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Sample records for 2ncsu cvm raleigh

  1. Raleigh leaves Lamont for Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Barry Raleigh, director of Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory for the past 8 years, has left that job to become Dean of the University of Hawaii's new School of Oceans, Earth Sciences, and Technology.A search committee chaired by Lamont geochemist Charles Langmuir has been formed to find Raleigh's successor, and committee member Lynn Sykes, a seismologist at Lamont, said “We expect to have a short list drawn up by the end of the calendar year.”

  2. THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Allergenic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yongjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, SPH,...

  3. ASSESSING THE ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the Allergic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yonjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, S...

  4. COMPARISON OF OVERALL METABOLISM OF 1,2,3,7,8-PENTACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (PECDD) IN CYP1A2(-L-)KNOCKOUT (KO) AND C57BL/6N PARENTAL STRAINS OF MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of immune responses to Penicillium chrysogenum and characterization of its allergens

    Yongjoo Chung1, Michael E Viana2, Lisa B Copeland3, and MaryJane K Selgrade3, Marsha D W Ward3. 1 UNC, SPH, Chapel Hill, NC, 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, 3US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP,...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ITS ALLERGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of immune responses to Penicillium chrysogenum and characterization of its allergens

    Yongjoo Chung1, Michael E Viana2, Lisa B Copeland3, and MaryJane K Selgrade3, Marsha D W Ward3. 1 UNC, SPH, Chapel Hill, NC, 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, 3US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP,...

  6. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  7. FDA/CVM's Compliance Policy Guide on compounding of drugs.

    PubMed

    1996-12-15

    As a veterinary practitioner, do you combine drug agents for anesthesia? Create antidotes? Dilute liquids for administration to small, young, or exotic species? Such efforts are examples of compounding. The FDA/CVM's new Compliance Policy Guide (CPG), which regulates the compounding of drugs by veterinarians and pharmacists for use in animals appears here, as originally published in the Compliance Policy Guide Manual. The CPG provides guidance to FDA's field and headquarters staff and serves as a source of useful information to veterinarians. The CPG for Compounding of Drugs for Use in Animals reflects the efforts of a task force made up of a diverse group of veterinarians, pharmacists, and regulators whose conclusions were published in the Symposium of Compounding in JAVMA, July 15, 1994, pp 189-303.

  8. RadNet Air Data From Raleigh, NC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Raleigh, NC from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  9. 76 FR 14698 - Raleigh Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of Negative Determination on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Employment and Training Administration Raleigh Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of... Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of Raleigh Film and... film studios in foreign countries. Information obtained during the reconsideration...

  10. 75 FR 81269 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina for publication. DATES... your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-1053 or Site name Ward...

  11. 78 FR 14543 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agency has entered into a settlement at the Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake... EPA Region 4 contact Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Ward...

  12. 78 FR 22198 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    .../Durham and Winston Salem Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., Raleigh/Durham and Winston-Salem Areas. EPA will consider this comment and will address the comment as...-hour CO NAAQS for the Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and Winston-Salem Areas. In the direct final rule,...

  13. 78 FR 12238 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    .../Durham and Winston-Salem Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and Winston-Salem carbon monoxide (CO) maintenance areas. Specifically, the State... Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and Winston-Salem Areas. The...

  14. 78 FR 37118 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Charlotte, Raleigh... quality standard for the Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and Winston-Salem Areas. EPA is approving this SIP... restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the...

  15. 76 FR 38389 - Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertlizer Works Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... response costs concerning the Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertilizer Works Superfund Site located in Raleigh...-0534 or Site name Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertilizer Works Superfund Site by one of the...

  16. Culture as metaphor: company culture and business strategy at Raleigh Industries, c. 1945-60.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, R; Lewis, M J; Eason, M

    1999-01-01

    This study of Raleigh Industries, one of the leading bicycle manufactures in the world in the immediate post-war years, argues that its business strategy was in part shaped by a managerial commitment to a dominant company culture which was deeply embedded in Raleigh's history. Using the notion of culture as metaphor, the paper examines the way that core values in the company acted as a guide in the setting of organisational goals and, intended or unintended, impinged upon company performance. In many respects, the culture guided the company well, but our study shows a number of ambiguities, tensions and contradictions between culture and strategy which had negative effects on company behaviour. Thus, Raleigh's attachment to personal capitalism constrained its capacity expansion programme, and, while it adopted what appeared to be a progressive education and training policy, it in effect trained workers for the past rather than the future.

  17. Multivariate and matrix-variate analogues of Maxwell-Boltzmann and Raleigh densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, A. M.; Princy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The Maxwell-Boltzmann and Raleigh densities are basic densities in many problems in Physics. A multivariate analogue and a rectangular matrix-variate analogue of these densities are explored in this article. The results may become useful in extending the usual theories, where these densities for the real scalar variable case occur, to multivariate and matrix variable situations. Various properties are studied and connection to the volumes of parallelotopes determined by p linearly independent random points in Euclidean n-space, n ≥ p, is also established. Structural decompositions of these random determinants and pathway extensions of Maxwell-Boltzmann and Raleigh densities are also considered.

  18. 78 FR 12267 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    .../Durham and Winston-Salem Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Winston-Salem carbon monoxide (CO) maintenance areas. Specifically, the State submitted a limited... Standard for the Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and Winston-Salem Areas. The 8-hour CO NAAQS is 9 parts...

  19. Regency Centers in Raleigh, NC Awarded 2015 EPA Region 4 Rain Catcher Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognized Regency Centers with the regional 2015 EPA Rain Catcher Award in the Commercial Category for the Market at Colonnade project in Raleigh, N.C. The award was given at a ceremony during the

  20. RECRUITING AND RETAINING AFRICAN-AMERICANS FOR AN EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTHEAST RALEIGH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently completed a study of African-Americans' exposure to particulate matter (PM) in Southeast Raleigh. A primary goal was to compare PM levels measured at ambient and residential sites with those from personal exposure monitors...

  1. 75 FR 65512 - Raleigh Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of Affirmative Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Employment and Training Administration Raleigh Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of... Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, California (the subject firm). The Notice of.... The request for reconsideration alleges that the subject firm ``is actively building large...

  2. RECRUITING AND RETAINING PARTICIPANTS FOR AN EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTHEAST RALEIGH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently completed a study of African-Americans' exposure to particulate matter (PM) in Southeast Raleigh. A primary goal was to compare PM levels measured at ambient and residential sites with those from personal exposure monitors...

  3. INDOOR/OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS MEASURED IN SELECT HOMES IN THE RALEIGH-DURHAM-CHAPEL HILL, NC AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle size distributions were measured indoors and outdoors of six residences in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC area to characterize the factors affecting particle concentrations in the indoor environment, including infiltration of outdoor aerosols. Size resolved partic...

  4. 76 FR 76152 - City of Raleigh; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Hydropower Licensing approved Raleigh's request to use the Traditional Licensing Process. k. With This notice... regulations thereunder at 50 CFR part 402; (b) NMFS under section 305(b) of the Magnuson-Stevens...

  5. An Analysis of the Tornado-Producing Raleigh Thunderstorm of November 28, 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    North Carolina ( NOAA , 1989). During the period of record, only 12 tornadoes were reported in the state during November. None of these resulted in...tornado struck Raleigh ( NOAA , 1989). Thus it might seem forecasters were "surprised" by the tornado. The development of severe weather in marginal...that of severe storm cells interrogated by the NEXRAD prototype, only about 50 percent of those with tornado vortex signatures (TVS) actually produced

  6. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, NC; Authorization of Production Activity; Revlon Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, NC; Authorization of Production Activity; Revlon Consumer Products Corporation (Hair Coloring Products); Oxford, NC On October 10, 2012,...

  7. 78 FR 43141 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates), Youngsville, North Carolina...

  8. Ultrafine particles near a major roadway in Raleigh, North Carolina: downwind attenuation and correlation with traffic-related pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter <100 run) emitted by traffic are a potential direct health threat to nearby populations and may additionally act as a tracer for co-emitted pollutants. During summertime in Raleigh, North Carolina, UFPs were simultaneously measured upwind and d...

  9. Radiatively Driven Ablative Raleigh-Taylor Instability in Thin Planar Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. J.; Hollowell, D. E.; Schappert, G. T.; Caldwell, S. E.

    1998-11-01

    We have extended earlier computational and experimental studies^1 of Raleigh-Taylor instability of thin planar copper foils radiatively driven in NOVA hohlraums. The foils were typically 18 μm thick with 45 μm sinusoidal perturbations of 0.5 μm amplitude. They were accelerated by a ``NOVA PS26" pulse yielding a maximum radiation temperature of 195 eV after about 1.5 ns. The developing bubble-and-spike pattern was studied with a 6.7 keV backlighter. Fourier analysis of the integrated axial ρdz data yields an effective amplitude of the first harmonic growing to 4 μm during by 3 ns in agreement with LASNEX and RAGE calculations. RAGE is a 2T grey diffusion Eulerian code with automatic mesh refinement. Both 3T and LTE multi-group diffusion were employed with LASNEX. Additional studies have included a 5 μm layer of beryllium on the drive side. The foil dynamics will be described for cases with the beryllium attached to the copper - adding to the drive pressure - and separated, so as to mildly filter the spectrum. ^1 G. T. Schappert, W. W. Hsing, S. E. Caldwell, D. E. Hollowell, R. P. Weaver, and B. A. Remington, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 7, 1515 (1996). Work supported by the USDOE.

  10. Meeting report: 27th International conference on antiviral research, in Raleigh, NC, USA.

    PubMed

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony

    2014-11-01

    The 27th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA from May 12 to 16, 2014. This article summarizes the principal invited lectures. John Drach (Elion Award) described the early days of antiviral drugs and their novel modes of action. Piet Herdewijn (Holý Award) used evolutionary pressure to select DNA polymerases that accept nucleoside analogs. Replacing thymine by 5-chlorouracil led to the generation of a new form of Escherichia coli. Adrian Ray (Prusoff Award) demonstrated how prodrugs can markedly improve both the efficacy and safety of potential drugs. The keynote addresses, by David Margolis and Myron Cohen, tackled two emerging areas of HIV research, to find an HIV "cure" and to prevent HIV transmission, respectively. These topics were discussed further in other presentations - a cure seems to be a distant prospect but there are exciting developments for reducing HIV transmission. TDF-containing vaginal rings and GSK-744, as a long-lasting injection, offer great hope. There were three mini-symposia. Although therapy with TDF/FTC gives excellent control of HBV replication, there are only a few patients who achieve a functional cure. Myrcludex, an entry inhibitor, is active against both HBV and HDV. The recent progress with HBV replication in cell cultures has transformed the search for new antiviral compounds. The HBV capsid protein has been recognized as key player in HBV DNA synthesis. Unexpectedly, compounds which enhance capsid formation, markedly reduce HBV DNA synthesis. The development of BCX4430, which is active against Marburg and Ebola viruses, is of great current interest.

  11. Water-Resources Data and Hydrogeologic Setting at the Raleigh Hydrogeologic Research Station, Wake County, North Carolina, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Bolich, Richard E.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.

    2009-01-01

    Water-resources data were collected to describe the hydrologic conditions at the Raleigh hydrogeologic research station, located in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of North Carolina. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, from May 2005 through September 2007 are presented in this report. Three well clusters and four piezometers were installed at the Raleigh hydrogeologic research station along an assumed flow path from recharge to discharge areas. Each well cluster includes four wells to monitor the regolith, transition zone, and shallow and deep bedrock. Borehole, surface, and waterborne geophysics were conducted to examine the lithology and physical properties of the bedrock and to determine the aerial extent of near vertical diabase dikes. Slug tests were conducted in the wells at each cluster to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the formation tapped by each well. Periodic water-level altitudes were measured in all wells and in four piezometers. Continuous hourly water levels were measured in wells for variable periods of time during the study, and a surface-water gage collected 15-minute stage data from April to June 2006. In October 2005 and April 2006, water-quality samples were collected from a tributary and in all wells at the Raleigh hydrogeologic research station. Continuous water-quality data were collected hourly in three wells from December 2005 through January 2007 and every 15 minutes in the tributary from May to June 2006. In August 2006, streambed temperatures and drive-point ground-water samples were collected across lines of section spanning the Neuse River.

  12. High-speed imaging of Raleigh-Taylor instabilities in laser-driven plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Alan M.; Gillespie, Calvin H.; Trott, Wayne M.

    1997-05-01

    We have previously reported our observations of the dynamic behavior of laser driven plates. Recent improvements and modification of the imaging techniques have identified and provided measurements of Raleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities that occur in these events. The microscope system in the LLNL Micro Detonics Facility, was converted to an epi- illuminated polarization configuration. A double pulse nanosecond illuminator and a second independently focusable frame camera were also added to the system. A laser driven plate, that is a dense solid driven by a laser heated, lower density plasma, is inherently R-T unstable. The characteristics and growth of the instability determine whether or not the plate remains intact. In earlier reports we correlated the surface patterning of thin plates with the fiber-optical transmission modes. In subsequent experiments we noted that the plasma burn through patterning in thin plates and the surface patterning of thicker plates did not correspond to the thin plate early time patterning. These observations led to the suspicion of R-T instability. A series of experiments correlating plate thickness and pattern spatial frequency has verified the instability. The plates are aluminum, deposited on the ends of optical fibers. They are launched by a YAG laser pulse traveling down the fiber. Plate velocities are several kilometers per second and characteristic dimensions of the instabilities are a few to tens of microns. Several techniques were used to examine the plates, the most successful being specularly reflecting polarization microscopy looking directly at the plate as it flies toward the camera. These images gave data on the spatial frequencies of the instabilities but could not give the amplitudes. To measure the amplitude of the instability a semi-transparent witness plate was placed a known distance from the plate. As above, the plate was observed using the polarization microscope but using the streak camera as the detector

  13. The Effects of Urban Form on Ambient Air Pollution and Public Health Risk: A Case Study in Raleigh, North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Huegy, Joseph; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2014-01-01

    Since motor vehicles are a major air pollution source, urban designs that decrease private automobile use could improve air quality and decrease air pollution health risks. Yet, the relationships among urban form, air quality, and health are complex and not fully understood. To explore these relationships, we model the effects of three alternative development scenarios on annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in ambient air and associated health risks from PM2.5 exposure in North Carolina’s Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area. We integrate transportation demand, land-use regression, and health risk assessment models to predict air quality and health impacts for three development scenarios: current conditions, compact development, and sprawling development. Compact development slightly decreases (−0.2%) point estimates of regional annual average PM2.5 concentrations, while sprawling development slightly increases (+1%) concentrations. However, point estimates of health impacts are in opposite directions: compact development increases (+39%) and sprawling development decreases (−33%) PM2.5-attributable mortality. Further, compactness increases local variation in PM2.5 concentrations and increases the severity of local air pollution hotspots. Hence, this research suggests that while compact development may improve air quality from a regional perspective, it may also increase the concentration of PM2.5 in local hotspots and increase population exposure to PM2.5. Health effects may be magnified if compact neighborhoods and PM2.5 hotspots are spatially co-located. We conclude that compactness alone is an insufficient means of reducing the public health impacts of transportation emissions in automobile-dependent regions. Rather, additional measures are needed to decrease automobile dependence and the health risks of transportation emissions. PMID:25490890

  14. The Effects of Urban Form on Ambient Air Pollution and Public Health Risk: A Case Study in Raleigh, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Huegy, Joseph; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-05-01

    Since motor vehicles are a major air pollution source, urban designs that decrease private automobile use could improve air quality and decrease air pollution health risks. Yet, the relationships among urban form, air quality, and health are complex and not fully understood. To explore these relationships, we model the effects of three alternative development scenarios on annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) concentrations in ambient air and associated health risks from PM2.5 exposure in North Carolina's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area. We integrate transportation demand, land-use regression, and health risk assessment models to predict air quality and health impacts for three development scenarios: current conditions, compact development, and sprawling development. Compact development slightly decreases (-0.2%) point estimates of regional annual average PM2.5 concentrations, while sprawling development slightly increases (+1%) concentrations. However, point estimates of health impacts are in opposite directions: compact development increases (+39%) and sprawling development decreases (-33%) PM2.5-attributable mortality. Furthermore, compactness increases local variation in PM2.5 concentrations and increases the severity of local air pollution hotspots. Hence, this research suggests that while compact development may improve air quality from a regional perspective, it may also increase the concentration of PM2.5 in local hotspots and increase population exposure to PM2.5 . Health effects may be magnified if compact neighborhoods and PM2.5 hotspots are spatially co-located. We conclude that compactness alone is an insufficient means of reducing the public health impacts of transportation emissions in automobile-dependent regions. Rather, additional measures are needed to decrease automobile dependence and the health risks of transportation emissions.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY. M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, L B Copeland1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Metarhizium anisopli...

  16. EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT SIZED FRACTIONS OF OUTDOOR PM ON INFLAMMATORY AND OXIDATIVE MARKERS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT SIZED FRACTIONS OF OUTDOOR PM ON INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN VIVO
    C A J Dick', P Singh2, P. Evansky3, S Becker3 and M I Gilmour3.
    'Center For Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 2NCSU, Raleigh, NC 'Experimental Toxicolog...

  17. Rural School Supervision: Abstracts of Addresses Delivered at the Second Conference of Supervisors of the Southeastern States Held at Raleigh, North Carolina, December 6 and 7, 1926. Bulletin, 1927, No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1927

    1927-01-01

    This bulletin contains abstracts of addresses delivered at a two-day conference of State and county rural-school supervisors in the South-eastern States, called by the United States Commissioner of Education at Raleigh, N.C. December 6 and 7, 1926. Abstracts were prepared from manuscripts submitted by the authors. The conference was attended by…

  18. Hydrogeology, groundwater seepage, nitrate distribution, and flux at the Raleigh hydrologic research station, Wake County, North Carolina, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Bolich, Richard E.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2013-01-01

    rom 2005 to 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, conducted a study to describe the geologic framework, measure groundwater quality, characterize the groundwater-flow system, and describe the groundwater/surface-water interaction at the 60-acre Raleigh hydrogeologic research station (RHRS) located at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant in eastern Wake County, North Carolina. Previous studies have shown that the local groundwater quality of the surficial and bedrock aquifers at the RHRS had been affected by high levels of nutrients. Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected from 3 coreholes, 12 wells, and 4 piezometers at 3 well clusters, as well as from 2 surface-water sites, 2 multiport piezometers, and 80 discrete locations in the streambed of the Neuse River. Data collected were used to evaluate the three primary zones of the Piedmont aquifer (regolith, transition zone, and fractured bedrock) and characterize the interaction of groundwater and surface water as a mechanism of nutrient transport to the Neuse River. A conceptual hydrogeologic cross section across the RHRS was constructed using new and existing data. Two previously unmapped north striking, nearly vertical diabase dikes intrude the granite beneath the site. Groundwater within the diabase dike appeared to be hydraulically isolated from the surrounding granite bedrock and regolith. A correlation exists between foliation and fracture orientation, with most fractures striking parallel to foliation. Flowmeter logging in two of the bedrock wells indicated that not all of the water-bearing fractures labeled as water bearing were hydraulically active, even when stressed by pumping. Groundwater levels measured in wells at the RHRS displayed climatic and seasonal trends, with elevated groundwater levels occurring during the late spring and declining to a low in the late fall. Vertical

  19. New house dust collection system and its use in a study of asthma in dust mite sensitive children in Raleigh, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, A.B.; Beck, M.A.; Henry, M.M.; Barnes, D.M.; Henderson, F.W.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype dust collection system, the House Dust Vacuum One (HDVI), was designed for use in a study to investigate the relationship between house dust mite antigen levels and the presence of asthma in dust mite sensitive children. The HDVI was designed for the collection of dust samples from all potentially relevant domestic substrates, with the primary sampling objective being the retrieval at least 100 mg of sample material. During the winter of 1991-92, dust samples were collected from six different microenvironments in the homes of 49 dust mite sensitive children living in the Raleigh, NC metropolitan area. In addition to the standard antigen immunoassay, the performance of the HDVI was assessed by conducting side by side comparison tests using two alternative antigen collection systems. Microenvironmental antigen concentrations were found to be lognormally distributed within the test homes and within each microenvironment. With the relatively large quantity of sample material collected and the ease with which the HDVI was able to collect samples from a wide variety of substrates, the new unit was determined to be well suited for surface dust and dust mite antigen collection studies.

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO A THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICAL STIMULATES PHAGOCYTOSIS IN JUVENILE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Exposure to a Thyroid Disrupting Chemical Stimulates Phagocytosis in Juvenile Sprague-Dawley Rats.
    AA Rooney1, R Matulka2, and R Luebke3. 1NCSU/US EPA CVM, Department of Anatomy, Physiological Sciences and Radiology, Raleigh, NC;2UNC Department of Toxicology, Cha...

  1. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE SUPPRESSES JUVENILE IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MALE, BUT NOT FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE SUPPRESSES JUVENILE IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MALE, BUT NOT FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS. AA Rooney1 and RW Luebke2. 1NCSU/USEPA CVM, Department of Anatomy, Physiological Sciences, and Radiology, Raleigh, NC;2USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC.
    The ability of the ...

  2. Dillard Drive Middle & Elementary School, Raleigh, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Dillard Drive Middle & Elementary School (North Carolina) that incorporates daylighting in the majority of the classrooms, the gymnasium, dining room, and media center. The design also uses advanced lighting controls, fiber optic networking, automatic environmental controls, and an energy management system that…

  3. Typographia: A Hybrid, Alphabetic Exploration of Raleigh, NC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, David

    2010-01-01

    "As compositionists delve more deeply into the material and technical dimensions of digital media, the contemporary arts should be valued as a source for new approaches to hybrid forms of writing and textuality." In addition to "Typographia", this work includes a companion essay (PDF): From Street to Software: How a Lettered…

  4. High-resolution Crop Surface Models (CSM) and Crop Volume Models (CVM) on field level by terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Bolten, Andreas; Curdt, Constanze; Waldhoff, Guido; Bareth, Georg

    2010-11-01

    The interdisciplinary Transregional Collaborative Research Center 32 (CRC/TR 32) works on exchange processes between soil, vegetation, and the adjacent atmospheric boundary layer (SVA). Within this research project a terrestrial laser scanning sensor is used in a multitemporal approach for determining agricultural plant parameters. In contrast to other studies with phase-change or optical probe sensors, time-of-flight measurements are used. On three dates in the year 2008 a sugar beet field (4.3 ha) in Western Germany was surveyed by a terrestrial laser scanner (Riegl LMS-Z420i). Point clouds are georeferenced, trimmed, and compared with official elevation data. The estimated plant parameters are (i) surface model comparison between different crop surfaces and (ii) crop volumes as well as (iii) soil roughness parameters for SVA-Modelling. The results show, that the estimation of these parameters is possible and the method should be validated and extended.

  5. 78 FR 19733 - Draft General Management Plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Fort Raleigh National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ..., Environment, and Public Comment (PEPC) Web site: http://parkplanning.nps.gov/FORA and media outlets. ADDRESSES... our research on the site's history, archeology, inhabitants and events with emphasis on...

  6. Methods and Apparatuses for Signaling with Geometric Constellations in a Raleigh Fading Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsoum, Maged F. (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Communication systems are described that use signal constellations, which have unequally spaced (i.e., `geometrically` shaped) points. In many embodiments, the communication systems use specific geometric constellations that are capacity optimized at a specific SNR (signal to noise ratio). In addition, ranges within which the constellation points of a capacity optimized constellation can be perturbed and are still likely to achieve a given percentage of the optimal capacity increase compared to a constellation that maximizes d (sub min) (i.e. minimum distance between constellations) are also described. Capacity measures that are used in the selection of the location of constellation points include, but are not limited to, parallel decode (PD) capacity and joint capacity.

  7. 78 FR 3964 - Request for Public Comment, Raleigh County Memorial Airport, Beckley, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Creek Gorge'' to a depth in excess of 600ft below the airport elevation and has no aeronautical benefit... development opportunities exist for the airport. Once released, the land will be sold and placed in a Conservation Easement, with restriction of no future development. Proposed buyer would be placing the area...

  8. Ducts Sealing Using Injected Spray Sealant, Raleigh, North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques - manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  9. 77 FR 38376 - Request for Public Comment, Raleigh County Memorial Airport, Beckley, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Airport Circle, Room 101, Beaver, West Virginia 25813. In addition, one copy of any comments submitted to... Airport Circle, Room 105, Beaver, West Virginia 25813. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Connie...

  10. City of Raleigh, Wilders Grove Service Center, Solid Waste Services Facility. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Cox; Bill Black; Battle, Fred

    2015-07-22

    Final Report for DOE Grant EE0002808. Grant award was for technology demonstration of geothermal energy systems. One of the major objectives identified for the demonstration portion of the grant was to prove the viability of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems in significantly reducing energy usage of HVAC and domestic water heating systems compared to traditional systems. Data were monitored and conclusions drawn, including estimating payback timeframes and documenting lessons learned.

  11. The Severe Weather Warning Process Using the WSR-88D at the Raleigh Weather Forecast Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    the opportunity to pursue my master’s degree in meteorology through the Air Force Institute of Technology. This research was also supported by NOAA ...4.4JCMMttID)I0DWNN WM Z -- CljCMMttIDIDWWF’- WZA L AL mmUn E - z z- ru Vu 23 C of 50 to 55 dBZ in cell A. Based on the increased shear values, the...the central 29 mW Mt Z a. 0. Um LOW It ix wM NNZN~O~U Do 0 If)P)ZVM N -> N, " in40 .\\\\ - - I-0DMVX N tSU)WD UN -(t *0 * 00 -11- h W .OW CW QhI a~i- t

  12. 78 FR 45909 - Designation for the Amarillo, TX; Cairo, IL; Baton Rouge, LA; Raleigh, NC; and Belmond, IA Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ..., Inc. (Schaal) to provide official services under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA), as... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., Inc. (Amarillo), Cairo Grain Inspection Agency, Inc. (Cairo), Louisiana Department of Agriculture...

  13. Thermomechanical and Thermochemical Behavior of a Hafnium-20 Percent Tantalum Alloy. Ph.D. Thesis - North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the thermomechanical and thermochemical behavior of a high temperature, oxidation resistant, hafnium-20 percent tantalum alloy. The elastic and shear moduli of this alloy were determined in air up to 1000 C and in vacuum up to 2000 C using a mechanical resonance technique. The internal friction of the alloy was measured up to temperatures greater than 1400 C. Room temperature stress-strain behavior of the oxidized and unoxidized alloy was established. The effect of annealing on the elastic and shear moduli of the extruded rod material was investigated. The martensitic-type phase transformation occurring in the alloy was studied using hot stage metallography and electron microscopy. Static oxidation tests were conducted on the alloy at temperatures from 1000 C to 1700 C with weight gain measurements made as a function of time and temperatures. Surface morphology studies were conducted on the oxide coatings formed at the different temperatures using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  14. Conference on Improving Minority and At-Risk Student Achievement: Blueprint for Excellence Proceedings Report. (Raleigh, NC, March 10, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

    The Conference on Improving Minority and At-Risk Student Achievement was convened to help educators, parents, community, and business leaders in North Carolina focus in strategies and ideas that work to raise student achievement levels for low-performing students. This report summarizes the remarks of Michael Garrett, the keynote address of Asa…

  15. Insight into the dynamic behaviour of the Van der Pol/Raleigh oscillator using the internal stiffness and damping forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, M. J.; Tang, B.; Carranza, J. C.

    2016-09-01

    The van der Pol oscillator is an archetypal nonlinear oscillator that has been studied for many years. It is a self-sustaining oscillator that vibrates in a limit cycle, and has the characteristic that it generates energy in the part of the cycle when the displacement is small and dissipates energy in the part of the cycle when the displacement is large. Almost all analyses for this type of oscillator have been conducted in a strict mathematical framework using the displacement and velocity of the mass to describe the motion in the phase plane. Physical insight into the behaviour is then generally only possible for very small or for very large damping nonlinearity. In this paper a fresh approach is taken. The internal forces of the Rayleigh oscillator are studied rather than van der Pol's equation as the key damping force is a function of only velocity. Simulations are presented which show how the stiffness and damping forces vary when the system is vibrating in a steady-state limit cycle.

  16. Meeting report: American Aging Association 40th Annual Meeting, Raleigh, North Carolina, June 3-6, 2011.

    PubMed

    Swan, Melanie

    2011-08-01

    The focus of the 2011 American Aging Association meeting was emerging concepts in the mechanisms of aging. Many of the usual topics in aging were covered, such as dietary restriction (DR), inflammation, stress resistance, homeostasis and proteasome activity, sarcopenia, and neural degeneration. There was also discussion of newer methods, such as microRNAs and genome sequencing, that have been employed to investigate gene expression variance with aging and genetic signatures of longevity. Aging as a field continues to mature, including the following areas: Using a systems approach to tracing conserved pathways across organisms; sharpening definitions of sarcopenia, frailty, and health span; and distinguishing interventions by age tier (early-onset versus late-onset). A preconference session on late-onset intervention concluded that there are numerous benefits to deriving such interventions. Conference talks applied the biology of aging in a translational manner to intervention development. Using an individual's own stem cells to regenerate organs for transplantation and as a cell source for cellular therapies could be a powerful near-term solution to disease. Several proposed interventions were pharmaceutical, myostatin inhibition, losartan, Janus kinase (JAK) pathway inhibitors, and enalapril for frailty and sarcopenia, and metformin to promote the Nrf2 antiinflammation response. In DR, protein restriction was found to be better than general calorie restriction. Short-term fasting may be helpful in chemotherapy, surgery, and acute stress, simultaneously increasing the killing of cancer cells by chemotherapy, while improving the survival of normal cells. Immune system interventions remain elusive, although statins may help to improve cellular senescence promoted bacterial infection. Engineered enzymes may be useful in lysosomal catabolism. Dietary restriction mimetics, most promisingly involving target of rapamycin (TOR; TORC1 inhibition and rapamycin), may be more feasible than dietary restriction.

  17. 77 FR 73978 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 93 Under Alternative Site Framework, Raleigh/Durham, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ..., respectively. FTZ 93's Sites 1, 3, and 4 would be categorized as magnet sites, and FTZ 93's existing Site 2... limit for the zone, to a five-year ASF sunset provision for magnet sites that would terminate...

  18. 78 FR 17635 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Production Activity; Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates); Youngsville, North Carolina The... production of aluminum offset printing plates for the printing industry. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ... rates during customs entry procedures that apply to aluminum printing plates (duty- free) for...

  19. 77 FR 16536 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh/Durham, NC; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... magnet sites; and, Site 2 would become a usage-driven site. The ASF allows for the possible exemption of one magnet site from the ``sunset'' time limits that generally apply to sites under the ASF, and the applicant proposes that magnet Site 1 (as renumbered) would be so exempted. Because the ASF only pertains...

  20. 78 FR 70531 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 93-Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... thrombocytopenia (ITP), and Tykerb oncology. The components and materials sourced from abroad include corn starch... diluent, Jalyn fixed dose combination capsules, panadol tablets, opadry (an excipient), starch...

  1. Academy of Human Resource Development Conference Proceedings (Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, March 8-12, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter, Ed.

    This two-volume document contains the proceedings of the 2000 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). Volume 1 contains the following materials: conference overview; text of a town forum on social responsibility and human resource development (HRD); papers from symposia 1-24; and papers from innovative sessions 1-4. The…

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Adult Education Research Conference (25th, Raleigh, North Carolina, April 5-7, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of Adult and Community Coll. Education.

    These proceedings contain 50 papers. Selected brief titles include: "A Comparative Analysis of Costs and Perceived Effectiveness of Postgraduate Continuing Education for Mississippi Pharmacists" (Bellande); "A Conceptual and Empirical Perspective on Adult Education Program Planning Theory" (Boshier); "Self-Directed Adult Learning" (Brookfield);…

  3. 77 FR 14857 - Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ..., Federal Highway Administration, 310 New Bern Avenue, Suite 410, Raleigh, North Carolina, 27601-1418... South Wilmington Street, Raleigh, North Carolina, 27601. A final decision regarding section 404...

  4. To designate the Federal building and United States courthouse located at 300 Fayetteville Street in Raleigh, North Carolina, as the "Jesse Helms Federal Building and United States Courthouse".

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ellmers, Renee L. [R-NC-2

    2012-11-27

    11/28/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. A Poor Harvest: North Carolina's Rural Schools. A Reprint of Articles Published in The Raleigh News and Observer, March 26-28, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Bill; Bolch, Judy

    This series of newspaper articles evaluates North Carolina's schools and establishes a relationship between the state's rural poverty and low student achievement levels. Test scores in 1988 are consistently low in all but four of the poorest rural counties. Small schools are disappearing from rural areas. Large schools can offer students more…

  6. Degradation Mechanisms in Aluminum Matrix Composites: Alumina/Aluminum and Boron/Aluminum. Ph.D. Thesis - North Carolina State Univ. at Raleigh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of fabrication and long term thermal exposure (up to 10,000 hours at 590 K) on two types of aluminum matrix composites were examined. An alumina/aluminum composite, was made of continuous alpha Al2O3 fibers in a matrix of commercially pure aluminum alloyed with 2.8% lithium. The mechanical properties of the material, the effect of isothermal exposure, cyclic thermal exposure, and fatigue are presented. Two degradation mechanisms are identified. One was caused by formation of a nonstoichiometric alumina during fabrication, the other by a loss of lithium to a surface reaction during long term thermal exposure. The other composite, boron/aluminum, made of boron fibers in an aluminum matrix, was investigated using five different aluminum alloys for the matrices. The mechanical properties of each material and the effect of isothermal and cyclic thermal exposure are presented. The effects of each alloy constituent on the degradation mechanisms are discussed. The effects of several reactions between alloy constituents and boron fibers on the composite properties are discussed.

  7. High Intensity Electro-Magnetic and Ultrasonic Effects on Inorganic Materials Behavior and Processing Held in Raleigh, North Carolina on 17-18 July 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    54, 1940 (1985). -6] M.S. Daw and M. I. Baskes, Phys. Rev. B 29, 6443 (1984). 󈨋 S. R. Chubb, D. A. Papaconstantopoulos, and B. M. Klein, Phys. Rev...753 (1976). 3. H.A. Kramers, Physical (Utrecht) 7 824 ( 1940 ). 4. Y.A. Osipyan, et al. Advances in Physics, Vol. 35, No. 2, p 115, 1986. 5. J...20. 0. A. Troitskii, I. L. Skobtsov and A. V. Men’shikh, Fiz. Met. & Metalloved. 33(1972)392. 21. Yu. I. Golovin , V. M. Finkel and A. A. Sletkov

  8. Makin' It Happen with Business & Marketing Education. Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference Proceedings (13th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 16-17, 1996). Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, L. Keith, Ed.

    This proceedings includes the following papers: "Dealing with Discipline Problems in Schools" (Allen); "Developing Global Awareness" (Arnold); "Desktop Publishing Using WordPerfect 6.0 for Windows" (Broughton); "Learn and Earn" (Cauley); "Using the Computer to Teach Merchandising Math"…

  9. Proceedings of the ARO Planning Workshop on Embedded Systems and Network Security Held in Raleigh, North Carolina on February 22-23, 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-28

    properties to general computation • Build systems with perfect detection of code integrity attacks • Recover from malicious code infection • Provide...discovering vulnerabilities in source code and binaries • Automated Signature Generation – Generating signatures that filter our malicious inputs • Malicious... Code Detection – Detecting whether a binary has malicious behavior 2 Embedded Systems • Increasingly used in critical sectors – Defense, medical, power

  10. Interagency Symposium on University Research in Transportation Noise (2nd) Held at North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh on June 5-7, 1974. Book of Proceedings, Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    were obtained. Representative results are shown in Fig. ?, All results are the average of two measurements, ono on each side of the Jet axis, plotted...graphs is approximately ♦ 1 db. The Jet was in all cases operating at 2k.6 ♦ .U m/sec. (M * .08), and refraction cancellation required a temperature...or Gaussian, probability distribution. This implies that all moments of the multi-variate distribution function can be written in terms of the

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (18th) Held at Raleigh, North Carolina on 14-17 November 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Limnology, Vol 1, John Wiley and Sons, New York. Hutchinson, G . E. 1970. "The Chemical Ecology of Three Species of Myriophyllum (Angiospermae...ENVIR.. JUN 84 UNCLASSIFIED WES/MPR-84-4 F/ G 616 NLs/I//IIII/IIII E/EEEEEEIIEEEEm/I/IEEE//EEI EEIIIIIIIIII EEEEEEIIE/I EIII IImEm 42.2 SIM 11111.O 1...Vicksburg, Miss. The organizational activities were carried out and presentations by WES personnel were prepared under the general supervision of Dr. John

  12. TRAFFIC AND METEOROLOGICAL IMPACTS ON NEAR-ROAD AIR QUALITY: SUMMARY OF METHODS AND TRENDS FROM THE RALEIGH NEAR-ROAD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are adverse health effects in populations living, working or going to school near major roadways. A study was designed to assess traffic emissions impacts on air quality and particle toxicity near a heavily-traveled highway. Several real-time and time-integrated sampling d...

  13. Back to the Future with Business and Marketing Education. Annual Atlantic Coast Business and Marketing Education Conference Proceedings (12th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 17-18, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Randy L., Ed.

    This proceedings includes: "Bridging the International Learning Gap" (Arnold); "Back to the Future" (Baker); "Conducting Successful Class Projects over the Internet" (Beasley); "The Need for Ethics Instruction at the High School Level" (Brown); "Incorporating Industry-Based Skills Standards into High School Secretarial Programs" (Bunn);…

  14. Building Bridges to Tomorrow in Business and Marketing Education. Atlantic Coast Business and Marketing Education Conference Proceedings (15th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 20-21, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swope, John A., Ed.

    This proceedings includes the following papers: "Using Multimedia in Computer Applications" (Delores Barnhill); "Becoming an International Educator: Why, How, and What" (Ray D. Bernardi); "Online Courses--A Bridge for Education" (Phyllis J. Broughton); "Web Page Maintenance" (Linda Carr, Mary Cauley); "Teaching Suggestions to Help Students Prevent…

  15. Interagency Symposium on University Research in Transportation Noise (2nd) Held at North Carolina State University, Raleigh on June 5-7, 1974. Book of Proceedings, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    L. "Model Study of Aircraft Noise Reverberation in a City Street", Interim Report DOT-TSC-93, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts...leave many questions unanswered concerning the mechanics of tire noise generation. For example, frequency components occur in sound and accel- eration...contributors. SUMMARY These preliminary results of coherence analysis in the diagnosis of tire noise mechanisms are encouraging. Future work will

  16. An Analytical Investigation of an Oscillating Wedge in a Supersonic Perfect Gas Flow. Ph.D Thesis - North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    Several aspects of the oscillating wedge are investigated to evaluate both the resulting trends for the wedge and methods of analyzing unsteady flows. An existing hypersonic small disturbance theory for an oscillating thin wedge is extended and applied. A perturbation method involving linearization about the known flow is then derived and discussed. Subsequently, a finite difference technique for calculating the complete unsteady flow field of the wedge in motion is presented and discussed in conjunction with some calculated quasi-static nonlinear trends.

  17. 75 FR 77901 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... District, (Post-World War II and Modern Architecture in Raleigh, North Carolina, 1945-1965, MPS), Bounded..., Raleigh, 10001111 Capitol Heights Historic District, (Post-World War II and Modern Architecture in Raleigh..., 10001112 Longview Gardens Historic District, (Post-World War II and Modern Architecture in Raleigh,...

  18. A retrospective survey of the prevalence of complex vertebral malformation carriers in 9 Holstein dairy herds in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Hajime; Nishiyama, Tetsu; Kanae, Yutaka; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Endoh, Daiji; Hayashi, Masanobu; Kurosawa, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    The carrier rates of Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) in 9 Holstein dairy herds in Hokkaido, number of usages of CVM carrier semen for breeding and gene frequencies of CVM carriers were measured. The mean CVM carrier rates of 140 cows from 4 herds in 1994 and 315 cows from 5 herds in 2003 were 10.8%(range 4.7-30.0%) and 5.1%(range 0.0-6.1%), respectively. The rate of use of CVM carrier semen in the Hokkaido district was 5.6% in 2002. The gene frequencies calculated from CVM carriers among the 315 cows and number of CVM carrier semen samples used were 0.032 and 0.028, and the occurrence of homozygous CVM in 2003 was estimated to be 0.1% in the local districts of Hokkaido, Japan.

  19. 77 FR 46685 - In the Matter of: Steven Neal Greenoe, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate #54450-056, USP Atlanta...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...: 8933 Windjammer Drive, Raleigh, NC 27615; Order Denying Export Privileges On January 10, 2012, in the U....S. Penitentiary, P.O. Box 1150160, Atlanta, GA, and 8933 Windjammer Drive, Raleigh, NC 27615,...

  20. Leith Creek, Scotland County, North Carolina, Detailed Project Report. Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    Service Raleigh, \\. C. 27(11 310 New Bern Raleigh, North Carolina 27601 Mr. Dan Blue Water Resources Planning Department of Transportation Department...rxecutive Coordinator Conservation Council of North Carolina Suite 410, Professional BuildirZ Raleigh, North Carolina 27601 Dear Mr. Diehl:S In

  1. ANALYSIS OF ANDROGEN- AND EGF-RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT PHALLUS AFTER EXPOSURE TO VINCLOZOLIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of Androgen- and EGF-Receptor Expression in the Fetal Rat Phallus After Exposure to Vinclozolin
    Cynthia Wolf1,2, Barbara Abbott1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.1
    1USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC 27711, 2NCSU, Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Ral...

  2. Relaxation of Summer Gasoline Volatility Standard for Florida and the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Area (Triangle Area) and the Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point Area (Triad Area) in North Carolina Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal Registers and fact sheets about EPA approving a request from Florida to relax the federal Reid Vapor Pressure standard applicable to gasoline introduced into commerce in the Miami, Tampa and Jacksonville areas.

  3. Making the Year 2000 a Sure Winner. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Atlantic Coast Business and Marketing Education Conference (16th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 19-20, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Patricia, Ed.

    This document contains 21 presentations from a conference on business and marketing education. The following papers are included: "Business and Marketing Education: In Tune with the Times" (Clarice P. Brantley); "Portfolio Assessment--A Sure Winner" (Ann Bullock); "The Effect of the Year 2000 on Web Page Maintenance"…

  4. An Odyssey into the New Millennium: Rediscover 21st Century Business & Marketing Education. Proceedings of the Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference (18th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 15-17, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sheila, Ed.

    The following 13 papers on business and marketing education are included in this document: "Internet Marketing" (Herb Brown, Jerry Kandies); "Disk This . . . Paper Flow on the Go!" (Mary Evans, Wilbur Whitley); "Production and Evaluation of On-Line Tutorials" (Margie Gallagher, Evelyn Farrior, Jane Geissler);…

  5. Moving Business and Marketing Education into the 21st Century. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Atlantic Coast Business and Marketing Education Conference (17th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 18-19, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, David, Ed.

    This document contains 21 presentations from a conference on business and marketing education. The following papers are included: "Microsoft Excel 2000" (Jeff Fuller); "Clueless in the Classroom? Hints To Help!" (Mary W. Evans); "A Strategy To Improve Narrative-Number Linkage in Business Writing" (Ellis A. Hayes);…

  6. Proceedings of the Conference of the American Country Life Association, Inc. (42nd, Raleigh, North Carolina, July 9-10, 1963). Our Concern for the Disadvantaged in Town and Country Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Country Life Association, Sioux Falls, SD.

    The future of the disadvantaged is discussed in these proceedings of a 1963 conference of the American Country Life Association. Papers presented at 3 panel discussions give detailed information on the disadvantaged. The panel discussion on the types of disadvantaged people covered American Indians, Appalachian whites, migrants, and Negroes. The…

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (20th, Raleigh, NC, October 31-November 3, 1998). Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenson, Sarah, Ed.; Dawkins, Karen, Ed.; Blanton, Maria, Ed.; Coulombe, Wendy, Ed.; Kolb, John, Ed.; Norwood, Karen, Ed.; Stiff, Lee, Ed.

