La Porta, Felipe A.; Gracia, Lourdes; Li, Máximo S.; Andrés, Juan; Santos, Luís P. S.; Longo, Elson

    2015-12-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of β-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals. β-Ag2MoO4 samples were prepared by a co-precipitation method. The nucleation and formation of Ag nanoparticles on β-Ag2MoO4 during electron beam irradiation were also analyzed as a function of electron beam dose. These events were directly monitored in real-time using in situ field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The thermodynamic equilibrium shape of the β-Ag2MoO4 crystals was built with low-index surfaces (001), (011), and (111) through a Wulff construction. This shape suggests that the (011) face is the dominating surface in the ideal morphology. A significant increase in the values of the surface energy for the (011) face versus those of the other surfaces was observed, which allowed us to find agreement between the experimental and theoretical morphologies. Our investigation of the different morphologies and structures of the β-Ag2MoO4 crystals provided insight into how the crystal morphology can be controlled so that the surface chemistry of β-Ag2MoO4 can be tuned for specific applications. The presence of structural disorder in the tetrahedral [MoO4] and octahedral [AgO6] clusters, the building blocks of β-Ag2MoO4, was used to explain the experimentally measured optical properties.

  3. 78 FR 73751 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Philip, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Federal holidays. An informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the office of... areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * AGL SD E5...

  4. P2Y Receptors in the Mammalian Nervous System: Pharmacology, Ligands and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Gary A.; Woods, Lucas T.; Erb, Laurie; Seye, Cheikh I.

    2015-01-01

    P2Y receptors for extracellular nucleotides are coupled to activation of a variety of G proteins and stimulate diverse intracellular signaling pathways that regulate functions of cell types that comprise the central nervous system (CNS). There are 8 different subtypes of P2Y receptor expressed in cells of the CNS that are activated by a select group of nucleotide agonists. Here, the agonist selectivity of these 8 P2Y receptor subtypes is reviewed with an emphasis on synthetic agonists with high potency and resistance to degradation by extracellular nucleotidases that have potential applications as therapeutic agents. In addition, the recent identification of a wide variety of subtype-selective antagonists is discussed, since these compounds are critical for discerning cellular responses mediated by activation of individual P2Y receptor subtypes. The functional expression of P2Y receptor subtypes in cells that comprise the CNS is also reviewed and the role of each subtype in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological responses is considered. Other topics include the role of P2Y receptors in the regulation of blood-brain barrier integrity and potential interactions between different P2Y receptor subtypes that likely impact tissue responses to extracellular nucleotides in the CNS. Overall, current research suggests that P2Y receptors in the CNS regulate repair mechanisms that are triggered by tissue damage, inflammation and disease and thus P2Y receptors represent promising targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22963441

  5. Molecular Characterization of a Novel Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Isolate SD-15

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lisai; Lu, Haibing; Cao, Yufeng; Gai, Xiaochun; Guo, Changming; Liu, Yajing; Liu, Jiaxu; Wang, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    As one of the major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus caused a significant economic loss to the livestock industry worldwide. Although BVDV infections have increasingly been reported in China in recent years, the molecular aspects of those BVDV strains were barely characterized. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a novel BVDV isolate designated as SD-15 from cattle, which is associated with an outbreak characterized by severe hemorrhagic and mucous diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality in Shandong, China. SD-15 was revealed to be a noncytopathic BVDV, and has a complete genomic sequence of 12,285 nucleotides that contains a large open reading frame encoding 3900 amino acids. Alignment analysis showed that SD-15 has 93.8% nucleotide sequence identity with BVDV ZM-95 isolate, a previous BVDV strain isolated from pigs manifesting clinical signs and lesions resembling to classical swine fever. Phylogenetic analysis clustered SD-15 to a BVDV-1m subgenotype. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of glycoproteins revealed that E2 has several highly conserved and variable regions within BVDV-1 genotypes. An additional N-glycosylation site (240NTT) was revealed exclusively in SD-15-encoded E2 in addition to four potential glycosylation sites (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) shared by all BVDV-1 genotypes. Furthermore, unique amino acid and linear epitope mutations were revealed in SD-15-encoded Erns glycoprotein compared with known BVDV-1 genotype. In conclusion, we have isolated a noncytopathic BVDV-1m strain that is associated with a disease characterized by high morbidity and mortality, revealed the complete genome sequence of the first BVDV-1m virus originated from cattle, and found a unique glycosylation site in E2 and a linear epitope mutation in Erns encoded by SD-15 strain. Those results will broaden the current understanding of BVDV infection and lay a basis for future investigation on SD-15-related pathogenesis. PMID:27764206

  6. The influence of variation in the P2Y12 receptor gene on in vitro platelet inhibition with the direct P2Y12 antagonist cangrelor.

    PubMed

    Bouman, H J; van Werkum, J W; Rudez, G; Leebeek, F W G; Kruit, A; Hackeng, C M; Ten Berg, J M; de Maat, M P M; Ruven, H J T

    2010-02-01

    Novel P2Y12 inhibitors are in development to overcome the occurrence of atherothrombotic events associated with poor responsiveness to the widely used P2Y12 inhibitor clopidogrel. Cangrelor is an intravenously administered P2Y12 inhibitor that does not need metabolic conversion to an active metabolite for its antiplatelet action, and as a consequence exhibits a more potent and consistent antiplatelet profile as compared to clopidogrel. It was the objective of this study to determine the contribution of variation in the P2Y12 receptor gene to platelet aggregation after in vitro partial P2Y12 receptor blockade with the direct antagonist cangrelor. Optical aggregometry was performed at baseline and after in vitro addition of 0.05 and 0.25 microM cangrelor to the platelet-rich plasma of 254 healthy subjects. Five haplotype-tagging (ht)-SNPs covering the entire P2Y12 receptor gene were genotyped (rs6798347C>t, rs6787801T>c, rs9859552C>a, rs6801273A>g and rs2046934T>c [T744C]) and haplotypes were inferred. The minor c allele of SNP rs6787801 was associated with a 5% lower 20 microM ADP-induced peak platelet aggregation (0.05 microM cangrelor, p<0.05). Aa homozygotes for SNP rs9859552 showed 20% and 17% less inhibition of platelet aggregation with cangrelor when compared to CC homozygotes (0.05 and 0.25 microM cangrelor respectively; p<0.05). Results of the haplotype analyses were consistent with those of the single SNPs. Polymorphisms of the P2Y12 receptor gene contribute significantly to the interindividual variability in platelet inhibition after partial in vitro blockade with the P2Y12 antagonist cangrelor.

  7. Pressure coefficients for direct optical transitions in MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 crystals and semiconductor to metal transitions

    PubMed Central

    Dybała, F.; Polak, M. P.; Kopaczek, J.; Scharoch, P.; Wu, K.; Tongay, S.; Kudrawiec, R.

    2016-01-01

    The electronic band structure of MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2, crystals has been studied at various hydrostatic pressures experimentally by photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy and theoretically within the density functional theory (DFT). In the PR spectra direct optical transitions (A and B) have been clearly observed and pressure coefficients have been determined for these transitions to be: αA = 2.0 ± 0.1 and αB = 3.6 ± 0.1 meV/kbar for MoS2, αA = 2.3 ± 0.1 and αB = 4.0 ± 0.1 meV/kbar for MoSe2, αA = 2.6 ± 0.1 and αB = 4.1 ± 0.1 meV/kbar for WS2, αA = 3.4 ± 0.1 and αB = 5.0 ± 0.5 meV/kbar for WSe2. It has been found that these coefficients are in an excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. In addition, a comparative study of different computational DFT approaches has been performed and analyzed. For indirect gap the pressure coefficient have been determined theoretically to be −7.9, −5.51, −6.11, and −3.79, meV/kbar for MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2, respectively. The negative values of this coefficients imply a narrowing of the fundamental band gap with the increase in hydrostatic pressure and a semiconductor to metal transition for MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2, crystals at around 140, 180, 190, and 240 kbar, respectively. PMID:27215469

  8. SD0006: A Potent, Selective and Orally Available Inhibitor of p38 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Burnette, Barry L.; Selness, Shaun; Devraj, Raj; Jungbluth, Gail; Kurumbail, Ravi; Stillwell, Loreen; Anderson, Gary; Mnich, Stephen; Hirsch, Jeffrey; Compton, Robert; De Ciechi, Pamela; Hope, Heidi; Hepperle, Michael; Keith, Robert H.; Naing, Win; Shieh, Huey; Portanova, Joseph; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Leimgruber, Richard M.; Monahan, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    SD0006 is a diarylpyrazole that was prepared as an inhibitor of p38 kinase-α (p38α). In vitro, SD0006 was selective for p38α kinase over 50 other kinases screened (including p38γ and p38δ with modest selectivity over p38β). Crystal structures with p38α show binding at the ATP site with additional residue interactions outside the ATP pocket unique to p38α that can confer advantages over other ATP competitive inhibitors. Direct correlation between inhibition of p38α activity and that of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated TNFα release was established in cellular models and in vivo, including a phase 1 clinical trial. Potency (IC50) for inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) release, in vitro and in vivo, was <200 nmol/l. In vivo, SD0006 was effective in the rat streptococcal-cell-wall-induced arthritis model, with dramatic protective effects on paw joint integrity and bone density as shown by radiographic analysis. In the murine collagen-induced arthritis model, equivalence was demonstrated to anti-TNFα treatment. SD0006 also demonstrated good oral anti-inflammatory efficacy with excellent cross-species correlation between the rat, cynomolgus monkey, and human. SD0006 suppressed expression of multiple proinflammatory proteins at both the transcriptional and translational levels. These properties suggest SD0006 could provide broader therapeutic efficacy than cytokine-targeted monotherapeutics. PMID:19590255

  9. [Usefulness of a new sheet-like apparatus (SD-101) for screening of sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yoko; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Honda, Takayuki; Urushihata, Kazutoshi; Komatsu, Yoshimichi; Asawa, Teruko; Uhara, Miho; Ii, Asami; Yamauchi, Kazuyoshi; Katsuyama, Tsutomu

    2006-07-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). However, PSG is not suitable as a first-line examination for all people suspected as having SAS because PSG requires hospitalization. Therefore, it is hoped that a simple examination can be developed which is available for use in the home. The present study evaluated the usefulness of a new sheet-like apparatus (SD-101) which is equipped with 162 pressure sensors for SAS diagnosis. One hundred patients hospitalized for PSG were simultaneously examined using the SD-101, and 25 patients, who underwent both PSG and SAS screening with MORPHEUS R, were also studied. The SD-101 is inserted between a sheet and the bed, and detects pressure from many points on the patient's body as it presses against the bed. Continuous changes of these pressure points are converted to respiratory movement. A very close correlation was seen between the apnea hypopnea index of PSG and a respiratory disturbance index of SD-101 (r=0.90), although there was a significant but lower correlation between data obtained PSG and MORPHEUS R(r=0.84). The sensitivity and specificity of the examination using SD-101 were 98.2% and 55.8%, respectively. These findings suggested that a new apparatus, SD-101, may be useful for the screening of SAS.

  10. Excellent photocatalytic hydrogen production over CdS nanorods via using noble metal-free copper molybdenum sulfide (Cu2MoS4) nanosheets as co-catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sangyeob; Kumar, D. Praveen; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Choi, Jiha; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Charge carrier recombination and durability issues are major problems in photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) evolution processes. Thus, there is a very important necessitate to extend an efficient photocatalyst to control charge-carrier dynamics in the photocatalytic system. We have developed copper molybdenum sulfide (Cu2MoS4) nanosheets as co-catalysts with CdS nanorods for controlling charge carriers without recombination for use in photocatalytic H2 evolution under simulated solar light irradiation. Effective control and utilization of charge carriers are possible by loading Cu2MoS4 nanosheets onto the CdS nanorods. The loading compensates for the restrictions of CdS, and stimulated synergistic effects, such as efficient photoexcited charge separation, lead to an improvement in photostability because of the layered structure of the Cu2MoS4nanosheets. These layered Cu2MoS4 nanosheets have emerged as novel and active replacements for precious noble metal co-catalysts in photocatalytic H2 production by water splitting. We have obtained superior H2 production rates by using Cu2MoS4 loaded CdS nanorods. The physicochemical properties of the composites are analyzed by diverse characterization techniques.

  11. Order and disorder in the local and long-range structure of the spin-glass pyrochlore, Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yu; Huq, Ashfia; Booth, Corwin H.; Ehlers, Georg; Greedan, John E.; Gardner, Jason S.

    2011-02-11

    To understand the origin of the spin-glass state in molybdate pyrochlores, the structure of Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} is investigated using two techniques: the long-range lattice structure was measured using neutron powder diffraction (NPD), and local structure information was obtained from the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) technique. While the long-range structure appears generally well ordered, enhanced mean-squared site displacements on the O(1) site and the lack of temperature dependence of the strongly anisotropic displacement parameters for both the Mo and O(1) sites indicate some disorder exists. Likewise, the local structure measurements indicate some Mo-Mo and Tb-O(1) nearest-neighbor disorder exists, similar to that found in the related spin-glass pyrochlore, Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Although the freezing temperature in Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}, 25 K, is slightly higher than in Y{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}, 22 K, the degree of local pair distance disorder is actually less in Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7}. This apparent contradiction is considered in light of the interactions involved in the freezing process.

  12. Lattice effects in cubic La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}: Effect of vacuum and correlation with transport properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tealdi, Cristina Malavasi, Lorenzo; Ritter, Clemens; Flor, Giorgio; Costa, Giorgio

    2008-03-15

    This study aims to investigate correlations between lattice effects and transport properties in cubic La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}. High temperature neutron diffraction data, recorded in air and under vacuum, are used to follow the evolution with temperature of selected structural parameters, i.e. bond lengths and angles. Results suggest a possible correlation with the experimentally observed decrease of the activation energy for oxygen migration at high temperature. The effect on the structural properties of the low oxygen partial pressure used during the measurements in vacuum is negligible and this represents a valuable information in view of possible applications of the material in solid state devices. - Graphical abstract: Anti-tetrahedral unit centred in O1 and linked through La ions to form a cage where the partially occupied O2 and O3 ions are placed.

  13. The Diphosphorus Complex [Cp2Mo2(CO)4(η2‐P2)] as a Building Block for the Synthesis of Mixed‐Hybrid Coordination Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Mehdi Elsayed; Attenberger, Bianca; Fleischmann, Martin; Schreiner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The three‐component reaction of the tetrahedral diphosphorus complex [Cp2Mo2(CO)4(η2‐P2)] (1), with Ag[BF4] (2) in the presence of 2,2′‐bipyrimidine (3) leads to the formation of the two novel two‐dimensional networks 4 and 5. Compound 4 is a new two‐dimensional organometallic‐organic hybrid polymer, while derivative 5 represents a unique two‐dimensional organometallic‐inorganic‐organic hybrid polymer. These results show the possibility of synthesizing a new class of coordination polymers, which could not be obtained from two‐component reactions with organic molecules in addition of metal ions. PMID:27867315

  14. Fabrication of 13Cr-2Mo Ferritic/Martensitic Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Steel Components by Mechanical Alloying and Spark-Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, I.; Grigoryev, E.; Khasanov, O. L.; Olevsky, E.

    2014-06-01

    The outcomes of the mechanical alloying of 13Cr-2Mo ferritic/martensitic steel and yttria (oxide-dispersion-strengthened steel) powders in a ball mill are reported in terms of the powder particle size and morphology evolution. The optimal ball mill rotation speed and the milling time are discussed. The densification kinetics of the mechanically alloyed powder during the process of spark-plasma sintering is analyzed. An optimal set of the compaction processing parameters, including the maximum temperature, the dwell time, and the heating rate, is determined. The specifics of the densification are discussed in terms of the impact of major spark-plasma sintering parameters as well as the possible phase transformations occurring during compaction processing.

  15. Microhardness and lattice parameter calibrations of the oxygen solid solutions of unalloyed alpha-titanium and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemann, K. E.; Shenoy, R. N.; Unnam, J.

    1987-01-01

    Standards were prepared for calibrating microanalyses of dissolved oxygen in unalloyed alpha-Ti and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo. Foils of both of these materials were homogenized for 120 hours in vacuum at 871 C following short exposures to the ambient atmosphere at 854 C that had partially oxidized the foils. The variation of Knoop microhardness with oxygen content was calibrated for both materials using 15-g and 5-g indentor loads. The unit-cell lattice parameters were calibrated for the unalloyed alpha-Ti. Example analyses demonstrate the usefulness of these calibrations and support an explanation of an anomaly in the lattice parameter variation. The results of the calibrations have been tabulated and summarized using predictive equations.

  16. Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2), and WSe(2).

    PubMed

    Chen, Bohua; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Kan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jun; Chen, Jianping

    2015-10-05

    In this paper, we report 4 different saturable absorbers based on 4 transition metal dichalcogenides (MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2), WSe(2)) and utilize them to Q-switch a ring-cavity fiber laser with identical cavity configuration. It is found that MoSe(2) exhibits highest modulation depth with similar preparation process among four saturable absorbers. Q-switching operation performance is compared from the aspects of RF spectrum, optical spectrum, repetition rate and pulse duration. WS(2) Q-switched fiber laser generates the most stable pulse trains compared to other 3 fiber lasers. These results demonstrate the feasibility of TMDs to Q-switch fiber laser effectively and provide a meaningful reference for further research in nonlinear fiber optics with these TMDs materials.

  17. Photosensitivity of ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}/Mo thin-film solar cells fabricated on various substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Rud, V. Yu.; Rud, Yu. V.; Gremenok, V. F.; Terukov, E. I.; Bairamov, B. Kh.; Song, Y. W.

    2012-02-15

    The results of measuring the first spectra of relative quantum efficiency for photoconversion in thin-film ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}/Mo solar cells fabricated on rigid (glass) and flexible (polyimide) substrates are reported. The character of interband transitions has been studied and the values of the band gap for direct and indirect transitions in thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} films are determined. It is found that a shift of the maximal photosensitivity for the obtained solar cells to shorter wavelengths is observed as rigid substrates are replaced by flexible ones. It is concluded that thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} structures can be used as broad-band photoconverters of solar radiation.

  18. The ferrimagnetic structure of Fe2Mo3O12: dependence of Fe-O-O-Fe supersuperexchange couplings on geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenberg, H.; Bramnik, K. G.; Muessig, E.; Buhrmester, T.; Weitzel, H.; Ritter, C.

    2003-05-01

    The magnetic structure of Fe2Mo3O12 was determined by neutron powder diffraction and magnetization studies. The magnetic unit cell is identical with the monoclinic chemical one (Z=8), and the magnetic space group is P21/a. The magnetic moments are ferromagnetically aligned along the b-axis for each sublattice corresponding to each Fe-site. There are four different Fe-sites, and the magnetic moments are parallel within two of them, but antiparallel to those of the other two sublattices, so that a ferrimagnetic structure results. The dominant antiferromagnetic supersuperexchange couplings are those along Fe-O-O-Fe paths with the two bridging oxygens belonging to one [MoO4]-tetrahedron and forming large Fe-O-O and O-O-Fe angles.

  19. Semi-empirical and ab initio DFT modeling of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters for Fe6+: K2MO4 (M = S, Cr, Se)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avram, N. M.; Brik, M. G.; Andreici, E.-L.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we calculated the spin-Hamiltonian parameters (g factors {{g}||}, {{g}\\bot } and zero field splitting parameter D) for Fe6+ ions doped in K2MO4 (M = S, Cr, Se) crystals, taking into account the actual site symmetry of the Fe6+ impurity ion. The suggested method is based on the successful application of two different approaches: the crystal field theory (CFT) and density functional based (DFT). Within the CFT model we used the cluster approach and the perturbation theory method, based on the crystal field parameters, which were calculated in the superposition model. Within the DFT approach the calculations were done at the self-consistent field (SCF) by solving the coupled perturbed SCF equations. Comparison with experimental data shows that the obtained results are quite satisfactory, which proves applicability of the suggested calculating technique.

  20. Self-powdering and nonlinear optical domain structures in ferroelastic beta'-Gd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals formed in glass

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukada, Y.; Honma, T.; Komatsu, T.

    2009-08-15

    Ferroelastic beta'-Gd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}, (GMO), crystals are formed through the crystallization of 21.25Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-63.75MoO{sub 3}-15B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass (mol%), and two scientific curious phenomena are observed. (1) GMO crystals formed in the crystallization break into small pieces with a triangular prism or pyramid shape having a length of 50-500 {mu}m spontaneously during the crystallizations in the inside of an electric furnace, not during the cooling in air after the crystallization. This phenomenon is called 'self-powdering phenomenon during crystallization' in this paper. (2) Each self-powdered GMO crystal grain shows a periodic domain structure with different refractive indices, and a spatially periodic second harmonic generation (SHG) depending on the domain structure is observed. It is proposed from polarized micro-Raman scattering spectra and the azimuthal dependence of second harmonic intensities that GMO crystals are oriented in each crystal grain and the orientation of (MoO{sub 4}){sup 2-} tetrahedra in GMO crystals changes periodically due to spontaneous strains in ferroelastic GMO crystals. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the polarized optical photograph at room temperature for a particle (piece) obtained by a heat treatment of the glass at 590 deg. C for 2 h in an electric furnace in air. This particle was obtained through the self-powdering behavior in the crystallization of glass. The periodic domain structure is observed. Ferroelastic beta'-Gd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals are formed in the particle, and second harmonic generations are detected, depending on the domain structure.

  1. Microglial P2Y12 Receptors Regulate Microglial Activation and Surveillance during Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Nan; Eyo, Ukpong B.; Murugan, Madhuvika; Peng, Jiyun; Matta, Sanjana; Dong, Hailong; Wu, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microglial cells are critical in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and several microglial receptors have been proposed to mediate this process. Of these receptors, the P2Y12 receptor is a unique purinergic receptor that is exclusively expressed by microglia in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we set forth to investigate the role of P2Y12 receptors in microglial electrophysiological and morphological (static and dynamic) activation during spinal nerve transection (SNT)-induced neuropathic pain in mice. First, we found that a genetic deficiency of the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12−/− mice) ameliorated pain hypersensitivities during the initiation phase of neuropathic pain. Next, we characterized both the electrophysiological and morphological properties of microglia in the superficial spinal cord dorsal horn following SNT injury. We show dramatic alterations including a peak at 3 days post injury in microglial electrophysiology while high resolution two-photon imaging revealed significant changes of both static and dynamic microglial morphological properties by 7 days post injury. Finally, in P2Y12−/− mice, these electrophysiological and morphological changes were ameliorated suggesting roles for P2Y12 receptors in SNT-induced microglial activation. Our results therefore indicate that P2Y12 receptors regulate microglial electrophysiological as well as static and dynamic microglial properties after peripheral nerve injury, suggesting that the microglial P2Y12 receptor could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:26576724

  2. Purinergic P2Y12 Receptor Activation in Eosinophils and the Schistosomal Host Response.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Valdirene S; Baptista-Dos-Reis, Renata; Benjamim, Claudia F; Mata-Santos, Hilton A; Pyrrho, Alexandre S; Strauch, Marcelo A; Melo, Paulo A; Vicentino, Amanda R R; Silva-Paiva, Juliana; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Weller, Peter F; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T; Neves, Josiane S

    2015-01-01

    Identifying new target molecules through which eosinophils secrete their stored proteins may reveal new therapeutic approaches for the control of eosinophilic disorders such as host immune responses to parasites. We have recently reported the expression of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) in human eosinophils; however, its functional role in this cell type and its involvement in eosinophilic inflammation remain unknown. Here, we investigated functional roles of P2Y12R in isolated human eosinophils and in a murine model of eosinophilic inflammation induced by Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection. We found that adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) induced human eosinophils to secrete eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) in a P2Y12R dependent manner. However, ADP did not interfere with human eosinophil apoptosis or chemotaxis in vitro. In vivo, C57Bl/6 mice were infected with cercariae of the Belo Horizonte strain of S. mansoni. Analyses performed 55 days post infection revealed that P2Y12R blockade reduced the granulomatous hepatic area and the eosinophilic infiltrate, collagen deposition and IL-13/IL-4 production in the liver without affecting the parasite oviposition. As found for humans, murine eosinophils also express the P2Y12R. P2Y12R inhibition increased blood eosinophilia, whereas it decreased the bone marrow eosinophil count. Our results suggest that P2Y12R has an important role in eosinophil EPO secretion and in establishing the inflammatory response in the course of a S. mansoni infection.

  3. Synergistic inhibition of both P2Y1 and P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptors as novel approach to rapidly attenuate platelet-mediated thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Gremmel, Thomas; Yanachkov, Ivan B.; Yanachkova, Milka I.; Wright, George E.; Wider, Joseph; Undyala, Vishnu V.R.; Michelson, Alan D.; Frelinger, Andrew L.; Przyklenk, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unlike currently approved adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists, the new diadenosine tetraphosphate derivative GLS-409 targets not only P2Y12 but also the second human platelet ADP receptor P2Y1, and may therefore be a promising antiplatelet drug candidate. The current study is the first to investigate the in vivo antithrombotic effects of GLS-409. Approach and Results We studied (1) the in vivo effects of GLS-409 on agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation in anesthetized rats, (2) the antithrombotic activity of GLS-409 and the associated effect on the bleeding time in a canine model of platelet-mediated coronary artery thrombosis, and (3) the inhibition of agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation by GLS-409 versus selective P2Y1 and P2Y12 inhibition in vitro in samples from healthy human subjects before and 2 hours after aspirin intake. In vivo treatment with GLS-409 significantly inhibited ADP- and collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation in rats. Further, GLS-409 attenuated cyclic flow variation, i.e., platelet-mediated thrombosis, in vivo in our canine model of unstable angina. The improvement in coronary patency was accompanied by a non-significant 30% increase in bleeding time. Of note, GLS-409 exerted its effects without affecting rat and canine hemodynamics. Finally, in vitro treatment with GLS-409 showed effects similar to that of cangrelor and the combination of cangrelor with the selective P2Y1 inhibitor MRS 2179 on agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation in human platelet-rich plasma and whole blood before and 2 hours after aspirin intake. Conclusions Synergistic inhibition of both P2Y1 and P2Y12 ADP receptors by GLS-409 immediately attenuates platelet-mediated thrombosis and effectively blocks agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation irrespective of concomitant aspirin therapy. PMID:26743169

  4. P2Y Receptors in Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity: Therapeutic Potential in Cognitive Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Segundo J.; Gerevich, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    ATP released from neurons and astrocytes during neuronal activity or under pathophysiological circumstances is able to influence information flow in neuronal circuits by activation of ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors and subsequent modulation of cellular excitability, synaptic strength, and plasticity. In the present paper we review cellular and network effects of P2Y receptors in the brain. We show that P2Y receptors inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, modulate voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, and differentially influence the induction of synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The findings discussed here may explain how P2Y1 receptor activation during brain injury, hypoxia, inflammation, schizophrenia, or Alzheimer's disease leads to an impairment of cognitive processes. Hence, it is suggested that the blockade of P2Y1 receptors may have therapeutic potential against cognitive disturbances in these states. PMID:27069691

  5. P2Y Receptors in Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity: Therapeutic Potential in Cognitive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Segundo J; Gerevich, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    ATP released from neurons and astrocytes during neuronal activity or under pathophysiological circumstances is able to influence information flow in neuronal circuits by activation of ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors and subsequent modulation of cellular excitability, synaptic strength, and plasticity. In the present paper we review cellular and network effects of P2Y receptors in the brain. We show that P2Y receptors inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, modulate voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, and differentially influence the induction of synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The findings discussed here may explain how P2Y1 receptor activation during brain injury, hypoxia, inflammation, schizophrenia, or Alzheimer's disease leads to an impairment of cognitive processes. Hence, it is suggested that the blockade of P2Y1 receptors may have therapeutic potential against cognitive disturbances in these states.

  6. A comparative study of the redox and excited state properties of (nBu4N)2[Mo6X14] and (nBu4N)2[Mo6X8(CF3COO)6] (X = Cl, Br, or I).

    PubMed

    Kirakci, Kaplan; Kubát, Pavel; Langmaier, Jan; Polívka, Tomáš; Fuciman, Marcel; Fejfarová, Karla; Lang, Kamil

    2013-05-21

    The excited-state dynamics, luminescence, and redox properties of a series of hexanuclear molybdenum cluster complexes, (nBu4N)2[Mo6X14] and (nBu4N)2[Mo6X8(CF3COO)6] (X = Cl, Br, or I), were investigated. Substitution of the apical halogen ligands for the trifluoroacetate ligands increased the oxidation potentials and induced a blue shift in the absorption and luminescence bands as well as a considerable increase in the luminescence quantum yields for heavy inner ligands. Time-resolved transient absorption measurements showed that the intersystem crossing from the excited singlet states is ultrafast with time constants ranging between <120 fs and 1.68 ps and leads to hot triplet states. The following cooling occurred at a ps time scale and was assigned to electronic redistribution within the emissive triplet state sublevels. The formation of singlet oxygen, O2((1)Δg), suggested earlier on the basis of photooxidation experiments for some complexes, was revised by direct measurements of O2((1)Δg) phosphorescence. We showed the effects of the attached ligands on key physico-chemical and photophysical parameters of the title complexes. The synthesis and structural characterisation of a new cluster complex, (nBu4N)2[Mo6Br8(CF3COO)6], completed the series. Our results demonstrated that the complexes with heavy inner ligands (Br, I) and apical trifluoroacetate ligands were photochemically and electrochemically stable, highly luminescent, and good sensitisers of O2((1)Δg).

  7. [The effect of the mutant genes Ta, Ra and Sd on early embryogenesis in mice].

    PubMed

    Sakharova, N Iu; Malashenko, A M; Mezhevikina, L M; Lepikhov, K A; Fialkovskaia, L A

    1996-01-01

    We studied early embryonic mortality of mice from mutant stocks Tabby (Ta, X-chromosome) and RaSd (RaSd/++, chromosome 2) maintained in the heterozygous state in F1 CBA x C57B1/6 hybrid. Tabby and RaSd mice were reciprocally crossed with F1 mice and examined for the morphological status of embryos washed from the oviduct on the third day of pregnancy, when the stage of eight blastomeres is normally attained. Mortality was evaluated from the number of embryos which did not reach the expected stage by this time. The results have shown that 2-4 cell embryos, which have received gene Ta with the X-chromosome of the female parent, differed from embryos with F1 genotype at the same stage of development by their increased mortality rate, whereas among embryos obtained from RaSd, the mortality was mainly observed before cleavage. Death of embryos receiving the mutant gene from hemizygous Ta males or heterozygous RaSd/++ males was not significantly different from the mortality of embryos without these mutations.

  8. Hypertension during chronic exposure to cold: Comparison between Sprague Dawley (SD) and Long Evans (LE) strains

    SciTech Connect

    Riesselmann, A.; Baron, A.; Fregly, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Hypertension accompanies chronic exposure of SD rats to cold (5-6C), including elevation of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures and cardiac hypertrophy. The renin-angiotensin system may play an important role. Earlier studies suggested that the LE strain may have a decrease in angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Measurement of ACE activity in plasmas of SE and LE strains revealed that basal activity of ACE in the plasma of the LE strain was significantly less than that of the SD strain. A second study was carried out in which both strains were exposed to cold for 7 weeks. There were clear differences between strains. Rats of the SD strain had a significant elevation in their blood pressure; a significantly increased urinary output of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E); and significant increases in weights of heart, kidneys, adrenals, and brown adipose tissue (IBAT) compared to their controls maintained at 26C. In contrast, rats of the LE strain were less responsive to cold in that blood pressure failed to rise as sharply and to attain as high a level; NE and E outputs, as well as weights of heart and IBAT were significantly less than those of rats of the cold-treated SD strain. Thus, the lower ACE activity in plasma of LE strain, as well as a reduced secretion of catecholamines, may protect these rats against the rise of blood pressure characteristically observed when rats of the SD strain are exposed to cold.

  9. Intracellular NAADP increase induced by extracellular NAADP via the P2Y11-like receptor.

    PubMed

    Djerada, Zoubir; Millart, Hervé

    2013-06-28

    The aim of the study was to identify a signalling pathway allowing NAADP-induced intracellular NAADP increase and involving the P2Y11-like receptor. P2Y11-like and β-adrenergic receptors may play important regulatory roles within the cardiovascular system. Both receptors have been shown to be involved in triggering myocardial preconditioning. Using a Langendorff model we report a positive inotropic response induced by extracellular NAADP via P2Y11-like receptor stimulation. In cardiomyocyte cultures, P2Y11-like receptor stimulation by extracellular NAADP ([NAADP]e) increased intracellular cADP-ribose and NAADP concentration as evidenced by direct measurements. NF546, a new selective P2Y11 receptor agonist, increased intracellular cAMP, cADP-ribose and NAADP concentration confirming the involvement of the P2Y11-like receptor in this signalling pathway. NF157, a P2Y11 receptor antagonist, suppressed the increase in intracellular cADPr, NAADP and NAAD induced by either [NAADP]e or NF546. The response profile for intracellular cADP-ribose and NAADP concentration following P2Y11-like stimulation with NF546 was similar to reported data relating β-adrenergic stimulation with isoprenaline. This response represents the signature of the Gs/ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity. Moreover, this study provides a signalling pathway: intracellular NAADP increase induced by extracellular NAADP via metabotropic activity of P2Y11-like receptor. This pathway implying P2Y11-like could take part in the intracellular calcium rise reported for extracellular NAADP.

  10. Highly efficient and stable Au/Bi2MoO6/Bi2WO6 heterostructure with enhanced photocatalytic activity for NO gas removal under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Du, Xiao; Liu, Enzhou; Wan, Jun; Pan, Chao; Ma, Yongning; Hu, Xiaoyun; Fan, Jun

    2017-04-01

    The ternary composite photocatalyst Au/Bi2MoO6/Bi2WO6 has been successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process and microwave-assisted chemical reduction method for the first time. A series of characterization results reveal that Au nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of Bi2MoO6/Bi2WO6 microspheres. The unique photocatalytic performance of the novel composite material is evaluated by the photocatalytic removal of NO gas at ppb levels under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic removal rate of NO gas in the presence of Au/Bi2MoO6/Bi2WO6 sample is the highest, which directly attributes to the effective separation of photoinduced charge carriers through the formation of the heterojunction and the Schottky junction at the interface between Au nanoparticles and Bi2MoO6 or Bi2WO6. Additionally, it is indicated that the h + and \\centerdot \\text{O}2- play indispensable role in photocatalytic process by free radicals trapping experiments and the oxidation products of NO gas on the surface of the catalysts are nitrate by drawing the standard curve of total N content in nitrate. Meanwhile, a possible mechanism for the photocatalytic activity enhancement of the Au/Bi2MoO6/Bi2WO6 composites is proposed. These results demonstrate that the Au/Bi2MoO6/Bi2WO6 photocatalyst is a promising candidate for indoor air purification under solar light irradiation.

  11. Geobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-12-01

    An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G. sulfurreducens PCA and Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290 ± 29 A m−3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200 mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189 ± 44 A m−3) or the type strains (< 70 A m−3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50 mM PBS and 650 mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158 ± 4 A m−3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50 mM PBS (220 ± 4 A m−3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147 ± 19 A m−3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  12. A New sdO+dM Binary with Extreme Eclipses and Reflection Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derekas, A.; Németh, P.; Southworth, J.; Borkovits, T.; Sárneczky, K.; Pál, A.; Csák, B.; Garcia-Alvarez, D.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Kiss, L. L.; Vida, K.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Kriskovics, L.

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of a new totally eclipsing binary (R.A. = {06}{{h}}{40}{{m}}{29}{{s}}11; decl. = +38°56‧52″2 J = 2000.0; Rmax = 17.2 mag) with an sdO primary and a strongly irradiated red dwarf companion. It has an orbital period of Porb = 0.187284394(11) day and an optical eclipse depth in excess of 5 mag. We obtained 2 low-resolution classification spectra with GTC/OSIRIS and 10 medium-resolution spectra with WHT/ISIS to constrain the properties of the binary members. The spectra are dominated by H Balmer and He ii absorption lines from the sdO star, and phase-dependent emission lines from the irradiated companion. A combined spectroscopic and light curve analysis implies a hot subdwarf temperature of Teff(spec) = 55,000 ± 3000 K, surface gravity of log g (phot) = 6.2 ± 0.04 (cgs), and a He abundance of {log}(n{He}/n{{H}})=-2.24+/- 0.40. The hot sdO star irradiates the red dwarf companion, heating its substellar point to about 22,500 K. Surface parameters for the companion are difficult to constrain from the currently available data: the most remarkable features are the strong H Balmer and C ii-iii lines in emission. Radial velocity estimates are consistent with the sdO+dM classification. The photometric data do not show any indication of sdO pulsations with amplitudes greater than 7 mmag, and Hα-filter images do not provide evidence for the presence of a planetary nebula associated with the sdO star.

  13. Characterization of Two Segregation Distorter Revertants: Evidence That the Tandem Duplication Is Necessary for Sd Activity in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Palopoli, M. F.; Doshi, P.; Wu, C. I.

    1994-01-01

    Segregation Distorter (SD) is a naturally occurring system of meiotic drive in Drosophila melanogaster. Males heterozygous for an SD second chromosome and a normal homolog (SD(+)) transmit predominantly SD-bearing sperm. To accomplish this, the Segregation distorter (Sd) locus induces the dysfunction of those spermatids that receive the SD(+) chromosome. Recently, P. A. Powers and B. Ganetzky isolated overlapping DNA clones spanning the region of DNA known to contain the Sd gene and identified a 5-kb tandem duplication that is present on all SD chromosomes examined, but is apparently absent from wild-type chromosomes. Here we report a molecular analysis of two spontaneous revertants from an Australian SD chromosome (SD-Arm28). Both of these revertants have lost the 5-kb tandem duplication along with the ability to distort transmission; the critical observation, however, is that they retain the DNA haplotype in the flanking regions (both proximally and distally) that is characteristic of the original SD-Arm28. We propose unequal sister chromatid exchange between the tandem repeats as the only plausible explanation for loss of a repeat while retaining flanking markers. This provides direct evidence that the tandem duplication is indeed necessary for the Sd phenotype. Further, we examined testes-specific levels of both RNA and protein for the nearby Topoisomerase 2 gene. Neither revealed a consistent difference between SD and SD(+) strains. We also measured testes-specific levels of RNA using the tandem duplication itself as probe. Our results suggest that there is strong up-regulation of one or several 2.0-2.3-kb transcripts from the duplicated region in the testes of an SD strain. Whether it is this overexpression of transcripts that causes segregation distortion remains to be investigated. PMID:8138158

  14. Initial results from the Solar Dynamic (SD) Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) project at NASA Lewis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Boyle, Robert V.

    1995-01-01

    A government/industry team designed, built, and tested a 2 kWe solar dynamic space power system in a large thermal/vacuum facility with a simulated sun at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Lewis facility provides an accurate simulation of temperatures, high vacuum, and solar flux as encountered in low earth orbit. This paper reviews the goals and status of the Solar Dynamic (SD) Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) program and describes the initial testing, including both operational and performance data. This SD technology has the potential as a future power source for the International Space Station Alpha.

  15. Activation of P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors induces chloride secretion via calcium-activated chloride channels in kidney inner medullary collecting duct cells

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Kathpalia, Paru P.; Thomas, Sheela V.

