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Sample records for 2ncsu cvm raleigh

  1. SCEC CVM-Toolkit (CVM-T) -- High Performance Meshing Tools for SCEC Community Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Ely, G. P.; Olsen, K. B.; Withers, K.; Graves, R. W.; Jordan, T. H.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    The SCEC Community Velocity Model Toolkit (CVM-T) enables earthquake modelers to quickly build, visualize, and validate large-scale 3D velocity meshes using SCEC CVM-H or CVM-4. CVM-T is comprised of three main components: (1) a current SCEC community velocity model for Southern California, (2) tools for extracting meshes from this model and visualizing them, and (3) an automated test framework for evaluating new releases of CVMs using SCEC’s AWP-ODC forward wave propagation software and one, or more, ground motion goodness of fit (GoF) algorithms. CVM-T is designed to help SCEC modelers build large-scale velocity meshes by extracting material properties from the most current version of Community Velocity Model H (CVM-H) and to provide a consistent interface as new CVM-H versions are developed. The CVM-T software provides a highly-scalable interface to CVM-H 6.2 (and later) voxets. Along with an improved interface to CVM-H material properties, the CVM-T software adds a geotechnical layer (GTL) to CVM-H 6.2+ based on Ely’s Vs30-derived GTL. The initial release of CVM-T also extends the coverage region for CVM-H 6.2 with a Hadley-Kanamori 1D background. Smoothing is performed within the transition boundary between the core model and the 1D background. The user interface now includes a C API that allows applications to query the model either by elevation or depth. The Extraction and Visualization Tools (EVT) include a parallelized 3D mesh generator which can quickly generate meshes (consisting of Vp, Vs, and density) from either CVM-H or CVM-4 with over 100 billion points. Python plotting scripts can be employed to plot horizontal or profile slices from existing meshes or directly from either CVM. The Automated Test Framework (ATF) is a system for quantitatively evaluating new versions of CVM-H and ensuring that the model improves against prior versions. The ATF employs the CruiseControl build and test framework to run an AWP-ODC simulation for the 2008 Chino

  2. Asiago spectroscopic classification of AT 2016cvm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, L.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of AT 2016cvm (also known as PTSS-16hxs), discovered 20160613.771 by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS) The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82 m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm).

  3. THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Allergenic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yongjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, SPH,...

  4. COMPARISON OF OVERALL METABOLISM OF 1,2,3,7,8-PENTACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (PECDD) IN CYP1A2(-L-)KNOCKOUT (KO) AND C57BL/6N PARENTAL STRAINS OF MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of immune responses to Penicillium chrysogenum and characterization of its allergens

    Yongjoo Chung1, Michael E Viana2, Lisa B Copeland3, and MaryJane K Selgrade3, Marsha D W Ward3. 1 UNC, SPH, Chapel Hill, NC, 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, 3US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP,...

  5. ASSESSING THE ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the Allergic Potential of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    Marsha D W Ward1, Michael E Viana2, Yonjoo Chung3, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Lisa B Copeland1, Steven H Gavett1, and MaryJane K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA, 3 UNC, S...

  6. ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ITS ALLERGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of immune responses to Penicillium chrysogenum and characterization of its allergens

    Yongjoo Chung1, Michael E Viana2, Lisa B Copeland3, and MaryJane K Selgrade3, Marsha D W Ward3. 1 UNC, SPH, Chapel Hill, NC, 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, 3US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP,...

  7. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  8. TeleOperator/telePresence System (TOPS) Concept Verification Model (CVM) development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimamoto, Mike S.

    1993-01-01

    The development of an anthropomorphic, undersea manipulator system, the TeleOperator/telePresence System (TOPS) Concept Verification Model (CVM) is described. The TOPS system's design philosophy, which results from NRaD's experience in undersea vehicles and manipulator systems development and operations, is presented. The TOPS design approach, task teams, manipulator, and vision system development and results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented.

  9. 78 FR 19733 - Draft General Management Plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Fort Raleigh National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... National Historic Site, North Carolina AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Management Plan (EIS/GMP) for Fort Raleigh National Historic Site, North Carolina. The draft describes and... Superintendent, Fort Raleigh National Historic Site, 1401 National Park Drive, Manteo, NC 27954. Via...