    This conference proceedings contains three plenary session reports, 12 working group and 79 research reports, 35 short oral reports, 60 poster session reports, and two discussion group reports. Major papers (excluding "short orals" and "posters") include: (1) "Semantical Obstacles in Mathematics Understanding" (Carlos Arteaga and Manuel Santos);…

  8. Proceedings of the Conference on the Design of Experiments in Army Research Development and Testing (27th) Held at The McKimmon Center for Continuing Education, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina on 21-23 October 1981

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    selection procedures as well as other statistical areas. He has given freely of his time to help Army scientists develop statistical skills . Recently he...thereof, though it yreflect lack of skill in exposition. (b) It is lazy to judge a paper by its title alone, or a piece of work by its field. (c) In...although this could only occur in cases where a definito difference in location should be found, and still the chance of confounding the random effects

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (20th, Raleigh, NC, October 31-November 3, 1998). Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenson, Sarah, Ed.; Dawkins, Karen, Ed.; Blanton, Maria, Ed.; Coulombe, Wendy, Ed.; Kolb, John, Ed.; Norwood, Karen, Ed.; Stiff, Lee, Ed.

    This conference proceedings contains three plenary session reports, 12 working group and 79 research reports, 35 short oral reports, 60 poster session reports, and two discussion group reports. The titles of all papers (excluding "short orals", "posters", and brief discussion group reports) are: (1) "On Relationships…

  10. Increase of β2-integrin on adhesion of THP-1 cells to collagen vitrigel membrane.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Tadashi; Kuroda, Yukie; Ishida, Seiichi; Yamashita, Kunihiko; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Oshikata, Ayumi; Shimizu, Kumiko; Kojima, Hajime; Takezawa, Toshiaki; Akiyama, Takumi; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-04

    When human monocyte-derived leukemia (THP-1) cells, which are floating cells, are stimulated with lipid peroxides, or Streptococcus suis, these cells adhere to a plastic plate or endothelial cells. However, it is unclear whether or not non-stimulated THP-1 cells adhere to collagen vitrigel membrane (CVM). In this study, firstly, we investigated the rate of adhesion of THP-1 cells to CVM. When THP-1 cells were not stimulated, the rate of adhesion to CVM was high. Then, to identify adhesion molecules involved in adhesion of THP-1 cells to CVM, expressions of various cell adhesion molecules on the surface of THP-1 cells adhering to CVM were measured. β-actin, β-catenin, and β1-integrin expressions did not change in non-stimulated THP-1 cells cultured on CVM compared with those in cells cultured in a flask, but β2-integrin expression markedly increased.

  11. 76 FR 72422 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... clinical effectiveness studies, and describes criteria that the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) thinks... represent the Agency's current thinking on evaluating the effectiveness of anticoccidial drugs in...

  12. Removal characteristics of plasma chemical vaporization machining with a pipe electrode for optical fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Takino, Hideo; Yamamura, Kazuya; Sano, Yasuhisa; Mori, Yuzo

    2010-08-10

    Plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) is a high-precision chemical shaping method using rf plasma generated in the proximity of an electrode in an atmospheric environment. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the removal characteristics of plasma CVM using a pipe electrode. Polished fused silica plates were processed by plasma CVM, polishing, and precision grinding under various conditions. The removal rate of plasma CVM was about 4 to 1100 times faster than that of polishing, and the maximum removal rate was almost equal to that of precision grinding. The roughness of the resultant surfaces was almost the same as that of the polished surfaces.

  13. 78 FR 52786 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Members Of SGIP 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ..., Raleigh, NC; Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Ward Bower Innovations LLC, Albuquerque, NM... planned activity of the group research project. Membership in this group research project remains...

  14. Cluster Variation Method as a Theoretical Tool for the Study of Phase Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohri, Tetsuo

    2017-02-01

    Cluster variation method (CVM) has been widely employed to calculate alloy phase diagrams. The atomistic feature of the CVM is consistent with first-principles electronic structure calculations, and the combination of CVM with electronic structure calculation enables one to formulate free energy from the first-principles. CVM free energy conveys affluent information of a given system, and the second-order derivative traces the stability locus against configurational fluctuation. The kinetic extension of the CVM is the path probability method (PPM) which is utilized to calculate transformation and relaxation kinetics associated with the temperature change. Hence, the CVM and PPM are coherent methods to perform a synthetic study from initial non-equilibrium to final equilibrium states. By utilizing CVM free energy as a homogeneous free energy density term, one can calculate the time evolution of ordered domains within the phase field method. Finally, continuous displacement cluster variation method (CDCVM) is discussed as the recent development of CVM. CDCVM is capable of introducing the local lattice displacement into the free energy. Moreover, it is shown that CDCVM can be extended to study collective atomic displacements leading to displacive phase transformation.

  15. Draft genome sequences of Streptococcus bovis strains ATCC 33317 and JB1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the draft genome sequences of Streptococcus bovis type strain ATTC 33317 (CVM42251) isolated from cow dung and strain JB1 (CVM42252) isolated from a cow rumen in 1977. Strains were subjected to Next Generation sequencing and the genome sizes are approximately 2 MB and 2.2 MB, respectively....

  16. Note on the cluster variation method

    SciTech Connect

    An, G.

    1988-08-01

    Kikuchi's cluster variation method (CVM) is reformulated as the truncation of a Moebius inversion. An attempt is made to explicate and simplify the various approaches to the CVM. This formulation makes apparent the connection of the method with other types of cluster approximation. An illustration of the procedure is provided.

  17. Continuous Video Modeling to Assist with Completion of Multi-Step Home Living Tasks by Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Foster, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated a relatively new video-based procedure, continuous video modeling (CVM), to teach multi-step cleaning tasks to high school students with moderate intellectual disability. CVM in contrast to video modeling and video prompting allows repetition of the video model (looping) as many times as needed while the user completes…

  18. Using the Contingent Valuation Method for Dollar Valuations of Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hider, Philip

    2008-01-01

    An application of the contingent valuation method (CVM) for estimating the economic value of a regional public library service is described, and some of the key methodological issues surrounding CVM and other stated preference techniques are discussed with reference to library use and funding contexts. Given the range of valuations that can result…

  19. Identification of complex vertebral malformation carriers in Holstein cattle in south China.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Tong, Q; Hu, X Z; Yang, L G; Zhong, X Q; Yu, Y; Wu, J J; Liu, W J; Li, X; Hua, G H; Zhao, H Q; Zhang, S J

    2011-10-13

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is a recently described monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary defect of Holstein dairy cattle that causes premature birth, aborted fetuses and stillborn calves. Guanine is substituted by thymine (G>T) in the solute carrier family 35 member A3 gene (SLC35A3). A valine is changed to a phenylalanine at position 180 of uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetyl-glucosamine transporter protein. CVM is expected to occur in many countries due to the widespread use of sire semen. We developed a created restriction site PCR (CRS-PCR) method to diagnose CVM in dairy cows. This was tested on 217 cows and 125 bulls selected randomly from a Holstein cattle population in south China. Five Holstein cows and five Holstein bulls were identified to be CVM carriers; the percentages of CVM carriers were estimated to be 2.3, 4.0 and 2.9% in the cows, bulls and entire Holstein cattle sample, respectively.

  20. 77 FR 9268 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Nomad Data Collector 5.0 volts d.c. (vii) Equivalent equipment with equal or lower voltages. (c) All non...-09216, and Performance Coal Co., Upper Big Branch Mine, MSHA I.D. No. 46-08436, located in Raleigh... Performance Coal Co., Upper Big Branch Mine, MSHA I.D. No. 46-08436, located in Raleigh County, West...

  1. Concussion

    MedlinePlus

    ... health/topics/tbi/conditioninfo/Pages/default.aspx)Current concepts in concussion: evaluation and management by Scorza KA, Raleigh MF, O’Connor FG ( ... health/topics/tbi/conditioninfo/Pages/default.aspx)Current concepts in concussion: evaluation and management by Scorza KA, Raleigh MF, O’Connor FG ( ...

  2. Structured for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Dana

    2008-01-01

    When North Carolina native Evan Raleigh was in search of the perfect college, he had three things in mind: (1) the strength of the school's academic reputation; (2) the size of the school; and (3) the school's location and proximity to home. He found all three in the form of Wake Forest University. But Raleigh, who received a full academic…

  3. 77 FR 22761 - Draft Management Plan and Environmental Assessment for Monitor National Marine Sanctuary: Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Plan Review Coordinator, Monitor National Marine Sanctuary, 100 Museum Drive, Newport News, VA 23606... Coordinator at 100 Museum Drive, Newport News, VA 23606. Instructions: All comments received are a part of the... 30, 6:30 p.m., Raleigh, NC, NC Museum of History, 5 East Edenton Street, Raleigh, NC 27601. 2. May...

  4. Crabtree Creek Quarry Pit Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    Service LABORATORY j Raleigh, North Carolina 27601 : li (b26 Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. The...Avenue PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT Room 535 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. CCESSION NO. Federal Building, Raleigh, NC 27601 11. TITLE (Include Security

  5. The Quest for Historical Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Explains how the author put a young adult book on Sir Walter Raleigh into the proper historical context. Describes reading other authors about the Elizabethan period and discovering the passions that motivated explorers, and suggests further reading on Sir Walter Raleigh and this period in history. (LRW)

  6. Interstate Conference on Water Problems/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Workshops on Water Project Financing Held at Raleigh, North Carolina, Chicago, Illinois, Dallas/Ft. Worth, Texas, and Seattle, Washington on October - December 1984 and Water Project Financing Roundtable Held at Washington, DC on April 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    Servicios a la Navegacion en el Espacio Aereo Mexicano " .",’......’.’... .’........ ’.-’e ’’.-..’ ’e... ... ’._ ".*. .. . "* . . ’%~.- 4...la Navegacion en el Espacio Aereo Mexicano National Weather Service United States Coast Guard FAA, System Plans and Programs Division, AT-100’ FAA...Servicios a la Navegacion en el Espacio Aereo Mexicano. ( United States Coast Guard FAA, Office of Aviation Safety, ASF-1 FAA, System Plans and

  7. Institutional Research and Strategies for Higher Education Issues in the 1980's and Research Exchange Forum. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North Carolina Association for Institutional Research (7th, Raleigh, North Carolina, November 1, 1979) and the Drive-In Conference (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, April 18, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles I., Ed.; Ussery, Robert M., Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1979 conference of the North Carolina Association for Institutional Research and the 1980 Research Search Exchange Drive-In Conference Program, which address the skills needed by institutional researchers to deal with the issues in higher education in the 1980s, are presented. Highlights of the North Carolina association…

  8. Brief Amicus Curiae for Educational Testing Service. United States of America, Plaintiff, and North Carolina Association of Educators, et al., Plantiff-Intervenors, v. State of North Carolina, et al., Defendants. In the United States District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina, Raleigh Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willens, Howard P.; And Others

    This amicus curiae was filed by the Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the case of the United States of America and North Carolina Association of Educators v. North Carolina, which involved the validity of North Carolina's use of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE). The NTE, a battery of achievement tests designed to measure the academic…

  9. A resolution honoring the coal miners who perished in the Upper Big Branch Mine-South in Raleigh County, West Virginia, extending the condolences of the United States Senate to the families of the fallen coal miners, and recognizing the valiant efforts of the emergency response workers.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Byrd, Robert C. [D-WV

    2010-04-15

    04/15/2010 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S2393-2394; text as passed Senate: CR S2394; text of measure as introduced: CR S2390-2391) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. [Willingness to pay for ecosystem services of urban river in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Yang, Kai; Tai, Jun; Wu, E-nuo

    2005-03-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is one of the most dominating and standard techniques for eliciting the willingness to pay (WTP) for the ecosystem services provided by environment and resources. Taking Zhangjiabang Creek, a model project in the comprehensive management of urban river in China, as a case study, 800 payment card CVM questionnaires were surveyed and 646 as useful questionnaires were feed back in August 2003, then, the mean WTP, 195.07 - 253.04 Yen per person every year in the future 3 years, to the ecosystem services of the urban river was got in the payment card CVM study, and the figure was compared to some other river CVM studies. Distribution shape and range of WTP were probed, and the regression relationship between respondents WTP and their socioeconomic information such as income, education level, donation experience, and environmental attitude was discussed, what's important, an environmental economics explanation was given to the regression results. Some biases which influence the mean WTP of payment card CVM are inspected and corresponding countermeasures were seriously noticed and implemented in the survey. Finally the critiques and controversies that CVM is faced with were advanced, but the reliability of CVM is also given based upon environmental decision-making theory.

  11. Screening for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase, complex vertebral malformation, bovine citrullinaemia, and factor XI deficiency in Holstein cows reared in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS), complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine citrullinaemia (BC) and factor XI deficiency (FXID) are autosomal recessive hereditary disorders, which have had significant economic impact on dairy cattle breeding worldwide. In this study, 350 Holstein cows reared in Turkey were screened for BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID genotypes to obtain an indication on the importance of these defects in Turkish Holsteins. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from blood and the amplicons of BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID were obtained by using PCR. PCR products were digested with TaqI, AvaI and AvaII restriction enzymes for BLAD, DUMPS, and BC, respectively. These digested products and PCR product of FXID were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide. CVM genotypes were detected by DNA sequencing. Additionally, all genotypes were confirmed by DNA sequencing to determine whether there was a mutant allele or not. Results Fourteen BLAD, twelve CVM and four FXID carriers were found among the 350 Holstein cows examined, while carriers of DUMPS and BC were not detected. The mutant allele frequencies were calculated as 0.02, 0.017, and 0.006 for BLAD, CVM and FXID, respectively with corresponding carrier prevalence of 4.0% (BLAD), 3.4% (CVM) and 1.2% (FXID). Conclusion This study demonstrates that carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are present in the Turkish Holstein population, although at a low frequency. The actual number of clinical cases is unknown, but sporadic cases may appear. As artificial insemination is widely used in dairy cattle breeding, carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are likely present within the population of breeding sires. It is recommended to screen breeding sires for these defective genes in order to avoid an unwanted spread within the population. PMID:20929557

  12. 78 FR 53772 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Information in Electronic Format to the Center for Veterinary Medicine Using the Food and Drug Administration... CFR 11.2 (OMB Control Number 0910-0454)--Extension The Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)...

  13. Is My Dog or Cat a Healthy Weight? Important Questions to Ask the Vet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Carmela Stamper, a veterinarian in the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at the U.S. Food and Drug ...

  14. No Bones About It: Reasons Not to Give Your Dog Bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Carmela Stamper, a veterinarian in the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at the Food and Drug Administration ( ...

  15. 77 FR 69634 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food-Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... and describes criteria that the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) thinks are the most appropriate... current thinking on the topic. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and does...

  16. Centralized video monitoring for patient safety: a Denver Health Lean journey.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, Sharon; Searcey, Phebe; Boyle, Kathy; Herring, Carol; Lester, Kathleen; Goetz-Smith, Hillarie; Nelson, Polly

    2013-01-01

    The demand for certified nursing assistant (CNA) staff used as 1:1 sitters for safety enhancement and fall prevention can be costly. Through Lean thinking and tools and brainstorming, leaders at Denver Health conceptualized the centralized video monitoring (CVM) program for patient safety. The CVM program reallocated the underutilized talents of CNA sitters as video monitoring technicians (VMT) to meet the challenge of delivering high-quality, cost-effective patient care. Implementing the CVM program required tight connections and collaboration with a multidisciplinary team of individuals. Actual program performance exceeded the initial projected benefits. The CVM program supports the high level of vigilance required by nursing staff to ensure patient safety and quality.

  17. 77 FR 45636 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). These fees are... Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) and the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM). Thus, as the...

  18. Performance of a 100Ah common vessel monoblock nickel-cadmium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Anderman, M.; Tsenter, B.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the electrical test results of the Common Vessel Monoblock (CVM) 12V 100Ah Ni-Cd battery. The operation logic, temperature characteristics, gas and heat exchange between cells and regulator are discussed.

  19. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl.,...

  20. Willingness to pay for public health services in rural Central Java, Indonesia: methodological considerations when using the contingent valuation method.

    PubMed

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Okubo, Ichiro

    2014-06-01

    In the health sectors of low- and middle-income countries, contingent valuation method (CVM) studies on willingness to pay (WTP) have been used to gather information on demand variation or financial perspectives alongside price setting, such as the introduction of user fees and valuation of quality improvements. However, WTP found in most CVM studies have only explored the preferences that consumers express through their WTP without exploring whether they are actually able to pay for it. Therefore, this study examines the issues pertaining to WTP estimation for health services using the conventional CVM. We conducted 202 household interviews in 2008, in which we asked respondents about three types of public health services in Indonesia and assessed WTP estimated by the conventional CVM as well as in the scenario of "resorting to debt" to recognize their budget constraints. We find that all the demand curves for both WTP scenarios show gaps. Furthermore, the gap for midwife services is negatively affected by household income and is larger for the poor. These results prove that CVM studies on WTP do not always reveal WTP in the latter scenario. Those findings suggest that WTP elicited by the conventional CVM is different to that from the maximum price that prevents respondents from resorting to debt as their WTP. In order to bridge this gap in the body of knowledge on this topic, studies should improve the scenarios that CVM analyses use to explore WTP. Furthermore, because valuing or pricing health services based on the results of CVM studies on WTP alone can exacerbate the inequity of access to these services, information provided by such studies requires careful interpretation when used for this purpose, especially for the poor and vulnerable sections of society.

  1. Evaluating and improving the cluster variation method entropy functional for Ising alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Luiz G.; Wolverton, C.; Zunger, Alex

    1998-02-01

    The success of the "cluster variation method" (CVM) in reproducing quite accurately the free energies of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations on Ising models is explained in terms of identifying a cancellation of errors: We show that the CVM produces correlation functions that are too close to zero, which leads to an overestimation of the exact energy, E, and at the same time, to an underestimation of -TS, so the free energy F=E-TS is more accurate than either of its parts. This insight explains a problem with "hybrid methods" using MC correlation functions in the CVM entropy expression: They give exact energies E and do not give significantly improved -TS relative to CVM, so they do not benefit from the above noted cancellation of errors. Additionally, hybrid methods suffer from the difficulty of adequately accounting for both ordered and disordered phases in a consistent way. A different technique, the "entropic Monte Carlo" (EMC), is shown here to provide a means for critically evaluating the CVM entropy. Inspired by EMC results, we find a universal and simple correlation to the CVM entropy which produces individual components of the free energy with MC accuracy, but is computationally much less expensive than either MC thermodynamic integration or EMC.

  2. A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population. PMID:22958243

  3. 7 CFR 305.2 - Approved treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... articles require treatment, or are subject to treatment, prior to interstate movement within the United... Health Science and Technology, 1730 Varsity Drive, Suite 400, Raleigh, NC 27606-5202. Upon receipt...

  4. 7 CFR 305.2 - Approved treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... articles require treatment, or are subject to treatment, prior to interstate movement within the United... Health Science and Technology, 1730 Varsity Drive, Suite 400, Raleigh, NC 27606-5202. Upon receipt...

  5. 76 FR 75560 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ...-World War II and Modern Architecture in Raleigh, North Carolina 1945-1965 MPS) Roughly bounded by... Hall, 1824 Marshall Ave., St. Paul, 11000949 MONTANA Jefferson County Modern Hotel, Legion Ave, &...

  6. RTP Speakers Bureau

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Research Triangle Park Speakers Bureau page is a free resource that schools, universities, and community groups in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, N.C. area can use to request speakers and find educational resources.

  7. 76 FR 72002 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... GUAM Guam County Agat World War II Amtrac, Address Restricted, Agat, 11000880 MARYLAND Prince George's... Rochester Heights Historic District, (Post-World War II and Modern Architecture in Raleigh, North...

  8. 5 CFR Appendix III to Part 1201 - Approved Hearing Locations By Regional Office

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Asheville, North Carolina Charlotte, North Carolina Raleigh, North Carolina Jacksonville, North Carolina... Jackson, Mississippi Charleston, South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina Chattanooga, Tennessee Knoxville... Albuquerque, New Mexico Bismarck, North Dakota Fargo, North Dakota Rapid City, South Dakota......

  9. 5 CFR Appendix III to Part 1201 - Approved Hearing Locations By Regional Office

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Asheville, North Carolina Charlotte, North Carolina Raleigh, North Carolina Jacksonville, North Carolina... Jackson, Mississippi Charleston, South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina Chattanooga, Tennessee Knoxville... Albuquerque, New Mexico Bismarck, North Dakota Fargo, North Dakota Rapid City, South Dakota......

  10. 5 CFR Appendix III to Part 1201 - Approved Hearing Locations By Regional Office

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Asheville, North Carolina Charlotte, North Carolina Raleigh, North Carolina Jacksonville, North Carolina... Jackson, Mississippi Charleston, South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina Chattanooga, Tennessee Knoxville... Albuquerque, New Mexico Bismarck, North Dakota Fargo, North Dakota Rapid City, South Dakota......

  11. Terrestrial Carbon [Environmental Pollution: Part I, Special Issue, March 2002; Part II, Special Issue Supplement to 116/3, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Mickler, Robert; McNulty, Steven

    2002-03-01

    These issues contain a total of forty-four peer reviewed science papers on terrestrial carbon presented at the Advances in Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Inventory, Measurements, and Monitoring Conference held in Raleigh, N.C., in October 2000.

  12. 76 FR 22705 - Notice of Proposals To Engage in Permissible Nonbanking Activities or To Acquire Companies That...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... determined by Order to be closely related to banking and permissible for bank holding companies. Unless...South Holdings, LLC Raleigh, North Carolina, in lending and credit-related activities, pursuant...

  13. 76 FR 56753 - Formetanate HCl and Acephate; Cancellation Order for Amendments To Terminate; Product Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Technical Succulent Green Beans. 84229-7 Tide Acephate 90 WDG......... Succulent Green Beans. ] Table 2 of..., Raleigh, NC 27609. 84229 Tide International, USA, Inc., 21 Hubble, Irvine, CA 92618. III. Summary...

  14. NASA's 2013 REEL Science Communications contest: Hurricane Science

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video on NASA satellite and aircraft observations of hurricanes was produced by Will Reiss and Erik Borchers, students at Cardinal Gibbons High School in Raleigh, North Carolina. Will and Erik...

  15. 76 FR 1663 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ..., then that shorter time period still applies. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Clarence W. Coleman... Avenue, Suite 410, Raleigh, North Carolina 27601-1418, Telephone: (919) 747-7014; e-mail:...

  16. The usefulness of dental and cervical maturation stages in New Zealand children for Disaster Victim Identification.

    PubMed

    Timmins, Kimberley; Liversidge, Helen; Farella, Mauro; Herbison, Peter; Kieser, Jules

    2012-06-01

    Age estimation of young victims of natural and un-natural disasters remains a crucial and challenging task during the process of Disaster Victim Identification (DVI). The purpose of this study was to compare dental maturity using the Demirjian and Cameriere methods and to explore the relationship between dental age and cervical vertebral maturity (CVM) using the Hassel and Farman method for a group of New Zealand children. The study used lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs of 200 orthodontic patients aged 7-17 years. Dental age was calculated from mandibular tooth formation stages using the Demirjian and Cameriere methods by calculating the ratio of tooth length to apex width for these teeth. CVM was assessed using stages from Hassel and Farman. Reliability of maturity from reassessment of 20 radiographs showed good agreement for the three methods. Chronological and dental ages were compared using a mixed model. Descriptive statistics of dental ages by CVM stage were calculated. The results show that both dental methods were similar in assessing maturity. A disadvantage of using the Cameriere method was that all seven teeth reached maturity at 13.69 and 14.06 years in females and males respectively, compared to age 16 using the Dermijian method. Females reached CVM stages at earlier chronological and dental ages than males. Mean chronological age for CVM stages 2-5 is about 1 year earlier in females than males. The Demirjian and Cameriere methods of dental maturity and CVM are reliable and useful in assessing dental and skeletal maturity. Ideally in a DVI situation, both the methods of Demirjian and Cameriere, together with CVM, should be employed in the ageing of individuals suspected of being between 7 and 16 years.

  17. Using the Averaging-Based Factorization to Assess CyberShake Hazard Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Jordan, T. H.; Callaghan, S.; Graves, R. W.; Olsen, K. B.; Maechling, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The CyberShake project of Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) combines stochastic models of finite-fault ruptures with 3D ground motion simulations to compute seismic hazards at low frequencies (< 0.5 Hz) in Southern California. The first CyberShake hazard model (Graves et al., 2011) was based on the Graves & Pitarka (2004) rupture model (GP-04) and the Kohler et al. (2004) community velocity model (CVM-S). We have recently extended the CyberShake calculations to include the Graves & Pitarka (2010) rupture model (GP-10), which substantially increases the rupture complexity relative to GP-04, and the Shaw et al. (2011) community velocity model (CVM-H), which features different sedimentary basin structures than CVM-S. Here we apply the averaging-based factorization (ABF) technique of Wang & Jordan (2013) to compare CyberShake models and assess their consistency with the hazards predicted by the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models (Power et al., 2008). ABF uses a hierarchical averaging scheme to separate the shaking intensities for large ensembles of earthquakes into relative (dimensionless) excitation fields representing site, path, directivity, and source-complexity effects, and it provides quantitative, map-based comparisons between models with completely different formulations. The CyberShake directivity effects are generally larger than predicted by the Spudich & Chiou (2008) NGA directivity factor, but those calculated from the GP-10 sources are smaller than those of GP-04, owing to the greater incoherence of the wavefields from the more complex rupture models. Substituting GP-10 for GP-04 reduces the CyberShake-NGA directivity-effect discrepancy by a factor of two, from +36% to +18%. The CyberShake basin effects are generally larger than those from the three NGA models that provide basin-effect factors. However, the basin excitations calculated from CVM-H are smaller than from CVM-S, and they show a stronger frequency dependence, primarily because

  18. Evaluation of CBS 600 carburized steel as a gear material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1979-01-01

    Gear endurance tests were conducted with one lot of consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI 9310 gears and one lot of air-melt CBS 600 gears. The gears were 8 pitch with a pitch diameter of 8.89 centimeters (3.5 in.). Bench-type rolling-element fatigue tests were also conducted with one lot of CVM AISI 9310, three lots of CVM CBS 600, and one of air-melt CBS 600 material. The rolling-element bars were 0.952 centimeter (0.375 in.) in diameter. The CBS 600 material exhibited pitting fatigue lives in both rolling-element specimens and gears at least equivalent to that of CVM AISI 9310. Tooth fracture failure occurred with the CBS 600 gears after overrunning a fatigue spall, but it did not occur with the CVM AISI 9310 gears. Tooth fracture in the CBS 600 was attributed to excessive carbon content in the case, excessive case depth, and a higher than normal core hardness.

  19. Nematic phase in the J(1)-J(2) square-lattice Ising model in an external field.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Alejandra I; Stariolo, Daniel A; Almarza, Noé G

    2015-05-01

    The J(1)-J(2) Ising model in the square lattice in the presence of an external field is studied by two approaches: the cluster variation method (CVM) and Monte Carlo simulations. The use of the CVM in the square approximation leads to the presence of a new equilibrium phase, not previously reported for this model: an Ising-nematic phase, which shows orientational order but not positional order, between the known stripes and disordered phases. Suitable order parameters are defined, and the phase diagram of the model is obtained. Monte Carlo simulations are in qualitative agreement with the CVM results, giving support to the presence of the new Ising-nematic phase. Phase diagrams in the temperature-external field plane are obtained for selected values of the parameter κ=J(2)/|J(1)| which measures the relative strength of the competing interactions. From the CVM in the square approximation we obtain a line of second order transitions between the disordered and nematic phases, while the nematic-stripes phase transitions are found to be of first order. The Monte Carlo results suggest a line of second order nematic-disordered phase transitions in agreement with the CVM results. Regarding the stripes-nematic transitions, the present Monte Carlo results are not precise enough to reach definite conclusions about the nature of the transitions.

  20. Identification of complex vertebral malformation carriers in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yuan

    2008-03-01

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is a monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary defect of Holstein dairy cattle. It is caused by a point mutation from G to T at the nucleotide position 559 in bovine solute carrier family 35, member 3 gene (SLC35A3), which changes the amino acid sequence of uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine transporter protein from a valine to a phenylalanine in position 180. The elite U.S. Holstein sire Penstate Ivanhoe Star was identified as the common ancestor of the current CVM carriers. Because his offspring, mainly those of Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell, were used in many countries, CVM has potentially spread into China. In the present study, using the polymerase chain reaction-single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique, 10 CVM carriers were found among 68 at-risk Chinese Holstein bulls, and 282 carriers were found among 602 at-risk cows. The results of this study indicate that the CVM gene exists in the Chinese Holstein population.

  1. [Temporal stability of river ecological restoration based on the assessment of contingent valuation method: a case study of Shanghai urban river].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Whether the assessment results of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) have temporal stability is an important issue in examining the reliability of CVM findings, and also, is critical to decide whether CVM can be applied to evaluate the ecosystem services value in China. Taking the ecological restoration along the Caohejing River in Shanghai as a case, three CVM survey schemes with one month apart and two years apart were designed. Then, 426, 498, and 200 questionnaires in these surveys were comparatively analyzed, respectively. The mean values of the willingness to pay (WTP) from the three surveys were 14. 2, 14. 1, and 18. 0 RMB, and the median values were 5, 5, and 10 RMB, respectively. With the comparison of the WTP distribution and the main statistics, the analysis of the factors affecting the WTP, and the test of the significances of temporal variables, it was found that the CVM results from the surveys with one-month apart had temporal stability, while those from the surveys with two years apart presented definite difference.

  2. Sagittal and Vertical Craniofacial Growth Pattern and Timing of Circumpubertal Skeletal Maturation: A Multiple Regression Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Luigi; Riatti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the associations between the timing of skeletal maturation and craniofacial growth is of primary importance when planning a functional treatment for most of the skeletal malocclusions. This cross-sectional study was thus aimed at evaluating whether sagittal and vertical craniofacial growth has an association with the timing of circumpubertal skeletal maturation. A total of 320 subjects (160 females and 160 males) were included in the study (mean age, 12.3 ± 1.7 years; range, 7.6–16.7 years). These subjects were equally distributed in the circumpubertal cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages 2 to 5. Each CVM stage group also had equal number of females and males. Multiple regression models were run for each CVM stage group to assess the significance of the association of cephalometric parameters (ANB, SN/MP, and NSBa angles) with age of attainment of the corresponding CVM stage (in months). Significant associations were seen only for stage 3, where the SN/MP angle was negatively associated with age (β coefficient, −0.7). These results show that hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subjects may have an anticipated and delayed attainment of the pubertal CVM stage 3, respectively. However, such association remains of little entity and it would become clinically relevant only in extreme cases. PMID:27995136

  3. Characterization of cumulus cloud fields using trajectories in the center of gravity versus water mass phase space: 1. Cloud tracking and phase space description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiblum, Reuven H.; Altaratz, Orit; Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham; Kostinski, Alexander B.; Khain, Alexander P.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Fredj, Erick; Dagan, Guy; Pinto, Lital; Yaish, Ricki; Chen, Qian

    2016-06-01

    We study the evolution of warm convective cloud fields using large eddy simulations of continental and trade cumulus. Individual clouds are tracked a posteriori from formation to dissipation using a 3-D cloud-tracking algorithm, and results are presented in the phase space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space). The CvM space is shown to contain rich information on cloud field characteristics, cloud morphology, and common cloud development pathways, together facilitating a comprehensive understanding of the cloud field. In this part we show how the meteorological (thermodynamic) conditions that determine the cloud properties are projected on the CvM phase space and how changes in the initial conditions affect the clouds' trajectories in this space. This part sets the stage for a detailed microphysical analysis that will be shown in part II.

  4. Characterization of cumulus cloud fields using trajectories in the center of gravity versus water mass phase space: 1. Cloud tracking and phase space description: CENTER OF GRAVITY VERSUS WATER MASS 1

    SciTech Connect

    Heiblum, Reuven H.; Altaratz, Orit; Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham; Kostinski, Alexander B.; Khain, Alexander P.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Fredj, Erick; Dagan, Guy; Pinto, Lital; Yaish, Ricki; Chen, Qian

    2016-06-07

    We study the evolution of warm convective cloud fields using large eddy simulations of continental and trade cumulus. Individual clouds are tracked a posteriori from formation to dissipation using a 3D cloud tracking algorithm and results are presented in the phase- space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space). The CvM space is shown to contain rich information on cloud field characteristics, cloud morphology, and common cloud development pathways, together facilitating a comprehensive understanding of the cloud field. In this part we show how the meteorological (thermodynamic) conditions that determine the cloud properties are projected on the CvM phase space and how changes in the initial conditions affect the clouds' trajectories in this space. This part sets the stage for a detailed microphysical analysis that will be shown in part II.

  5. Growth of the cervical vertebrae in girls from 8 to 17 years. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Altan, Müge; Nebioğlu Dalci, Öykü; İseri, Haluk

    2012-06-01

    An important criterion of orthodontic diagnosis is the determination of the skeletal maturation stage. The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method is presented as an alternative to skeletal maturation determination. However, studies published to date concerning CVM have generally been cross-sectional. The aim of this investigation was to longitudinally evaluate growth and development with the CVM method. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 41 girls, aged 9-16 years, collected between 1978 and 1984 were used to evaluate changes in C2, C3, and C4 dimensions. The mean values, standard deviations, maximum and minimum values of cervical vertebrae growth, and growth rate were calculated for every age and age interval. Cumulative growth increment was determined by summing annual mean values for each parameter. CVM stages were initially evaluated according to the method of Lamparski. The time differences between the following CVM stages were evaluated with a paired t-test. The total length increment was distinct for C2 but similar for C1, C3, and C4. Total length increments reached their maximum between CVM stages 2 and 3, except for C3. The total length increment of C3 reached its peak 1 year earlier. The height increments of the spinose processes of C2, C3, and C4 were similar. The results showed that height increments were greater than length increments, which was due to changes in the anatomical pattern. Vertical growth displayed a decreasing trend from the upper to the lower cervical vertebrae. Determination of skeletal maturation from dimensional measurements and anatomical changes of the cervical vertebrae will facilitate orthodontic evaluation by eliminating the need for hand-wrist films and, therefore, decrease the patient's exposure to radiation.

  6. Testing long-period ground-motion simulations of scenario earthquakes using the Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah mainshock: Evaluation of finite-fault rupture characterization and 3D seismic velocity models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, Robert W.; Aagaard, Brad T.

    2011-01-01

    Using a suite of five hypothetical finite-fault rupture models, we test the ability of long-period (T>2.0 s) ground-motion simulations of scenario earthquakes to produce waveforms throughout southern California consistent with those recorded during the 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. The hypothetical ruptures are generated using the methodology proposed by Graves and Pitarka (2010) and require, as inputs, only a general description of the fault location and geometry, event magnitude, and hypocenter, as would be done for a scenario event. For each rupture model, two Southern California Earthquake Center three-dimensional community seismic velocity models (CVM-4m and CVM-H62) are used, resulting in a total of 10 ground-motion simulations, which we compare with recorded ground motions. While the details of the motions vary across the simulations, the median levels match the observed peak ground velocities reasonably well, with the standard deviation of the residuals generally within 50% of the median. Simulations with the CVM-4m model yield somewhat lower variance than those with the CVM-H62 model. Both models tend to overpredict motions in the San Diego region and underpredict motions in the Mojave desert. Within the greater Los Angeles basin, the CVM-4m model generally matches the level of observed motions, whereas the CVM-H62 model tends to overpredict the motions, particularly in the southern portion of the basin. The variance in the peak velocity residuals is lowest for a rupture that has significant shallow slip (<5 km depth), whereas the variance in the residuals is greatest for ruptures with large asperities below 10 km depth. Overall, these results are encouraging and provide confidence in the predictive capabilities of the simulation methodology, while also suggesting some regions in which the seismic velocity models may need improvement.

  7. Inflammatory responses and side effects generated by several adjuvant-containing vaccines in turbot.

    PubMed

    Noia, M; Domínguez, B; Leiro, J; Blanco-Méndez, J; Luzardo-Álvarez, A; Lamas, J

    2014-05-01

    Several of the adjuvants used in fish vaccines cause adhesions in internal organs when they are injected intraperitoneally. We describe the damage caused by vaccines containing different adjuvants in the turbot Scophthalmus maximus and show that internal adhesions can be greatly reduced by injecting the fish in a specific way. Injection of fish with the needle directed towards the anterior part of the peritoneal cavity induced formation of a single cell-vaccine mass (CVM) that became attached to the parietal peritoneum. However, injection of the fish with the needle pointing in the opposite direction generated many small CVM that became attached to the visceral and parietal peritoneum and in some cases caused internal adhesions. We describe the structural and cellular changes in the adjuvant-induced CVMs. The CVMs mainly comprised neutrophils and macrophages, although most of the former underwent apoptosis, which was particularly evident from day 3 post-injection. The apoptotic cells were phagocytosed by macrophages, which were the dominant cell type from the first days onwards. All of the vaccines induced angiogenesis in the area of contact between the CVM and the mesothelium. Vaccines containing oil-based adjuvants or microspheres induced the formation of granulomas in the CVM; however, no granulomas were observed in the CVM induced by vaccines containing aluminium hydroxide or Matrix-Q(®) as adjuvants. All of the vaccines induced strong migration of cells to the peritoneal cavity. Although some of these cells remained unattached in the peritoneal cavity, most of them formed part of the CVM. We also observed migration of the cells from the peritoneal cavity to lymphoid organs, indicating bidirectional traffic of cells between the inflamed areas and these organs.

  8. Use of complementary veterinary medicine in the geriatric horse.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Ed

    2002-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative veterinary medicine continues to grow within the veterinary community. As more clients seek out complementary and alternative medicine for their own health care, they begin to seek out these forms of therapy for their animals. For the equine practitioner, this includes those clients with geriatric animals. It is hoped that this article provides some insight into what conditions may be helped with CVM (complementary veterinary medicine) and when an equine practitioner may want to consider CVM as a form of therapy for the geriatric horse.

  9. The Homogenized Energy Model (HEM) for Characterizing Polarization and Strains in Hysteretic Ferroelectric Materials: Implementation Algorithms and Data-Driven Parameter Estimation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    energy density of α-variant (CV/m 3) P Polarization (C/m2) P Polarization kernel (C/m2) Pα Polarization of α-variant (C/m2) PαR Remanent polarization...Permittivity (F/m = C/Vm) ε Strain (Unitless) ε Strain kernel εα Strain of α-variant εαR Remanence strain of α-variant εαm Minimum strain of α...at the beginning of the paper, PαR , ε α R, η ε α, Y P α and hα denote the remanence polarization, rema- nence strain, inverse susceptibility at

  10. Balancing Public Trust Resources of Mono Lake and Los Angeles' Water Right: An Economic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John B.

    1987-08-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is used to quantify the Public Trust values of Mono Lake at alternative lake levels. The dichotomous choice approach to contingent valuation is employed using a logit model. The economic benefit to California residents of preserving Mono Lake is estimated to be 1.5 billion. Purchase of replacement water and power would cost 26.2 million annually. On efficiency grounds, reallocation of water for maintenance of Public Trust values at Mono Lake is warranted. The CVM appears to be a useful methodology to evaluate the balancing and feasibility tests of the expanded Public Trust doctrine suggested by the California Supreme Court.

  11. FAA Aviation Forecasts: Fiscal Years 1991-2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    SEAT MILES AIRCRAFT DEPARTURES 2.8- _-- 14 ACTUAL ~-12-MTH MOVING AVG. L ~ ACTUAL -- 12-MTH MOVING AVG. 261 13 U T H 2.4 0 12 B U IL22 ..~s N01 F 1.84...Dallas/Ft. Worth Command Boston New York Executive Air Charter San Juan Metro Dallas/Ft. Worth Nashville Eagle Miami Nashville Raleigh/ Durham Simmons...continued) Total Cumulative FY-88 Airport Enplanements* Percent** Percent Rank 31. Cincinnati 4,431 .92 68.38 33 32. Raleigh/ Durham Int’l 4,315 .89 69.27

  12. 75 FR 22598 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office and Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Format to the Center for Veterinary Medicine AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... to the Center for Veterinary Medicine--(OMB Control Number 0910-0453)--Extension The Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) monitors the final disposition of investigational animals where such animals do...

  13. 75 FR 6035 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Teleconference in Electronic Format to The Center for Veterinary Medicine AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... meeting or teleconference in electronic format to the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM). DATES: Submit... Meeting or Teleconference in Electronic Format to The Center for Veterinary Medicine--21 CFR 10.65...

  14. 75 FR 51271 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Testing Communications on the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Veterinary... solicits comments on communication studies involving FDA/Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) regulated... and Drug Administration/Center for Veterinary Medicine's Regulated Products Used in Animals--21...

  15. 75 FR 58411 - Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public...: ``Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) eSubmitter Workshop.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to..., Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food and Drug Administration, 7520 Standish Pl., Rockville,...

  16. 75 FR 6038 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Center for Veterinary Medicine Using the Food and Drug Administration Electronic Submission Gateway... Veterinary Medicine's (CVM's) ``Guidance for Industry on How to Submit Information in Electronic Format to the Center for Veterinary Medicine Using the FDA Electronic Gateway.'' DATES: Submit written...

  17. 75 FR 22812 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... of Intent to Slaughter for Human Food Purposes in Electronic Format to the Center for Veterinary... Purposes in Electronic Format to The Center for Veterinary Medicine--(OMB Control Number 0910-0450... food use. Under this authority, FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) issues to a new animal...

  18. Stated Preference Economic Development Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    disuse. A decision maker using CVM results should not only look at which projects get the ‘best bang for the buck,’ but also which are likely to be...a big problem, a moderate problem, a small problem, or not a problem at all? 1. A Big Problem 2. A Moderate Problem 3. A Small Problem 4

  19. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  20. The Cluster Variation Method: A Primer for Neuroscientists

    PubMed Central

    Maren, Alianna J.

    2016-01-01

    Effective Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCIs) require that the time-varying activation patterns of 2-D neural ensembles be modelled. The cluster variation method (CVM) offers a means for the characterization of 2-D local pattern distributions. This paper provides neuroscientists and BCI researchers with a CVM tutorial that will help them to understand how the CVM statistical thermodynamics formulation can model 2-D pattern distributions expressing structural and functional dynamics in the brain. The premise is that local-in-time free energy minimization works alongside neural connectivity adaptation, supporting the development and stabilization of consistent stimulus-specific responsive activation patterns. The equilibrium distribution of local patterns, or configuration variables, is defined in terms of a single interaction enthalpy parameter (h) for the case of an equiprobable distribution of bistate (neural/neural ensemble) units. Thus, either one enthalpy parameter (or two, for the case of non-equiprobable distribution) yields equilibrium configuration variable values. Modeling 2-D neural activation distribution patterns with the representational layer of a computational engine, we can thus correlate variational free energy minimization with specific configuration variable distributions. The CVM triplet configuration variables also map well to the notion of a M = 3 functional motif. This paper addresses the special case of an equiprobable unit distribution, for which an analytic solution can be found. PMID:27706022

  1. Quasi-static compression and tensile stress-strain curves, tantalum - 10% tungsten and 300 grade maraging steel. Final memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Benck, R.F.; Silsby, G.F.

    1986-05-01

    The results of quasi-static compression and tension tests of tantalum -10% tungsten alloy and Vascomax 300 CVM 300 trade maraging steel are presented. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield strength and ultimate strength were determined at test temperatures of 23.9 C. Results provide engineering properties documentation for materials used in several terminal ballistic tests.

  2. Depletion of penicillin G residues in sows after intramuscular injection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US-FDA CVM has not established a tolerance for penicillin residues in swine tissues, but across much of Europe and Asia a tolerance of 50 ppb penicillin G is in effect. In the US, heavy sows are often treated with extra-label doses of penicillin G, however appropriate pre-slaughter withdrawal p...