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of urinary sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion can result in extracellular fluid (ECF) volume expansion and hypertension. Recent studies demonstrated that urinary nucleotide excretion increases in mice ingesting a high-salt diet and that these increases in extracellular nucleotides can signal through P2Y2 receptors in the kidney collecting duct to inhibit epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC). However, under conditions of ECF volume expansion brought about by high-dietary salt intake, ENaC activity should already be suppressed. We hypothesized that alternative pathways exist by which extracellular nucleotides control renal NaCl excretion. We used an inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD-K2) cell line in an Ussing chamber system as a model to study additional ion transport pathways that are regulated by extracellular nucleotides. When ENaC was inhibited, the addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the basal side of cell sheets activated both P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors, inducing a transient increase in short-circuit current (Isc); addition of ATP to the apical side activated only P2Y2 receptors, inducing first a transient and then a sustained increase in Isc. The ATP-induced increases in Isc were blocked by pretreatment with a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, a calcium (Ca2+) chelator, or Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CACC) inhibitors, suggesting that ATP signals through both PLC and intracellular Ca2+ to activate CACC. We propose that P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors operate in tandem in IMCD cells to provide an adaptive mechanism for enhancing urinary NaCl excretion in the setting of high-dietary NaCl intake. PMID:21653634

  16. Transition strategies from cangrelor to oral platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David J

    2016-01-01

    Cangrelor is the first parenteral antagonist of the platelet P2Y12 receptor. This direct-acting antagonist of the platelet P2Y12 receptor should be considered an adjunct to a percutaneous coronary intervention in patients who have not been adequately pretreated with platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonists at the time of the procedure. The use of cangrelor requires transition to an oral platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonist. Transition strategies have been developed on the basis of pharmacologic characteristics of platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonists, results of pharmacodynamic studies, and results from clinical trials. Cangrelor blocks the binding to the platelet P2Y12 receptor of the active metabolite of the thienopyridines, clopidogrel and prasugrel. The active metabolite of thienopyridines is present in blood for a short interval after administration. For this reason, clopidogrel should be administered after cangrelor is stopped. Prasugrel can be administered at the end of the cangrelor infusion or up to 30 min before cangrelor is stopped. Ticagrelor is also a reversible direct-acting antagonist of the platelet P2Y12 receptor. Because there is no interaction between ticagrelor and cangrelor, ticagrelor can be administered before or during the infusion of cangrelor.

  17. Structural and functional evolution of the P2Y12-like receptor group

    PubMed Central

    Hermsdorf, Thomas; Engemaier, Eva; Engel, Kathrin; Liebscher, Ines; Thor, Doreen; Zierau, Klaas; Römpler, Holger; Schulz, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Metabotropic pyrimidine and purine nucleotide receptors (P2Y receptors) belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). They are distinguishable from adenosine receptors (P1) as they bind adenine and/or uracil nucleotide triphosphates or diphosphates depending on the subtype. Over the past decade, P2Y receptors have been cloned from a variety of tissues and species, and as many as eight functional subtypes have been characterized. Most recently, several members of the P2Y12-like receptor group, which includes the clopidogrel-sensitive ADP receptor P2Y12, have been deorphanized. The P2Y12-like receptor group comprises several structurally related GPCR which, however, display heterogeneous agonist specificity including nucleotides, their derivatives, and lipids. Besides the established function of P2Y12 in platelet activation, expression in macrophages, neuronal and glial cells as well as recent results from functional studies implicate that several members of this group may have specific functions in neurotransmission, inflammation, chemotaxis, and response to tissue injury. This review focuses specifically on the structure-function relation and shortly summarizes some aspects of the physiological relevance of P2Y12-like receptor members. PMID:18404440

  18. Important roles of P2Y receptors in the inflammation and cancer of digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Han-Xing; Hu, Jian-Hong; Xie, Rei; Yang, Shi-Ming; Dong, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Purinergic signaling is important for many biological processes in humans. Purinoceptors P2Y are widely distributed in human digestive system and different subtypes of P2Y receptors mediate different physiological functions from metabolism, proliferation, differentiation to apoptosis etc. The P2Y receptors are essential in many gastrointestinal functions and also involve in the occurrence of some digestive diseases. Since different subtypes of P2Y receptors are present on the same cell of digestive organs, varying subtypes of P2Y receptors may have opposite or synergetic functions on the same cell. Recently, growing lines of evidence strongly suggest the involvement of P2Y receptors in the pathogenesis of several digestive diseases. In this review, we will focus on their important roles in the development of digestive inflammation and cancer. We anticipate that as the special subtypes of P2Y receptors are studied in depth, specific modulators for them will have good potentials to become promising new drugs to treat human digestive diseases in the near future. PMID:26908460

  19. Molecular Structure of P2Y Receptors: Mutagenesis, Modeling, and Chemical Probes

    PubMed Central

    Jayasekara, M.P. Suresh; Costanzi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    There are eight subtypes of P2Y receptors (P2YRs) that are activated, and in some cases inhibited, by a range of extracellular nucleotides. These nucleotides are ubiquitous, but their extracellular concentration can rise dramatically in response to hypoxia, ischemia, or mechanical stress, injury, and release through channels and from vesicles. Two subclasses of P2YRs were defined based on clustering of sequences, second messengers, and receptor sequence analysis. The numbering system for P2YR subtypes is discontinuous; i.e., P2Y1–14Rs have been defined, but six of the intermediate-numbered cloned receptor sequences (e.g., P2y3, P2y5, P2y7–10) are not functional mammalian nucleotide receptors. Of these two clusters, the P2Y12–14 subtypes couple via Gαi to inhibit adenylate cyclase, while the remaining subtypes couple through Gαq to activate phospholipase C. Collectively, the P2YRs respond to both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, in the form of 5′-mono- and dinucleotides and nucleoside-5′-diphosphosugars. In recent years, the medicinal chemistry of P2Y receptors has advanced significantly, to provide selective agonists and antagonists for many but not all of the subtypes. Ligand design has been aided by insights from structural probing using molecular modelling and mutagenesis. Currently, the molecular modelling of the receptors is effectively based on the X-ray structure of the CXCR4 receptor, which is the closest to the P2Y receptors among all the currently crystallized receptors in terms of sequence similarity. It is now a challenge to develop novel and selective P2YR ligands for disease treatment (although antagonists of the P2Y12R are already widely used as antithrombotics). PMID:23336097

  20. Neuroprotection Mediated by P2Y13 Nucleotide Receptors in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sen, Raquel; Queipo, Mª José; Morente, Verónica; Ortega, Felipe; Delicado, Esmerilda G.; Miras-Portugal, Mª Teresa

    2015-01-01

    ADP-specific P2Y13 receptor constitutes one of the most recently identified nucleotide receptor and the understanding of their physiological role is currently under investigation. Cerebellar astrocytes and granule neurons provide excellent models to study P2Y13 expression and function since the first identification of ADP-evoked calcium responses not attributable to the related P2Y1 receptor was performed in these cell populations. In this regard, all responses induced by ADP analogues in astrocytes resulted to be Gi-coupled activities mediated by P2Y13 instead of P2Y1 receptors. Similarly, both glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and ERK1/2 signaling triggered by 2MeSADP in cerebellar granule neurons were also dependent on Gi-coupled receptors, and mediated by PI3K activity. In granule neurons, P2Y13 receptor was specifically coupled to the main neuronal survival PI3K/Akt-cascade targeting GSK3 phosphorylation. GSK3 inhibition led to nuclear translocation of transcriptional targets, including β-catenin and Nrf2. The activation of the Nrf2/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) axis was responsible for the prosurvival effect against oxidative stress. In addition, P2Y13-mediated ERK1/2 signaling in granule neurons also triggered activation of transcription factors, such as CREB, which underlined the antiapoptotic action against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Finally, a novel signaling mechanism has been recently described for a P2Y13 receptor in granule neurons that involved the expression of a dual protein phosphatase, DUSP2. This activity contributed to regulate MAPK activation after genotoxic stress. In conclusion, P2Y13 receptors harbored in cerebellar astrocytes and granule neurons exhibit specific signaling properties that link them to specialized functions at the level of neuroprotection and trophic activity in both cerebellar cell populations. PMID:25750704

  1. Discovery of diarylurea P2Y(1) antagonists with improved aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tammy C; Qiao, Jennifer X; Clark, Charles G; Jua, Ji; Price, Laura A; Wu, Qimin; Chang, Ming; Zheng, Joanna; Huang, Christine S; Everlof, Gerry; Schumacher, William A; Wong, Pancras C; Seiffert, Dietmar A; Stewart, Anne B; Bostwick, Jeffrey S; Crain, Earl J; Watson, Carol A; Rehfuss, Robert; Wexler, Ruth R; Lam, Patrick Y S

    2013-06-01

    Preclinical data suggests that P2Y1 antagonists, such as diarylurea compound 1, may provide antithrombotic efficacy similar to P2Y12 antagonists and may have the potential of providing reduced bleeding liabilities. This manuscript describes a series of diarylureas bearing solublizing amine side chains as potent P2Y1 antagonists. Among them, compounds 2l and 3h had improved aqueous solubility and maintained antiplatelet activity compared with compound 1. Compound 2l was moderately efficacious in both rat and rabbit thrombosis models and had a moderate prolongation of bleeding time in rats similar to that of compound 1.

  2. Spin-Glass Behavior of Semiconducting KxFe2-yS2

    SciTech Connect

    H Lei; M Abeykoon; E Bozin; C Petrovic

    2011-12-31

    We report the discovery of K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} single crystals, isostructural to K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} superconductors. The sulfide compound is a small gap semiconductor and shows spin-glass behavior below 32 K. Our results indicate that stoichiometry, defects, and the local environment of FeCh (Ch = S,Se) tetrahedra have important effects on the physical properties of isostructural and isoelectronic K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} compounds.

  3. 76 FR 48120 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD--Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project AGENCY...: This project proposes to treat areas newly infested by mountain pine beetles on approximately 325,000...-rocky-mountain-black-hills@fs.fed.us , with ``MPB Response Project'' in the subject line....

  4. 75 FR 31464 - Certification of the Attorney General; Shannon County, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Certification of the Attorney General; Shannon County, SD In accordance with Section 8 of the Voting Rights Act... determinations of the Attorney General and the Director of the Census made under Section 4(b) of the Voting...) and January 8, 1976 (41 FR 1503). Dated: May 27, 2010. Eric H. Holder, Jr., Attorney General of...

  5. Cluster aspects of p-shell and sd-shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kanada-En'yo, Y.; Kobayashi, F.; Suhara, T.; Kimura, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2011-05-06

    We report some topics on cluster structures studied by using a theoretical method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics(AMD). Cluster features of p-shell and sd-shell nuclei are discussed. In particular, three alpha cluster structures in the excited states of {sup 12}C and {sup 14}C are focused. Dineutron correlations in neutron-rich nuclei are also discussed.

  6. Integrating SD into Engineering Courses at the Delft University of Technology: The Individual Interaction Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, D. -J.; Mulder, K. F.; Bijma, A.

    2004-01-01

    When sustainable development (SD) is only taught in specific courses, it is questionable if engineering students are able to integrate it into their engineering practices and technical designs. For this reason, sustainability should also be integrated into regular engineering courses, e.g. design courses, materials courses or processing…

  7. Canister storage building compliance assessment SNF project NRC equivalency criteria - HNF-SD-SNF-DB-003

    SciTech Connect

    BLACK, D.M.

    1999-08-11

    This document presents the Project's position on compliance with the SNF Project NRC Equivalency Criteria--HNF-SD-SNF-DE-003, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Path Forward Additional NRC Requirements. No non-compliances are shown The compliance statements have been reviewed and approved by DOE. Open items are scheduled to be closed prior to project completion.

  8. AmeriFlux US-SdH Nebraska SandHills Dry Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Arkebauer, Tim J.; Billesbach, Dave

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SdH Nebraska SandHills Dry Valley. Site Description - The Nebraska SandHills Dry Valley tower is located on public land owned by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The site is on a research cattle ranch where grazing primarily takes place.

  9. Semi-automatic geographic atrophy segmentation for SD-OCT images.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; de Sisternes, Luis; Leng, Theodore; Zheng, Luoluo; Kutzscher, Lauren; Rubin, Daniel L

    2013-01-01

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is a condition that is associated with retinal thinning and loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer. It appears in advanced stages of non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and can lead to vision loss. We present a semi-automated GA segmentation algorithm for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. The method first identifies and segments a surface between the RPE and the choroid to generate retinal projection images in which the projection region is restricted to a sub-volume of the retina where the presence of GA can be identified. Subsequently, a geometric active contour model is employed to automatically detect and segment the extent of GA in the projection images. Two image data sets, consisting on 55 SD-OCT scans from twelve eyes in eight patients with GA and 56 SD-OCT scans from 56 eyes in 56 patients with GA, respectively, were utilized to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the proposed GA segmentation method. Experimental results suggest that the proposed algorithm can achieve high segmentation accuracy. The mean GA overlap ratios between our proposed method and outlines drawn in the SD-OCT scans, our method and outlines drawn in the fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) images, and the commercial software (Carl Zeiss Meditec proprietary software, Cirrus version 6.0) and outlines drawn in FAF images were 72.60%, 65.88% and 59.83%, respectively.

  10. 2H → 1T phase transition and hydrogen evolution activity of MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2 strongly depends on the MX2 composition.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2015-05-18

    We investigate herein the four most widely considered TMD materials: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2. A 2H → 1T phase transition occurs during the chemical exfoliation with different efficiencies among the four materials.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic studies of water soluble [(η5-C5H5)2Mo(thionucleobase/thionucleoside)]Cl complexes in breast and colon cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Acevedo, Débora; Matta, Jaime; Meléndez, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Four new water soluble molybdenocene complexes were synthesized in aqueous solution at pH 7.0. The new species, [(η5-C5H5)2Mo(L)]Cl (L= 6-mercaptopurine, 2-amino-6-mercaptopurine, (-)-2-amino-6-mercaptopurine ribose and 6-mercaptopurine ribose), were characterized by spectroscopic methods. NMR spectroscopic data showed the presence of two coordination isomers, S(6), N(7) and S(6), N(1), in aqueous solution, being S(6), N(7) the most stable. The antiproliferative activities of the new species were investigated in HT-29 colon and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The incorporation of molybdenocene (Cp2Mo2+) into the thionucleobases/thionucleosides decreases their cytotoxic activities in HT-29 colon cancer cell line. In contrast, in the MCF-7 cell line, [Cp2Mo(2-amino-6-mercaptopurine)]Cl showed a high cytotoxic activity. This is most likely a consequence of the enhanced lipophilic character on the thionucleobase combined with synergism between Cp2Mo2+ and the thionucleobase ligand. PMID:21399723

  12. An Atlantic streamer in stratospheric ozone observations and SD-WACCM simulation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocke, Klemens; Schranz, Franziska; Maillard Barras, Eliane; Moreira, Lorena; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2017-03-01

    Observation and simulation of individual ozone streamers are important for the description and understanding of non-linear transport processes in the middle atmosphere. A sudden increase in mid-stratospheric ozone occurred above central Europe on 4 December 2015. The GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer (GROMOS) and the Stratospheric Ozone MOnitoring RAdiometer (SOMORA) in Switzerland measured an ozone enhancement of about 30 % at 34 km altitude (8.3 hPa) from 1 to 4 December. A similar ozone increase is simulated by the Specified Dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate (SD-WACCM) model. Further, the global ozone fields at 34 km altitude (8.3 hPa) from SD-WACCM and the satellite experiment Aura/MLS show a remarkable agreement for the location and timing of an ozone streamer (large-scale tongue-like structure) extending from the subtropics in northern America over the Atlantic to central Europe. This agreement indicates that SD-WACCM can inform us about the wind inside the Atlantic ozone streamer. SD-WACCM shows an eastward wind of about 100 m s-1 inside the Atlantic streamer in the mid-stratosphere. SD-WACCM shows that the Atlantic streamer flows along the edge of the polar vortex. The Atlantic streamer turns southward at an erosion region of the polar vortex located above the Caspian Sea. The spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour indicates a filament outgoing from this erosion region. The Atlantic streamer, the polar vortex erosion region and the water vapour filament belong to the process of planetary wave breaking in the so-called surf zone of the northern midlatitude winter stratosphere.

  13. The structure, thermal expansion and phase transition properties of Ho{sub 2}Mo{sub 3−x}W{sub x}O{sub 12} (x = 0, 1.0, 2.0) solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.Z.; Hao, L.J.; Wu, M.M.; Ma, X.B.; Chen, D.F.; Liu, Y.T.

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: A polymorph with Gd{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12}-type structure (space group: Pba2) for negative thermal expansion material Ho{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} is observed above 700 °C, this polymorphism could be effectively supressed by W-substiution for Mo, the give the temperature dependence of Pba2 phase contents for Ho{sub 2}Mo{sub 3−x}W{sub x}O{sub 12} (x = 0.0, 1.0, 2.0). - Highlights: • The solid solution Ho{sub 2}Mo{sub 3−x}W{sub x}O{sub 12} was investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction. • It is found that the substitution slightly influence thermal expansion property. • A polymorph of Ho{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} with Pba2 space group was observed above 700 °C. • The W-substitution for Mo effectively suppresses this transformation. - Abstract: Three solid solutions of Ho{sub 2}Mo{sub 3−x}W{sub x}O{sub 12}(x = 0, 1.0, 2.0) were prepared by solid state reaction method, the temperature dependent in-situ X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis were performed to investigate their structure and thermal expansion. All samples have orthorhombic structure(space group Pbcn# 60) with negative thermal expansion at the room temperature. the substitution of W for Mo enlarges the lattice constant and slightly influences the negative thermal expansion. An irreversible phase transformation to the Pba2 phase(Tb{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} structure) was observed at high temperature for Mo-rich samples. This ploymorphism could be effectively suppressed by the W-substitution for Mo, this phenomenon could be explained by the lower electronegativity of W{sup 6+} than Mo{sup 6+}.

  14. Preparation of transparent Cu2Y2O5 thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Te-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hao; Yang, Li-Wei; Wang, Yung-Po

    2015-11-01

    Cu2Y2O5 thin films were deposited on non-alkali glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Its crystal structure, microstructure, optical property, mechanical property, and antibacterial activity were investigated by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, transmittance spectra, nanoindenter, and antibiotics test, respectively. A single-phase of Cu2Y2O5 was obtained while annealing at 700 °C in air and its optical transparency was >80% in the visible region. The hardness and elastic modulus of the film were 6.7 GPa and 82 GPa, respectively. Antibiotics testing result revealed that Cu2Y2O5 surface had a superior antibacterial performance even at a dark environment. Therefore, Cu2Y2O5 is a promising novel transparent antibacterial hard coating material.

  15. Growth of Single-Crystalline Cadmium Iodide Nanoplates, CdI2/MoS2 (WS2, WSe2) van der Waals Heterostructures, and Patterned Arrays.

    PubMed

    Ai, Ruoqi; Guan, Xun; Li, Jia; Yao, Kangkang; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Zhengwei; Duan, Xidong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2017-03-28

    Two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) have attracted considerable recent interest for their layer-number-dependent physical and chemical properties, as well as potential technological opportunities. Here we report the synthesis of two-dimensional layered cadmium iodide (CdI2) nanoplates using a vapor transport and deposition approach. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies show that the resulting CdI2 nanoplates predominantly adopt hexagonal and triangular morphologies with a lateral dimension of ∼2-10 μm. Atomic force microscopy studies show that the resulting nanoplates exhibit a thickness in the range of 5-220 nm with a relatively smooth surface. X-ray diffraction studies reveal highly crystalline CdI2 in hexagonal phase, which is also confirmed by the characteristic Raman Ag mode at 110 cm(-1). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction reveal that the resulting CdI2 nanoplates are single crystals. Taking a step further, we show the CdI2 nanoplates were readily grown on other 2DLMs (e.g., WS2, WSe2, MoS2), forming diverse van der Waals heterostructures. Using prepatterned WS2 monolayer square arrays as the nucleation and growth templates, we also show that regular arrays of CdI2/WS2 vertical heterostructures can be prepared. The synthesis of the CdI2 nanoplates, heterostructures, and heterostructure arrays offers a valuable material system for 2D materials science and technology.

  16. Corrosion in quench systems of entrained slagging gasifiers: a laboratory study. Final report. [1 1/4Cr-1/2Mo(T-11)

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.

    1985-11-01

    The objective of this program was to conduct laboratory autoclave tests simulating environments of the gray water system of an entrained slagging gasifier plant. Five tests (one 200-h and four 1000-h) were conducted using ferritic steel material 1 1/4Cr-1/2Mo (T-11) and 14% silicon cast iron; austenitic stainless steels 304L, 316, 321, and Sanicro 28; duplex stainless steel 2205; and Incoloy 825. In the vapor phase with autoclave solution pH in the 4.5 to 4.8 range, 304L SS, 316 SS, 321 SS, and Incoloy 825 double U-bends suffered significant intergranular SCC. Some crevice-assisted cracking is suspected. Pitting corrosion, as measured by maximum pit depth, may become serious since the rate of growth is not known. At the pit base, preferential dissolution was identified similar to grain- and twin-boundary preferential corrosion. General corrosion of the stainless steels was low, but T-11 and 14% silicon cast iron cannot be used unprotected. High acidic pH (6.2 and 6.4) and lower total chloride levels eliminated SCC problems and reduced pitting and corrosion. Of the two phases in a quench system, the vapor phase poses more danger to the materials of construction, particularly to the internal attachments and extensions where welding is required. 13 refs., 31 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Modeling constitutive behavior of a 15Cr-15Ni-2.2Mo-Ti modified austenitic stainless steel under hot compression using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sumantra

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) model has been suggested to predict the constitutive flow behavior of a 15Cr-15Ni-2.2Mo-Ti modified austenitic stainless steel under hot deformation. Hot compression tests in the temperature range 850°C- 1250°C and strain rate range 10-3-102 s-1 were carried out. These tests provided the required data for training the neural network and for subsequent testing. The inputs of the neural network are strain, log strain rate and temperature while flow stress is obtained as output. A three layer feed-forward network with ten neurons in a single hidden layer and back-propagation learning algorithm has been employed. A very good correlation between experimental and predicted result has been obtained. The effect of temperature and strain rate on flow behavior has been simulated employing the ANN model. The results have been found to be consistent with the metallurgical trend. Finally, a monte carlo analiysis has been carried out to find out the noise sensitivity of the developed model.

  18. Plastic deformation of directionally solidified ingots of binary and some ternary MoSi2/Mo5Si3 eutectic composites

    PubMed Central

    Matsunoshita, Hirotaka; Sasai, Yuta; Fujiwara, Kosuke; Kishida, Kyosuke; Inui, Haruyuki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The high-temperature mechanical properties of directionally solidified (DS) ingots of binary and some ternary MoSi2/Mo5Si3 eutectic composites with a script lamellar structure have been investigated as a function of loading axis orientation and growth rate in a temperature range from 900 to 1500°C. These DS ingots are plastically deformed above 1000 and 1100 °C when the compression axis orientations are parallel to [11¯0]MoSi2 (nearly parallel to the growth direction) and [001]MoSi2, respectively. [11¯0]MoSi2-oriented DS eutectic composites are strengthened so much by forming a script lamellar microstructure and they exhibit yield stress values several times higher than those of MoSi2 single crystals of the corresponding orientation. The yield stress values increase with the decrease in the average thickness of MoSi2 phase in the script lamellar structure, indicating that microstructure refinement is effective in obtaining better high-temperature strength of these DS eutectic composites. Among the four ternary alloying elements tested (V, Nb, Ta and W), Ta is found to be the most effective in obtaining higher yield strength at 1400 °C. PMID:27877900

  19. Self-powdering and nonlinear optical domain structures in ferroelastic β‧-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals formed in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Y.; Honma, T.; Komatsu, T.

    2009-08-01

    Ferroelastic β'-Gd 2(MoO 4) 3, (GMO), crystals are formed through the crystallization of 21.25Gd 2O 3-63.75MoO 3-15B 2O 3 glass (mol%), and two scientific curious phenomena are observed. (1) GMO crystals formed in the crystallization break into small pieces with a triangular prism or pyramid shape having a length of 50-500 μm spontaneously during the crystallizations in the inside of an electric furnace, not during the cooling in air after the crystallization. This phenomenon is called "self-powdering phenomenon during crystallization" in this paper. (2) Each self-powdered GMO crystal grain shows a periodic domain structure with different refractive indices, and a spatially periodic second harmonic generation (SHG) depending on the domain structure is observed. It is proposed from polarized micro-Raman scattering spectra and the azimuthal dependence of second harmonic intensities that GMO crystals are oriented in each crystal grain and the orientation of (MoO 4) 2- tetrahedra in GMO crystals changes periodically due to spontaneous strains in ferroelastic GMO crystals.

  20. Growth and characteristics of self-assembled MoS2/Mo-S-C nanoperiod multilayers for enhanced tribological performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiao; He, Tengfei; Chai, Liqiang; Qiao, Li; Wang, Peng; Liu, Weimin

    2016-05-01

    Highly ordered MoS2/Mo-S-C nanoperiod multilayers are synthesized by a novel self-assembling mechanism in simultaneous sputtering of MoS2 and graphite targets. The sequential formation of MoS2-riched domain layers and Mo-S-C compositional mixed capping layers reveals no correspondence to the sample stage rotation but is caused by the low energy ion bombardment enhanced interdiffusion. The HRTEM observation shows that the phase segregation normal to the film surface is initiated from substrate-film interlayer with clear contrasts in the first few bi-layers, and then diffuses mutually in a quasiperiodic pattern between two altered sub-layers. Compared with sputtered MoS2 film, the bulk film of multilayers exhibit largely improved toughness under a normal load, and the preferential orientation of sputtered MoS2 in (002) basal planes is significantly enhanced, both of which render the film excellent loads-bearing capacity and lubricant properties. The nano-scratching tests performed on a nanoindentation system suggest that the nano-tribological performance of multilayers is directly determined by the altered structure and properties of neighboring sub-layers until stable tribofilms are formed. Meanwhile, the pin-on-disk tribotests in ambient air, low vacuum and high vacuum provide comparably low friction coefficient yet distinct wear lives in different atmospheres due to the partially restricted humid-sensitivity of sputtered MoS2 phase.

  1. Study of alpha-case depth in Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo and Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddam, R.; Sefer, B.; Pederson, R.; Antti, M.-L.

    2013-12-01

    At temperatures exceeding 480°C titanium alloys generally oxidises and forms a hard and brittle layer enriched with oxygen, which is called alpha case. This layer has negative effects on several mechanical properties and lowers the tensile ductility and the fatigue resistance. Therefore any alpha-case formed on titanium alloys during various manufacturing processes, such as heat treatment procedures, must be removed before the final part is mounted in an engine. In addition, long time exposure at elevated temperatures during operation of an engine could possibly also lead to formation of alpha-case on actual parts, therefore knowledge and understanding of the alpha-case formation and its effect on mechanical properties is important. Factors that contribute for growth of alpha-case are: presence of oxygen, exposure time, temperature and pressure. In the present study, isothermal oxidation experiments in air were performed on forged Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo at 500°C and 593°C up to 500 hours. Similar studies were also performed on Ti-6Al-4V plate at 593°C and 700°C. Alpha-case depth for both alloys was quantified using metallography techniques and compared.

  2. Growth and characteristics of self-assembled MoS2/Mo-S-C nanoperiod multilayers for enhanced tribological performance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiao; He, TengFei; Chai, LiQiang; Qiao, Li; Wang, Peng; Liu, WeiMin

    2016-01-01

    Highly ordered MoS2/Mo-S-C nanoperiod multilayers are synthesized by a novel self-assembling mechanism in simultaneous sputtering of MoS2 and graphite targets. The sequential formation of MoS2-riched domain layers and Mo-S-C compositional mixed capping layers reveals no correspondence to the sample stage rotation but is caused by the low energy ion bombardment enhanced interdiffusion. The HRTEM observation shows that the phase segregation normal to the film surface is initiated from substrate-film interlayer with clear contrasts in the first few bi-layers, and then diffuses mutually in a quasiperiodic pattern between two altered sub-layers. Compared with sputtered MoS2 film, the bulk film of multilayers exhibit largely improved toughness under a normal load, and the preferential orientation of sputtered MoS2 in (002) basal planes is significantly enhanced, both of which render the film excellent loads-bearing capacity and lubricant properties. The nano-scratching tests performed on a nanoindentation system suggest that the nano-tribological performance of multilayers is directly determined by the altered structure and properties of neighboring sub-layers until stable tribofilms are formed. Meanwhile, the pin-on-disk tribotests in ambient air, low vacuum and high vacuum provide comparably low friction coefficient yet distinct wear lives in different atmospheres due to the partially restricted humid-sensitivity of sputtered MoS2 phase. PMID:27137707

  3. Facile synthesis of a MoO2-Mo2C-C composite and its application as favorable anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanping; Wang, Shaofeng; Zhong, Yijun; Cai, Rui; Li, Li; Shao, Zongping

    2016-03-01

    A composite of MoO2-Mo2C-C is fabricated through a facile ion-exchange route for the first time as an alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A macroporous cinnamic anion-exchange resin interacts with ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate in aqueous solution, and the product is then calcined under an inert gas atmosphere. The interaction between the resin and ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate results in an atomic level dispersion of the molybdenum over the organic carbon precursor (resin), while the calcination process allows the formation of MoO2 and Mo2C as well as the pyrolysis of resin to solid carbon. According to field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements, ultrafine MoO2 and Mo2C nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed but firmly attached within an amorphous carbon framework. When evaluated as an anode material, the as-synthesized sample exhibits superior electrochemical performance. The specific discharge capacity is as high as 1491 mA h g-1 in the first cycle and 724 mA h g-1 over 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g-1. This simple, environmentally friendly, low-cost and easily scaled up method, has significant potential for mass industrial production of MoO2-based material as next-generation anode material of LIBs with wide application capability.

  4. Silencing of P2Y2 receptors reduces intraocular pressure in New Zealand rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Gil, Alba; de Lara, María Jesús Perez; Crooke, Almudena; Santano, Concepción; Peral, Assumpta; Pintor, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE P2 receptors are involved in the regulation of ocular physiological processes like intraocular pressure (IOP). In the present study, the involvement of P2Y2 receptors in the hypertensive effect of nucleotides was investigated by use of antagonists and of a siRNA designed for the P2Y2 receptor. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Agonists of the P2Y2 receptor a as well as P2 antagonists were applied to eyes of New Zealand rabbits, and the changes in IOP were followed for up to 6 h. Cloning of the P2Y2 receptor cDNA was done using a combination of degenerate reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). siRNA was synthesized and tested by immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS Single doses of 2-thioUTP, UTP-γ-S and UTP increased IOP. This behaviour was concentration-dependent and partially antagonized by reactive blue 2. Silencing the P2Y2 receptor was observed in the ciliary body by immunohistochemistry labelling, where a reduction in the immunofluorescence was observed. This reduction in the expression of the P2Y2 receptor was concomitant with a reduction in IOP, which was measurable 24 h after treatment with the siRNA, maximal after 2 days, followed by a slow increase towards control values for the following 5 days. Application of the P2Y2 agonists after pretreatment of the animals with this siRNA did not produce any change in IOP. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS P2Y2 receptors increase IOP in New Zealand rabbits. The application of a siRNA for this receptor significantly reduced IOP, suggesting that this technology might be used for the treatment of glaucoma. PMID:21740413

  5. Current knowledge on the role of P2Y receptors in cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Djerada, Zoubir; Feliu, Catherine; Richard, Vincent; Millart, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    During ischemia, numerous effective endogenous extracellular mediators have been identified, particularly, nucleosides such as adenosine as well as purinergic and pyrimidinergic nucleotides. They may play important regulatory roles within the cardiovascular system and notably as cardio-protectants. Indeed, the distribution of the P2Y receptors in mammalian heart includes several cellular constituents relevant for the pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia. Beside the well-known cardioprotective effect of adenosine, the additional protective role of P2Y receptors has emerged. However, interpretation of experimental results may be sometimes perplexing. This is due to the variability of: the experimental models, the endpoints criteria, the chemical structure of agonist and antagonist ligands and their concentrations, the sequences of drug administration with respect to the model used (before and/or during and/or after ischemia). The net effect may be in the opposite direction after a transient or a prolonged stimulation. Nevertheless, the overall reading of published data highlights the beneficial role of the P2Y2/4 receptor stimulation, the useful and synergistic role of P2Y6/11 receptor activation and even of the P2Y11 receptor alone in cardioprotection. More, the P2Y11 receptor could be involved in counter-regulation of profibrotic processes. Paradoxically, transient P2X7 receptor stimulation could contribute to the net cardioprotective effect of ATP. Recently, experimental data have shown that blocking the P2Y12 receptor after ischemia confers cardioprotection independently of platelet antiaggregatory effect. This suggests for P2Y receptors an important role in primary prevention and as a therapeutic target in myocardial protection during ischemia and reperfusion.

  6. Validation of a P2Y12-receptor specific whole blood platelet aggregation assay.

    PubMed

    Amann, Michael; Ferenc, Miroslaw; Valina, Christian M; Bömicke, Timo; Stratz, Christian; Leggewie, Stefan; Trenk, Dietmar; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Hochholzer, Willibald

    2016-11-01

    Testing of P2Y12-receptor antagonist effects can support clinical decision-making. However, most platelet function assays use only ADP as agonist which is not P2Y12-receptor specific. For this reason P2Y12-receptor specific assays have been developed by adding prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) to reduce ADP-induced platelet activation via the P2Y1-receptor. The present study sought to evaluate a P2Y12-receptor specific assay for determination of pharmacodynamic and clinical outcomes. This study enrolled 400 patients undergoing coronary stenting after loading with clopidogrel or prasugrel. ADP-induced platelet reactivity was assessed by whole blood aggregometry at multiple time points with a standard ADP assay (ADPtest) and a P2Y12-receptor specific assay (ADPtest HS, both run on Multiplate Analyzer, Roche Diagnostics). Patients were clinically followed for 1 month and all events adjudicated by an independent committee. In total, 2084 pairs of test results of ADPtest and ADPtest HS were available showing a strong correlation between results of both assays (r = 0.96, p < 0.001). These findings prevailed in multiple prespecified subgroups (e.g., age; body mass index; diabetes). Calculated cutoffs for ADPtest HS and the established cutoffs of ADPtest showed a substantial agreement for prediction of ischemic and hemorrhagic events with a Cohen's κ of 0.66 and 0.66, respectively. The P2Y12-receptor specific ADPtest HS assay appears similarly predictive for pharmacodynamic and clinical outcomes as compared to the established ADPtest assay indicating its applicability for clinical use. Further evaluation in large cohorts is needed to determine if P2Y12-receptor specific testing offers any advantage for prediction of clinical outcome.

  7. Rapid Evolution of a Coadapted Gene Complex: Evidence from the Segregation Distorter (Sd) System of Meiotic Drive in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Palopoli, M. F.; Wu, C. I.

    1996-01-01

    Segregation Distorter (SD) is a system of meiotic drive found in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Males heterozygous for an SD second chromosome and a normal homologue (SD(+)) produce predominantly SD-bearing sperm. The coadapted gene complex responsible for this transmission advantage spans the second chromosome centromere, consisting of three major and several minor interacting loci. To investigate the evolutionary history of this system, we surveyed levels of polymorphism and divergence at six genes that together encompass this pericentromeric region and span seven map units. Interestingly, there was no discernible divergence between SD and SD(+) chromosomes for any of these molecular markers. Furthermore, SD chromosomes harbored much less polymorphism than did SD(+) chromosomes. The results suggest that the SD system evolved recently, swept to appreciable frequencies worldwide, and carried with it the entire second chromosome centromeric region (roughly 10% of the genome). Despite its well-documented genetic complexity, this coadapted system appears to have evolved on a time scale that is much shorter than can be gauged using nucleotide substitution data. Finally, the large genomic region hitchhiking with SD indicates that a multilocus, epistatically selected system could affect the levels of DNA polymorphism observed in regions of reduced recombination. PMID:8844155

  8. Design strategies for P-containing fuels adaptable CeO2-MoO3 catalysts for DeNO(x): significance of phosphorus resistance and N2 selectivity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huazhen; Jong, Min Tze; Wang, Chizhong; Qu, Ruiyang; Du, Yu; Li, Junhua; Hao, Jiming

    2013-10-15

    Phosphorus compounds from flue gas have a significant deactivation effect on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) DeNOx catalysts. In this work, the effects of phosphorus over three catalysts (CeO2, CeO2-MoO3, and V2O5-MoO3/TiO2) for NH3-SCR were studied, and characterizations were performed aiming at a better understanding of the behavior and poisoning mechanism of phosphorus over SCR catalysts. The CeO2-MoO3 catalyst showed much better catalytic behavior with respect to resistance to phosphorus and N2 selectivity compared with V2O5-MoO3/TiO2 catalyst. With addition of 1.3 wt % P, the SCR activity of V2O5-MoO3/TiO2 decreased dramatically at low temperature due to the impairment of redox property for NO oxidation; meanwhile, the activity over CeO2 and CeO2-MoO3 catalysts was improved. The superior NO oxidation activity contributes to the activity over P-poisoned CeO2 catalyst. The increased surface area and abundant acidity sites contribute to excellent activity over CeO2-MoO3 catalyst. As the content of P increased to 3.9 wt %, the redox cycle over CeO2 catalyst (2CeO2 ↔ Ce2O3 + O*) was destroyed as phosphate accumulated, leading to the decline of SCR activity; whereas, more than 80% NOx conversion and superior N2 selectivity were obtained over CeO2-MoO3 at T > 300 °C. The effect of phosphorus was correlated with the redox properties of SCR catalyst for NH3 and NO oxidation. A spillover effect that phosphate transfers from Ce to Mo in calcination was proposed.

  9. High pressure studies of A{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} negative thermal expansion materials (A{sub 2}=Al{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}, FeAl, AlGa)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Lindsay; Gadient, Jennifer; Gao, Xiaodong; Lind, Cora

    2016-05-15

    High pressure powder X-ray diffraction studies of several A{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} materials (A{sub 2}=Al{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}, FeAl, and AlGa) were conducted up to 6–7 GPa. All materials adopted a monoclinic structure under ambient conditions, and displayed similar phase transition behavior upon compression. The initial isotropic compressibility first became anisotropic, followed by a small but distinct drop in cell volume. These patterns could be described by a distorted variant of the ambient pressure polymorph. At higher pressures, a distinct high pressure phase formed. Indexing results confirmed that all materials adopted the same high pressure phase. All changes were reversible on decompression, although some hysteresis was observed. The similarity of the high pressure cells to previously reported Ga{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} suggested that this material undergoes the same sequence of transitions as all materials investigated in this paper. It was found that the transition pressures for all phase changes increased with decreasing radius of the A-site cations. - Graphical abstract: Overlay of variable pressure X-ray diffraction data of Al{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} collected in a diamond anvil cell. Both subtle and discontinuous phase transitions are clearly observed. - Highlights: • The high pressure behavior of A{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} (A=Al, Fe, (AlGa), (AlFe)) was studied. • All compounds undergo the same sequence of pressure-induced phase transitions. • The phase transition pressures correlate with the average size of the A-site cation. • All transitions were reversible with hysteresis. • Previously studied Ga{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} undergoes the same sequence of transitions.

  10. Potential involvement of P2Y2 receptor in diuresis of postobstructive uropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Kohan, Donald E; Nelson, Raoul D; Carlson, Noel G; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2010-03-01

    AVP resistance of the medullary collecting duct (mCD) in postobstructive uropathy (POU) has been attributed to increased production of PGE2. P2Y2 receptor activation causes production of PGE2 by the mCD. We hypothesize that increased P2Y2 receptor expression and/or activity may contribute to the diuresis of POU. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to bilateral ureteral obstruction for 24 h followed by release (BUO/R, n = 17) or sham operation (SHM/O, n = 15) and euthanized after 1 wk or 12 days. BUO/R rats developed significant polydipsia, polyuria, urinary concentration defect, and increased urinary PGE2 and decreased aquaporin-2 protein abundance in the inner medulla compared with SHM/O rats. After BUO/R, the relative mRNA expression of P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors was increased by 2.7- and 4.9-fold, respectively, without significant changes in mRNA expression of P2Y1 or P2Y4 receptor. This was associated with a significant 3.5-fold higher protein abundance of the P2Y2 receptor in BUO/R than SHM/O rats. When freshly isolated mCD fractions were challenged with different types of nucleotides (ATPgammaS, ADP, UTP, or UDP), BUO/R and SHM/O rats responded to only ATPgammaS and UTP and released PGE2, consistent with involvement of the P2Y2, but not P2Y6, receptor. ATPgammaS- or UTP-stimulated increases in PGE2 were much higher in BUO/R (3.20- and 2.28-fold, respectively, vs. vehicle controls) than SHM/O (1.68- and 1.30-fold, respectively, vs. vehicle controls) rats. In addition, there were significant 2.4- and 2.1-fold increases in relative mRNA expression of prostanoid EP1 and EP3 receptors, respectively, in the inner medulla of BUO/R vs. SHM/O rats. Taken together, these data suggest that increased production of PGE2 by the mCD in POU may be due to increased expression and activity of the P2Y2 receptor. Increased mRNA expression of EP1 and EP3 receptors in POU may also help accentuate PGE2-induced signaling in the mCD.