  10. 78 FR 14543 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agency has entered into a settlement at the Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake... EPA Region 4 contact Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Ward...

  11. 75 FR 81269 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina for publication. DATES... your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-1053 or Site name Ward...

  12. Frequency of BLAD and CVM alleles in sires and elite heifers of Czech Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Cítek, J; Rehout, V; Schröffelová, D; Hradecká, E

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we analyse the occurrence of BLAD and CVM heterozygous animals in Holstein cattle in the Czech Republic in 1993-2005. The occurrence of BLAD heterozygous sires and heifers (BL) during the period 1993-1998 in Czech Holsteins was 13.9% and 10.7%. Radical measures have been taken to restore the population. Evidently, the measures have been efficient, in 2005 one BLAD heterozygous sire of 101 was found. Continuous testing is necessary, because in commercial herds, the eradication process is not short-term. The found occurrence ofCVM heterozygous sires (CV) decreased from 20% in 2001 to 8% (7 positive of 85) in 2005.This is still quite a high frequency. The occurrence in CV females of 20% remains higher. Therefore, the use of CV sires should be restricted thoroughly. Identification of the molecular basis for inherited diseases, should lead to control measures which would enable the quick recovery of the population. PMID:19113030

  13. Using S3 cloud storage with ROOT and CvmFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsuaga-Ríos, María; Heikkilä, Seppo S.; Duellmann, Dirk; Meusel, René; Blomer, Jakob; Couturier, Ben

    2015-12-01

    Amazon S3 is a widely adopted web API for scalable cloud storage that could also fulfill storage requirements of the high-energy physics community. CERN has been evaluating this option using some key HEP applications such as ROOT and the CernVM filesystem (CvmFS) with S3 back-ends. In this contribution we present an evaluation of two versions of the Huawei UDS storage system stressed with a large number of clients executing HEP software applications. The performance of concurrently storing individual objects is presented alongside with more complex data access patterns as produced by the ROOT data analysis framework. Both Huawei UDS generations show a successful scalability by supporting multiple byte-range requests in contrast with Amazon S3 or Ceph which do not support these commonly used HEP operations. We further report the S3 integration with recent CvmFS versions and summarize the experience with CvmFS/S3 for publishing daily releases of the full LHCb experiment software stack.

  14. 76 FR 38389 - Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertlizer Works Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... response costs concerning the Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertilizer Works Superfund Site located in Raleigh...-0534 or Site name Caraleigh Phosphate and Fertilizer Works Superfund Site by one of the...

  15. Culture as metaphor: company culture and business strategy at Raleigh Industries, c. 1945-60.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, R; Lewis, M J; Eason, M

    1999-01-01

    This study of Raleigh Industries, one of the leading bicycle manufactures in the world in the immediate post-war years, argues that its business strategy was in part shaped by a managerial commitment to a dominant company culture which was deeply embedded in Raleigh's history. Using the notion of culture as metaphor, the paper examines the way that core values in the company acted as a guide in the setting of organisational goals and, intended or unintended, impinged upon company performance. In many respects, the culture guided the company well, but our study shows a number of ambiguities, tensions and contradictions between culture and strategy which had negative effects on company behaviour. Thus, Raleigh's attachment to personal capitalism constrained its capacity expansion programme, and, while it adopted what appeared to be a progressive education and training policy, it in effect trained workers for the past rather than the future. PMID:19455773

  16. 76 FR 14698 - Raleigh Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of Negative Determination on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... the Federal Register on October 25, 2010 (75 FR 65512). The subject firm supplies sound stage... Employment and Training Administration Raleigh Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of... Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of Raleigh Film...

  17. 75 FR 65512 - Raleigh Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, CA; Notice of Affirmative Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, California (the subject firm). The Notice of determination was issued on January 14, 2010 and published in the Federal Register on February 16, 2010 (75 FR... Employment and Training Administration Raleigh Film and Television Studios, LLC, Los Angeles, CA; Notice...

  18. RECRUITING AND RETAINING AFRICAN-AMERICANS FOR AN EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTHEAST RALEIGH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently completed a study of African-Americans' exposure to particulate matter (PM) in Southeast Raleigh. A primary goal was to compare PM levels measured at ambient and residential sites with those from personal exposure monitors...