  3. Characterization of cumulus cloud fields using trajectories in the center of gravity versus water mass phase space: 2. Aerosol effects on warm convective clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiblum, Reuven H.; Altaratz, Orit; Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham; Kostinski, Alexander B.; Khain, Alexander P.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Fredj, Erick; Dagan, Guy; Pinto, Lital; Yaish, Ricki; Chen, Qian

    2016-06-01

    In Part I of this work a 3-D cloud tracking algorithm and phase space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space) were introduced and described in detail. We showed how new physical insight can be gained by following cloud trajectories in the CvM space. Here this approach is used to investigate aerosol effects on cloud fields of warm cumuli. We show a clear effect of the aerosol loading on the shape and size of CvM clusters. We also find fundamental differences in the CvM space between simulations using bin versus bulk microphysical schemes, with the bin scheme precipitation expressing much higher sensitivity to changes in aerosol concentrations. Using the bin microphysical scheme, we find that the increase in cloud center of gravity altitude with increase in aerosol concentrations occurs for a wide range of cloud sizes. This is attributed to reduced sedimentation, increased buoyancy and vertical velocities, and increased environmental instability, all of which are tightly coupled to inhibition of precipitation processes and subsequent feedbacks of clouds on their environment. Many of the physical processes shown here are consistent with processes typically associated with cloud invigoration.

  4. An Improved TA-SVM Method Without Matrix Inversion and Its Fast Implementation for Nonstationary Datasets.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingzhong; Chung, Fu-Lai; Wang, Shitong

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a time-adaptive support vector machine (TA-SVM) is proposed for handling nonstationary datasets. While attractive performance has been reported and the new classifier is distinctive in simultaneously solving several SVM subclassifiers locally and globally by using an elegant SVM formulation in an alternative kernel space, the coupling of subclassifiers brings in the computation of matrix inversion, thus resulting to suffer from high computational burden in large nonstationary dataset applications. To overcome this shortcoming, an improved TA-SVM (ITA-SVM) is proposed using a common vector shared by all the SVM subclassifiers involved. ITA-SVM not only keeps an SVM formulation, but also avoids the computation of matrix inversion. Thus, we can realize its fast version, that is, improved time-adaptive core vector machine (ITA-CVM) for large nonstationary datasets by using the CVM technique. ITA-CVM has the merit of asymptotic linear time complexity for large nonstationary datasets as well as inherits the advantage of TA-SVM. The effectiveness of the proposed classifiers ITA-SVM and ITA-CVM is also experimentally confirmed.

  5. 75 FR 24718 - Guidance for Industry on Documenting Statistical Analysis Programs and Data Files; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) for the evaluation of safety and effectiveness in new animal... single copies of the guidance to the Communications Staff (HFV-12), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food... Nevius, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-163), Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish...

  6. Relationship between maturation indices and morphology of the midpalatal suture obtained using cone-beam computed tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hong-Ik; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kang, Kyung-Hwa; Cho, Jin-Woo; Chang, Na-Young; Lee, Keun-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether predicting maturation of the midpalatal suture is possible by classifying its morphology on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and to investigate relationships with other developmental age indices. Methods The morphology of the midpalatal suture was assessed by using CBCT images of 99 patients. Axial plane images of the midpalatal suture were classified into five stages according to the classification scheme. To make the assessment more accurate, the morphology and fusion of the midpalatal suture were additionally investigated on coronal cross-sectional planar images and volume-rendered images. Bone age was evaluated using the hand and wrist method (HWM) and cervical vertebrae method (CVM); dental age (Hellman's index), sex, and chronological age were also assessed. To evaluate relationships among variables, Spearman's rho rank test was performed along with crosstabs using contingency coefficients. Results The HWM and CVM showed strong correlations with the maturation stage of the midpalatal suture, while other indices showed relatively weak correlations (p < 0.01). Through crosstabs, the HWM and CVM showed high association values with CBCT stage; the HWM demonstrated slightly higher values (p < 0.0001). Based on the HWM, the midpalatal suture was not fused until stage 6 in both sexes. Conclusions Among developmental age indices, the HWM and CVM showed strong correlations and high associations, suggesting that they can be useful in assessing maturation of the midpalatal suture. PMID:27896208

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Continuous Video Modeling, Video Prompting, and Video Modeling on Task Completion by Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Foster, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effects of three procedures (video prompting: VP, video modeling: VM, and continuous video modeling: CVM) on task completion by three high school students with moderate intellectual disability. The comparison was made across three sets of fundamentally different tasks (putting away household items in clusters of two items;…

  8. 78 FR 55727 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) recommends for inclusion in food additive petitions (FAPs... for single copies of the guidance to the Communications Staff (HFV-12), Center for Veterinary Medicine... CONTACT: Sharon Benz, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-220), Food and Drug Administration,...

  9. 76 FR 6143 - Draft Guidance for Industry on “Target Animal Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation (ONADE), to reduce the... to the Communications Staff (HFV-12), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration... Veterinary Medicine (HFV-110), Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855,...

  10. A Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility and MIC-distributions in Enterococcus Isolates Originating from Humans, Animals and Retail Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) is a collaborative effort between the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA CVM), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The NARMS prog...

  11. FDA Kids' Home Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... kids learn about health and safety. To Help You Stay Healthy! Kids & Teens CVM Kid's Page National Agricultural Library Kids and Teens page Spotlight Pill Bottle Pete More in For Kids Resources for You Consumer Updates Children's Health Page Last Updated: 10/ ...

  12. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Strains Isolated from Agricultural Sources

    PubMed Central

    Benahmed, Faiza H.; Gopinath, Gopal R.; Wang, Hua; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Grim, Christopher; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; McClelland, Michael; Ayers, Sherry; Abbott, Jason; Desai, Prerak; Frye, Jonathan G.; Weinstock, George; Hammack, Thomas S.; Hanes, Darcy E.; Rasmussen, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strain CVM42234, isolated from chick feed in 2012, and S. Cubana strain 76814, isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 bp, respectively. PMID:24459266

  13. Characterization of cumulus cloud fields using trajectories in the center of gravity versus water mass phase space: 2. Aerosol effects on warm convective clouds: Center of Gravity Versus Water Mass 2

    SciTech Connect

    Heiblum, Reuven H.; Altaratz, Orit; Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham; Kostinski, Alexander B.; Khain, Alexander P.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Fredj, Erick; Dagan, Guy; Pinto, Lital; Yaish, Ricki; Chen, Qian

    2016-06-07

    In Part I of this work a 3D cloud tracking algorithm and phase-space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space) were introduced and described in detail. We showed how new physical insight can be gained by following cloud trajectories in the CvM space. Here, this approach is used to investigate aerosol effects on cloud fields of warm cumuli. We show a clear effect of the aerosol loading on the shape and size of CvM clusters. We also find fundamental differences in the CvM space between simulations using bin versus bulk microphysical schemes, with the bin scheme precipitation expressing much higher sensitivity to changes in aerosol concentrations. Using the bin microphysical scheme, we find that the increase in cloud center of gravity altitude with increase in aerosol concentrations occurs for a wide range of cloud sizes. This is attributed to reduced sedimentation, increased buoyancy and vertical velocities, and increased environmental instability, all of which are tightly coupled to inhibition of precipitation processes and subsequent feedbacks of clouds on their environment. Many of the physical processes shown here are consistent with processes typically associated with cloud invigoration.

  14. Diffusion of Immunoglobulin G in Shed Vaginal Epithelial Cells and in Cell-Free Regions of Human Cervicovaginal Mucus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Schroeder, Holly A.; Nunn, Kenetta L.; Woods, Karen; Anderson, Deborah J.; Cone, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) is a viscoelastic gel containing a complex mixture of mucins, shed epithelial cells, microbes and macromolecules, such as antibodies, that together serve as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Here, to investigate the affinity between IgG and different mucus constituents, we used Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) to measure the diffusion of IgG in fresh, minimally modified CVM. We found that CVM exhibits substantial spatial variations that necessitate careful selection of the regions in which to perform FRAP. In portions of CVM devoid of cells, FRAP measurements using different IgG antibodies and labeling methods consistently demonstrate that both exogenous and endogenous IgG undergo rapid diffusion, almost as fast as in saline, in good agreement with the rapid diffusion of IgG in mid-cycle endocervical mucus that is largely devoid of cells. This rapid diffusion indicates the interactions between secreted mucins and IgG must be very weak and transient. IgG also accumulated in cellular debris and shed epithelial cells that had become permeable to IgG, which may allow shed epithelial cells to serve as reservoirs of secreted IgG. Interestingly, in contrast to cell-free regions of CVM, the diffusion of cell-associated IgG was markedly slowed, suggesting greater affinity between IgG and cellular constituents. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of the role of IgG in mucosal protection against infectious diseases, and may also provide a framework for using FRAP to study molecular interactions in mucus and other complex biological environments. PMID:27362256

  15. Assessment of skeletal maturation with permanent mandibular second molar calcification stages among a group of Nepalese orthodontic patients

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Jamal; Shrestha, Basanta Kumar; Yadav, Rajiv; Ghimire, Tika Ram

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of growth status of a patient is a key component in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing patients with skeletal discrepancy. Skeletal maturation based on hand-wrist radiograph and cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) are commonly used methods of growth assessment. Studies have shown that stages of dental calcification can also be used to assess skeletal maturation status of an individual, whereas other studies have suggested that the relationship between dental calcification and skeletal maturation should be interpreted with caution owing to racial variation. Objective To evaluate the relationship between permanent mandibular second molar calcification stages and skeletal maturity assessed by CVM among a group of Nepalese orthodontic patients. Materials and methods One hundred and sixty-eight digital radiographs (84 orthopantomograms and 84 lateral cephalograms) were obtained from the records of 84 patients who sought orthodontic treatment in Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopaedic Unit, Department of Dentistry, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu. Two parameters were used in this study, namely, CVM stages from lateral cephalogram and Demirjian index (DI) stages from orthopantomogram. The evaluation of digital radiographs was carried out on a computer screen with a resolution of 1,280×800 pixels. The association between DI stages of permanent mandibular second molar and CVM stages was assessed. Results A statistically significant association was found between DI and CVM stages for both male and female subjects with Pearson’s contingency coefficient value of 0.751 and 0.766 for male and female subjects, respectively. Conclusion Skeletal maturation can be reliably assessed with dental calcification stages of permanent mandibular second molar for Nepalese orthodontic patients. PMID:27099531

  16. Thinking Like a Whole Building: Whole Foods Market New Construction Summary, U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    Whole Foods Market participates in the U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) to identify and develop cost-effective, readily deployed, replicable energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for commercial buildings. Whole Foods Market is working with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on a retrofit and a new construction CBP project. Whole Foods Market's CBP new construction project is a standalone store in Raleigh, North Carolina. Whole Foods Market examined the energy systems and the interactions between those systems in the design for the new Raleigh store. Based on this collaboration and preliminary energy modeling, Whole Foods Market and NREL identified a number of cost-effective EEMs that can be readily deployed in other Whole Foods Market stores and in other U.S. supermarkets. If the actual savings in the Raleigh store - which NREL will monitor and verify - match the modeling results, each year this store will save nearly $100,000 in operating costs (Raleigh's rates are about $0.06/kWh for electricity and $0.83/therm for natural gas). The store will also use 41% less energy than a Standard 90.1-compliant store and avoid about 3.7 million pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.

  17. Thinking Like a Whole Building: A Whole Foods Market New Construction Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.; Doebber, I.; Hirsch, A.; McIntyre, M.; Scheib, J.

    2011-04-01

    Whole Foods Market participates in the U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) to identify and develop cost-effective, readily deployed, replicable energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for commercial buildings. Whole Foods Market is working with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on a retrofit and a new construction CBP project. Whole Foods Market's CBP new construction project is a standalone store in Raleigh, North Carolina. Whole Foods Market examined the energy systems and the interactions between those systems in the design for the new Raleigh store. Based on this collaboration and preliminary energy modeling, Whole Foods Market and NREL identified a number of cost-effective EEMs that can be readily deployed in other Whole Foods Market stores and in other U.S. supermarkets. If the actual savings in the Raleigh store - which NREL will monitor and verify - match the modeling results, each year this store will save nearly $100,000 in operating costs (Raleigh's rates are about $0.06/kWh for electricity and $0.83/therm for natural gas). The store will also use 41% less energy than a Standard 90.1-compliant store and avoid about 3.7 million pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.

  18. Expeditions and the Social Construction of the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beames, Simon

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how 14 British youth were influenced by a 10-week expedition to Ghana with Raleigh International. It employs a theoretical framework based on the symbolic interactionist writing of Blumer (1969), Mead (1934), and Cooley (1962, 1964). The framework helps to understand how the meanings that participants held for different…

  19. Nitride Semiconductors for Ultraviolet Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    129, 2045, (1978). 5. C. J. Mogab, A. C. Adams and D. L. Flamm, J. Appl. Phys., 49, 3796 (1978). 6. S. Matsuo, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., 17, 587 (1980...Carolina State University Cleveland, OH 44106 Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 Dr. William J. Schaff Robert C. Linares Electrical Engineering Linares Management Assoc

  20. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  2. ON-ROAD REMOTE SENSING OF AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS IN THE RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NORTH CAROLINA AREA: 1997-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes automobile exhaust remote sensing data collected by EPA at a number of sites in the Research Triangle Park, NC area during 1997. Data were also collected at one site in Raleigh, NC from 1998 through 2001 for the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) study of re...

  3. 5-AZA-2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE-INDUCED DYSMORPHOGENESIS IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    5-AZA-2'-deoxycytidine-induced dysmorphogenesis in the rat.

    Branch S, Chernoff N, Brownie C, Francis BM.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA. S_Branch@ncsu.edu

    5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (d-AZA) causes tem...

  4. Easing Overcrowded High Schools with Limited Capital Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lighthall, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The greatest capital expenditure a school system can make is a high school. What can be done to accommodate students and programs when funding is scarce, high schools are crowded, and more students are expected? The Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina, first addressed this issue when enrollment growth more than…

  5. Attending to Teacher Attire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Ruth E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts by school superintendents to develop dress codes for school employees. Describes link between teacher dress and student decorum. Includes excerpts from staff dress codes from three school districts: Goose Creek Consolidated School District, Baytown, Texas; Denver Public Schools, Colorado; Wake County Public Schools, Raleigh,…

  6. Harriot, Thomas (c. 1560-1621)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Teacher, probably born in Oxfordshire, Harriot travelled with Sir Walter Raleigh to Virginia as cartographer and navigator, writing on his return A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia. He was Ralegh's tutor and mathematics teacher and introduced simplified notation for algebra, inventing the symbols < for `less than' and > for `greater than', as well as . for multiplication...

  7. REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT OF AIRWAY RESPONSES TO SULOFUR DIOXIDE (SO2) IN AN INTACT, AWAKE GUINEA PIG MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time measurment of airway responses to Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in an intact, awake guinea pig model. J Stanek1,2, Q Krantz2, J Nolan2, D Winsett2, W Watkinson2, and D Costa2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NCSU, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, ETD, NHEERL, US...

  8. Spatial Gradients and Source Apportionment of Volatile Organic Compounds Near Roadways

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reported near a highway in Raleigh, NC (traffic volume of approximately 125,000 vehicles/day). Levels of VOCs generally decreased exponentially with perpendicular distance from the roadway 10-100m). The EPA Chemical Mass ...

  9. 7 CFR 305.9 - Irradiation treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... articles;1 1 The maximum absorbed ionizing radiation dose and the irradiation of food is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration under 21 CFR part 179. (2) Be constructed so as to provide physically... Quarantine, Center for Plant Health Inspection and Technology, 1730 Varsity Drive, Suite 400, Raleigh,...

  10. A Surface Energy Budget Model Modifying Heat Flow by Foliage Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    kinetic collisions of molecules and has little dependence on stability at this small size scale). *The data mentioned was unpublished and was obtained...ATTN: ATSF-TSM-TA Atmospheric Sciences Mr. Charles Taylor P.O. Box 8208 Fort Sill, OK 73503-5600 Raleigh, NC 27650- 8208 Commander Commander Naval

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: Separation of Manure Solids from Flushed Swine Waste. Hoffland Environmental Inc. Drag Screen and Clarifier

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Hoffland Drag Screen and Clarifier was conducted at the North Carolina State University's Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory, in Raleigh, North Carolina. The farm is designed to operate as a research and teaching facility with the capacity for 250 so...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: TRITON SYSTEMS, LLC SOLID BOWL CENTRIFUGE, MODEL TS-5000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Triton Systems, LLC Solid Bowl Centrifuge Model TS-5000 (TS-5000) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The TS-5000 was 48" in diameter and 30" deep, with a bowl capacity of 16 ft3. ...

  13. Biographical Sketches from Interviews Conducted by Lourdes Ruiz, Teacher, Dulce Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pono, Filomena P., Comp.

    Eight biographical sketches of some Jicarilla Apache and Spanish American people who live and work in Dulce, New Mexico are given. These sketches contain brief descriptions of the lives of Jose Gabriel Abeyta, Cevero Caramillo, Chon LaBrier, Espeedie Garcia Ruiz, Raleigh Tafoya, Norman Tecube, Hubert Velarde, and Henry "Buster" L.…

  14. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR-ROAD POLLUTANT GRADIENTS USING PATH-INTEGRATED OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding motor vehicle emissions, near roadway pollutant dispersion, and their potential impact to near roadway populations is an area of growing interest. A field study was conducted near 1-440 in Raleigh NC in July and August of 2006. This paper presents a subset of measur...

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL ATRAZINE EXPOSURE SUPPRESSES IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MALE, BUT NOT FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Atrazine Exposure Suppresses Immune Function in Male, but not Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Andrew A. Rooney,*,1 Raymond A. Matulka,? and Robert Luebke?

    *College of Veterinary Medicine, Anatomy, Physiological Sciences and Radiology, NCSU, Raleigh, North...

  17. “Another Possibility at Life” | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lindsay’s case, his then 7-year old sister, Lee, now 28 and a social worker in Raleigh, proved a perfect match. “It’s become happy ... DNA testing finally confirmed that the bone marrow in David’s body was 100 percent Lee’s, and he was cured. “The only chance he ...

  18. 75 FR 29205 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Honorable George W. July 29, 2010 010373 0261P). March 31, 2010; Roy, Mayor, Town of Shelby County Calera, P... 31, 2010; The Honorable Daryl R. July 29, 2010 060258 0106P). April 7, 2010; The Busch, Mayor, City.... Hill, 405 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Wake City of Raleigh (09- January...

  19. Case Study of a College that Closed: Saint Mary's College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alice W.

    2011-01-01

    Few colleges choose to close. One that did was Saint Mary's College in Raleigh, North Carolina. Although trustees resisted for a decade, they ultimately made the decision before an anticipated denial of accreditation, allowing the college to control its final days in ways not possible for those who wait until an outside agency forces closure. This…

  20. Learning while Undocumented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2008-01-01

    North Carolina's 58 community colleges have been key players in the state's fast-shifting economy, driven in large part by the numerous businesses flocking to the high-technology Raleigh-Durham Research Triangle area. Major employers like IBM, Novartis, Credit Suisse, and EA Associates have all partnered with North Carolina Community College…

  1. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  2. OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INDUCED LUNG INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidative stress participates in particulate matter (PM) induced acute lung injury.
    Elizabeth S. Roberts1, Judy L. Richards2, Kevin L. Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC.
    Epidemiol...

  3. Religion and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Marion, Ed.

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference of social scientists and ministers on "Religion and Social Change" held at the North Carolina State University (Raleigh). Five seminars were held on the topics of (1) economic progress; (2) the distribution of income, status, and power; (3) the local community decision-making process;…

  4. TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS. Zhe Zhang*, Huawei Shi, Clement Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910; Chong S. Kim, National Health and En...

  5. North Carolina Library Association 1997 Biennial Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Libraries, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Provides summaries of the presentations at the North Carolina Library Association's Biennial Conference, "Choose Quality, Choose Libraries," (Raleigh, NC, October 8-10, 1997). Some of the topics covered include library instruction, Internet access to public documents, outsourcing technical services, copyrights and the Internet, the…

  6. Advisory List of Instructional Media for Reduction of Sex Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.

    Instructional media appropriate to schools' efforts to reduce sex bias are described in this advisory list. Entries were selected from those materials submitted by publishers which received favorable reviews by educators. Most materials were evaluated by members of the Raleigh, North Carolina chapter of the National Organization for Women.…

  7. Edible Oil Barriers for Treatment of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    9 4.2 Longevity of the Oil Emulsion ..................................................................................... 11 4.3 Long-term...demonstration was EOS®, a commercially available concentrated edible (soybean) oil/nutrient emulsion purchased from EOS Remediation, Inc. of Raleigh, NC...edible oil-in-water emulsion to provide the primary source of organic carbon to promote and sustain long-term anaerobic biodegradation of target

  8. PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero.

    Cherrington JW, Chernoff N.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com

    Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

  9. Evaluating DLAB as a Predictor of Foreign Language Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    context. Other early indicators might include general cognitive ability (e.g., Wonderlic Personnel Test™), educational attainment, age, prior...might include general cognitive ability (e.g., Wonderlic Personnel Test™), educational attainment, age, prior language learning experience, motivation...Raleigh, NC: Surface, Ward & Associates. SWA Consulting Inc. (2008, November). Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT™) as a Predictor of Language Proficiency

  10. When We Listen: Using Student Voices to Design Culturally Responsive and Just Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunner, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Teresa Bunner works as the high school literacy coordinating teacher for the Wake County (NC) Public School System in Raleigh. In this article she discusses the concept of Culturally Responsive teaching as a pedagogy that recognizes the importance of including students' cultural reference in all aspects of learning. She describes how she and her…

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: BROME AGRI SALES, LTD., MAXIMIZER SEPARATOR, MODEL MAX 1016 - 03/01/WQPC-SWP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Brome Agri Sales Ltd. Maximizer Separator, Model MAX 1016 (Maximizer) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The Maximizer is an inclined screen solids separator that can be used to s...

  12. The Secrets of St. Agnes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Janell

    2006-01-01

    This article reveals the disturbing truths uncovered by a retired biology professor about the past practices of a North Carolina hospital. In the 1990s, Irene Clark was a biology professor at St. Augustine's College, a historically Black college in Raleigh, North Carolina. One day, a janitor asked the native Virginian what she knew about the…

  13. AIR PARTICULATE POLLUTION EXPOSURE INDUCES SYSTEMIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HEALTHY MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air particulate pollution exposure induces systemic oxidative stress in healthy mice

    Elizabeth S Roberts1 and Kevin L Dreher2. 1 College or Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC , 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC

    Epidemiological s...

  14. IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE ADULT AND NEONATAL TESTIS
    Chad R. Blystone1, 2, David J. Dix2, and John C. Rockett2
    1Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Box 7633, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA and 2U.S. Envi...

  15. MAP KINASE SIGNALING IN PULMONARY FIBROBLASTS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND BRONCHOAL VEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF) FROM HEALTHY AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAP KINASE SIGNALING IN PULMONARY FIBROBLASTS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF) FROM HEALTHY AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS. 1P Zhang, UP Kodavanti. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, 1School of Vet Med, NCSU, Raleigh, NC
    Exposure to PM ma...

  16. IN VITRO CARDIAC CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE CONSTITUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Vitro Cardiac Cellular and Molecular Effects of Air Pollution Particle Constituents
    Travis L. Knuckles1, Richard Jaskot2, Judy Richards2, and Kevin L. Dreher2. 1North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC 27606, 2USEPA, Research Triangle Pa...

  17. Paraprofessional of the Year 2009: Tina Adams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt among the staff and managers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) Libraries, Raleigh, that advanced library technician Tina Adams deserves to be the winner of the "Library Journal's "Paraprofessional of the Year Award for 2009." "Certainly this library has never seen anyone like her before, not in my nine…

  18. 75 FR 32240 - Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement: Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor-Richmond, VA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement: Southeast High Speed Rail... Administration (FRA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Tier II... availability of the Southeast High Speed Rail, Richmond, VA to Raleigh, NC Project Draft Tier II...

  19. A research agenda for increasing safety belt use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, James; Preusser, David F; Shults, Ruth A

    2004-01-01

    On November 13-14, 2003, a symposium on high-visibility safety belt use enforcement in Raleigh, NC: (a) celebrated the 10th anniversary of North Carolina's Click It or Ticket program; (b) documented current knowledge regarding safety belt use; (c) proposed strategies to increase use further; and (d) discussed research to support these strategies.

  20. 75 FR 51331 - Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement: Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor-Richmond, VA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Corridor--Richmond, VA (Main Street Station) to Raleigh, NC (Boylan Wye) AGENCY: Federal Railroad... the Tier II Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Southeast High Speed Rail, Richmond, VA to... the Draft Tier II Environmental Impact Statement for the Southeast High Speed Rail, Richmond, VA...

  1. Researchers Mull STEM Gender Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Intrigued by the interviews with high school valedictorians that the Raleigh, N.C., News & Observer publishes this time each year, researcher E. Ann York decided to gather up three years' worth of its stories to look for any gender differences in the aspirations of these highest-achieving local students. Were boys more likely to strive for careers…

  2. Some Ergonomic Considerations of VDU Workspaces at D. H. Hill Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Tom

    A study conducted to investigate possible health problems resulting from employees' use of visual display units (VDUs) in the library of North Carolina State University at Raleigh used a survey to identify the kinds of tasks performed at each VDU workstation and the rate of health complaints. Analysis of the tasks performed in the library…

  3. Passive Coherent Detection and Target Location with Multiple Non-Cooperative Transmitters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    employing low radar cross section (RCS) and radar- absorbent material (RAM) design methods, coupled with the use of highly sensitive electronic warfare...Radar. Raleigh, NC: SciTech Publishing, 2007. [6] J. I. Glaser , “Fifty years of bistatic and multistatic radar,” Commun., Radar and Signal Process

  4. The North Carolina Capitol: Pride of the State. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Howard

    North Carolina's state capitol rises majestically on Union Square in downtown Raleigh, a city created in 1792 to serve as North Carolina's permanent capital. Built between 1833-40, the granite building is one of the finest and best preserved examples of civic Greek Revival architecture in the United States. This lesson is based on the National…

  5. OSHA Handbook for Small Businesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    27601 PHONE: (919)715-7272 FAX: (919)715-7777 E-MAIL: srdaughe.sbdc@mhs.unc.e North Dakota Walter Kearns (Wally) State Director North Dakota Small...Road Telephone: (516) 334-3344 64 North Carolina Raleigh, NC 27601 Century Station, Room 438 300 Fayetteville Street Mall Telephone: (919) 856-4770

  6. 76 FR 178 - Ocwen Loan Servicing, LLC; Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under HomEQ Servicing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Under HomEQ Servicing; North Highlands, CA; Ocwen Loan Servicing, LLC; Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under HomEQ Servicing; Raleigh, NC; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply..., including workers whose wages were reported under HomEQ Servicing, North Highland, California. The...

  7. Characteristics of Youthful Bicycle Riders in an Urban Community and Events Accruing to Operation of Their Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascarella, E. A.; And Others

    A 6-month study of elementary and junior high school bicycle riders and events accruing to everyday use of their vehicles was conducted in Raleigh, North Carolina. Of the 2,369 mail questionnaires that recorded demographic and bicycle description data and information which permitted calculation of bicycle ownership rates by sex, 495 useable…

  8. DIESEL AND CARBON PARTICLES ENHANCE HOUSE DUST MITE-INDUCED PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel and Carbon Particles Enhance House Dust Mite-Induced Pulmonary Hypersensitivity in Brown Norway Rats. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels2, D. Winsett2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, M. Madden2 and M.I. Gilmour2. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC and 2 USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Ep...

  9. Developing a Billion Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergen, Christopher; Rego, Lyndon; Wright, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Intentionally developing the leadership capacity of all students is a necessary requirement for schools around the world. The Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, N.C., has been at the center of this work and presents three schools as examples: Ravenscroft School in Raleigh, N.C., the African Leadership Academy in Johannesburg, South…

  10. A+ Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Underwood Elementary School in Raleigh, North Carolina, offers 100 electives with names like Crystal Ball (study of the future), Coastal Ecology, and Magical Math. This magnet school has an open admissions policy, an outstanding reputation in creative dramatics, teachers who are self starting, and a principal with vision and organization. (MT)

  11. IN VITRO LUNG ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER-ASSOCIATED METALS - MODULATION BY EXPOSURE TO TNF-ALPHA, IL-BETA, OR IFN-GAMMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO LUNG ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER-ASSOCIATED METALS - MODULATION BY EXPOSURE TO TNF , IL-1 , OR IFN .

    JA Dye, KE Peoples*, CL Hayes?. US EPA, ORD, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, RTP, NC, *HHMI-SRI, NCSU, Raleigh, NC...

  12. Proceedings of the 2nd workshop on lyme disease in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, C.S.; Levine, J.F.; Snoddy, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    This volume provides author prepared abstracts of oral presentation at the Second Workshop on Lyme Disease in the Southeast head in Raleigh, North Carolina September 7-9, 1993. The 33 presentations covered various aspects of the epidemic including geographical distribution of various species of ticks, transmission risks, Lyme Disease epidemiology, and taxonomic aspects.

  13. Fokker-Planck Equations: Uncertainty in Network Security Games and Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-12

    out [40].. 3. Numerical methods were developed for elastic waves propagation in a Kelvin- Voigt media. The objective is to simulate an elastic wave...behavior of nonlinear stochastic differential equations, especially the stochastic resonance effects based on the probability density function ... Computation North Carolina State University Box 8205 Raleigh, NC 27695-8212 Abstract We have significant accomplishments on uncertainty

  14. Meharry-Johns Hopkins Center for Prostate Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    IHSCR) Center for Survey Research ( CSR ) at Shaw University in Raleigh, NC. Because there was a two-year delay in getting the grant transferred from Shaw...project goals and objectives are met. As with The Fathers Study, the Sons survey will be conducted at CSR which is now located at Johns Hopkins

  15. 78 FR 64896 - EPA-R04-OAR-2013-0563; FRL-9902-18-Region 4

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 EPA-R04-OAR-2013-0563; FRL-9902-18-Region 4] Approval and Promulgation of... Pressure Requirement for the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Area AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the State of North Carolina's March 27,...

  16. The Impact of Achieve3000 on Elementary Literacy Outcomes: Evidence from a Two-Year Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Darryl V.; Lenard, Matthew A.; Page, Lindsay Coleman

    2016-01-01

    School districts are increasingly adopting technology-based resources in an attempt to improve student achievement. This paper reports the two-year results from randomized control trial of Achieve3000 in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Achieve3000 is an early literacy program that differentiates non-fiction…

  17. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN ALTERS TESTOSTERONE ESTERIFICATION IN MUD SNAILS (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Biocide Tributyltin Alters Testosterone Esterification in Mud Snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta)

    Meredith P. Gooding and Gerald A. LeBlanc
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633

    Tributyltin (TBT...

  18. Evaluating and Educating - 2000: Is Your Catholic School System Ready? Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic School and Family Partnerships Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Robert J.; Vadenais, Kim Rocha

    Parents attitudes towards traditional Catholic education at Our Lady of Lourdes School (Raleigh, North Carolina) were explored in this study. From 315 surveys sent home to parents, 193 were returned completed. The survey was designed to gather information to improve the partnerships among schools, families, and communities and to prepare Catholic…

  19. (AMD) ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY DATA NEAR ROADWAYS USING A DISPERSION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a dispersion model to analyze measurements made during a field study conducted by the U.S. EPA in July-August 2006, to estimate the impact of traffic emissions on air quality at distances of tens of meters from an 8 lane highway located in Raleigh, North Carolina. The air...

  20. OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES (MAPK) FOLLOWING AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE EXPOSURE (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES (MAPK) FOLLOWING AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE EXPOSURE (PM). E S Roberts1, R Jaskot2, J Richards2, and K L Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC a...

  1. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... New Jersey Mt. Holly, NJ New Mexico Albuquerque, NM New York Syracuse, NY North Carolina Raleigh, NC North Dakota Bismarck, ND Ohio Columbus, OH Oklahoma Stillwater, OK Oregon Portland, OR Pennsylvania Harrisburg, PA Puerto Rico Hato Rey, PR South Carolina Columbia, SC South Dakota Huron, SD...

  2. North Carolina as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    An unusually clear, northwestward view of central North Carolina show the farms and timber of the inner coastal plain. The city of Fayettville, and Fort Bragg to the west, is prominent at lower left center. The Research Triangle of Raleigh, Durham and Chapel Hill can be seen at upper right, upstream from Jordan Lake and Harris Lake on the New Hope River.

  3. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... New Jersey Mt. Holly, NJ New Mexico Albuquerque, NM New York Syracuse, NY North Carolina Raleigh, NC North Dakota Bismarck, ND Ohio Columbus, OH Oklahoma Stillwater, OK Oregon Portland, OR Pennsylvania Harrisburg, PA Puerto Rico Hato Rey, PR South Carolina Columbia, SC South Dakota Huron, SD...

  4. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... New Jersey Mt. Holly, NJ New Mexico Albuquerque, NM New York Syracuse, NY North Carolina Raleigh, NC North Dakota Bismarck, ND Ohio Columbus, OH Oklahoma Stillwater, OK Oregon Portland, OR Pennsylvania Harrisburg, PA Puerto Rico Hato Rey, PR South Carolina Columbia, SC South Dakota Huron, SD...

  5. COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE. P. Singh1, C.A.J. Dick2, J. Richards3, M.J. Daniels3, and M.I. Gilmour3. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 2UNC, Chapel Hill, NC and 3 USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, (ETD,...

  6. 75 FR 63512 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ..., CO 09/27/10 09/24/10 Machines Corporation (IBM) (Company). 74668 Communication Cable Company Malvern... (Workers).. Jacksonville, FL...... 09/29/10 09/27/10 74682 Broadview Network Holdings, Rye Brook, NY.... Raleigh, NC 10/01/10 09/24/10 (Workers). 74687 Burns Industrial Group Hinckley, OH 10/01/10...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  8. The Manpower Research Institutional Grant Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-01-01

    Maine, Norfolk State College, North Carolina State University at Raleigh, Oklahoma State University, and Temple University. All have graduate ... programs except Norfolk State College. The recipients were selected from 43 applicants by members of the National Manpower Advisory Committee’s Subcommittee

  9. 75 FR 34973 - Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the Agricultural Energy Program Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the... currently accepting stakeholder feedback on future energy related topics and questionnaire content for.../ or via mail to: USDA-NASS, Energy Content Team, P.O. Box 27767, Raleigh, NC 27611; or fax to:...

  10. MYOCARDIAL AND CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS FOLLOWING PULMONARY EXPOSURE TO ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FOLLOWING PULMONARY EXPOSURE TO ZINC
    PS Gilmour, A Nyska, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, CF Moyer, JM Samet, and UP Kodavanti, CEMALB, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC; NIEHS, RTP, NC; US EPA/ORD/NHEERL/HSD, Chapel Hill, NC; Pathology Associates, Inc., Raleigh, NC; ...

  11. INCREASING DIVERSITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING: THE ORD RESEARCH APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The "Research Apprenticeship Program for High School Students" began in 1990 as a collaborative effort between EPA's Office of Research and Development in Research Triangle Park, NC and Shaw University, an Historically Black College/University (HBCU) in Raleigh, NC. The program a...

  12. Taking Care of Business: Bridging the Skills Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatewood, Algie

    2017-01-01

    This brief article describes how Alamance Community College, a mid-sized community college sandwiched between two of North Carolina's largest metropolitan markets in Raleigh-Durham and Greensboro-Winston-Salem, has developed several new study programs and initiatives to better service business and industry. Among other things, Almanac has…

  13. Joint associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

    PubMed

    Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; De Neve, Melissa; Shelton, Nicola J; Tielemans, Susanne M A J; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    Individual associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular disease are relatively established, but the joint associations are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine prospectively the joint associations between alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular mortality (CVM) and all-cause mortality. Four population-based studies in the United Kingdom were included, the 1997 and 1998 Health Surveys for England and the 1998 and 2003 Scottish Health Surveys. In men and women, respectively, low physical activity was defined as 0.1 to 5 and 0.1 to 4 MET-hours/week and high physical activity as ≥5 and ≥4 MET-hours/week. Moderate or moderately high alcohol intake was defined as >0 to 35 and >0 to 21 units/week and high levels of alcohol intake as >35 and >21 units/week. In total, there were 17,410 adults without prevalent cardiovascular diseases and complete data on alcohol and physical activity (43% men, median age 55 years). During a median follow-up period of 9.7 years, 2,204 adults (12.7%) died, 638 (3.7%) with CVM. Cox proportional-hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders such as marital status, social class, education, ethnicity, and longstanding illness. In the joint associations analysis, low activity combined with high levels of alcohol (CVM: hazard ratio [HR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 2.96, p = 0.002; all-cause mortality: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.03, p <0.001) and low activity combined with no alcohol (CVM: HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.76, p <0.001; all-cause mortality: HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.81, p <0.001) were linked to the highest risk, compared with moderate drinking and higher levels of physical activity. Within each given alcohol group, low activity was linked to increased CVM risk (e.g., HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.03, p = 0.014, for the moderate drinking group), but in the presence of high physical activity, high alcohol intake was not linked to increased CVM

  14. Evaluation of the southern California seismic velocity models through simulation of recorded events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Khoshnevis, Naeem; Cheng, Keli

    2016-06-01

    Significant effort has been devoted over the last two decades to the development of various seismic velocity models for the region of southern California, United States. These models are mostly used in forward wave propagation simulation studies, but also as base models for tomographic and source inversions. Two of these models, the community velocity models CVM-S and CVM-H, are among the most commonly used for this region. This includes two alternative variations to the original models, the recently released CVM-S4.26 which incorporates results from a sequence of tomographic inversions into CVM-S, and the user-controlled option of CVM-H to replace the near-surface profiles with a VS30-based geotechnical model. Although either one of these models is regarded as acceptable by the modeling community, it is known that they have differences in their representation of the crustal structure and sedimentary deposits in the region, and thus can lead to different results in forward and inverse problems. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of these models when used to predict the ground motion in the greater Los Angeles region by means of an assessment of a collection of simulations of recent events. In total, we consider 30 moderate-magnitude earthquakes (3.5 < Mw < 5.5) between 1998 and 2014, and compare synthetics with data recorded by seismic networks during these events. The simulations are done using a finite-element parallel code, with numerical models that satisfy a maximum frequency of 1 Hz and a minimum shear wave velocity of 200 m s-1. The comparisons between data and synthetics are ranked quantitatively by means of a goodness-of-fit (GOF) criteria. We analyse the regional distribution of the GOF results for all events and all models, and draw conclusions from the results and how these correlate to the models. We find that, in light of our comparisons, the model CVM-S4.26 consistently yields better results.

  15. Effect of tip relief on endurance characteristics of super nitralloy and AISI M-50 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted with two groups of 8.89-centimeter (3.5-in.) pitch diameter spur gears with standard 20 deg involute profile with tip relief made of CVM Super-Nitralloy (5Ni-2Al) and CVM AISI M-50 at a temperature of 350 K (170 F). Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief had a life 150 percent that of gears without tip relief. An increased scoring phenomenon was noted with the Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief. Through-hardened AISI M-50 gears with tip relief failed due to tooth fracture. AISI M-50 gears without tip relief had a life approximately 40 times greater than the AISI M-50 gears with tip relief.

  16. Assessing the comprehensive restoration of an urban river: an integrated application of contingent valuation in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Liu, Qiuxia; Lin, Liqing; Lv, Huafang; Wang, Yao

    2013-08-01

    Around 2000, China began to address the comprehensive restoration of its urban rivers and attempt to restore river ecosystem services. This paper reports an integrated contingent valuation of the ecosystem services of Zhangjiabang Creek in Shanghai, which is in the most developed region of China. A total of 1440 questionnaires were delivered, and 1153 were returned as usable in August 2008. The willingness to pay for the restoration of the urban river is 20.22 RMB (2.91 USD) per month per household under the payment card and 110.64 RMB (15.92 USD) under the dichotomous format. Several important methodological issues of the contingent valuation method (CVM) are observed, including the disparity between willingness to pay and willingness to accept, the difference between payment card and dichotomous choice question formats, and the comparison of different models in welfare estimation using dichotomous choice data. Several new findings are disclosed for these three issues of CVM.

  17. A life study of AISI M-50 and Super Nitralloy spur gears with and without tip relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted at 170 F with groups of 3.5-in.-pitch-diameter spur gear with and without tip relief made of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) Spur Nitralloy (5Ni-2Al) and CVM AISI M-50 steel. The AISI M-50 gears without tip relief had lives approximately 50 percent longer than the Super Nitralloy gears without tip relief. However, the Super Nitralloy gears with tip relief had lives equal to the AISI M-50 gears without tip relief. The difference in lives were not statistically significant. All gears failed by classical pitting fatigue at the pitch circle. However, the AIAI M-50 gears with tip relief failed by tooth fracture. AISI M-50 gear sets without tip relief having a spalled gear tooth which were deliberately overrun after spalling had occurred, failed by tooth fracture.

  18. Calculation of the probability distribution of basic clusters involved in cluster-variation approximations to the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinograd, Victor L.; Saxena, Surendra K.; Putnis, Andrew

    1997-11-01

    The free energy of the Ising model in the cluster-variation method (CVM) is traditionally described as a function of many configuration variables (correlation functions) the number of which is equal to the number of all distinct subclusters of the chosen set of basic clusters. According to the present approach the description of the equilibrium distribution of basic clusters such as point, pair, triangle, square, hexagon, octagon, tetrahedron, cube, and octahedron requires no more than four basic variables corresponding to the four basic subclusters, namely, point, pair, triangle, and tetrahedron. The values of all other correlation functions can be found with the help of a set of irreversible transformations on basic clusters which equilibrate the cluster distributions with respect to the given distribution of their basic subclusters. The decrease in the number of cluster variables results in a significant simplification of formulation and minimization of the free-energy expressions used in the CVM.

  19. Client value models provide a framework for rational library planning (or, phrasing the answer in the form of a question).

    PubMed

    Van Moorsel, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    Libraries often do not know how clients value their product/ service offerings. Yet at a time when the mounting costs for library support are increasingly difficult to justify to the parent institution, the library's ability to gauge the value of its offerings to clients has never been more critical. Client Value Models (CVMs) establish a common definition of value elements-or a "value vocabulary"-for libraries and their clients, thereby providing a basis upon which to make rational planning decisions regarding product/service acquisition and development. The CVM concept is borrowed from business and industry, but its application has a natural fit in libraries. This article offers a theoretical consideration and practical illustration of CVM application in libraries.

  20. The Homogenized Energy Model (HEM) for Characterizing Polarization and Strains in Hysteretic Ferroelectric Materials: Material Properties and Uniaxial Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    density of α-variant (CV/m 3) P Polarization (C/m2) P Polarization kernel (C/m2) Pα Polarization of α-variant (C/m2) PαR Remanent polarization of α...Permittivity (F/m = C/Vm) ε Strain (Unitless) ε Strain kernel εα Strain of α-variant εαR Remanence strain of α-variant εαm Minimum strain of α-variant γ γ...designates the dipole variant — e.g., ±180, 90 for tetragonal materials — and PαR , εαR are remanent values of the polarization and strain. At larger

  1. Comparisons of modified Vasco X-2 and AISI 9310 gear steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Endurance tests were conducted with four groups of spur gears manufactured from three heats of consumable electrode vacuum melted (CVM) modified Vasco X-2. Endurance tests were also conducted with gears manufactured from CVM AISI 9310. Bench type rolling element fatigue tests were conducted with both materials. Hardness measurements were made to 811 K. There was no statistically significant life difference between the two materials. Life differences between the different heats of modified Vasco X-2 can be attributed to heat treat variation and resultant hardness. Carburization of gear flanks only can eliminate tooth fracture as a primary failure mode for modified Vasco X-2. However, a tooth surface fatigue spall can act as a nucleus of a tooth fracture failure for the modified Vasco X-2.

  2. Application of the contingent valuation method in a developing country: a case study of the Yusufeli dam in northeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alp, Emre; Yetiş, Ulkü

    2010-01-01

    Hydroelectric power plants and dams often play an important role in developing countries in terms of their contribution to economy. In accordance with the energy policies of Turkish Republic, Yusufeli Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant in Northeastern Turkey have been initiated. In this study, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was conducted in Yusufeli Village to determine the environmental costs of the Yusufeli Project. The purpose is to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) of Yusufeli Village residents for restoration of the environmental impacts of the dam project and also to investigate the underlying economic, psychological, and social motivations for WTP. WTP was calculated as US$761 per person which can further be used in the cost-benefit analysis. The results from the study suggest that application of the CVM in rural and urban areas located in the same region can show differences.