  11. Relaxation Mechanism of the SD Vibrational Stretch Mode in Amorphous As_2S_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engholm, J. R.; Rella, C. W.; Schwettman, H. A.; Happek, U.

    1996-03-01

    Impurity molecules in a glassy host such as SD in As_2S3 exhibit inhomogeneous broadening in their vibrational stretch mode absorption lines caused by a site-dependent redshift due to hydrogen bonding. We have performed pump-probe measurements using the Stanford Picosecond Free Electron Laser to study the relaxation lifetime of the SD vibrational stretch mode in As_2S3 at 1800 cm-1. We find a strongly frequency dependent lifetime across the absorption line on the order of 10-10 seconds, similar to that previously measured for SH impurity molecules in the same host. We use the temperature dependence of the stretch mode lifetimes and linear infrared spectroscopy to identify the relaxation mechanism. This work was supported in part by the Office of Naval Research, Grant No. N00014-94-1-1024.

  12. Optimising SD and LSD in Presence of Non-uniform Probabilities of Revocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arco, Paolo; de Santis, Alfredo

    Some years ago two efficient broadcast encryption schemes for stateless receivers, referred to as SD (Subset Difference Method) [NNL01] and LSD (Layered Subset Difference Method) [HS02] , were proposed. They represent one of the most suitable solution to broadcast encryption. In this paper we focus on the following issue: both schemes assume uniform probabilities of revocation of the receivers. However, in some applications, such an assumption might not hold: receivers in a certain area, due to historical and legal reasons, can be considered trustworthy, while receivers from others might exhibit more adversarial behaviours. Can we modify SD and LSD to better fit settings in which the probabilities of revocation are non-uniform?

  13. DETECTION OF PHOTOMETRIC VARIATIONS IN THE sdBV Star JL 166

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, B. N.; Dunlap, B. H.; Clemens, J. C.; Lynas-Gray, A. E. E-mail: bhdunlap@physics.unc.edu E-mail: aelg@astro.ox.ac.uk

    2009-08-15

    We report the discovery of oscillations in the hot subdwarf B (sdB) star JL 166 from time-series photometry using the Goodman Spectrograph on the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope. Previous spectroscopic and photometric observations place the star near the hot end of the empirical sdB instability strip and imply the presence of a cool companion. Amplitude spectra of the stellar light curve reveal at least 10 independent pulsation modes with periods ranging from 97 to 178 s and amplitudes from 0.9 to 4 mma. We adopt atmospheric parameters of T {sub eff} = 34,350 K and log g = 5.75 from a model atmosphere analysis of our time-averaged, medium-resolution spectrum.

  14. A relation between massive scalar field in AdSd+1 and diffusion in channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Juan M.; Gaona, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    It is shown that, when the diffusion coefficient is a constant and is taken a particular family of channels, the Fick-Jacobs equation is invariant under conformal symmetry. In addition, using the diffusion coefficient and the geometric parameters of the channels, a representation for the conformal algebra is obtained. Furthermore, it is found that for these systems the Fick-Jacobs equation is equivalent to the Schrödinger equation for the 1-dimensional conformal quantum mechanics. Moreover, using this equivalence, it is found a relation between a massive scalar field equation in AdSd+i background and Fick-Jacobs equation, where the geometric parameter of the channels and the geometric parameters of AdSd+1 are identified.

  15. Agonist versus antagonist action of ATP at the P2Y4 receptor is determined by the second extracellular loop.

    PubMed

    Herold, Christopher L; Qi, Ai-Dong; Harden, T Kendall; Nicholas, Robert A

    2004-03-19

    UTP is a potent full agonist at both the human P2Y(4) (hP2Y(4)) and rat P2Y(4) (rP2Y(4)) receptor. In contrast, ATP is a potent full agonist at the rP2Y(4) receptor but is a similarly potent competitive antagonist at the hP2Y(4) receptor. To delineate the structural determinants of agonism versus antagonism in these species homologues, we expressed a series of human/rat P2Y(4) receptor chimeras in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells and assessed the capacity of ATP and UTP to mobilize intracellular Ca(2+). Replacement of the NH(2) terminus of the hP2Y(4) receptor with the corresponding region of the rP2Y(4) receptor resulted in a receptor that was activated weakly by ATP, whereas replacement of the second extracellular loop (EL2) of the hP2Y(4) receptor with that of the rP2Y(4) receptor yielded a chimeric receptor that was activated fully by UTP and near fully by ATP, albeit with lower potencies than those observed at the rP2Y(4) receptor. These potencies were increased, and ATP was converted to a full agonist by replacing both the NH(2) terminus and EL2 in the hP2Y(4) receptor with the corresponding regions from the rP2Y(4) receptor. Mutational analysis of the five divergent amino acids in EL2 between the two receptors revealed that three amino acids, Asn-177, Ile-183, and Leu-190, contribute to the capacity of EL2 to impart ATP agonism. Taken together, these results suggest that the second extracellular loop and the NH(2) terminus form a functional motif that plays a key role in determining whether ATP functions as an agonist or antagonist at mammalian P2Y(4) receptors.

  16. Inversion for Eigenvalues and Modes Using Sierra-SD and ROL.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy; Aquino, Wilkins; Ridzal, Denis; Kouri, Drew Philip

    2015-12-01

    In this report we formulate eigenvalue-based methods for model calibration using a PDE-constrained optimization framework. We derive the abstract optimization operators from first principles and implement these methods using Sierra-SD and the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL). To demon- strate this approach, we use experimental measurements and an inverse solution to compute the joint and elastic foam properties of a low-fidelity unit (LFU) model.

  17. The genome of Shigella dysenteriae strain Sd1617 comparison to representative strains in evaluating pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vongsawan, Ajchara A.; Kapatral, Vinayak; Vaisvil, Benjamin; Burd, Henry; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Venkatesan, Malabi M.; Mason, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced and analyzed Shigella dysenteriae strain Sd1617 serotype 1 that is widely used as model strain for vaccine design, trials and research. A combination of next-generation sequencing platforms and assembly yielded two contigs representing a chromosome size of 4.34 Mb and the large virulence plasmid of 177 kb. This genome sequence is compared with other Shigella genomes in order to understand gene complexity and pathogenic factors. PMID:25743074

  18. Multimodal registration of SD-OCT volumes and fundus photographs using histograms of oriented gradients

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kwon, Young H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2016-01-01

    With availability of different retinal imaging modalities such as fundus photography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), having a robust and accurate registration scheme to enable utilization of this complementary information is beneficial. The few existing fundus-OCT registration approaches contain a vessel segmentation step, as the retinal blood vessels are the most dominant structures that are in common between the pair of images. However, errors in the vessel segmentation from either modality may cause corresponding errors in the registration. In this paper, we propose a feature-based registration method for registering fundus photographs and SD-OCT projection images that benefits from vasculature structural information without requiring blood vessel segmentation. In particular, after a preprocessing step, a set of control points (CPs) are identified by looking for the corners in the images. Next, each CP is represented by a feature vector which encodes the local structural information via computing the histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) from the neighborhood of each CP. The best matching CPs are identified by calculating the distance of their corresponding feature vectors. After removing the incorrect matches the best affine transform that registers fundus photographs to SD-OCT projection images is computed using the random sample consensus (RANSAC) method. The proposed method was tested on 44 pairs of fundus and SD-OCT projection images of glaucoma patients and the result showed that the proposed method successfully registers the multimodal images and produced a registration error of 25.34 ± 12.34 μm (0.84 ± 0.41 pixels). PMID:28018740

  19. A Search for Companions to the Pulsating sdB Star EC 20117–4014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, T.; Oswalt, T.; Amaral, M.; Jordan, R.

    2017-03-01

    EC 20117–4014 is known to be a spectroscopic binary system consisting of an sdB star and F5V star. It was monitored using the SARA-CT telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile over several observing seasons. Periodic O-C variations were detected in the two highest amplitude pulsations in EC 20117–4014, permitting detection of the F5V companion, whose period and semimajor axis were previously unknown.

  20. Quantification of soil/dust (SD) on the hands of children from Hubei Province, China using hand wipes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyu; Ma, Jin; Pan, Libo; Lin, Chunye; Wang, Beibei; Duan, Xiaoli

    2015-10-01

    A total of 120 children (58 males and 62 females) between the ages of 2 and 17 years were randomly selected from Wuhan City and Wufeng County in Hubei Province, China. We gathered hand SD samples from these children using hand wipes. We determined approximate amounts of hand SD and concentrations of three tracer soil elements (Ce, Y, V) in these samples. The approximate amounts of hand SD ranged from 6.35 to 85.42mg with a median value of 20.62mg. In addition, mean amounts of hand SD estimated using concentrations of Ce, Y, and V in samples were 1.07, 1.00, and 0.92mg, respectively. The amounts of hand SD varied greatly among age groups: primary school children had more hand SD than kindergarten and middle school children, males had more hand SD than females, and children from rural areas had more hand SD than those from urban areas. The rates of daily ingestion of hand SD for kindergarten, primary school, and middle school children were estimated as 1.79, 2.12, and 0.49mg/d, respectively.

  1. Hierarchical MoS2@MoP core-shell heterojunction electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction over a broad pH range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Aiping; Tian, Chungui; Yan, Haijing; Jiao, Yanqing; Yan, Qing; Yang, Guoyu; Fu, Honggang

    2016-05-01

    A low-cost catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a broad pH range is highly desired to meet the practical needs in different areas. In this study, hierarchical flower-like MoS2@MoP core-shell heterojunctions (HF-MoSP) are designed as a promising catalyst for HER over a broad pH range. The materials are obtained by the controllable phosphidation of the hierarchical MoS2 flower (HF-MoS2) composed of thin silk belt-like sheets. The phosphidation degree, P/S ratio and work function (WF) of HF-MoSP can be tuned easily over broad range by changing the phosphidation temperature. Under optimized condition, HF-MoSP exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for HER with a low onset overpotential of 29 mV and η of 108 mV at 10 mA cm-2 in 0.5 M H2SO4 and retains its good activity for 30 h. In addition, the catalyst shows excellent activity in 1 M KOH with an onset overpotential of 42 mV and η of 119 mV at 10 mA cm-2. The catalysts also exhibit obvious activity in neutral, weak acid and weak alkaline conditions. The good performance is relative to the synergy of the MoP shell and MoS2 core and the high WF of HF-MoSP close to Pt, and the large SBET of HF-MoSP benefited from the hierarchical structure. This study represents the construction of the core-shell heterojunction and provides a new way to provide the low-cost and high-performance catalyst for HER.A low-cost catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a broad pH range is highly desired to meet the practical needs in different areas. In this study, hierarchical flower-like MoS2@MoP core-shell heterojunctions (HF-MoSP) are designed as a promising catalyst for HER over a broad pH range. The materials are obtained by the controllable phosphidation of the hierarchical MoS2 flower (HF-MoS2) composed of thin silk belt-like sheets. The phosphidation degree, P/S ratio and work function (WF) of HF-MoSP can be tuned easily over broad range by changing the phosphidation temperature. Under optimized

  2. Diffractional Imaging of Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities Using SdS-SS Traveltimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The mantle transition zone is characterized by two discontinuities at depths of about 410 and 660 km. Mineral physics studies suggest that wavespeed and density jumps across the discontinuities are associated with olivine phase transformations and the depths at which the phase transformations occur are strongly dependent on temperature. Imaging lateral variations of the discontinuity depths is important for constraining thermal structure in the mid mantle. SS precursors (SdS) are waves reflected at the underside of the discontinuities and arrive beforethe SS phase. Their traveltime measurements at teleseismic distances can be used to map the discontinuities at a global scale. In this study, we measure frequency-dependent SS precursors traveltimes using seismograms recorded at GSN stations for earthquakes occurred between 2000 and 2015. The measurements were made using cosine tapers and multitapers and the traveltimes show significant dispersion. We calculate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels for SdS-SS differential measurements based on traveling-wave mode summation, which account for complete wave interactions within the measurement window. We will discuss preliminary results from finite-frequency imaging using SdS-SS dispersion measurements and the effects of 3-D crustal structure and mantle wavespeed structure.

  3. Metabolomics approach to serum biomarker for loperamide-induced constipation in SD rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Young-Ju; Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Jun, Go; Koh, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Sung-Hwa; Seong, Ji-Eun; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Suhkmann

    2014-01-01

    Loperamide has long been known as an opioid-receptor agonist useful as a drug for treatment of diarrhea resulting from gastroenteritis or inflammatory bowel disease as well as to induce constipation. To determine and characterize putative biomarkers that can predict constipation induced by loperamide treatment, alteration of endogenous metabolites was measured in the serum of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with loperamide for 3 days using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectral data. The amounts and weights of stool and urine excretion were significantly lower in the loperamide-treated group than the No-treated group, while the thickness of the villus, crypt layer, and muscle layer was decreased in the transverse colon of the same group. The concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinine (Cr) were also slightly changed in the loperamide-treated group, although most of the serum components were maintained at a constant level. Furthermore, pattern recognition of endogenous metabolites showed completely separate clustering of the serum analysis parameters between the No-treated group and loperamide-treated group. Among 35 endogenous metabolites, four amino acids (alanine, glutamate, glutamine and glycine) and six endogenous metabolites (acetate, glucose, glycerol, lactate, succinate and taurine) were dramatically decreased in loperamide-treated SD rats. These results provide the first data pertaining to metabolic changes in SD rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Additionally, these findings correlate the changes in 10 metabolites with constipation. PMID:24707303

  4. Geology of the USW SD-12 drill hole Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.; Engstrom, D.A.

    1996-11-01

    Drill hole USW SD-12 is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study 8.3.1.4.3.1, also known as the {open_quotes}Systematic Drilling Program,{close_quotes} as part of the U.S. Department of Energy characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-12 drill hole is located in the central part of the potential repository area, immediately to the west of the Main Test Level drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility and slightly south of midway between the North Ramp and planned South Ramp declines. Drill hole USW SD-12 is 2166.3 ft (660.26 m) deep, and the core recovered essentially complete sections of ash-flow tuffs belonging to the lower half of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, and the Topopah Spring Tuff, all of which are part of the Miocene Paintbrush Group. A virtually complete section of the Calico Hills Formation was also recovered, as was core from the entire Prow Pass Tuff formation of the Crater Flat Group.

  5. Automated segmentation of serous pigment epithelium detachment in SD-OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhuli; Shi, Fei; Xiang, Dehui; Chen, Haoyu; Chen, Xinjian

    2015-03-01

    Pigment epithelium detachment (PED) is an important clinical manifestation of multiple chorio-retinal disease processes, which can cause the loss of central vision. A 3-D method is proposed to automatically segment serous PED in SD-OCT images. The proposed method consists of five steps: first, a curvature anisotropic diffusion filter is applied to remove speckle noise. Second, the graph search method is applied for abnormal retinal layer segmentation associated with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deformation. During this process, Bruch's membrane, which doesn't show in the SD-OCT images, is estimated with the convex hull algorithm. Third, the foreground and background seeds are automatically obtained from retinal layer segmentation result. Fourth, the serous PED is segmented based on the graph cut method. Finally, a post-processing step is applied to remove false positive regions based on mathematical morphology. The proposed method was tested on 20 SD-OCT volumes from 20 patients diagnosed with serous PED. The average true positive volume fraction (TPVF), false positive volume fraction (FPVF), dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and positive predictive value (PPV) are 97.19%, 0.03%, 96.34% and 95.59%, respectively. Linear regression analysis shows a strong correlation (r = 0.975) comparing the segmented PED volumes with the ground truth labeled by an ophthalmology expert. The proposed method can provide clinicians with accurate quantitative information, including shape, size and position of the PED regions, which can assist diagnose and treatment.

  6. Scientific Use of the Sampler, Drill and Distribution Subsystem (SD2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armellin, R.; Di Lizia, P.; Crepaldi, M.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Ercoli Finzi, A.

    Rosetta is the third cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency scientific program "Horizon 2000". Rosetta will be the first spacecraft to orbit around a comet nucleus. It was launched in March 2004 and will reach the comet 67P/ChurymovGerasimenko in 2014. A lander (Philae) will be released and land on the comet surface for in-situ investigation. One of the key subsystems of the lander Philae is the Sampler, Drill and Distribution (SD2) subsystem. SD2 provides in-situ operations devoted to soil drilling, samples collection, and their distribution to two evolved gas analyzers (COSAC and PTOLEMY) and one imaging instrument (ÇIVA). Recent studies have proven the existence of a correlation between the drill behavior during perforation and the mechanical characteristics of the cometary soil. This outlines the possibility of using SD2 not only as a tool to support other instruments, but also as a scientific instrument itself. In this paper the possibility of using the drill as a quasi-static penetrator is presented. Within this approach, laboratory tests on glass-foam specimens of different porosity show that the drill behaviour during penetration can be exploited for cometary soil characterization.

  7. Spin motive force induced by Rashba interaction in the strong sd coupling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatara, Gen; Nakabayashi, Noriyuki; Lee, Kyun-Jin

    2013-02-01

    Spin motive force induced by the Rashba interaction in the presence of strong sd interaction between conduction electron and localized spin is theoretically studied. The motive force is calculated by evaluating the time derivative of the current density on the basis of microscopic formalism. It is shown that there are two motive forces, one proportional to ER×ṅ, the other, perpendicular component proportional to ER×(n×ṅ), where ER and n are the Rashba electric field and localized spin direction, respectively. The second type arises in the strong sd coupling regime from the spin relaxation. The appearance of perpendicular component from the spin relaxation is understood from the analogy with the current-induced torques. In the case of domain wall motion, the two contributions to the spin motive force are the same order of magnitude, while the first term dominates in the case of precession of uniform magnetization. Our result explains the appearance of the perpendicular component in the weak sd coupling limit, recently discussed in the context of spin damping monopole. Detection of ac voltage induced by the precession of uniform magnetization serves as a experimental evidence of the Rashba interaction in films and wires.

  8. Stripped Red Giants - Helium Core White Dwarf Progenitors and their sdB Siblings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    2017-03-01

    Some gaps in the mosaic of binary star evolution have recently been filled by the discoveries of helium-core white dwarf progenitors (often called extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs) as stripped cores of first-giant branch objects. Two varieties can be distinguished. One class is made up by SB1 binaries, companions being white dwarfs as well. Another class, the so-called EL CVn stars, are composite spectrum binaries, with A-Type companions. Pulsating stars are found among both classes. A riddle is posed by the apparently single objects. There is a one-to-one correspondence of the phenomena found for these new classes of star to those observed for sdB stars. In fact, standard evolutionary scenarios explain the origin of sdB stars as red giants that have been stripped close to the tip of first red giant branch. A subgroup of subluminous B stars can also be identified as stripped helium-cores of red giants. They form an extension of the ELM sequence to higher temperatures. Hence low mass white dwarfs of helium cores and sdB stars in binaries are close relatives in terms of stellar evolution.

  9. Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kwon, Young H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2013-03-01

    Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One important structural parameter for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma is the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), which tends to become larger as glaucoma progresses. While approaches exist for segmenting the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs, and more recently, within spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes, no approaches have been reported for the simultaneous segmentation of these structures within both modalities combined. In this work, a multimodal pixel-classification approach for the segmentation of the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs and SD-OCT volumes is presented. In particular, after segmentation of other important structures (such as the retinal layers and retinal blood vessels) and fundus-to-SD-OCT image registration, features are extracted from both modalities and a k-nearest-neighbor classification approach is used to classify each pixel as cup, rim, or background. The approach is evaluated on 70 multimodal image pairs from 35 subjects in a leave-10%-out fashion (by subject). A significant improvement in classification accuracy is obtained using the multimodal approach over that obtained from the corresponding unimodal approach (97.8% versus 95.2%; p < 0:05; paired t-test).

  10. Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate is a novel neurogenic P2Y1 receptor activator in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Durnin, Leonie; Hwang, Sung Jin; Kurahashi, Masaaki; Drumm, Bernard T.; Ward, Sean M.; Sasse, Kent C.; Sanders, Kenton M.; Mutafova-Yambolieva, Violeta N.

    2014-01-01

    Enteric purinergic motor neurotransmission, acting through P2Y1 receptors (P2Y1R), mediates inhibitory neural control of the intestines. Recent studies have shown that NAD+ and ADP ribose better meet criteria for enteric inhibitory neurotransmitters in colon than ATP or ADP. Here we report that human and murine colon muscles also release uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) spontaneously and upon stimulation of enteric neurons. Release of Up4A was reduced by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that at least a portion of Up4A is of neural origin. Up4A caused relaxation (human and murine colons) and hyperpolarization (murine colon) that was blocked by the P2Y1R antagonist, MRS 2500, and by apamin, an inhibitor of Ca2+-activated small-conductance K+ (SK) channels. Up4A responses were greatly reduced or absent in colons of P2ry1−/− mice. Up4A induced P2Y1R–SK-channel–mediated hyperpolarization in isolated PDGFRα+ cells, which are postjunctional targets for purinergic neurotransmission. Up4A caused MRS 2500-sensitive Ca2+ transients in human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells expressing human P2Y1R. Up4A was more potent than ATP, ADP, NAD+, or ADP ribose in colonic muscles. In murine distal colon Up4A elicited transient P2Y1R-mediated relaxation followed by a suramin-sensitive contraction. HPLC analysis of Up4A degradation suggests that exogenous Up4A first forms UMP and ATP in the human colon and UDP and ADP in the murine colon. Adenosine then is generated by extracellular catabolism of ATP and ADP. However, the relaxation and hyperpolarization responses to Up4A are not mediated by its metabolites. This study shows that Up4A is a potent native agonist for P2Y1R and SK-channel activation in human and mouse colon. PMID:25341729

  11. Central Role of P2Y6 UDP Receptor in Arteriolar Myogenic Tone

    PubMed Central

    Kauffenstein, Gilles; Tamareille, Sophie; Prunier, Fabrice; Roy, Charlotte; Ayer, Audrey; Toutain, Bertrand; Billaud, Marie; Isakson, Brant E.; Grimaud, Linda; Loufrani, Laurent; Rousseau, Pascal; Abraham, Pierre; Procaccio, Vincent; Monyer, Hannah; de Wit, Cor; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Robaye, Bernard; Kwak, Brenda R.; Henrion, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Myogenic tone (MT) of resistance arteries ensures autoregulation of blood flow in organs and relies on the intrinsic property of smooth muscle to contract in response to stretch. Nucleotides released by mechanical strain on cells are responsible for pleiotropic vascular effects, including vasoconstriction. Here, we evaluated the contribution of extracellular nucleotides to MT. Approach and Results We measured MT and the associated pathway in mouse mesenteric resistance arteries using arteriography for small arteries and molecular biology. Of the P2 receptors in mouse mesenteric resistance arteries, mRNA expression of P2X1 and P2Y6 was dominant. P2Y6 fully sustained UDP/UTP-induced contraction (abrogated in P2ry6−/− arteries). Preventing nucleotide hydrolysis with the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL67156 enhanced pressure-induced MT by 20%, whereas P2Y6 receptor blockade blunted MT in mouse mesenteric resistance arteries and human subcutaneous arteries. Despite normal hemodynamic parameters, P2ry6−/− mice were protected against MT elevation in myocardial infarction–induced heart failure. Although both P2Y6 and P2Y2 receptors contributed to calcium mobilization, P2Y6 activation was mandatory for RhoA–GTP binding, myosin light chain, P42–P44, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation in arterial smooth muscle cells. In accordance with the opening of a nucleotide conduit in pressurized arteries, MT was altered by hemichannel pharmacological inhibitors and impaired in Cx43+/− and P2rx7−/− mesenteric resistance arteries. Conclusions Signaling through P2 nucleotide receptors contributes to MT. This mechanism encompasses the release of nucleotides coupled to specific autocrine/paracrine activation of the uracil nucleotide P2Y6 receptor and may contribute to impaired tissue perfusion in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27255725

  12. On the junction physics of Schottky contact of (10, 10) MX2 (MoS2, WS2) nanotube and (10, 10) carbon nanotube (CNT): an atomistic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Amretashis

    2017-04-01

    Armchair nanotubes of MoS2 and WS2 offer a sizeable band gap, with the advantage of a one dimensional (1D) electronic material, but free from edge roughness and thermodynamic instability of nanoribbons. Use of such semiconducting MX2 (MoS2, WS2) armchair nanotubes (NTs) in conjunction with metallic carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be useful for nanoelectronics and photonics applications. In this work, atomistic simulations of MoS2 NT-CNT and WS2 NT-CNT junctions are carried out to study the physics of such junctions. With density functional theory (DFT) we study the carrier density distribution, effective potential, electron difference density, electron localization function, electrostatic difference potential and projected local density of states of such MX2 NT-CNT 1D junctions. Thereafter the conductance of such a junction under moderate bias is studied with non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. From the forward bias characteristics simulated from NEGF, we extract diode parameters of the junction. The electrostatic simulations from DFT show the formation of an inhomogeneous Schottky barrier with a tendency towards charge transfer from metal and chalcogen atoms towards the C atoms. For low bias conditions, the ideality factor was calculated to be 1.1322 for MoS2 NT-CNT junction and 1.2526 for the WS2 NT-CNT junction. The Schottky barrier heights displayed significant bias dependent modulation and are calculated to be in the range 0.697-0.664 eV for MoS2 NT-CNT and 0.669-0.610 eV for the WS2 NT-CNT, respectively.

  13. Crystal structures of spinel-type Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 revisited using neutron powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Fortes, A Dominic

    2015-06-01

    Time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data have been collected from Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 to a resolution of sin (θ)/λ = 1.25 Å(-1), which is substanti-ally better than the previous analyses using Mo Kα X-rays, providing roughly triple the number of measured reflections with respect to the previous studies [Okada et al. (1974 ▶). Acta Cryst. B30, 1872-1873; Bramnik & Ehrenberg (2004 ▶). Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 630, 1336-1341]. The unit-cell parameters are in excellent agreement with literature data [Swanson et al. (1962 ▶). NBS Monograph No. 25, sect. 1, pp. 46-47] and the structural parameters for the molybdate agree very well with those of Bramnik & Ehrenberg (2004 ▶). However, the tungstate structure refinement of Okada et al. (1974 ▶) stands apart as being conspicuously inaccurate, giving significantly longer W-O distances, 1.819 (8) Å, and shorter Na-O distances, 2.378 (8) Å, than are reported here or in other simple tungstates. As such, this work represents an order-of-magnitude improvement in precision for sodium molybdate and an equally substantial improvement in both accuracy and precision for sodium tungstate. Both compounds adopt the spinel structure type. The Na(+) ions have site symmetry .-3m and are in octa-hedral coordination while the transition metal atoms have site symmetry -43m and are in tetra-hedral coordination.

  14. Crystal structures of spinel-type Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 revisited using neutron powder diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, A. Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data have been collected from Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 to a resolution of sin (θ)/λ = 1.25 Å−1, which is substanti­ally better than the previous analyses using Mo Kα X-rays, providing roughly triple the number of measured reflections with respect to the previous studies [Okada et al. (1974 ▸). Acta Cryst. B30, 1872–1873; Bramnik & Ehrenberg (2004 ▸). Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 630, 1336–1341]. The unit-cell parameters are in excellent agreement with literature data [Swanson et al. (1962 ▸). NBS Monograph No. 25, sect. 1, pp. 46–47] and the structural parameters for the molybdate agree very well with those of Bramnik & Ehrenberg (2004 ▸). However, the tungstate structure refinement of Okada et al. (1974 ▸) stands apart as being conspicuously inaccurate, giving significantly longer W—O distances, 1.819 (8) Å, and shorter Na—O distances, 2.378 (8) Å, than are reported here or in other simple tungstates. As such, this work represents an order-of-magnitude improvement in precision for sodium molybdate and an equally substantial improvement in both accuracy and precision for sodium tungstate. Both compounds adopt the spinel structure type. The Na+ ions have site symmetry .-3m and are in octa­hedral coordination while the transition metal atoms have site symmetry -43m and are in tetra­hedral coordination. PMID:26090129

  15. Intrinsic Josephson properties in Pb1-ySr2Y1-xCaxCu2+yO7+δ epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komori, Sachio; Kakeya, Itsuhiro

    2014-12-01

    We report the first observation of intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) characteristics in the Pb1-ySr2Y1-xCaxCu2+yO7+δ (Pb1212) epitaxial film. Pb1212 epitaxial film has been grown on SrTiO3 (100) substrates by a two-step growth technique. A small mesa structure (S = 4μm2) has been fabricated on a film surface using a standard photolithography and an Ar ion milling technique. The superconducting transition temperature of the IJJ is 43 K. At 4.2 K, the value of Jc (the critical current density) is 2.2 kA/cm2. The depth of the hysteresis defined as α = (Jc+Jr)/ Jc is 0.89, where Jr is the return current density. The temperature dependence of Jc shows good agreement with Ambegaokar-Baratoff theory.

  16. Terahertz conductivity in the under-doped Pb1-ySr2Y1-xCaxCu2+yO7+δ epitaxial film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzawa, Akira; Komori, Sachio; Kamei, Yuta; Kakeya, Itsuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We measured the complex conductivity at the frequencies from 0.2 THz to 1.0 THz in the under-doped Pb1-ySr2Y1-xCaxCu2+yO7+δ (Pb1212) epitaxial film with terahertz time-domain specteroscopy. By analyzing temperature and frequency dependence of the complex conductivity, we found that the superconducting fluctuation persists up to 12 K above Tc, onset. Compared with previous reports, the superconducting fluctuation in Pb1212 is observed shorter temperature range than Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and La2-xSrxCuO4. This is ascribed to the lower anisotropy of Pb1212.

  17. Geology of the USW SD-7 drill hole Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.; Engstrom, D.A.

    1996-09-01

    The USW SD-7 drill hole is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study 8.3.1.4.3.1, also known as the Systematic Drilling Program, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Yucca Mountain site has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-7 drill hole is located near the southern end of the potential repository area and immediately to the west of the Main Test Level drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility. The hole is not far from the junction of the Main Test Level drift and the proposed South Ramp decline. Drill hole USW SD-7 is 2675.1 ft (815.3 m) deep, and the core recovered nearly complete sections of ash-flow tuffs belonging to the lower half of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, and the Topopah Spring Tuff, all of which are part of the Miocene Paintbrush Group. Core was recovered from much of the underlying Calico Hills Formation, and core was virtually continuous in the Prow Pass Tuff and the Bullfrog Tuff. The SD-7 drill hole penetrated the top several tens of feet into the Tram Tuff, which underlies the Prow Pass and Bullfrog Tuffs. These latter three units are all formations of the Crater Flat Group, The drill hole was collared in welded materials assigned to the crystal-poor middle nonlithophysal zone of the Tiva Canyon Tuff; approximately 280 ft (85 m) of this ash-flow sheet was penetrated by the hole. The Yucca Mountain Tuff appears to be missing from the section at the USW SD-7 location, and the Pah Canyon Tuff is only 14.5 ft thick. The Pah Canyon Tuff was not recovered in core because of drilling difficulties, suggesting that the unit is entirely nonwelded. The presence of this unit is inferred through interpretation of down-hole geophysical logs.

  18. Moessbauer studies in Zn(2+)0.3 Mn(2+)0.7 Mn(3+) (2-y) Fe(3+) (2-y) O4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R. G.; Mendiratta, R. G.; Escue, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Mossbauer effect has proven to be effective in the study of nuclear hyperfine interactions. Ferrite systems having the formula (Zn(2+)0.3)(Mn(2+)0.7)(Mn(3+)y)(Fe(3+)2-y)(O4) were prepared and studied. These systems can be interpreted as mangacese-doped zinc and a part of iron ions. A systematic study of these systems is presented to promote an understanding of their microstructure for which various theories were proposed.

  19. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length factor...

  20. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63—Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length factor...

  1. Time-dependent evolution of the Bi3.64Mo0.36O6.55/Bi2MoO6 heterostructure for enhanced photocatalytic activity via the interfacial hole migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zan; Qin, Fan; Zhao, Huiping; Tian, Fan; Liu, Yunling; Chen, Rong

    2015-07-01

    Hierarchical Bi3.64Mo0.36O6.55/Bi2MoO6 isotype heterostructures were successfully prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal route by using Bi2O3 porous nanospheres as a sacrificial template. By tuning the reaction time, the formation process of the Bi3.64Mo0.36O6.55/Bi2MoO6 heterostructure involving Mo etching, phase transition and anisotropic growth was clearly identified. More importantly, the Bi3.64Mo0.36O6.55/Bi2MoO6 heterostructure displayed remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity for dye photodegradation than pure phase bismuth molybdate due to the efficient electron-hole separation and the interfacial photogenerated hole migration from inside the Bi3.64Mo0.36O6.55 layer to outside the Bi2MoO6 layer. The opposite hole migration from the outer layer to the inner layer was also detected in Bi2O3/Bi2WO6 heterostructures, which resulted in the decrease of photocatalytic activity, further verifying the importance of hole migration direction. This work provides a novel route to fabricate heterostructured photocatalysts, as well as gives a strategy for mediating the charge migration to improve photocatalytic performance.Hierarchical Bi3.64Mo0.36O6.55/Bi2MoO6 isotype heterostructures were successfully prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal route by using Bi2O3 porous nanospheres as a sacrificial template. By tuning the reaction time, the formation process of the Bi3.64Mo0.36O6.55/Bi2MoO6 heterostructure involving Mo etching, phase transition and anisotropic growth was clearly identified. More importantly, the Bi3.64Mo0.36O6.55/Bi2MoO6 heterostructure displayed remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity for dye photodegradation than pure phase bismuth molybdate due to the efficient electron-hole separation and the interfacial photogenerated hole migration from inside the Bi3.64Mo0.36O6.55 layer to outside the Bi2MoO6 layer. The opposite hole migration from the outer layer to the inner layer was also detected in Bi2O3/Bi2WO6 heterostructures, which resulted in the decrease

  2. Comparison of three GPCR structural templates for modeling of the P2Y12 nucleotide receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deflorian, Francesca; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2011-04-01

    The P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) is an ADP-activated G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is an important target for antithrombotic drugs. Three homology models of P2Y12R were compared, based on different GPCR structural templates: bovine rhodopsin (bRHO), human A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR), and human C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). By criteria of sequence analysis (25.6% identity in transmembrane region), deviation from helicity in the second transmembrane helix (TM2), docked poses of ligands highlighting the role of key residues, accessibility of a conserved disulfide bridge that is reactive toward irreversibly-binding antagonists, and the presence of a shared disulfide bridge between the third extracellular loop (EL3) and the N-terminus, the CXCR4-based model appeared to be the most consistent with known characteristics of P2Y12R. The docked poses of agonist 2MeSADP and charged anthraquinone antagonist PSB-0739 in the binding pocket of P2Y12R-CXC agree with previously published site-directed mutagenesis studies of Arg256 and Lys280. A sulfonate at position 2 of the anthraquinone core created a strong interaction with the Lys174(EL2) side chain. The docking poses of the irreversibly-binding, active metabolite (existing as two diastereoisomers in vivo) of the clinically utilized antagonist Clopidogrel were compared. The free thiol group of the 4S diastereoisomer, but not the 4R isomer, was found in close proximity ( 4.7 Å) to the sulfur atom of a disulfide bridge involving Cys175, suggesting greater activity in covalent binding. Therefore, ligand docking to the CXCR4-based model of the P2Y12R predicted poses of both reversibly and irreversibly-binding small molecules, consistent with observed pharmacology and mutagenesis studies.

  3. Identification of a new dysfunctional platelet P2Y12 receptor variant associated with bleeding diathesis

    PubMed Central

    Lecchi, Anna; Razzari, Cristina; Paoletta, Silvia; Dupuis, Arnaud; Nakamura, Lea; Ohlmann, Philippe; Gachet, Christian; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Zieger, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Defects of the platelet P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) for adenosine diphosphate (ADP) are associated with increased bleeding risk. The study of molecular abnormalities associated with inherited qualitative defects of the P2Y12R protein is useful to unravel structure-function relationships of the receptor. We describe the case of 2 brothers, sons of first cousins, with lifelong history of abnormal bleeding, associated with dysfunctional P2Y12R and a previously undescribed missense mutation in the encoding gene. ADP (4-20 µM)–induced aggregation of patients’ platelets was markedly reduced and rapidly reversible. Other agonists induced borderline-normal aggregation. Inhibition of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation and prostaglandin E1–induced increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by ADP was impaired, whereas inhibition of cAMP increase by epinephrine was normal. [3H]PSB-0413, a selective P2Y12R antagonist, bound to a normal number of binding sites; however, its affinity, and that of the agonists ADP and 2-methylthio-adenosine-5′-diphosphate, was reduced. Patients’ DNA showed a homozygous c.847T>A substitution that changed the codon for His-187 to Gln (p.His187Gln). Crystallographic data and molecular modeling studies indicated that His187 in transmembrane 5 is important for agonist and nucleotide antagonist binding and located in a region undergoing conformational changes. These studies delineate a region of P2Y12R required for normal function after ADP binding. PMID:25428217

  4. Uridine Triphosphate Thio Analogues Inhibit Platelet P2Y12 Receptor and Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Dursun; Tanislav, Christian; Sedding, Daniel; Parahuleva, Mariana; Santoso, Sentot; Troidl, Christian; Hamm, Christian W.; Aslam, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Platelet P2Y12 is an important adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor that is involved in agonist-induced platelet aggregation and is a valuable target for the development of anti-platelet drugs. Here we characterise the effects of thio analogues of uridine triphosphate (UTP) on ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Using human platelet-rich plasma, we demonstrate that UTP inhibits P2Y12 but not P2Y1 receptors and antagonises 10 µM ADP-induced platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of ~250 µM. An eight-fold higher platelet inhibitory activity was observed with a 2-thio analogue of UTP (2S-UTP), with an IC50 of 30 µM. The 4-thio analogue (4S-UTP) with an IC50 of 7.5 µM was 33-fold more effective. A three-fold decrease in inhibitory activity, however, was observed by introducing an isobutyl group at the 4S- position. A complete loss of inhibition was observed with thio-modification of the γ phosphate of the sugar moiety, which yields an enzymatically stable analogue. The interaction of UTP analogues with P2Y12 receptor was verified by P2Y12 receptor binding and cyclic AMP (cAMP) assays. These novel data demonstrate for the first time that 2- and 4-thio analogues of UTP are potent P2Y12 receptor antagonists that may be useful for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28146050

  5. Phase relations and crystal structures in the systems (Bi,Ln){sub 2}WO{sub 6} and (Bi,Ln){sub 2}MoO{sub 6} (Ln=lanthanide)

    SciTech Connect

    Berdonosov, Peter S.; Charkin, Dmitri O.; Knight, Kevin S.; Johnston, Karen E.; Goff, Richard J.; Dolgikh, Valeriy A.; Lightfoot, Philip . E-mail: pl@st-and.ac.uk

    2006-11-15

    Several outstanding aspects of phase behaviour in the systems (Bi,Ln){sub 2}WO{sub 6} and (Bi,Ln){sub 2}MoO{sub 6} (Ln=lanthanide) have been clarified. Detailed crystal structures, from Rietveld refinement of powder neutron diffraction data, are provided for Bi{sub 1.8}La{sub 0.2}WO{sub 6} (L-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} type) and BiLaWO{sub 6}, BiNdWO{sub 6}, Bi{sub 0.7}Yb{sub 1.3}WO{sub 6} and Bi{sub 0.7}Yb{sub 1.3}WO{sub 6} (all H-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} type). Phase evolution within the solid solution Bi{sub 2-} {sub x} La {sub x} MoO{sub 6} has been re-examined, and a crossover from {gamma}(H)-Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} type to {gamma}-R{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} type is observed at x{approx}1.2. A preliminary X-ray Rietveld refinement of the line phase BiNdMoO{sub 6} has confirmed the {alpha}-R{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} type structure, with a possible partial ordering of Bi/Nd over the three crystallographically distinct R sites. - Graphical abstract: A summary of phase relations in the lanthanide-doped bismuth tungstate and bismuth molybdate systems is presented, together with some additional structural data on several of these phases.

  6. The Mysterious sdO X-ray Binary BD+37°442

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.; Geier, S.; Irrgang, A.; Schneider, D.; Barbu-Barna, I.; Mereghetti, S.; La Palombara, N.