  19. RECRUITING AND RETAINING PARTICIPANTS FOR AN EXPOSURE STUDY IN SOUTHEAST RALEIGH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently completed a study of African-Americans' exposure to particulate matter (PM) in Southeast Raleigh. A primary goal was to compare PM levels measured at ambient and residential sites with those from personal exposure monitors...

  20. INDOOR/OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS MEASURED IN SELECT HOMES IN THE RALEIGH-DURHAM-CHAPEL HILL, NC AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle size distributions were measured indoors and outdoors of six residences in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC area to characterize the factors affecting particle concentrations in the indoor environment, including infiltration of outdoor aerosols. Size resolved partic...

  1. The Crabtree Creek pluton: A deformed Mid-Paleozoic( ) stitching pluton on the west flank of the Raleigh metamorphic belt

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, E.F. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Stoddard, E.F. . Dept. of MEAS)

    1993-03-01

    Crystalline rocks on the west flank of the Alleghanian-aged Raleigh metamorphic belt are subdivided into four west-dipping lithotectonic terranes in the Falls Lake and north Raleigh areas. The rocks of these terranes are separated from east to west on the basis of bulk rock composition, metamorphic textural characteristics, and discrete structural discontinuities into the Raleigh terrane (RT), Crabtree terrane (CT), Falls Lake melange (FLM), and the volcanogenic Carolina slate belt (CSB). The RT and CT are separated by the dextral shear Nutbush Creek fault zone, while the Falls Lake thrust juxtaposes the CT and FLM. The structural character of the discontinuity separating the FLM and the CSB is unclear, although thrusting has been proposed. The results of geologic mapping in the Raleigh West 7.5[prime] quadrangle for the NC Geological Survey's COGEOMAP project in the Raleigh 1[degree] sheet indicate that only the CSB and CT are exposed west of I-440 between US 70 and I-40. This confirms the mapping results of Horton and others that the melange pinches out in north Raleigh just north of US 70. South of US 70, a large orthogneiss body, the Crabtree Creek composite granitic pluton, occupies the same relative position as the melange, separating mafic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks of the CSB from nonlineated and lineated interlayered schists and gneisses of the CT. The pluton is subdivided into a foliated leucocratic, medium grained muscovite granitic orthogneiss, and a foliated leucocratic to mesocratic medium to coarse grained muscovite [plus minus] biotite granitic orthogneiss containing abundant porphyroclastic disks, rods, and knobs of quartz. Because its lobes locally display intrusive contacts with metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of both terranes, the Crabtree Creek pluton represents an intrusion that stitched the two terranes together.

  2. 76 FR 76152 - City of Raleigh; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under section 7 of the Endangered Species Act and the joint agency... Conservation and Management Act and implementing regulations at 50 CFR 600.920; and (c) the North Carolina... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Raleigh; Notice of Intent To File License Application,...

  3. Ultrafine particles near a major roadway in Raleigh, North Carolina: downwind attenuation and correlation with traffic-related pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter <100 run) emitted by traffic are a potential direct health threat to nearby populations and may additionally act as a tracer for co-emitted pollutants. During summertime in Raleigh, North Carolina, UFPs were simultaneously measured upwind and d...

  4. 77 FR 76453 - Opportunity for Designation in Amarillo, TX; Cairo, IL; Baton Rouge, LA; Raleigh, NC; and Belmond...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Opportunity for Designation in Amarillo, TX; Cairo, IL; Baton Rouge, LA; Raleigh, NC; and Belmond, IA Areas; Request for Comments on the...

  5. An Assessment of Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Extension Services Using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM): The Case of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, A. O.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for extension services. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used to assess the amount which farmers are willing to pay. Primary data on the demographic, socio-economic variables of farmers and their WTP were collected from 228 farmers selected randomly in a stage-wise sampling procedure…

  6. Structural and lithologic relationships in the Raleigh metamorphic belt near Lake Gaston, Virginia and North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, P.E.; Horton, J.W. Jr. )