  3. Congenital Vascular Malformations of the Liver: An Association With Trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Burdall, Oliver C; Grammatikopoulos, Tassos; Sellars, Maria; Hadzic, Nedim; Davenport, Mark

    2016-12-01

    A link between congenital vascular malformation (CVM) of the liver and trisomy 21 has been suggested. We reviewed all children with trisomy 21 referred for investigation to a specialist pediatric hepatobiliary unit (1985-2015). Forty-five children with trisomy 21 were identified; 7 (15%) had a defined CVMs (4 girls). All such infants were also diagnosed with a range of cardiac defects. CVMs were divided according to the nature of the vascular connection. Group (i) (n = 3): Abnormal venovenous anomaly. This included portocaval shunt and patent ductus venosus (n = 2). Group (ii) (n = 4): Involvement of all 3 vascular systems. Two infants had arterioportal hypertension caused by hepatic arteries feeding into a left portal vein aneurysm within the umbilical fissure. Two infants had more complex hepatic artery to hepatic vein shunts developing early cardiorespiratory failure with progressive jaundice. Our series shows a clear association between cardiac anomalies and CVM in children with trisomy 21.

  4. Fluidic Technology Investigation - Suspension Damping Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    IF (w (I LT’ CVM)~4$1 IF ( Wrf 1 0 i CmpY MX2)V?1112wW~ CALL ORPArIP:(Pcx) pP,i.,IERR) .......-or pi i v~,R4p CAlLA (QAI)Rr7,4,?,T.ERR) T F Z (I ~LT C V...Damper Damping Devices Suspension Systems Shock Absorbers Adaptive Suspension Systems Hydro -Fluidics 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side if necessary

  5. CyberShake: Broadband Physics-Based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Milner, K.; Graves, R. W.; Donovan, J.; Wang, F.; Jordan, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    Researchers at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have developed and used the CyberShake computational platform to perform probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) in the Los Angeles region (Graves et al., 2010) using deterministic wave propagation simulations at frequencies up to 0.5 Hz, combined with stochastic methods, to produce broadband seismograms up to 10 Hz. CyberShake uses seismic reciprocity to calculate synthetic seismograms for a suite of more than 600,000 rupture realizations. From this set of seismograms we compute intensity measures, which are then combined into a PSHA hazard curve for the site of interest at various periods. With the CyberShake computational platform, we have computed broadband hazard curves for locations around Southern California, including precariously balanced rock sites and locations of Southern California Seismic Network stations. Additionally, for each location we calculated hazard curves with two different community velocity models, Community Velocity Model - Harvard (CVM-H) v11.2 and Community Velocity Model - SCEC (CVM-S) v11.2. At lower frequencies, hazard levels computed with CVM-H for sites within the deep LA basin are lower than those computed with CVM-S. On the other hand, sites within the Ventura basin show the opposite trend. We interpret these results to be related to the underlying nature of the velocity models, which we are continuing to investigate. At higher frequencies, the CyberShake results tend to be lower than hazard levels computed with traditional ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). We will report on these results, possibly due to the long tail on GMPEs. Additionally, we will describe ways these results are being used by the SCEC community, such as in earthquake early warning, precarious rock analysis, and directivity-basin coupling.

  6. Venous malformations: clinical diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Behravesh, Sasan; Yakes, Wayne; Gupta, Nikhil; Naidu, Sailendra; Chong, Brian W.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Venous malformation (VM) is the most common type of congenital vascular malformation (CVM). They are present at birth and are often symptomatic, causing morbidity and pain. VMs can be challenging to diagnose and are often confused with hemangioma in terminology as well as with imaging. An accurate clinical history and cross-sectional imaging are critical for diagnosis and for devising management. This manuscript will review imaging approaches to diagnosing VMs and current treatment strategies. PMID:28123976

  7. Cardiovascular malformations in Fryns syndrome: is there a pathogenic role for neural crest cells?

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela E; Pober, Barbara R; Mullen, Mary P; Slavotinek, Anne M

    2005-12-15

    We performed a comprehensive literature and case report review to characterize the cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) associated with Fryns syndrome (OMIM #229850), a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome consisting of diaphragmatic defects, significant pulmonary hypoplasia, distinctive facial appearance, distal digital hypoplasia, and numerous other external and internal anomalies. A total of 112 patients meeting diagnostic guidelines for Fryns syndrome were identified, of whom 82 met narrowly defined criteria (Group I) and 30 met broader diagnostic criteria (Group II). Twelve patients reported as having Fryns syndrome with atypical features (Group III) were also analyzed. A CVM was reported in 51% (42 of 82) of Group I patients, most commonly an atrial or ventricular septal defect (VSD) (23 of 42, 55%). Conotruncal and aortic arch CVMs were common (11 of 42, 26%), but not significantly so compared to the general population of infants to age 1 year [Ferencz et al., 1997]. Recognizing that minor septal defects associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) may occur in response to altered hemodynamics (instead of being a bonafide CVM), we excluded four patients reported as having hemodynamically insignificant VSDs. Following these exclusions, conotruncal CVMs were found more commonly than in the general population (11 of 38, 29%, P < or = 0.025). In Group II, 9 of 30 (30%) had a CVM with no predominant type among the small number of cases reviewed. Among the atypical Fryns syndrome patients in Group III, half (6 of 12, 50%) had a CVM; most (4 of 6, 67%) were conotruncal, in particular, type B interrupted aortic arch (3 of 4). Patients with Fryns syndrome have a high rate of CVMs, warranting thorough cardiac evaluation including echocardiogram (fetal and/or postnatal) in all patients, similar to the evaluation for other patients with diaphragmatic hernia. The possible association between conotruncal CVMs and Fryns syndrome may provide

  8. Calculation of the configurational entropy of Al, Si in layer silicates using the cluster variation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinograd, V. L.; Putnis, A.

    Entropies of Al-Si in layer silicates have been calculated using a series of CVM approximations for the honeycomb lattice. The parameters of the models have been constrained by 29Si NMR data. The results of low order approximations such as ``pair'' and ``star'' have been rejected because of their low accuracy at high Al/(Al+Si) ratios. Reasonably accurate results have been achieved with the help of the ``hexagon'' and ``star-hexagon'' approximations.

  9. Endometritis Increases Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Follicular Fluid and Cervico-vaginal Mucus in the Buffalo Cow.

    PubMed

    Boby, Jones; Kumar, Harendra; Gupta, Harihar Prasad; Jan, Mustapha Hussain; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Patra, Manas Kumar; Nandi, Sukdeb; Abraham, Asha; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2016-11-17

    Emerging evidence shows that some of the pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated not only in the endometrium but also in the follicular fluid of cows with endometritis. Developing a cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) based test has the potential for becoming a pen-side test because of the ease of sample collection. The present study describes the results of two different experiments. The first experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of endometritis on the proinflammatory cytokines of follicular fluid based on the reproductive tracts of buffalo collected at a slaughter house Buffalo genitalia were categorized into purulent endometritis (PE), cytological endometritis (CE), and non-endometritis (NE) based on the white-side test and endometrial cytology, respectively (n = 14/group). Each group was subdivided into follicular and mid-luteal stage (n = 7/stage) and the follicular fluid was collected from the largest follicle. Second experiment was done to study the difference in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the CVM of repeat breeders with subclinical endometritis presented to the clinic. CVM was collected from the repeaters (n = 10) and non-repeaters (n = 10) through aseptic trans-vaginal aspiration. The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα were quantitated through bovine specific ELISA kits. Significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα) along with low intra-follicular estradiol in buffaloes of PE and CE groups suggest that endometritis impedes the follicular steroidogenesis. Significantly higher concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α in the CVM of repeaters indicate their potential as a pen-side diagnostic test for CE.

  10. Comparing Benefit Estimation Techniques: Residential Flood Hazard Reduction Benefits in Roanoke, Virginia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Hedonic Price Method (Land Price Analysis), and the Contingent Value Method (CVM). The report consists of...Roanoke Case Study 19 5. THE HEDONIC PRICE METHOD (LAND PRICE ANALYSIS) .21 5.1 The Hedonic Price Method 21 5.2 Limitations and Assumptions of the... Hedonic Price Method 23 5.3 The Roanoke Hedonic Price Study 26 5.3.1 Sample, Variable Definition, and Model Specification 26 5.3.2 Hedonic Price

  11. Composite Ceramic Superconducting Wires for Electric Motor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-31

    densification , as Y-123 filaments can reach densities estimated around 95 % in only two seconds. Densification is accompanied by dramatic...rings, but to find a system that will work. Additional brush testing that still needs to be done is to look at the effects of speed and brush pressure on...D~T IC ,LL COPY cvm i CJ SIXTH QUARTERLY REPORT II • ’ FOR THE PROJECT I "COMPOSITE CERAMIC SUPERCONDUCTINGiWIRES FOR ELECTRIC MOTOR APPLICATIONS" 2

  12. Passive imaging of hydrofractures in the South Belridge diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Ilderton, D.C.; Patzek, T.W.; Rector, J.W.; Vinegar, H.J.

    1996-03-01

    The authors present the results of a seismic analysis of two hydrofractures spanning the entire diatomite column (1,110--1,910 ft or 338--582 m) in Shell`s Phase 2 steam drive pilot in South Belridge, California. These hydrofractures were induced at two depths (1,110--1,460 and 1,560--1,910 ft) and imaged passively using the seismic energy released during fracturing. The arrivals of shear waves from the cracking rock (microseismic events) were recorded at a 1 ms sampling rate by 56 geophones in three remote observation wells, resulting in 10 GB of raw data. These arrival times were then inverted for the event locations, from which the hydrofracture geometry was inferred. A five-dimensional conjugate-gradient algorithm with a depth-dependent, but otherwise constant shear wave velocity model (CVM) was developed for the inversions. To validate CVM, they created a layered shear wave velocity model of the formation and used it to calculate synthetic arrival times from known locations chosen at various depths along the estimated fracture plane. These arrival times were then inverted with CVM and the calculated locations compared with the known ones, quantifying the systematic error associated with the assumption of constant shear wave velocity. They also performed Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses on the synthetic arrival times to account for all other random errors that exist in field data. After determining the limitations of the inversion algorithm, they hand-picked the shear wave arrival times for both hydrofractures and inverted them with CVM.

  13. Applicability of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to Dog and Cat Owners for Teaching Veterinary Clinical Communications.

    PubMed

    Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.

  14. PS integrins and laminins: key regulators of cell migration during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Jose M; Domínguez-Giménez, Paloma; Estrada, Beatriz; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development, there are numerous cases where organ or tissue formation depends upon the migration of primordial cells. In the Drosophila embryo, the visceral mesoderm (vm) acts as a substrate for the migration of several cell populations of epithelial origin, including the endoderm, the trachea and the salivary glands. These migratory processes require both integrins and laminins. The current model is that αPS1βPS (PS1) and/or αPS3βPS (PS3) integrins are required in migrating cells, whereas αPS2βPS (PS2) integrin is required in the vm, where it performs an as yet unidentified function. Here, we show that PS1 integrins are also required for the migration over the vm of cells of mesodermal origin, the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM). These results support a model in which PS1 might have evolved to acquire the migratory function of integrins, irrespective of the origin of the tissue. This integrin function is highly specific and its specificity resides mainly in the extracellular domain. In addition, we have identified the Laminin α1,2 trimer, as the key extracellular matrix (ECM) component regulating CVM migration. Furthermore, we show that, as it is the case in vertebrates, integrins, and specifically PS2, contributes to CVM movement by participating in the correct assembly of the ECM that serves as tracks for migration.

  15. PS Integrins and Laminins: Key Regulators of Cell Migration during Drosophila Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Jose M.; Domínguez-Giménez, Paloma; Estrada, Beatriz; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development, there are numerous cases where organ or tissue formation depends upon the migration of primordial cells. In the Drosophila embryo, the visceral mesoderm (vm) acts as a substrate for the migration of several cell populations of epithelial origin, including the endoderm, the trachea and the salivary glands. These migratory processes require both integrins and laminins. The current model is that αPS1βPS (PS1) and/or αPS3βPS (PS3) integrins are required in migrating cells, whereas αPS2βPS (PS2) integrin is required in the vm, where it performs an as yet unidentified function. Here, we show that PS1 integrins are also required for the migration over the vm of cells of mesodermal origin, the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM). These results support a model in which PS1 might have evolved to acquire the migratory function of integrins, irrespective of the origin of the tissue. This integrin function is highly specific and its specificity resides mainly in the extracellular domain. In addition, we have identified the Laminin α1,2 trimer, as the key extracellular matrix (ECM) component regulating CVM migration. Furthermore, we show that, as it is the case in vertebrates, integrins, and specifically PS2, contributes to CVM movement by participating in the correct assembly of the ECM that serves as tracks for migration. PMID:21949686

  16. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; McNamara, James A.; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation. PMID:27513752

  17. A retrospective review of cases preoperatively diagnosed by radiologic imaging as cavernous venous malformations.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Anupam; Cohen, Liza M; Lissner, Gary S; Karagianis, Achilles G

    2017-04-03

    The purpose of this study is to examine orbital lesions identified on preoperative radiologic imaging as cavernous venous malformations (CVMs), identify their imaging characteristics, and determine if these may help differentiate CVMs from other intraorbital masses. An IRB-approved retrospective chart review over 30 years was undertaken identifying lesions "consistent with cavernous hemangioma" on radiologic studies, which were subsequently surgically resected with a tissue diagnosis. All radiologic images (CT and MRI) obtained preoperatively were re-reviewed by a single masked neuroradiologist. The pattern of contrast enhancement on sequential MRI views was used to determine whether the enhancing characteristics helped identify CVMs compared to other intraorbital masses. Fifty-seven orbital lesions consistent with a CVM were identified on imaging. Fourteen (25%) of them were resected, of which nine (64%) were found to be CVMs on pathologic examination. Five (36%) were found to be a different lesion, most commonly schwannoma (21%). On imaging, CVMs tended to display heterogeneous progressive enhancement, whereas other tumors, in particular schwannomas, enhanced at their maximum level immediately. Based on these characteristics, on re-review, the masked neuroradiologist was able to differentiate a CVM versus other tumors for all 14 imaging cases. This study suggests that examining the pattern of contrast enhancement may help to correctly differentiate a CVM from other isolated, encapsulated orbital lesions on CT/MR imaging.

  18. Subsurface fault geometries in Southern California illuminated through Full-3D Seismic Waveform Tomography (F3DT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, En-Jui; Chen, Po

    2017-04-01

    More precise spatial descriptions of fault systems play an essential role in tectonic interpretations, deformation modeling, and seismic hazard assessments. The recent developed full-3D waveform tomography techniques provide high-resolution images and are able to image the material property differences across faults to assist the understanding of fault systems. In the updated seismic velocity model for Southern California, CVM-S4.26, many velocity gradients show consistency with surface geology and major faults defined in the Community Fault Model (CFM) (Plesch et al. 2007), which was constructed by using various geological and geophysical observations. In addition to faults in CFM, CVM-S4.26 reveals a velocity reversal mainly beneath the San Gabriel Mountain and Western Mojave Desert regions, which is correlated with the detachment structure that has also been found in other independent studies. The high-resolution tomographic images of CVM-S4.26 could assist the understanding of fault systems in Southern California and therefore benefit the development of fault models as well as other applications, such as seismic hazard analysis, tectonic reconstructions, and crustal deformation modeling.

  19. [WTP guidance technology: a comparison of payment card, single-bounded and double-bounded dichotomous formats for evaluating non-use values of Sanjiang Plain ecotourism water resources].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Guang; Wang, Qiu-Dan; Li, Chen-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Contingent valuation method (CVM) is the most widespread method to assess resources and value of environmental goods and services. The guidance technology of willingness to pay (WTP) is an important means of CVM. Therefore, the study on the WTP guidance technology is an important approach to improve the reliability and validity of CVM. This article conducted comprehensive evaluation on non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain by using payment card, single-bound dichotomous choice and double-bound dichotomous choice. Results showed that the socio-economic attributes were consistent with the willingness to pay in the three formats, and the tender value, age, educational level, annual income and the concern level had significant effect on the willingness to pay, while gender and job did not have significant influence. The WTP value was 112.46 yuan per capita with the payment card, 136.15 with the single-bound dichotomous choice, and 168.74 with the double-bound dichotomous choice. Comprehensive consideration of the nature of the investigation, investigation costs and statistical techniques, the result of double-bound dichotomous choice (47.86 x 10(8) yuan · a(-1)) was best in accordance with the reality, and could be used as non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain. The format of questionnaire was very important to improve its validity, and made a great influence on the WTP.

  20. Air quality improvement estimation and assessment using contingent valuation method, a case study in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, X J; Zhang, W; Li, Y; Yang, K Z; Bai, M

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to estimate and assess residents' willingness to pay to improve air quality in the urban area of Beijing using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). The mean willingness to pay (WTP) for a 50% reduction of harmful substances in the air was 143 CNY per household per year, and the total WTP of the residents in the study area was 336 million CNY per year. As a proportion of household annual income, the mean WTP amounted to 0.7%. Four socio-economic variables were found to have significant impacts on residents' willingness to pay. The analysis results illustrated that WTP increases with income and education level, and decreases with household population and age. The willingness was larger for residents in the urban districts than those in the suburban districts. It was found that most of the protest bids lay on interviewees' incomplete perception of the values of environmental amenity. The influence of household income on people's willingness to pay illustrated in this study reflects a causal force of Beijing's transition to market economy that households created to have disposable income are more likely to care about environmental quality. The results of this study strike an optimistic note on the possibility of measuring the total economic value of environmental quality improvement by using the CVM in China. Suggestions on implication of the CVM for both academics and policy makers are provided in the paper.

  1. Occurrence of inorganic elements in condensed volatile matter emitted from coal pyrolysis and their contributions to the formation of ultrafine particulates during coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Zhang; Yoshihiko Ninomiya; Toru Yamashita

    2006-08-15

    Coal pyrolysis is the first step during coal combustion, when the injected coal particles swell to release the volatile matter (VM) at a very short residence time. Simultaneously, the organically bound fraction of inherent metals is likely emitted out too. To prove the presence of organically bound metals in coals, five bituminous coals and one anthracite coal from China were pyrolyzed in N{sub 2} in a lab-scale drop tube furnace. The gas temperature in furnace was about 900-1400 K so that almost all the inorganic elements except those containing Na hardly vaporized. The emitted VM was collected by a low-pressure impactor. The results indicate that the condensed VM (CVM) smaller than 1.0 {mu}m has an amorphous carbon structure, which contains the inorganic elements too. Sulfur is the most prevalent, followed by sodium, silicon, chlorine, calcium, and others in the decreasing order. Apart from a portion of sodium in form of NaCl, all the inorganic elements are organically bound with CVM as determined by both TEM-EDS and XPS. These elements disperse highly in CVM; their oxidation and coagulation during VM combustion likely contribute to the majority of ultrafine particulates (PM0.1 smaller than 0.1 m) formed during coal combustion at a relatively low temperature, 1473 K. 30 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Brief communication: a proposed method for the assessment of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains using cervical vertebrae maturation.

    PubMed

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of age-at-death in non-adult skeletal remains is under constant review. However, in many past societies an individual's physical maturation may have been more important in social terms than their exact age, particularly during the period of adolescence. In a recent article (Shapland and Lewis: Am J Phys Anthropol 151 (2013) 302-310) highlighted a set of dental and skeletal indicators that may be useful in mapping the progress of the pubertal growth spurt. This article presents a further skeletal indicator of adolescent development commonly used by modern clinicians: cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM). This method is applied to a collection of 594 adolescents from the medieval cemetery of St. Mary Spital, London. Analysis reveals a potential delay in ages of attainment of the later CVM stages compared with modern adolescents, presumably reflecting negative environmental conditions for growth and development. The data gathered on CVM is compared to other skeletal indicators of pubertal maturity and long bone growth from this site to ascertain the usefulness of this method on archaeological collections.

  3. Effect of ion concentration changes in the limited extracellular spaces on sarcolemmal ion transport and Ca2+ turnover in a model of human ventricular cardiomyocyte.

    PubMed

    Hrabcová, Dana; Pásek, Michal; Šimurda, Jiří; Christé, Georges

    2013-12-13

    We have developed a computer model of human cardiac ventricular myocyte (CVM), including t-tubular and cleft spaces with the aim of evaluating the impact of accumulation-depletion of ions in restricted extracellular spaces on transmembrane ion transport and ionic homeostasis in human CVM. The model was based on available data from human CVMs. Under steady state, the effect of ion concentration changes in extracellular spaces on [Ca2+]i-transient was explored as a function of critical fractions of ion transporters in t-tubular membrane (not documented for human CVM). Depletion of Ca2+ and accumulation of K+ occurring in extracellular spaces slightly affected the transmembrane Ca2+ flux, but not the action potential duration (APD90). The [Ca2+]i-transient was reduced (by 2%-9%), depending on the stimulation frequency, the rate of ion exchange between t-tubules and clefts and fractions of ion-transfer proteins in the t-tubular membrane. Under non-steady state, the responses of the model to changes of stimulation frequency were analyzed. A sudden increase of frequency (1-2.5 Hz) caused a temporal decrease of [Ca2+] in both extracellular spaces, a reduction of [Ca2+]i-transient (by 15%) and APD90 (by 13 ms). The results reveal different effects of activity-related ion concentration changes in human cardiac t-tubules (steady-state effects) and intercellular clefts (transient effects) in the modulation of membrane ion transport and Ca2+ turnover.

  4. Genes Specific for the Biosynthesis of Clavam Metabolites Antipodal to Clavulanic Acid Are Clustered with the Gene for Clavaminate Synthase 1 in Streptomyces clavuligerus

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Roy H.; Paradkar, Ashish S.; Anders, Cecilia; Barton, Barry; Jensen, Susan E.

    1999-01-01

    Portions of the Streptomyces clavuligerus chromosome flanking cas1, which encodes the clavaminate synthase 1 isoenzyme (CAS1), have been cloned and sequenced. Mutants of S. clavuligerus disrupted in cvm1, the open reading frame located immediately upstream of cas1, were constructed by a gene replacement procedure. Similar techniques were used to generate S. clavuligerus mutants carrying a deletion that encompassed portions of the two open reading frames, cvm4 and cvm5, located directly downstream of cas1. Both classes of mutants still produced clavulanic acid and cephamycin C but lost the ability to synthesize the antipodal clavam metabolites clavam-2-carboxylate, 2-hydroxymethyl-clavam, and 2-alanylclavam. These results suggested that cas1 is clustered with genes essential and specific for clavam metabolite biosynthesis. When a cas1 mutant of S. clavuligerus was constructed by gene replacement, it produced lower levels of both clavulanic acid and most of the antipodal clavams except for 2-alanylclavam. However, a double mutant of S. clavuligerus disrupted in both cas1 and cas2 produced neither clavulanic acid nor any of the antipodal clavams, including 2-alanylclavam. This outcome was consistent with the contribution of both CAS1 and CAS2 to a common pool of clavaminic acid that is shunted toward clavulanic acid and clavam metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:10223939

  5. Genetic analysis of 17 Y-STRs in a Mestizo population from the Central Valley of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Santana, Carla; Noris, Gino; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Magaña, Jonathan J; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S; Muñoz, Maria de Lourdes; Gómez, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to portray the complex diversity of the Mexican Mestizo population, which represents 98.8% of the entire population of Mexico. We compiled extended haplotype data of the Y chromosome from populations in the Central Valley of Mexico (CVM), which we compared with other Mestizo and parental (Amerindian, European, and African) populations. A complex ancestral relationship was found in the CVM population, suggesting cosmopolitan origins. Nevertheless, the most preeminent lineages point toward a European ancestry, where the R1b lineage was most frequent. In addition, important frequencies of Amerindian lineages were also found in the Mestizo sample studied. Interestingly, the Amerindian ancestry showed a remarkable substructure, which was represented by the two main founding lineages: QL54 (× M3) and M3. However, even within each lineage a high diversity was found despite the small number of sample bearers of these lineages. Further, we detected important genetic differences between the CVM populations and the Mexican Mestizo populations from the north and south. This result points to the fact that Mestizo populations present different ancestral proportions, which are related to the demographic events that gave origin to each population. Finally, we provide additional forensic statistical parameters that are useful in the interpretation of genetic analysis where autosomal loci are limited. Our findings illustrate the complex genetic background of the Mexican Mestizo population and reinforce the need to encompass more geographic regions to generate more robust data for forensic applications.

  6. Determination of tricaine residues in fish by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nochetto, Cristina B; Reimschuessel, Renate; Gieseker, Charles; Cheely, Christie-Sue; Carson, Mary C

    2009-01-01

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), as an anesthetic drug for select aquaculture species. It was approved for use as a handling aid with a 3 week withdrawal time. The drug is rapidly metabolized and excreted; therefore, CVM approved its use without requiring a regulatory method for drug residues in tissues. However, there are concerns that the drug may be used to sedate fish during transport to slaughter. A regulatory method will enable monitoring for unsafe residues of this drug resulting from extralabel use. We present a quantitative method, using LC at a target level of 0.1 mg/kg (ppm), for three different farmed species: salmon (Salmo salar); tilapia (Oreochromis spp.); and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The assay begins with an acetonitrile extraction, followed by filtration and mixed-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction cleanup. The extracts are analyzed by reversed-phase LC with UV detection at 320 nm. The method was validated by using fish fillets with incurred residues, control fish fillets, and fish fillets fortified at half the target level, the target level, and twice the target level (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 ppm, respectively). For all species, accuracy is > or =80% and the RSD is < or =10%. The method complies with CVM performance criteria for the determination of veterinary drug residues.

  7. Testing the convergent validity of the contingent valuation and travel cost methods in valuing the benefits of health care.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philip M

    2002-03-01

    In this study, the convergent validity of the contingent valuation method (CVM) and travel cost method (TCM) is tested by comparing estimates of the willingness to pay (WTP) for improving access to mammographic screening in rural areas of Australia. It is based on a telephone survey of 458 women in 19 towns, in which they were asked about their recent screening behaviour and their WTP to have a mobile screening unit visit their nearest town. After eliminating missing data and other non-usable responses the contingent valuation experiment and travel cost model were based on information from 372 and 319 women, respectively. Estimates of the maximum WTP for the use of mobile screening units were derived using both methods and compared. The highest mean WTP estimated using the TCM was $83.10 (95% C.I. $99.06-$68.53), which is significantly less than the estimate of $148.09 ($131.13-$166.60) using the CVM. This could be due to the CVM estimates also reflecting non-use values such as altruism, or a range of potential biases that are known to affect both methods. Further tests of validity are required in order to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between these two methods of estimating WTP.

  8. Comparing Mutational Variabilities

    PubMed Central

    Houle, D.; Morikawa, B.; Lynch, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have reviewed the available data on V(M), the amount of genetic variation in phenotypic traits produced each generation by mutation. We use these data to make several qualitative tests of the mutation-selection balance hypothesis for the maintenance of genetic variance (MSB). To compare V(M) values, we use three dimensionless quantities: mutational heritability, V(M)/V(E); the mutational coefficient of variation, CV(M); and the ratio of the standing genetic variance to V(M), V(G)/V(M). Since genetic coefficients of variation for life history traits are larger than those for morphological traits, we predict that under MSB, life history traits should also have larger CV(M). This is confirmed; life history traits have a median CV(M) value more than six times higher than that for morphological traits. V(G)/V(M) approximates the persistence time of mutations under MSB in an infinite population. In order for MSB to hold, V(G)/V(M) must be small, substantially less than 1000, and life history traits should have smaller values than morphological traits. V(G)/V(M) averages about 50 generations for life history traits and 100 generations for morphological traits. These observations are all consistent with the predictions of a mutation-selection balance model. PMID:8807316

  9. Short communication: Distribution of recessive genetic defect carriers in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Sun, D X; Fan, X H; Xie, Y; Chu, Q; Sun, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S L; Gong, W J; Chen, S H; Li, Y H; Shi, W H; Zhang, Y

    2011-11-01

    In dairy cattle, 4 important recessive hereditary diseases exist: complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), citrullinemia (CTLN), and deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS). Holstein Associations in developed countries have established monitoring systems for such disorders in Holstein bulls for decades. Over the past decades, China has continuously imported Holstein semen and embryos, mainly from North America but also from Europe. The dissemination of such genetic defects was undetermined until now, although efforts were taken to develop molecular techniques and detect carriers for CVM and BLAD in small populations of Chinese dairy cattle. Thus, herein we extensively screened 732 proven bulls participating in artificial insemination programs and 136 young bulls entering progeny test from 15 bull stations in China for CVM, BLAD, CTLN, and DUMPS. The proportion of carriers of the defects was found to be 7.72, 1.38, 0.23, and 0.12%, respectively. Given our findings, early diagnostic and monitoring systems on recessive inherited disorders among proven and young bulls entering the national genetic improvement programs for dairy cattle of China should be established immediately, in which a series of measures will be taken to prevent further spreading of such disorders and gradually eliminate them in the dairy cattle population in China.

  10. Quantitative Assessment of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Korean Girls

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Bo-Ram; Kim, Yong-Il; Maki, Koutaro; Son, Woo-Sung

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the correlation between skeletal maturation status and parameters from the odontoid process/body of the second vertebra and the bodies of third and fourth cervical vertebrae and simultaneously build multiple regression models to be able to estimate skeletal maturation status in Korean girls. Hand-wrist radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained from 74 Korean girls (6–18 years of age). CBCT-generated cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) was used to demarcate the odontoid process and the body of the second cervical vertebra, based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. Correlation coefficient analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used for each parameter of the cervical vertebrae (P < 0.05). Forty-seven of 64 parameters from CBCT-generated CVM (independent variables) exhibited statistically significant correlations (P < 0.05). The multiple regression model with the greatest R2 had six parameters (PH2/W2, UW2/W2, (OH+AH2)/LW2, UW3/LW3, D3, and H4/W4) as independent variables with a variance inflation factor (VIF) of <2. CBCT-generated CVM was able to include parameters from the second cervical vertebral body and odontoid process, respectively, for the multiple regression models. This suggests that quantitative analysis might be used to estimate skeletal maturation status. PMID:25878721

  11. On the interaction between the external magnetic field and nanofluid inside a vertical square duct

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Kashif; Ahmad, Shabbir; Ahmad, Shahzad Ashraf, Muhammad; Asif, Muhammad

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we numerically study how the external magnetic field influences the flow and thermal characteristics of nanofluid inside a vertical square duct. The flow is considered to be laminar and hydrodynamically as well as thermally developed, whereas the thermal boundary condition of constant heat flux per unit axial length with constant peripheral temperature at any cross section, is assumed. The governing equations are solved using the spectral method and the finite difference method. Excellent comparison is noted in the numerical results given by the two methods but the spectral method is found to be superior in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. We have noted that the flow reversal due to high Raleigh number may be controlled by applying an external magnetic field of suitable strength. Moreover, the Nusselt number is found to be almost a linear function of the nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, for different values of the Raleigh number and the magnetic parameter.

  12. Metamorphosed melange terrane in the eastern Piedmont of North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright Morton, J., Jr.; Blake, David E.; Wylie, Albert S., Jr.; Stoddard, Edward F.

    1986-07-01

    The Falls Lake melange crops out in the eastern Piedmont of North Carolina between the Carolina slate belt and the Raleigh belt. The melange is composed of mafic and ultramafic blocks and pods of diverse shapes and sizes, dispersed without apparent stratigraphic continuity, in a matrix of pelitic schist and biotite-muscovite-plagioclase-quartz gneiss. Textures and structural relationships suggest formation by a combination of sedimentary and tectonic processes, perhaps in the accretionary wedge of a convergent plate margin. The Falls Lake melange and the overlying late Proterozoic to Early Cambrian volcanic-arc terrane of the Carolina slate belt were thrust upon a probable continental terrane of the Raleigh belt before overprinting by late Paleozoic folding and metamorphism. *Present address: Chevron USA, P.O. Box 1150, Midland, Texas 79701

  13. Porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell system.

    PubMed

    Baynes, R E

    2001-11-01

    Porcine Skin Flow-Through Diffusion Cell System (Ronald E. Baynes, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina). Porcine skin can be used in a diffusion cell apparatus to study the rate and extent of absorption of topically applied chemicals through the skin. Although the skin of a number of animals can be used in this system, that of the pig most closely approximates human skin anatomically and physiologically.

  14. A Climatology of Mesoscale Wave Disturbances Seen in Mesonet Data During Storm-Fest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    requirements for the Degree of Master of Science MARINE, EARTH AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Raleigh 1996 APPROVED BY: JnYu ah Lin Ping-ung Shaw Steven E...provided the opportunity and funding required to obtain this advanced degree. Additional monetary support was provided by the COMET Outreach Project grant...dewpoint, wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, visibility , sky conditions, altimeter, density altitude and precipitation (5-min totals

  15. Development of a Framework for Model-Based Analysis, Uncertainty Quantification, and Robust Control Design of Nonlinear Smart Composite Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-04

    SMART COMPOSITE SYSTEMS Ralph Smith North Carolina State University at Raleigh Final Report 04/06/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public...Analysis, Uncertainty Quantification, and Robust Control Design of Nonlinear Smart Composite Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11...range of nonlinear and hysteretic smart composite systems. A major component of the program focused on the development of this framework in the context

  16. New Approach to Predict Hugoniot Properties of Explosives Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-12

    TATB) were conducted using quantum mechanics and analytical methods. Furthermore, using the pressure p and the ratio of specific densities, v/v0, p-v...fitting algorithms , new constants were obtained, to determine the detonation velocity, D, which was then used to define the Raleigh line. The ratio of...parameters that define detonation process and establish a DRDC-RDDC-2014-N35 completely numerical approach by using quantum mechanics and

  17. Meeting the Enduring Challenge, United Stated Air Force Basic Doctrine Through 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY Raleigh 1993 APPROVED BY: Co-Chairs of Advisory C...34 comic book," did little to foster an air of professionalism regarding the way the service viewed doctrine. 9 The 1984 edition significantly redressed...reminiscent of the visionary ideas espoused by ACTS, merely substituting thermonuclear weapons for conventional. In keeping with this emphasis on the

  18. Implications of Organizational Planning for Crisis Relocation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    AD-A 23 956 IMPLICATIONS OF ORGANIZATIDNAL PLANNING FOR CRISIS RELOCATION(U) NORTH CAROLINA DEPT OF CRIME CONTROL AND PUBLIC SAFETY RALEIG.. M A...policies of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Division of Emergency Management North Carolina Department of Crime Control and Public Safety...North Carolina Department of Crime Control and Work Unit 0 4412 1 Public Safety, 116 W.Jones St. ,Raleigh, NC 27611 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND

  19. Terrain Dynamics Analysis Using Space-Time Domain Hypersurfaces and Gradient Trajectories Derived From Time Series of 3D Point Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Form Approved OMB NO. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - UU UU UU UU 01-08-2015 1-Apr-2011 31- Mar -2014 Approved for Public Release...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 landscape dynamics, lidar time series, space time cube, tangible interface...2701 Sullivan Drive Suite 240 Raleigh, NC 27695 -7514 31- Mar -2014 ABSTRACT Terrain Dynamics Analysis Using Space-Time Domain Hypersurfaces and

  20. Dredged Material as a Tool for Management of Tern and Skimmer Nesting Habitats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    University of North Carolina Sea Grant Program Publication UNC-SG-75-01, Raleigh, NC. __________. 2002. Royal tern (Sterna maxima). In The Birds of North...America, No. 700, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America, Inc. Chaney, A. H., B. R. Chapman, J. P. Karges, D...M. Erwin, and K. C. Molina. 1995. Gull-billed tern (Sterna nilotica). In The Birds of North America, No. 140, ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Washington

  1. LIQUID BUTANE FILLED LOAD FOR A LINER DRIVEN PEGASUS EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. SALAZAR; W. ANDERSON; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously [1,2].

  2. Liquid butane filled load for a liner driven Pegasus experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M. A.; Armijo, E. V.; Anderson, W. E.; Atchison, W. L.; Bartos, J. J.; Garcia, F.; Randolph, B.; Sheppard, M. G.; Stokes, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment (Fig.1) was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously.

  3. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER William A. Hargus, Jr. 5e. TASK NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Briefing Charts presented at Gaseous Electronics Conference; Raleigh, NC; 5 November 2014. PA#14517 14. ABSTRACT Iodine (I2) has been...discussed seriously as a propellant for Hall effect and other electrostatic thrusters as early as 2000. Atomic iodine has a mass of 126.9 amu, but as

  4. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the South Atlantic United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    34 Technical Bulletin No. 247, North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, Raleigh, N. C. Britton, N. L. and Brown, A. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern...R. 1980. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland, Vol II, The Biota of North America, University of...Cambridge. Radford, A. E., Ahles, H. E., and Bell, C. R. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill

  5. A Division-Dependent Compartmental Model for Computing Cell Numbers in CFSE-based Lymphocyte Proliferation Assays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-12

    Center for Research in Scientific Computation and Center for Quantitative Sciences in Biomedicine North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695...transformed model solution ñ(t, z) is computed only at discrete points (tj , z j k), we must approximate this observation operator, I[ñ](tj , z j k) ≈ IA...J. Math . Biol., 59 (2009), 581–603. [52] T. Luzyanina, M. Mrusek, J.T. Edwards, D. Roose, S. Ehl, and G. Bocharov, Computational analysis of CFSE

  6. A Compartmental Model for Computing Cell Numbers in CFSE-based Lymphocyte Proliferation Assays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-31

    in Scientific Computation and Center for Quantitative Sciences in Biomedicine North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8212 Cristina...exactly. The values of the function ni−1(t, x), though already computed , will only be available at discrete points (t(m), x(k)) and thus (13) must be...operator for the compartmental model. In practice, because the transformed model solution ñ(t, z) is computed only at discrete points (tj , z j k), we

  7. A New Model for the Estimation of Cell Proliferation Dynamics Using CFSE Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-20

    in Scientific Computation and Center for Quantitative Sciences in Biomedicine North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8212 Gennady... Math . Biol. 59 (2009), 581–603. [46] T. Luzyanina, M. Mrusek, J.T. Edwards, D. Roose, S. Ehl, and G. Bocharov, Computational analysis of CFSE...Homburg, Germany and 2 ICREA Infection Biology Lab, Dept of Experimental and Health Sciences , Univ. Pompeu Fabra, 08003 Barcelona, Spain August 20

  8. A Novel Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Flow Cytometry Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-05

    aCenter for Research in Scientific Computation and Center for Quantitative Sciences in Biomedicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8212...dependent com- partmental model for computing cell numbers in CFSE-based lymphocyte proliferation assays, Math . Biosci. Eng. 9 (2012), pp. 699–736. CRSC-TR12...USA; bICREA Infection Biology Laboratory, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences , Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08003 Barcelona, Spain (Received

  9. A Novel Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Flow Cytometry Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-31

    Scientific Computation and Center for Quantitative Sciences in Biomedicine North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8212 Cristina Peligero...Jordi Argilaguet, and Andreas Meyerhans ICREA Infection Biology Lab, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08003...the fast computational approaches as described in [27]. It is also shown how the new model can be compared with older label-structured models such as

  10. Earth-Abundant Materials as Photosensitizers in the Molecular Assemblies for Solar Energy Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-31

    solar cells : Can iron complexes serve as photosensitizers in DSSCs?" The Southeastern Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Raleigh...Tsuchiya, E. Jakubikova, "Hydroxamate Linker Results in Fastest Interfacial Electron Transfer Rates in Fe(bpy)2(CN)2 - Sensitized Solar Cell ," The...ways to utilize solar energy is conversion of sunlight to electricity via dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) or to chemical fuels via photocatalytic

  11. U.S. Army Hybrid Propulsion System R&D Overview ATA/Technology & Maintenance Council 2011 Fall Meeting, Hybrid Powertrain Task Force Session

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-19

    Raleigh, NC UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution A. Approved for Public Release Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for...Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that...display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 19 SEP 2011 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 19-09-2011 to 19-09

  12. Annual Report 2013-2014: Theoretical Studies of Nerve Agents Adsorbed on Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-08

    L Whitten Professor of Chemistry North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695 Telephone Number: 919-515-7960 Email: whitten@ncsu.edu...electronic states accurately and to identify factors that affect desorption energies and kinetics, solvation of nerve agents by water and the spectral...to describe surface interactions and low energy electronic states at high aaccuracy using theory in order to understand the details of bonding to

  13. Sculpting Molecular Potentials to Design Optimized Materials: The Inverse Design of New Molecular Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-10

    Miloradovic, A. Persoons, T . Verbiest, M. J . Therien, and K. Clays, "Molecular Symmetry and Solution Phase Structure Interrogated by Hyper-Raleigh...34 Nano Lett., 8, 2814-2818 (2008).  T . V. Duncan, K. Song, S.- T . Hung, I. Miloradovic, A. Persoons, T . Verbiest, M. J . Therien, and K. Clays...Beratan, Weitao Yang, Michael J . Therien, Koen Clays Duke University Office of Research Support Duke University Durham, NC 27705 - REPORT

  14. A Simple Sensor Model for THUNDER Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    A quasi-static (low frequency) model is developed for THUNDER actuators configured as displacement sensors based on a simple Raleigh-Ritz technique. This model is used to calculate charge as a function of displacement. Using this and the calculated capacitance, voltage vs. displacement and voltage vs. electrical load curves are generated and compared with measurements. It is shown this model gives acceptable results and is useful for determining rough estimates of sensor output for various loads, laminate configurations and thicknesses.

  15. Approximation to the Probability Density at the Output of a Photmultiplier Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokey, R. J.; Lee, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The probability density of the integrated output of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) is approximated by the Gaussian, Rayleigh, and Gamma probability densities. The accuracy of the approximations depends on the signal energy alpha: the Gamma distribution is accurate for all alpha, the Raleigh distribution is accurate for small alpha (approximate or less than 1 photon) and the Gaussian distribution is accurate for large alpha (approximate or greater than 10 photons).

  16. Along the waterfront

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James W. Mercer, of GeoTrans, Inc. (Herndon, Va.), will present the 26th Henry W. Shaw Lecture in Civil Engineering on April 15, 1988, at North Carolina State University, Raleigh. The title of his talk will be "Use of Groundwater Models: The Settlement Process at the Chem-Dyne Hazardous Waste Site." The National Water Well Association's Special Recognition Award was presented to AGU member Fletcher G. Driscoll of White Bear Lake, Minn.

  17. EFFECTS OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS DISEASE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS DISEASE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN BROWN NORWAY RATS (P. Singhl, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2,
    C.A.J. Dick', K.B. Adlerl and M.I. Gilmour2, INCSU, Raleigh, N.C., 2NHEERL/ORD/ USEPA, RTP, N.C. and 3UNC, Chapel Hill, N.C.)The interaction between ...