    2014-04-01

    Pulsed X-ray emission in the luminous, helium-rich sdO BD +37°442 has recently been discovered (La Palombara et al. 2012). It was suggested that the sdO star has a neutron star or white dwarf companion with a spin period of 19.2 s. After HD 49798, which has a massive white dwarf companion spinning at 13.2 s in an 1.55 day orbit, this is only the second O-type subdwarf from which X-ray emission has been detected. We report preliminary results of our ongoing campaign to obtain time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy using the CAFE instrument at Calar Alto observatory and SARG at the Telescopio Nationale Galileo. Atmospheric parameters were derived via a quantitative NLTE spectral analysis. The line fits hint at an unusually large projected rotation velocity. Therefore it seemed likely that BD +37°442 is a binary similar to HD 49798 and that the orbital period is also similar. The level of X-ray emission from BD +37°442 could be explained by accretion from the sdO wind by a neutron star orbiting at a period of less than ten days. Hence, we embarked on radial velocity monitoring in order to derive the binary parameters of the BD+37°442 system and obtained 41 spectra spread out over several month in 2012. Unlike for HD 49798, no radial velocity variations were found and, hence, there is no dynamical evidence for the existence of a compact companion yet. The origin of the pulsed X-ray emission remains as a mystery.

  7. A complex noise reduction method for improving visualization of SD-OCT skin biomedical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myakinin, Oleg O.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Kornilin, Dmitry V.; Khramov, Alexander G.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we consider the original method of solving noise reduction problem for visualization's quality improvement of SD-OCT skin and tumors biomedical images. The principal advantages of OCT are high resolution and possibility of in vivo analysis. We propose a two-stage algorithm: 1) process of raw one-dimensional A-scans of SD-OCT and 2) remove a noise from the resulting B(C)-scans. The general mathematical methods of SD-OCT are unstable: if the noise of the CCD is 1.6% of the dynamic range then result distortions are already 25-40% of the dynamic range. We use at the first stage a resampling of A-scans and simple linear filters to reduce the amount of data and remove the noise of the CCD camera. The efficiency, improving productivity and conservation of the axial resolution when using this approach are showed. At the second stage we use an effective algorithms based on Hilbert-Huang Transform for more accurately noise peaks removal. The effectiveness of the proposed approach for visualization of malignant and benign skin tumors (melanoma, BCC etc.) and a significant improvement of SNR level for different methods of noise reduction are showed. Also in this study we consider a modification of this method depending of a specific hardware and software features of used OCT setup. The basic version does not require any hardware modifications of existing equipment. The effectiveness of proposed method for 3D visualization of tissues can simplify medical diagnosis in oncology.

  8. Correlation between SD-OCT, immunocytochemistry and functional findings in an animal model of retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca, Nicolás; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Sauvé, Yves; Segura, Francisco J.; Martínez-Navarrete, Gema; Tamarit, José Manuel; Fuentes-Broto, Lorena; Sanchez-Cano, Ana; Pinilla, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The P23H rhodopsin mutation is an autosomal dominant cause of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The degeneration can be tracked using different anatomical and functional methods. In our case, we evaluated the anatomical changes using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) and correlated the findings with retinal thickness values determined by immunocytochemistry.Methods: Pigmented rats heterozygous for the P23H mutation, with ages between P18 and P180 were studied. Function was assessed by means of optomotor testing and ERGs. Retinal thicknesses measurements, autofluorescence and fluorescein angiography were performed using Spectralis OCT. Retinas were studied by means of immunohistochemistry. Results: Between P30 and P180, visual acuity decreased from 0.500 to 0.182 cycles per degree (cyc/deg) and contrast sensitivity decreased from 54.56 to 2.98 for a spatial frequency of 0.089 cyc/deg. Only cone-driven b-wave responses reached developmental maturity. Flicker fusions were also comparable at P29 (42 Hz). Double flash-isolated rod-driven responses were already affected at P29. Photopic responses revealed deterioration after P29.A reduction in retinal thicknesses and morphological modifications were seen in OCT sections. Statistically significant differences were found in all evaluated thicknesses. Autofluorescence was seen in P23H rats as sparse dots. Immunocytochemistry showed a progressive decrease in the outer nuclear layer (ONL), and morphological changes. Although anatomical thickness measures were significantly lower than OCT values, there was a very strong correlation between the values measured by both techniques.Conclusions: In pigmented P23H rats, a progressive deterioration occurs in both retinal function and anatomy. Anatomical changes can be effectively evaluated using SD-OCT and immunocytochemistry, with a good correlation between their values, thus making SD-OCT an important tool for research in retinal degeneration. PMID:25565976

  9. SD-OCT and Adaptive Optics Imaging of Outer Retinal Tubulation

    PubMed Central

    King, Brett J.; Sapoznik, Kaitlyn A.; Elsner, Ann E.; Gast, Thomas J.; Papay, Joel A.; Clark, Christopher A.; Burns, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate outer retinal tubulation (ORT) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). To document the frequency of ORT in atrophic retinal conditions and quantify ORT dimensions versus adjacent retinal layers. Methods SD-OCT images were reviewed for the presence of retinal atrophy, scarring, and/or exudation. The greatest width of each ORT was quantified. Inner and outer retinal thicknesses adjacent to and within the area of ORT were measured for 18 patients. AOSLO imaged ORTs in five subjects with direct and scattered light imaging. Results ORT was identified in 47 of 76 subjects (61.8%) and in 65 eyes via SD-OCT in a wide range of conditions and ages, and in peripapillary atrophy. ORTs appeared as finger-like projections in atrophy, seen in the en face images. AOSLO showed some ORTs with bright cones that guide light within atrophic areas. Multiply scattered light mode AOSLO visualized variegated lines (18–35 μm) radiating from ORTs. The ORTs’ width on OCT b-scan images varied from 70 to 509 μm. The inner retina at the ORT was significantly thinner than the adjacent retina, 135 vs.170 μm (P = .004), whereas the outer retina was significantly thicker, 115 vs. 80 μm (P = .03). Conclusions ORTs are quite common in eyes with retinal atrophy in various disorders. ORTs demonstrate surviving photoreceptors in tubular structures found within otherwise nonsupportive atrophic areas that lack retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris. PMID:27984506

  10. Discovery of Potential Orthosteric and Allosteric Antagonists of P2Y1R from Chinese Herbs by Molecular Simulation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fang; Jiang, Lu-di; Qiao, Lian-sheng; Xiang, Yu-hong

    2016-01-01

    P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R), which belongs to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), is an important target in ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The crystal structure of P2Y1R has been solved recently, which revealed orthosteric and allosteric ligand-binding sites with the details of ligand-protein binding modes. And it suggests that P2Y1R antagonists, which recognize two distinct sites, could potentially provide an efficacious and safe antithrombotic profile. In present paper, 2D similarity search, pharmacophore based screening, and molecular docking were used to explore the potential natural P2Y1R antagonists. 2D similarity search was used to classify orthosteric and allosteric antagonists of P2Y1R. Based on the result, pharmacophore models were constructed and validated by the test set. Optimal models were selected to discover potential P2Y1R antagonists of orthosteric and allosteric sites from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). And the hits were filtered by Lipinski's rule. Then molecular docking was used to refine the results of pharmacophore based screening and analyze the binding mode of the hits and P2Y1R. Finally, two orthosteric and one allosteric potential compounds were obtained, which might be used in future P2Y1R antagonists design. This work provides a reliable guide for discovering natural P2Y1R antagonists acting on two distinct sites from TCM. PMID:27635149

  11. Effect of Laves Phase on High-Temperature Deformation and Microstructure Evolution in an 18Cr-2Mo-0.5Nb Ferritic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Yamoah, Nana Kwame Gyan; Reynolds, William T.; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Murayama, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Niobium-containing ferritic stainless steels are finding new applications in automotive exhaust components because of their oxidation resistance, thermal fatigue resistance, and high-temperature strength. The mechanical behavior of Nb-containing ferritic steels at service temperatures of 973 K (700 °C) and higher results from the convolution of dynamic microstructural changes including precipitation, precipitate coarsening, strain hardening, recovery, and recrystallization. The relative contributions of these competing processes have yet to be clarified. In this study, the high-temperature flow strength of an 18Cr-2Mo-0.5Nb ferritic stainless steel (SUS 444) was correlated with microstructure under different strain and initial precipitate distributions to clarify the relative role of the strengthening and softening processes. High-temperature tensile tests at 1023 K (750 °C) of un-aged (initial microstructure is precipitate-free) and pre-aged (initial microstructure contains precipitates) samples were carried out and transmission electron microscopy was used to assess dislocation distributions and precipitate morphology. The difference in the stress-strain curves between un-aged and pre-aged samples was drastic; the yield strength of the un-aged sample was twice that of the pre-aged sample, and the un-aged sample exhibits a noticeable yield drop. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a Laves phase nucleated and grew during the high-temperature tensile test in the un-aged sample and the majority of the precipitates in the pre-aged sample were the same Laves phase. Furthermore, a strain effect on precipitate growth was recognized in un-aged and pre-aged conditions by comparing grip (no strain) and gage (strained) sections of tensile samples. The dominant strengthening contribution in un-aged samples is initially the precipitate shearing mechanism and it changes to Orowan strengthening beyond the ultimate tensile strength, whereas the dominant contribution in

  12. EXOTIME: Searching for planets and measuring \\dot{P} in sdB pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, R.; Schuh, S.; Silvotti, R.

    2012-12-01

    We review the status of the EXOTIME project (EXOplanet search with the TIming MEthod). The two main goals of EXOTIME are to search for sub-stellar companions to sdB stars in wide orbits, and to measure the secular variation of the pulsation periods, which are related to the evolutionary change of the stellar structure. Now, after four years of dense monitoring, we start to see some results and present the brown dwarf and exoplanet candidates V1636 Ori b and DW Lyn b.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of a novel Strandberg-type polyoxoselenomolybdate Rb{sub 4}[Se{sub 2}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 21}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Nagazi, Ichraf; Haddad, Amor

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Rb{sub 4}[Se{sub 2}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 21}]{center_dot}2H2O. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of the first Strandberg-type polyoxoselenomolybdate Rb{sub 4}[Se{sub 2}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 21}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of the novel compound. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chirality of the space group C2 of compound implies that it is expected to have nonlinear optical (NLO) properties -- Abstract: An inorganic compound formulated as Rb{sub 4}[Se{sub 2}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 21}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (1) has been isolated by conventional solution method and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder XRD, IR, UV-vis spectra, and cyclic voltammetry measurements. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2 with unit a = 19.701 (3) Angstrom-Sign , b = 10.296 (2) Angstrom-Sign , c = 12.134 (4) Angstrom-Sign , {beta} = 106.96 (2) Degree-Sign and Z = 4. The crystal structure of (1) is built up from a Strandberg clusters connected through hydrogen-bonding interactions into a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  14. In situ growing Bi2MoO6 on g-C3N4 nanosheets with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and disinfection of bacteria under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yin, Yunchao; Liu, Enzhou; Ma, Yongning; Wan, Jun; Fan, Jun; Hu, Xiaoyun

    2017-01-05

    Bi2MoO6/g-C3N4 heterojunctions were fabricated by an in situ solvothermal method using g-C3N4 nanosheets. The photocatalytic activities of as-prepared samples were evaluated by hydrogen evolution from water splitting and disinfection of bacteria under visible light irradiation. The results indicate that exfoliating bulk g-C3N4 to g-C3N4 nanosheets greatly enlarges the specific surface area and shortens the diffusion distance for photogenerated charges, which could not only promote the photocatalytic performance but also benefit the sufficient interaction with Bi2MoO6. Furthermore, intimate contact of Bi2MoO6 (BM) and g-C3N4 nanosheets (CNNs) in the BM/CNNs composites facilitates the transfer and separation of photogenetrated electron-hole pairs. 20%-BM/CNNs heterojunction exhibits the optimal photocatalytic hydrogen evolution as well as photocatalytic disinfection of bacteria. Furthermore, h(+) was demonstrated as the dominant reactive species which could make the bacteria cells inactivated in the photocatalytic disinfection process. This study extends new chance of g-C3N4-based photocatalysts to the growing demand of clean new energy and drinking water.

  15. Effects of a Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program on Impairment and Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Therese E.; Watson, Kyle E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Gates, Philip E.; Gaughan, John P.; Lauer, Richard T.; Tucker, Carole A.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program (SSTTEP) with exercise on spasticity, strength, motor control, gait spatiotemporal parameters, gross motor skills, and physical function. Method: Twenty-six children (14 males, 12 females; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 2y 2mo) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; diplegia, n =…

  16. Geology of the USW SD-9 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Engstrom, D.A.; Rautman, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Drill hole USW SD-9 is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study as part of the characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-9 drill hole is located in the northern part of the potential repository area. Quantitative and semiquantitative data are included in this report for cover recovery, rock-quality designation (RQD), lithophysal cavity abundance, and fracturing. These data are spatially variable, both within and among the major formational-level stratigraphic units. Nonwelded intervals in general exhibit higher recoveries and more intact (higher) RQD values than welded intervals. The most intact, highest-RQD materials encountered within the Topopah Spring belong to the lower 33.3 ft of the middle nonlithophysal zone. This report includes quantitative data for the framework material properties of porosity, bulk and particle density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Graphical analysis of variations in these laboratory hydrologic properties indicates first-order control of material properties by the degree of welding and the presence of zeolite minerals. Many major lithostratigraphic contacts are not well expressed in the material-property profiles; contacts of material-property units are related more to changes in the intensity of welding. Approximate in-situ saturation data of samples preserved immediately upon recovery from the hole are included in the data tabulation.

  17. EC 03089-6421: a new, very rapidly pulsating sdO star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Worters, H. L.; Østensen, R. H.

    2017-01-01

    EC 03089-6421, classified sdO in the Edinburgh-Cape (EC) blue object survey, is shown to have unusually rapid pulsations with a dominant frequency near 32 mHz (amplitude ˜0.02 mag; period 31.1s) - which appears to be strongly variable in amplitude on timescales of hours and days - and a generally weaker frequency near 29 mHz (amplitude ˜0.004 mag; period 34.2s) which is also variable in amplitude. This star varies at twice the frequency of any known hot subdwarf pulsator. Although the low resolution EC spectrogram appears very similar to those of DAO stars, our analysis derives Teff = 40200 ± 1600 K; log g = 6.25 ± 0.23 and log N(He)/N(H) = -1.63 ± 0.55; more recent spectrograms give Teff = 37400 ± 1000 K; log g = 5.70 ± 0.13 and log N(He)/N(H) = -2.02 ± 0.17, both of which indicate that the gravity is too low for a white dwarf star, although the low temperature derived from the Balmer lines is at odds with the absence of neutral Helium and the strength of He II 4686. It is possible that EC 03089-6421 is a field analogue of the ω Cen sdO variables.

  18. A framework for classification and segmentation of branch retinal artery occlusion in SD-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingyun; Shi, Fei; Zhu, Weifang; Chen, Haoyu; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) is an ocular emergency which could lead to blindness. Quantitative analysis of BRAO region in the retina is very needed to assessment of the severity of retinal ischemia. In this paper, a fully automatic framework was proposed to classify and segment BRAO based on 3D spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first automatic 3D BRAO segmentation framework. First, a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier is designed to differentiate BRAO into acute phase and chronic phase, and the two types are segmented separately. To segment BRAO in chronic phase, a threshold-based method is proposed based on the thickness of inner retina. While for segmenting BRAO in acute phase, a two-step segmentation is performed, which includes the bayesian posterior probability based initialization and the graph-search-graph-cut based segmentation. The proposed method was tested on SD-OCT images of 23 patients (12 of acute and 11 of chronic phase) using leave-one-out strategy. The overall classification accuracy of SVM classifier was 87.0%, and the TPVF and FPVF for acute phase were 91.1%, 5.5%; for chronic phase were 90.5%, 8.7%, respectively.

  19. FUV, UV, and Optical Observations of the He-sdO Star BD+39 3226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayer, Pierre; Green, E. M.; Fontaine, G.

    2014-01-01

    Based on observations carried out with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, the MMT Observatory, and the Keck telescope HIRES spectrograph, we present a spectral analysis of the He-sdO star BD+39 3226. By fitting the MMT spectrum we obtain a gravity that is 0.7 dex higher than the one reported in the literature. The new atmospheric parameters will have an impact on the measurement of the HI column density toward BD+39 3226, and by this very fact on the deuterium abundance. The high-resolution spectra show stellar absorption lines coming from C, N, O, Si, P, S, Fe, and Ni. The spectra also show lines from heavy elements such as Ge, As, and Sn. On the other hand, neither Zr nor Pb absorption lines are detected. The non-detection of lead in BD+39 3226 indicates that the star does not belong to the newly discovered group of lead-rich He-sdO stars. P.C. is supported by the Canadian Space Agency under a Public Works and Government Services of Canada contract.

  20. HS 0705+6700: a New Eclipsing sdB Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsel, H.; Heber, U.; Napiwotzki, R.; Ostensen, R.; Solheim, J.-E.; Deetjen, J.; Schuh, S.

    HS 0705+6700 is a newly discovered eclipsing sdB binary system consisting of an sdB primary and a cool secondary main sequence star. CCD photometry obtained in October and November 2000 with the 2.5m Nordic (NOT) telescope (La Palma, Tenerife) in the B passband and with the 2.2m Calar Alto telescope (CAFOS, R filter) yielded eclipse light curves with complete orbital phase coverage at high time resolution. A periodogram analysis of 12 primary minimum times distributed over the time span from October 2000 to March 2001 allowed to derive the following exact period and linear ephemeris: prim. min. = HJD 2451822.759782(22) + 0.09564665(39) ṡ E A total of 15 spectra taken with the 3.5m Calar Alto telescope (TWIN spectrograph) on March 11-12, 2001, were used to establish the radial velocity curve of the primary star (K1 = 85.8 km/s) , and to determine its basic atmospheric parameters (Teff = 29300 K, log g = 5.47). The B and R light curves were solved using our Wilson-Devinney based light curve analysis code MORO (Drechsel et al. 1995, A&A 294, 723). The best fit solution yielded exact system parameters consistent with the spectroscopic results. Detailed results will be published elsewhere (Drechsel et al. 2001, A&A, in preparation).

  1. Analysis of the variability in the sdB star KIC 10670103: DFA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebende, Gilney F.; Fernandez, Basilio F.; Pereira, Marildo G.

    2017-01-01

    The brightness variation of the stars is an object of study in astronomy and astrophysics for representing the rich inherent source of physical information. Launched in 2009, the Kepler spacecraft with the primary mission of identifying equivalent to the Earth by the Sun transits also gave birth to thousands of light curves of targets of scientific interest. KIC 10670103, the richest pulsating sub-dwarf B (sdB) star, is one of the many stars identified by the mission. With 3.72 yr of Kepler spacecraft observations, we analysed in this paper the light curve of this sdB star, by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The behaviour of this pulsating star reveals self-affinity at specific time-scales, with changes in DFA exponent, αDFA. This fact suggests some light variability in KIC 10670103, as for example, from a non-periodic to a periodic case, among others. Therefore, we propose to connect the pulsation pattern of the KIC 10670103 star, which presents trends and non-stationarity, with the αDFA exponent. In this sense, we obtain five values of αDFA related to the light variability properties of KIC 10670103. A pictorial figure will describe the relationship between these variables.

  2. Crucial factor for increasing the conjugation frequency in Streptomyces netropsis SD-07 and other strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Kun; Jin, Jian-Ling

    2014-08-01

    Streptomyces netropsis SD-07, the producer of novel polyene macrolide antifungal antibiotics, was isolated from soil. For the investigation of the functions of its biosynthesis genes and regulation mechanisms, a genetic operating system is necessary. In this study, we successfully transferred the plasmid DNA of pSET152 from the methylation deficient donor, Escherichia coli ET12567/pSET152/pUZ8002, to S. netropsis SD-07 by conjugation and evaluated the crucial factors influencing the conjugation frequency. Ca(2+) ions in presence the conjugation media may increase the conjugation frequency by 1000-10 000 times than Ca(2+) ions absence in the same conjugation media, and 10-100 time higher than Mg(2+) ions. Similar results (increasing the conjugation frequency by 10-100 times when media containing 60 mM CaCl2 ) were also obtained from the conjugation between E. coli ET12567 and Streptomyces coelicolor, S. lavendulae, S. venezuelae, despite their conjugation media were different (MS, CM, GS). So, CaCl2 concentration is a crucial factor for increasing the conjugation frequency, and the suitable concentration may probably be 60 mM. In addition, synthetic medium containing a small amount of organic nitrogen source may benefit increasing the conjugation frequency. These findings could be valuable for the development of a practical method for achieving conjugation in other Streptomyces spp.

  3. Complex dynamics of an archetypal self-excited SD oscillator driven by moving belt friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi-Xin, Li; Qing-Jie, Cao; Léger, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We propose an archetypal self-excited system driven by moving belt friction, which is constructed with the smooth and discontinuous (SD) oscillator proposed by the Cao et al. and the classical moving belt. The moving belt friction is modeled as the Coulomb friction to formulate the mathematical model of the proposed self-excited SD oscillator. The equilibrium states of the unperturbed system are obtained to show the complex equilibrium bifurcations. Phase portraits are depicted to present the hyperbolic structure transition, the multiple stick regions, and the friction-induced asymmetry phenomena. The numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the friction-induced vibration of multiple stick-slip phenomena and the stick-slip chaos in the perturbed self-excited system. The results presented here provide an opportunity for us to get insight into the mechanism of the complex friction-induced nonlinear dynamics in mechanical engineering and geography. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11372082 and 11572096) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB057405).

  4. Evaluation of SD-208, a TGF-β-RI Kinase Inhibitor, as an Anticancer Agent in Retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Fadakar, Puran; Akbari, Abolfazl; Ghassemi, Fariba; Mobini, Gholam Reza; Mohebi, Masoumeh; Bolhassani, Manzar; Abed Khojasteh, Hoda; Heidari, Mansour

    2016-06-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children resulting from genetic alterations and transformation of mature retinal cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of SD-208, TGF-β-RI kinase inhibitor, on the expression of some miRNAs including a miR-17/92 cluster in retinoblastoma cells. Prior to initiate this work, the cell proliferation was studied by Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium (MTT) and bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assays. Then, the expression patterns of four miRNAs (18a, 20a, 22, and 34a) were investigated in the treated SD-208 (0.0, 1, 2 and 3 µM) and untreated Y-79 cells. A remarkable inhibition of the cell proliferation was found in Y-79 cells treated with SD-208 versus untreated cells. Also, the expression changes were observed in miRNAs 18a, 20a, 22 and 34a in response to SD-208 treatment (P<0.05). The findings of the present study suggest that the anti-cancer effect of SD-208 may be exerted due to the regulation of specific miRNAs, at least in this particular retinoblastoma cell line. To the best of the researchers' knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the SD-208 could alter the expression of tumor suppressive miRNAs as well as oncomiRs in vitro. In conclusion, the present data suggest that SD-208 could be an alternative agent in retinoblastoma treatment.

  5. Personalized antiplatelet therapy with P2Y12 receptor inhibitors: benefits and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Max-Paul; Koziński, Marek; Kubica, Jacek; Aradi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy with P2Y12 receptor inhibitors has become the cornerstone of medical treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome, after percutaneous coronary intervention and in secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events. Clopidogrel used to be the most broadly prescribed P2Y12 receptor inhibitor with undisputable benefits especially in combination with aspirin, but a considerable number of clopidogrel-treated patients experience adverse thrombotic events in whom insufficient P2Y12-inhibition and a consequential high on-treatment platelet reactivity is a common finding. This clinically relevant limitation of clopidogrel has driven the increased use of new antiplatelet agents. Prasugrel (a third generation thienopyridine) and ticagrelor (a cyclopentyl-triazolo-pyrimidine) feature more potent and predictable P2Y12-inhibition compared to clopidogrel, which translates into improved ischemic outcomes. However, excessive platelet inhibition and consequential low on-treatment platelet reactivity comes at the price of increased risk of major bleeding. The majority of randomized clinical trials failed to demonstrate improved clinical outcomes with platelet function testing and tailored antiplatelet therapy, but results of all recent trials of potent antiplatelets and prolonged antiplatelet durations point towards a need for individualized antiplatelet approach in order to decrease thrombotic events without increasing bleeding. This review focuses on potential strategies for personalizing antiplatelet treatment. PMID:26677375

  6. Molecular determinants of P2Y2 nucleotide receptor function: implications for proliferative and inflammatory pathways in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Gary A; Wang, M; Kong, Q; Chorna, N E; Neary, J T; Sun, Grace Y; González, Fernando A; Seye, C I; Erb, L

    2005-01-01

    In the mammalian nervous system, P2 nucleotide receptors mediate neurotransmission, release of proinflammatory cytokines, and reactive astrogliosis. Extracellular nucleotides activate multiple P2 receptors in neurons and glial cells, including G protein-coupled P2Y receptors and P2X receptors, which are ligand-gated ion channels. In glial cells, the P2Y2 receptor subtype, distinguished by its ability to be equipotently activated by ATP and UTP, is coupled to pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. In situ hybridization studies with rodent brain slices indicate that P2Y2 receptors are expressed primarily in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Astrocytes express several P2 receptor subtypes, including P2Y2 receptors whose activation stimulates cell proliferation and migration. P2Y2 receptors, via an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif in their first extracellular loop, bind to alphavbeta3/beta5 integrins, whereupon P2Y2 receptor activation stimulates integrin signaling pathways that regulate cytoskeletal reorganization and cell motility. The C-terminus of the P2Y2 receptor contains two Src-homology-3 (SH3)-binding domains that upon receptor activation, promote association with Src and transactivation of growth factor receptors. Together, our results indicate that P2Y2 receptors complex with both integrins and growth factor receptors to activate multiple signaling pathways. Thus, P2Y2 receptors present novel targets to control reactive astrogliosis in neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. The purinergic P2Y14 receptor axis is a molecular determinant for organism survival under in utero radiation toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kook, S H; Cho, J S; Morrison, A; Wiener, E; Lee, S B; Scadden, D; Lee, B-C

    2013-07-04

    In utero exposure of the embryo and fetus to radiation has been implicated in malformations or fetal death, and often produces lifelong health consequences such as cancers and mental retardation. Here we demonstrate that deletion of a G-protein-coupled purinergic receptor, P2Y14, confers potent resistance to in utero radiation. Intriguingly, a putative P2Y14 receptor ligand, UDP-glucose, phenocopies the effect of P2Y14 deficiency. These data indicate that P2Y14 is a receptor governing in utero tolerance to genotoxic stress that may be pharmacologically targeted to mitigate radiation toxicity in pregnancy.

  8. Longitudinal fundus and retinal studies with SD-OCT: a comparison of five mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Puk, Oliver; de Angelis, Martin Hrabĕ; Graw, Jochen

    2013-06-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has recently been established as a method for in vivo imaging of fundus and retina in the mouse. It enables more effective studies of retinal diseases including investigations of etiopathologic mechanisms. In order to learn more about longitudinal fundus development and to enable recognition of disease-associated irregularities, we performed confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) and SD-OCT measurements in the inbred strains C57BL/6J, C3HeB/FeJ, FVB/NCrl, BALB/cByJ, and 129S2/SvJ when they were between 2 and 6 months of age. In general, cSLO and SD-OCT data did not reveal sex-specific or unilateral differences. C3HeB/FeJ and FVB/NCrl mice showed diffuse choroidal dysplasia. Choroidal vein-like structures appeared as dark fundus stripes in C3HeB/FeJ. In FVB/NCrl, fundus fleck accumulation was found. In contrast, only minor time-dependent changes of fundus appearance were observed in C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, and 129S2/SvJ. This was also found for individual fundic main blood vessel patterns in all inbred strains. Vessel numbers varied between 6 and 13 in C57BL/6J. This was comparable in most cases. We further found that retinae were significantly thicker in C57BL/6J compared to the other strains. Total retinal thickness generally did not change between 2 and 6 months of age. As a conclusion, our results indicate lifelong pathologic processes in C3HeB/FeJ and FVB/NCrl that affect choroid and orbital tissues. Inbred strains with regular retinal development did not reveal major time-dependent variations of fundus appearance, blood vessel pattern, or retinal thickness. Consequently, progressive changes of these parameters are suitable indicators for pathologic outliers.

  9. Electronic disorder, spin glass and large magnetoresistance in FeSr2Y2-yCeyCu2O8+x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambale, Sebastian; Williams, Grant; Stephan, Jibu; Chong, Shen

    2014-03-01

    We have successfully synthesized FeSr2Y2-yCeyCu2O8+x (Fe1222) with a wide range of Ce and oxygen concentrations. Fe1222 belongs to an interesting group of compounds that contains a 2D-like CuO2 layer and an oxygen deficient FeOx layer. They are structural very similar to the well-studied superconducting and magnetically ordered RuSr2R2-xCexCu2O10-x (Ru1222). However, we do not observe superconductivity in Fe1222 and there is a spin-glass transition with antiferromagnetic exchange interactions arising from the disordered FeOx layer at ~25 K, which does not depend on the Ce or oxygen concentration. The electronic transport in the oxygen reduced samples is highly disordered and involves variable range hopping between localized states where there is a large negative magnetoresistance of ~-22% at 8 T. The oxygen saturated samples are highly conducting at room temperature and display weak localization at low temperatures. The absence of superconductivity may be due to pair-breaking by a small Fe fraction in the CuO2 planes. NZ Marsden Fund

  10. Spectral Analysis of the sdO Standard Star Feige 34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latour, M.; Chayer, P.; Green, E. M.; Fontaine, G.

    2017-03-01

    We present our current work on the spectral analysis of the hot sdO star Feige 34. We combine high S/N optical spectra and fully-blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres to derive its fundamental parameters (Teff, log g) and helium abundance. Our best fits indicate Teff = 63 000 K, log g = 6.0 and log N(He)/N(H) = –1.8. We also use available ultraviolet spectra (IUE and FUSE) to measure metal abundances. We find the star to be enriched in iron and nickel by a factor of ten with respect to the solar values, while lighter elements have subsolar abundances. The FUSE spectrum suggests that the spectral lines could be broadened by rotation.

  11. Pressure-induced s-->d transfer and the equation of state of molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwal, B. K.; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1990-04-01

    The equations of state of crystalline (bcc) and liquid molybdenum are calculated to pressure-temperature conditions of 600 GPa and 14 000 K with use of the linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) model and corrected rigid-ion sphere (CRIS) model. Our results agree with those of previous work in documenting a pressure-induced shift of electrons from 5s to 4d states, especially above 100 GPa. An analysis of ultrasonic and shock-wave measurements, along with our theoretical findings, documents that the compressibility of bcc Mo becomes enhanced at pressures of 100-200 GPa. The enhanced compression, and possibly an anomalous increase in rigidity, are caused by the pressure-induced s-->d transfer. Our study reinforces the use of the Mo equation of state as a calibration standard for ultrahigh-pressure static experiments and, in particular, for the ruby-fluorescence technique.

  12. Electrical Characterization of the RCA CDP1822SD Random Access Memory, Volume 1, Appendix a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klute, A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical characteristization tests were performed on 35 RCA CDP1822SD, 256-by-4-bit, CMOS, random access memories. The tests included three functional tests, AC and DC parametric tests, a series of schmoo plots, rise/fall time screening, and a data retention test. All tests were performed on an automated IC test system with temperatures controlled by a thermal airstream unit. All the functional tests, the data retention test, and the AC and DC parametric tests were performed at ambient temperatures of 25 C, -20 C, -55 C, 85 C, and 125 C. The schmoo plots were performed at ambient temperatures of 25 C, -55 C, and 125 C. The data retention test was performed at 25 C. Five devices failed one or more functional tests and four of these devices failed to meet the expected limits of a number of AC parametric tests. Some of the schmoo plots indicated a small degree of interaction between parameters.

  13. Source identification in acoustics and structural mechanics using Sierra/SD.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Aquino, Wilkins; Ross, Michael

    2013-03-01

    In this report we derive both time and frequency-domain methods for inverse identification of sources in elastodynamics and acoustics. The inverse/design problem is cast in a PDE-constrained optimization framework with efficient computation of gradients using the adjoint method. The implementation of source inversion in Sierra/SD is described, and results from both time and frequency domain source inversion are compared to actual experimental data for a weapon store used in captive carry on a military aircraft. The inverse methodology is advantageous in that it provides a method for creating ground based acoustic and vibration tests that can reduce the actual number of flight tests, and thus, saving costs and time for the program.

  14. Molecular hydrogen 3s,d 3Λg+ complex revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazyuk, E. A.; Pupyshev, V. I.; Stolyarov, A. V.; Kiyoshima, T.

    2002-04-01

    The rovibronic term values, Landé factors, and radiative properties of all bound levels in the 3s,d 3Λg+ complex of H2, D2, and HD are evaluated in the framework of fully ab initio channel-coupling approach. The modified multichannel quantum-defect theory is employed to transform highly accurate ab initio Born-Oppenheimer electronic matrix elements borrowed from a literature to their diabatic counterparts avoiding explicit consideration of radial coupling effects. The radiative lifetimes of the most critical levels in the H2 complex are remeasured by a delayed coincidence method. The accuracy of the predicted term values, Landé factors, transition probabilities and experimental lifetimes is sufficient to indicate the sources of disagreement in existing theory and experimental data.

  15. Virus removal capacity at varying ionic strength during nanofiltration of AlphaNine® SD.

    PubMed

    Jorba, Nuria; Shitanishi, Kenneth T; Winkler, Clint J; Herring, Steven W

    2014-09-01

    Nanofiltration is incorporated into the manufacturing processes of many protein biopharmaceuticals to enhance safety by providing the capacity to retain pathogens while allowing protein drugs to pass through the filter. Retention is mainly a function of size; however, the shape of the pathogen may also influence retention. The ability of the Viresolve(®) Pro nanofilter to remove different sized viruses during the manufacture of a Coagulation Factor IX (Alphanine(®) SD) was studied at varying ionic strength, a process condition with the potential to affect virus shape and, hence, virus retention. Eight viruses were tested in a scale-down of the nanofiltration process. Five of the viruses (EMCV, Reo, BVDV, HIV, PRV) were nanofiltered at normal sodium processing conditions and three (PPV, HAV and WNV) were nanofiltered at higher and lower sodium. Representative Reduction Factors for all viruses were ≥4.50 logs and removal was consistent over a wide range of ionic strength.

  16. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Aquilaria agallocha leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats.

    PubMed

    Alam, Janey; Mujahid, Md; Badruddeen; Jahan, Yasmeen; Bagga, Paramdeep; Rahman, Md Azizur

    2017-01-01

    Many traditional systems of medicines employ herbal drugs for the hepatoprotection. Aim of the study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of 'ethanolic extract of Aquilaria agallocha ( Chen Xiang) leaves' (AAE) against paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats. Group I animals were treated with 1% CMC for 8 days. Group II, III, IV and V animals were first treated with '1% CMC' 1 ml/kg/day, AAE 200 mg/kg/day, AAE 400 mg/kg/day and silymarin 100 mg/kg/day respectively for 7 days and then, orally administered with PCM 3 g/kg b. wt. on 8th day in a single dose. 24 h after the last dosing by PCM, the blood was obtained through the retro-orbital plexus under light anesthesia and the animals were sacrificed. Hepatoprotective potential was assessed by various biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, bilirubin, cholesterol, TP and ALB. Group IV rats showed significant (p < 0.01) decrease in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, cholesterol, bilirubin, liver wt. and relative liver wt. levels while significant (p < 0.01) increase in final b. wt., TP and ALB levels as compared to group II rats. Hepatoprotective potential of AAE 400 mg/kg/day was comparable to that of standard drug silymarin 100 mg/kg/day. Results of the study were well supported by the histopathological observations. This study confirms that AAE possesses hepatoprotective potential comparable to that of standard drug silymarin as it exhibited comparable protective potential against PCM induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats.

  17. Does repetitive Ritalin injection produce long-term effects on SD female adolescent rats?

    PubMed

    Lee, Min J; Yang, Pamela B; Wilcox, Victor T; Burau, Keith D; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum

    2009-09-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD), or Ritalin, is a psychostimulant that is prescribed for an extended period of time to children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Adolescence is a time of critical brain maturation and development, and the drug exposure during this time could lead to lasting changes in the brain that endure into the adulthood. Circadian rhythms are 24 h rhythms of physiological processes that are synchronized by the master-clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, to keep the body stable in a changing environment. The aim of present study is to observe the effect of repeated MPD exposure on the locomotor diurnal rhythm activity patterns of female adolescent Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using the open field assay. 31 female adolescent SD rats were divided into four groups: control, 0.6 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg MPD group. On experimental day 1, all groups were given an injection of saline. On experimental days 2-7, animals were injected once a day with either saline, 0.6 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg MPD, and experimental days 8-10 were the washout period. A re-challenge injection was given to each animal on experimental day 11 with the similar dose as the experimental days 2-7. The locomotor movements were counted by the computerized animal activity monitoring system. The data were analyzed statistically to find out whether the diurnal rhythm activity patterns were altered. The obtained data showed that repeated administrations of 2.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg MPD were able to change the locomotor diurnal rhythm patterns, which suggests that these MPD doses exerts long-term effects.

  18. Effect of Portal Glucose Sensing on Systemic Glucose Levels in SD and ZDF Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Atanu; Rhoads, David B.; Tavakkoli, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background The global epidemic of Type-2-Diabetes (T2D) highlights the need for novel therapeutic targets and agents. Roux-en-Y-Gastric-Bypass (RYGB) is the most effective treatment. Studies investigating the mechanisms of RYGB suggest a role for post-operative changes in portal glucose levels. We investigate the impact of stimulating portal glucose sensors on systemic glucose levels in health and T2D, and evaluated the role of sodium-glucose-cotransporter-3 (SGLT3) as the possible sensor. Methods Systemic glucose and hormone responses to portal stimulation were measured. In Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, post-prandial state was simulated by infusing glucose into the portal vein. The SGLT3 agonist, alpha-methyl-glucopyranoside (αMG), was then added to further stimulate the portal sensor. To elucidate the neural pathway, vagotomy or portal denervation was followed by αMG+glucose co-infusion. The therapeutic potential of portal glucose sensor stimulation was investigated by αMG-only infusion (vs. saline) in SD and Zucker-Diabetic-Fatty (ZDF) rats. Hepatic mRNA expression was also measured. Results αMG+glucose co-infusion reduced peak systemic glucose (vs. glucose alone), and lowered hepatic G6Pase expression. Portal denervation, but not vagotomy, abolished this effect. αMG-only infusion lowered systemic glucose levels. This glucose-lowering effect was more pronounced in ZDF rats, where portal αMG infusion increased insulin, C-peptide and GIP levels compared to saline infusions. Conclusions The portal vein is capable of sensing its glucose levels, and responds by altering hepatic glucose handling. The enhanced effect in T2D, mediated through increased GIP and insulin, highlights a therapeutic target that could be amenable to pharmacological modulation or minimally-invasive surgery. PMID:27806092

  19. Lactogenic Activity of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD Rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation. Maternal serum, mammary gland (day 10 of lactation), milk, and pup weight (daily) were collected for analysis. Results showed that the EHOC diet obviously elevated daily milk yield and pup weight compared to the control group (P < .05). The EHOC diet was found to increase the concentration of prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and growth hormone (GH) significantly in the circulation and mammary gland. Mammary glands of EHOC-treated dams showed clear lobuloalveolar development and proliferation of myoepithelial cells, but no striking variations were observed among the groups. Furthermore, the nutrition content and immune globulin concentration in the milk of EHOC-supplemented dams were higher than those of the control group, especially the cholesterol, glucose, and IgG were higher by 44.98% (P < .001), 42.76% (P < .01), and 42.23% (P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, this article demonstrates that EHOC administration has beneficial effects on milk production in the dams and on performance of the dam and pup. These results indicate that EHOC could be explored as a potentially lactogenic nutriment for lactating women.