    1993-03-01

    Preliminary results of mapping along the NC-VA State line eastward from the Buggs Is. granite about 35 km to the Hollister fault zone yield new information about structural and lithologic relationships in the Raleigh metamorphic belt. The layered rocks are predominantly two-mica schist and sillimanite-mica schist interlayered with lesser amounts of muscovite-biotite-quartz-plagioclase paragneiss and hornblende-biotite gneiss. The overall rock assemblage here differs from those along strike near Goochland, VA, and near Raleigh, NC, and is reminiscent of an accretionary complex. Bodies of foliated to massive two-mica granite are abundant and commonly contain garnet. One body, the Wise pluton, contains a N--NW-striking, steeply dipping foliation, but the intrusive contact of the granite with the metamorphic rocks is discordant. The most prominent regional foliation, parallel to transposed compositional layering, is axial planar to relict, reclined, isoclinal outcrop-scale folds. This foliation is folded at both outcrop and map scale by open folds plunging NW and SW. Some foliated, two-mica granite sheets are warped by the open folds; other bodies of similar granite cut across these folds. Sillimanite needles are locally aligned with the hinges of some of the open folds, an indication that sillimanite-muscovite-grade metamorphism was associated with this folding event. The two-mica granites resemble other late Paleozoic granites in the region. If these granites prove to be late Paleozoic (Alleghanian), then the deformation and metamorphism that produced sillimanite along the hingelines also must be Alleghanian. Relatively younger, NW- and SE-plunging crenulations and chevron folds are associated with a crenulation cleavage that dips steeply NE or SW. Sillimanite needles are folded by these crenulations. Crenulation cleavage and related folds may have developed in response to transpression of these rocks between the dextral Lake Gordon and Hollister mylonite zones.

  7. Meeting report: 27th International conference on antiviral research, in Raleigh, NC, USA.

    PubMed

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony

    2014-11-01

    The 27th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA from May 12 to 16, 2014. This article summarizes the principal invited lectures. John Drach (Elion Award) described the early days of antiviral drugs and their novel modes of action. Piet Herdewijn (Holý Award) used evolutionary pressure to select DNA polymerases that accept nucleoside analogs. Replacing thymine by 5-chlorouracil led to the generation of a new form of Escherichia coli. Adrian Ray (Prusoff Award) demonstrated how prodrugs can markedly improve both the efficacy and safety of potential drugs. The keynote addresses, by David Margolis and Myron Cohen, tackled two emerging areas of HIV research, to find an HIV "cure" and to prevent HIV transmission, respectively. These topics were discussed further in other presentations - a cure seems to be a distant prospect but there are exciting developments for reducing HIV transmission. TDF-containing vaginal rings and GSK-744, as a long-lasting injection, offer great hope. There were three mini-symposia. Although therapy with TDF/FTC gives excellent control of HBV replication, there are only a few patients who achieve a functional cure. Myrcludex, an entry inhibitor, is active against both HBV and HDV. The recent progress with HBV replication in cell cultures has transformed the search for new antiviral compounds. The HBV capsid protein has been recognized as key player in HBV DNA synthesis. Unexpectedly, compounds which enhance capsid formation, markedly reduce HBV DNA synthesis. The development of BCX4430, which is active against Marburg and Ebola viruses, is of great current interest. PMID:25218950

  8. PROCEEDINGS: NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RECENT ADVANCES IN POLLUTANT MONITORING OF AMBIENT AIR AND STATIONARY SOURCES, HELD AT RADISON PLAZA RALEIGH HOTEL, ON MAY 8-10, 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fourth annual national symposium sponsored by EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory was held May 8-10, 1984 in Raleigh, North Carolina. In seven sessions over three days, papers and discussions focused on state-of-the-art systems for monitoring source emissions, a...

  9. The Effects of Urban Form on Ambient Air Pollution and Public Health Risk: A Case Study in Raleigh, North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Huegy, Joseph; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2014-01-01