  18. Production Mechanisms, Number Concentration, Size Distribution. Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Petters, Markus; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Bates. Tim; O'Dowd, Colin; Reid, Jeff; Lewis, Ernie R.; Gantt, Brett; Anguelova, Magdalena D.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Bird, James; Callaghan, Adrian H.; Ceburnis, Darius; Chang, Rachel; Clark, Antony; deLeeuw, Gerrit; Deane, Grant; DeMott, Paul J.; Elliot, Scott; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fairall, Chris W.; Hawkins, Lelia; Hu, Yongxiang; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Over forty scientists from six countries convened in Raleigh, NC on June 4-6 2012 to review the status and prospects of sea spray aerosol research. Participants were researchers from the oceanography and atmospheric science communities, including academia, private industry, and government agencies. The recommendations from the working groups are summarized in a science prioritization matrix that is meant to prioritize the research agenda and identify areas of investigation by the magnitude of their impact on proposed science questions. Str

  19. Physiological and Biogeochemical Traits of Bleaching and Recovery in the Mounding Species of Coral Porites lobata: Implications for Resilience in Mounding Corals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-02

    biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not...Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America Introduction Coral reefs are...coming decades [4,6,7], and are already causing mass coral reef decline worldwide [8]. Coral bleaching suscepti- bility has been directly linked to the

  20. (BRI) Direct and Inverse Design Optimization of Magnetic Alloys with Minimized Use of Rare Earth Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0091 (BRI) Direct and Inverse Design Optimization of Magnetic Alloys with Minimized Use of Rare Earth Elements George...2012 – 31/10/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE (BRI) Direct and Inverse Design Optimization of Magnetic Alloys with Minimized Use of Rare Earth Elements... Science and Eng., Raleigh, NC (Profs. Justin Schwartz and Carl C. Koch). Their team performed all manufacturing and experimental measurements. 14

  1. Charge Compensation and Electrostatic Transferability in Three Entropy Stabilized Oxides: Results from Density Functional Theory Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-06

    Charge compensation and electrostatic transferability in three entropy-stabilized oxides: Results from density functional theory calculations Zs. Rak...North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7907, USA 2Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Center for...random structures. For J14, Bader charges are transferable between the binary, ternary, and random structures. For J14þSc and J14þLi, average Bader

  2. A Parameter Sensitivity Methodology in the Context of HIV Delay Equation Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-07

    1988), 71–90. [18] KAMINA, A ., MAKUCH , R. W., AND ZHAO, H. Stochastic modeling of early HIV-1 population dynamics. Mathematical Biosciences 170... A PARAMETER SENSITIVITY METHODOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF HIV DELAY EQUATION MODELS H. T. Banks1 and D. M. Bortz Center for Research in Scientific...Computation Box 8205, North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-8205 ABSTRACT. A sensitivity methodology for nonlinear delay systems arising in one

  3. The Deposition of Multicomponent Films for Electrooptic Applications via a Computer Controlled Dual Ion Beam Sputtering System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    targets be sequentially exposed to the ion beam. An in-vacuum, motor-driven rotating target holder was built to perform this function . The targets...rotation via the system control computer. The computer also performs many other system functions including control of ion beam parameters and substrate...North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 and Alan R. Krauss Chemistry and Materials "cience Divisions, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne

  4. Comparison of bacterial regrowth in distribution systems using free chlorine and chloramine: a statistical study of causative factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; DiGiano, Francis A

    2002-03-01

    Bacterial regrowth was investigated over a 15-month period in distribution systems (DSs) of Durham and Raleigh in North Carolina. These two water utilities were chosen because they are adjacent to one another, have similar service area characteristics, and treat surface waters of similar characteristics with conventional processes (coagulation-sedimentation and dual-media filtration). The finished waters have similar chemical quality and regrowth potential as measured by assimilable organic carbon (AOC). The major difference in treatment is the choice of final disinfectants (chlorine in Durham and chloramine in Raleigh). Ten sampling sites (monthly sampling) were chosen in each system to give wide geographic coverage and correspondingly, a wide range of water residence times. Significant losses were observed in both chlorine and chloramine residual in the DSs that produced bacterial regrowth as measured by heterotrophic plate count (HPC). The frequency distributions for log HPC (133 observations from Durham and 135 observations from Raleigh) were statistically the same in the chlorinated and chloraminated DSs. A correlation analysis indicated that disinfectant residual is the most important factor determining HPC level. However, the resulting R2 value for a non-linear regression model that also included AOC, temperature, and pH as independent variables was less than 0.7. Bacterial regrowth as measured by HPC, is dependent upon a complex interaction of chemical, physical, and operational parameters that may not be captured by such a simple statistical relationship.

  5. Dental and Chronological Ages as Determinants of Peak Growth Period and Its Relationship with Dental Calcification Stages

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between dental, chronological, and cervical vertebral maturation growth in the peak growth period, as well as to study the association between the dental calcification phases and the skeletal maturity stages during the same growth period. Methods: Subjects were selected from orthodontic pre-treatment cohorts consisting of 420 subjects where 255 were identified and enrolled into the study, comprising 145 girls and 110 boys. The lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs were examined from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dental age was assessed according to the method of Demirjian, and skeletal maturation according to the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method. Statistical elaboration included Spearman Brown formula, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression analysis, paired samples t-test, and Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient. Results: Chronological and dental age showed a high correlation for both gender(r =0.741 for boys, r = 0.770 for girls, p<0.001). The strongest correlation was for the CVM Stage IV for both males (r=0.554) and females (r=0.68). The lowest correlation was for the CVM Stage III in males (r=0.433, p<0.001) and for the CVM Stage II in females (r=0.393, p>0.001). The t-test revealed statistically significant differences between these variables (p<0.001) during the peak period. A statistically significant correlation (p<0.001) between tooth calcification and CVM stages was determined. The second molars showed the highest correlation with CVM stages (CVMS) (r= 0.65 for boys, r = 0.72 for girls). Conclusion: Dental age was more advanced than chronological for both boys and girls for all CVMS. During the peak period these differences were more pronounced. Moreover, all correlations between skeletal and dental stages were statistically significant. The second molars showed the highest correlation whereas the

  6. Saposin C coupled lipid nanovesicles specifically target arthritic mouse joints for optical imaging of disease severity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoyang; Flick, Matthew J; Frederick, Malinda; Chu, Zhengtao; Mason, Rachel; DeLay, Monica; Thornton, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting approximately 1% of the population and is characterized by cartilage and bone destruction ultimately leading to loss of joint function. Early detection and intervention of disease provides the best hope for successful treatment and preservation of joint mobility and function. Reliable and non-invasive techniques that accurately measure arthritic disease onset and progression are lacking. We recently developed a novel agent, SapC-DOPS, which is composed of the membrane-associated lysosomal protein saposin C (SapC) incorporated into 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (DOPS) lipid nanovesicles. SapC-DOPS has a high fusogenic affinity for phosphatidylserine-enriched microdomains on surfaces of target cell membranes. Incorporation of a far-red fluorophore, CellVue Maroon (CVM), into the nanovesicles allows for in vivo non-invasive visualization of the agent in targeted tissue. Given that phosphatidylserine is present only on the inner leaflet of healthy plasma membranes but is "flipped" to the outer leaflet upon cell damage, we hypothesized that SapC-DOPS would target tissue damage associated with inflammatory arthritis due to local surface-exposure of phosphatidylserine. Optical imaging with SapC-DOPS-CVM in two distinct models of arthritis, serum-transfer arthritis (e.g., K/BxN) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) revealed robust SapC-DOPS-CVM specific localization to arthritic paws and joints in live animals. Importantly, intensity of localized fluorescent signal correlated with macroscopic arthritic disease severity and increased with disease progression. Flow cytometry of cells extracted from arthritic joints demonstrated that SapC-DOPS-CVM localized to an average of 7-8% of total joint cells and primarily to CD11b+Gr-1+ cells. Results from the current studies strongly support the application of SapC-DOPS-CVM for advanced clinical and research applications including: detecting early arthritis

  7. Automated detection of cracks on the faying surface within high-load transfer bolted speciments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, Gregory; Kollgaard, Jeffrey R.

    2003-07-01

    Boeing is currently conducting evaluation testing of the Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVMTM) system offered by Structural Monitoring Systems, Ltd (SMS). Initial testing has been conducted by SMS, with further test lab validations to be performed at Boeing in Seattle. Testing has been conducted on dog bone type specimens that have been cut at the center line. A notch was cut at one of the bolt holes and a CVM sensor installed on both sides of the plate. The doublers were added and a single line of 4 bolts along the longitudinal center line were used to attach the doubler plates to the dog bone type specimen. In this way, a high load transfer situation exists between the two halves of the dog bone specimen and the doubler plates. The CVM sensors are slightly over 0.004" (0.1mm) in thickness and are installed directly upon the faying surface of the dog bone specimen. Testing was conducted on an Instron 8501 Servohydraulic testing machine at the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Australia. The standard laboratory equipment offered by Structural Monitoring Systems, Ltd was used for crack detection. This equipment included the Kvac (vacuum supply) and the Sim8 (flow meter). The Sim8 was electrically connected to the Instron machine so that as soon as a crack was detected, fatigue loading was halted. The aim of the experiment was for CVM to detect a crack on the faying surface of the specimens at a length of 0.050" +/- 0.010". This was accomplished successfully. CVM has been developed on the principle that a small volume maintained at a low vacuum is extremely sensitive to any ingress of air. In addition to the load bearing sensors described above, self-adhesive, elastomeric sensors with fine channels on the adhesive face have been developed. When the sensors have been adhered to the structure under test, these fine channels, and the structure itself, form a manifold of galleries alternately at low vacuum and atmospheric pressure

  8. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age. PMID:27630474

  9. Diagnostic performance of dental maturity for identification of skeletal maturation phase.

    PubMed

    Perinetti, G; Contardo, L; Gabrieli, P; Baccetti, T; Di Lenarda, R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the diagnostic performance of the circumpubertal dental maturation phases for the identification of individual-specific skeletal maturation phases. A total of 354 healthy subjects, 208 females and 146 males (mean age, 11.1 ± 2.4 years; range, 6.8-17.1 years), were enrolled in the study. Dental maturity was assessed through the calcification stages from panoramic radiographs of the mandibular canine, the first and second premolars, and the second molar. Determination of skeletal maturity was according to the cervical vertebra maturation (CVM) method on lateral cephalograms. Diagnostic performances were evaluated according to the dental maturation stages for each tooth for the identification of the CVM stages and growth phases (as pre-pubertal, pubertal, and post-pubertal) using positive likelihood ratios (LHRs). A positive LHR threshold of 10 or more was considered for satisfactory reliability of any dental maturation stage for the identification of any of the CVM stages or growth phases. The positive LHRs were generally less than 2.0, with a few exceptions. These four teeth showed positive LHRs greater than 10 only for the identification of the pre-pubertal growth phase, with values from 10.8 for the second molar (stage E) to 39.3 for the first premolar (stage E). Dental maturation assessment is only useful for diagnosis of the pre-pubertal growth phase, and thus, precise information in relation to the timing of the onset of the growth spurt is not provided by these indices.

  10. Risk assessment in regulatory policy making for human and veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    Lathers, Claire M

    2002-08-01

    Risk assessment is the method of systematically identifying and assessing factors that influence the probability and consequences of a negative event occurring. One responsibility of veterinary medicine is to protect animal and human health. Food animal production uses antibiotics to enhance production. Regulators evaluate new production technology to ensure animal safety and safe, edible products and to make public policy decisions by assessing risks/benefits. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine's (CVM's) first risk assessment addressed the potential human health impact of campylobacter effects associated with the use of fluoroquinolines in food-producing animals. CVM used the Monte Carlo method to estimate risk byprobability distributions that reflect the uncertainty and variability in the data used for the assessment. Enterococci faecium is a species more likely to be resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Effective control of multidrug-resistant enterococci will requirea better understanding of the transfer of E. faeciumfrom animals to humans and the interaction between E. faecium, the hospital environment, and humans; prudent antibiotic use; better contact isolation in hospitals; and better surveillance. CVM will model these factors in a second, more complex risk assessment designed to examine the indirect transfer of resistance from animals to humans. Use of risk assessments allows researchers, the industry, regulatory authorities, and educators to make better policy decisions regarding antimicrobial use in food animals and humans and the development of resistance. Today the question of whether the use of antimicrobials for growth enhancement infood animals should or should not be terminated for the benefit of human health remains unresolved.

  11. Economic value of instream flow for non-commercial whitewater boating using recreation demand and contingent valuation methods.

    PubMed

    Loomis, John; McTernan, James

    2014-03-01

    Whitewater river kayaking and river rafting require adequate instream flows that are often adversely affected by upstream water diversions. However, there are very few studies in the USA of the economic value of instream flow to inform environmental managers. This study estimates the economic value of instream flow to non-commercial kayakers derived using a Travel Cost Method recreation demand model and Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), a type of Contingent Behavior Method (CBM). Data were obtained from a visitor survey administered along the Poudre River in Colorado. In the dichotomous choice CVM willingness to pay (WTP) question, visitors were asked if they would still visit the river if the cost of their trip was $Y higher, and the level of $Y was varied across the sample. The CVM yielded an estimate of WTP that was sensitive to flows ranging from $55 per person per day at 300 Cubic Feet per Second (CFS) to a maximum $97 per person per day at flows of 1900 CFS. The recreation demand model estimated a boater's number of trips per season. We found the number of trips taken was also sensitive to flow, ranging from as little as 1.63 trips at 300 CFS to a maximum number of 14 trips over the season at 1900 CFS. Thus, there is consistency between peak benefits per trip and number of trips, respectively. With an average of about 100 non-commercial boaters per day, the maximum marginal values per acre foot averages about $220. This value exceeds irrigation water values in this area of Colorado.

  12. Economic Value of Instream Flow for Non-Commercial Whitewater Boating Using Recreation Demand and Contingent Valuation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John; McTernan, James

    2014-03-01

    Whitewater river kayaking and river rafting require adequate instream flows that are often adversely affected by upstream water diversions. However, there are very few studies in the USA of the economic value of instream flow to inform environmental managers. This study estimates the economic value of instream flow to non-commercial kayakers derived using a Travel Cost Method recreation demand model and Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), a type of Contingent Behavior Method (CBM). Data were obtained from a visitor survey administered along the Poudre River in Colorado. In the dichotomous choice CVM willingness to pay (WTP) question, visitors were asked if they would still visit the river if the cost of their trip was Y higher, and the level of Y was varied across the sample. The CVM yielded an estimate of WTP that was sensitive to flows ranging from 55 per person per day at 300 Cubic Feet per Second (CFS) to a maximum 97 per person per day at flows of 1900 CFS. The recreation demand model estimated a boater's number of trips per season. We found the number of trips taken was also sensitive to flow, ranging from as little as 1.63 trips at 300 CFS to a maximum number of 14 trips over the season at 1900 CFS. Thus, there is consistency between peak benefits per trip and number of trips, respectively. With an average of about 100 non-commercial boaters per day, the maximum marginal values per acre foot averages about 220. This value exceeds irrigation water values in this area of Colorado.

  13. Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    ccccceccccccccGcccocccec- ecce aocoococoocooooo&ooooooo&ooeoeo I3033OO09O00OQ000000Q0 ff» M. nt c O Z> CO CO I • ■ I ■ ■ I 0(W(\\J<V>QPA𔃺𔃺’<l<’>M...UJUJUJUJUtUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJU UUJUJLJUJUJUJuJ > HOMoe »oojdionno\\fii’NH>jiNiinn\\i* vj)m(VTJNff>>NHa] j«cvm«)»oir’Otf ocMd-Komcotr^d-ireDir HNviiaifnoifiCiHcc JU.XWr-f

  14. Cryogenic Model Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, W. M.; Kuhn, N. S.; Berry, R. F.; Newman, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    An overview and status of current activities seeking alternatives to 200 grade 18Ni Steel CVM alloy for cryogenic wind tunnel models is presented. Specific improvements in material selection have been researched including availability, strength, fracture toughness and potential for use in transonic wind tunnel testing. Potential benefits from utilizing damage tolerant life-prediction methods, recently developed fatigue crack growth codes and upgraded NDE methods are also investigated. Two candidate alloys are identified and accepted for cryogenic/transonic wind tunnel models and hardware.

  15. Application of the Cluster Variation Method to Anisotropic Polarization Fluctuations in KD 2PO 4-Type Crystals above and below the Transition Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Koh; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    1998-01-01

    The cluster variation method (CVM) in the cactus approximation is applied to a pseudo-spin Ising Hamiltonian of the Slater-Takagi model for KD2PO4-type hydrogen-bonded ferroelectrics to calculate the wave-number dependent susceptibility χ( q), mainly focussing on the ferroelectric phase.The strong anisotropy of polarization fluctuations along the easy z-axis is shown to appear not only in the paraelectric phase but also in the ferroelectric phase when the ice-rule limit is approached. An analytical expression of the spontaneous polarization is fully utilized for calculations on χ( q) below the transition temperature.

  16. SCEC UCVM - Unified California Velocity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Ely, G. P.; Taborda, R.

    2011-12-01

    The SCEC Unified California Velocity Model (UCVM) is a software framework for a state-wide California velocity model. UCVM provides researchers with two new capabilities: (1) the ability to query Vp, Vs, and density from any standard regional California velocity model through a uniform interface, and (2) the ability to combine multiple velocity models into a single state-wide model. These features are crucial in order to support large-scale ground motion simulations and to facilitate improvements in the underlying velocity models. UCVM provides integrated support for the following standard velocity models: SCEC CVM-H, SCEC CVM-S and the CVM-SI variant, USGS Bay Area (cencalvm), Lin-Thurber Statewide, and other smaller regional models. New models may be easily incorporated as they become available. Two query interfaces are provided: a Linux command line program, and a C application programming interface (API). The C API query interface is simple, fully independent of any specific model, and MPI-friendly. Input coordinates are geographic longitude/latitude and the vertical coordinate may be either depth or elevation. Output parameters include Vp, Vs, and density along with the identity of the model from which these material properties were obtained. In addition to access to the standard models, UCVM also includes a high resolution statewide digital elevation model, Vs30 map, and an optional near-surface geo-technical layer (GTL) based on Ely's Vs30-derived GTL. The elevation and Vs30 information is bundled along with the returned Vp,Vs velocities and density, so that all relevant information is retrieved with a single query. When the GTL is enabled, it is blended with the underlying crustal velocity models along a configurable transition depth range with an interpolation function. Multiple, possibly overlapping, regional velocity models may be combined together into a single state-wide model. This is accomplished by tiling the regional models on top of one another in

  17. An overview of methods and applications to value informal care in economic evaluations of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Koopmanschap, Marc A; van Exel, Job N A; van den Berg, Bernard; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares several applied valuation methods for including informal care in economic evaluations of healthcare programmes: the proxy good method; the opportunity cost method; the contingent valuation method (CVM); conjoint measurement (CM); and valuation of health effects in terms of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and well-being. The comparison focuses on three questions: what outcome measures are available for including informal care in economic evaluations of healthcare programmes; whether these measures are compatible with the common types of economic evaluation; and, when applying these measures, whether all relevant aspects of informal care are incorporated. All types of economic evaluation can incorporate a monetary value of informal care (using the opportunity cost method, the proxy good method, CVM and CM) on the cost side of an analysis, but only when the relevant aspects of time costs have been valued. On the effect side of a cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analysis, the health effects (for the patient and/or caregiver) measured in natural units or QALYs can be combined with cost estimates based on the opportunity cost method or the proxy good method. One should be careful when incorporating CVM and CM in cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, as the health effects of patients receiving informal care and the carers themselves may also have been valued separately. One should determine whether the caregiver valuation exercise allows combination with other valuation techniques. In cost-benefit analyses, CVM and CM appear to be the best tools for the valuation of informal care. When researchers decide to use the well-being method, we recommend applying it in a cost-benefit analysis framework. This method values overall QOL (happiness); hence it is broader than just HR-QOL, which complicates inclusion in traditional health economic evaluations that normally define outcomes more narrowly. Using broader, non

  18. Snowmass Energy Frontier Simulations using the Open Science Grid (A Snowmass 2013 whitepaper)

    SciTech Connect

    Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Narain, Meenakshi; Padhi, Sanjay; Hirschauer, Jim; Levshina, Tanya; McBride, Patricia; Sehgal, Chander; Slyz, Marko; Rynge, Mats; Malik, Sudhir; Stupak, III, John

    2013-08-04

    Snowmass is a US long-term planning study for the high-energy community by the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields. For its simulation studies, opportunistic resources are harnessed using the Open Science Grid infrastructure. Late binding grid technology, GlideinWMS, was used for distributed scheduling of the simulation jobs across many sites mainly in the US. The pilot infrastructure also uses the Parrot mechanism to dynamically access CvmFS in order to ascertain a homogeneous environment across the nodes. This report presents the resource usage and the storage model used for simulating large statistics Standard Model backgrounds needed for Snowmass Energy Frontier studies.

  19. Turbulent Bubbly Flow in a Vertical Pipe Computed By an Eddy-Resolving Reynolds Stress Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-19

    induced turbulence of the underlying flow and the modification of the turbulent quantities by the dispersed bubbles. Due to the lack of realisable data...is modelled with the coefficient CVM taking the standard value of 0.5. Other forces which mainly act in the lateral direc- tion, like the lift, wall... values were used for αG = 0.033 and the mean gas velocity, in accordance with the case 4 from Hosokawa and Tomiyama (2009). The domain was 160D long in

  20. UCVM: Open Source Software for Understanding and Delivering 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physics-based ground motion simulations can calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through 3D velocity models of the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) framework to help researchers build structured or unstructured velocity meshes from 3D velocity models for use in wave propagation simulations. The UCVM software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Currently, the platform supports multiple California models, including SCEC CVM-S4 and CVM-H 11.9.1, and has been designed to support models from any region on earth. UCVM is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. In this presentation, we describe improvements to the UCVM software. The current version, UCVM 14.3.0, released in March of 2014, supports the newest Southern California velocity model, CVM-S4.26, which was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations using CVM-S4 as the starting model (Lee et al., this meeting), and the Broadband 1D velocity model used in the CyberShake 14.2 study. We have ported UCVM to multiple Linux distributions and OS X. Also included in this release is the ability to add small-scale stochastic heterogeneities to extract Cartesian meshes for use in high-frequency ground motion simulations. This tool was built using the C language open-source FFT library, FFTW. The stochastic parameters (Hurst exponent, correlation length, and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio) can be customized by the user. UCVM v14.3.0 also provides visualization scripts for constructing cross-sections, horizontal slices, basin depths, and Vs30 maps. The interface allows researchers to visually review velocity models . Also, UCVM v14.3.0 can extract

  1. Role of digitalis-like substance in the hypertension of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and simulated weightlessness in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamnani, M. B.; Chen, S.; Haddy, F. J.; Yuan, C.; Mo, Z.

    1998-01-01

    We have examined the role of plasma Na+-K+ pump inhibitor (SPI) in the hypertension of streptozotocin induced insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) in reduced renal mass rats. The increase in blood pressure (BP) was associated with an increase in extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), and SPI and a decrease in myocardial Na+,K+ATPase (NKA) activity, suggesting that increased SPI, which inhibits cardiovascular muscle (CVM) cell NKA activity, may be involved in the mechanism of IDDM-hypertension. In a second study, using prolonged suspension resulted in a decrease in cardiac NKA activity, suggesting that cardiovascular deconditioning following space flight might in part result from insufficient SPI.

  2. Virtual Reality Pain Control During Burn Wound Debridement of Combat-Related Burn Injuries Using Robot-Like Arm Mounted VR Goggles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    sessions as part of their recovery. For patients with severe burns, wound care/debridement typically involves cleaning the wound and scrubbing dead skin... Surgical Research (C.V.M., M.M., A.M., K.G., L.L.M., P.A.D.), Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam, Houston, Texas; and University of Washington (H.G.H...Seattle, Washington. Supported by U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research. Hoffman’s time was funded with help from the Gustavus and Louise Pfieffer

  3. UCVM: An Open Source Software Package for Querying and Visualizing 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide foundational data for ground motion simulations that calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) package for both Linux and OS X. This unique framework provides a cohesive way for querying and visualizing 3D models. UCVM v14.3.0, supports many Southern California velocity models including CVM-S4, CVM-H 11.9.1, and CVM-S4.26. The last model was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations on CVM-S4. Recently, UCVM has been used to deliver a prototype of a new 3D model of central California (CCA) also based on full-3D tomographic inversions. UCVM was used to provide initial plots of this model and will be used to deliver CCA to users when the model is publicly released. Visualizing models is also possible with UCVM. Integrated within the platform are plotting utilities that can generate 2D cross-sections, horizontal slices, and basin depth maps. UCVM can also export models in NetCDF format for easy import into IDV and ParaView. UCVM has also been prototyped to export models that are compatible with IRIS' new Earth Model Collaboration (EMC) visualization utility. This capability allows for user-specified horizontal slices and cross-sections to be plotted in the same 3D Earth space. UCVM was designed to help a wide variety of researchers. It is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. It is also used to provide the initial input to SCEC's CyberShake platform. For those interested in specific data points, the software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Also included in the last release was the ability to add small

  4. University teaching hospital and private clinic collaboration to enhance veterinary educational opportunities at Mississippi State University.

    PubMed

    Tyner, C Lee; Harkness, John; Hoblet, Kent; Zumwalt, Lauren; Templeton, Karen; McLaughlin, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The College of Veterinary Medicine at Mississippi State University established a not-for-profit corporation (MSU-CVM-COS) to develop and manage private specialty clinics that would enhance teaching and student learning, increase caseload, and generate revenue. The corporation currently operates the Animal Emergency and Referral Center (AERC) and the Veterinary Specialty Center (VSC) as affiliates of Mississippi State University. These privately managed facilities provide access to advanced medical equipment, enhance clinical service and teaching, and promote the College's One Health initiative.

  5. A Vs30-derived Near-surface Seismic Velocity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, G. P.; Jordan, T. H.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Shallow material properties, S-wave velocity in particular, strongly influence ground motions, so must be accurately characterized for ground-motion simulations. Available near-surface velocity information generally exceeds that which is accommodated by crustal velocity models, such as current versions of the SCEC Community Velocity Model (CVM-S4) or the Harvard model (CVM-H6). The elevation-referenced CVM-H voxel model introduces rasterization artifacts in the near-surface due to course sample spacing, and sample depth dependence on local topographic elevation. To address these issues, we propose a method to supplement crustal velocity models, in the upper few hundred meters, with a model derived from available maps of Vs30 (the average S-wave velocity down to 30 meters). The method is universally applicable to regions without direct measures of Vs30 by using Vs30 estimates from topographic slope (Wald, et al. 2007). In our current implementation for Southern California, the geology-based Vs30 map of Wills and Clahan (2006) is used within California, and topography-estimated Vs30 is used outside of California. Various formulations for S-wave velocity depth dependence, such as linear spline and polynomial interpolation, are evaluated against the following priorities: (a) capability to represent a wide range of soil and rock velocity profile types; (b) smooth transition to the crustal velocity model; (c) ability to reasonably handle poor spatial correlation of Vs30 and crustal velocity data; (d) simplicity and minimal parameterization; and (e) computational efficiency. The favored model includes cubic and square-root depth dependence, with the model extending to a depth of 350 meters. Model parameters are fit to Boore and Joyner's (1997) generic rock profile as well as CVM-4 soil profiles for the NEHRP soil classification types. P-wave velocity and density are derived from S-wave velocity by the scaling laws of Brocher (2005). Preliminary assessment of the new model

  6. The response of hydrophobic organics and potential toxicity in streams to urbanization of watersheds in six metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, W.L.; Goodbred, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in streams along a gradient of urban land-use intensity in and around six metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh - Durham, North Carolina; and Denver - Fort Collins, Colorado, in 2003; and Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee - Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Portland, Oregon, in 2004 to examine relations between percent urban land cover in watersheds and the occurrence, concentrations, and potential toxicity of hydrophobic compounds. Of the 142 endpoints measured in SPMD dialysates, 30 were significantly (alpha = 0.05) related to the percent of urban land cover in the watersheds in at least one metropolitan area. These 30 endpoints included the aggregated measures of the total number of compounds detected and relative toxicity (Microtox?? and P450RGS assays), in addition to the concentrations of 27 individual hydrophobic compounds. The number of compounds detected, P450RGS assay values, and the concentrations of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were significantly related to percent urban land cover in all six metropolitan areas. Pentachloroanisole, the most frequently detected compound, was significantly related to urban land cover in all metropolitan areas except Dallas - Fort Worth. Petrogenic PAHs and dibenzofurans were positively related to percent urban land cover in Atlanta, Raleigh - Durham, Denver, and Milwaukee - Green Bay. Results for other endpoints were much more variable. The number of endpoints significantly related to urban land cover ranged from 6 in Portland to 21 Raleigh-Durham. Based on differences in the number and suite of endpoints related to urban intensity, these results provide evidence of differences in factors governing source strength, transport, and/or fate of hydrophobic compounds in the six metropolitan areas studied. The most consistent and significant results were that bioavailable, aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists increase in streams as basins become

  7. Whole Building Efficiency for Whole Foods: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Doebber, I.; Hirsch, A.

    2013-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnered with Whole Foods Market under the Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program to design and implement a new store in Raleigh, North Carolina. The result was a design with a predicted energy savings of 40% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, and 25% energy savings over their standard design. Measured performance of the as-built building showed that the building did not achieve the predicted performance. A detailed review of the project several months after opening revealed a series of several items in construction and controls items that were not implemented properly and were not fully corrected in the commissioning process.

  8. Some Comparisons of Biplot Display and Pencil-and-Paper E.D.A. Methods. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    03?7 on Riplot Multivariate Graphics% 1 SOME COMPARISONS OF BIPLOT DISPLAY AND PENCIL-AND-PAPER E.D.A. METHODS Christopher Cox K. Ruben Gabriel...Raleigh, North Carolina June 2-4, 1980 This paper presents some comparisons of EDA and biplot display. By pencil-and-paper EDA we mean the methods advo...methods. We assume that the anal- yses in the book are familiar and show how our biplot analyses differ from them. The paper begins with an introduction to

  9. FIBER-TEX 1991: The Fifth Conference on Advanced Engineering Fibers and Textile Structures for Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at a joint NASA/North Carolina State University/DoD/Clemson University/Drexel University conference on Fibers, Textile Technology, and Composites Structures held at the College of Textiles Building on Centennial Campus of North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina on October 15-17, 1991. Conference papers presented information on advanced engineering fibers, textile processes and structures, structural fabric production, mechanics and characteristics of woven composites, pultruded composites, and the latest requirements for the use of textiles in the production of composite materials and structures. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

  10. Dedicated funding arrangements for public transit systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walther, E.S.

    1985-06-01

    Objective of the present research is to examine the origination of financial support programs for public transit which support six systems in five states. In addition to reviewing the process which led to the structures, the study attempts to extract the common and continuing themes which pervade those processes and isolate them for comment. The systems examined in this study are: Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit), Oakland, CA; Capital Area Transit (CAT), Raleigh, NC; Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA), Atlanta, GA; Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (METRO), Seattle, WA; New Jersey Transit Corporation (NJ Transit), Newark, NJ; and, San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI), San Francisco, CA.

  11. Investigation of Aggregates as a Model for Titan's Aerosols Using Microwave Analog Experiments and Radiative Transfer Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Osip, J. E.; Gustafson, B. Å. S.

    1996-09-01

    It has been suggested that the aerosols in the atmosphere of Titan have an aggregate morphology (Bar-Nun et al., 1988: West and Smith, 1991). Previous studies were based on formulations of the Discrete Dipole Approximation to calculate the single scattering properties of such aggregates. These studies were limited in the size of the individual spheres and total size of the aggregate. We present microwave to light analog scattering measurements and radiative transfer calculations for aggregates of 250-500 individual spheres near the Raleigh size limit in a plane parallel atmosphere. The advantages of using microwave analog experiments include the possibility of investigating a broad range of particle sizes and morphologies.

  12. Testing a Wheeled Landing Gear System for the TH-57 Helicopter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    encountered, Figure 2.1 illustrates the roll over angle computation method . 12 Figure 2.1 Static Roll Over Angle 3. Ground Resonance As shown by Coleman... method . TABLE 4.1 VON MISES FAILURE CRITERION X/L STRINGER %YIELD STRESS X/L STRINGER %YIELD STRESS PT. PT. 0.00 1 8.12% 0.50 5 8.12% 0.00 2 89.63...Measurements Group. Inst Div Raleigh, NC Calibrated June 18, 1986 P-3500 Strain Indicator Calibrated July 7, 1986 BAM Is (Two of them) Serial Numbers

  13. A 2D Unified (Non-) Hydrostatic Model of the Atmosphere with a Discontinuous Galerkin Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-07

    hydrostatic equations can be implemented in a unified way and their differences are controlled by a hydrostatic switch parameter δH . As described above...gravitational constant g. σ(x, z) ≥ 0 is the prescribed Raleigh damping parameter and ρσ, Uσ, Θσ the cor- responding fields that realize the non...reflecting boundary within a sponge layer, see section 4. For the parameter switch δH = 1, Eq. (1) describes the non-hydrostatic system, for δH = 0 these

  14. Supernova remnants and the physics of strong shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Donald C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Chevalier, Roger; Cox, Donald P.; Dickel, John R.; Pisarski, Ryszard; Raymond, John; Spangler, Stephen R.; Volk, Heinrich J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a Workshop on Supernova Remnants and the Physics of Strong Shock Waves hosted by North Carolina State University at Raleigh, North Carolina, September 16-18, 1993. The workshop brought together observers, shock theorists, cosmic-ray specialists, and simulators to address the role supernova remnants can play in furthering our understanding of the complex plasma physics associated with collisionless shocks and particle acceleration. Over fifty scientists presented papers on various aspects of supernova remnants. In lieu of a proceedings volume, we present here a synopsis of the workshop, in the form of brief summaries of each workshop session.

  15. HL-20 Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Robert Vess, a lecturer in mechanical and aerospace engineering at North Carolina State Univeristy, Raleigh, N.C., installs the window flange trim on a full-size engineering model of the HL-20 lifting body for the NASA Langley Research Center. The model, which is approximately 29 feet long, was built by NCSU and North Carolina Agricultural and Technical Univeristy, Greensboro, N.C., for studying crew seating arrangements, habitability, equipment layout, crew ingress and egress, and maintance and handling operations. The studies will take place at Langley and at the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.

  16. Dependence of the ion energy on the parameters of the laser pulse and target in the radiation-pressure-dominated regime of acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Echkina, E. Yu.; Inovenkov, I. N.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Pegoraro, F.; Borghesi, M.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2010-01-15

    When the dominant mechanism for ion acceleration is the laser radiation pressure, the conversion efficiency of the laser energy into the energy of relativistic ions may be very high. Stability analysis of a thin plasma layer accelerated by the radiation pressure shows that Raleigh-Taylor instability may enhance plasma inhomogeneity. In the linear stage of instability, the plasma layer decays into separate bunches, which are accelerated by the radiation pressure similarly to clusters accelerated under the action of an electromagnetic wave. The energy and luminosity of an ion beam accelerated in the radiation-pressure-dominated regime are calculated.

  17. FIBER-TEX 1991: The Fifth Conference on Advanced Engineering Fibers and Textile Structures for Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at a joint NASA/North Carolina State University/DoD/Clemson University/Drexel University conference on Fibers, Textile Technology, and Composites Structures held at the College of Textiles Building on Centennial Campus of North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina on October 15-17, 1991. Conference papers presented information on advanced engineering fibers, textile processes and structures, structural fabric production, mechanics and characteristics of woven composites, pultruded composites, and the latest requirements for the use of textiles in the production of composite materials and structures.

  18. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  19. Coordination procedure for radio relay and communication satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckerman, J.

    1973-01-01

    A global rain rate statistic model is used to link microwave propagation statistics to measurable rain statistics in order to develop international telecommunication site criteria for radio relay and communication satellite services that minimize interference between receivers and transmitters. This rain coordination procedure utilizes a rain storm cell size, a statistical description of the rainfall rate within the cell valid for most of the earth's surface, approximations between Raleigh scatter and constancy of precipitation with altitude, and an analytic relation between radar reflectivity and rain rate.

  20. On the measurement of Rayleigh scattering by gases at 6328A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SHARDANAND; Gupta, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of laboratory measurements of Rayleigh scattering and depolarization ratio for atoms and molecules in the gaseous state is described. It is shown that, if the scattered radiation measurements are made at two angles, the normal depolarization ratio cannot be determined meaningfully. However, from scattering measurements, the Rayleigh scattering cross sections can be determined accurately. The measurements of Raleigh scattering from He, H2, Ar, O2, and N2 for unpolarized radiation at 6328A are reported and compared with similar measurements at 6943 and 1215.7A.

  1. Case Studies on the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-01

    September 2002 · NREL/SR-620-32819 Case Studies on the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy S. Gouchoe, V. Everette, and R. Haynes North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute · Battelle · Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 September 2002 · NREL/SR-620-32819Case Studies on the Effecti

  2. An instability in neutron stars at birth.

    PubMed

    Burrows, A; Fryxell, B A

    1992-10-16

    Calculations with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation show that a generic Raleigh-Taylor-like instability occurs in the mantles of nascent neutron stars, that it is possibly violent, and that the standard spherically symmetric models of neutron star birth and supemova explosion may be inadequate. Whether this "convective" instability is pivotal to the supemova mechanism, pulsar magnetic fields, or a host of other important issues that attend stellar collapse remains to be seen, but its existence promises to modify all questions concerning this most energetic of astronomical phenomena.

  3. An instability in neutron stars at birth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Adam; Fryxell, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation show that a generic Raleigh-Taylor-like instability occurs in the mantles of nascent neutron stars, that it is possibly violent, and that the standard spherically symmetric models of neutron star birth and supernova explosion may be inadequate. Whether this 'convective' instability is pivotal to the supernova mechanism, pulsar nagnetic fields, or a host of other important issues that attend stellar collapse remains to be seen, but its existence promises to modify all questions concerning this most energetic of astronomical phenomena.

  4. Air quality case studies report. Final report, October 1993-February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Brodesky, R.

    1995-08-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recognizes that many metropolitan areas are struggling with how to respond adequately to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). Case studies have been prepared to document the processes in the Denver, Raleigh-Durham, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. nonattainment areas. These case studies focus on travel demand and air quality modeling; however, they also include information on regional demographic and economic forecasting, jurisdictional and institutional issues, technical issues and concerns, and the estimated cost of determining conformity.

  5. Metamorphosed melange terrane in the eastern Piedmont of North Carolina.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, J.W.; Blake, D.E.; Wylie, A.S.; Stoddard, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Falls Lake melange is a metamorphosed terrain composed of mafic and ultramafic blocks and pods of diverse shapes and sizes, dispersed without apparent stratigraphic continuity in a matrix of pelitic schist and biotite-muscovite-plagioclase-quartz-gneiss. Textural and structural relationships suggest formation by a combination of sedimentary and tectonic processes, perhaps in the accretionary wedge of a convergent plate margin. The Falls Lake melange and the overlying late Proterozoic to early Cambrian volcanic-arc terrain of the Carolina slate belt, were thrust upon a probable continental terrain of the Raleigh belt before overprinting by late Palaeozoic folding and metamorphism.-L.C.H.

  6. Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, E.; Mas, C.

    1998-11-13

    Presently, the US EPA is constructing a new complex at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina to consolidate its research operations in the Raleigh-Durham area. The National Computer Center (NCC) is currently in the design process and is planned for construction as partof this complex. Implementation of the new technologies can be planned as part of the normal construction process, and full credit for elimination of the conventional technologies can be taken. Several renewable technologies are specified in the current plans for the buildings. The objective of this study is to identify measures that are likely to be both technically and economically feasible.

  7. Annual Technical Symposium (21st). The Engineering Challenge of a Growing Navy: Retrofitting of Bulbous Bows on U.S. Navy Auxiliary and Amphibious Warfare Ships for Fuel Savings,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    AOR 1 WICHITA 7 T-AOT 168 SEALIFT PACIFIC 9 T-AOT 181 POTOMAC 1 LCC 19 BLUE RIDGE 2 LHA 1 TARAWA 5 LKA 113 CHARLESTON 5 LPD 1 RALEIGH 2 LPD 4 AUSTIN...RINCON 3 X 7 Table 4. Continued Fails to meet Classification/ No. of ships Criteria from page 3 Hull Number Name in Class 1 2 3 4 AR 5 VULCAN 4 X X T...Drawings Inspections Field Liaison Prorated Drydocking Costs Subtotal $322,000 Bulb Materials (Steel plating, structural sections, etc.) $45,000 Bulb "Nose

  8. New York City Police Department Automated Fuel Monitoring System. Volume II. Documentation Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-16

    1840 Victory Blvd. Raleigh, NC 27610 P.O. Box 5005 (919) 833-2250 Gendale, CA 91201 (213) 240-2540 E.J. Ward, Inc. Tokheim Corporation 8801 Tradeway...1600 Wabash Ave. San Antonio, TX 78217 Fort Wayne, IN 46801 (512) 824-7383 (219) 423-2552 E.S.I. Tuthill Corporation 1841 E. 3rd St. Fill-Rite Division...reports, and generally run the system. 1) 7wo (2) Cathode Ray Tube Terminals each with 1920 character display for use with IBM S/370 or S/370 comnatible

  9. Loss of col8a1a Function during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Results in Congenital Vertebral Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Ryan S.; Wilm, Thomas; Smith, Jeff; Bagnat, Michel; Dale, Rodney M.; Topczewski, Jacek; Johnson, Stephen L.; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) occur in 1 in 1,000 live births and in many cases can cause spinal deformities, such as scoliosis, and result in disability and distress of affected individuals. Many severe forms of the disease, such as spondylocostal dystostosis, are recessive monogenic traits affecting somitogenesis, however the etiologies of the majority of CVM cases remain undetermined. Here we demonstrate that morphological defects of the notochord in zebrafish can generate congenital-type spine defects. We characterize three recessive zebrafish leviathan/col8a1a mutant alleles (m531, vu41, vu105) that disrupt collagen type VIII alpha1a (col8a1a), and cause folding of the embryonic notochord and consequently adult vertebral column malformations. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a transient loss of col8a1a function or inhibition of Lysyl oxidases with drugs during embryogenesis was sufficient to generate vertebral fusions and scoliosis in the adult spine. Using periodic imaging of individual zebrafish, we correlate focal notochord defects of the embryo with vertebral malformations (VM) in the adult. Finally, we show that bends and kinks in the notochord can lead to aberrant apposition of osteoblasts normally confined to well-segmented areas of the developing vertebral bodies. Our results afford a novel mechanism for the formation of VM, independent of defects of somitogenesis, resulting from aberrant bone deposition at regions of misshapen notochord tissue. PMID:24333517

  10. Veterinary public health in a problem-based learning curriculum at the Western University of Health Sciences.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Peggy L; Trevejo, Rosalie T; Tkalcic, Suzana

    2008-01-01

    As detailed in the Association of Schools of Public Health / Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges 2007 Joint Symposium on Veterinary Public Health, veterinary public health (VPH) can no longer be viewed as a unique sub-specialty of veterinary medicine. Rather, its practice pervades nearly every aspect of the veterinary profession, regardless of whether the practitioner is engaged in small-animal, large-animal, research, corporate, or military practice. In congruence with the practice of VPH, the teaching of VPH should also pervade nearly every aspect of veterinary education. Accordingly, at Western University of Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (WU-CVM), public health is not simply taught as an individual course but, rather, is interwoven into almost every aspect of the curriculum, continually emphasizing the relevance of this discipline to the practice of veterinary medicine. This article outlines the teaching philosophy of WU-CVM, provides an overview of the curriculum, and describes the integral nature of public health throughout all four years of the educational program.

  11. Assessing Conformance with Benford’s Law: Goodness-Of-Fit Tests and Simultaneous Confidence Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Lesperance, M.; Reed, W. J.; Stephens, M. A.; Tsao, C.; Wilton, B.

    2016-01-01

    Benford’s Law is a probability distribution for the first significant digits of numbers, for example, the first significant digits of the numbers 871 and 0.22 are 8 and 2 respectively. The law is particularly remarkable because many types of data are considered to be consistent with Benford’s Law and scientists and investigators have applied it in diverse areas, for example, diagnostic tests for mathematical models in Biology, Genomics, Neuroscience, image analysis and fraud detection. In this article we present and compare statistically sound methods for assessing conformance of data with Benford’s Law, including discrete versions of Cramér-von Mises (CvM) statistical tests and simultaneous confidence intervals. We demonstrate that the common use of many binomial confidence intervals leads to rejection of Benford too often for truly Benford data. Based on our investigation, we recommend that the CvM statistic Ud2, Pearson’s chi-square statistic and 100(1 − α)% Goodman’s simultaneous confidence intervals be computed when assessing conformance with Benford’s Law. Visual inspection of the data with simultaneous confidence intervals is useful for understanding departures from Benford and the influence of sample size. PMID:27018999

  12. Assessing Conformance with Benford's Law: Goodness-Of-Fit Tests and Simultaneous Confidence Intervals.

    PubMed

    Lesperance, M; Reed, W J; Stephens, M A; Tsao, C; Wilton, B

    2016-01-01

    Benford's Law is a probability distribution for the first significant digits of numbers, for example, the first significant digits of the numbers 871 and 0.22 are 8 and 2 respectively. The law is particularly remarkable because many types of data are considered to be consistent with Benford's Law and scientists and investigators have applied it in diverse areas, for example, diagnostic tests for mathematical models in Biology, Genomics, Neuroscience, image analysis and fraud detection. In this article we present and compare statistically sound methods for assessing conformance of data with Benford's Law, including discrete versions of Cramér-von Mises (CvM) statistical tests and simultaneous confidence intervals. We demonstrate that the common use of many binomial confidence intervals leads to rejection of Benford too often for truly Benford data. Based on our investigation, we recommend that the CvM statistic Ud(2), Pearson's chi-square statistic and 100(1 - α)% Goodman's simultaneous confidence intervals be computed when assessing conformance with Benford's Law. Visual inspection of the data with simultaneous confidence intervals is useful for understanding departures from Benford and the influence of sample size.