  20. Local Variability of Macular Thickness Measurements With SD-OCT and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Miraftabi, Arezoo; Amini, Navid; Gornbein, Jeff; Henry, Sharon; Romero, Pablo; Coleman, Anne L.; Caprioli, Joseph; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the intrasession variability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)-derived local macular thickness measures and explore influencing factors. Methods One hundred two glaucomatous eyes (102 patients) and 21 healthy eyes (21 subjects) with three good quality macular images during the same session were enrolled. Thickness measurements were calculated for 3° superpixels for the inner plexiform (IPL), ganglion cell (GCL), or retinal nerve fiber layers (mRNFL), GC/IPL, ganglion cell complex, and full macular thickness. Spatial distribution and magnitude of measurement errors (ME; differences between the 3 individual superpixel values and their mean) and association between MEs and thickness, age, axial length, and image quality were explored. Results MEs had a normal distribution with mostly random noise along with a small fraction of outliers (1.2%–6.6%; highest variability in mRNFL and on the nasal border) based on M-estimation. Boundaries of 95% prediction intervals for variability reached a maximum of 3 μm for all layers and diagnostic groups after exclusion of outliers. Correlation between proportion of outliers and thickness measures varied among various parameters. Age, axial length, or image quality did not influence MEs (P > 0.05 for both groups). Conclusions Local variability of macular SD-OCT measurements is low and uniform across the macula. The relationship between superpixel thickness and outlier proportion varied as a function of the parameter of interest. Translational Relevance Given the low and uniform variability within and across eyes, definition of an individualized ‘variability space' seems unnecessary. The variability measurements from this study could be used for designing algorithms for detection of glaucoma progression. PMID:27486555

  1. Synthesis and reactivity of [(silox)2Mo=NR]2Hg (R=tBu, tAmyl; silox=OSitBu3): unusual thermal stability and ready nucleophilic cleavage rationalized by electronic factors.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Devon C; Wolczanski, Peter T; Barakat, Khaldoon A; Buda, Corneliu; Cundari, Thomas R; Schroeder, Frank C; Lobkovsky, Emil B

    2007-11-12

    Treatment of (DME)Cl2Mo(=NR)2 (R=tBu, (1-tBu), tAmyl (1-tAmyl)) with 2 equiv of tBu3SiOH (siloxH) and 1 equiv of HCl produced (silox)2Cl2Mo=NR (R=tBu, (3-tBu), tAmyl (3-tAmyl)); subsequent reduction by Na/Hg afforded the Mo(V) chloride, (silox)2ClMo=NtBu (4-tBu), and the Mo(IV) mercury derivatives, [(silox)2Mo=NR]2Hg (R=tBu ((5-tBu)2Hg), tAmyl ((5-tAmyl)2Hg)). Reductions of 3-tBu and 3-tAmyl in the presence of L (L=PMe3, pyridine, 4-picoline) led to the isolation of adducts (silox)2(Me3P)Mo=NR (R=tBu (6-tBu), tAmyl (6-tAmyl)) and (silox)2L2Mo=NtBu (L=py (7-py), 4-pic (7-4-pic)). Single-crystal X-ray structural investigations of pseudo-tetrahedral 4-tBu, Hg-capped, pseudo-trigonal planar (5-tBu)2Hg, pseudo-tetrahedral 6-tBu, and trigonal bipyramidal 7-4-pic reveal that all possess a closed O-Mo-O angle when compared to the N=Mo-O angles. A molecular orbital rationale and supporting calculations suggest that this is a manifestation of the greater pi-donating ability of the imido relative to that of the siloxides. While the D(Mo-Hg) of [(HO)2Mo=NH]2Hg ((5')2Hg) was calculated to be 22.4 kcal/mol, (5-R)2Hg (R=tBu, tAmyl) are remarkably stable; (5-tBu)2Hg degraded in a first-order fashion with DeltaG=31.9(1) kcal/mol. In the presence of strong (L=PMe, pyridine, S8) or weak (L=2-butyne, ethylene, N2O, 1,4,7,10-tetrathiacyclododecane, 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexathiacyclooctadecane) nucleophiles, an enhanced rate of Mo-Hg bond cleavage was noted, with some of the former group generating adducts in <5 min; the products were 6-tBu, 7-py, (silox)2(S)Mo=NtBu (10-tBu), (silox)2Mo=NtBu(C2Me2) (8-tBu), (silox)2(C2H4)Mo=NtBu (11-tBu), (silox)2(O)Mo=NtBu (9-tBu), and a mixture of 10-tBu and 11-tBu, respectively. Some of these were independently prepared via substitution of 6-tBu. According to calculations and a molecular orbital rationale, dissociation of the Mo-Hg bond in (5-R)2Hg (R=tBu, tAmyl) is orbitally forbidden, and the addition of a nucleophile to the terminus of the Mo

  2. Modeling ligand recognition at the P2Y12 receptor in light of X-ray structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletta, Silvia; Sabbadin, Davide; von Kügelgen, Ivar; Hinz, Sonja; Katritch, Vsevolod; Hoffmann, Kristina; Abdelrahman, Aliaa; Straßburger, Jens; Baqi, Younis; Zhao, Qiang; Stevens, Raymond C.; Moro, Stefano; Müller, Christa E.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2015-08-01

    The G protein-coupled P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) is an important antithrombotic target and of great interest for pharmaceutical discovery. Its recently solved, highly divergent crystallographic structures in complex either with nucleotides (full or partial agonist) or with a nonnucleotide antagonist raise the question of which structure is more useful to understand ligand recognition. Therefore, we performed extensive molecular modeling studies based on these structures and mutagenesis, to predict the binding modes of major classes of P2Y12R ligands previously reported. Various nucleotide derivatives docked readily to the agonist-bound P2Y12R, but uncharged nucleotide-like antagonist ticagrelor required a hybrid receptor resembling the agonist-bound P2Y12R except for the top portion of TM6. Supervised molecular dynamics (SuMD) of ticagrelor binding indicated interactions with the extracellular regions of P2Y12R, defining possible meta-binding sites. Ureas, sulfonylureas, sulfonamides, anthraquinones and glutamic acid piperazines docked readily to the antagonist-bound P2Y12R. Docking dinucleotides at both agonist- and antagonist-bound structures suggested interactions with two P2Y12R pockets. Thus, our structure-based approach consistently rationalized the main structure-activity relationships within each ligand class, giving useful information for designing improved ligands.

  3. Tank Tests of an Alternate Hull Form for the Consolidated Vultee PB2Y-3 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Land, Norman S.; Posner, Jack

    1946-01-01

    Tests have been made in Langley tank no. I of a dynamic model of the Consolidated Vultee PB2Y-3 airplane. These tests were made using an alternate hull form, the purpose of which was to reduce the bow spray and eliminate the landing instability which are objectionable features of the production design. The major differences from the PB2Y-3 hull included a deeper step to improve the landing stability , and a lengthened forebody and increased beam to reduce the sway in the propellers and on the flaps. The tests showed that the spray characteristics of the revised hull form were much better than that ot the production design. In addition the take-off and landing stability of the model with the alternate hull were satisfactory.

  4. P2X and P2Y nucleotide receptors as targets in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Charles; Chootip, Krongkarn; Mitchell, Callum; Syed, Nawazish-i-Husain; Tengah, Asrin

    2013-03-01

    Endogenous nucleotides have widespread actions in the cardiovascular system, but it is only recently that the P2X and P2Y receptor subtypes, at which they act, have been identified and subtype-selective agonists and antagonists developed. These advances have greatly increased our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological functions of P2X and P2Y receptors, but investigation of the clinical usefulness of selective ligands is at an early stage. Nonetheless, the evidence considered in this review demonstrates clearly that various cardiovascular disorders, including vasospasm, hypertension, congestive heart failure and cardiac damage during ischemic episodes, may be viable targets. With further development of novel, selective agonists and antagonists, our understanding will continue to improve and further therapeutic applications are likely to be discovered.

  5. Extracellular ATP acts on P2Y2 purinergic receptors to facilitate HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Séror, Claire; Melki, Marie-Thérèse; Subra, Frédéric; Raza, Syed Qasim; Bras, Marlène; Saïdi, Héla; Nardacci, Roberta; Voisin, Laurent; Paoletti, Audrey; Law, Frédéric; Martins, Isabelle; Amendola, Alessandra; Abdul-Sater, Ali A; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Delelis, Olivier; Niedergang, Florence; Thierry, Sylvain; Said-Sadier, Najwane; Lamaze, Christophe; Métivier, Didier; Estaquier, Jérome; Fimia, Gian Maria; Falasca, Laura; Casetti, Rita; Modjtahedi, Nazanine; Kanellopoulos, Jean; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Ojcius, David M; Piacentini, Mauro; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Kroemer, Guido; Perfettini, Jean-Luc

    2011-08-29

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can activate purinergic receptors of the plasma membrane and modulate multiple cellular functions. We report that ATP is released from HIV-1 target cells through pannexin-1 channels upon interaction between the HIV-1 envelope protein and specific target cell receptors. Extracellular ATP then acts on purinergic receptors, including P2Y2, to activate proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) kinase and transient plasma membrane depolarization, which in turn stimulate fusion between Env-expressing membranes and membranes containing CD4 plus appropriate chemokine co-receptors. Inhibition of any of the constituents of this cascade (pannexin-1, ATP, P2Y2, and Pyk2) impairs the replication of HIV-1 mutant viruses that are resistant to conventional antiretroviral agents. Altogether, our results reveal a novel signaling pathway involved in the early steps of HIV-1 infection that may be targeted with new therapeutic approaches.

  6. Extracellular ATP acts on P2Y2 purinergic receptors to facilitate HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Séror, Claire; Melki, Marie-Thérèse; Subra, Frédéric; Raza, Syed Qasim; Bras, Marlène; Saïdi, Héla; Nardacci, Roberta; Voisin, Laurent; Paoletti, Audrey; Law, Frédéric; Martins, Isabelle; Amendola, Alessandra; Abdul-Sater, Ali A.; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Delelis, Olivier; Niedergang, Florence; Thierry, Sylvain; Said-Sadier, Najwane; Lamaze, Christophe; Métivier, Didier; Estaquier, Jérome; Fimia, Gian Maria; Falasca, Laura; Casetti, Rita; Modjtahedi, Nazanine; Kanellopoulos, Jean; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Ojcius, David M.; Piacentini, Mauro; Gougeon, Marie-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can activate purinergic receptors of the plasma membrane and modulate multiple cellular functions. We report that ATP is released from HIV-1 target cells through pannexin-1 channels upon interaction between the HIV-1 envelope protein and specific target cell receptors. Extracellular ATP then acts on purinergic receptors, including P2Y2, to activate proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) kinase and transient plasma membrane depolarization, which in turn stimulate fusion between Env-expressing membranes and membranes containing CD4 plus appropriate chemokine co-receptors. Inhibition of any of the constituents of this cascade (pannexin-1, ATP, P2Y2, and Pyk2) impairs the replication of HIV-1 mutant viruses that are resistant to conventional antiretroviral agents. Altogether, our results reveal a novel signaling pathway involved in the early steps of HIV-1 infection that may be targeted with new therapeutic approaches. PMID:21859844

  7. The effect of pH on the corrosion behavior of intermetallic compounds Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo in sodium chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Priyotomo, Gadang Nuraini, Lutviasari; Kaneno, Yasuyuki

    2015-12-29

    The corrosion behavior of the intermetallic compounds, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) (L1{sub 2}: single phase) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo (L1{sub 2} and (L12 + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region), has been investigated using an immersion test, electrochemical method and surface analytical method (SEM; scanning electron microscope and EDAX: Energy Dispersive X-ray) in 0.5 kmol/m{sup 3} NaCl solutions at various pH. The corrosion behavior of nickel alloy C-276 was studied under the same experimental conditions as a reference. It was found that the uniform attack was observed on Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) for the immersion test at lower pH, while the pitting attack was observed on this compound for this test at neutral solution. Furthermore, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo had the preferential dissolution of L1{sub 2} compared to (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at lower pH, while pitting attack occurred in (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at neutral solution. For both intermetallic compounds, the magnitude of pitting and uniform attack decrease with increasing pH of solutions. From the immersion test and polarization curves, the corrosion resistance of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo is lower than that of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti), while the nickel alloy C-276 is the highest one at various pH of solutions. On the other hand, in the lower pH of solutions, the corrosion resistance of tested materials decreased significantly compared to those in neutral and higher pH of solutions.

  8. Density functional theory investigation of the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of layered MoS{sub 2}, MoSe{sub 2} and their mixed-layer compound

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changhoon; Hong, Jisook; Lee, Wang Ro; Kim, Dae Yeon; Shim, Ji Hoon

    2014-03-15

    First principles density functional theory calculations were carried out for the 2H-MoQ{sub 2} (Q=S and Se) and their hypothetical mixed-layer compound. Due to the different electronegativities of S and Se atoms on MoQ{sub 2}, the band gap size could be adjusted in mixed-layer compound MoS{sub 2}/MoSe{sub 2}. Also, the indirect band gap in pure MoQ{sub 2} compounds is changed to the pseudo direct band gap in mixed-layer MoS{sub 2}/MoSe{sub 2} which is similar to the monolayer compound. The layer mixing enhances the thermoelectric properties because of the increased density of states around the Fermi level and the decreased band gap size. Therefore, we suggest that this layer mixing approach should be regarded as a useful way to modulate their electronic structures and to improve their thermoelectric properties. -- Graphical abstract: On the basis of density functional calculations we predict that the mixed-layer compounds 2H-MoS{sub 2}/2H-MoSe{sub 2}, in which two different layers 2H-MoS{sub 2} and 2H-MoSe{sub 2}, have enhanced thermoelectric properties because of the increased density of states around the Fermi level and the decreased band gap size. Highlights: • We explored a way of improving TE properties of 2H-MoQ{sub 2} on DFT methods. • The mixed-layer compounds MoS{sub 2}/MoSe{sub 2} have enhanced thermoelectric properties. • This is caused by modulated electronic structure of mixed layer compound. • Layer mixing approach should be regarded as a useful way to improve TE properties.

  9. Contribution of the P2Y12 receptor-mediated pathway to platelet hyperreactivity in hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Béla; Jin, Jianguo; Ashby, Barrie; Reilly, Michael P.; Kunapuli, Satya P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background In hypercholesterolemia, platelets demonstrate increased reactivity and promote the development of cardiovascular disease. Objective This study was carried out to investigate the contribution of the ADP receptor P2Y12-mediated pathway in platelet hyperreactivity due to hypercholesterolemia. Methods Low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice and C57Bl/6 wild type mice were fed on normal chow and high-fat (Western or Paigen) diets for 8 weeks to generate differently elevated cholesterol levels. P2Y12 receptor induced functional responses via Gi signaling were studied ex vivo when washed murine platelets were activated by 2MeSADP and PAR4 agonist AYPGKF in the presence and absence of indomethacin. Platelet aggregation, secretion, αIIbβ3 receptor activation and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and Akt were analyzed. Results Plasma cholesterol levels ranged from 69±10 to 1011±185 mg/dl depending on diet in mice with different genotypes. Agonist-dependent aggregation, dense and α-granule secretion and JON/A binding were gradually and significantly (P < 0.05) augmented at low agonist concentration in correlation with the increasing plasma cholesterol levels even if elevated thromboxane generation was blocked. These functional responses were induced via increased level of Gi mediated ERK and Akt phosphorylation in hypercholesterolemic mice versus normocholesterolemic animals. In addition, blocking of the P2Y12 receptor by AR-C69931MX (Cangrelor) resulted in strongly reduced platelet aggregation in mice with elevated cholesterol levels compared to normocholesterolemic controls. Conclusions These data revealed that the P2Y12 receptor pathway was substantially involved in platelet hyperreactivity associated with mild and severe hypercholesterolemia. PMID:21261805

  10. Adenine Nucleotides Control Proliferation In Vivo of Rat Retinal Progenitors by P2Y1 Receptor.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Pereira, Luana; Magalhães, Camila Feitosa; Repossi, Marinna Garcia; Thorstenberg, Maria Luiza Prates; Sholl-Franco, Alfred; Coutinho-Silva, Robson; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques; Fragel-Madeira, Lucianne

    2016-08-24

    Previous studies demonstrated that exogenous ATP is able to regulate proliferation of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in vitro possibly via P2Y1 receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor. Here, we evaluated the function of adenine nucleotides in vivo during retinal development of newborn rats. Intravitreal injection of apyrase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes nucleotides, reduced cell proliferation in retinas at postnatal day 2 (P2). This decrease was reversed when retinas were treated together with ATPγ-S or ADPβ-S, two hydrolysis-resistant analogs of ATP and ADP, respectively. During early postnatal days (P0 to P5), an increase in ectonucleotidase (E-NTPDase) activity was observed in the retina, suggesting a decrease in the availability of adenine nucleotides, coinciding with the end of proliferation. Interestingly, intravitreal injection of the E-NTPDase inhibitor ARL67156 increased proliferation by around 60 % at P5 rats. Furthermore, immunolabeling against P2Y1 receptor was observed overall in retina layers from P2 rats, including proliferating Ki-67-positive cells in the neuroblastic layer (NBL), suggesting that this receptor could be responsible for the action of adenine nucleotides upon proliferation of RPCs. Accordingly, intravitreal injection of MRS2179, a selective antagonist of P2Y1 receptors, reduced cell proliferation by approximately 20 % in P2 rats. Moreover, treatment with MRS 2179 caused an increase in p57(KIP2) and cyclin D1 expression, a reduction in cyclin E and Rb phosphorylated expression and in BrdU-positive cell number. These data suggest that the adenine nucleotides modulate the proliferation of rat RPCs via activation of P2Y1 receptors regulating transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle.

  11. P2Y6 Receptor-Mediated Proinflammatory Signaling in Human Bronchial Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yuan; Liang, Jocelyn F.; Chow, Alison W.; Cheung, Wing-tai; Ko, Wing-hung

    2014-01-01

    P2Y receptors are expressed in virtually all epithelia and are responsible for the control of fluid and electrolyte transport. In asthmatic inflammation, the bronchial epithelia are damaged by eosinophil-derived, highly toxic cationic proteins, such as major basic protein (MBP). Consequently, extracellular nucleotides are released into the extracellular space from airway epithelial cells, and act in an autocrine or paracrine fashion to regulate immune functions. Our data show damage to the human bronchial epithelial cell line, 16HBE14o-, by poly-L-arginine-induced UDP release into the extracellular medium. Activation of P2Y6 receptor by its natural ligand, UDP, or its specific agonist, MRS 2693, led to the production of two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. This may have resulted from increased IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression, and activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK, and NF-κB pathways. Our previous study demonstrated that UDP stimulated transepithelial Cl− secretion via both Ca2+- and cAMP-dependent pathways in 16HBE14o- epithelia. This was further confirmed in this study by simultaneous imaging of Ca2+ and cAMP levels in single cells using the Fura-2 fluorescence technique and a FRET-based approach, respectively. Moreover, the P2Y6 receptor-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-8 was found to be dependent on Ca2+, but not the cAMP/PKA pathway. Together, these studies show that nucleotides released during the airway inflammatory processes will activate P2Y6 receptors, which will lead to further release of inflammatory cytokines. The secretion of cytokines and the formation of such “cytokine networks” play an important role in sustaining the airway inflammatory disease. PMID:25243587

  12. Wafer Scale Phase-Engineered 1T- and 2H-MoSe2 /Mo Core-Shell 3D-Hierarchical Nanostructures toward Efficient Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yindong; Medina, Henry; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Wang, Yi-Chung; Chen, Chia-Wei; Su, Teng-Yu; Manikandan, Arumugam; Wang, Kuangye; Shih, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Je-Wei; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lee, Chi-Yung; Lu, Shih-Yuan; Shen, Guozhen; Wang, Zhiming M; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2016-11-01

    The necessity for new sources for greener and cleaner energy production to replace the existing ones has been increasingly growing in recent years. Of those new sources, the hydrogen evolution reaction has a large potential. In this work, for the first time, MoSe2 /Mo core-shell 3D-hierarchical nanostructures are created, which are derived from the Mo 3D-hierarchical nanostructures through a low-temperature plasma-assisted selenization process with controlled shapes grown by a glancing angle deposition system.

  13. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Li,Cr-containing molybdates Li 3Cr(MoO 4) 3, LiCr(MoO 4) 2 and Li 1.8Cr 1.2(MoO 4) 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapulova, A.; Mikhailova, D.; Senyshyn, A.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2009-12-01

    Single crystals of LiCr(MoO 4) 2, Li 3Cr(MoO 4) 3 and Li 1.8Cr 1.2(MoO 4) 3 were grown by a flux method during the phase study of the Li 2MoO 4-Cr 2(MoO 4) 3 system at 1023 K. LiCr(MoO 4) 2 and Li 3Cr(MoO 4) 3 single phases were synthesized by solid-state reactions. Li 3Cr(MoO 4) 3 adopts the same structure type as Li 3In(MoO 4) 3 despite the difference in ionic radii of Cr 3+ and In 3+ for octahedral coordination. Li 3Cr(MoO 4) 3 is paramagnetic down to 7 K and shows a weak ferromagnetic component below this temperature. LiCr(MoO 4) 2 is isostructural with LiAl(MoO 4) 2 and orders antiferromagnetically below 20 K. The magnetic structure of LiCr(MoO 4) 2 was determined from low-temperature neutron diffraction and is based on the propagation vektor k⇒=({1}/{2},{1}/{2},0). The ordered magnetic moments were refined to 2.3(1) μ B per Cr-ion with an easy axis close to the [1 1 1¯] direction. A magnetic moment of 4.37(3) μ B per Cr-ion was calculated from the Curie constant for the paramagnetic region. The crystal structures of the hitherto unknown Li 1.8Cr 1.2(MoO 4) 3 and LiCr(MoO 4) 2 are compared and reveal a high degree of similarity: In both structures MoO 4-tetrahedra are isolated from each other and connected with CrO 6 and LiO 5 via corners. In both modifications there are Cr 2O 10 fragments of edge-sharing CrO 6-octahedra.

  14. Cangrelor inhibits the binding of the active metabolites of clopidogrel and prasugrel to P2Y12 receptors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Judge, Heather M; Buckland, Robert J; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Storey, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Cangrelor is a rapid-acting, direct-binding, and reversible P2Y12 antagonist which has been studied for use during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with or without pretreatment with an oral P2Y12 antagonist. As cangrelor is administered intravenously, it is necessary to switch to an oral P2Y12 antagonist following PCI, such as the thienopyridines clopidogrel, and prasugrel or the non-pyridine ticagrelor. Previous studies have suggested a negative pharmacodynamic interaction between cangrelor and thienopyridines. This in vitro study evaluated the receptor-level interaction between cangrelor and the active metabolite (AM) of clopidogrel or prasugrel by assessing functional P2Y12 receptor number using a (33)P-2MeSADP binding assay. All P2Y12 antagonists studied resulted in strong P2Y12 receptor blockade (cangrelor: 93.6%; clopidogrel AM: 93.0%; prasugrel AM: 97.9%). Adding a thienopyridine AM in the presence of cangrelor strongly reduces P2Y12 receptor blockade by the AM (clopidogrel AM: 7%, prasugrel AM: 3.2%). The thienopyridine AMs had limited ability to compete with cangrelor for binding to P2Y12 (% P2Y12 receptor blockade after co-incubation with cangrelor 1000 nmol/L: 11.7% for clopidogrel AM 3 µmol/L; 34.1% for prasugrel AM 3 µmol/L). In conclusion, in vitro cangrelor strongly inhibits the binding of clopidogrel and prasugrel AMs to the P2Y12 receptor, consistent with the previous observation of a negative pharmacodynamic interaction. Care may need to be taken to not overlap exposure to thienopyridine AMs and cangrelor in order to reduce the risk of thrombotic complications following PCI.

  15. Identification of Determinants Required for Agonistic and Inverse Agonistic Ligand Properties at the ADP Receptor P2Y12

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Philipp; Ritscher, Lars; Dong, Elizabeth N.; Hermsdorf, Thomas; Cöster, Maxi; Wittkopf, Doreen; Meiler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The ADP receptor P2Y12 belongs to the superfamily of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), and its activation triggers platelet aggregation. Therefore, potent antagonists, such as clopidogrel, are of high clinical relevance in prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic events. P2Y12 displays an elevated basal activity in vitro, and as such, inverse agonists may be therapeutically beneficial compared with antagonists. Only a few inverse agonists of P2Y12 have been described. To expand this limited chemical space and improve understanding of structural determinants of inverse agonist-receptor interaction, this study screened a purine compound library for lead structures using wild-type (WT) human P2Y12 and 28 constitutively active mutants. Results showed that ATP and ATP derivatives are agonists at P2Y12. The potency at P2Y12 was 2-(methylthio)-ADP > 2-(methylthio)-ATP > ADP > ATP. Determinants required for agonistic ligand activity were identified. Molecular docking studies revealed a binding pocket for the ATP derivatives that is bordered by transmembrane helices 3, 5, 6, and 7 in human P2Y12, with Y105, E188, R256, Y259, and K280 playing a particularly important role in ligand interaction. N-Methyl-anthraniloyl modification at the 3′-OH of the 2′-deoxyribose leads to ligands (mant-deoxy-ATP [dATP], mant-deoxy-ADP) with inverse agonist activity. Inverse agonist activity of mant-dATP was found at the WT human P2Y12 and half of the constitutive active P2Y12 mutants. This study showed that, in addition to ADP and ATP, other ATP derivatives are not only ligands of P2Y12 but also agonists. Modification of the ribose within ATP can result in inverse activity of ATP-derived ligands. PMID:23093496

  16. Macular SD-OCT Outcome Measures: Comparison of Local Structure-Function Relationships and Dynamic Range

    PubMed Central

    Miraftabi, Arezoo; Amini, Navid; Morales, Esteban; Henry, Sharon; Yu, Fei; Afifi, Abdolmonem; Coleman, Anne L.; Caprioli, Joseph; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that the macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness demonstrates a stronger structure-function (SF) relationship and extends the useful range of macular measurements compared with combined macular inner layer or full thickness. Methods Ninety-eight glaucomatous eyes and eight normal eyes with macular spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volume scans and 10-2 visual fields were enrolled. Inner plexiform layer (IPL), GCL, macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and full thickness (FT) measurements were calculated for 8 × 8 arrays of 3° superpixels. Main outcome measures were local structure-function relationships between macular superpixels and corresponding sensitivities on 10-2 fields after adjusting for ganglion cell displacement, dynamic range of measurements, and the change point (total deviation value where macular parameters reached measurement floor). Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) mean deviation was −7.2 (−11.6 to −3.2) dB in glaucoma eyes. Strength of SF relationships was highest for GCIPL, GCL, GCC, and IPL (ρ = 0.635, 0.627, 0.621, and 0.577, respectively; P ≤ 0.046 for comparisons against GCIPL). Highest SF correlations coincided with the peak of GCL thickness, where the dynamic range was widest for FT (81.1 μm), followed by GCC (65.7 μm), GCIPL (54.9 μm), GCL (35.2 μm), mRNFL (27.5 μm), and IPL (20.9 μm). Change points were similar for all macular parameters (−7.8 to −8.9 dB). Conclusions GCIPL, GCL, and GCC demonstrated comparable SF relationships while FT, GCC, and GCIPL had the widest dynamic range. Measurement of GCL did not extend the range of useful structural measurements. Measuring GCL does not provide any advantage for detection of progression with current SD-OCT technology. PMID:27623336

  17. Concomitant activation of P2Y(2) and P2Y(6) receptors on monocytes is required for TLR1/2-induced neutrophil migration by regulating IL-8 secretion.

    PubMed

    Ben Yebdri, Fethia; Kukulski, Filip; Tremblay, Alain; Sévigny, Jean

    2009-10-01

    Extracellular nucleotides regulate a variety of cellular responses involved in inflammation via the activation of P2 receptors. Here, we show that nucleotides regulate TLR2-induced neutrophil migration both in vivo and in vitro. The nucleotide scavenger apyrase inhibited neutrophil recruitment in murine air pouches injected with the TLR2 agonist Pam(3)CSK(4). In agreement, the supernatants of either human primary monocytes or monocytic cells (THP-1 and U937) treated with Pam(3)CSK(4) recruited significantly fewer neutrophils when the former cells were treated in the presence of apyrase. As demonstrated with inhibitory Ab, these supernatants induced neutrophil migration due to IL-8 secretion. In addition, IL-8 secretion was markedly diminished by the non-selective P2 receptor antagonists reactive blue 2 and suramin, and by a selective P2Y(6) antagonist, MRS2578. Selective antagonists of P2Y(1) (MRS2500) and P2Y(11) (NF157) did not affect IL-8 release. The knockdown of either P2Y(2) or P2Y(6) with specific shRNA diminished IL-8 secretion from Pam(3)CSK(4)-treated THP-1 cells. Altogether, these results show that extracellular nucleotides, via P2Y(2) and P2Y(6) receptors, regulate neutrophil migration by controlling TLR2-induced IL-8 release from human monocytes. In line with our previous work on TLR4, this study further supports the importance of nucleotides in bacterial-induced neutrophil migration.

  18. Succinate reverses in-vitro platelet inhibition by acetylsalicylic acid and P2Y receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Spath, Brigitte; Hansen, Arne; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Langer, Florian

    2012-01-01

    High on-treatment platelet reactivity has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events in patients receiving anti-platelet agents, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain incompletely understood. Succinate, a citric acid cycle intermediate, is released into the circulation under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction due to hypoxic organ damage, including sepsis, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Because the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for succinate, SUCNR1 (GPR91), is present on human platelets, we hypothesized that succinate-mediated platelet stimulation may counteract the pharmacological effects of cyclooxygenase-1 and ADP receptor antagonists. To test this hypothesis in a controlled in-vitro study, washed platelets from healthy donors were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or small-molecule P2Y(1) or P2Y(12) inhibitors and subsequently analyzed by light transmittance aggregometry using arachidonic acid (AA), ADP and succinate as platelet agonists. Aggregation in response to succinate alone was highly variable with only 29% of donors showing a (mostly delayed) platelet response. In contrast, succinate reproducibly and concentration-dependently (10-1000 µM) enhanced platelet aggregation in response to low concentrations of exogenous ADP. Furthermore, while succinate alone had no effect in the presence of platelet inhibitors, responsiveness of platelets to ADP after pretreatment with P2Y(1) or P2Y(12) antagonists was fully restored, when platelets were co-stimulated with 100 µM succinate. Similarly, succinate completely (at 1000 µM) or partially (at 100 µM) reversed the inhibitory effect of ASA on AA-induced platelet aggregation. In contrast, succinate failed to restore platelet responsiveness in the presence of both ASA and the P2Y(12) antagonist, suggesting that concomitant signaling via different GPCRs was required. Essentially identical results were obtained, when flow cytometric analysis of surface CD62P

  19. Purinergic P2Y2 Receptor Control of Tissue Factor Transcription in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwei; Zhang, Lingxin; Wang, Chuan; Roy, Shama; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that the P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) is the predominant nucleotide receptor expressed in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) and that P2Y2R activation by ATP or UTP induces dramatic up-regulation of tissue factor (TF), a key initiator of the coagulation cascade. However, the molecular mechanism of this P2Y2R-TF axis remains unclear. Here, we report the role of a newly identified AP-1 consensus sequence in the TF gene promoter and its original binding components in P2Y2R regulation of TF transcription. Using bioinformatics tools, we found that a novel AP-1 site at −1363 bp of the human TF promoter region is highly conserved across multiple species. Activation of P2Y2R increased TF promoter activity and mRNA expression in HCAEC. Truncation, deletion, and mutation of this distal AP-1 site all significantly suppressed TF promoter activity in response to P2Y2R activation. EMSA and ChIP assays further confirmed that upon P2Y2R activation, c-Jun, ATF-2, and Fra-1, but not the typical c-Fos, bound to the new AP-1 site. In addition, loss-of-function studies using siRNAs confirmed a positive transactivation role of c-Jun and ATF-2 but unexpectedly revealed a strong negative role of Fra-1 in P2Y2R-induced TF up-regulation. Furthermore, we found that P2Y2R activation promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation through Src, leading to Fra-1 activation, whereas Rho/JNK mediated P2Y2R-induced activation of c-Jun and ATF-2. These findings reveal the molecular basis for P2Y G protein-coupled receptor control of endothelial TF expression and indicate that targeting the P2Y2R-Fra-1-TF pathway may be an attractive new strategy for controlling vascular inflammation and thrombogenicity associated with endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26631725

  20. Classification of SD-OCT Volumes Using Local Binary Patterns: Experimental Validation for DME Detection

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Carol Y.; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Milea, Dan; Mériaudeau, Fabrice; Sidibé, Désiré

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automatic classification of Spectral Domain OCT (SD-OCT) data for automatic identification of patients with DME versus normal subjects. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been a valuable diagnostic tool for DME, which is among the most common causes of irreversible vision loss in individuals with diabetes. Here, a classification framework with five distinctive steps is proposed and we present an extensive study of each step. Our method considers combination of various preprocessing steps in conjunction with Local Binary Patterns (LBP) features and different mapping strategies. Using linear and nonlinear classifiers, we tested the developed framework on a balanced cohort of 32 patients. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the previous studies by achieving a Sensitivity (SE) and a Specificity (SP) of 81.2% and 93.7%, respectively. Our study concludes that the 3D features and high-level representation of 2D features using patches achieve the best results. However, the effects of preprocessing are inconsistent with different classifiers and feature configurations. PMID:27555965

  1. Age-related Histological Findings in the Pineal Gland of Crl:CD(SD) Rats.

    PubMed

    Tomonari, Yuki; Sato, Junko; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2012-12-01

    To provide background data as the pathologic basis, the pineal glands of 190 male and 193 female Crl:CD(SD) rats at ages of 0-7, 51-58, 70-85 and 111 weeks were examined histologically in this study. Mineralization and fibrosis were common findings in the aged rats, whereas they were rarely found in the young ones; mineralization was present in 7, 44, 67 and 79% of males and in 0, 32, 67 and 79% in females, and fibrosis was present in 0, 29, 48 and 44% of males and 0, 18, 40 and 35% of females at ages of 0-7, 51-58, 70-85 and 111 weeks, respectively. Striated muscle fiber appeared regularly in the fibrosis region from 51-58 weeks of age when fibrosis increased, while the origin of this fiber remained unclear. Vacuolation of pineal cells also increased with age in both sexes, though the total incidence was low. There was a low incidence of lymphocytic infiltration in both sexes, but this was not related to age.

  2. The estrogenic effects of benzylparaben at low doses based on uterotrophic assay in immature SD rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Zhang, Zhaobin; Sun, Libei; Zhu, Desheng; Liu, Qingchun; Jiao, Jian; Li, Jun; Qi, Mingwen

    2013-03-01

    Benzylparaben (BzP), a type of parabens being used as a preservative agent in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical products, may be ingested by humans. In this study, we performed an immature uterotrophic assay using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by intragastric administration to determine the estrogenic effects of BzP and found significant increases in uterine weight with doses of 0.16 mg/kg body weight and higher (P<0.05). The in vivo estrogenicity of BzP was supported by in vitro results from the human estrogen receptor α (hERα)-coactivator recruiting assay and in silico molecular docking analysis performed in this study. The in vitro estrogenic activity of BzP can be observed at concentrations of 1.0×10(-8) M and higher. Molecular docking analysis showed that BzP fits well into the agonist pocket of hERα. The lowest observed effect dose (LOED) (0.16 mg/kg/day) of BzP is much lower than the documented LOEDs of other parabens. Actual risk may exist for people who consume a diet high in BzP or use BzP-laden cosmetics. In addition, we tested the sensitivity of Wistar rats to 17β-estradiol by immature uterotrophic assay, and no obvious uterotrophic response was observed in the rats given doses up to 100 μg/kg body weight.

  3. Spectrum of {gamma} rays from the decay of SD to normal states in {sup 191}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Gassmann, D.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-08-01

    In B.a.7. we propose that the statistical spectrum emitted from a sharp single excited state serves as a probe of pairing in excited states. A specific test of this proposal is the comparison of the spectra from even-even and odd-even nuclei. Whereas a pair gap exists in an even-even nucleus, it gets filled in an odd-even nucleus. Consequently, low-energy transitions can arise in the latter case, whereas they are calculated to be absent in the former case because very few levels exist in the cold gap region. In addition, transitions between 1.4 - 2.2 MeV, which {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes} across the gap, are predicted to have lower yield in the odd-even nuclei. Serendipitously, decay from a superdeformed state serves as a good initial excited sharp state. We extracted the spectrum pairwise-coincident with SD lines in {sup 191}Hg from Gammasphere data and compared it with the equivalent spectra from the even-even nuclei {sup 192,194}Hg. The differences that are predicted to occur are indeed observed. Thus, the data support our proposal that the reduction of pairing with thermal excitation energy can be probed with statistical decay spectra.

  4. Classification of SD-OCT Volumes Using Local Binary Patterns: Experimental Validation for DME Detection.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Guillaume; Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Massich, Joan; Cheung, Carol Y; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Milea, Dan; Mériaudeau, Fabrice; Sidibé, Désiré

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automatic classification of Spectral Domain OCT (SD-OCT) data for automatic identification of patients with DME versus normal subjects. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been a valuable diagnostic tool for DME, which is among the most common causes of irreversible vision loss in individuals with diabetes. Here, a classification framework with five distinctive steps is proposed and we present an extensive study of each step. Our method considers combination of various preprocessing steps in conjunction with Local Binary Patterns (LBP) features and different mapping strategies. Using linear and nonlinear classifiers, we tested the developed framework on a balanced cohort of 32 patients. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the previous studies by achieving a Sensitivity (SE) and a Specificity (SP) of 81.2% and 93.7%, respectively. Our study concludes that the 3D features and high-level representation of 2D features using patches achieve the best results. However, the effects of preprocessing are inconsistent with different classifiers and feature configurations.

  5. Optimization of a bioactive exopolysaccharide production from endophytic Fusarium solani SD5.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Subhadip; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2013-09-12

    Endophytic fungi were less investigated for exopolysaccharide production. In this study endophytic Fusarium solani SD5 was used for optimization of exopolysaccharide production. One variable at a time method and response surface methodology were employed to explore the optimum medium compositions and fermentation conditions. The organism produced maximum exopolysaccharide after 13.68 days of incubation at 28 °C in potato dextrose broth supplemented with (g%/l) glucose, 9.8; yeast extract, 0.69; KCl, 0.05; KH₂PO₄, 0.05 with medium pH 6.46. Use of 50 ml medium in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask gives highest exopolysaccharide production. The organism produced more than two times higher exopolysaccharide (2.276 ± 0.032 g/l EPS) at optimized condition compared to pre-optimized condition (0.96 ± 0.021). In vivo toxicity test established nontoxic nature of the EPS (≤400 mg EPS/Kg of body weight). The EPS slightly altered intestinal indigenous bacteria and influenced the growth of beneficial Lactobacillus spp.

  6. Dynamic 3-D vortex structure of the laminar separation bubble on SD7003 airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Hain, Rainer; Kähler, Christian J.

    2008-11-01

    Recent increasing interest in laminar separation bubble (LSB) is aroused by the development of the micro air vehicles (MAVs), which normally cruise in the Reynolds number range of 50,000-200,000. This paper studies the LSB over the SD 7003 airfoil at the angle of attack α=4^o and at Re=60,000 using the time-resolved PIV technique. A Nd:Yag laser operated at 1000 Hz and a high speed CMOS camera was synchronized to capture the particle images with the full resolution of 1504 x 1128 pixels at 1000 fps. Measurements were carried out from two orthogonal views: in the stream-wise wall-normal plane and the quasi-surface-parallel plane. 3-D disturbance was observed to start even prior to the point of transition. Vortex shedding in transition near the reattachment region of the LSB was clearly identified in the span-wise wall-normal plane, with the dominant K-H frequency of around 10.7 Hz. And subsequent vortex evolution in the reattached turbulent boundary layer was found to be characterized by paired positive and negative vorticity packets transported downstream.

  7. Preparation and evaluation of kaempferol-phospholipid complex for pharmacokinetics and bioavailability in SD rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kexia; Gu, Liqiang; Chen, Jinpeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Longshan; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-10-10

    As one of the dietary flavonoids, kaempferol (KP) has been well known to show strong anti-oxidative effect along with other biological properties. However, the oral bioavailability of KP is relatively low due to its poor solubility. In this study, we intended to increase the solubility and bioavailability of KP by preparing kaempferol-phospholipid complex (KP-PC). The KP-PC's physicochemical properties were characterized in terms of infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), water/n-Octanol solubility and in vitro dissolution. KP-PC exhibited higher solubility and dissolution rate than KP, indicating a significant improvement in hydrophilicity. A UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of KP in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat plasma, so as to investigate the oral bioavailability of KP-PC versus KP. Results showed that Cmax and AUC(0-48 h) of KP from the complex (Cmax: 3.94 ± 0.83 μg/mL, AUC(0-48 h): 57.81 ± 9.43 mg/Lh) were higher than that of KP (Cmax: 1.43 ± 0.21 μg/mL, AUC(0-48 h): 13.65 ± 3.12 mg/Lh). This research indicated that phospholipid complex (PC) might be one of the suitable approachs to improve the oral bioavailability of KP and other poor-solubility flavonoids.

  8. Threshold of Multiple Stick-Slip Chaos for an Archetypal Self-Excited SD Oscillator Driven by Moving Belt Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.; Cao, Q. J.; Léger, A.

    In this paper, we investigate the multiple stick-slip chaotic motion of an archetypal self-excited smooth and discontinuous (SD) oscillator driven by moving belt friction, which is constructed with the SD oscillator and the classical moving belt. The friction force between the mass and the belt is modeled as a Coulomb friction for this system. The energy introduction or dissipation during the slip and stick modes in the system is analyzed. The analytical expressions of homoclinic orbits of the unperturbed SD oscillator are derived by using a special coordinate transformation without any pronominal truncation to retain the natural characteristics, which allows us to utilize the Melnikov’s method to obtain the chaotic thresholds of the self-excited SD oscillator in the presence of the damping and external excitation. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the multiple stick-slip dynamics of the system, which show the efficiency of the prediction for stick-slip chaos of the perturbed self-excited system. The results presented herein this paper demonstrate the complicated dynamics of stick-slip periodic solutions, multiple stick-slip chaotic solutions and also coexistence of multiple solutions for the perturbed self-excited SD oscillator.

  9. Leveraging master-slave OpenFlow controller arrangement to improve control plane resiliency in SD-EONs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Bin; Ma, Shoujiang; Chen, Cen; Hu, Daoyun; Zhou, Wenshuang; Zhu, Zuqing

    2015-03-23

    In this paper, we study how to improve the control plane resiliency of software-defined elastic optical networks (SD-EONs) and design a master-slave OpenFlow (OF) controller arrangement. Specifically, we introduce two OF controllers (OF-Cs), i.e., the master and slave OF-Cs, and make them work in a collaborative way to protect the SD-EON against controller failures. We develop a controller communication protocol (CCP) to facilitate the cooperation of the two OF-Cs. With the CCP, the master OF-C (M-OF-C) can synchronize network status to the slave OF-C (S-OF-C) in real time, while S-OF-C can quickly detect the failure of M-OF-C and take over the network control and management (NC&M) tasks timely to avoid service disruption. We implement the proposed framework in an SD-EON control plane testbed built with high-performance servers, and perform NC&M experiments with different network failure scenarios to demonstrate its effectiveness. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system can restore services in both the data and control planes of SD-EON jointly while maintaining relatively good scalability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that realizes control plane resiliency in SD-EONs.

  10. Evaluation of Corneal Epithelial Healing Under Contact Lens with Spectral-Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT)

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Claudine E; M, Vanathi; Tan, Donald T.H; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a novel technique of using Spectral-domain (SD) anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the evaluation of corneal epithelial healing under a therapeutic contact lens (TCL) after lamellar keratoplasty and Epi-LASIK procedures. Design: Prospective, non-comparative, observational case series. Methods: Ten eyes of eight patients undergoing lamellar corneal transplantation and Epi-LASIK procedures at the Singapore National Eye Centre were included in the study. Ultra-high resolution SD-OCT scans of the cornea with a TCL in-situ were performed sequentially on the first, third and fifth day after procedure, with the RTVue (Optovue, Inc, Fremont, CA, USA), and the image findings were correlated with the clinical picture. Complete epithelial healing was verified with removal of TCL and fluorescein staining. Results: 5 eyes underwent Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK), 1 eye underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and 4 eyes underwent Epi-LASIK. All eyes had complete epithelial healing with TCL in-situ by the third post-operative day. SD-OCT images were able to demonstrate the epithelial layer distinctly under the TCL in all cases. Conclusions: SD-OCT is a valuable imaging tool for monitoring the progression of epithelial healing with TCL in situ in patients following corneal surgical procedures. PMID:21686324

  11. Phase diagram of Mg insertion into Chevrel phases, MgxMo6T8 (T = S, Se). 3. The crystal structure of triclinic Mg2Mo6Se8.

    PubMed

    Levi, E; Mitelman, A; Isnard, O; Brunelli, M; Aurbach, D

    2008-03-17

    This series of papers is devoted to unique cathode materials for Mg batteries, MgxMo6T8 (T = S, Se, x = 1 and 2) Chevrel phases (CPs). In this part, a combination of neutron and high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffractions was used to study the crystal structure of Mg2Mo6Se8, which is triclinic at room temperature (space group P1, a = 6.868 A, b = 6.921 A, c = 6.880 A, alpha = 93.00 degrees , beta = 94.40 degrees , gamma = 96.22 degrees ). In contrast to other members of the MgxMo6T8 family, this compound does not follow the classic scheme of successive cation insertion into so-called inner and outer sites: Both the Mg(2+) ions per formula are located in the tetrahedral sites of the outer ring. This surprising cation location, predicted previously for Mg-containing CPs by ab initio calculations, provides the uniform distribution of the cation charge in the triclinic structure, which is similar to that of rhombohedral CPs. A mapping of the cation sites was widely used to demonstrate the variety of cation arrangement in CPs and the factors affecting this arrangement, as well as to clarify the origin of the exceptionally high mobility of the Mg(2+) ions in Mg2Mo6Se8.

  12. Synthèse et étude structrale de lyonsite-type (Na0,4,Li0,6)(Fe,Li2)(MoO4)3.

    PubMed

    Souilem, Amira; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The new compound (Na0.4,Li0.6)(Fe,Li2)(MoO4)3 was synthesized by cooling from the melt. Its anionic framework is built up from two distinct MO6 octa-hedra, each containing disordered Li(+) and Fe(3+) ions in 0.6:0.4 and 0.7:0.3 ratios, and two MoO4 tetra-hedra, which link by vertex-sharing of their O atoms. These tetra-meric units are further linked by sharing edges between octa-hedra and by formation of M-O-Mo (M = Fe/Li) bridges, forming ribbons propagating in the [100] direction. The ribbons are cross-linked in both the b- and c-axis directions, giving rise to a three-dimensional framework having [100] tunnels in which the monovalent Na(+)/Li(+) cations (0.4:0.6 ratio) lie. Bond-valence calculations are consistent with the disorder model for the cations. The structure of the title compound, which is isotypic with Li3Fe(MoO4)3 and Li3Ga(MoO4)3, is compared briefly with those of LiFeMo2O8 and Li1.6Mn2.2(MoO4)3.

  13. Assessment of the optimum degree of Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}MoO{sub 9} electron-doping through oxygen removal: An X-ray powder diffraction and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Carlos A.; Viola, Maria del C.; Pedregosa, Jose C.; Mercader, Roberto C.

    2010-10-15

    We describe the preparation and structural characterization by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy of three electron-doped perovskites Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}MoO{sub 9-{delta}} with Fe/Mo = 2 obtained from Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}MoO{sub 9}. The compounds were synthesized by topotactic reduction with H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (5/95) at 600, 700 and 800 {sup o}C. Above 800 {sup o}C the Fe/Mo ratio changes from Fe/Mo = 2-1 < Fe/Mo < 2. The structural refinements of the XRPD data for the reduced perovskites were carried out by the Rietveld profile analysis method. The crystal structure of these phases is cubic, space group Fm3-bar m, with cationic disorder at the two different B sites that can be populated in variable proportions by the Fe atoms. The Moessbauer spectra allowed determining the evolution of the different species formed after the treatments at different temperatures and confirm that Fe ions in the samples reduced at 600, 700 and 800 {sup o}C are only in the high-spin Fe{sup 3+} electronic state.

  14. Characterization of solid-phase welds between Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0. 01Si and Ti-13. 5A1-21. 5Nb titanium aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Baeslack, W.A. III; Juhas, M.; Fraser, H.L. ); Broderick, T.F. . Materials Directorate)

    1994-12-01

    Dissimilar-alloy welds have been produced between Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si (wt.%) and Ti-13.5Al-21.5Nb (wt.%) titanium aluminide using three different solid-phase welding processes that create significantly different thermo-mechanical conditions at the weld interface. Exposure to supertransus temperatures, appreciable deformation and rapid cooling of the weld interface region during linear-friction welding promote dynamic recrystallization of beta grains and beta decomposition to fine martensitic products. In contrast, diffusion welding at temperatures below the base metal beta transus temperatures and at relatively low pressures minimizes deformation and microstructural variations in the weld interface region relative to the unaffected base metal. During capacitor-discharge resistance spot welding, extremely rapid heating of the weld interface region to near-solidus temperatures, and subsequent rapid cooling, result in the formation of a metastable, ordered-beta microstructure in the Ti-13.5ASl-21.5Nb and fine alpha-prime martensite in the Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si.

  15. Comparative Photoluminescence Properties and Judd-Ofelt Analysis of Eu3+ Ion-Activated Metal Molybdate Phosphors A2MoO6:Eu3+ (A = La, Y, Gd and Bi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Bingkun; Zhang, Jie; Li, Pengju; Shi, Hengzhen

    2017-03-01

    A class of red-emitting Eu3+ ion-activated metal molybdate A2MoO6:Eu3+ (A = La, Y, Gd and Bi) phosphors were synthesized by a conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction method. The x-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscope images, Fourier transform infrared spectra, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectra as well as photoluminescence properties were measured to characterize the as-prepared samples. The photoluminescence properties including excitation/emission spectra, decay curves, Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates and quantum efficiency were comparatively investigated in detail. The Judd-Ofelt theory was also applied to understand the radiative properties of f-f transitions of Eu3+ ions in this system for the first time. The as-prepared phosphors can be effectively excited with near-ultraviolet and/or blue light, and exhibit red emission belonging to the prevailing 5D0 → 7F2 transitions of Eu3+ with short decay time (millisecond level). The results demonstrated that A2MoO6:Eu3+ (A = La, Y, Gd and Bi) phosphors could have potential application as red-emitting phosphors in white light-emitting diodes based on near-ultraviolet and/or blue light-emitting diode chips.

  16. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic decomposition of copper cyanide complexes and simultaneous recovery of copper with a Bi2MoO6 electrode under visible light by EDTA/K4P2O7.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Juanjuan; Qiao, Meng; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-04-07

    Simultaneous photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) oxidation of cyanides and recovery of copper in a PEC reactor with a Bi(2)MoO(6) photoanode was investigated at alkaline conditions under visible light irradiation. The surface variation of the Bi(2)MoO(6) photoanode and titanium cathode was characterized. The Cu mass distribution onto the anode, in the solution, and onto the cathode was fully investigated. In the individual PEC oxidation of copper cyanides, the formation of a black copper oxide on the anode occurred. By keeping the initial cyanide concentration at 0.01 mM, the effect of EDTA/K(4)P(2)O(7) was examined at different molar ratios of EDTA/K(4)P(2)O(7) to cyanide. It was indicated that the oxidation of cyanides increased and simultaneous copper electrodeposition with zero value onto the cathode was feasible at pH 11. Under the optimal conditions, the total cyanide concentration was lowered from 250 to 5.0 mg/L, and the Cu recovery efficiency deposited onto the cathode was higher than 90%. Cyanate was the only product. The role of the photogenerated hole in the oxidation of cyanide ions was confirmed.

  17. Cationic Intermixing and Reactivity at the La2 Mo2 O9 /La0.8 Sr0.2 MnO3-δ Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolyte-Cathode Interface.

    PubMed

    Ravella, Uday K; Liu, Jingjing; Corbel, Gwenaël; Skinner, Stephen J; Lacorre, Philippe

    2016-08-23

    Among standard high-temperature cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells, La0.8 Sr0.2 MnO3-δ (LSM) displays the least reactivity with the oxide-ion conductor La2 Mo2 O9 (LMO), yet a reaction is observed at high processing temperatures, identified by using XRD and focused ion beam secondary-ion mass spectrometry (FIB-SIMS) after annealing at 1050 and 1150 °C. Additionally, Sr and Mn solutions were deposited and annealed on LMO pellets, as well as a Mo solution on a LSM pellet. From these studies several reaction products were identified by using XRD and located by using FIB-SIMS on the surface of pelletised samples. We used depth profiling to show that the reactivity extended up to ∼10 μm from the surface region. If Sr was present, a SrMoO4 -type scheelite phase was always observed as a reaction product, and if Mn was present, LaMnO3+δ single crystals were observed on the surface of the LMO pellets. Additional phases such as La2 MoO6 and La6 MoO12 were also detected depending on the configuration and annealing temperature. Reaction mechanisms and detailed reaction formulae are proposed to explain these observations. The strongest driving force for cationic diffusion appears to originate from Mo(6+) and Mn(3+) cations, rather than from Sr(2+) .

  18. Synthèse et étude structrale de lyonsite-type (Na0,4,Li0,6)(Fe,Li2)(MoO4)3

    PubMed Central

    Souilem, Amira; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The new compound (Na0.4,Li0.6)(Fe,Li2)(MoO4)3 was synthesized by cooling from the melt. Its anionic framework is built up from two distinct MO6 octa­hedra, each containing disordered Li+ and Fe3+ ions in 0.6:0.4 and 0.7:0.3 ratios, and two MoO4 tetra­hedra, which link by vertex-sharing of their O atoms. These tetra­meric units are further linked by sharing edges between octa­hedra and by formation of M—O—Mo (M = Fe/Li) bridges, forming ribbons propagating in the [100] direction. The ribbons are cross-linked in both the b- and c-axis directions, giving rise to a three-dimensional framework having [100] tunnels in which the monovalent Na+/Li+ cations (0.4:0.6 ratio) lie. Bond-valence calculations are consistent with the disorder model for the cations. The structure of the title compound, which is isotypic with Li3Fe(MoO4)3 and Li3Ga(MoO4)3, is compared briefly with those of LiFeMo2O8 and Li1.6Mn2.2(MoO4)3. PMID:26090130

  19. P2Y6 contributes to ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma by enhancing mast cell function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jue-ping; Wang, Shao-ying; Chen, Li-li; Zhang, Xiao-yu; Zhao, Yi-han; Du, Bing; Jiang, Wen-zheng; Qian, Min; Ren, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Extracelluar nucleotides have been identified as regulatory factors in asthmatic pathogenesis by activating purinergic receptors. This research aimed to investigate the function of the purinergic receptor P2Y6 in mediating airway inflammation in allergic asthma. Wild-type (WT) and P2Y6-deficient mice were stimulated with ovalbumin (OVA) to construct asthmatic mouse models. Overexpression of P2Y6 and uridine 5′-diphosphate (UDP)-releasing were demonstrated in lung tissues in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mice. The release of the cytokine IL-4, mast cell invasion, and the airway remodeling phenotypes were more severe following the application of UDP in asthmatic mice. However, P2Y6 deficiency reduced these asthmatic pathogeneticsymptoms markedly in a mouse model. In vitro, we found that P2Y6 in purified mast cells enhanced the functions of mast cells in the inflammatory response in the asthmatic process by triggering their capability for migration, cytokine secretion and granule release. Moreover, P2Y6 stimulated the function of mast cells through activation of the AKT signaling pathway. Our data provides evidence that P2Y6 contributes to allergic airway inflammation and remodeling by enhancing the functions of mast cells in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mice. PMID:27590515

  20. Characterization of a Novel Function-Blocking Antibody Targeted Against The Platelet P2Y1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Zubair A.; Vemana, Hari Priya; Alshbool, Fatima Z.; Lin, Olivia A.; Alshehri, Abdullah M.; Javaherizadeh, Payam; Paez Espinosa, Enma V.; Khasawneh, Fadi T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Platelet hyperactivity is associated with vascular disease and contributes to the genesis of thrombotic disorders. ADP plays an important role in platelet activation, and activates platelets through two G-Protein Coupled Receptors, the Gq-coupled P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R), and the Gi-coupled P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R). While the involvement of the P2Y1R in thrombogenesis is well established, there are no antagonists that are currently available for clinical use. Approach and Results Our goal is to determine whether a novel antibody targeting the ligand binding domain, i.e., second extracellular loop (EL2) of the P2Y1R [abbreviated as EL2Ab] could inhibit platelet function and protect against thrombogenesis. Our results revealed that the EL2Ab does indeed inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EL2Ab was found to inhibit integrin GPIIb-IIIa activation, dense and alpha granule secretion and phosphatidylserine exposure. These inhibitory effects translated into protection against thrombus formation, as evident by a prolonged time for occlusion in a FeCl3 induced thrombosis model, but this was accompanied by a prolonged tail bleeding time. We also observed a dose dependent displacement of the radiolabelled P2Y1R antagonist [3H]MRS25000 from its ligand binding site by EL2Ab. Conclusions Collectively, our findings demonstrate that EL2Ab binds to and exhibits P2Y1R-dependent function-blocking activity in the context of platelets. These results add further evidence for a role of the P2Y1R in thrombosis and validate the concept that targeting it is a relevant alternative or complement to current antiplatelet strategies. PMID:25593131

  1. P2Y2 purinergic receptor activation is essential for efficient hepatocyte proliferation in response to partial hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tackett, Bryan C.; Sun, Hongdan; Mei, Yu; Maynard, Janielle P.; Cheruvu, Sayuri; Mani, Arunmani; Hernandez-Garcia, Andres; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Karpen, Saul J.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides via activation of P2 purinergic receptors influence hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration in response to 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). Adult hepatocytes express multiple P2Y (G protein-coupled) and P2X (ligand-gated ion channels) purinergic receptor subtypes. However, the identity of key receptor subtype(s) important for efficient hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating livers remains unknown. To evaluate the impact of P2Y2 purinergic receptor-mediated signaling on hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating livers, wild-type (WT) and P2Y2 purinergic receptor knockout (P2Y2−/−) mice were subjected to 70% PH. Liver tissues were analyzed for activation of early events critical for hepatocyte priming and subsequent cell cycle progression. Our findings suggest that early activation of p42/44 ERK MAPK (5 min), early growth response-1 (Egr-1) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA-binding activity (30 min), and subsequent hepatocyte proliferation (24–72 h) in response to 70% PH were impaired in P2Y2−/− mice. Interestingly, early induction of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and cytokine-mediated signaling (NF-κB, STAT-3) were intact in P2Y2−/− remnant livers, uncovering the importance of cytokine-independent and nucleotide-dependent early priming events critical for subsequent hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating livers. Hepatocytes isolated from the WT and P2Y2−/− mice were treated with ATP or ATPγS for 5–120 min and 12–24 h. Extracellular ATP alone, via activation of P2Y2 purinergic receptors, was sufficient to induce ERK phosphorylation, Egr-1 protein expression, and key cyclins and cell cycle progression of hepatocytes in vitro. Collectively, these findings highlight the functional significance of P2Y2 purinergic receptor activation for efficient hepatocyte priming and proliferation in response to PH. PMID:25301185

  2. Role of the P2Y12 receptor in the modulation of murine dendritic cell function by ADP.

    PubMed

    Ben Addi, Abduelhakem; Cammarata, Dorothée; Conley, Pamela B; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Robaye, Bernard

    2010-11-15

    The effects of ADP on the biology of dendritic cells have been studied much less than those of ATP or adenosine. In this study, we showed that adenosine-5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (ADPβS) induced intracellular Ca(2+) transients in murine dendritic cells (DCs). This effect was abolished by AR-C69931MX, a dual P2Y(12) and P2Y(13) receptor antagonist. RT-PCR experiments revealed the expression of both P2Y(12) and P2Y(13) mRNA in DCs. The Ca(2+) response to ADPβS was maintained in P2Y(13)-deficient DCs, whereas it was abolished completely in P2Y(12)(-/-) DCs. ADPβS stimulated FITC-dextran and OVA capture in murine DCs through macropinocytosis, and this effect was abolished in P2Y(12)(-/-) DCs. ADPβS had a similar effect on FITC-dextran uptake by human monocyte-derived DCs. OVA loading in the presence of ADPβS increased the capacity of DCs to stimulate OVA-specific T cells, whereas ADPβS had no effect on the ability of DCs to stimulate allogeneic T cells. Moreover, after immunization against OVA, the serum level of anti-OVA IgG1 was significantly lower in P2Y(12)(-/-) mice than that in wild-type controls. In conclusion, we have shown that the P2Y(12) receptor is expressed in murine DCs and that its activation increased Ag endocytosis by DCs with subsequent enhancement of specific T cell activation.

  3. Origin of periodic domain structure in Er{sup 3+}-doped beta'-(Sm,Gd){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystal lines patterned by laser irradiations in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Futoshi; Honma, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2010-04-15

    Er{sup 3+}-doped beta'-(Sm,Gd){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystal lines are patterned on the surface of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MoO{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses by continuous-wave Yb:YVO{sub 4} laser irradiations (wavelength: 1080 nm, power: 1.3 W, scanning speeds: 5 {mu}m/s), and the origin of the periodicity of self-organized domain structures with high and low refractive index regions in crystal lines is examined from polarized optical microscope (POM) observations, micro-Raman scattering spectrum, and photoluminescence spectrum measurements. It is found that the periodicity of domain structures changes largely depending on Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, i.e., the length of high (bright color in POM observations) and low (dark color) refractive index regions increases with increasing Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and homogeneous crystal lines with no periodic domain structures are patterned in Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MoO{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass with no Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Considering that the degree of ferroelasticities in beta'-(Sm,Gd){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals decreases due to the incorporation of Er{sup 3+} ions, it is demonstrated that the origin of periodic domain structures in laser-patterned lines is due to spontaneous strains in ferroelastic beta'-(Sm,Gd){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the polarized optical photographs (top view) for the lines patterned by laser irradiations with the power of P=1.3 W and the scanning speed of S=5 {mu}m/s in xEr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-(18.25-x)Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-3Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-63.75MoO{sub 3}-15B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol%) glasses. This figure indicates that the periodicity of domain structures in beta'-(Sm,Gd){sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystal lines, i.e., the lengths of bright (high refractive index) and dark (low refractive index) color regions, changes depending on the amount of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. It is demonstrated that the

  4. P2Y12 antagonists in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: latest evidence and optimal use

    PubMed Central

    DiNicolantonio, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), which includes the combination of aspirin and a P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitor, is a well-established antiplatelet regimen in the treatment of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Three P2Y12 inhibitor options (clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor) are currently available, all having different efficacy and safety profiles along with contrasting contraindications, special warnings and precautions for use. This review compares and contrasts the unique P2Y12 antagonists in the NSTE-ACS setting, covering the latest evidence and their optimal use. PMID:26137210

  5. Chemical analyses of pore water from boreholes USW SD-6 and USW WT-24, Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Yang, In C; Peterman, Zell E; Scofield, Kevin M

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of pore water extracted from cores of boreholes USW SD-6 in the central part and USW WT-24 in the northern part of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, show significant vertical and lateral variations in dissolved-ion concentrations. Analyses of samples of only a few milliliters of pore water extracted by uniaxial or triaxial compression and by ultracentrifugation methods from adjacent core samples are generally in agreement, within the analytical error of 10% to 15%. However, the values of silica for water obtained by ultracentrifugation are consistently lower than values for water obtained by compression. The larger concentrations probably are due to localized pressure solution of silicate minerals during compression. The shallower water from core in borehole USW SD-6 was extracted from nonwelded units collectively referred to as the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded (PTn). The deeper water was from core in both boreholes USW SD-6 and USW WT-24 in the nonwelded units referred to as the Calico Hills nonwelded (CHn). Significant differences in mean dissolved-ion concentrations in pore water between the PTn and CHn are (1) decreases in Ca, Mg, SO(4), and NO(3) and (2) increases in HCO(3) and (Na+K)/(Ca+Mg) ratios. The decrease in NO(3) and the increase in HCO(3) could be the result of denitrification through the oxidation of organic matter. The decrease in Ca and associated increase in (Na+K)/(Ca+Mg) is the result of ion exchange with zeolites in the CHn in borehole USW WT-24. This effect is not nearly as pronounced in borehole USW SD-6, probably reflecting a smaller amount of zeolitization of the CHn in USW SD-6. Geochemical calculations using the PHREEQC code indicate that the pore water from both boreholes USW SD-6 and USW WT-24 is uniformly undersaturated in anhydrite, gypsum, and amorphous silica, but supersaturated in quartz and chalcedony. The saturation of calcite, aragonite, sepiolite, and dolomite is more variable from sample to sample.

  6. Discovery, characterization and in vivo activity of pyocin SD2, a protein antibiotic from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    McCaughey, Laura C.; Josts, Inokentijs; Grinter, Rhys; White, Paul; Byron, Olwyn; Tucker, Nicholas P.; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Kleanthous, Colin; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Walker, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa means alternative approaches to antibiotic development are urgently required. Pyocins, produced by P. aeruginosa for intraspecies competition, are highly potent protein antibiotics known to actively translocate across the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa. Understanding and exploiting the mechanisms by which pyocins target, penetrate and kill P. aeruginosa is a promising approach to antibiotic development. In this work we show the therapeutic potential of a newly identified tRNase pyocin, pyocin SD2, by demonstrating its activity in vivo in a murine model of P. aeruginosa lung infection. In addition, we propose a mechanism of cell targeting and translocation for pyocin SD2 across the P. aeruginosa outer membrane. Pyocin SD2 is concentrated at the cell surface, via binding to the common polysaccharide antigen (CPA) of P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS), from where it can efficiently locate its outer membrane receptor FpvAI. This strategy of utilizing both the CPA and a protein receptor for cell targeting is common among pyocins as we show that pyocins S2, S5 and SD3 also bind to the CPA. Additional data indicate a key role for an unstructured N-terminal region of pyocin SD2 in the subsequent translocation of the pyocin into the cell. These results greatly improve our understanding of how pyocins target and translocate across the outer membrane of P. aeruginosa. This knowledge could be useful for the development of novel anti-pseudomonal therapeutics and will also support the development of pyocin SD2 as a therapeutic in its own right. PMID:27252387

  7. Alleviating anastrozole induced bone toxicity by selenium nanoparticles in SD rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vekariya, Kiritkumar K.; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2013-04-15

    Aromatase inhibitors like anastrozole play an undisputed key role in the treatment of breast cancer, but on the other hand, various side effects like osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fracture accompany the chronic administration of these drugs. Here we show for the first time that selenium nanoparticles, when given in conjugation to anastrozole, lower the bone toxicity caused by anastrozole and thus reduce the probable damage to the bone. Selenium nanoparticles at a dose of 5 μg/ml significantly reduced the cell death caused by anastrozole (1 μM) in HOS (human osteoblast) cells. In addition, our results also highlighted that in female SD rat model, SeNPs (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg/day) significantly prevented the decrease in bone density and increase in biochemical markers of bone resorption induced by anastrozole (0.2 mg/kg/day) treatment. Histopathological examination of the femurs of SeNP treated group revealed ossification, mineralization, calcified cartilaginous deposits and a marginal osteoclastic activity, all of which indicate a marked restorative action, suggesting the protective action of the SeNPs. Interestingly, SeNPs (1 mg/kg/day) also exhibited protective effect in ovariectomized rat model, by preventing osteoporosis, which signifies that bone loss due to estrogen deficiency can be effectively overcome by using SeNPs. - Highlights: ► SeNPs significantly reduce bone toxicity in anastrozole treated rats. ► SeNPs successfully prevented osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. ► SeNP treatment lowered the levels of TRAP and increased the levels of ALKP.

  8. The effect of childbirth on carcinogenesis of DMBA-induced breast cancer in female SD rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ji-An; Chen, Jin-Jun; Ju, Ying-Chao; Wu, Jian-Hua; Geng, Cui-Zhi; Yang, Hui-Chai

    2011-11-01

    Many epidemiologic and clinical studies have indicated that the frequency of breast cancer was lower in parous women than in nulliparous women. Moreover, the incidence of breast cancer has been reported to be lower in women with early childbirth than in women with late childbirth. To verify the effect of childbirth and the age at first childbirth on carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer, we induced breast cancer by 7,12-dimethylbenanthracene (DMBA) in 120 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and divided them into control or experimental (DMBA-treated) nulliparous, early childbirth, and late childbirth groups to observe the incidence, latency, and size of breast cancer. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR) count and the expression of C-erbB-2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Ki-67, and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2) in breast cancer tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. The breast cancer incidences were 95.0%, 16.7%, and 58.8% in the experimental nulliparous, early childbirth, and late childbirth groups, respectively (all P < 0.05). Between any two of these groups, the latency was significantly different, but tumor size was similar. AgNOR count and the expression of C-erbB-2, PCNA, Ki-67, and MCM2 were significantly higher in the experimental nulliparous group than in the experimental early or late childbirth groups (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed between the latter two groups. Taken together, the results suggest that childbirth, especially early childbirth, can reduce the incidence and postpone the onset of DMBA-induced breast cancer.

  9. Reproductive toxicity study with a novel deoxyguanosine analogue (Metacavir) in pregnant SD rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qihui; Chen, Zhengli; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Fang, Jing; Peng, Xi; Tang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Our preliminary studies demonstrated that Metacavir has potential to become a new anti-HBV agent. The main targets of the toxic effects of Metacavir, in rhesus monkeys, were gastrointestinal tracts, liver, blood, and kidneys, which were not related to mitochondrial effects. In this study, the maternal toxicity, embryo-fetal developmental toxicity and teratogenicity were studied in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats after intragastric administration of Metacavir (200, 100, 50, 0 mg/kg body weight) during the first 6-15 days of pregnancy. Slower weight gain was observed in 5 out of 21 rats subjected to a 200 mg/kg dose, as well as 2 out of 20 subjected to a 100 mg/kg dose. Compared with the solvent control group, the calibration weight gain in the 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg dosage groups respectively, during first 6-20 pregnant days were significantly different (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Significant dose related adverse effects to other reproductive parameters were not seen in F0 and F1, but the number of stillbirths in high dose group showed notably difference compared with the control group (P < 0.05), while the litter incidence showed no difference. No Metacavir-associated pathological changes were observed. The present research indicated that at a dose of 200 mg/(kg·d) (i.e., 40 times the effective dose in rats), Metacavir shows some maternal toxicity to SD rats. The embryotoxicity in the 200 mg/kg group encompass decreased fetal body weight, and higher fetal mortality rates, compared with the control group. However, the litter incidence showed no statistical difference. All the treated rats displayed normal bone development, no teratogenicity and without adverse effects on fetal development, thus indicating that below a dose of 200 mg/(kg·d) there is no teratogenic side effects.

  10. Coenzyme Q10 attenuated DMH-induced precancerous lesions in SD rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Mi; Park, Eunju

    2010-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is known to be a compound with mitochondrial bioenergetic functions and antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CoQ10 on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), DMH-induced leukocytic DNA damage and gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by real-time PCR in colonic mucosa of male SD rats. The animals were divided into three groups and fed a casein-based high-fat and low fiber diet (100 g lard+20 g cellulose/kg diet) with or without CoQ10 (0.4 mg in soybean oil/kg BW/d, i.p.). One week after beginning the diets, the rats were subjected to 6 wk of treatment with DMH (30 mg/kg/wk, s.c.) and CoQ10 treatments continued over the entirety of the experimental period (59 d). Administration of CoQ10 resulted in reduction of ACF numbers, to 20% of the carcinogen control value. CoQ10 supplementation induced an antigenotoxic effect on DMH-induced DNA damage in the blood cells. Colonic mucosa of DMH-injected rats had significantly greater COX-2 and iNOS gene expression than those of control rats, while treatment with CoQ10 induced an inhibitory effect on over-expression of COX-2 and iNOS in colon tumors. Our results provide evidence that CoQ10 has a protective effect on the process of colon carcinogenesis, suppressing the development of preneoplastic lesions, possibly by modulating COX-2 and iNOS gene expression in colonic mucosa and DNA damage in leukocytes, suggesting that CoQ10 has chemotherapeutic activity.

  11. Improved determination of the atmospheric parameters of the pulsating sdB star Feige 48

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, M.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Green, E. M.; Chayer, P.

    2014-06-10

    As part of a multifaceted effort to better exploit the asteroseismological potential of the pulsating sdB star Feige 48, we present an improved spectroscopic analysis of that star based on new grids of NLTE, fully line-blanketed model atmospheres. To that end, we gathered four high signal-to-noise ratio time-averaged optical spectra of varying spectral resolutions from 1.0 Å to 8.7 Å, and we made use of the results of four independent studies to fix the abundances of the most important metals in the atmosphere of Feige 48. The mean atmospheric parameters we obtained from our four spectra of Feige 48 are: T {sub eff} = 29,850 ± 60 K, log g = 5.46 ± 0.01, and log N(He)/N(H) = –2.88 ± 0.02. We also modeled, for the first time, the He II line at 1640 Å from the STIS archive spectrum of the star, and with this line we found an effective temperature and a surface gravity that match well with the values obtained with the optical data. With some fine tuning of the abundances of the metals visible in the optical domain, we were able to achieve a very good agreement between our best available spectrum and our best-fitting synthetic one. Our derived atmospheric parameters for Feige 48 are in rather good agreement with previous estimates based on less sophisticated models. This underlines the relatively small effects of the NLTE approach combined with line blanketing in the atmosphere of this particular star, implying that the current estimates of the atmospheric parameters of Feige 48 are reliable and secure.

  12. Purification and Characterization of the Manganese(II) Oxidizing Protein from Erythrobacter sp. SD-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakama, K. R.; Lien, A.; Johnson, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    The manganese(II) oxidizing protein (Mop) found in the alpha-proteobacterium Erythrobacter sp. SD-21 catalyzes the formation of insoluble Mn(III/IV) oxides from soluble Mn(II). These Mn(III/IV) oxides formed are one of the strongest naturally occurring oxides, next to oxygen, and can be used to adsorb and oxidize toxic chemicals from the surrounding environment. Because of the beneficial use in the treatment of contaminated sources, the mechanism and biochemical properties of this novel enzyme are being studied. Due to low expression levels in the native host strain, purification of Mop has been problematic. To overcome this problem the gene encoding Mop, mopA, was cloned from the native host into a C-terminal histidine tag vector and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions have been applied in attempts to purify an active Mop. Western blots have confirmed that the protein is being expressed and is at the expected size of 250 kDa. Preliminary characterization on crude extract containing Mop has shown a Km and vmax value of 2453 uM and 0.025 uM min-1, respectively. Heme and pyrroloquinoline quinone can stimulate Mn(II) oxidizing activity, but hydrogen peroxide does not affect activity, despite the sequence similarity to animal heme peroxidase proteins. Research has been shown that calcium is essential for Mop activity. Purifying an active Mn(II) oxidizing protein will allow for a better understanding behind the enigmatic process of Mn(II) oxidation.

  13. Primordial SdS universe from a 5D vacuum: scalar field fluctuations on Schwarzschild and Hubble horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, José Edgar Madriz; Bellini, Mauricio E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar

    2010-11-01

    We study scalar field fluctuations of the inflaton field in an early inflationary universe on an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) metric, which is obtained after make a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) static metric. We obtain the important result that the spectrum of fluctuations at zeroth order is independent of the scalar field mass M on Schwarzschild scales, while on cosmological scales it exhibits a mass dependence. However, in the first-order expansion, the spectrum depends of the inflaton mass and the amplitude is linear with the Black-Hole (BH) mass m.

  14. The SD1 Subdomain of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Capsid Protein Plays a Critical Role in Nucleocapsid and Particle Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Josephine M.; Lulla, Valeria; Kim, Dal Young; Frolova, Elena I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important human and animal pathogen, for which no safe and efficient vaccines or therapeutic means have been developed. Viral particle assembly and budding processes represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. However, our understanding of the mechanistic process of VEEV assembly, RNA encapsidation, and the roles of different capsid-specific domains in these events remain to be described. The results of this new study demonstrate that the very amino-terminal VEEV capsid-specific subdomain SD1 is a critical player in the particle assembly process. It functions in a virus-specific mode, and its deletion, mutation, or replacement by the same subdomain derived from other alphaviruses has strong negative effects on infectious virus release. VEEV variants with mutated SD1 accumulate adaptive mutations in both SD1 and SD2, which result in a more efficiently replicating phenotype. Moreover, efficient nucleocapsid and particle assembly proceeds only when the two subdomains, SD1 and SD2, are derived from the same alphavirus. These two subdomains together appear to form the central core of VEEV nucleocapsids, and their interaction is one of the driving forces of virion assembly and budding. The similar domain structures of alphavirus capsid proteins suggest that this new knowledge can be applied to other alphaviruses. IMPORTANCE Alphaviruses are a group of human and animal pathogens which cause periodic outbreaks of highly debilitating diseases. Despite significant progress made in understanding the overall structure of alphavirus and VEEV virions, and glycoprotein spikes in particular, the mechanistic process of nucleocapsid assembly, RNA encapsidation, and the roles of different capsid-specific domains in these processes remain to be described. Our new data demonstrate that the very amino-terminal subdomain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus capsid protein, SD1, plays a critical role in the

  15. P2Y2 receptor deficiency aggravates chronic kidney disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Potthoff, Sebastian A.; Stegbauer, Johannes; Becker, Jan; Wagenhaeuser, P. Johannes; Duvnjak, Blanka; Rump, Lars C.; Vonend, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Purinergic signaling is involved in a variety of physiological states. P2 receptors are mainly activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Activation of specific P2Y receptor subtypes might influence progression of kidney disease. To investigate the in vivo effect of a particular P2 receptor subtype on chronic kidney disease progression, subtotal nephrectomy was performed on wild type (WT) and P2Y2 receptor knockout (KO) mice. During the observational period of 56 ± 2 days, survival of KO mice was inferior compared to WT mice after SNX. Subtotal nephrectomy reduced creatinine clearance in both groups of mice, but the decrease was significantly more pronounced in KO compared to WT mice (53.9 ± 7.7 vs. 84.3 ± 8.7μl/min at day 56). The KO mice also sustained a greater increase in systolic blood pressure after SNX compared to WT mice (177 ± 2 vs. 156 ± 7 mmHg) and a 2.5-fold increase in albuminuria compared to WT. In addition, WT kidneys showed a significant increase in remnant kidney mass 56 days after SNX, but significant attenuation of hypertrophy in KO mice was observed. In line with the observed hypertrophy in WT SNX mice, a significant dose-dependent increase in DNA synthesis, a marker of proliferation, was present in cultured WT glomerular epithelial cells upon ATP stimulation. Markers for tissue damage (TGF-β 1, PAI-1) and proinflammatory target genes (MCP1) were significantly upregulated in KO mice after SNX compared to WT SNX mice. In summary, deletion of the P2Y2 receptor leads to greater renal injury after SNX compared to WT mice. Higher systolic blood pressure and inability of compensatory hypertrophy in KO mice are likely causes for the accelerated progression of chronic kidney disease. PMID:24065922

  16. Extracellular nucleotides inhibit growth of human oesophageal cancer cells via P2Y2-receptors

    PubMed Central

    Maaser, K; Höpfner, M; Kap, H; Sutter, A P; Barthel, B; von Lampe, B; Zeitz, M; Scherübl, H

    2002-01-01

    Extracellular ATP is known to inhibit growth of various tumours by activating specific purinergic receptors (P2-receptors). Since the therapy of advanced oesophageal cancer is unsatisfying, new therapeutic approaches are mandatory. Here, we investigated the functional expression and potential antiproliferative effects of P2-purinergic receptors in human oesophageal cancer cells. Prolonged incubation of primary cell cultures of human oesophageal cancers as well as of the squamous oesophageal cancer cell line Kyse-140 with ATP or its stable analogue ATPγS dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation. This was due to both an induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The expression of P2-receptors was examined by RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and [Ca2+]i-imaging. Application of various extracellular nucleotides dose-dependently increased [Ca2+]i. The rank order of potency was ATP=UTP>ATPγS>ADP=UDP. 2-methylthio-ATP and α,β-methylene-ATP had no effects on [Ca2+]i. Complete cross-desensitization between ATP and UTP was observed. Moreover, the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 dose-dependently reduced the ATP triggered [Ca2+]i signal. The pharmacological features strongly suggest the functional expression of G-protein coupled P2Y2-receptors in oesophageal squamous cancer cells. P2Y2-receptors are involved in the antiproliferative actions of extracellular nucleotides. Thus, P2Y2-receptors are promising target proteins for innovative approaches in oesophageal cancer therapy. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 636–644. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600100 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11870549

  17. Structural and spectroscopic studies of Ba2Y1-δUO6+x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Emily; Kennedy, Brendan J.; Avdeev, Maxim; Thorogood, Gordon J.; Zhang, Zhaoming; Brand, Helen E. A.