  13. Economic amenity values of wildlife: Six case studies in Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Elwood L.; Carline, Robert; Guldin, Richard W.; Cordell, H. Ken

    1993-09-01

    The travel clost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM) were used to evaluate the economic value of six different ecotourism activities involving observation of wildlife in Pennsylvania. The six activities were: catch-and-release trout fishing; catch-and-release trout fishing with fly-fishing equipment; viewing waterfowl; watching elk; observing migration flights of raptors; and seeing live wildlife in an environmental education setting. TCM results provided significant statistical relationships between level of use and travel costs for the two types of trout fishing activities. CVM provided estimates of consumer surplus for the other four sites. The consumers' surplus value (1988 dollars) of all six activities to participants amounted to a total of more than 1.28 million annually—twice the total out-of-pocket expenditures of approximately 640,000 spent to visit the sites. The economic amenity values of the six activities compare favorably with similarly derived values in other studies for hunting, fishing, hiking, and backpacking in dispersed recreation environments and wilderness areas in western states.

  14. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J. Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between 42 and 57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay.

  15. Estimating irrigation water demand in the Moroccan Drâa Valley using contingent valuation.

    PubMed

    Storm, Hugo; Heckelei, Thomas; Heidecke, Claudia

    2011-10-01

    Irrigation water management is crucial for agricultural production and livelihood security in Morocco as in many other parts of the world. For the implementation of an effective water management, knowledge about farmers' demand for irrigation water is crucial to assess reactions to water pricing policy, to establish a cost-benefit analysis of water supply investments or to determine the optimal water allocation between different users. Previously used econometric methods providing this information often have prohibitive data requirements. In this paper, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) is adjusted to derive a demand function for irrigation water along farmers' willingness to pay for one additional unit of surface water or groundwater. An application in the Middle Drâa Valley in Morocco shows that the method provides reasonable results in an environment with limited data availability. For analysing the censored survey data, the Least Absolute Deviation estimator was found to be a more suitable alternative to the Tobit model as errors are heteroscedastic and non-normally distributed. The adjusted CVM to derive demand functions is especially attractive for water scarce countries under limited data availability.

  16. Ambient Noise Tomography of Southern California Images Dipping San Andreas-Parallel Structure and Low-Velocity Salton Trough Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barak, S.; Klemperer, S. L.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise tomography (ANT) images the entire crust but does not depend on the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Our ANT high-resolution 3D velocity model of southern California uses 849 broadband stations, vastly more than previous studies, and four years of data, 1997-1998, 2007, and 2011, chosen to include our own broadband Salton Seismic Imaging Project, a 40-station transect across the Salton Trough, as well as other campaign stations in both Mexico and the U.S.A., and permanent stations. Our shear-wave model has 0.05° x 0.05° lateral and 1 km vertical blocks. We used the Harvard Community Velocity Model (CVM-H) as the initial model for the inversion. We show significant differences relative to the CVM-H model, especially in the lower crust and upper mantle. We observe prominent low-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle under the Salton Buttes and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields, indicating high-temperatures and possibly partial-melt. Similar low-velocity zones have been previously observed along the Gulf of California. We also observe vertical to gradually dipping lateral velocity contrasts in the lower crust under the southern part of the San Andreas Fault. The east to northeast dip may represent crustal fabric sheared by movement of the Pacific plate under the North American plate prior to the initiation of transform motion.

  17. A missense mutation in the bovine SLC35A3 gene, encoding a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter, causes complex vertebral malformation

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Bo; Horn, Per; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Emøke; Petersen, Anette H.; Holm, Lars-Erik; Nielsen, Vivi H.; Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bendixen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The extensive use of a limited number of elite bulls in cattle breeding can lead to rapid spread of recessively inherited disorders. A recent example is the globally distributed syndrome Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM), which is characterized by misshapen and fused vertebrae around the cervico-thoracic junction. Here, we show that CVM is caused by a mutation in the Golgi-resident nucleotide-sugar transporter encoded by SLC35A3. Thus, the disease showed complete cosegregation with the mutation in a homozygous state, and proteome patterns indicated abnormal protein glycosylation in tissues of affected animals. In addition, a yeast mutant that is deficient in the transport of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into its Golgi lumen can be rescued by the wild-type SLC35A3 gene, but not by the mutated gene. These results provide the first demonstration of a genetic disorder associated with a defective SLC35A3 gene, and reveal a new mechanism for malformation of the vertebral column caused by abnormal nucleotide-sugar transport into the Golgi apparatus. PMID:16344554

  18. Multi-view L2-SVM and its multi-view core vector machine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengquan; Chung, Fu-lai; Wang, Shitong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a novel L2-SVM based classifier Multi-view L2-SVM is proposed to address multi-view classification tasks. The proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier does not have any bias in its objective function and hence has the flexibility like μ-SVC in the sense that the number of the yielded support vectors can be controlled by a pre-specified parameter. The proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier can make full use of the coherence and the difference of different views through imposing the consensus among multiple views to improve the overall classification performance. Besides, based on the generalized core vector machine GCVM, the proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier is extended into its GCVM version MvCVM which can realize its fast training on large scale multi-view datasets, with its asymptotic linear time complexity with the sample size and its space complexity independent of the sample size. Our experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier for small scale multi-view datasets and the proposed MvCVM classifier for large scale multi-view datasets.

  19. [Sincerity of effort: isokinetic evaluation of knee extension].

    PubMed

    Colombo, R; Demaiti, G; Sartorio, F; Orlandini, D; Vercelli, S; Ferriero, G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find a reliable method to evaluate the sincerity of the muscular maximal effort performed in a dynamometric isokinetic test of knee flexion-extension. The coefficient of variation of the peak torque (CV) and 3 new indices were analysed: (1) the average coefficient of variation calculated on the complete peak torque curve (CVM); (2) the slope of the regression line in an endurance test (PRR); (3) the correlation coefficient of the peak torques in the same endurance test (CCR). Twenty healthy subjects underwent assessment in two different trials, maximal (MX) and 50% submaximal (SMX), with 20 minutes of rest between trials. Each trial consisted of 4 tests, each of 3 repetitions, at angular speed of 30, 180, 30, and 180 degrees/s, respectively, and 1 test of 15 repetitions at 240 degrees/s. Our findings confirmed the ability of CV to detect a high percentage of sincere efforts: at 30 degrees/s Sensibility (Sns)=100% and Specificity (Spc)=70%; at 180 degrees/s Sns=75%, Spc=95%. The 3 new indices here proposed showed high characteristics of Sns and Spc, generally better than those of CV. CVM showed at 180 degrees/s Sns=90% and Spc=100%, while at 30 degrees/s Sns=90%, Spc=75%. PRR was the best index identifying all the efforts, except one (Sns=100%, Spc=95%). The CCR coefficient showed Sns and Spc values both of 90%.

  20. Vaginal delivery of paclitaxel via nanoparticles with non-mucoadhesive surfaces suppresses cervical tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Yu, Tao; Wang, Ying-Ying; Lai, Samuel K.; Zeng, Qi; Miao, Bolong; Tang, Benjamin C.; Simons, Brian W.; Ensign, Laura; Liu, Guanshu; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; Juang, Chih-Yin; Mert, Olcay; Wood, Joseph; Fu, Jie; McMahon, Michael T.; Wu, T.-C.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hanes, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the cervicovaginal tract using nanoparticles may reduce adverse side effects associated with systemic chemotherapy, while improving outcomes for early stage cervical cancer. We hypothesize drug-loaded nanoparticles must rapidly penetrate cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) lining the female reproductive tract to effectively deliver their payload to underlying diseased tissues in a uniform and sustained manner. We develop paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles, composed entirely of polymers used in FDA-approved products, which rapidly penetrate human CVM and provide sustained drug release with minimal burst effect. We further employ a mouse model with aggressive cervical tumors established in the cervicovaginal tract to compare paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (conventional particles , or CP) and similar particles coated with Pluronic® F127 (mucus-penetrating particles , or MPP). CP are mucoadhesive and, thus, aggregated in mucus, while MPP achieve more uniform distribution and close proximity to cervical tumors. Paclitaxel-MPP suppress tumor growth more effectively and prolong median survival of mice compared to free paclitaxel or paclitaxel-CP. Histopathological studies demonstrate minimal toxicity to the cervicovaginal epithelia, suggesting paclitaxel-MPP may be safe for intravaginal use. These results demonstrate for the first time the in vivo advantages of polymer-based MPP for treatment of tumors localized to a mucosal surface. PMID:24339398

  1. Seasonal determinations of algal virus decay rates reveal overwintering in a temperate freshwater pond.

    PubMed

    Long, Andrew M; Short, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    To address questions about algal virus persistence (i.e., continued existence) in the environment, rates of decay of infectivity for two viruses that infect Chlorella-like algae, ATCV-1 and CVM-1, and a virus that infects the prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina parva, CpV-BQ1, were estimated from in situ incubations in a temperate, seasonally frozen pond. A series of experiments were conducted to estimate rates of decay of infectivity in all four seasons with incubations lasting 21 days in spring, summer and autumn, and 126 days in winter. Decay rates observed across this study were relatively low compared with previous estimates obtained for other algal viruses, and ranged from 0.012 to 11% h(-1). Overall, the virus CpV-BQ1 decayed most rapidly whereas ATCV-1 decayed most slowly, but for all viruses the highest decay rates were observed during the summer and the lowest were observed during the winter. Furthermore, the winter incubations revealed the ability of each virus to overwinter under ice as ATCV-1, CVM-1 and CpV-BQ1 retained up to 48%, 19% and 9% of their infectivity after 126 days, respectively. The observed resilience of algal viruses in a seasonally frozen freshwater pond provides a mechanism that can support the maintenance of viral seed banks in nature. However, the high rates of decay observed in the summer demonstrate that virus survival and therefore environmental persistence can be subject to seasonal bottlenecks.

  2. Progress and perspective of TBX6 gene in congenital vertebral malformations

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Yuzhi; Liu, Zhenlei; Liu, Sen; Zhu, Qiankun; Qiu, Guixing; Huang, Shishu; Giampietro, Philip F.; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformation is a series of significant health problems affecting a large number of populations. It may present as an isolated condition or as a part of an underlying syndromes occurring with other malformations and/or clinical features. Disruption of the genesis of paraxial mesoderm, somites or axial bones can result in spinal deformity. In the course of somitogenesis, the segmentation clock and the wavefront are the leading factors during the entire process in which TBX6 gene plays an important role. TBX6 is a member of the T-box gene family, and its important pathogenicity in spinal deformity has been confirmed. Several TBX6 gene variants and novel pathogenic mechanisms have been recently revealed, and will likely have significant impact in understanding the genetic basis for CVM. In this review, we describe the role which TBX6 plays during human spine development including its interaction with other key elements during the process of somitogenesis. We then systematically review the association between TBX6 gene variants and CVM associated phenotypes, highlighting an important and emerging role for TBX6 and human malformations. PMID:27437870

  3. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between $42 and $57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay.

  4. Exploring the use of tablet PCs in veterinary medical education: opportunity or obstacle?

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; van der Merwe, Deon

    2014-01-01

    A tablet PC is a laptop computer with a touch screen and a digital pen or stylus that can be used for handwritten notes and drawings. The use of tablet PCs has been investigated in many disciplines such as engineering, mathematics, science, and education. The purpose of this article is to explore student and faculty attitudes toward and experiences with tablet PCs 6 years after the implementation of a tablet PC program in the College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at Kansas State University (K-State). This study reports that the use of tablet PCs has enhanced students' learning experiences through learner-interface interaction, learner-content interaction, learner-instructor interaction, and learner-learner interaction. This study also identifies digital distraction as the major negative experience with tablet PCs during class time. The tablet PC program provides CVM faculty the potential to pursue technology integration strategies that support expected learning outcomes and provides students the potential to develop self-monitoring and self-discipline skills that support learning with digital technologies.

  5. A missense mutation in the bovine SLC35A3 gene, encoding a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter, causes complex vertebral malformation.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Bo; Horn, Per; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Emøke; Petersen, Anette H; Holm, Lars-Erik; Nielsen, Vivi H; Agerholm, Jørgen S; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bendixen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The extensive use of a limited number of elite bulls in cattle breeding can lead to rapid spread of recessively inherited disorders. A recent example is the globally distributed syndrome Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM), which is characterized by misshapen and fused vertebrae around the cervico-thoracic junction. Here, we show that CVM is caused by a mutation in the Golgi-resident nucleotide-sugar transporter encoded by SLC35A3. Thus, the disease showed complete cosegregation with the mutation in a homozygous state, and proteome patterns indicated abnormal protein glycosylation in tissues of affected animals. In addition, a yeast mutant that is deficient in the transport of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into its Golgi lumen can be rescued by the wild-type SLC35A3 gene, but not by the mutated gene. These results provide the first demonstration of a genetic disorder associated with a defective SLC35A3 gene, and reveal a new mechanism for malformation of the vertebral column caused by abnormal nucleotide-sugar transport into the Golgi apparatus.

  6. Impact of Perceived Importance of Ecosystem Services and Stated Financial Constraints on Willingness to Pay for Riparian Meadow Restoration in Flanders (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wendy Y.; Aertsens, Joris; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven; De Nocker, Leo

    2014-08-01

    The strategic importance of ecosystem service valuation as an operational basis for policy decisions on natural restoration has been increasingly recognized in order to align the provision of ecosystem services with the expectation of human society. The contingent valuation method (CVM) is widely used to quantify various ecosystem services. However, two areas of concern arise: (1) whether people value specific functional ecosystem services and overlook some intrinsic aspects of natural restoration, and (2) whether people understand the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules given in the contingent scenarios. Using a peri-urban riparian meadow restoration project in Flanders, Belgium as a case, we explored the impacts of residents' perceived importance of various ecosystem services and stated financial constraints on their willingness-to-pay for the proposed restoration project employing the CVM. The results indicated that people tended to value all the benefits of riparian ecosystem restoration concurrently, although they accorded different importances to each individual category of ecosystem services. A longer payment scheme can help the respondents to think more about the flow of ecosystem services into future generations. A weak temporal embedding effect can be detected, which might be attributed to respondents' concern about current financial constraints, rather than financial bindings associated with their income and perceived future financial constraints. This demonstrates the multidimensionality of respondents' financial concerns in CV. This study sheds light on refining future CV studies, especially with regard to public expectation of ecosystem services and the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules.

  7. Venous malformation and haemangioma: differential diagnosis, diagnosis, natural history and consequences.

    PubMed

    Lee, B B

    2013-03-01

    Venous malformation (VM) is the most common form of congenital vascular malformation (CVM). VM presents at birth as an inborn vascular defect and never disappears/regresses spontaneously through the rest of life; it will continue to grow slowly at a rate that is proportional to the growth rate of the body. Haemangioma is not a vascular malformation but one of the vascular tumours originating from the endothelial cells; it develops after birth mostly in the infantile/neonatal period with a distinctive growth cycle: a proliferation phase of early rapid growth followed by an involutional phase of slow regression. Although the vascular malformation and vascular tumour belong to the 'vascular anomaly' together, both conditions are fundamentally different not only in their anatomical, histological and pathophysiological findings but also in their clinical courses. Therefore, an appropriate differential diagnosis of the VM is mandated not only from other kinds of CVMs but also from 'genuine' haemangioma. Appropriate diagnosis and assessment of VMs can be made based on clinical presentation and a proper combination of basic non-invasive studies in general but the presence of a mixed lesion involving other types of CVM lesions and the type of VM lesion, extratruncular and truncular, will dictate the need for further work-up with additional non- to less-invasive study or angiography. Otherwise, angiography is usually reserved for therapeutic planning and treatment.

  8. Radiological Indicators of Bone Age Assessment in Cephalometric Images. Review

    PubMed Central

    Durka-Zając, Magdalena; Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Derwich, Marcin; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Łoboda, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to assess bone age accurately is important and allows to diagnose the patient correctly and to plan orthodontic treatment appropriately. The aim of the work is to present views of different authors on the subject of using cephalometric images to determine bone age and its significance for conducting appropriate orthodontic treatment. Publications from the PubMed medical database were analyzed. Search criteria: bone age assessment, CVM method. Ultimately, 36 papers out of 1354 publications were selected. The research of many authors confirms the usefulness of various methods using cephalometric images to assess skeletal age. Currently, the CVM method devised by Baccetti et al. is the most frequently mentioned one in literature. It seems that bone age assessment methods based on evaluating the morphological structure of the cervical vertebrae in cephalometric images can clearly differentiate skeletal maturity in children regardless of their race or sex. Bearing in mind the constant technological progress in medicine and stomatology, bone age assessment methods need to be perfected in order to alleviate their impact on the patient as much as possible. PMID:27536337

  9. Invertebrate response to changes in streamflow hydraulics in two urban areas in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Rodney R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Stream hydrology is foundational to aquatic ecosystems and has been shown to be a structuring element for fish and invertebrates. The relations among urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrate communities were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment Program by using measures of stream hydraulics in two areas of the United States. Specifically, the hypothesis that the effects of urbanization on streamflow and aquatic biota are transferable across geographic regions was tested. Data from sites in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Milwaukee–Green Bay, Wisconsin, were compared and indicate that increasing urbanization has an effect on hydraulic characteristics (Reynolds number, shear stress, and stream power for example) in each metropolitan area, though limited commonality of significant correlations was noted between areas. Correspondence of significant correlations between invertebrate and hydraulic metrics between study areas also was limited. The links between urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrates could be seen only in the Raleigh data. Connections among these three elements in the Milwaukee–Green Bay data were not clear and likely were obscured by antecedent land cover. Observed biotic differences due to hydrology and urbanization characteristics are not similar between geographic regions.

  10. Publish or Perish: The Case of Thomas Harriot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, Owen

    2007-12-01

    In 1585 the 25-year old Thomas Harriot set foot on Roanoke Island, just inside the barrier island of what is now North Carolina but what was then called Virginia. Harriot, under the patronage of Sir Walter Raleigh, was the cartographer and navigational expert on a colonizing expedition, and he was perhaps the first scientist to take up temporary residence in North America. On his return to Britain he published, at the insistence of Raleigh, a now quite rare promotional pamphlet, A briefe and true report of the New Found Land of Virginia (1588). This was the only thing he published in his lifetime, so his reputation virtually perished. Centuries later his 10,000 pages of manuscripts began to be investigated, so we now know that he anticipated Galileo in the discovery of sunspots, though his telescopic drawings of the moon were strongly influenced by what he saw in Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. Harriot corresponded briefly with Kepler, and had he shared his optical observations, the law of refraction might have become available much earlier. Harriot died in 1621 of cancer of the nose, possibly exacerbated by a habit he helped to import from America, "drinking” tobacco fumes.

  11. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. )

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

  12. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 1, Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L.

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

  13. Muco-inert nanoparticle probes and drug carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-Ying

    2011-12-01

    Mucus coats the exposed surfaces of the eyes and respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI) and cervicovaginal (CV) tracts, and protects mucosal tissues against pathogens and other foreign particulates. Most foreign particles are effectively trapped in mucus through steric and adhesive interactions, and are rapidly eliminated by different mucus clearance mechanisms. Nevertheless, mucus also immobilizes conventional drug and gene carriers, thereby precluding sustained and targeted drug delivery to mucosal sites. Synthetic particles engineered with muco-inert surfaces, and some viruses, can readily penetrate mucus gel, and may serve as useful probes to understand the biophysical barrier properties of mucus. Improved understanding of the mucus barrier could provide insights into methods to enhance drug and gene delivery at mucosal surfaces, as well as understanding the occasional failure of mucus to protect against infection or injury. Recently, muco-inert nanoparticles were developed by conjugating a dense layer of low MW polyethylene glycol to particle surfaces. Since they are slowed only by steric obstruction from the mucus mesh, various sized muco-inert nanoparticles can be used to probe the microstructure and microrheology of mucus. I applied this technique to determine whether the mucus barrier may be altered by exogenous factors, including the presence of detergent, pH changes and synthetic nanoparticles. I first studied the microrheology of native human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), and found that CVM behaves as a viscoelastic solid at length scales ≥ 1 microm (preventing large particles from diffusing through) but as a viscoelastic liquid at length scales up to at least 500 nm (allowing smaller particles to diffuse through low viscosity fluid-filled pores). Treating CVM with a nonionic detergent, N9, shifted the viscoelastic liquid-solid transition point to < 200 nm, suggesting hydrophobic interactions between mucin fibers play an important role in regulating the

  14. A new EEG measure using the 1D cluster variation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maren, Alianna J.; Szu, Harold H.

    2015-05-01

    A new information measure, drawing on the 1-D Cluster Variation Method (CVM), describes local pattern distributions (nearest-neighbor and next-nearest neighbor) in a binary 1-D vector in terms of a single interaction enthalpy parameter h for the specific case where the fractions of elements in each of two states are the same (x1=x2=0.5). An example application of this method would be for EEG interpretation in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs), especially in the frontier of invariant biometrics based on distinctive and invariant individual responses to stimuli containing an image of a person with whom there is a strong affiliative response (e.g., to a person's grandmother). This measure is obtained by mapping EEG observed configuration variables (z1, z2, z3 for next-nearest neighbor triplets) to h using the analytic function giving h in terms of these variables at equilibrium. This mapping results in a small phase space region of resulting h values, which characterizes local pattern distributions in the source data. The 1-D vector with equal fractions of units in each of the two states can be obtained using the method for transforming natural images into a binarized equi-probability ensemble (Saremi & Sejnowski, 2014; Stephens et al., 2013). An intrinsically 2-D data configuration can be mapped to 1-D using the 1-D Peano-Hilbert space-filling curve, which has demonstrated a 20 dB lower baseline using the method compared with other approaches (cf. SPIE ICA etc. by Hsu & Szu, 2014). This CVM-based method has multiple potential applications; one near-term one is optimizing classification of the EEG signals from a COTS 1-D BCI baseball hat. This can result in a convenient 3-D lab-tethered EEG, configured in a 1-D CVM equiprobable binary vector, and potentially useful for Smartphone wireless display. Longer-range applications include interpreting neural assembly activations via high-density implanted soft, cellular-scale electrodes.

  15. Citizens' distrust of government and their protest responses in a contingent valuation study of urban heritage trees in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy Y; Hua, Junyi

    2015-05-15

    Protest response is a common aspect of contingent valuation (CV) studies, which has attracted growing attention from scholars worldwide. Distrust of government, understood as one of the major reasons for protest response, has been prevalent across transitional China experiencing dramatic changes in its economy, society and natural environment. Citizen distrust of government would significantly hinder the efficiency and validity of the contingent valuation method (CVM) application focusing on the provision of public environmental and ecological goods in China, as a large proportion of protest responses might be induced. Hitherto little has been done to link residents' trust in government to their environmental behaviors in developing and transitional economies like China where CVM has been increasingly applied to generate meaningful and reliable information for integrating both ecological and socioeconomic perspectives into policy decisions. This study aims to investigate the discrepancies between protest responses induced by distrust of government and non-protest responses, using the contingent valuation of heritage trees in Guangzhou as a case. The combination of a set of debriefing questions and several attitudinal questions is employed in the questionnaire. Based on logit analysis and discriminant analysis, it has been found that protestors who distrust government and non-protestors share similar salient values associated with urban heritage trees in Guangzhou, especially their distinctive historical and cultural values, in comparison with ordinary urban trees. Residents with low familiarity with heritage trees (who rarely visit sites with heritage trees, know little about management and conservation techniques, and consider present management to be ineffective) are likely to act as protesters with the "distrust of government" belief. Only if more opportunities are provided for residents to obtain access to urban heritage tree sites, more information (about

  16. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as "active transportation"), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9-23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5-6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5-38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15-59) premature deaths potentially could be avoided if the entire

  17. Tropical Ice Core Isotopes Reveal Changes in Convection from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. R.; Gedzelman, S. D.

    2002-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of water vapors over the tropical oceans has been measured. Samples were collected at three locations: 8.4N 167.6E, 16.0N 97.2W, and 24.5N 81.6W over 3 to 8 week periods two to three times per day. Isotope values varied from -10 to -24 per mil. Dew points varied from 20 to 28 degrees centigrade. The lowering of isotope values below isotopic equilibrium with seawater was caused by exposure of air parcels to rainfall upwind of the sampling location. The higher the intensity and the better the organization of tropical rain systems the lower were the isotope values. This isotopic variation is transferred to tropical ice cores such as those in the Andes Mountains. Raleigh Distillation model curves along the moist adiabat show how isotopes in water vapor and precipitation vary from the ocean surface to the ice core site. Isotope values of precipitation today at the ice core site are lower than those predicted from the Raleigh model assuming that the oxygen isotopic composition of the starting vapor was in near isotopic equilibrium with the sea surface. Simply by lowering the isotopic composition of water vapor over the oceans in the source region it is possible to achieve overlap of model results with measured values. The average oxygen isotope value of ice over the range of present-day measured temperatures matches the model-calculated values if we assume that the initial oxygen isotope value for the source water vapor is about -17 per mil. The average oxygen isotope value of ice at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) over the range of estimated temperatures overlaps Raleigh model calculated values. The closer proximity of this data field to the model calculated values can be explained by a higher oxygen isotope value for the source water vapor. Less intense and less organized convection over the tropical oceans at LGM would have resulted in higher oxygen isotope values for the source vapors. In addition, examination of cloud top echoes from

  18. Bone density assessment for evaluation of gender differences in cervical vertebral maturation: A computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Usha, K.; Baskaranarayanan, Balashanmugam; Nagarajan, D.; Selvarani, R.; Vijjaykanth, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method is a vital tool for assessing the biological maturation of the orthodontic patient to evaluate the amount of mandibular bone growth left. Aim: To assess and visualize the cervical vertebral morphology (bone density) of orthodontic patients of the age group 9,16,27 years. Material and Methods: Twenty four subjects with age group of 9,16,27 who were randomly selected and subjected to 3d tomographic study to estimate the biological age of the orthodontic patients by analyzing c1 c2 and c3 vertebrae. Result: The results showed that bone density of males is lesser than females in 9 and 16 years, whereas they have more bone density than females in 27 years. Conclusion: The study provides qualitative method of assessing the biological age of the patient by using images of cervical vertebrae by three dimensional approach. Hence it can be useful for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment plan. PMID:27829750

  19. Effect of five lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Spur-gear surface fatigue tests were conducted with five lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The lot of gears was divided into five groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants are classified as either a synthetic hydrocarbon, mineral oil, or ester-based lubricant. All five lubricants have imilar viscosity and pressure-viscosity coefficients. A pentaerythritol base stock without sufficient antiwear additives produced a surface fatigue life pproximately 22 percent that of the same base stock with chlorine and phosphorus type additives. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears tested. No statistical difference in the 10-percent surface fatigue life was produced with four of the five lubricants.

  20. Estimating the economic benefits of maintaining residential lake levels at an irrigation reservoir: A contingent valuation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John; Smith, Adam; Huszar, Paul

    2005-08-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) was used to estimate homeowners' willingness to pay for water leasing to maintain stable lake levels at an irrigation reservoir in a residential neighborhood. A binary logit model was used to analyze households' voter referendum responses for maintaining the lake level. The median willingness to pay (WTP) was found to be 368 per year for lakefront residents and 59 per year for off-lake residents. The median WTP for lakefront residents was significantly different from off-lake residents at the 90% confidence level. Using the median WTP for lakefront and nonlakefront residents, we found that the increase in homeowner association fees would generate approximately $43,000, enough money to lease sufficient water to reach the target higher lake level in a normal water year.

  1. Estimating the economic benefits of maintaining residential lake levels at an irrigation reservoir: A contingent valuation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John; Smith, Adam; Huszar, Paul

    2005-08-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) was used to estimate homeowners' willingness to pay for water leasing to maintain stable lake levels at an irrigation reservoir in a residential neighborhood. A binary logit model was used to analyze households' voter referendum responses for maintaining the lake level. The median willingness to pay (WTP) was found to be $368 per year for lakefront residents and $59 per year for off-lake residents. The median WTP for lakefront residents was significantly different from off-lake residents at the 90% confidence level. Using the median WTP for lakefront and nonlakefront residents, we found that the increase in homeowner association fees would generate approximately $43,000, enough money to lease sufficient water to reach the target higher lake level in a normal water year.

  2. Pair correlations and structure factor of the J1-J2 square lattice Ising model in an external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Alejandra I.; Stariolo, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    We compute the structure factor of the J1-J2 Ising model in an external field on the square lattice within the Cluster Variation Method. We use a four point plaquette approximation, which is the minimal one able to capture phases with broken orientational order in real space, like the recently reported Ising-nematic phase in the model. The analysis of different local maxima in the structure factor allows us to track the different phases and phase transitions against temperature and external field. Although the nematic susceptibility is not directly related to the structure factor, we show that because of the close relationship between the nematic order parameter and the structure factor, the latter shows unambiguous signatures of the presence of a nematic phase, in agreement with results from direct minimization of a variational free energy. The disorder variety of the model is identified and the possibility that the CVM four point approximation be exact on the disorder variety is discussed.

  3. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations

  4. Boundary lubrication of formulated C-ethers in air to 300 C. 2: Organic acid additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Friction and wear measurements were made on CVM M-50 steel lubricated with three C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) formulations in dry and moist air. Results were compared to those obtained with a formulated Type 2 ester and the C-ether base fluid. A ball-on-disk sliding friction apparatus was used. Experimental conditions were a 1-kilogram load, a 17-meter/minute surface speed, and a 25 to 300 C (77 to 572 F) disk temperature range. The three C-ether formulations yielded better boundary lubricating characteristics than the Type 2 ester under most test conditions. All C-ether formulations exhibited higher friction coefficients than the ester from 150 to 300 C (302 to 572 F) and similar or lower values from 25 to 150 C (77 to 302 F).

  5. Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricant was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricants tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwear additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt % sulfur and 0.1 wt % phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

  6. Estimating rural households' willingness to pay for health insurance.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ali; Willis, Ken; Taghvaei, Ali Akbar; Rafeian, Mojtaba

    2004-10-01

    In many developing countries limited health budgets are a serious problem. Innovative ways to raise funds for the provision of health services, for example, through health care insurance, have a high priority. Health care insurance for rural households shields such patients from unexpected high costs of care. However, there are questions about whether, and how much, rural households are willing to pay to purchase such insurance, as well as the factors determining willingness to pay. In recent years the Iranian government has tried to improve health and medical services to rural areas through a health insurance program. This study was conducted to estimate rural households' demand and willingness to pay for health insurance. A contingent valuation method (CVM) was applied using an iterative bidding game technique. Data has been collected from a sample of 2,139 households across the country.

  7. Integration of structural health monitoring solutions onto commercial aircraft via the Federal Aviation Administration structural health monitoring research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindell, Paul; Doyle, Jon; Roach, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a research program in structural health monitoring (SHM) in 2011. The program's goal was to understand the technical gaps of implementing SHM on commercial aircraft and the potential effects on FAA regulations and guidance. The program evolved into a demonstration program consisting of a team from Sandia National Labs Airworthiness Assurance NDI Center (AANC), the Boeing Corporation, Delta Air Lines, Structural Monitoring Systems (SMS), Anodyne Electronics Manufacturing Corp (AEM) and the FAA. This paper will discuss the program from the selection of the inspection problem, the SHM system (Comparative Vacuum Monitoring-CVM) that was selected as the inspection solution and the testing completed to provide sufficient data to gain the first approved use of an SHM system for routine maintenance on commercial US aircraft.

  8. Boundary lubrication of formulated C-ethers in air to 300 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Friction and wear measurements were made in dry and moist air on CVM M-50 steel lubricated with six C-ether formulations containing phosphorus ester and organic acid additives. Results were compared to those obtained with a formulated Type 2 ester and the C-ether base fluid. A ball-on-disk sliding friction apparatus was used. Experimental conditions were a 1-kilogram load, 17 meter-per-minute (100 rpm) surface speed, and a 25 to 300 C disk temperature range. The C-ether base fluid and the C-ether formulations yielded lower wear than the ester under most test conditions. The C-ether formulations exhibited higher friction coefficients than the ester from 150 to 300 C and similar or lower values from 25 to 150 C.

  9. The North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Turtle Rescue Team: a model for a successful wild-reptile clinic.

    PubMed

    Lewbart, Gregory A; Kishimori, Jennifer; Christian, Larry S

    2005-01-01

    The North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM) Turtle Rescue Team (TRT) is a veterinary student-run organization that treats native, sick and injured, wild chelonians. First-, second-, and third-year students are responsible for case management, consultation coordination, diagnostic testing within the hospital, and placing of recuperating animals with local wildlife rehabilitators. Several clinical research publications have resulted from the opportunity to work with these wild reptiles. Active student participants can also gain a course credit by attending eight hours of lecture/ seminar related to reptile medicine. With regards to outcome assessment, 86% of survey respondents found the program to be valuable or extremely valuable to their veterinary medical education. The logistics of organizing, supporting, and running this service are discussed, and its value as a clinical learning tool is supported by the results of a survey.

  10. Steady-state boundary lubrication with formulated C-ethers to 260 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    Steady state wear and friction studies were made at boundary lubrication conditions in a pin on disk (pure iron on rotating CVM M 50 steel) sliding friction apparatus with five C ether formulated fluids (modified polyphenyl ether containing phosphrous ester, organic acid, and other additives). Conditions included 20, 150, and 260 C disk temperatures, dry air test atmosphere, 1 kilogram load, 50 rpm disk speed, and test times to 130 minutes. Results were compared with those obtained with a formulated MIL L 27502 candidate ester and the C ether base fluid. Three of the C ether formulations gave better lubrication than both reference fluids under most conditions. The other two C ether formulations yielded higher wear rates and friction coefficients than the C ether base fluid for most of the temperature range. Only one C ether formulation showed consistently higher steady state wear rates than the ester.

  11. A Whole-Genome Sequencing Approach To Study Cefoxitin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Isolates from Various Sources.

    PubMed

    Edirmanasinghe, Romaine; Finley, Rita; Parmley, E Jane; Avery, Brent P; Carson, Carolee; Bekal, Sadjia; Golding, George; Mulvey, Michael R

    2017-04-01

    This study characterized cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains from humans, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry to assess the molecular relationships of isolates from these sources in Québec in 2012. Isolates were collected as part of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR for CMY-2, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 113 S Heidelberg isolates from humans (n = 51), abattoir poultry (n = 18), and retail poultry (n = 44) were studied. All cefoxitin-resistant isolates (n = 65) were also resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, ceftiofur, and ceftriaxone, and all contained the CMY-2 gene. PFGE analysis showed that 111/113 (98.2%) isolates clustered together with ≥90% similarity. Core genome analysis using WGS identified 13 small clusters of isolates with 0 to 4 single nucleotide variations (SNVs), consisting of cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible human, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry isolates. CMY-2 plasmids from cefoxitin-resistant isolates all belonged to incompatibility group I1. Analysis of IncI1 plasmid sequences revealed high identity (95 to 99%) to a previously described plasmid (pCVM29188_101) found in Salmonella Kentucky. When compared to pCVM29188_101, all sequenced cefoxitin-resistant isolates were found to carry 1 of 10 possible variant plasmids. Transmission of S Heidelberg may be occurring between human, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry sources, and transmission of a common CMY-2 plasmid may be occurring among S Heidelberg strains with variable genetic backgrounds.

  12. Identification and functional characterization of NODAL rare variants in heterotaxy and isolated cardiovascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Bhagyalaxmi; Casey, Brett; Li, Hua; Ho-Dawson, Trang; Smith, Liana; Fernbach, Susan D.; Molinari, Laura; Niesh, Stephen R.; Jefferies, John Lynn; Craigen, William J.; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Belmont, John W.; Ware, Stephanie M.

    2009-01-01

    NODAL and its signaling pathway are known to play a key role in specification and patterning of vertebrate embryos. Mutations in several genes encoding components of the NODAL signaling pathway have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of human left–right (LR) patterning defects. Therefore, NODAL, a member of TGF-β superfamily of developmental regulators, is a strong candidate to be functionally involved in congenital LR axis patterning defects or heterotaxy. Here we have investigated whether variants in NODAL are present in patients with heterotaxy and/or isolated cardiovascular malformations (CVM) thought to be caused by abnormal heart tube looping. Analysis of a large cohort of cases (n = 269) affected with either classic heterotaxy or looping CVM revealed four different missense variants, one in-frame insertion/deletion and two conserved splice site variants in 14 unrelated subjects (14/269, 5.2%). Although similar with regard to other associated defects, individuals with the NODAL mutations had a significantly higher occurrence of pulmonary valve atresia (P = 0.001) compared with cases without a detectable NODAL mutation. Functional analyses demonstrate that the missense variant forms of NODAL exhibit significant impairment of signaling as measured by decreased Cripto (TDGF-1) co-receptor-mediated activation of artificial reporters. Expression of these NODAL proteins also led to reduced induction of Smad2 phosphorylation and impaired Smad2 nuclear import. Taken together, these results support a role for mutations and rare deleterious variants in NODAL as a cause for sporadic human LR patterning defects. PMID:19064609

  13. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in females and males in different cervical vertebral maturation stages

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shreya; Deoskar, Anuradha; Gupta, Puneet; Jain, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in female and male subjects at various cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 60 subjects, 30 females and 30 males, in the age range of 8-23 years. For all subjects, serum IGF-1 level was estimated from blood samples by means of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). CVM was assessed on lateral cephalograms using the method described by Baccetti. Serum IGF-1 level and cervical staging data of 30 female subjects were included and taken from records of a previous study. Data were analyzed by Kruska-Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was carried out and alpha value was set at 0.003. RESULTS: Peak value of serum IGF-1 was observed in cervical stages CS3 in females and CS4 in males. Differences between males and females were observed in mean values of IGF-1 at stages CS3, 4 and 5. The highest mean IGF-1 levels in males was observed in CS4 followed by CS5 and third highest in CS3; whereas in females the highest mean IGF-1 levelswas observed in CS3 followed by CS4 and third highest in CS5. Trends of IGF-1 in relation to the cervical stages also differed between males and females. The greatest mean serum IGF-1 value for both sexes was comparable, for females (397 ng/ml) values were slightly higher than in males (394.8 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Males and females showed differences in IGF-1 trends and levels at different cervical stages. PMID:25992990

  14. Using Computational Modeling To Optimize the Design of Antibodies That Trap Viruses in Mucus.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Timothy; Chen, Alex; McKinley, Scott A; Cone, Richard; Forest, Gregory; Lai, Samuel K

    2016-01-08

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that trap viruses in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) via adhesive interactions between IgG-Fc and mucins have recently emerged as a promising strategy to block vaginally transmitted infections. The array of IgG bound to a virus particle appears to trap the virus by making multiple weak affinity bonds to the fibrous mucins that form the mucus gel. However, the antibody characteristics that maximize virus trapping and minimize viral infectivity remain poorly understood. Toward this goal, we developed a mathematical model that takes into account physiologically relevant spatial dimensions and time scales, binding, and unbinding rates between IgG and virions and between IgG and mucins, as well as the respective diffusivities of virions and IgG in semen and CVM. We then systematically explored the IgG-antigen and IgG-mucin binding and unbinding rates that minimize the flux of infectious HIV arriving at the vaginal epithelium. Surprisingly, contrary to common intuition that infectivity would drop monotonically with increasing affinities between IgG and HIV, and between IgG and mucins, our model suggests maximal trapping of HIV and minimal flux of HIV to the epithelium are achieved with IgG molecules that exhibit (i) rapid antigen binding (high kon) rather than very slow unbinding (low koff), that is, high-affinity binding to the virion, and (ii) relatively weak affinity with mucins. These results provide important insights into the design of more potent "mucotrapping" IgG for enhanced protection against vaginally transmitted infections. The model is adaptable to other pathogens, mucosal barriers, geometries, and kinetic and diffusional effects, providing a tool for hypothesis testing and producing quantitative insights into the dynamics of immune-mediated protection.

  15. Determination of polarization fields in group III-nitride heterostructures by capacitance-voltage-measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychetsky, Monir; Koslow, Ingrid; Avinc, Baran; Rass, Jens; Wernicke, Tim; Bellmann, Konrad; Sulmoni, Luca; Hoffmann, Veit; Weyers, Markus; Wild, Johannes; Zweck, Josef; Witzigmann, Bernd; Kneissl, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The polarization fields in wurtzite group III-nitrides strongly influence the optical properties of InAlGaN-based light emitters, e.g., the electron and hole wave function overlap in quantum wells. In this paper, we propose a new approach to determine these fields by capacitance-voltage measurements (CVM). Sheet charges generated by a change of the microscopic polarization at heterointerfaces influence the charge distribution in PIN junctions and therefore the depletion width and the capacitance. We show that it is possible to determine the strength and direction of the internal fields by comparing the depletion widths of two PIN junctions, one influenced by internal polarization fields and one without as a reference. For comparison, we conducted coupled Poisson/carrier transport simulations on the CVM of the polarization-influenced sample. We also demonstrate the feasibility and limits of the method by determining the fields in GaN/InGaN and GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures on (0001) c-plane grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and compare both evaluation methods. The method yields (-0.50 ± 0.07) MV/cm for In0.08Ga0.92N/GaN, (0.90 ± 0.13) MV/cm for Al0.18Ga0.82N/GaN, and (2.0 ± 0.3) MV/cm for Al0.31Ga0.69N/GaN heterostructures.

  16. Comparison between 3-Nitrooxyphenyl acetylsalicylate (NO-ASA) and O2-(acetylsalicyloxymethyl)-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (NONO-ASA) as safe anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Velazquez, Carlos A; Pruski, April; Nia, Kamran V; Abdellatif, Khaled R; Keefer, Larry K; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2010-11-01

    Chronic inflammation is an underlying etiological factor in carcinogenesis; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and their chemically modified NO-releasing prodrugs (NO-NSAIDs) are promising chemopreventive agents. The aim of this study was to conduct a head-to-head comparison between two NO-ASAs possessing different NO donor groups, an organic nitrate [3-nitrooxyphenyl acetylsalicylate (NO-ASA; NCX-4016)] and an N-diazeniumdiolate [NONO-ASA, O(2)- (acetylsalicyloxymethyl)-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (NONO-ASA; CVM-01)], as antiulcerogenic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic agents. All drugs were administered orally at equimolar doses. For antiulcerogenic study, 6 h after administration, the number and size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs from euthanized animals were counted. Tissue samples were frozen for prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde determination. For anti-inflammatory study, 1 h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 6 h. For antipyretic study, 1 h after dosing, fever was induced by intraperitoneal LPS, and body core temperatures measured for 5 h. For analgesic study, time-dependent analgesic effect of prodrugs was evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Drugs were administered 30 min after carrageenan. NO-ASA and NONO-ASA were equipotent as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents but were better than aspirin. Despite a drastic reduction of PGE(2) in stomach tissue, both prodrugs were devoid of gastric side effects. Lipid peroxidation induced by aspirin was higher than that observed by prodrugs. SOD activity induced by both prodrugs was similar, but approximately 2-fold higher than that induced by aspirin. CVM-01 is as effective as NCX-4016 in anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic assays in vivo, and it showed an equivalent safety profile in the stomach. These results underscore the use of N

  17. Impact of perceived importance of ecosystem services and stated financial constraints on willingness to pay for riparian meadow restoration in Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy Y; Aertsens, Joris; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven; De Nocker, Leo

    2014-08-01

    The strategic importance of ecosystem service valuation as an operational basis for policy decisions on natural restoration has been increasingly recognized in order to align the provision of ecosystem services with the expectation of human society. The contingent valuation method (CVM) is widely used to quantify various ecosystem services. However, two areas of concern arise: (1) whether people value specific functional ecosystem services and overlook some intrinsic aspects of natural restoration, and (2) whether people understand the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules given in the contingent scenarios. Using a peri-urban riparian meadow restoration project in Flanders, Belgium as a case, we explored the impacts of residents' perceived importance of various ecosystem services and stated financial constraints on their willingness-to-pay for the proposed restoration project employing the CVM. The results indicated that people tended to value all the benefits of riparian ecosystem restoration concurrently, although they accorded different importances to each individual category of ecosystem services. A longer payment scheme can help the respondents to think more about the flow of ecosystem services into future generations. A weak temporal embedding effect can be detected, which might be attributed to respondents' concern about current financial constraints, rather than financial bindings associated with their income and perceived future financial constraints. This demonstrates the multidimensionality of respondents' financial concerns in CV. This study sheds light on refining future CV studies, especially with regard to public expectation of ecosystem services and the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules.