    2016-11-01

    A combination of S-XRD and NPD demonstrate the structure of Ba2Y0.879UO6+x to be monoclinic in space group I2/m. That the U is hexavalent is evident from the U L2-edge XANES measurements. This appears to be a rare example of a double perovskite containing vacancies at the octahedral B-sites and interstitial oxygen defects, which combine to stabilise hexavalent U and appears to be a consequence of the preparation of the sample in air. The Y vacancies, coupled with anion disorder, results in a distortion of the BO6 octahedra.

  18. Enhanced 77 K vortex-pinning in Y Ba2Cu3O7-x films with Ba2Y TaO6 and mixed Ba2Y TaO6 + Ba2Y NbO6 nano-columnar inclusions with irreversibility field to 11 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, F.; Augieri, A.; Angrisani Armenio, A.; Galluzzi, V.; Mancini, A.; Pinto, V.; Rufoloni, A.; Vannozzi, A.; Bianchetti, M.; Kursumovic, A.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.; Meledin, A.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Celentano, G.

    2016-06-01

    Pulsed laser deposited thin Y Ba2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films with pinning additions of 5 at. % Ba2Y TaO6 (BYTO) were compared to films with 2.5 at. % Ba2Y TaO6 + 2.5 at. % Ba2Y NbO6 (BYNTO) additions. Excellent magnetic flux-pinning at 77 K was obtained with remarkably high irreversibility fields greater than 10 T (YBCO-BYTO) and 11 T (YBCO-BYNTO), representing the highest ever achieved values in YBCO films.

  19. Inhaled P2Y2 receptor agonists as a treatment for patients with Cystic Fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, Don; Evans, Richard; Mathews, Dave; Shaffer, Christy

    2002-12-05

    P2Y(2) receptor agonists are a new class of compounds that are being evaluated as a treatment for the pulmonary manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Results of preclinical research suggest that these compounds inhibit sodium absorption, restore chloride conductance and rehydrate the CF airway surface. In addition, P2Y(2) receptor agonists have been shown to enhance ciliary beat frequency and increase mucociliary clearance in animals and subjects with impaired mucociliary clearance. The normalization of airway surface liquid and enhancement of lung clearance is expected to provide a clinical benefit to CF patients. A number of P2Y(2) agonist compounds have been evaluated in healthy subjects and patients with CF. Most recently, INS37217, a metabolically stable and potent P2Y(2) agonist has been developed and studies have shown it to be well-tolerated when given via inhalation. This compound is currently being evaluated in children and adults with CF lung disease.

  20. Involvement of glial P2Y1 receptors in cognitive deficit after focal cerebral stroke in a rodent model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neuroinflammation is associated with many conditions that lead to dementia, such as cerebrovascular disorders or Alzheimer’s disease. However, the specific role of neuroinflammation in the progression of cognitive deficits remains unclear. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying these events we used a rodent model of focal cerebral stroke, which causes deficits in hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. Methods Cerebral stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Hippocampus-dependent cognitive function was evaluated by a contextual fear conditioning test. The glial neuroinflammatory responses were investigated by immunohistochemical evaluation and diffusion tensor MRI (DTI). We used knockout mice for P2Y1 (P2Y1KO), a glial ADP/ATP receptor that induces the release of proinflammatory cytokines, to examine the links among P2Y1-mediated signaling, the neuroinflammatory response, and cognitive function. Results Declines in cognitive function and glial neuroinflammatory response were observed after MCAO in both rats and mice. Changes in the hippocampal tissue were detected by DTI as the mean diffusivity (MD) value, which corresponded with the cognitive decline at 4 days, 1 week, 3 weeks, and 2 months after MCAO. Interestingly, the P2Y1KO mice with MCAO showed a decline in sensory-motor function, but not in cognition. Furthermore, the P2Y1KO mice showed neither a hippocampal glial neuroinflammatory response (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) nor a change in hippocampal MD value after MCAO. In addition, wild-type mice treated with a P2Y1-specific antagonist immediately after reperfusion did not show cognitive decline. Conclusion Our findings indicate that glial P2Y1 receptors are involved in the hippocampal inflammatory response. The findings from this study may contribute to the development of a therapeutic strategy for brain infarction, targeting the P2Y1 receptor. PMID:23890321

  1. Comparison of VerifyNow P2Y12 and thrombelastography for assessing clopidogrel response in stroke patients in China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hui-Hui; Wu, Shuai; Liu, Xu; Yang, Xiao-Li; Xu, Jian-Feng; Guan, Yang-Tai; Dong, Qiang; Zheng, S Lilly; Jiang, Jian-Ming; Li, Shi-Xu; Luo, Zheng; Li, Li; An, Li-Xian; Han, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Poor response to clopidogrel is often associated with recurrent ischemic events, and reliable platelet function tests are needed to identify clopidogrel low response (CLR). The aim of the study was to compare the consistency of VerifyNow P2Y12 and thrombelastography (TEG) in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with clopidogrel. Patients hospitalized in Changhai Hospital from August 2012 to September 2013 and assigned to treatment with a daily 75-mg dose of clopidogrel. The blood samples were taken on the 5-7th day to assess the capability of VerifyNow P2Y12 and TEG for evaluation of clopidogrel response, and all instrument parameters were used to perform correlation analysis. Patients with CLR were detected by using the methods and criteria published earlier (PRU ≥ 230 assayed by VerifyNow P2Y12 or TEG-Inhib% ≤30 % measured by TEG). Totally 58 patients were enrolled for the study and there were wide varieties in parameters of VerifyNow P2Y12 and TEG. Results showed a total of 17 and 9 patients, respectively, identified as CLR assessed by VerifyNow P2Y12 and TEG, but only three patients were detected to be clopidogrel low responders with both tests. The kappa consistency analysis showed poor consistency between VerifyNow P2Y12 and TEG results in terms of CLR (Kappa = -0.0349, p = 0.7730). Linear regression also demonstrated poor correlation between VerifyNow-PRU/VerifyNow-Inhib% and TEG-Inhib% (p = 0.07901 and p = 0.3788, respectively). Our study demonstrated that there was poor correlation between VerifyNow P2Y12 and TEG results, and VerifyNow P2Y12 showed a larger proportion of CLR than TEG.

  2. Inverse agonism at the P2Y12 receptor and ENT1 transporter blockade contribute to platelet inhibition by ticagrelor

    PubMed Central

    Aungraheeta, Riyaad; Conibear, Alexandra; Butler, Mark; Kelly, Eamonn; Nylander, Sven; Mumford, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Ticagrelor is a potent antagonist of the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) and consequently an inhibitor of platelet activity effective in the treatment of atherothrombosis. Here, we sought to further characterize its molecular mechanism of action. Initial studies showed that ticagrelor promoted a greater inhibition of adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP)–induced Ca2+ release in washed platelets vs other P2Y12R antagonists. This additional effect of ticagrelor beyond P2Y12R antagonism was in part as a consequence of ticagrelor inhibiting the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) on platelets, leading to accumulation of extracellular adenosine and activation of Gs-coupled adenosine A2A receptors. This contributed to an increase in basal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP-P). In addition, ticagrelor increased platelet cAMP and VASP-P in the absence of ADP in an adenosine receptor–independent manner. We hypothesized that this increase originated from a direct effect on basal agonist-independent P2Y12R signaling, and this was validated in 1321N1 cells stably transfected with human P2Y12R. In these cells, ticagrelor blocked the constitutive agonist-independent activity of the P2Y12R, limiting basal Gi-coupled signaling and thereby increasing cAMP levels. These data suggest that ticagrelor has the pharmacological profile of an inverse agonist. Based on our results showing insurmountable inhibition of ADP-induced Ca2+ release and forskolin-induced cAMP, the mode of antagonism of ticagrelor also appears noncompetitive, at least functionally. In summary, our studies describe 2 novel modes of action of ticagrelor, inhibition of platelet ENT1 and inverse agonism at the P2Y12R that contribute to its effective inhibition of platelet activation. PMID:27694321

  3. Boranophosphate Isoster Controls P2Y-Receptor Subtype Selectivity and Metabolic Stability of Dinucleoside Polyphosphate Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Yelovitch, Shir; Camden, Jean; Weisman, Gary A.; Fischer, Bilha

    2015-01-01

    Dinucleoside polyphosphates, NpnN′, exert their physiological effects via P2 receptors (P2Rs). NpnN′ are attractive drug candidates as they offer better stability and specificity compared to nucleotides, the most common P2R ligands. To further improve the agonist properties of NpnN′, we synthesized novel isosters of dinucleoside polyphosphates where N and N′ are A or U and where the Pα or Pβ phosphate groups are replaced by boranophosphate, denoted as Npn(α-B)N′ or Npn(β-B)N′ (n = 3, 4), respectively. The potency of Npn(α/β-B)N′ analogues was evaluated at tP2Y1, hP2Y2, hP2Y4, and rP2Y6 receptors. The most potent P2Y1R and P2Y6R agonists were the Up4(β-B)A (A isomer, EC50 of 0.5 μM vs 0.004 μM for 2-SMe-ADP) and Up3(α-B)U (B isomer, EC50 of 0.3 μM vs 0.2 μM for UDP), respectively. The receptor subtype selectivity is controlled by the position of the borano moiety on the NpnN′ polyphosphate chain and the type of the nucleobase. In addition, Npn(α/β-B)N′ proved ~22-fold more resistant to hydrolysis by e-NPP1, as compared to the corresponding NpnN′ analogues. In summary, Up4(β-B)A and Up3(α-B)U are potent, stable, and highly selective P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptor agonists, respectively. PMID:22107038

  4. A CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE NEARBY SCULPTOR GROUP Sd GALAXY NGC 7793

    SciTech Connect

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Staggs, Wayne D.; Schlegel, Eric M.; Filipovic, Miroslav D.; Payne, Jeffrey L.; Petre, Robert

    2011-07-15

    We conducted a Chandra ACIS observation of the nearby Sculptor Group Sd galaxy NGC 7793 as part of a multiwavelength study of supernova remnants (SNRs) in nearby galaxies. At the assumed distance to NGC 7793 of 3.91 Mpc, the limiting unabsorbed luminosity of the detected discrete X-ray sources is L{sub X} (0.2-10.0 keV) {approx}3x10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. A total of 22 discrete sources were detected at the {approx}3{sigma} level or greater including one ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). Based on multiwavelength comparisons, we identify X-ray sources coincident with one SNR, the candidate microquasar N7793-S26, one H II region, and two foreground Galactic stars. We also find that the X-ray counterpart to the candidate radio SNR R3 is time variable in its X-ray emission: we therefore rule out the possibility that this source is a single SNR. A marked asymmetry is seen in the distribution of the discrete sources with the majority lying in the eastern half of this galaxy. All of the sources were analyzed using quantiles to estimate spectral properties and spectra of the four brightest sources (including the ULX) were extracted and analyzed. We searched for time variability in the X-ray emission of the detected discrete sources using our measured fluxes along with fluxes measured from prior Einstein and Roentgensatellit observations. From this study, three discrete X-ray sources are established to be significantly variable. A spectral analysis of the galaxy's diffuse emission is characterized by a temperature of kT = 0.19-0.25 keV. The luminosity function of the discrete sources shows a slope with an absolute value of {Gamma} = -0.65 {+-} 0.11 if we exclude the ULX. If the ULX is included, the luminosity function has a long tail to high L{sub X} with a poor-fitting slope of {Gamma} = -0.62 {+-} 0.2. The ULX-less slope is comparable to the slopes measured for the distributions of NGC 6946 and NGC 2403 but much shallower than the slopes measured for the distributions of

  5. Uranium, Thorium, Potassium Contents of Materials in the Homestake Underground, Lead, SD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenthen, W.; Smith, A.

    2008-12-01

    The uranium, thorium, and potassium contents (UTK) of materials in the underground laboratory at the Homestake DUSEL in Lead, SD, can significantly affect the radioactive backgrounds experienced by detectors in physics experiments planned for the facility. Many highly sensitive experiments require low activities both in terms of direct gamma and neutron radiation as well as radon that might emanate from the materials. Specific issues requiring characterization include evaluation of the rock in which laboratory rooms will be emplaced, the design of the cement and aggregate used in shotcreting the laboratory areas used for the physics experiments, estimates of requirements for shielding from radiation from the country rock, and estimates of radon emanation. The rocks of most importance from this standpoint in the laboratory underground include the Poorman Formation, the Yates Member of the Poorman Formation, and Tertiary igneous rocks. The laboratory at the 7400 level currently is planned for construction in the Yates, whereas the laboratories at the 4850 level are scheduled for construction in both the general Poorman Fm. and the Yates. The UTK contents of Poorman and Yates from the underground are generally very low (0.1 - 0.2 ppm U and 0.2 - 0.4 ppm Th). Rhyolitic intrusive rocks, which occur as thin dikes in the vicinity of the 4850 level laboratory, have substantially higher values that are reflective of their more silicic nature with typical U values in the range of 8 - 9 ppm. Many of the laboratory rooms for the detector experiments will have walls that have been shotcreted and floors finished with concrete. The concrete consists of at least two components, the cement and the aggregate. The choices for cement material are limited by local availability but the UTK content is in the 3 ppm range for U. Analyses of potential aggregates show that sources of aggregate from standard regional aggregate resources appear to have higher values of UTK content than is

  6. Chemical bond properties and charge transfer bands of O(2-)-Eu(3+), O(2-)-Mo(6+) and O(2-)-W(6+) in Eu(3+)-doped garnet hosts Ln3M5O12 and ABO4 molybdate and tungstate phosphors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Li, Ling; Noh, Hyeon Mi; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun

    2014-06-21

    Charge transfer (CT) energy from the ligand to the central ions is an important factor in luminescence properties for rare earth doped inorganic phosphors. The dielectric theory of complex crystals was used to calculate chemical bond properties. Combining the photoluminescence and the dielectric theory of complex crystals, the CT bands of O(2-)-Eu(3+), O(2-)-Mo(6+) and O(2-)-W(6+) for Eu(3+)-doped inorganic phosphors have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Taking Eu(3+)-doped Ln3M5O12 (Ln = Y, Lu and M = Al, Ga), Gd3Ga5O12, MMoO4 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) and MWO4 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) as typical phosphors, we investigated the effects of the cation size on the CT bands and chemical bond properties including the bond length (d), the covalency (fc), the bond polarizability (αb) and the environmental factor (he) of O(2-)-Eu(3+), O(2-)-Mo(6+) and O(2-)-W(6+), respectively. For systematic isostructural Ln3M5O12 (Ln = Y, Lu and M = Al, Ga) phosphors, with the increasing M ion radius, the bond length of Ln-O decreases, but fc and αb increase, which is the main reason that the environmental factor increased. For the isostructural MMoO4:Eu, with the increasing M ion radius, the Mo-O bond length increases, but fc and αb decrease, and thus he decreases. However, in the compound system MWO4:Eu (M = Ca, Ba) with the increasing M ion radius, the O-W bond length increases, but fc and αb increase, and thus he increases and the O-W CT energy decreases. Their O(2-)-Eu(3+), O(2-)-Mo(6+) and O(2-)-W(6+) CT bands as well as their full width at half maximum (FWHM) were directly influenced by he. And with the increasing he, CT bands of O-Eu or O-Mo or O-W decrease and their FWHM increases. These results indicate a promising approach for changing the material properties, searching for new Eu(3+) doped molybdate, tungstate or other oxide phosphors and analyzing the experimental result.

  7. Positional cloning of rice semidwarfing gene, sd-1: rice "green revolution gene" encodes a mutant enzyme involved in gibberellin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Monna, Lisa; Kitazawa, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Rika; Suzuki, Junko; Masuda, Haruka; Maehara, Yumiko; Tanji, Masao; Sato, Mizuho; Nasu, Shinobu; Minobe, Yuzo

    2002-02-28

    A rice semidwarfing gene, sd-1, known as the "green revolution gene," was isolated by positional cloning and revealed to encode gibberellin 20-oxidase, the key enzyme in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway. Analysis of 3477 segregants using several PCR-based marker technologies, including cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence, derived-CAPS, and single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed 1 ORF in a 6-kb candidate interval. Normal-type rice cultivars have an identical sequence in this region, consisting of 3 exons (558, 318, and 291 bp) and 2 introns (105 and 1471 bp). Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen-type sd-1 mutants have a 383-bp deletion from the genome (278-bp deletion from the expressed sequence), from the middle of exon 1 to upstream of exon 2, including a 105-bp intron, resulting in a frame-shift that produces a termination codon after the deletion site. The radiation-induced sd-1 mutant Calrose 76 has a 1-bp substitution in exon 2, causing an amino acid substitution (Leu [CTC] to Phe [TTC]). Expression analysis suggests the existence of at least one more locus of gibberellin 20-oxidase which may prevent severe dwarfism from developing in sd-1 mutants.

  8. Application of chirally-deuterated (S)-D-(6-2H1)glucose to conformational studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deuterated sugars are widely used to elucidate mechanisms of biosynthesis and of chemical reactions, and to confirm assignments of complex NMR or mass spectra. To date, however, there are few reported syntheses for regio and stereospecifically deuterated pyranoses. Chirally-deuterated (S)-D-(6-**2...

  9. Isolation and characterization of Aurantiochytrium species: high docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production by the newly isolated microalga, Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mang; Song, Xiaojin; Feng, Yingang; Li, Wenli; Cui, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    A heterotrophic microalga, strain SD116, with the ability to produce high concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) was isolated from Shuidong Bay, Guangdong Province, China. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 18S rDNA of SD116 showed that the strain has a close phylogenetic relationship to Aurantiochytrium species. The highest rates for growth and DHA accumulation for SD116 were obtained in 6.0% glucose, 2.0% yeast extract, and 50% artificial seawater (ASW) at a pH of 7 at 28°C. The maximum total lipid content reached 56.3% of the dry cell weight (DCW), and the maximum DHA content accounted for 50.9% of the total fatty acid (TFA) content. It was further found that urea may be a potential nitrogen source for industrial fermentation because of its cheap price and ability to induce a relatively high biomass and lipid production capacity. Using 5 L fermenters, the DCW, total lipid content, and DHA yield were found to be 70.43 g L(-1), 71.09% of the DCW, and 17.42 g L(-1) (34.79% of the TFA), respectively. The results show that Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116 is a promising candidate for commercial DHA production and could be useful for the synthesis of biomass-related products.

  10. 76 FR 53400 - Black Hills National Forest, SD; Thunder Basin National Grassland, WY; Teckla-Osage-Rapid City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, SD; Thunder Basin National Grassland, WY; Teckla-Osage-Rapid... Basin National Grasslands, private lands, BLM lands, and state lands in Wyoming. The line would be... Geri Proctor, Thunder Basin National Grasslands, 2250 East Richards Street, Douglas, WY...

  11. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production.

  12. Nocardiopsis sp. SD5: a potent feather degrading rare actinobacterium isolated from feather waste in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Subhasish; Dhanasekaran, D; Shanmugapriya, S; Latha, S

    2013-07-01

    Feather waste, generated in large quantities as a byproduct of commercial poultry processing, is nearly pure keratin protein, and keratin in its native state is not degradable by common proteolytic enzymes. The aim of the study was to find a potent feather degrading actinobacteria from feather waste soil. Out of 91 actinobacterial isolates recorded from feather waste soil in Tiruchirappalli and Nammakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India, isolate SD5 was selected for characterization because it exhibited significant keratinolytic activity. On the basis of the phenotypic, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene-sequencing studies, the isolate was identified as Nocardiopsis sp. SD5. Protease and keratinase activity of Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 were analyzed. The enzyme was more stable over the neutral pH and the temperature of 40 °C. The optimum temperature and pH for both proteolytic and keratinolytic activity was determined at 50 °C and pH 9, respectively. Enzyme inhibitors, detergents and chelator declined the enzyme activity with increasing concentration. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram elucidated the presence of 30 and 60 kDa protease enzymes. These findings indicated that thermo alkaliphilic feather degrading strain Nocardiopsis sp. SD5 could be used to control the feather waste pollution and to convert keratin rich feather waste into useful feedstock for poultry industry.

  13. 77 FR 27714 - Foreign-Trade Zone 220-Sioux Falls, SD; Application for Reorganization and Expansion Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 220--Sioux Falls, SD; Application for Reorganization and...) Board (the Board) by the Sioux Falls Development Foundation, grantee of FTZ 220, requesting authority to... following sites: Site 1 (130 acres)--Joe Foss Field, 2801 Jaycee Lane, Sioux Falls; Site 2 (123...

  14. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J.

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production. PMID:26716833

  15. P2Y12-ADP receptor antagonists: Days of future and past

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Marc; Paganelli, Franck; Bonello, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of the therapeutic arsenal in coronary artery disease. Thanks to a better understanding in physiology, pharmacology and pharmacogenomics huge progress were made in the field of platelet reactivity inhibition thus allowing the expansion of percutaneous coronary intervention. Stent implantation requires the combination of two antiplatelet agents acting in a synergistic way. Asprin inhibit the cyclo-oxygenase pathway of platelet activation while clopidogrel is a P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonist. This dual antiplatelet therapy has dramatically improved the prognosis of stented patients. However, due to pharmacological limitations of clopidogrel (interindividual variability in its biological efficacy, slow onset of action, mild platelet reactivity inhibition) ischemic recurrences remained high following stent implantation especially in acute coronary syndrome patients. Thus, more potent P2Y12-ADP receptor inhibitors were developped including prasugrel, ticagrelor and more recently cangrelor to overcome these pitfalls. These new agents reduced the rate of thrombotic events in acute coronary syndrome patients at the cost of an increased bleeding risk. The abundance in antiplatelet agents allow us to tailor our strategy based on the thrombotic/bleeding profile of each patient. Recently, the ACCOAST trial cast a doubt on the benefit of pre treatment in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. The aim of the present review is to summarize the results of the main studies dealing with antiplatelet therapy in stented/acute coronary syndromes patients. PMID:27231519

  16. A theoretical study of models for X sub 2 Y sub 2 zintl ions

    SciTech Connect

    Cave, R.J.; Davidson, E.R. ); Sautet, P.; Canadell, E.; Eisenstein, O. )

    1989-10-11

    Ab initio and extended Hueckel calculations have been used to discuss the bonding scheme in X{sub 2}Y{sub 2} neutral and ionic main group clusters. A qualitative analysis suggests that two different electron counts, 20 and 22, are possible for the butterfly structures of these systems. This results from two orbital crossings in the correlation diagram for the tetrahedral (T{sub d}) {yields} butterfly (C{sub 2{nu}}) {yields} square-planar (D{sub 2h}) transformation. Detailed ab initio computations substantiate this analysis and show that the 20-electron butterfly structure becomes increasingly favored over the tetrahedral one in X{sub 2}Y{sub 2} clusters when the 2 atoms have increasing electronegativity difference. These results are in agreement with the known structures for the Pb{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}{sup 2{minus}} and Sb{sub 2}Bi{sub 2}{sup 2{minus}} clusters (tetrahedral-like) and the Tl{sub 2}Te{sub 2}{sup 2{minus}} one (butterfly-like).

  17. Two different P2Y receptors linked to steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Nishi, H

    1999-10-01

    Both extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) induced corticoid production (steroidogenesis) concentration-dependently in bovine adrenocortical cells (BA cells). Pertussis toxin (PTX, approx. 2 microg/ml) partially inhibited (approx. 55% inhibition) extracellular ATP (100 microM)-induced steroidogenesis in BA cells. However, PTX did not inhibit extracellular UTP (100 microM)-induced steroidogenesis. Both ATP- and UTP-induced steroidogeneses were significantly inhibited by suramin (50-200 microM). These effects were inhibited significantly by reactive blue-2 (more than 100 microM) and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (more than 100 microM). Both nucleotides (1-100 microM) induced inositol phosphates accumulation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, but PTX did not inhibit them. The RT-PCR procedure identified only P2Y2-receptor mRNA in BA cells. These results suggest that extracellular ATP induces steroidogenesis via a unique P2 receptor linked to PTX-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein), while extracellular UTP induces steroidogenesis via P2 receptor linked to PTX-insensitive G-protein. Thus, it was concluded that at least two different P2Y-like receptors linking to steroidogenesis exist in BA cells.

  18. Suppression of exchange bias effect in maghemite nanoparticles functionalized with H2Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guivar, Juan A. Ramos; Morales, M. A.; Litterst, F. Jochen

    2016-12-01

    The structural, vibrational, morphological and magnetic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles functionalized with polar molecules EDTA(or H4Y) and H2Y are reported. The samples were functionalized before and after total synthesis of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The molecules are anchored on the monodentate mode on the nanoparticles surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the formation of maghemite nanoparticles with small diameter of 4 nm for the sample functionalized upon synthesis and 7.6 and 6.9 nm for the samples functionalized with EDTA and H2Y after the formation of nanoparticles. Exchange bias phenomena were observed in some of the samples functionalized with EDTA at temperatures below 70 K. The presence of the bias effect was discussed in terms of the formation of a thin layer of a secondary phase like lepidocrocite, and the absence of this effect was explained in terms of the chemisorption of carboxylic groups from EDTA which suppressed the canting. Studies of Mössbauer spectroscopy as a function of temperature showed slow relaxation effects and allowed discussion of the secondary phase. In the M-T curves a maximum around 116 K was associated with this secondary phase also in agreement with the Mössbauer studies. The dynamic properties were studied by AC susceptibility, the out of phase signal revealed a spin glass like regime below 36.5 K.

  19. The G Protein-coupled Receptor P2Y14 Influences Insulin Release and Smooth Muscle Function in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Jaroslawna; Le Duc, Diana; Ricken, Albert; Burkhardt, Ralph; Thiery, Joachim; Pfannkuche, Helga; Polte, Tobias; Grosse, Johannes; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela

    2014-01-01

    UDP sugars were identified as extracellular signaling molecules, assigning a new function to these compounds in addition to their well defined role in intracellular substrate metabolism and storage. Previously regarded as an orphan receptor, the G protein-coupled receptor P2Y14 (GPR105) was found to bind extracellular UDP and UDP sugars. Little is known about the physiological functions of this G protein-coupled receptor. To study its physiological role, we used a gene-deficient mouse strain expressing the bacterial LacZ reporter gene to monitor the physiological expression pattern of P2Y14. We found that P2Y14 is mainly expressed in pancreas and salivary glands and in subpopulations of smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels, lung, and uterus. Among other phenotypical differences, knock-out mice showed a significantly impaired glucose tolerance following oral and intraperitoneal glucose application. An unchanged insulin tolerance suggested altered pancreatic islet function. Transcriptome analysis of pancreatic islets showed that P2Y14 deficiency significantly changed expression of components involved in insulin secretion. Insulin secretion tests revealed a reduced insulin release from P2Y14-deficient islets, highlighting P2Y14 as a new modulator of proper insulin secretion. PMID:24993824

  20. Reproducibility of SD-OCT–Based Ganglion Cell–Layer Thickness in Glaucoma Using Two Different Segmentation Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Mona K.; Lee, Kyungmoo; Burns, Trudy L.; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan; Kwon, Young H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the reproducibility of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)–based ganglion cell–layer-plus-inner plexiform–layer (GCL+IPL) thickness measurements for glaucoma patients obtained using both a publicly available and a commercially available algorithm. Methods. Macula SD-OCT volumes (200 × 200 × 1024 voxels, 6 × 6 × 2 mm3) were obtained prospectively from both eyes of patients with open-angle glaucoma or with suspected glaucoma on two separate visits within 4 months. The combined GCL+IPL thickness was computed for each SD-OCT volume within an elliptical annulus centered at the fovea, based on two algorithms: (1) a previously published graph-theoretical layer segmentation approach developed at the University of Iowa, and (2) a ganglion cell analysis module of version 6 of Cirrus software. The mean overall thickness of the elliptical annulus was computed as was the thickness within six sectors. For statistical analyses, eyes with an SD-OCT volume with low signal strength (<6), image acquisition errors, or errors in performing the commercial GCL+IPL analysis in at least one of the repeated acquisitions were excluded. Results. Using 104 eyes (from 56 patients) with repeated measurements, we found the intraclass correlation coefficient for the overall elliptical annular GCL+IPL thickness to be 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97–0.99) with the Iowa algorithm and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93–0.97) with the Cirrus algorithm; the intervisit SDs were 1.55 μm (Iowa) and 2.45 μm (Cirrus); and the coefficients of variation were 2.2% (Iowa) and 3.5% (Cirrus), P < 0.0001. Conclusions. SD-OCT–based GCL+IPL thickness measurements in patients with early glaucoma are highly reproducible. PMID:24045993

  1. First principle research of possible HM-AFM in double perovskites A2MoOsO6 and A2TcReO6 (A = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) with group IVA elements set on the A-site position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Huei-Ru; Liu, Yun-Ping; Wang, Yin-Kuo

    2013-05-01

    We calculated electronic structures of double perovskite structures of A2MoOsO6 and A2TcReO6 (A = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) based on the density functional theory which was carried out with a full structural optimization using generalized gradient approximation and taking into account the correlation effect (GGA + U). In GGA calculation, Pb2TcReO6 shows a half-metallic antiferromagnet (HM-AFM) characteristic, whereas Sn2MoOsO6, Pb2MoOsO6, and Sn2TcReO6 are nearly HM-AFMs. With GGA + U calculation, Sn2MoOsO6 and Pb2MoOsO6 become stable HM-AFM, but Sn2TcReO6 and Pb2TcReO6 changes HM-AFM into an antiferromagnetic insulator. The p-d hybridization between B(B')d-Op and double exchange interaction is the mean reason to result in the half-metallic and compensated ferrimagnetic phase.

  2. Surface Quality Multicriteria Optimization of Flat Parts from 06Cr14Ni6Cu2MoVaTi-SH Steel While Grinding by Varigrain High Porosity CBN Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Y. I.; Nguyen, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    The grinding of flat parts from 06Cr14Ni6Cu2MoVaTi-SH high-strength corrosion-resistant steel was made by the highly porous wheel (HPW) of CBN30 (B76, B107, B126, V151) 100 OVK27-KF40 (GOST R 53922-2010, GOST R 53923-2010). As input variables for fuzzy logic modeling in the Matlab the following description of the surface quality is chosen: the microrelief parameters (GOST 25142-82) - Ra1, Rmax1 in the cross-feed direction, Sm2 in the length feed direction, flatness deviation (GOST 24642-81) are introduced with the EFEmax , EFEa and EFEq ; microhardness HV. Every parameter at the model input is presented with position measures (medians) and scattering measures (quartile latitude). The Matlab modeling has shown that the best quality of the part surfaces is provided with HPW CBN30 B151 during the multicriteria optimization.

  3. A pure inorganic 1D chain based on {Mo8O28} clusters and Mn(II) ions: [Mn(H2O)2Mo8O28 ] n 6 n -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofen; Yan, Yonghong; Wu, Lizhou; Yu, Chengxin; Dong, Xinbo; Hu, Huaiming; Xue, Ganglin

    2016-01-01

    A new pure inorganic polymer, (NH4)6n[Mn(H2O)2Mo8O28)]n(H2O)2n(1), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectrum, UV-vis absorption spectra, TG-DSC and electrochemical studies. In 1, [Mo8O28]8- anions act as tetradentate ligands and are alternately linked by Mn(H2O)2 2 + ions into a one-dimensional chain structure. It is interesting that 1 represents the first example of pure inorganic-inorganic hybrid based on octamolybdate and transition metal ions. Moreover, it was indicated that 1 had definite catalytic activities on the probe reaction of benzyl alcohol oxidation to benzaldehyde with H2O2.

  4. 3-center-4-electron bonding in [(silox)2Mo=NtBu]2(mu-Hg) controls reactivity while frontier orbitals permit a dimolybdenum pi-bond energy estimate.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Devon C; Wolczanski, Peter T; Barakat, Khaldoon A; Buda, Corneliu; Cundari, Thomas R

    2005-06-15

    Na/Hg reduction of (silox)2Cl2Mo=NtBu (3) afforded C2h [(silox)2Mo=NtBu]2(mu-Hg) (12-Hg), which consists of two distorted trigonal monoprisms with Hg at the each apex (d(MoHg) = 2.6810(5) A). Calculations reveal 3c4e bonding in the linear MoHgMo linkage that renders 12-Hg susceptible to nucleophilic cleavage. Exposure to PMe3 and pyridine rapidly (<5 min) affords (silox)2(tBuN)MoLn (L = PMe3, n = 1 (1-PMe3); py, n = 2 (1-py2)), while poorer nucleophiles (L = C2H4, 2-butyne) yield adducts (e.g., 1-C2H4 and 1-C2Me2) after prolonged heating. The HOMO and LUMO of 12-Hg are "stretched" pi and pi* orbitals from which four states arise: 1Ag (GS), 3Bu, 1Bu, and 1Ag. DeltaE = E(1Bu) - E(3Bu) = 2K, where K is the exchange energy. Magnetic studies indicate E(3Bu) - E(1Ag) approximately 550 cm-1 (calcd 1744 cm-1), and a UV-vis absorption at 10 000 cm-1 is assigned to 1Ag --> 1Bu, permitting K to be evaluated as 4725 cm-1. With the pi --> pi* transition in Schrock's [Mo(NAr)(CH2tBu)(OC6F5)]2 (4) assigned at 528 nm, this estimation places its pi-bond energy as {E(pi2 --> pi1pi*1 in 4) - E(1Ag --> 1Bu in 12-Hg)} + E(1Ag --> 3Bu in 12-Hg) = 27 kcal/mol.

  5. Structural elucidation of the Bi(2(n + 2))Mo(n)O(6(n + 1)) (n = 3, 4, 5 and 6) family of fluorite superstructures by transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Landa-Cánovas, Angel R; Vila, Eladio; Hernández-Velasco, Jorge; Galy, Jean; Castro, Alicia

    2009-08-01

    The cationic framework structure of a whole new family of compounds with the general formula Bi(2(n + 2))Mo(n)O(6(n + 1)) (n = 3, 4, 5 and 6) has been elucidated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used to postulate heavy-atom models based on the known structure of the n = 3 phase, Bi(10)Mo(3)O(24). These models were tested by HRTEM image simulation, electron diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction simulation methods which agreed with the experimental results. The four known phases of this family correspond to n = 3, 4, 5 and 6 members and all show fluorite superstructures. They consist of a common delta-Bi(2)O(3) fluorite-type framework, inside of which are distributed ribbons of {MoO(4)} tetrahedra which are infinite along b, one tetrahedron thick along c, and of variable widths of 3, 4, 5 or 6 {MoO(4)} tetrahedra along a depending on the family member (n value). These {MoO(4)} tetrahedra are isolated, i.e. without sharing any corner as in the [Bi(12)O(14)] columnar structural-type phase Bi[Bi(12)O(14)][MoO(4)](4)[VO(4)]. The structure of all these family members can be described as crystallographic shear derivatives from Aurivillius-type phases such as Bi(2)MoO(6), the n = infinity end member. All these compounds are good oxygen-ion conductors.

  6. Does the metal-metal sextuple bond exist in the bimetallic sandwich compounds Cr2(C6H6)2, Mo2(C6H6)2, and W2(C6H6)2?†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi; Schaefer, Henry F., III; Xie, Yaoming; Liu, Yongdong; Zhong, Rugang

    2013-09-01

    Although evanescent at best, the bare dimers of the elements Cr, Mo, and W have been identified as possible candidates for the sextuple metal-metal bond. The corresponding dibenzene sandwich compounds Cr2(C6H6)2, Mo2(C6H6)2, and W2(C6H6)2, satisfy the '18-Electron Rule', and might achieve high-order metal-metal bonds and longer lifetimes at the same time. Twenty-two different DFT methods have been used to evaluate this possibility. Based on the present Wiberg bond index and molecular orbital analyses, however, only quadruple metal-metal bonds are predicted for the electronic ground states of Cr2(C6H6)2, Mo2(C6H6)2, and W2(C6H6)2, rather than the sextuple or even quintuple bonds, for both singlet and triplet electronic states. It is possible to force the hypothesised D 6h sextuple bond electron configuration, but the resulting energy is 39 kcal/mol above the D 2h quadruple bond structure for Cr2(C6H6)2. However, the constrained sextuple bond structure for Mo2(C6H6)2 lies 19 kcal/mol above the Mo?Mo singlet. For W2(C6H6)2 the sextuple bond structure is predicted to lie only 3 kcal/mol above the W?W structure. Thus the answer to the question raised in our title is 'almost' for the tungsten-sextuple bond.

  7. Platelet collagen receptor integrin alpha2beta1 activation involves differential participation of ADP-receptor subtypes P2Y1 and P2Y12 but not intracellular calcium change.

    PubMed

    Jung, S M; Moroi, M

    2001-06-01

    In agonist-induced platelet activation, the collagen platelet receptor integrin alpha2beta1 is activated to high-affinity states through ADP involvement [Jung, S.M. & Moroi, M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 8016-8026]. Here we determined the ADP-receptor subtypes involved and their relative contributions to alpha2beta1 activation (assessed by soluble-collagen binding) using the P2Y12 antagonist AR-C69931MX and P2Y1 antagonists adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate (Ado(3,5)PP) and adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (AdoPPS). All three inhibited alpha2beta1 activation induced by low or high ADP, low thrombin, or low collagen-related peptide (CRP) concentrations; however, AR-C69931MX was markedly more inhibitory than the P2Y1 antagonists, suggesting the greater contribution of P2Y12. Inhibition patterns by various combinations of AR-C69931MX, AdoPPS, and wortmannin suggested that P2Y1 and P2Y12 mediate alpha2beta1 activation through different pathways, with possible involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in both. Low concentrations of the acetoxy-methyl derivative of 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid (calcium chelator) markedly decreased alpha2beta1 activation by low thrombin or CRP, but did not affect that by low or high ADP. Measurements of intracellular Ca2+ level (fluorimetric method) and alpha2beta1 activation (soluble-collagen binding) in the same platelet preparation indicated that alpha2beta1 activation via ADP receptors was independent of intracellular Ca2+ release. Our data indicate that integrin alpha2beta1 activation by ADP occurs through an inside-out signaling mechanism involving differential contributions by P2Y1 and P2Y12 wherein each contributes to some portion of the activation, with the stronger contribution of P2Y12. Furthermore, intracellular Ca2+ increase is not directly related to integrin alpha2beta1 activation, meaning that it is separate from the calcium mobilization pathways that these two ADP receptors are involved in.

  8. Chemical analyses of pore water from boreholes USW SD-6 and USW WT-24, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, I.C.; Peterman, Z.E.; Scofield, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of pore water extracted from cores of boreholes USW SD-6 in the central part and USW WT-24 in the northern part of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, show significant vertical and lateral variations in dissolved-ion concentrations. Analyses of samples of only a few milliliters of pore water extracted by uniaxial or triaxial compression and by ultracentrifugation methods from adjacent core samples are generally in agreement, within the analytical error of 10% to 15%. However, the values of silica for water obtained by ultracentrifugation are consistently lower than values for water obtained by compression. The larger concentrations probably are due to localized pressure solution of silicate minerals during compression. The shallower water from core in borehole USW SD-6 was extracted from nonwelded units collectively referred to as the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded (PTn). The deeper water was from core in both boreholes USW SD-6 and USW WT-24 in the nonwelded units referred to as the Calico Hills nonwelded (CHn). Significant differences in mean dissolved-ion concentrations in pore water between the PTn and CHn are (1) decreases in Ca, Mg, SO4, and NO3 and (2) increases in HCO3 and (Na+K)/(Ca+Mg) ratios. The decrease in NO3 and the increase in HCO3 could be the result of denitrification through the oxidation of organic matter. The decrease in Ca and associated increase in (Na+K)/(Ca+Mg) is the result of ion exchange with zeolites in the CHn in borehole USW WT-24. This effect is not nearly as pronounced in borehole USW SD-6, probably reflecting a smaller amount of zeolitization of the CHn in USW SD-6. Geochemical calculations using the PHREEQC code indicate that the pore water from both boreholes USW SD-6 and USW WT-24 is uniformly undersaturated in anhydrite, gypsum, and amorphous silica, but supersaturated in quartz and chalcedony. The saturation of calcite, aragonite, sepiolite, and dolomite is more variable from sample to sample. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights

  9. Incidence and Clinical Features of Early Stent Thrombosis in the Era of New P2y12 Inhibitors (PLATIS-2)

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Elad; Abu-Much, Arsalan; Goldenberg, Ilan; Segev, Amit; Sabbag, Avi; Mazin, Israel; Shlezinger, Meital; Atar, Shaul; Zahger, Doron; Polak, Arthur; Beigel, Roy; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2016-01-01

    Early stent thrombosis (EST) (≤ 30 days after stent implantation) is a relatively rare but deleterious complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Administration of newer P2Y12 inhibitors (prasugrel and ticagrelor) combined with aspirin has been shown to reduce the incidence of sub-acute and late stent thrombosis, compared with clopidogrel. We investigated the “real life” incidence of EST in patients from a large acute coronary syndrome (ACS) national registry, where newer P2Y12 inhibitors are widely used. Patients were derived from the ACS Israeli Survey (ACSIS), conducted during 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2013. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 30days were defined as all-cause death, recurrent ACS, EST and stroke.Of the 4717 ACS patients who underwent PCI and stenting, 83% received clopidogrel and 17% newer P2Y12 inhibitors. The rate of EST was similar in both groups (1.7% in the newer P2Y12 inhibitor group vs. 1.4% in the clopidogrel-treated patients, p = 0.42). Results were consistent after multivariate analysis (adjusted HR = 1.06 [p = 0.89]). MACE occurred in 6.4% in the newer P2Y12 inhibitor group compared with 9.2% in the clopidogrel group (P<0.01). However, multivariate logistic regression modeling showed that treatment with newer P2Y12 inhibitors was not significantly associated with the secondary endpoint of MACE when compared with clopidogrel therapy [OR = 1.26 95%CI (0.93–1.73), P = 0.136]. The incidence of "real life" EST at 1month is relatively low, and appears to be similar in patients who receive newer P2Y12 inhibitors as well as in those who receive clopidogrel. PMID:27310147

  10. In silico Approach for Anti-Thrombosis Drug Discovery: P2Y1R Structure-Based TCMs Screening

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Fan; Sun, Le; Xu, Li-jia; Peng, Yong; Liu, Hai-bo; He, Chun-nian; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including thrombosis, which is induced by platelet aggregation, are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) facilitates platelet aggregation and is thus an important potential anti-thrombotic drug target. The P2Y1R protein structure contains a binding site for receptor antagonist MRS2500 within its seven-transmembrane bundle, which also provides suitable pockets for numerous other ligands to act as nucleotide antagonists of P2Y1R. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) comprises 499 Chinese Pharmacopoeia-registered herbs and the structure information for 29,384 ingredients. In silico docking of these compounds into the P2Y1R protein structure within the MRS2500 pocket can identify potential antithrombotic drugs from natural medicinal plants. Docking studies were performed and scored to evaluate ligand-binding affinities. In this study, a total of 8987 compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) were filtered by Lipinski's rule of five, and their ideal oral-intake properties were evaluated. Of these, 1656 compounds distributed in 443 herbs docked into the P2Y1R-MRS2500 structure in 16,317 poses. A total of 38 compounds were ranked with a DockScore above 70, and these may have significant potential for development into anti-thrombosis drugs. These computational results suggested that licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch), cimicifugae (Cimicifuga foetida L.), and ganoderma (Ganoderma lucidum Karst) and their chemical constituents, which have not previously been widely used for anti-thrombosis, may have unexpected effects on platelet aggregation. Moreover, two types of triterpene scaffolds summarized from 10 compounds were distributed in these three herbs and also docked into P2Y1R. These scaffold structures may be utilized for the development of drugs to inhibit platelet aggregation. PMID:28119608

  11. Cytoprotection against oxidative stress-induced damage of astrocytes by extracellular ATP via P2Y1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Youichi; Koizumi, Schuichi; Ishida, Seiichi; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Ohno, Yasuo; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2005-01-15

    Oxidative stress is the main cause of neuronal damage in traumatic brain injury, hypoxia/reperfusion injury, and neurodegenerative disorders. Although extracellular nucleosides, especially adenosine, are well known to protect against neuronal damage in such pathological conditions, the effects of these nucleosides or nucleotides on glial cell damage remain largely unknown. We report that ATP but not adenosine protects against the cell death of cultured astrocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). ATP ameliorated the H2O2-induced decrease in cell viability of astrocytes in an incubation time- and concentration-dependent fashion. Protection by ATP was inhibited by P2 receptor antagonists and was mimicked by P2Y1 receptor agonists but not by adenosine. The expressions of P2Y1 mRNAs and functional P2Y1 receptors in astrocytes were confirmed. Thus, ATP, acting on P2Y1 receptors in astrocytes, showed a protective action against H2O2. The astrocytic protection by the P2Y1 receptor agonist 2-methylthio-ADP was inhibited by an intracellular Ca2+ chelator and a blocker of phospholipase C, indicating the involvement of intracellular signals mediated by Gq/11-coupled P2Y1 receptors. The ATP-induced protection was inhibited by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, and it took more than 12 h for the onset of the protective action. In the DNA microarray analysis, ATP induced a dramatic upregulation of various oxidoreductase genes. Taken together, ATP acts on P2Y1 receptors coupled to Gq/11, resulting in the upregulation of oxidoreductase genes, leading to the protection of astrocytes against H2O2.

  12. Clopidogrel Resistance by P2Y12 Platelet Function Testing in Patients Undergoing Neuroendovascular Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Nordeen, Jerah D.; Patel, Alden V.; Darracott, Robert M.; Johns, Gretchen S.; Taussky, Philipp; Tawk, Rabih G.; Miller, David A.; Freeman, William D.; Hanel, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess clopidogrel resistance and whether “intensified” antiplatelet therapy guided by platelet inhibition tests during neuroendovascular procedures would reduce ischemic complications. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, who underwent neuroendovascular (NV) procedures and had P2Y12 platelet function testing from October 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010. The primary end-point was to determine P2Y12 resistance to antiplatelet therapy in patients who underwent NV procedures. Secondary objectives included incidence of hemorrhagic and ischemic events and a correlation between resistance and genetic CYP2C19 testing. Results: 160 patients underwent P2Y12 platelet function tests. Eighty-one patients (81/160, 50.6%) met inclusion criteria. Platelet function tests identified 64 patients (79%) as non-resistant (≥20% P2Y12 inhibition) and 17 (21%) as resistant (<20% inhibition) after initial clopidogrel loading. There was an increased rate of death when a complication occurred in the resistant group by 30 day (17% versus 3%; p=0.059) and 90 day follow-up (23% versus 4%; p=0.032). There was no significant association found between complication and loading dose (p=0.0721). Conclusions: 21% of patients undergoing NV procedures were resistant to clopidogrel. Intensifying antiplatelet therapy to achieve ≥20% inhibition on platelet function testing did not result in higher numbers of ischemic or hemorrhagic events, but there was a trend toward more death in the resistant group by 30 and 90 days of those experiencing complication(s). Author Justifications: Jerah D. Nordeen, Pharm.D.: Primary author Alden V. Patel, Pharm.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design Robert M. Darracott, Pharm.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design Gretchen S. Johns, M.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design Philipp Taussky, M.D.: Contributor of professional

  13. Stabilization of the fluorite phase in the ZrO2-Y2O3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. V.; Yastrebtsev, A. A.; Smirnov, I. S.; Monakhov, I. S.; Novoselova, E. G.; Tsarenko, N. A.; Udovskii, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    The calculated and experimental vertical ZrO2-Y2O3 sections of the Zr-Y-O system are compared to find the region of a stable fluorite structure of yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering are used to study the crystal and local structures of mixed oxide 0.82ZrO2 · 0.18Y2O3 (18YSZ) powders prepared by isothermal annealing of a precursor precipitated from a salt solution. The formation of a fluorite-type fcc structure (space group Fmoverline 3 m) in the powders is detected by XRD. Raman scattering study of the local structure of the cubic 18YSZ powders revealed traces of the tetragonal phase in them.

  14. Credit WCT. Original 2¾" x 2Y4" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-¾" x 2-Y4" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. View shows JPL staff member John Morrow loading the grinder hopper. The hopper has a 10 mesh screen to filter out particles too large for the mill. Oxidizer is passed steadily to the hammers by a stainless steel feed screw. Oxidizer may be passed through the mill several times depending on the fineness required by a given propellant formula; the maximum charge is 130 pounds (59.0 Kg). The drum below the mill has an electrically conductive plastic liner which receives the ground oxidizer (JPL negative no. JPL10279AC, 27 January 1989) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Oxidizer Grinder Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. Microglial P2Y12 is necessary for synaptic plasticity in mouse visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sipe, G. O.; Lowery,, R. L.; Tremblay, M-È; Kelly, E. A.; Lamantia, C. E.; Majewska, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain. Increasingly, they are recognized as important mediators of normal neurophysiology, particularly during early development. Here we demonstrate that microglia are critical for ocular dominance plasticity. During the visual critical period, closure of one eye elicits changes in the structure and function of connections underlying binocular responses of neurons in the visual cortex. We find that microglia respond to monocular deprivation during the critical period, altering their morphology, motility and phagocytic behaviour as well as interactions with synapses. To explore the underlying mechanism, we focused on the P2Y12 purinergic receptor, which is selectively expressed in non-activated microglia and mediates process motility during early injury responses. We find that disrupting this receptor alters the microglial response to monocular deprivation and abrogates ocular dominance plasticity. These results suggest that microglia actively contribute to experience-dependent plasticity in the adolescent brain. PMID:26948129

  16. P2X and P2Y receptor signaling in red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Purinergic signaling involves the activation of cell surface P1 and P2 receptors by extracellular nucleosides and nucleotides such as adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respectively. P2 receptors comprise P2X and P2Y receptors, and have well-established roles in leukocyte and platelet biology. Emerging evidence indicates important roles for these receptors in red blood cells. P2 receptor activation stimulates a number of signaling pathways in progenitor red blood cells resulting in microparticle release, reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptosis. Likewise, activation of P2 receptors in mature red blood cells stimulates signaling pathways mediating volume regulation, eicosanoid release, phosphatidylserine exposure, hemolysis, impaired ATP release, and susceptibility or resistance to infection. This review summarizes the distribution of P2 receptors in red blood cells, and outlines the functions of P2 receptor signaling in these cells and its implications in red blood cell biology.

  17. P2Y purinergic receptor regulation of CFTR chloride channels in mouse cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Mizuma, Shintaro; Wang, Ge-Xin; Hume, Joseph R

    2004-05-01

    The intracellular signalling pathways and molecular mechanisms responsible for P2-purinoceptor-mediated chloride (Cl(-)) currents (I(Cl,ATP)) were studied in mouse ventricular myocytes. In standard NaCl-containing extracellular solutions, extracellular ATP (100 microm) activated two different currents, I(Cl,ATP) with a linear I-V relationship in symmetrical Cl(-) solutions, and an inwardly rectifying cation conductance (cationic I(ATP)). Cationic I(ATP) was selectively inhibited by Gd(3+) and Zn(2+), or by replacement of extracellular NaCl by NMDG; I(Cl,ATP) was Cl(-) selective, and inhibited by replacement of extracellular Cl(-) by Asp(-); both currents were prevented by suramin or DIDS pretreatment. In GTPgammaS-loaded cells, I(Cl,ATP) was irreversibly activated by ATP, but cationic I(ATP) was still regulated reversibly. GDPbetaS prevented activation of the I(Cl,ATP,) even though pertussis toxin pretreatment did not modulate I(Cl,ATP). These results suggest that activation of I(Cl,ATP) occurs via a G-protein coupled P2Y purinergic receptor. The I(Cl,ATP) persistently activated by GTPgammaS, was inhibited by glibenclamide but not by DIDS, thus exhibiting known pharmacological properties of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels. In ventricular cells of cftr(-/-) mice, extracellular ATP activated cationic I(ATP), but failed to activate any detectable I(Cl,ATP). These results provide compelling evidence that activation of CFTR Cl(-) channels in mouse heart are coupled to G-protein coupled P2Y purinergic receptors.

  18. Purinergic P2Y receptors in airway epithelia: from ion transport to immune functions.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuan; Ko, Wing-hung

    2014-02-25

    The regulated transport of salt and water is essential to the integrated function of many organ systems, including the respiratory, reproductive, and digestive tracts. Airway epithelial fluid secretion is a passive process that is driven by osmotic forces, which are generated by ion transport. The main determinant of a luminally-directed osmotic gradient is the mucosal transport of chloride ions (Cl(-)) into the lumen. As with many epithelial cells, a number of classic signal transduction cascades are involved in the regulation of ion transport. There are two well-known intracellular signaling systems: an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and an increase in the rate of synthesis of cyclic nucleotides, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Therefore, Cl(-) secretion is primarily activated via the opening of apical Ca(2+)- or cAMP-dependent Cl(-) channels at the apical membrane. The opening of basolateral Ca(2+)- or cAMP-activated K(+) channels, which hyperpolarizes the cell to maintain the driving force for Cl(-) exit through apical Cl(-) channels that are constitutively open, is also important in regulating transepithelial ion transport. P2Y receptors are expressed in the apical and/or basolateral membranes of virtually all polarized epithelia to control the transport of fluid and electrolytes. Human airway epithelial cells express multiple nucleotide receptors. Extracellular nucleotides, such as UTP and ATP, are calcium-mobilizing secretagogues. They are released into the extracellular space from airway epithelial cells and act on the same cell in an autocrine fashion to stimulate transepithelial ion transport. In addition, recent data support the role of P2Y receptors in releasing inflammatory cytokines in the bronchial epithelium and other immune cells.

  19. Platelet P2Y12 Blockers Confer Direct Postconditioning-like Protection in Reperfused Rabbit Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi-Ming; Liu, Yanping; Cui, Lin; Yang, Xiulan; Liu, Yongge; Tandon, Narendra; Kambayashi, Junichi; Downey, James M.; Cohen, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Blockade of platelet activation during primary percutaneous intervention for acute myocardial infarction is standard care to minimize stent thrombosis. To determine whether antiplatelet agents offer any direct cardioprotective effect, we tested whether they could modify infarction in a rabbit model of ischemia/reperfusion caused by reversible ligation of a coronary artery. Methods and Results The P2Y12 (adenosine diphosphate) receptor blocker cangrelor administered shortly before reperfusion in rabbits undergoing 30-minute regional ischemia/3-hour reperfusion reduced infarction from 38% of ischemic zone in control hearts to only 19%. Protection was dose dependent and correlated with the degree of inhibition of platelet aggregation. Protection was comparable to that seen with ischemic postconditioning (IPOC). Cangrelor protection, but not its inhibition of platelet aggregation, was abolished by the same signaling inhibitors that block protection from IPOC suggesting protection resulted from protective signaling rather than anticoagulation. As with IPOC, protection was lost when cangrelor administration was delayed until 10 minutes after reperfusion and no added protection was seen when cangrelor and IPOC were combined. These findings suggest both IPOC and cangrelor may protect by the same mechanism. No protection was seen when cangrelor was used in crystalloid-perfused isolated hearts indicating some component in whole blood is required for protection. Clopidogrel had a very slow onset of action requiring 2 days of treatment before platelets were inhibited, and only then the hearts were protected. Signaling inhibitors given just prior to reperfusion blocked clopidogrel’s protection. Neither aspirin nor heparin was protective. Conclusions Clopidogrel and cangrelor protected rabbit hearts against infarction. The mechanism appears to involve signal transduction during reperfusion rather than inhibition of intravascular coagulation. We hypothesize that both

  20. High-spin structure of {sup 37}Cl, intruder excitations, and the sd-fp shell gap

    SciTech Connect

    Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Marginean, N.; Bucurescu, D.; Lenzi, S. M.; Bazzacco, D.; Della Vedova, F.; Farnea, E.; Menegazzo, R.; Lunardi, S.; Zilio, S.; Napoli, D. R.; De Angelis, G.; Gadea, A.; Medina, N. H.; Ur, C. A.; Otsuka, T.; Utsuno, Y.

    2009-09-15

    The structure of the N=20 nucleus {sup 37}Cl has been investigated in the {sup 24}Mg({sup 16}O,3p) reaction with a 70 MeV {sup 16}O beam. A complex level scheme extended up to an excitation energy of 17 MeV and spins (29/2{sup +}) and (27/2{sup -}) on positive and negative parity, respectively, has been established. Lifetimes for the new states have been investigated by the Doppler shift attenuation method. Large-scale shell-model calculations have been performed in a valence space involving orbitals in the sd and fp shells using the sdfp and SDPF-M effective interactions. The comparison with the experimental data indicates the need for slight changes of the sd-fp energy gaps produced by these interactions.

  1. Conjunctival expression of the P2Y2 receptor and the effects of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in dogs.

    PubMed

    Terakado, Kunihiko; Yogo, Takuya; Kohara, Yukihiro; Soeta, Satoshi; Nezu, Yoshinori; Harada, Yasuji; Hara, Yasushi; Amasaki, Hajime; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    Conjunctival epithelial and goblet cell P2Y2 nucleotide receptors regulate ion transport and secretory function. Diquafosol is a P2Y2 purinergic receptor agonist that stimulates secretion of aqueous tear components from conjunctival epithelial cells and secretion of mucin from conjunctival goblet cells. In humans suffering from keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye), topical administration of diquafosol improves corneal epithelial integrity and stabilises the tear film. The aim of the present study was to investigate P2Y2 receptor expression and to determine the effect of topical administration of diquafosol on mucin and aqueous tear production in dogs. Canine conjunctival P2Y2 receptor expression was evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of diquafosol on mucin secretion was evaluated by examining mucin-5 subtype AC (MUC5AC) concentration in tears. The effect of diquafosol on aqueous secretions was evaluated by performing the Schirmer tear test (STT) and phenol red thread test. Expression of the P2Y2 receptor was confirmed in canine bulbar and palpebral conjunctivae and receptors were identified at the conjunctival epithelial and goblet cell surface. Tear MUC5AC concentration significantly increased after administration of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution, although neither STT nor phenol red thread test values showed any significant change after diquafosol instillation. Topical ocular administration of 3% diquafosol might improve corneal epithelial disorders in dogs through stabilisation of the tear film, by virtue of an increase in MUC5AC secretion.

  2. Estimation of the daily soil/dust (SD) ingestion rate of children from Gansu Province, China via hand-to-mouth contact using tracer elements.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin; Pan, Li-Bo; Wang, Qin; Lin, Chun-Ye; Duan, Xiao-Li; Hou, Hong

    2016-12-19

    A total of 60 children (31 males and 29 females) between the ages of 3 and 12 years were randomly selected from Lanzhou City in Gansu Province, northwest China. Hand (soil/dust) SD samples from these children were collected using hand wipes. We determined the approximate amounts of hand SD and the concentrations of three tracer soil elements (Ce, Y, and V) in these samples. The approximate amounts of hand SD ranged from 42.28 to 173.76 mg, with a median value of 85.42 mg. In addition, the mean amounts of hand SD estimated using the concentrations of Ce, Y, and V in the samples were 4.63, 3.43, and 3.42 mg, respectively. The amount of hand SD varied greatly among the age groups: primary school children had more hand SD than kindergarten children, males had more hand SD than females, and children from rural areas had more hand SD than those from urban areas. The rates of daily ingestion of hand SD for kindergarten and primary school children were estimated to be 7.73 and 6.61 mg/day, respectively.

  3. Using asymmetry analysis to reduce normal variability of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) macular thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alluwimi, Muhammed Saad

    Purpose: To investigate the use of asymmetry analysis to reduce normal between-subject variability of macular thickness measurements using SD-OCT. Methods: 63 volunteers free of eye disease were recruited: 33 young subjects (ages 21 to 35 years with mean and SD of 25 +/- 1.7), and 30 older subjects (ages 45 to 85 years with mean and SD of 66.7 +/- 9.0). All participants passed a comprehensive ophthalmic examination within the past two years. Macular images were gathered with the Spectralis OCT (V 5.4, Heidelberg Engineering, GmbH). The overlay 8x8 grid was manually centered on the fovea and aligned with the foveal-disc axis, then divided into five zones per hemifield following the method of Um et al (2012 IOVS 53:1139); asymmetry was computed as the difference between superior and inferior zone thicknesses. We assumed that the lowest variation and the highest density of ganglion cells will be found ~3° to 6° from the foveal center, corresponding to zones 1 and 2. For each zone and age group, between-subject standard deviations (SDs) were compared for retinal thickness (RT) versus asymmetry using an F-test. To account for repeated measures, a probability of p < 0.0125 was required for statistical significance. Axial length (AL) and corneal curvature (CC) were measured with an IOLMaster by the same operator and during the same imaging session. Results: For OD, asymmetry analysis reduced between-subject variability in zones 1 and 2 in both groups (F > 3.2, p < 0.001). SD for zone 1 dropped from 12.0 to 3.0 mum in the young group and from 11.7 to 2.6 mum in the older group. SD for zone 2 dropped from 13.6 to 5.3 mum (young) and from 11.1 to 5.8 mum (older). Combining all subjects, neither RT nor asymmetry showed a strong correlation with AL or CC (R2 < 0.01). Analysis for OS yielded the same pattern of results, as did asymmetry analyses between eyes (F > 3.8, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Asymmetry analysis reduced between-subject variability. These findings demonstrate

  4. Fundamental Bulk/Surface Structure Photoactivity Relationships of Supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN Photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Phivilay, Somphonh; Roberts, Charles; Puretzky, Alexander A; Domen, Kazunari Domen; Wachs, Israel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst was examined as a model nitride photocatalyst system to assist in the development of fundamental structure photoactivity relationships for UV activated water splitting. Surface characterization of the outermost surface layers by High Sensitivity-LEIS and High Resolution-XPS revealed for the first time that the GaN support consists of a GaOx outermost surface layer and a thin film of GaOxNy in the surface region. HR-XPS also demonstrates that the supported (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide nanoparticles (NPs) exclusively consist of Cr+3 and Rh+3 cations and are surface enriched for the supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst. Bulk analysis by Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy show that the bulk molecular and electronic structures, respectively, of the GaN support are not perturbed by the deposition of the (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide NPs. The function of the GaN bulk lattice is to generate photoexcited electrons/holes, with the electrons harnessed by the surface Rh+3 sites for evolution of H2 and the holes trapped at the Ga oxide/oxynitride surface sites for splitting of water and evolving O2. These new structure-photoactivity relationships for supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN also extend to the best performing visible light activated supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/(Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) photocatalyst.

  5. The qSD12 Underlying Gene Promotes Abscisic Acid Accumulation in Early Developing Seeds to Induce Primary Dormancy in Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds acquire primary dormancy during their development and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is considered to play a role in inducing the dormancy. qSD12 is a major seed dormancy QTL identified from weedy rice. This research was conducted to identify qSD12 candidate genes, isolate the candidat...

  6. Low-Temperature Synthesis, Structure, and Stability of Ba 2+ yCu 3O 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosha, Eric L.; Garzon, Fernando H.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Davies, Peter K.

    1996-02-01

    Single-phase powders of Ba2Cu3O6have been prepared at 620°C under 1 atm of oxygen using freeze-dried nitrate precursors. Calcinations utilizing a precursor with a 1:1 Ba:Cu stoichiometry produced a two-phase mixture of BaO2+ Ba2Cu3O6and confirmed the stable, oxidized barium cuprate exists with a metal ion ratio close to 2:3. Diffraction studies suggest that Ba2Cu3O6(Ba0.67CuO2) crystallizes in a structure closely related to the linear chain KCuO2and NaCuO2cuprates. It is proposed that the reduction of copper and accompanying loss of oxygen observed above 620°C are accommodated by an increase in the Ba content of the structure and the formation of Ba2+yCu3O6with 0 ≤y≤ 0.25. Above 710°C, the high-yend member is metastable with respect to BaCuO2, although it decomposes slowly even at elevated temperatures.

  7. Cellulose film regenerated from Styela clava tunics have biodegradability, toxicity and biocompatibility in the skin of SD rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Sung Hwa; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Young Ju; Kwak, Moon Hwa; Sung, Geum Yong; Kwon, Soon Hong; Son, Hong Joo; Lee, Hee Seob; Jung, Young Jin; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2014-06-01

    Cellulose is one of the most widespread biomolecules in nature and has been exploited in various applications including scaffolding, tissue engineering, and tissue formation. To evaluate the biocompatibility of cellulose film manufactured from Styela clava tunics (SCT-CF), these films were implanted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for various lengths of time, after which they were subjected to mechanical and biological analyses. The cellulose powders (12-268 m) obtained from SCT was converted into films via casting methods without adding any additives. SCT-CF contained about 98 % α-cellulose and very low concentrations of ββ-cellulose. Additionally, the crystallinity index (CrI) of SCT-CF was lower (10.71 %) than that of wood pulp-cellulose films (WP-CF) (33.78 %). After implantation for 90 days, the weight loss and formation of surface corrugations were greater in SCT-CF than that of WP-CF, while the surface roughness was significantly higher in WP-CF than SCT-CF. However, there were no differences in the number of white blood cells between SCT-CF implanted rats and vehicle implanted rats. The level of metabolic enzymes representing liver and kidney toxicity in the serum of SCT-CF implanted rats was maintained at levels consistent with vehicle implanted rats. Moreover, no significant alteration of the epidermal hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration, redness, and edema were observed in SD rats implanted with SCT-CF. Taken together, these results indicate that SCT-CF showed good degradability and non-toxicity without inducing an immune response in SD rats. Further, the data presented here constitute strong evidence that SCT-CF has the potential for use as a powerful biomaterial for medical applications including stitching fiber, wound dressing, scaffolding, absorbable hemostats and hemodialysis membrane.

  8. New extrapolation method for low-lying states of nuclei in the sd and the pf shells

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J. J.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.; Yoshinaga, N.

    2011-04-15

    We study extrapolation approaches to evaluate energies of low-lying states for nuclei in the sd and pf shells, by sorting the diagonal matrix elements of the nuclear shell-model Hamiltonian. We introduce an extrapolation method with perturbation and apply our new method to predict both low-lying state energies and E2 transition rates between low-lying states. Our predicted results arrive at an accuracy of the root-mean-squared deviations {approx}40-60 keV for low-lying states of these nuclei.

  9. The NPOESS Preparatory Project Science Data Segment (SDS) Data Depository and Distribution Element (SD3E) System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Evelyn L.; Schweiss, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Data Segment (SDS) will make daily data requests for approximately six terabytes of NPP science products for each of its six environmental assessment elements from the operational data providers. As a result, issues associated with duplicate data requests, data transfers of large volumes of diverse products, and data transfer failures raised concerns with respect to the network traffic and bandwidth consumption. The NPP SDS Data Depository and Distribution Element (SD3E) was developed to provide a mechanism for efficient data exchange, alleviate duplicate network traffic, and reduce operational costs.

  10. K2 observations of the pulsating subdwarf B star EQ Piscium: an sdB+dM binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, C. S.; Ramsay, G.

    2014-07-01

    K2, the two-wheel mission of the Kepler space telescope, observed the pulsating subdwarf B star EQ PSc during engineering tests in 2014 February. In addition to a rich spectrum of g-mode pulsation frequencies, the observations demonstrate a light variation with a period of 19.2 h and full amplitude of 2 per cent. We suggest that this is due to reflection from a cool companion, making EQ Psc the longest-period member of some 30 binaries comprising a hot subdwarf and a cool dwarf companion (sdB+dM), and hence useful for exploring the common-envelope ejection mechanism in low-mass binaries.

  11. The P2Y13 receptor regulates phosphate metabolism and FGF-23 secretion with effects on skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Robaye, Bernard; Gossiel, Fatima; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Gartland, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Purinergic signaling mediates many cellular processes, including embryonic development and regulation of endocrine signaling. The ADP P2Y13 receptor is known to regulate bone and stem cells activities, although relatively little is known about its role in bone development. In this study we demonstrate, using contemporary techniques, that deletion of the P2Y13 receptor results in an age-dependent skeletal phenotype that is governed by changes in phosphate metabolism and hormone levels. Neonatal and postnatal (2 wk) P2Y13 receptor-knockout (KO) mice were indistinguishable from their wild-type (WT) littermate controls. A clear bone phenotype was observed in young (4-wk-old) KO mice compared WT controls, with 14% more trabecular bone, 35% more osteoblasts, 73% fewer osteoclasts, and a 17% thicker growth plate. Mature (>10 wk of age) KO mice showed the opposite bone phenotype, with 14% less trabecular bone, 22% fewer osteoblasts, and 10% thinner growth plate. This age-dependent phenotype correlated with serum fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and phosphorus levels that were 65 and 16% higher, respectively, in young KO mice but remained unchanged in mature mice. These findings provide novel insights for the role of the P2Y13 receptor in skeletal development via coordination with hormonal regulators of phosphate homeostasis.

  12. Regulation of Phospholipase D Activity and Phosphatidic Acid Production after Purinergic (P2Y6) Receptor Stimulation*

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Sarah A.; Xiang, Yun; Mathews, Thomas P.; Cho, Hyekyung P.; Myers, David S.; Armstrong, Michelle D.; Tallman, Keri A.; O'Reilly, Matthew C.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Brown, H. Alex

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid second messenger located at the intersection of several lipid metabolism and cell signaling events including membrane trafficking, survival, and proliferation. Generation of signaling PA has long been primarily attributed to the activation of phospholipase D (PLD). PLD catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine into PA. A variety of both receptor-tyrosine kinase and G-protein-coupled receptor stimulations have been shown to lead to PLD activation and PA generation. This study focuses on profiling the PA pool upon P2Y6 receptor signaling manipulation to determine the major PA producing enzymes. Here we show that PLD, although highly active, is not responsible for the majority of stable PA being produced upon UDP stimulation of the P2Y6 receptor and that PA levels are tightly regulated. By following PA flux in the cell we show that PLD is involved in an initial increase in PA upon receptor stimulation; however, when PLD is blocked, the cell compensates by increasing PA production from other sources. We further delineate the P2Y6 signaling pathway showing that phospholipase Cβ3 (PLCβ3), PLCδ1, DGKζ and PLD are all downstream of receptor activation. We also show that DGKζ is a novel negative regulator of PLD activity in this system that occurs through an inhibitory mechanism with PKCα. These results further define the downstream events resulting in PA production in the P2Y6 receptor signaling pathway. PMID:23723068

  13. Effect of ion irradiation on the nanocrystallization and magnetic properties of soft magnetic Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Makhin'ko, F. F.; Gushchina, N. V.; Stepanov, A. V.; Medvedev, A. I.; Starodubtsev, Yu. N.; Kataev, V. A.; Tsepelev, V. S.; Belozerov, V. Ya.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of accelerated Ar+ ions on the crystallization process and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 alloy has been studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, thermomagnetic analysis, and other magnetic methods. Irradiation by Ar+ ions with an energy of 30 keV and a fluence of 3.75 × 1015 cm-2 at short-term heating to a temperature of 620 K (which is 150 K below the thermal threshold of crystallization) leads to the complete crystallization of amorphous alloy, which is accompanied by the precipitation of the α-Fe(Si) solid solution crystals (close in composition to Fe80Si20), Fe3Si stable phase, and metastable hexagonal phases. The crystallization caused by irradiation leads to an increase in the grain size and changes the morphology of grain boundaries and volume fraction of crystalline phases, which is accompanied by changes in the magnetic properties.

  14. Degradation of pulp-mill effluent by oxygen and Na{sub 5}[PV{sub 2}Mo{sub 10}O{sub 40}], a multipurpose delignification and wet air oxidation catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnen, D.M.; Reiner, R.S.; Atalla, R.H.; Weinstock, I.A.

    1997-10-01

    Water-soluble salts of polyoxometalate (POM) anions can be used as (net) catalysts for selective, effluent-free oxygen delignification (bleaching) of unbleached kraft wood-pulps. Essential to this process is the use of the POM anions as catalysts for the wet oxidation of the lignin removed from the pulp fibers. In anaerobic bleaching, a 0.5 M solution of {alpha}-Na{sub 5}[PV{sub 2}Mo{sub 10}O{sub 40}] (POM{sub ox}) is combined with wood pulp and the mixture heated to 125 C. This treatment dissolves certain organic compounds (some lignin and polysaccharide fragments) with a combined chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1,500--2,000 mg of O{sub 2}L. Before the solution can be used again for bleaching, the POM anions (POM{sub red}) must be reoxidized and the dissolved organic compounds removed. Here, a second function of the POM anions is realized. They are used under mild conditions (150 C, 0.7 MPa of O{sub 2}) to catalyze the wet air oxidation of the dissolved organic compounds. After several cycles of anaerobic bleaching and wet oxidation, a steady-state condition in COD (at ca. 550 mg of O{sub 2}/L) is achieved.

  15. Creep-rupture behavior of a developmental cast-iron-base alloy for use up to 800/sup 0/C. [NASAUT 4G-Al: Fe-15Mn-15Cr-2Mo-1. 5C-1Nb-1Si

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Scheuermann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    As part of the DOE/NASA Stirling Engine Systems Project, an iron-base cast alloy was developed, designated NASAUT 4G-Al. Its nominal composition, in percent by weight, is Fe-15Mn-15Cr-2Mo-1.5C-1Nb-1Si. This report presents the results of a study of this alloy, 4G-Al, performed to determine its creep-rupture properties. The alloy was studied in the directionally solidified (DS) form with a 650/sup 0/C/100 h anneal recommended by UTRC to optimize properties and in the investment-cast (IC) form with either a 760/sup 0/C/20 h anneal recommended by UTRC to optimize properties, or a solution anneal of 790/sup 0/C/20 h followed by a simulated brazing cycle of 1065/sup 0/C/15 min + a heat treatment of 760/sup 0/C/16 h + 650/sup 0/C/16 h. Alloy 4G-Al exhibited typical 3-stage creep response under all conditions tested. The most creep resistant condition was the DS material. This condition compares very favorably to the prototype (HS-31) and prime candidate (XF-818) alloys for the automotive Stirling engine cylinder/regenerator housing. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. A redox-stable direct-methane solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with Sr2FeNb0.2Mo0.8O6-δ double perovskite as anode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hanping; Tao, Zetian; Liu, Shun; Yang, Yating

    2016-09-01

    Development of high-performing and redox-stable ceramic oxide electrode materials is a crucial technical step for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating at intermediate temperatures (550-700 °C). Here we report a nickel-free double perovskite, Sr2FeNb0.2Mo0.8O6-δ (SFNM20), for SOFC anode, and this anode shows outstanding performances with high resistance against carbon build-up and redox cycling in hydrocarbon fuels. At 800 °C, the SFNM20 anode shows electrical conductivity of 5.3 S cm-1 in 5% H2 and peak power densities of 520 and 380 mW cm-2 using H2 and CH4 as the fuel, respectively. The cell exhibits a very stable performance under different constant current loads in H2 and CH4 at 700 °C and high redox stability against the gas environment changes in the anode chamber. In addition, the electrode is structurally stable in various fuels, suggesting that it is a feasible material candidate for the electrode of high-performing SOFCs.

  17. Pyrimidine Nucleotides with 4-Alkyloxyimino and Terminal Tetraphosphate δ-Ester Modifications as Selective Agonists of the P2Y4 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maruoka, Hiroshi; Jayasekara, M.P. Suresh; Barrett, Matthew O.; Franklin, Derek A.; de Castro, Sonia; Kim, Nathaniel; Costanzi, Stefano; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors are G protein-coupled receptors, activated by UTP and dinucleoside tetraphosphates, which are difficult to distinguish pharmacologically for lack of potent and selective ligands. We varied structurally phosphate and uracil moieties in analogues of pyrimidine nucleoside 5′-triphosphates and 5′-tetraphosphate esters. P2Y4 receptor potency in phospholipase C stimulation in transfected 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells was enhanced in N4-alkyloxycytidine derivatives. OH groups on a terminal δ-glucose phosphoester of uridine 5′-tetraphosphate were inverted or substituted with H or F to probe H-bonding effects. N4-(Phenylpropoxy)-CTP 16 (MRS4062), Up4-[1]3′-deoxy-3′-fluoroglucose 34 (MRS2927) and N4-(phenylethoxy)-CTP 15 exhibit ≥10-fold selectivity for human P2Y4 over P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors (EC50 values 23, 62 and 73 nM, respectively). δ-3-Chlorophenyl phosphoester 21 of Up4 activated P2Y2 but not P2Y4 receptor. Selected nucleotides tested for chemical and enzymatic stability were much more stable than UTP. Agonist docking at CXCR4-based P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptor models indicated greater steric tolerance of N4-phenylpropoxy group at P2Y4. Thus, distal structural changes modulate potency, selectivity, and stability of extended uridine tetraphosphate derivatives, and we report the first P2Y4 receptor-selective agonists. PMID:21528910

  18. Molecular modeling of the human P2Y14 receptor: A template for structure-based design of selective agonist ligands.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Kevin; Paoletta, Silvia; Kiselev, Evgeny; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2015-07-15

    The P2Y14 receptor (P2Y14R) is a Gi protein-coupled receptor that is activated by uracil nucleotides UDP and UDP-glucose. The P2Y14R structure has yet to be solved through X-ray crystallography, but the recent agonist-bound crystal structure of the P2Y12R provides a potentially suitable template for its homology modeling for rational structure-based design of selective and high-affinity ligands. In this study, we applied ligand docking and molecular dynamics refinement to a P2Y14R homology model to qualitatively explain structure-activity relationships of previously published synthetic nucleotide analogues and to probe the quality of P2Y14R homology modeling as a template for structure-based design. The P2Y14R model supports the hypothesis of a conserved binding mode of nucleotides in the three P2Y12-like receptors involving functionally conserved residues. We predict phosphate group interactions with R253(6.55), K277(7.35), Y256(6.58) and Q260(6.62), nucleobase (anti-conformation) π-π stacking with Y102(3.33) and the role of F191(5.42) as a means for selectivity among P2Y12-like receptors. The glucose moiety of UDP-glucose docked in a secondary subpocket at the P2Y14R homology model. Thus, P2Y14R homology modeling may allow detailed prediction of interactions to facilitate the design of high affinity, selective agonists as pharmacological tools to study the P2Y14R.

  19. Nucleotides protect rat brain astrocytes against hydrogen peroxide toxicity and induce antioxidant defense via P2Y receptors.

    PubMed

    Förster, Daniel; Reiser, Georg

    2016-03-01

    Consequences of neurodegenerative diseases or stroke also depend on astroglial survival during oxidative stress. P2Y receptors that are widely distributed in the central nervous system are suggested to be involved in cytoprotection. However, knowledge about the efficacy of protection by P2Y receptors and their involvement in antioxidant protective pathways is scarce. Here, we investigate the viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after exposure of rat astrocytes to hydrogen peroxide. We determined the influence of treatment with the P2Y1 receptor-specific agonist 2-methyl-thio-ADP (2MeSADP) and the broad range P2Y receptor agonist adenosine 5'-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATPγS). Preincubation (24-h before hydrogen peroxide application) and incubation with ATPγS and 2MeSADP protected astrocytes. The ROS production in hydrogen peroxide-treated astrocytes was reduced by pre- and co-incubation with ATPγS or 2MeSADP. Changes of levels of expression of antioxidant defense systems in astrocytes by treatment with P2Y receptor agonists were analyzed. Incubation with ATPγS and 2MeSADP increased mRNA levels of CAT encoding catalase and SOD2, encoding mitochondrial manganese dependent superoxide dismutase. ATPγS additionally increased mRNA levels of SOD3, encoding extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD). Levels of total glutathione (GSH) increased in ATPγS/2MeSADP-treated astrocytes. mRNA levels of genes involved in GSH synthesis and in import of GSH precursors were analyzed after treatment with ATPγS and 2MeSADP. Both agonists significantly increased mRNA levels of a subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase, and a subunit of antiporter system xc(-). Changes in mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and genes of GSH metabolism depend on rise of intracellular Ca(2+) by P2