  18. Rare DNA copy number variants in cardiovascular malformations with extracardiac abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Lalani, Seema R; Shaw, Chad; Wang, Xueqing; Patel, Ankita; Patterson, Lance W; Kolodziejska, Katarzyna; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Ou, Zhishuo; Tian, Qi; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Jinnah, Amina; Ali, Sophia; Malik, Aamir; Hixson, Patricia; Potocki, Lorraine; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Dawson, Brian; Beaudet, Arthur L; Boricha, Fatima M; Whittaker, Runako; Li, Chumei; Ware, Stephanie M; Cheung, Sau Wai; Penny, Daniel J; Jefferies, John Lynn; Belmont, John W

    2013-01-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) occur in 5–8 per 1000 live births. Recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) are among the known causes of syndromic CVMs, accounting for an important fraction of cases. We hypothesized that many additional rare CNVs also cause CVMs and can be detected in patients with CVMs plus extracardiac anomalies (ECAs). Through a genome-wide survey of 203 subjects with CVMs and ECAs, we identified 55 CNVs >50 kb in length that were not present in children without known cardiovascular defects (n=872). Sixteen unique CNVs overlapping these variants were found in an independent CVM plus ECA cohort (n=511), which were not observed in 2011 controls. The study identified 12/16 (75%) novel loci including non-recurrent de novo 16q24.3 loss (4/714) and de novo 2q31.3q32.1 loss encompassing PPP1R1C and PDE1A (2/714). The study also narrowed critical intervals in three well-recognized genomic disorders of CVM, such as the cat-eye syndrome region on 22q11.1, 8p23.1 loss encompassing GATA4 and SOX7 and 17p13.3-p13.2 loss. An analysis of protein-interaction databases shows that the rare inherited and de novo CNVs detected in the combined cohort are enriched for genes encoding proteins that are direct or indirect partners of proteins known to be required for normal cardiac development. Our findings implicate rare variants such as 16q24.3 loss and 2q31.3-q32.1 loss, and delineate regions within previously reported structural variants known to cause CVMs. PMID:22929023

  19. A Whole-Genome Sequencing Approach To Study Cefoxitin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Isolates from Various Sources

    PubMed Central

    Edirmanasinghe, Romaine; Finley, Rita; Parmley, E. Jane; Avery, Brent P.; Carson, Carolee; Bekal, Sadjia; Golding, George

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study characterized cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains from humans, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry to assess the molecular relationships of isolates from these sources in Québec in 2012. Isolates were collected as part of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR for CMY-2, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 113 S. Heidelberg isolates from humans (n = 51), abattoir poultry (n = 18), and retail poultry (n = 44) were studied. All cefoxitin-resistant isolates (n = 65) were also resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, ceftiofur, and ceftriaxone, and all contained the CMY-2 gene. PFGE analysis showed that 111/113 (98.2%) isolates clustered together with ≥90% similarity. Core genome analysis using WGS identified 13 small clusters of isolates with 0 to 4 single nucleotide variations (SNVs), consisting of cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible human, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry isolates. CMY-2 plasmids from cefoxitin-resistant isolates all belonged to incompatibility group I1. Analysis of IncI1 plasmid sequences revealed high identity (95 to 99%) to a previously described plasmid (pCVM29188_101) found in Salmonella Kentucky. When compared to pCVM29188_101, all sequenced cefoxitin-resistant isolates were found to carry 1 of 10 possible variant plasmids. Transmission of S. Heidelberg may be occurring between human, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry sources, and transmission of a common CMY-2 plasmid may be occurring among S. Heidelberg strains with variable genetic backgrounds. PMID:28137797

  20. The Current Landscape of Genetic Testing in Cardiovascular Malformations: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Benjamin J.; Ware, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Human cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) frequently have a genetic contribution. Through the application of novel technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, DNA sequence variants associated with CVMs are being identified at a rapid pace. While clinicians are now able to offer testing with NGS gene panels or whole exome sequencing to any patient with a CVM, the interpretation of genetic variation remains problematic. Variable phenotypic expression, reduced penetrance, inconsistent phenotyping methods, and the lack of high-throughput functional testing of variants contribute to these challenges. This article elaborates critical issues that impact the decision to broadly implement clinical molecular genetic testing in CVMs. Major benefits of testing include establishing a genetic diagnosis, facilitating cost-effective screening of family members who may have subclinical disease, predicting recurrence risk in offsprings, enabling early diagnosis and anticipatory management of CV and non-CV disease phenotypes, predicting long-term outcomes, and facilitating the development of novel therapies aimed at disease improvement or prevention. Limitations include financial cost, psychosocial cost, and ambiguity of interpretation of results. Multiplex families and patients with syndromic features are two groups where disease causation could potentially be firmly established. However, these account for the minority of the overall CVM population, and there is increasing recognition that genotypes previously associated with syndromes also exist in patients who lack non-CV findings. In all circumstances, ongoing dialog between cardiologists and clinical geneticists will be needed to accurately interpret genetic testing and improve these patients’ health. This may be most effectively implemented by the creation and support of CV genetics services at centers committed to pursuing testing for patients. PMID:27504451

  1. Detection of haplotypes associated with prenatal death in dairy cattle and identification of deleterious mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10(-4)) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle.

  2. Detection of Haplotypes Associated with Prenatal Death in Dairy Cattle and Identification of Deleterious Mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C.; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10−4) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

  3. Preparedness and disaster response training for veterinary students: literature review and description of the North Carolina State University Credentialed Veterinary Responder Program.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Dianne; Martin, Michael P; Tickel, Jimmy L; Gentry, William B; Cowen, Peter; Slenning, Barrett D

    2009-01-01

    The nation's veterinary colleges lack the curricula necessary to meet veterinary demands for animal/public health and emergency preparedness. To this end, the authors report a literature review summarizing training programs within human/veterinary medicine. In addition, the authors describe new competency-based Veterinary Credential Responder training at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU CVM). From an evaluation of 257 PubMed-derived articles relating to veterinary/medical disaster training, 14 fulfilled all inclusion requirements (nine were veterinary oriented; five came from human medical programs). Few offered ideas on the core competencies required to produce disaster-planning and response professionals. The lack of published literature in this area points to a need for more formal discussion and research on core competencies. Non-veterinary articles emphasized learning objectives, commonly listing an incident command system, the National Incident Management System, teamwork, communications, and critical event management/problem solving. These learning objectives were accomplished either through short-course formats or via their integration into a larger curriculum. Formal disaster training in veterinary medicine mostly occurs within existing public health courses. Much of the literature focuses on changing academia to meet current and future needs in public/animal health disaster-preparedness and careers. The NCSU CVM program, in collaboration with North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service, Emergency Programs and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health, operates as a stand-alone third-year two-week core-curriculum training program that combines lecture, online, experiential, and group exercises to meet entry-level federal credentialing requirements. The authors report here its content, outcomes, and future development plans.

  4. Temperature and water quality effects in simulated woodland pools on the infection of Culex mosquito larvae by Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, D.R.; Axtell, R.C.

    1987-06-01

    Asexual stages of the California (CA) isolate of Lagenidium giganteum cultured on sunflower seed extract (SFE)-agar, were applied to outdoor pools containing Culex larvae near Raleigh, NC in August and September 1984. Infection rates among the larvae ranged from 19 to 74% at 2-4 days posttreatment and subsequent epizootics eliminated most of the newly hatched larvae for at least 10 days posttreatment. Substantial reductions in numbers of larvae and adult emergence were achieved from a single application of the fungus. Water quality and temperature data are presented. From laboratory assays of organically polluted water, the percent infection of Culex quinquefasciatus by the fungus was correlated with water quality and temperature. A logistic model of water quality (COD and NH/sub 3/-N) effects on infectivity rates by the CA isolate is described.

  5. Compressive and shear buckling analysis of metal matrix composite sandwich panels under different thermal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1993-01-01

    Combined inplane compressive and shear buckling analysis was conducted on flat rectangular sandwich panels using the Raleigh-Ritz minimum energy method with a consideration of transverse shear effect of the sandwich core. The sandwich panels were fabricated with titanium honeycomb core and laminated metal matrix composite face sheets. The results show that slightly slender (along unidirectional compressive loading axis) rectangular sandwich panels have the most desirable stiffness-to-weight ratios for aerospace structural applications; the degradation of buckling strength of sandwich panels with rising temperature is faster in shear than in compression; and the fiber orientation of the face sheets for optimum combined-load buckling strength of sandwich panels is a strong function of both loading condition and panel aspect ratio. Under the same specific weight and panel aspect ratio, a sandwich panel with metal matrix composite face sheets has much higher buckling strength than one having monolithic face sheets.

  6. Super-resolving quantum radar: Coherent-state sources with homodyne detection suffice to beat the diffraction limit

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Kebei; Lee, Hwang; Gerry, Christopher C.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2013-11-21

    There has been much recent interest in quantum metrology for applications to sub-Raleigh ranging and remote sensing such as in quantum radar. For quantum radar, atmospheric absorption and diffraction rapidly degrades any actively transmitted quantum states of light, such as N00N states, so that for this high-loss regime the optimal strategy is to transmit coherent states of light, which suffer no worse loss than the linear Beer's law for classical radar attenuation, and which provide sensitivity at the shot-noise limit in the returned power. We show that coherent radar radiation sources, coupled with a quantum homodyne detection scheme, provide both longitudinal and angular super-resolution much below the Rayleigh diffraction limit, with sensitivity at shot-noise in terms of the detected photon power. Our approach provides a template for the development of a complete super-resolving quantum radar system with currently available technology.

  7. New TOR editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    1984-04-01

    David A. Brooks, associate professor at Texas A&M University's oceanography department, has been appointed editor designate of The Oceanography Report (TOR). He succeeds Arnold L. Gordon of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory. Gordon, who initiated TOR in September 1981, is the new president-elect of the AGU Ocean Sciences Section.Brooks, a physical oceanographer, has been at Texas A&M for 6 years. His research interests include waves and tides, the interaction of waves and currents, Gulf Stream fluctuations, and Gulf of Mexico and Gulf of Maine circulation. Before going to Texas A&M, Brooks was a research associate and graduate faculty member at North Carolina State University in Raleigh.

  8. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazor, E.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He and 40Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water that penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic He and 40Ar formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 - 30%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 - 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 - 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as C1 or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range. ?? 1984.

  9. Flood of December 25, 1987, in Millington, Tennessee and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, James G.; Gamble, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    Intense rainfall totaling 9.2 in. in a 12-hour period on December 24-25, 1987, and 14.8 in for the period December 24-27 caused record floods in Millington, Tennessee and vicinity. The peak discharge of Big Creek at Raleigh-Millington Road was almost twice the discharge of the 100-year flood discharge and that of Loosahatchie River near Arlington was about equal to the 50-year flood discharge. The inundated area and flood elevations are depicted on a map of Millington, Tennessee and vicinity. Water surface profiles for the peak of December 25, 1987, for Loosahatchie River, Big Creek, Royster Creek, North Fork Creek, Casper Creek, and an unnamed tributary to Big Creek are shown. Flood damages and cleanup costs for this record flood have been estimated at about $9.2 million. (USGS)

  10. Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the earth's surface for cloudless atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, R.; Riordan, C.

    1984-12-01

    A new, simple model for calculating clear-sky direct and diffuse spectral irradiance on horizontal and tilted surfaces is presented. The model is based on previously reported simple algorithms and on comparisons with rigorous radiative transfer calculations and limited outdoor measurements. Equations for direct normal irradiance are outlined; and include: Raleigh scattering; aerosol scattering and absorption; water vapor absorption; and ozone and uniformly mixed gas absorption. Inputs to the model include solar zenith angle, collector tilt angle, atmospheric turbidity, amount of ozone and precipitable water vapor, surface pressure, and ground albedo. The model calculates terrestrial spectra from 0.3 to 4.0 ..mu..m with approximately 10 nm resolution. A major goal of this work is to provide researchers with the capability to calculate spectral irradiance for different atmospheric conditions and different collector geometries using microcomputers. A listing of the computer program is provided.

  11. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. )

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  12. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L.

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  13. Chemists report slurry breakthroughs for syngas-to-alcohol process

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-04-24

    Scientists at North Carolina State University (Raleigh) report that they have developed an alcohol synthesis process that uses a high-temperature slurry reactor with a conventional zinc chromite methanol catalyst. The scientists say it is the first time zinc-chromite catalysts have been used in slurry reactors at temperatures as high as 375 C. They add that it could lead to a synthesis gas (syngas)-based route to higher alcohols and to broader commercial applications for slurry reactors. Slurry reactors typically operate at less than 300 C, limiting applications for many high-volume industrial applications. By extending the temperature 100 C, says George Roberts, a chemist at North Carolina State, the work could {open_quotes}open up chemistry never run in slurry reactors before.{close_quotes} Roberts points to potential for use in partial oxidation reactions and synthesis routes involving formaldehyde.

  14. Efficacy of encapsulated Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti larvae in artificial containers.

    PubMed

    Rueda, L M; Patel, K J; Axtell, R C

    1990-12-01

    Presporangial mycelia of Lagenidium giganteum cultured on sunflower seed extract were encapsulated in calcium alginate and added once (July 18) to outdoor (Raleigh, NC) caged tires, wood and concrete containers populated with first instars of Culex quinquefasciatus or Aedes aegypti. First instars were added twice weekly (for 10 wk) to simulate natural oviposition. The fungus persisted for 10 wk and recycled in the mosquito larvae of both species. The overall reductions of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti immatures were higher in tires (55 and 45%, respectively) and wood (67 and 38%) than in concrete containers (17 and 14%). There were low correlations of the numbers of mosquito immatures with measurements of water quality (chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen and conductivity) in the containers.

  15. Coffee Rings: Solute Deposits at the Contact Line of a Drying Sessile Drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deegan, Robert D.; Bakajin, Olgica; Nagel, Sidney R.; Witten, Thomas

    1996-03-01

    The preferential deposition of solute at the contact line of a drying solution is a common sight. Coffee rings, the concentration of coffee residue along the periphery of a dried coffee drop, are a prime example of this phenomenon. We experimentally investigated this effect in drying sessile drops. In particular, we examined the dependence of ring formation on the wetting properties, surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the substrate, on various combinations of solute and solvent, on solute concentration and size, on temperature gradients, and on gravity and electric fields. We found that a partial wetting substrate is the only essential ingredient for ring formation. In addition, we found the role of traditional transport mechanisms, such as diffusion, Raleigh-Bernard convection and Maragoni flow, to be negligible. We will present fluorescent video microscopy data using a colloidal solute to argue in favor of an evaporation driven model.

  16. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mazor, E.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He, /sup 40/Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic helium and argon-40 formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 to 3%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 to 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 to 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as Cl or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range.

  17. Applications and statistical properties of minimum significant difference-based criterion testing in a toxicity testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Denton, D.L.; Shukla, R.

    2000-01-01

    As a follow up to the recommendations of the September 1995 SETAC Pellston Workshop on Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) on test methods and appropriate endpoints, this paper will discuss the applications and statistical properties of using a statistical criterion of minimum significant difference (MSD). The authors examined the upper limits of acceptable MSDs as acceptance criterion in the case of normally distributed data. The implications of this approach are examined in terms of false negative rate as well as false positive rate. Results indicated that the proposed approach has reasonable statistical properties. Reproductive data from short-term chronic WET test with Ceriodaphnia dubia tests were used to demonstrate the applications of the proposed approach. The data were collected by the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources (Raleigh, NC, USA) as part of their National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program.

  18. Relation of urbanization to stream fish assemblages and species traits in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; Gregory, M. Brian; May, Jason T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of fish assemblages and fish traits with urbanization and selected environmental variables in nine major United States metropolitan areas. The strongest relations between fishes and urbanization occurred in the metropolitan areas of Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; and Portland, Oregon. In these areas, environmental variables with strong associations (rs ≥ 0.70) with fish assemblages and fish traits tended to have strong associations with urbanization. Relations of urbanization with fish assemblages and fish traits were weaker in Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Raleigh, North Carolina. Environmental variables associated with fishes varied among the metropolitan areas. The metropolitan areas with poor relations may have had a limited range of possible response because of previous landscape disturbances. Given the complexities of urban landscapes in different metropolitan areas, our results indicate that caution is warranted when generalizing about biological responses to urbanization.

  19. Unraveling the loblolly's secrets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-06

    Breeding better trees has not been the sort of project guaranteed to win a scientist fast tenure. They take years to mature and decades may pass before the progeny of a cross can be evaluated. But Ron Sederoff and David O'Malley of North Carolina State University at Raleigh have now created a shortcut with a genetic map of the loblolly pine, a major source of wood pulp and paper products as well as timber that normally takes 12-15 years to mature. Using polymerase chain reaction techniques to amplify and analyze pine DNA, the researchers plotted about 200 markers on the tree's twelve pairs of chromosomes - in effect, the most extensive map ever made of a woody plant. Within a couple of years associations will emerge between the genetic markers and specific traits. By screening the DNA of seedlings, scientists will be able to known which trees they want to produce.

  20. Proceedings: Agricultural Technology Alliance: November 1996 Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This publication is a compilation of field trip overviews, presentations and committee reports from the EPRI-ATA meeting held in Raleigh, North Carolina, November 13-15, 1996. The field trips included a Postharvest Produce Conditioning Tour, an Aquaculture and Waste Management Tour, and an Aerobic Swine Waste Tour. The presentations and committee reports included the following: (1) An Overview: Agricultural Research Programs in North Carolina; (2) Irrigation in Humid Regions--Needs and Scheduling; (3) Nutrients in North Carolina Waters; (4) Animal Waste Problems--Severity and Outlook; (5) Crop Production, Handling and Drying Energy Use and Research Needs; (6) Soil Testing and the Internet: Present and Future Potential; (7) North Carolina Licensing of Soil Scientist; (8) Current Status of the ATA; (9) ATA Office Report; (10) Committee Reports; and (11) Steering Committee Minutes.

  1. Modeling of Compressible Flow with Friction and Heat Transfer Using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the verification and validation of a quasi one-dimensional pressure based finite volume algorithm, implemented in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), for predicting compressible flow with friction, heat transfer and area change. The numerical predictions were compared with two classical solutions of compressible flow, i.e. Fanno and Rayleigh flow. Fanno flow provides an analytical solution of compressible flow in a long slender pipe where incoming subsonic flow can be choked due to friction. On the other hand, Raleigh flow provides analytical solution of frictionless compressible flow with heat transfer where incoming subsonic flow can be choked at the outlet boundary with heat addition to the control volume. Nonuniform grid distribution improves the accuracy of numerical prediction. A benchmark numerical solution of compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle with friction and heat transfer has been developed to verify GFSSP's numerical predictions. The numerical predictions compare favorably in all cases.

  2. MAIZE: a 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch at The University of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Tang, W. W.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.

    2009-01-21

    Researchers at The University of Michigan have constructed and tested a 1-MA Linear Transformer Driver (LTD), the first of its type to reach the USA. The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE), is based on the LTD developed at the Institute of High Current Electronics in collaboration with Sandia National Labs and UM. This LTD utilizes 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches, arranged in 40 'bricks,' to deliver a 1 MA, 100 kV pulse with 100 ns risetime into a matched resistive load. Preliminary resistive-load test results are presented for the LTD facility.Planned experimental research programs at UM include: a) Studies of Magneto-Raleigh-Taylor instability of planar foils, and b) Vacuum convolute studies including cathode and anode plasma.

  3. Response of Stream Chemistry During Base Flow to Gradients of Urbanization in Selected Locations Across the Conterminous United States, 2002-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Harned, Douglas A.; Hall, David W.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    During 2002-2004, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program conducted a study to determine the effects of urbanization on stream water quality and aquatic communities in six environmentally heterogeneous areas of the conterminous United States--Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; and Portland, Oregon. This report compares and contrasts the response of stream chemistry during base flow to urbanization in different environmental settings and examines the relation between the exceedance of water-quality benchmarks and the level of urbanization in these areas. Chemical characteristics studied included concentrations of nutrients, dissolved pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, and chloride in base flow. In three study areas where the background land cover in minimally urbanized basins was predominantly forested (Atlanta, Raleigh-Durham, and Portland), urban development was associated with increased concentrations of nitrogen and total herbicides in streams. In Portland, there was evidence of mixed agricultural and urban influences at sites with 20 to 50 percent urban land cover. In two study areas where agriculture was the predominant background land cover (Milwaukee-Green Bay and Dallas-Fort Worth), concentrations of nitrogen and herbicides were flat or decreasing as urbanization increased. In Denver, which had predominantly shrub/grass as background land cover, nitrogen concentrations were only weakly related to urbanization, and total herbicide concentrations did not show any clear pattern relative to land cover - perhaps because of extensive water management in the study area. In contrast, total insecticide concentrations increased with increasing urbanization in all six study areas, likely due to high use of insecticides in urban applications and, for some study areas, the proximity of urban land cover to the sampling sites. Phosphorus

  4. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom.

    PubMed

    Council, Sarah E; Horvath, Julie E

    2016-03-01

    The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects.

  5. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Council, Sarah E.; Horvath, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects. PMID:27047587

  6. Atlas of TOMS ozone data collected during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE), 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larko, David E.; Uccellini, Louis W.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1986-11-01

    Data from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instrument aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite were collected daily in real time during the GALE (Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment) from January 15 through March 15, l986. The TOMS ozone data values were processed into GEMPAK format and transferred from the Goddard Space Flight Center to GALE operations in Raleigh-Durham, NC, in as little as three hours for use, in part, to direct aircraft research flights recording in situ measurements of ozone and water vapor in areas of interest. Once in GEMPAK format, the ozone values were processed into gridded form using the Barnes objective analysis scheme and contour plots of the ozone created. This atlas provides objectively analyzed contour plots of the ozone for each of the sixty days of GALE as well as four-panel presentations of the ozone analysis combined on the basis of GALE Intensive Observing Periods (IOP's).

  7. Atlas of TOMS ozone data collected during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE), 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, David E.; Uccellini, Louis W.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1986-01-01

    Data from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instrument aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite were collected daily in real time during the GALE (Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment) from January 15 through March 15, l986. The TOMS ozone data values were processed into GEMPAK format and transferred from the Goddard Space Flight Center to GALE operations in Raleigh-Durham, NC, in as little as three hours for use, in part, to direct aircraft research flights recording in situ measurements of ozone and water vapor in areas of interest. Once in GEMPAK format, the ozone values were processed into gridded form using the Barnes objective analysis scheme and contour plots of the ozone created. This atlas provides objectively analyzed contour plots of the ozone for each of the sixty days of GALE as well as four-panel presentations of the ozone analysis combined on the basis of GALE Intensive Observing Periods (IOP's).

  8. Selected Physical, Chemical, and Biological Data for 30 Urbanizing Streams in the North Carolina Piedmont Ecoregion, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giddings, E.M.; Moorman, Michelle; Cuffney, Thomas F.; McMahon, Gerard; Harned, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides summarized physical, chemical, and biological data collected during a study of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment study. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of streams across a gradient of urban intensity. Thirty sites were selected along an urbanization gradient that represents conditions in the North Carolina Piedmont ecoregion, including the cities of Raleigh, Durham, Cary, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, High Point, Asheboro, and Oxford. Data collected included streamflow variability, stream temperature, instream chemistry, instream aquatic habitat, and collections of the algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. In addition, ancillary data describing land use, socioeconomic conditions, and urban infrastructure were compiled for each basin using a geographic information system analysis. All data were processed and summarized for analytical use and are presented in downloadable data tables, along with the methods of data collection and processing.

  9. An emerging reactor technology for chemical synthesis: surface acoustic wave-assisted closed-vessel Suzuki coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ketav; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie; Perlmutter, Patrick

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of an energy-efficient surface acoustic wave (SAW) device for driving closed-vessel SAW-assisted (CVSAW), ligand-free Suzuki couplings in aqueous media. The reactions were carried out on a mmolar scale with low to ultra-low catalyst loadings. The reactions were driven by heating resulting from the penetration of acoustic energy derived from RF Raleigh waves generated by a piezoelectric chip via a renewable fluid coupling layer. The yields were uniformly high and the reactions could be executed without added ligand and in water. In terms of energy density this new technology was determined to be roughly as efficient as microwaves and superior to ultrasound.

  10. Blocked Force and Loading Calculations for LaRC THUNDER Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.

    2007-01-01

    An analytic approach is developed to predict the performance of LaRC Thunder actuators under load and under blocked conditions. The problem is treated with the Von Karman non-linear analysis combined with a simple Raleigh-Ritz calculation. From this, shape and displacement under load combined with voltage are calculated. A method is found to calculate the blocked force vs voltage and spring force vs distance. It is found that under certain conditions, the blocked force and displacement is almost linear with voltage. It is also found that the spring force is multivalued and has at least one bifurcation point. This bifurcation point is where the device collapses under load and locks to a different bending solution. This occurs at a particular critical load. It is shown this other bending solution has a reduced amplitude and is proportional to the original amplitude times the square of the aspect ratio.

  11. Numerical Simulation of a Tornado Generating Supercell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of tornadoes from a tornado generating supercell is investigated with a large eddy simulation weather model. Numerical simulations are initialized with a sounding representing the environment of a tornado producing supercell that affected North Carolina and Virginia during the Spring of 2011. The structure of the simulated storm was very similar to that of a classic supercell, and compared favorably to the storm that affected the vicinity of Raleigh, North Carolina. The presence of mid-level moisture was found to be important in determining whether a supercell would generate tornadoes. The simulations generated multiple tornadoes, including cyclonic-anticyclonic pairs. The structure and the evolution of these tornadoes are examined during their lifecycle.

  12. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1990-01-01

    Numerous measurements of the heat of immersion of coal were conducting using several different particle size fractions of No. 2 Gas Seam coal from Raleigh County, West Virginia. The heat of immersion was determined in water, methanol, heptane, hexadecane and neohexane (2,2-dimethybutane). A comparison of the results with those determined previously for Illinois No. 6 coal is discussed. A number of potential pyrite depressants for use in oil agglomeration of coal were screened by testing the response of sulfidized mineral pyrite to agglomeration with heptane in the presence of the potential depressant. The following were tested; sodium dithionite, sodium thiosulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, titanous chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Oxone (a form of potassium monopersulfate), pyrogallol, quebracho (colloidal dispersant derived from tree bark), milk whey, and several organic thiols. Ferric chloride was applied to mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and sulfidized mineral pyrite before subjecting the mixtures to agglomeration with heptane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Using a Maxwell's demon to orient a microsphere in a laser trap and initiate thermodynamic assays of photonic nanofields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranek, Vaclav; Kuznetsov, Igor R.; Evans, Evan A.

    2016-09-01

    Seeking to control free rotations of a microsphere in a laser trap, we have created a "Maxwell's demon" that identifies and captures a preferred "up-or-down" polarity of the microsphere. Breaking rotational symmetry, we attach a single "Raleigh-size" nanoparticle to a micron-size sphere, which establishes a "nanodirector" defining microsphere orientations in a trap. With radius <10% of the NIR trapping wavelength (1.064 μm), a polystyrene nanoparticle appended to a 1.3 μm glass sphere adds negligibly to scattering of the trapping beam and imperceptibly to forces trapping a doublet probe. Yet, constrained to a large orbit ( 1.5 μm diameter), the weak Raleigh dipole force induced in the nanoparticle imparts significant pole-attracting torques to the probe. At the same time, Brownian-thermal excitations contribute torque fluctuations to the probe randomizing orientations. Thus, we have combined demon control and Boltzmann thermodynamics to examine the intense competition between photonic torques aligning the nanodirector to the optical axis and the entropy confinement opposing alignment when equilibrated over long times for an order of magnitude span in laser powers. To reveal orientation, we developed novel multistep pattern-processing software to expose and enhance weak-diffuse visible light scattered from the nanoparticle. Processing a continuous stream of doublet images offline at 700 fps, the final step is to super resolve the transverse XY origin of the scattering pattern relative to the synchronous probe center, albeit limited to "up" state segments because of intensity. Transforming the dense histograms ( 104-105) of radial positions to polar angle (θ) distributions, we plot the results on a natural log scale versus sin(θ) to quantify the photonic potentials aligning the nanodirector to the optical axis. Then guided by principles of canonical thermodynamics, we invoke self-consistent methodology to reveal photonic potentials in the "down" state.

  14. The effects of urban warming on herbivore abundance and street tree condition.

    PubMed

    Dale, Adam G; Frank, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Trees are essential to urban habitats because they provide services that benefit the environment and improve human health. Unfortunately, urban trees often have more herbivorous insect pests than rural trees but the mechanisms and consequences of these infestations are not well documented. Here, we examine how temperature affects the abundance of a scale insect, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on one of the most commonly planted street trees in the eastern U.S. Next, we examine how both pest abundance and temperature are associated with water stress, growth, and condition of 26 urban street trees. Although trees in the warmest urban sites grew the most, they were more water stressed and in worse condition than trees in cooler sites. Our analyses indicate that visible declines in tree condition were best explained by scale-insect infestation rather than temperature. To test the broader relevance of these results, we extend our analysis to a database of more than 2700 Raleigh, US street trees. Plotting these trees on a Landsat thermal image of Raleigh, we found that warmer sites had over 70% more trees in poor condition than those in cooler sites. Our results support previous studies linking warmer urban habitats to greater pest abundance and extend this association to show its effect on street tree condition. Our results suggest that street tree condition and ecosystem services may decline as urban expansion and global warming exacerbate the urban heat island effect. Although our non-probability sampling method limits our scope of inference, our results present a gloomy outlook for urban forests and emphasize the need for management tools. Existing urban tree inventories and thermal maps could be used to identify species that would be most suitable for urban conditions.

  15. Mapping Urban Ecosystem Services Using High Resolution Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil

  16. Hyaluron Filler Containing Lidocaine on a CPM Basis for Lip Augmentation: Reports from Practical Experience.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tanja C; Sattler, Gerhard; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-06-01

    Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers is established. As monophasic polydensified hyaluronic acid products with variable density, CPM-HAL1 (Belotero Balance Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) and CPM-HAL2 (Belotero Intense Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) are qualified for beautification and particularly natural-looking rejuvenation, respectively. The aim of this article was to assess the handling and outcome of lip augmentation using the lidocaine-containing hyaluronic acid fillers, CPM-HAL1 and CPM-HAL2. Data were documented from patients who received lip augmentation by means of beautification and/or rejuvenation using CPM-HAL1 and/or CPM-HAL2. Observation period was 4 months, with assessment of natural outcome, evenness, distribution, fluidity, handling, malleability, tolerability, as well as patient satisfaction and pain. A total of 146 patients from 21 German centers participated. Physicians rated natural outcome and evenness as good or very good for more than 95% of patients. Distribution, fluidity, handling, and malleability were assessed for both fillers as good or very good in more than 91% of patients. At every evaluation point, more than 93% of patients were very or very much satisfied with the product. A total of 125 patients (85.6%) experienced transient injection-related side effects. Pain intensity during the procedure was mild (2.72 ± 1.72 on the 0-10 pain assessment scale) and abated markedly within 30 minutes (0.42 ± 0.57). Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers produced a long-term cosmetic result. Due to the lidocaine content, procedural pain was low and transient. Accordingly, a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved that was maintained throughout the observation period.

  17. Effects of antecedent land cover on physical, chemical, and biological responses to urbanization in streams across the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffney, T. F.; Qian, S.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams were assessed across gradients of urbanization in 9 metropolitan areas of the conterminous US (Boston, MA; Raleigh; NC, Birmingham, AL; Atlanta, GA; Milwaukee-Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas-Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. Gradients of urbanization were established on the basis of a multimetric index of urban intensity that combined land cover, population, and road density. Simple regression models established that the condition of biological communities (e.g., invertebrate responses) showed statistically significant degradation as urbanization increased in six (Boston, Raleigh, Birmingham, Atlanta, Salt Lake, and Portland) of the nine metropolitan areas. Multiple regression models incorporating basin-scale land cover (e.g., forest, agricultural land) and environmental variables (e.g., water temperature, chemistry, hydrology) did not substantially improve the explanatory power of the regressions and could not explain differences in responses among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical models incorporating basin- and regional-scale predictors demonstrated that regional-scale climate (air temperature and precipitation) and antecedent land cover (i.e., land cover being converted to urban) predicted invertebrate responses to urbanization. The lack of identifiable urban responses for Milwaukee-Green Bay, Denver, and Dallas-Fort Worth were associated with high levels of antecedent agriculture (row crops and grazing) that degraded the biological communities and obscured the effects of urbanization. Urbanization was associated with increases in conductivity, nutrients, pesticides, and hydrologic variability. Levels of these variables at background sites were higher in regions with high antecedent agriculture; consequently, the effects of urbanization appeared to be

  18. Comparison of daily and weekly precipitation sampling efficiencies using automatic collectors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Linthurst, R.A.; Ellson, J.E.; Vozzo, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation samples were collected for approximately 90 daily and 50 weekly sampling periods at Finley Farm, near Raleigh, North Carolina from August 1981 through October 1982. Ten wet-deposition samplers (AEROCHEM METRICS MODEL 301) were used; 4 samplers were operated for daily sampling, and 6 samplers were operated for weekly-sampling periods. This design was used to determine if: (1) collection efficiences of precipitation are affected by small distances between the Universal (Belfort) precipitation gage and collector; (2) measurable evaporation loss occurs and (3) pH and specific conductance of precipitation vary significantly within small distances. Average collection efficiencies were 97% for weekly sampling periods compared with the rain gage. Collection efficiencies were examined by seasons and precipitation volume. Neither factor significantly affected collection efficiency. No evaporation loss was found by comparing daily sampling to weekly sampling at the collection site, which was classified as a subtropical climate. Correlation coefficients for pH and specific conductance of daily samples and weekly samples ranged from 0.83 to 0.99.Precipitation samples were collected for approximately 90 daily and 50 weekly sampling periods at Finley farm, near Raleigh, North Carolina from August 1981 through October 1982. Ten wet-deposition samplers were used; 4 samplers were operated for daily sampling, and 6 samplers were operated for weekly-sampling periods. This design was used to determine if: (1) collection efficiencies of precipitation are affected by small distances between the University (Belfort) precipitation gage and collector; (2) measurable evaporation loss occurs and (3) pH and specific conductance of precipitation vary significantly within small distances.

  19. Modeling anomalous surface - wave propagation across the Southern Caspian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Priestly, K.F.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.A.

    1998-01-09

    The crust of the south Caspian basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediment overlying high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho depth beneath the basin is about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. Preliminary modeling of the phase velocity curves shows that this thick sediments of the south Caspian basin are also under-lain by a 30-35 km thick crystalline crust and not by typical oceanic crust. This analysis also suggest that if the effect of the over-pressuring of the sediments is to reduce Poissons` ratio, the over-pressured sediments observed to approximately 5 km do not persist to great depths. It has been shown since 1960`s that the south Caspian basin blocks the regional phase Lg. Intermediate frequency (0.02-0.04 Hz) fundamental mode Raleigh waves propagating across the basin are also severely attenuated, but the low frequency surface waves are largely unaffected. This attenuation is observed along the both east-to-west and west-to-east great circle paths across the basin, and therefore it cannot be related to a seismograph site effect. We have modeled the response of surface waves in an idealized rendition of the south Caspian basin model using a hybrid normal mode / 2-D finite difference approach. To gain insight into the features of the basin which cause the anomalous surface wave propagation, we have varied parameters of the basin model and computed synthetic record sections to compare with the observed seismograms. We varied the amount of mantel up-warp, the shape of the boundaries, the thickness and shear wave Q of the sediments and mantle, and the depth of the water layer. Of these parameters, the intermediate frequency surface waves are most severely affected by the sediments thickness and shear wave attenuation. fundamental mode Raleigh wave phase velocities measure for paths crossing the basin are extremely low.

  20. The Effects of Urban Warming on Herbivore Abundance and Street Tree Condition

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Adam G.; Frank, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Trees are essential to urban habitats because they provide services that benefit the environment and improve human health. Unfortunately, urban trees often have more herbivorous insect pests than rural trees but the mechanisms and consequences of these infestations are not well documented. Here, we examine how temperature affects the abundance of a scale insect, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on one of the most commonly planted street trees in the eastern U.S. Next, we examine how both pest abundance and temperature are associated with water stress, growth, and condition of 26 urban street trees. Although trees in the warmest urban sites grew the most, they were more water stressed and in worse condition than trees in cooler sites. Our analyses indicate that visible declines in tree condition were best explained by scale-insect infestation rather than temperature. To test the broader relevance of these results, we extend our analysis to a database of more than 2700 Raleigh, US street trees. Plotting these trees on a Landsat thermal image of Raleigh, we found that warmer sites had over 70% more trees in poor condition than those in cooler sites. Our results support previous studies linking warmer urban habitats to greater pest abundance and extend this association to show its effect on street tree condition. Our results suggest that street tree condition and ecosystem services may decline as urban expansion and global warming exacerbate the urban heat island effect. Although our non-probability sampling method limits our scope of inference, our results present a gloomy outlook for urban forests and emphasize the need for management tools. Existing urban tree inventories and thermal maps could be used to identify species that would be most suitable for urban conditions. PMID:25054326

  1. Geodesy-based estimates of loading rates on faults beneath the Los Angeles basin with a new, computationally efficient method to model dislocations in 3D heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, C.; Argus, D. F.; Avouac, J. P.; Landry, W.; Barbot, S.

    2015-12-01

    North-south compression across the Los Angeles basin is accommodated by slip on thrust faults beneath the basin that may present significant seismic hazard to Los Angeles. Previous geodesy-based efforts to constrain the distributions and rates of elastic strain accumulation on these faults [Argus et al 2005, 2012] have found that the elastic model used has a first-order impact on the inferred distribution of locking and creep, underlining the need to accurately incorporate the laterally heterogeneous elastic structure and complex fault geometries of the Los Angeles basin into this analysis. We are using Gamra [Landry and Barbot, in prep.], a newly developed adaptive-meshing finite-difference solver, to compute elastostatic Green's functions that incorporate the full 3D regional elastic structure provided by the SCEC Community Velocity Model. Among preliminary results from benchmarks, forward models and inversions, we find that: 1) for a modeled creep source on the edge dislocation geometry from Argus et al [2005], the use of the SCEC CVM material model produces surface velocities in the hanging wall that are up to ~50% faster than those predicted in an elastic halfspace model; 2) in sensitivity-modulated inversions of the Argus et al [2005] GPS velocity field for slip on the same dislocation source, the use of the CVM deepens the inferred locking depth by ≥3 km compared to an elastic halfspace model; 3) when using finite-difference or finite-element models with Dirichlet boundary conditions (except for the free surface) for problems of this scale, it is necessary to set the boundaries at least ~100 km away from any slip source or data point to guarantee convergence within 5% of analytical solutions (a result which may be applicable to other static dislocation modeling problems and which may scale with the size of the area of interest). Here we will present finalized results from inversions of an updated GPS velocity field [Argus et al, AGU 2015] for the inferred

  2. CyberShake: Running Seismic Hazard Workflows on Distributed HPC Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Graves, R. W.; Gill, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Milner, K. R.; Yu, J.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    As part of its program of earthquake system science research, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed a simulation platform, CyberShake, to perform physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) using 3D deterministic wave propagation simulations. CyberShake performs PSHA by simulating a tensor-valued wavefield of Strain Green Tensors, and then using seismic reciprocity to calculate synthetic seismograms for about 415,000 events per site of interest. These seismograms are processed to compute ground motion intensity measures, which are then combined with probabilities from an earthquake rupture forecast to produce a site-specific hazard curve. Seismic hazard curves for hundreds of sites in a region can be used to calculate a seismic hazard map, representing the seismic hazard for a region. We present a recently completed PHSA study in which we calculated four CyberShake seismic hazard maps for the Southern California area to compare how CyberShake hazard results are affected by different SGT computational codes (AWP-ODC and AWP-RWG) and different community velocity models (Community Velocity Model - SCEC (CVM-S4) v11.11 and Community Velocity Model - Harvard (CVM-H) v11.9). We present our approach to running workflow applications on distributed HPC resources, including systems without support for remote job submission. We show how our approach extends the benefits of scientific workflows, such as job and data management, to large-scale applications on Track 1 and Leadership class open-science HPC resources. We used our distributed workflow approach to perform CyberShake Study 13.4 on two new NSF open-science HPC computing resources, Blue Waters and Stampede, executing over 470 million tasks to calculate physics-based hazard curves for 286 locations in the Southern California region. For each location, we calculated seismic hazard curves with two different community velocity models and two different SGT codes, resulting in over

  3. Increased dietary potassium and magnesium attenuate experimental volume dependent hypertension possibly through endogenous sodium-potassium pump inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Pamnani, Motilal B; Bryant, Howard J; Clough, David L; Schooley, James F

    2003-02-01

    We and others have shown that inhibition of cardiovascular muscle (CVM) cell Na+,K-ATPase activity (NKPTA) due to increased level of endogenous sodium potassium pump inhibitor (SPI) is involved in the mechanism of volume expanded (VE) experimental and human essential hypertension (HT). Since diets fortified with very high potassium (K) or very high magnesium (Mg) decrease blood pressure (BP), we have examined the effect of a moderate increase in dietary K alone and a moderate increase in dietary K and Mg on plasma levels of SPI, CVM cell NKPTA, and BP in reduced renal mass (RRM)-salt HT rats, a classical model of VE HT. Seventy Percent-RRM rats were divided in four dietary groups, (1) Na free and normal K and Mg (0Na-K-Mg); (2) normal Na, K and Mg (Na-K-Mg); (3) normal Na and high K (2 x normal), and normal Mg (Na-2K-Mg); and (4) normal Na and high K (2 x normal), and high Mg (2 x normal) (Na-2K-2Mg). As expected, compared to control 0Na-K-Mg rats, Na-K-Mg rats developed HT. Blood pressure increased significantly less in Na-2K-Mg rats whereas, BP did not increase in Na-2K-2Mg rats. Hypertension in NA-K-Mg rats was associated with an increase in plasma SPI and digitalis like factor (DIF) and a decrease in renal and myocardial NKPTA. However, doubling the Mg along with K in the diet (Na-2K-2Mg) normalized SPI and DIF and increased myocardial and renal NKPTA, compared to control 0Na-K-Mg rats. Also, compared to 0Na-K-Mg rats, water consumption, urine excretion, urinary sodium excretion urinary potassium excretion (U(Na)V), and (U(K)V) increased in the other three groups, more so in Na-2K-2Mg rats. These data show that K and Mg have additive effects in preventing an increase in SPI, thus probably preventing the BP increase in RRM rats.

  4. Comparative safety and effectiveness of long-acting inhaled agents for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tricco, Andrea C; Strifler, Lisa; Veroniki, Areti-Angeliki; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Khan, Paul A; Scott, Alistair; Ng, Carmen; Antony, Jesmin; Mrklas, Kelly; D'Souza, Jennifer; Cardoso, Roberta; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and effectiveness of long-acting β-antagonists (LABA), long-acting antimuscarinic agents (LAMA) and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Setting Systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA). Participants 208 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) including 134 692 adults with COPD. Interventions LABA, LAMA and/or ICS, alone or in combination, versus each other or placebo. Primary and secondary outcomes The proportion of patients with moderate-to-severe exacerbations. The number of patients experiencing mortality, pneumonia, serious arrhythmia and cardiovascular-related mortality (CVM) were secondary outcomes. Results NMA was conducted including 20 RCTs for moderate-to-severe exacerbations for 26 141 patients with an exacerbation in the past year. 32 treatments were effective versus placebo including: tiotropium, budesonide/formoterol, salmeterol, indacaterol, fluticasone/salmeterol, indacaterol/glycopyrronium, tiotropium/fluticasone/salmeterol and tiotropium/budesonide/formoterol. Tiotropium/budesonide/formoterol was most effective (99.2% probability of being the most effective according to the Surface Under the Cumulative RAnking (SUCRA) curve). NMA was conducted on mortality (88 RCTs, 97 526 patients); fluticasone/salmeterol was more effective in reducing mortality than placebo, formoterol and fluticasone alone, and was the most effective (SUCRA=71%). NMA was conducted on CVM (37 RCTs, 55 156 patients) and the following were safest: salmeterol versus each OF placebo, tiotropium and tiotropium (Soft Mist Inhaler (SMR)); fluticasone versus tiotropium (SMR); and salmeterol/fluticasone versus tiotropium and tiotropium (SMR). Triamcinolone acetonide was the most harmful (SUCRA=81%). NMA was conducted on pneumonia occurrence (54 RCTs, 61 551 patients). 24 treatments were more harmful, including 2 that increased risk of pneumonia versus placebo; fluticasone and fluticasone

  5. A unified methodology for seismic waveform analysis and inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po

    A central problem of seismology is the inversion of regional waveform data for models of earthquake sources and earth structure. In regions such as Southern California, preliminary 3D earth models are already available, and efficient numerical methods have been developed for solving the point-source forward problem. We describe a unified inversion procedure that utilizes these capabilities to improve 3D earth models and derive centroid moment tensor (CMT) or finite moment tensor (FMT) representations of earthquake ruptures. Our data are time- and frequency-localized measurements of the phase and amplitude anomalies relative to synthetic seismograms computed from reference seismic source and structure models. Our analysis on these phase and amplitude measurements shows that these preliminary 3D models provide substantially better fit to observed data than either laterally homogeneous or path-averaged 1D structure models that are commonly used in previous seismic studies for Southern California. And we found a small but statistically significant polarization anisotropy in the upper crust that might be associated with basin layering effect. Using the same type of phase and amplitude measurements, we resolved finite source properties for about 40 earthquakes in the Los Angeles basin area. Our results on a cluster of events in the Yorba Linda area show left-lateral faulting conjugate to the nearby right-lateral Whittier fault and are consistent with the "escaping-block" hypothesis about regional tectonics around Los Angeles basin. Our analysis on 16 events in a seismicity trend that extends southwest from Fotana to Puente Hills show right-lateral mechanism that is conjugate to the trend of the hypocenter distribution, suggesting a developing weak-zone that might be related to such "escaping" deformation. To set up the structural inverse problem, we computed 3D sensitivity kernels for our phase and amplitude measurements using the 3D SCEC CVM as the reference model and

  6. Use of Chemical Analysis and Assays of Semipermeable Membrane Devices Extracts to Assess the Response of Bioavailable Organic Pollutants in Streams to Urbanization in Six Metropolitan Areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, Wade L.; Goodbred, Steve L.; Leiker, Thomas L.; Inouye, Laura; Johnson, B. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Studies to assess the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems are being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The overall objectives of these studies are to (1) determine how hydrologic, geomorphic, water quality, habitat, and biological characteristics respond to land-use changes associated with urbanization in specific environmental settings, and (2) compare these responses across environmental settings. As part of an integrated assessment, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in streams along a gradient of urban land-use intensity in and around Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; and Denver-Fort Collins, Colorado, in 2003; and Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Portland, Oregon, in 2004. Sites were selected to avoid point-source discharge and to minimize natural variability within each of the six metropolitan areas. In addition to standard chemical analysis for hydrophobic organic contaminants, three assays were used to address mixtures and potential toxicity: (1) Fluoroscan provides an estimate of the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (2) the P450RGS assay indicates the presence and levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists; and (3) Microtox? measures toxicological effects on photo-luminescent bacteria. Of the 140 compounds targeted or identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis in this study, 67 were not detected. In terms of numbers and types of compounds, the following were detected: 2 wood preservatives, 6 insecticides (parent compounds), 5 herbicides, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 2 dibenzofurans, 4 polychlorinated biphenyls, 7 compounds associated with fragrances or personal care products, 4 steroids associated with wastewater, 5 polydibromated diphenyl ethers (flame retardants), 3 plasticizers, 3 antimicrobials/disinfectants, and 3 detergent metabolites. Of the 73 compounds

  7. Molecular Engineering, Photophysical and Electrochemical Characterizations of Novel Ru(II) and BODIPY Sensitizers for Mesoporous TiO2 Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Hammad Arshad

    precludes coplanarity of the naphthalene moiety, thus decreasing the extracted photocurrent response from solar device. The findings were published in Dyes and Pigments (doi:10.1016/j.dyepig.2014.08.005). For HD-7 and HD-8, intriguing difference caused by structural isomerization based on anthracene and phenanthrene stilbazole type ancillary ligands, respectively in Ru (II) sensitizers was investigated using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. It was found that the excited electrons in HD-7 are prone to ISC (intersystem crossing) much more than that in HD-8 and those triplet electrons are not being injected in TiO2 efficiently as discussed in Chapter 5. To achieve long term stability, we combined the strong electron donor characteristics of carbazole and the hydrophobic nature of long alkyl chains, C7 (HD-14 ), C18 (HD-15) and C2 (NCSU-10), tethered to N-carbazole. HD-15 showed strikingly good long term light soaking stability and maintained up to 98% of initial efficiency value compared to 92% for HD-14 and 78% for NCSU-10, as discussed in Chapter 6. Boron dipyromethene (BODIPY) dyes HB-1, HB-2 and HB-3 were synthesized and fully characterized for dye solar cells. It was found that having long alkyl chains tethered to the donor groups alone are not sufficient for achieving highly efficient photovoltaic response from BODIPY dyes (Chapter 7). Thus, replacement of fluorines from BODIPY core with long alkoxy chains has been suggested for future work.

  8. Preliminary Physical Stratigraphy and Geophysical Data From the USGS Dixon Core, Onslow County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Gonzalez, Wilma Aleman B.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Weems, Robert E.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Durand, Colleen T.

    2009-01-01

    In October through November 2006, scientists from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Region Earth Surface Processes Team (EESPT) and the Raleigh (N.C.) Water Science Center (WSC), in cooperation with the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) and the Onslow County Water and Sewer Authority (ONWASA), drilled a stratigraphic test hole and well in Onslow County, N.C. The Dixon corehole was cored on ONWASA water utility property north of the town of Dixon, N.C., in the Sneads Ferry 7.5-minute quadrangle at latitude 34deg33'35' N, longitude 77deg26'54' W (decimal degrees 34.559722 and -77.448333). The site elevation is 66.0 feet (ft) above mean sea level as determined using a Paulin precision altimeter. The corehole attained a total depth of 1,010 ft and was continuously cored by the USGS EESPT drilling crew. A groundwater monitoring well was installed in the screened interval between 234 and 254 ft below land surface. The section cored at this site includes Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments. The Dixon core is stored at the NCGS Coastal Plain core storage facility in Raleigh. The Dixon corehole is the fourth and last in a series of planned North Carolina benchmark coreholes drilled by the USGS Coastal Carolina Project. These coreholes explore the physical stratigraphy, facies, and thickness of Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene Coastal Plain sediments in North Carolina. Correlations of lithologies, facies, and sequence stratigraphy can be made with the Hope Plantation corehole, N.C., near Windsor in Bertie County (Weems and others, 2007); the Elizabethtown corehole, near Elizabethtown, N.C., in Bladen County (Self-Trail and others, 2004b); the Smith Elementary School corehole, near Cove City, N.C., in Craven County (Harris and Self-Trail, 2006; Crocetti, 2007); the Kure Beach corehole, near Wilmington, N.C., in New Hanover County (Self-Trail and others, 2004a); the Esso#1, Esso #2, Mobil #1, and Mobil #2 cores in Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds

  9. Contribution of pollen to atmospheric ice nuclei concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Hader, J.; Wright, T.; McMeeking, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) contribute to the concentrations of ice nuclei (IN) in the atmosphere. Laboratory studies have shown that pollen grains, a subset of PBAP, can serve as immersion mode ice nuclei at temperatures ranging from -9 to -25 deg C. At the peak of the pollen season pollen concentrations can reach surface-level concentrations exceeding 1 per liter of air. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that the ice nucleating ability of some types of pollen is derived from non-proteinaceous macromolecules, which may become dispersed by the rupturing of the pollen sac during wetting and drying cycles. If true, this mechanism is expected to produce highly elevated IN concentrations at temperatures warmer than -25 deg C. Here we test this hypothesis by measuring ambient IN concentrations from the beginning to the end of the 2013 pollen season in Raleigh, North Carolina. Raleigh is surrounded by a dense mixed hardwood forest composed primarily of oak, hickory, and pine species. Air samples were collected using a swirling aerosol collector twice per week and the solution was analyzed for ice nuclei activity using a droplet freezing assay setup. Rainwater samples were collected during rain events at the peak of the pollen season and analyzed with the drop freezing assay to compare the potentially enhanced IN concentrations measured near the ground with IN concentrations found aloft. Raw freezing spectra were used to probe the freezing activity of both abundant and rare IN contained in sample liquids by analysis of drops that had varying degrees of preconcentration and size (~50 to ~650 μm). Extreme value statistics is used to collapse the raw freezing data into a single ice nuclei spectrum, defined as number of ice nuclei per volume of air as a function of temperature, that spans ~6 orders of magnitude in IN concentration. For a selected number of samples, concentrations of biological and non-biological ambient aerosol and particles are

  10. Preliminary Physical Stratigraphy and Geophysical Data of the USGS Hope Plantation Core (BE-110), Bertie County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, Robert E.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Wrege, Beth M.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Prowell, David C.; Durand, Colleen; Cobbs, Eugene F.; McKinney, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction In March and April, 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) and the Raleigh Water Resources Discipline (WRD), drilled a stratigraphic test hole and well in Bertie County, North Carolina (fig. 1). The Hope Plantation test hole (BE-110-2004) was cored on the property of Hope Plantation near Windsor, North Carolina. The drill site is located on the Republican 7.5 minute quadradrangle at lat 36?01'58'N., long 78?01'09'W. (decimal degrees 36.0329 and 77.0192) (fig. 2). The altitude of the site is 48 ft above mean sea level as determined by Paulin Precise altimeter. This test hole was continuously cored by Eugene F. Cobbs, III and Kevin C. McKinney (USGS) to a total depth of 1094.5 ft. Later, a ground water observation well was installed with a screened interval between 315-329 feet below land surface (fig. 3). Upper Triassic, Lower Cretaceous, Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments were recovered from the site. The core is stored at the NCGS Coastal Plain core storage facility in Raleigh, North Carolina. In this report, we provide the initial lithostratigraphic summary recorded at the drill site along with site core photographs, data from the geophysical logger, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic correlations (Table 1) and initial hydrogeologic interpretations. The lithostratigraphy from this core can be compared to previous investigations of the Elizabethtown corehole, near Elizabethtown, North Carolina in Bladen County (Self-Trail, Wrege, and others, 2004), the Kure Beach corehole, near Wilmington, North Carolina in New Hanover County (Self-Trail, Prowell, and Christopher, 2004), the Esso #1, Esso #2, Mobil #1 and Mobil #2 cores in the Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds (Zarra, 1989), and the Cape Fear River outcrops in Bladen County (Farrell, 1998; Farrell and others, 2001). This core is the third in a series of planned benchmark coreholes that will be used to elucidate the

  11. Realization of thermal Convection into the initial Earth's Core on the Stage of planetary Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Professor Khachay, Yurie

    2015-04-01

    Convection in the Earth's core is not only the main mechanism of heat-mass transfer, but the significant component of the MHD mechanism of geomagnetic field generation. However the research of different convection forms on the Earth's accumulation stage had been so far not produced. Regarding the convection realization into the initial core of the growing proto planet we can distinguish some qualitative different stages. The earliest from them for the area of the planets of the Earth's group had been realized in to the pre planetary bodies, when the energy dissipation by the decay of the short living radioactive, first of all 26Al, provided the melted state of the inner areas of the proto planet. By that the masses and relative velocities of body's impacts during the process of accumulation had been small. That stipulated the low temperature values of the growing proto planetary surface [1] and the background of Raleigh heat convection realization. On the next stage of the planetary accumulation the contribution of short living isotopes to the energetic process during the decay 26Al decreased, but the energy contribution from the body's impact increased. The balance of the energy on the surface of the proto planet leaded to the melted state of the upper envelope and to the inelastic character of the impact. Further during the increase of the proto planetary mass, increase of the pressure and the melting temperature with the depth and decrease of the intensity of the dissipate energy by the body's impact, which became more elastic because of the silicate part, the background of the Raleigh heat convection can be realized [2]. However the falling of accumulated bodies can lead to the random distribution of the heat anomalies, which we could research only in the frame of the 3-D model [3-4]. For researching of the MHD mechanism of geomagnetic field generation developing yet on the stage of Earth's accumulation in that paper are presented the results of numerical

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs.

  13. Developpement de techniques numeriques pour l'estimation, la modelisation et la prediction de proprietes thermodynamiques et structurales de systems metalliques a fort ordonnancement chimique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Jean-Philippe

    In this work, the possibility to calculate and evaluate with a high degree of precision the Gibbs energy of complex multiphase equilibria for which chemical ordering is explicitly and simultaneously considered in the thermodynamic description of solid (short range order and long range order) and liquid (short range order) metallic phases is studied. The cluster site approximation (CSA) and the cluster variation method (CVM) are implemented in a new minimization technique of the Gibbs energy of multicomponent and multiphase systems to describe the thermodynamic behaviour of metallic solid solutions showing strong chemical ordering. The modified quasichemical model in the pair approximation (MQMPA) is also implemented in the new minimization algorithm presented in this work to describe the thermodynamic behaviour of metallic liquid solutions. The constrained minimization technique implemented in this work consists of a sequential quadratic programming technique based on an exact Newton’s method (i.e. the use of exact second derivatives in the determination of the Hessian of the objective function) combined to a line search method to identify a direction of sufficient decrease of the merit function. The implementation of a new algorithm to perform the constrained minimization of the Gibbs energy is justified by the difficulty to identify, in specific cases, the correct multiphase assemblage of a system where the thermodynamic behaviour of the equilibrium phases is described by one of the previously quoted models using the FactSage software (ex.: solid_CSA+liquid_MQMPA; solid1_CSA+solid2_CSA). After a rigorous validation of the constrained Gibbs energy minimization algorithm using several assessed binary and ternary systems found in the literature, the CVM and the CSA models used to describe the energetic behaviour of metallic solid solutions present in systems with key industrial applications such as the Cu-Zr and the Al-Zr systems are parameterized using fully

  14. Stark effect, polarizability, and electroabsorption in silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulutay, Ceyhun; Kulakci, Mustafa; Turan, Raşit

    2010-03-01

    Demonstrating the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) in silicon nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in oxide has been rather elusive, unlike the other materials. Here, the recent experimental data from ion-implanted Si NCs is unambiguously explained within the context of QCSE using an atomistic pseudopotential theory. This further reveals that the majority of the Stark shift comes from the valence states which undergo a level crossing that leads to a nonmonotonic radiative recombination behavior with respect to the applied field. The polarizability of embedded Si NCs including the excitonic effects is extracted over a diameter range of 2.5-6.5 nm, which displays a cubic scaling, α=cDNC3 , with c=2.436×10-11C/(Vm) , where DNC is the NC diameter. Finally, based on intraband electroabsorption analysis, it is predicted that p -doped Si NCs will show substantial voltage tunability, whereas n -doped samples should be almost insensitive. Given the fact that bulk silicon lacks the linear electro-optic effect as being a centrosymmetric crystal, this may offer a viable alternative for electrical modulation using p -doped Si NCs.

  15. Hierarchical fiber-optic delamination detection system for carbon fiber reinforced plastic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Banshoya, Hidehiko; Shingo, Ii; Takeda, Nobuo

    2012-10-01

    This study develops a delamination detection system by extending our previous approach for monitoring surface cracks in a large-scale composite structure. In the new system, numerous thin glass capillaries are embedded into a composite structure, and internal pressure in the built-in capillary sensors, based on comparative vacuum monitoring (CVM), is maintained as a vacuum. When delamination is induced, the capillary sensors located within the delaminated area are breached, and atmospheric air flows into the capillaries. The consequent pressure change within the capillaries is then converted into axial strain in a surface-mounted optical fiber through a transducing mechanism, which is connected to the capillaries. By monitoring the strain distribution along the optical fiber, it is possible to identify a transducing mechanism in which the pressure change occurred and thus to specify the location of the delamination. This study begins by establishing a novel sensor embedding/extracting method. The airflow characteristic in the capillary sensors is then comprehensively evaluated, determining the basic performance of the new system. The proposed detection technique is validated by taking a step-by-step approach, and finally the hierarchical fiber-optic delamination detection system is demonstrated. A further advance to be combined with a self-healing concept is also discussed.

  16. Geothermal reservoir monitoring based upon spectral-element and adjoint methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morency, C.; Templeton, D. C.; Harris, D.; Mellors, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    Induced seismicity associated with CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and enhanced geothermal systems is triggered by fracturing during fluid injection. These events range from magnitude -1 (microseismicity) up to 3.5, for induced seismicity on pre-existing faults. In our approach, we are using seismic data collected at the Salton Sea geothermal field, to improve the current structural model (SCEC CVM4.0 including a 10m resolution topography) and to invert for the moment tensor and source location of the microseismic events. The key here is to refine the velocity model to then precisely invert for the location and mechanism (tensile or shear) of fracture openings. This information is crucial for geothermal reservoir assessment, especially in an unconventional setting where hydrofracturing is used to enhance productivity. The location of pre-existing and formed fractures as well as their type of openings are important elements for strategic decisions. Numerical simulations are performed using a spectral-element method, which contrary to finite-element methods (FEM), uses high degree Lagrange polynomials, allowing the technique to not only handle complex geometries, like the FEM, but also to retain the strength of exponential convergence and accuracy due to the use of high degree polynomials. Finite-frequency sensitivity kernels, used in the non-linear iterative inversions, are calculated based on an adjoint method.

  17. Boundary lubrication of formulated C-ether in air to 300 deg C. 1: Phosphorus ester additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Hady, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Friction and wear measurements were made on CVM M-50 steel lubricated with three C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) formulations in dry and wet air. Results were compared to those obtained with a formulated Type 2 ester and the C-ether base fluid. A ball-on-disk sliding friction apparatus was used. Experimental conditions were a 1-kilogram load, a 17-meter-perminute (100-rpm) surface speed, and a 25 to 300 C (77 to 572 F) disk temperature range. The C-ether base fluid and the three formulated C-ether fluids yielded lower wear than the Type 2 ester over the entire temperature range. All C-ether fluids exhibited slightly higher friction coefficients than the ester from 150 to 300 C (302 to 572 F) and similar values from 25 to 150 C (77 to 302 F). In general, lower wear rates were observed with the C-ethers when tested in wet air as compared to a dry air atmosphere.

  18. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is associated with structural and vascular placental abnormalities and leptin dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Helen N.; Olbrych, Stephanie K.; Smith, Kathleen L.; Cnota, James F.; Habli, Mounira; Gonzales-Ramos, Osniel; Owens, Kathryn J; Hinton, Andrea C.; Polzin, William J.; Muglia, Louis J.; Hinton, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a severe cardiovascular malformation (CVM) associated with fetal growth abnormalities. Genetic and environmental factors have been identified that contribute to pathogenesis, but the role of the placenta is unknown. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the placenta in HLHS with and without growth abnormalities. Methods HLHS term singleton births were identified from a larger cohort when placenta tissue was available. Clinical data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records, including anthropometrics and placental pathology reports. Placental tissues from cases and controls were analyzed to assess parenchymal morphology, vascular architecture and leptin signaling. Results HLHS cases (n = 16) and gestational age-matched controls (n = 18) were analyzed. Among cases, the average birth weight was 2993 grams, including 31% that were small for gestational age. When compared with controls, gross pathology of HLHS cases demonstrated significantly reduced placental weight and increased fibrin deposition, while micropathology showed increased syncytial nuclear aggregates, decreased terminal villi, reduced vasculature and increased leptin expression in syncytiotrophoblast and endothelial cells. Discussion Placentas from pregnancies complicated by fetal HLHS are characterized by abnormal parenchymal morphology, suggesting immature structure may be due to vascular abnormalities. Increased leptin expression may indicate an attempt to compensate for these vascular abnormalities. Further investigation into the regulation of angiogenesis in the fetus and placenta may elucidate the causes of HLHS and associated growth abnormalities in some cases. PMID:26278057

  19. Career attitudes of first-year veterinary students before and after a required course on veterinary careers.

    PubMed

    Fish, Richard E; Griffith, Emily H

    2014-01-01

    Careers in Veterinary Medicine is a required, one-credit-hour course at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM), which meets once weekly during veterinary students' first semester. Lectures in this course are presented by one or more veterinarians representing diverse career areas. A voluntary, anonymous survey was distributed before the first class meeting in 2011 (PRE) and at the end of the semester (POST) to assess if students' career interests changed during the semester. The survey collected basic demographic data and students' preferences (on a Likert scale) for 17 veterinary career paths. Out of 63 students, 36 (57%) in the POST survey said that their career interests had changed during the semester, and 17 of the 26 students (65%) who gave a reason credited the careers course as one factor in reconsidering their career choice. Only 3 of the 17 career paths had statistically significant PRE/POST survey differences in Likert response frequency (equine practice, pathology, and wildlife medicine), but both informal discussions with students and responses to open-ended survey questions indicated that many students valued the introduction to unfamiliar veterinary career areas. Careers in Veterinary Medicine is a vital component of recent career-planning initiatives in the college, which will be especially important to veterinary students as they face continued changes in the profession, such as the increased debt load of the new graduate and the threat of veterinary workforce oversupply.

  20. In vivo optical imaging of brain tumors and arthritis using fluorescent SapC-DOPS nanovesicles.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhengtao; LaSance, Kathleen; Blanco, Victor; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk; Kaur, Balveen; Frederick, Malinda; Thornton, Sherry; Lemen, Lisa; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2014-05-02

    We describe a multi-angle rotational optical imaging (MAROI) system for in vivo monitoring of physiopathological processes labeled with a fluorescent marker. Mouse models (brain tumor and arthritis) were used to evaluate the usefulness of this method. Saposin C (SapC)-dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) nanovesicles tagged with CellVue Maroon (CVM) fluorophore were administered intravenously. Animals were then placed in the rotational holder (MARS) of the in vivo imaging system. Images were acquired in 10° steps over 380°. A rectangular region of interest (ROI) was placed across the full image width at the model disease site. Within the ROI, and for every image, mean fluorescence intensity was computed after background subtraction. In the mouse models studied, the labeled nanovesicles were taken up in both the orthotopic and transgenic brain tumors, and in the arthritic sites (toes and ankles). Curve analysis of the multi angle image ROIs determined the angle with the highest signal. Thus, the optimal angle for imaging each disease site was characterized. The MAROI method applied to imaging of fluorescent compounds is a noninvasive, economical, and precise tool for in vivo quantitative analysis of the disease states in the described mouse models.

  1. Some limitations of a proposed linear model for antimicrobial risk management.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2005-12-01

    The FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) (Bartholomew et al., 2005) recently proposed an approach to risk management based on the linear modeling framework: Risk = K x Exposure. They suggest that, once K has been estimated from historical data, it can be used to predict how limiting future exposure will reduce future risk. They illustrate the approach for fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacter in chicken. However, despite its appealing simplicity, the proposed approach confuses a possibly meaningless descriptive statistical ratio with a valid predictive causal relation. In general, the historical ratio K = (Risk/Exposure) may not predict how changing future exposures will affect future risks, and hence it does not necessarily provide an appropriate guide to current risk management actions. We identify several limitations of the proposed framework, including omission of frequency and severity of human health harm in quantifying "Risk" and omission of microbial load from "Exposure." Finally, we show that an extended linear modeling approach that considers impacts of changing animal antibiotic use on susceptible as well as on resistant bacteria is consistent with the conclusion that reducing "Exposure" can greatly increase "Risk."

  2. Tumor cell vascular mimicry: Novel targeting opportunity in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Mary J C; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Seftor, Richard E B; Chao, Jun-Tzu; Chien, Du-Shieng; Chu, Yi-Wen

    2016-03-01

    In 1999, the American Journal of Pathology published an article, entitled "Vascular channel formation by human melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro: vasculogenic mimicry" by Maniotis and colleagues, which ignited a spirited debate for several years and earned the journal's distinction of a "citation classic" (Maniotis et al., 1999). Tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry (VM), also known as vascular mimicry, describes the plasticity of aggressive cancer cells forming de novo vascular networks and is associated with the malignant phenotype and poor clinical outcome. The tumor cells capable of VM share the commonality of a stem cell-like, transendothelial phenotype, which may be induced by hypoxia. Since its introduction as a novel paradigm for melanoma tumor perfusion, many studies have contributed new findings illuminating the underlying molecular pathways supporting VM in a variety of tumors, including carcinomas, sarcomas, glioblastomas, astrocytomas, and melanomas. Of special significance is the lack of effectiveness of angiogenesis inhibitors on tumor cell VM, suggesting a selective resistance by this phenotype to conventional therapy. Facilitating the functional plasticity of tumor cell VM are key proteins associated with vascular, stem cell, extracellular matrix, and hypoxia-related signaling pathways--each deserving serious consideration as potential therapeutic targets and diagnostic indicators of the aggressive, metastatic phenotype. This review highlights seminal findings pertinent to VM, including the effects of a novel, small molecular compound, CVM-1118, currently under clinical development to target VM, and illuminates important molecular pathways involved in the suppression of this plastic, aggressive phenotype, using melanoma as a model.

  3. Mechanism of lubrication by tricresylphosphate (TCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faut, O. D.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A pin-on-disk tribometer equipped with an induction heater was used to study the coefficient of friction as a function of temperature for tricresylphosphate (TCP) on continuous vacuum melted (CVM) M-50 tool steel when the TCP was present in a liquid reservoir (bulk lubrication), and when it was applied as a liquid layer directly to the disk (limited lubrication). Under limited lubrication conditions, experiments were performed in dry ( 100 ppm H2O) air, dry ( 20 ppm H2O) nitrogen, dry nitrogen with the disks heated to 700 C then cooled to room temperature before the TCP was applied and the measurements made (preheated disks), and moist nitrogen using preheated disks. When the coefficient of friction was plotted as a function of the disk temperature, the friction decreased at a characteristic temperature, T sub r whose observed values were 265 C for bulk lubrication conditions in dry air, 225 C for limited lubrication conditions in dry air, and 215 C for limited lubrication conditions in dry nitrogen. No decrease in friction was observed with preheated disks; instead a sharp failure temperature was observed at 218 C, which was taken as the temperature about which the behavior of TCP should be judged, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of phosphate on the surface of the iron pins used in the tribometer under TCP lubrication. Depth profile studies support the idea that a chemical reaction occurs between the TCP and the metal surface at T sub r.

  4. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Associated Cardiovascular Malformations: Type, Frequency, and Impact on Management

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Angela E.; Pober, Barbara R.; Adatia, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The co-occurrence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) has important clinical, genetic, and developmental implications. Previous examinations of this topic often included patients with genetic syndromes. To correct this potential bias, we undertook an extensive review of the literature and obtained new data. The frequency of CVMs associated with isolated CDH was 11–15%. A careful analysis of CVMs indicates that atrial and ventricular septal defects, conotruncal defects, and left ventricular outflow tract obstructive defects were the most common type of CVMs, but proportional to the frequency of occurrence in the general population. The combination of CVM and CDH results in a poorer prognosis than would be expected with either malformation alone. However, the impact on survival from patients with a genetic syndrome has not been consistently evaluated. We encourage researchers to re-analyze existing series and recommend that future studies distinguish isolated CDH from that which is associated with other malformations, especially as part of genetic syndromes. Therapies should be tailored to maximize cardiac output and systemic oxygen delivery rather than systemic oxygen saturation alone. Although there is speculation about the frequency with which isolated left ventricular “hypoplasia” occurs in patients with CDH, we suggest it results from compression of a pre-load deficient left ventricle by the hypertensive right ventricle, and unlike true hypoplasia, is reversible. Irrespective of the type of severity of CVMs in patients with CDH, the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary vascular disease predicts outcome. PMID:17436301

  5. A pedigree-analysis approach to the descriptive epidemiology of autosomal-recessive disorders.

    PubMed

    Man, W Y N; Nicholas, F W; James, J W

    2007-03-17

    We describe a pedigree-analysis approach to estimating descriptive epidemiological parameters for autosomal-recessive disorders when the ancestral source of the disorder is known. We show that the expected frequency of carriers in a cohort equals the gene contribution of the ancestral source to that cohort, which is equivalent to the direct (additive) genetic relationship of that ancestor to the cohort. Also, the expected incidence of affected foetuses ranges from (1/2)F* to F*, where F* is the mean partial inbreeding coefficient (due to the ancestor) of the cohort. We applied this approach to complex vertebral malformation (CVM) in Holstein-Friesians in Australia, for which the ancestral source is a USA-born bull, Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell. The estimated frequency of carriers was 2.47% for the 1992-born and 4.44% for the 1997-born cohort of Holstein-Friesian cows in Australia. The estimated incidence of affected foetuses/calves was considerably less than one per thousand, ranging from 0.0024 to 0.0048% for the 1992-born cohort, and from 0.0288 to 0.0576% for the 1997-born cohort. These incidences correspond to expected numbers of affected female foetuses/calves ranging from 2 to 4 for the 1992-born cohort and from 28 to 56 for the 1997-born cohort. This approach is easy to implement using software that is readily available.

  6. International innovations in optical finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-10-01

    Every few years new polishing technologies attempt to make the transition from the research laboratory into the commercial sector. Success awaits any process that is well controlled and predictable (e.g., deterministic), rapid, capable of smoothing to sub-nm rms roughness levels while removing damage from grinding, affordable, and easily implemented. Applicability to different optical materials and a variety of part sizes and shapes is extremely important, but may not be required for a new technology to succeed in a niche market. This paper reviews six innovations in polishing of precision optics: Canon"s Super-Smooth Polisher (CSSP) that uses a sub-aperture pitch lap - a relatively mature but important base-line technology; Nikon / Osaka University"s RF Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining (CVM); Epion"s Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) Process; the IOM University of Leipzig / NTGL Ion Beam Finishing (IBF) Technology; Zeeko"s "Precessions" Process with a sub-aperture section of an inflatable pad; and QED Technology"s Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) with a magnetic fluid ribbon. The removal mechanism and some recent achievements for each process are discussed.

  7. Flood risk acceptability and economic value of evacuation.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Guofang; Ikeda, Saburo

    2006-06-01

    The economic value of evacuation and its relationship with flood risk acceptability in Japan were studied by applying the contingent valuation method (CVM). Flood risk acceptability here refers to the extent to which people accept the occurrence of floods, in terms of scale and frequency. The economic value of evacuation refers to people's willingness to pay (WTP) for avoiding evacuation inconvenience because of its inconvenience and the potential for certain losses as a result of evacuation. Our main finding was that over half of the people (56%) who actually evacuated in a real flood situation reported inconvenience. The greatest inconveniences were the shortages of information and food. Evacuation inconvenience can be regarded as an important factor causing the low rate of evacuation in Japan. The WTP for avoiding current inconvenience was approximately half of the estimated economic value of evacuation, implying that the current budget for evacuation is too small and should be increased to improve the conditions of evacuation sites. The economic value of evacuation can be taken into consideration in the risk assessment process in order to evaluate the efficiency of risk reduction measures. Flood risk acceptability and home ownership are two major statistically significantly determinants of the WTP. Considering that those who accept flood risk have a lower WTP for flood risk control (ex ante measures) than those who reject it, it is reasonable to think that there may be a tradeoff between the public WTPs for ex ante or ex post measures.

  8. Assessing Local Communities’ Willingness to Pay for River Network Protection: A Contingent Valuation Study of Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Zhaoyi; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Jiang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    River networks have experienced serious degradation because of rapid urbanization and population growth in developing countries such as China, and the protection of these networks requires the integration of evaluation with ecology and economics. In this study, a structured questionnaire survey of local residents in Shanghai (China) was conducted in urban and suburban areas. The study examined residents’ awareness of the value of the river network, sought their attitude toward the current status, and employed a logistic regression analysis based on the contingent valuation method (CVM) to calculate the total benefit and explain the socioeconomic factors influencing the residents’ willingness to pay (WTP). The results suggested that residents in Shanghai had a high degree of recognition of river network value but a low degree of satisfaction with the government’s actions and the current situation. The study also illustrated that the majority of respondents were willing to pay for river network protection. The mean WTP was 226.44 RMB per household per year. The number of years lived in Shanghai, the distance from the home to the nearest river, and the amount of the bid were important factors that influenced the respondents’ WTP. Suggestions for comprehensive management were proposed for the use of policy makers in river network conservation. PMID:23202821

  9. Endurance and failure characteristics of main-shaft jet engine bearings at 3x10 to the 6th power DN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamberger, E. N.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.

    1976-01-01

    Groups of thirty 120-mm bore angular contact ball bearings were endurance tested at a speed of 12,000 and 25,000 rpm and a thrust load of 66 721 N. The bearings were manufactured from a single heat of VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel. At 1.44X1 million and 3.0x1 million DN, 84 483 and 74 800 bearing test hours were accumulated, respectively. Test results were compared with similar bearings made from CVM AISI M-50 steel run under the same conditions. Bearing lives at speeds of 3x1 million DN with the VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel were nearly equivalent to those obtained at lower speeds. A combined processing and material life factor of 44 was found for VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel. Continuous running after a spall has occurred at 3.0x1 million DN can result in a destructive fracture of the bearing inner race.

  10. Hierarchical structural health monitoring system combining a fiber optic spinal cord network and distributed nerve cell devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Tsukamoto, Haruka; Takeda, Nobuo

    2009-03-01

    This study proposes novel hierarchical sensing concept for detecting damages in composite structures. In the hierarchical system, numerous three-dimensionally structured sensor devices are distributed throughout the whole structural area and connected with the optical fiber network through transducing mechanisms. The distributed "sensory nerve cell" devices detect the damage, and the fiber optic "spinal cord" network gathers damage signals and transmits the information to a measuring instrument. This study began by discussing the basic concept of the hierarchical sensing system thorough comparison with existing fiber optic based systems and nerve systems in the animal kingdom. Then, in order to validate the proposed sensing concept, impact damage detection system for the composite structure was proposed. The sensor devices were developed based on Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVM) system and the Brillouin based distributed strain sensing was utilized to gather the damage signals from the distributed devices. Finally a verification test was conducted using prototype devices. Occurrence of barely visible impact damage was successfully detected and it was clearly indicated that the hierarchical system has better repairability, higher robustness, and wider monitorable area compared to existing systems utilizing embedded optical fiber sensors.

  11. Anode purge strategy optimization of the polymer electrode membrane fuel cell system under the dead-end anode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhe; Yu, Yi; Wang, Guangjin; Chen, Xuesong; Chen, Pei; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Su

    2016-07-01

    Dead-ended anode (DEA) mode is commonly applied in fuel cell vehicles for the hydrogen purge at the anode side, to reduce fuel waste and enhance fuel cell efficiency. Anode purge is necessary and is definitely important with respect to removing liquid water and accumulated nitrogen in the gas diffusion layer and the flow field of the DEA-mode fuel cell. In this paper, the effect of different purge strategies on the stack performance and system efficiency is investigated experimentally using fast data acquisition and advanced tools, such as the fast cell voltage measurement (CVM) system and the mass spectrum. From the fast data acquisition, the voltage stability, liquid water and nitrogen concentration measurement in the anode exhaust are compared and analyzed under different purge strategy designs and using different purge valves. The results show that under the optimal purge strategy, the DEA fuel cell stack can achieve the desired stability and system efficiency based on the analysis of the cell voltage and purge volume. Moreover, the diameter of the purge valve has a great impact on the voltage stability because a diameter change will result in a different pressure drop and purge volume when the purge valve is open.

  12. NTF: Soldering Technology Development for Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. T., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) brought about a new application for an old joining method, soldering. Soldering for use at cryogenic temperatures requires that solders remain ductile and free from tin-pest (grey tin), have toughness to withstand aerodynamic loads associated with flight research, and maintain their surface finishes. Solders are used to attach 347 Stainless-Steel tubing in surface grooves of models. The solder must fill up the gap and metallurgically bound to the tubing and model. Cryogenic temperatures require that only specific materials for models can be used, including: Vasco Max 200 CVM, lescalloy A-286 Vac Arc, pH 13-8 Mo. Solders identified for testing at this time are: 50% Sn - 49.5% Pb - 0.5% Sb, 95% Sn - 5% Sb, 50% In 50% Pb, and 37.5% Sn - 37.5% Pb - 25% In. With these materials and solders, it is necessary to determine their solderability. After solderability is determined, tube/groove specimens are fabricated and stressed under cryogenic temperatures. Compatible solders are then used for acutual models.

  13. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member’s departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution. PMID:26562152

  14. The economic value of conjoint local management in water resources: Results from a contingent valuation in the Boquerón aquifer (Albacete, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Rupérez-Moreno, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; del Pilar Flores-Asenjo, Maria

    2015-11-01

    In the field of water resources management, the Water Framework Directive is the first directive to adopt an ecosystem approach, establishing principles and economic tools for an integrated management of water resources to protect, conserve and restore all water bodies. The incorporation of local authorities in this management involves quality benefits that are perceived by users in an effective and lasting way. The purpose of this paper is to present the economic value of the environmental recovery of the overexploited Boquerón aquifer in Hellín (Albacete, SE Spain) and all of its associated ecosystems. This aquifer operates as a regulating reservoir for the surface waters of the Hellín Canal. The contingent valuation method (CVM) applied in this environmental assessment of the aquifer showed that its non-use value was €147,470 per year, due to the high environmental awareness of the Hellín people, which is enough to ensure the survival of the ecosystems linked to the aquifer.

  15. Estimating willingness to pay for environment conservation: a contingent valuation study of Kanas Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Yang, Zhaoping; Wang, Hui; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2011-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to estimate publics' willingness to pay (WTP) for environment conservation and analyze factors influencing WTP. A questionnaire survey based on the contingent valuation method (CVM) was carried out at Kanas Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Seventy-three percent of the 412 respondents were willing to pay at different levels, and the mean WTP value was RMB 54.60 ($8.03). The results of this survey struck an optimistic note that publics were willing to contribute to improve environmental quality. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare the characteristics of those who were and were not willing to pay. Chi-square tests were administered to identify the relationships between various explanatory factors and WTP. Conclusions and implications of the empirical study can be provided to policy makers and site managers. In a wider sense, the findings of this study should make a good contribution to the literature related to WTP for environment conservation of natural attractions.

  16. Implementing the Contingent Valuation Method for supporting decision making in the waste management sector.

    PubMed

    Gaglias, A; Mirasgedis, S; Tourkolias, C; Georgopoulou, E

    2016-07-01

    This study presents an application of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) for valuing the environmental impacts associated with the operation of landfills for residues following waste treatment and depicts how the results of the analysis can be used for decision making in the field of waste management. The survey was conducted in Ikaria, Greece, a medium-sized island in the northern Aegean Sea, with a view to estimate the amount of compensatory benefits that are socially acceptable to be attributed to the hosting community of a new landfill for residues. The results showed that the mean willingness to pay per household to create a fund for financing social and environmental programs in the community that will host the landfill in question was estimated at €6.5-6.7 per 2-month and household taking into account all households of the sample. This estimate is at the same order of magnitude but at the lower band compared to the results of other relevant studies showing that the public in Ikaria is aware for the relatively limited environmental burdens associated with the operation of landfills for residues following an integrated waste management treatment.

  17. Estimating the demand for municipal waste compost via farmers' willingness-to-pay in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Danso, G; Drechsel, P; Fialor, S; Giordano, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper has its primary focus on the analysis of perceptions and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for composted municipal solid and faecal waste among urban and peri-urban farmers and other potential compost users in Ghana. Participatory rural appraisal and contingent valuation methods (CVM) were used for the demand analysis. Most respondents were clear and firm in their responses to the principal question about WTP for compost, as well as in giving their views and perceptions about issues involved in demand for compost. The probit analysis proved valuable in highlighting variables, which explain variations in the WTP. The WTP analysis allowed the quantification of the compost demand under different scenarios of subsidized and non-subsidized compost production, with due allowance for a local reference price to cover compost station operating costs. The analysis revealed that the effective demand for compost for agricultural purposes is marginal and limited by farmers' transport costs. Only through the additional consideration of the demand of the construction sector can about 25% of the organic waste produced in Ghana's capital, Accra, be transformed and utilized. Public subsidies appear necessary and could be generated through savings in transport and disposal. Without subsidies, the challenge for an increased agricultural use is how to produce a low-cost but nutrient-rich compost, which can compete with abundant and cheap poultry manure and still achieve the price to maintain a compost station. The experience in Ghana shows that this is hardly possible except through private-public partnerships.

  18. Comparison of the effectiveness of one- and two-suture prosthesis used to correct left laryngeal hemiplegia in the equine: followed by Nd:YAG laser ventricle ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Cindy; Tate, Lloyd P.; Correa, Maria T.

    1992-06-01

    The effectiveness of one or two suture prothesis in performing laryngoplasty was compared. Forty-six horses treated for left laryngeal hemiplegia at North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM) between January 1987 and April 1991 were included in the study. Thirty-seven of the horses were treated with two sutures, while nine were treated with one suture. All horses, after recovering from general anesthesia, were sedated the following day and were subjected to a transendoscopic neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser ablation of the left laryngeal ventricle. Ability to perform after treatment relative to before treatment, reduction or elimination of respiratory noise, owner or trainer satisfaction, were compared for the two suture prosthetic procedures using chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. No statistical significant differences were found for performance, reduction of noise, and owner or trainer satisfaction. The use of one or two sutures seemed to have no effect on the effectiveness of prosthetic laryngoplasty procedure followed by Nd:YAG ventricular ablation.

  19. Study of the efficacy of prosthetic laryngoplasty followed by Nd:YAG laser ventricular ablation for treatment of left laryngeal hemiplegia in the horse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Brenda; Tate, Lloyd P.; Correa, Maria T.

    1992-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to assess the efficacy of laryngoplasty surgery followed by Nd:YAG laser laryngeal ventricular ablation. Forty-three horses were included in the study that were treated at North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU- CVM) January 1987 and September 1990. Questions asked of the owners or trainers of the horses related to complications that the horses may have had since leaving the hospital, ability to perform after treatment relative to before treatment, how respiratory noise after treatment related to before treatment, results of follow-up endoscopic exams, additional surgery that may have been performed, and owner satisfaction with the procedure. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine the success of the procedure. Success was defined as a reduction of noise or improvement in performance ability. Results of the test indicated that the two procedures had an effect in reducing respiratory noise (p equals 0.0001) and increasing performance (p equals 0.0017).

  20. Evaluation of advanced lubricants for aircraft applications using gear surface fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Shimski, John

    1991-01-01

    Surface pitting fatigue life tests were conducted with five lubricants, using spur gears made from a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 steel. The gears were case carbonized and hardened to a Rockwell c-60 and finish ground. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. The lot of gears was divided into five groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants can be classified as synthetic polyol-esters with various viscosities and additive packages. Test conditions included bulk gear temperature of 350 K, a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi) at the pitch line, and a speed of 10,000 RPM. The lubricant with a viscosity that provided a specific film thickness greater than one and with an additive package produced far greater gear surface fatigue lives than lubricants with a viscosity that provided specific film thickness less than one. A low viscosity lubricant with an additive package produced gear surface fatigue lives equivalent to a similar base stock lubricant with 30 percent higher viscosity, but without an additive package. Lubricants with the same viscosity and similar additive packages gave equivalent gear surface fatigue lives.