    Since motor vehicles are a major air pollution source, urban designs that decrease private automobile use could improve air quality and decrease air pollution health risks. Yet, the relationships among urban form, air quality, and health are complex and not fully understood. To explore these relationships, we model the effects of three alternative development scenarios on annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in ambient air and associated health risks from PM2.5 exposure in North Carolina’s Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area. We integrate transportation demand, land-use regression, and health risk assessment models to predict air quality and health impacts for three development scenarios: current conditions, compact development, and sprawling development. Compact development slightly decreases (−0.2%) point estimates of regional annual average PM2.5 concentrations, while sprawling development slightly increases (+1%) concentrations. However, point estimates of health impacts are in opposite directions: compact development increases (+39%) and sprawling development decreases (−33%) PM2.5-attributable mortality. Further, compactness increases local variation in PM2.5 concentrations and increases the severity of local air pollution hotspots. Hence, this research suggests that while compact development may improve air quality from a regional perspective, it may also increase the concentration of PM2.5 in local hotspots and increase population exposure to PM2.5. Health effects may be magnified if compact neighborhoods and PM2.5 hotspots are spatially co-located. We conclude that compactness alone is an insufficient means of reducing the public health impacts of transportation emissions in automobile-dependent regions. Rather, additional measures are needed to decrease automobile dependence and the health risks of transportation emissions. PMID:25490890

  10. The Effects of Urban Form on Ambient Air Pollution and Public Health Risk: A Case Study in Raleigh, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Huegy, Joseph; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-05-01

    Since motor vehicles are a major air pollution source, urban designs that decrease private automobile use could improve air quality and decrease air pollution health risks. Yet, the relationships among urban form, air quality, and health are complex and not fully understood. To explore these relationships, we model the effects of three alternative development scenarios on annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) concentrations in ambient air and associated health risks from PM2.5 exposure in North Carolina's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area. We integrate transportation demand, land-use regression, and health risk assessment models to predict air quality and health impacts for three development scenarios: current conditions, compact development, and sprawling development. Compact development slightly decreases (-0.2%) point estimates of regional annual average PM2.5 concentrations, while sprawling development slightly increases (+1%) concentrations. However, point estimates of health impacts are in opposite directions: compact development increases (+39%) and sprawling development decreases (-33%) PM2.5-attributable mortality. Furthermore, compactness increases local variation in PM2.5 concentrations and increases the severity of local air pollution hotspots. Hence, this research suggests that while compact development may improve air quality from a regional perspective, it may also increase the concentration of PM2.5 in local hotspots and increase population exposure to PM2.5 . Health effects may be magnified if compact neighborhoods and PM2.5 hotspots are spatially co-located. We conclude that compactness alone is an insufficient means of reducing the public health impacts of transportation emissions in automobile-dependent regions. Rather, additional measures are needed to decrease automobile dependence and the health risks of transportation emissions. PMID:25490890

  11. Rural School Supervision: Abstracts of Addresses Delivered at the Second Conference of Supervisors of the Southeastern States Held at Raleigh, North Carolina, December 6 and 7, 1926. Bulletin, 1927, No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1927

    1927-01-01

    This bulletin contains abstracts of addresses delivered at a two-day conference of State and county rural-school supervisors in the South-eastern States, called by the United States Commissioner of Education at Raleigh, N.C. December 6 and 7, 1926. Abstracts were prepared from manuscripts submitted by the authors. The conference was attended by…

  12. ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY. M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, L B Copeland1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Metarhizium anisopli...

  13. EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT SIZED FRACTIONS OF OUTDOOR PM ON INFLAMMATORY AND OXIDATIVE MARKERS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT SIZED FRACTIONS OF OUTDOOR PM ON INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN VIVO
    C A J Dick', P Singh2, P. Evansky3, S Becker3 and M I Gilmour3.
    'Center For Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 2NCSU, Raleigh, NC 'Experimental Toxicolog...

  14. New house dust collection system and its use in a study of asthma in dust mite sensitive children in Raleigh, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, A.B.; Beck, M.A.; Henry, M.M.; Barnes, D.M.; Henderson, F.W.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype dust collection system, the House Dust Vacuum One (HDVI), was designed for use in a study to investigate the relationship between house dust mite antigen levels and the presence of asthma in dust mite sensitive children. The HDVI was designed for the collection of dust samples from all potentially relevant domestic substrates, with the primary sampling objective being the retrieval at least 100 mg of sample material. During the winter of 1991-92, dust samples were collected from six different microenvironments in the homes of 49 dust mite sensitive children living in the Raleigh, NC metropolitan area. In addition to the standard antigen immunoassay, the performance of the HDVI was assessed by conducting side by side comparison tests using two alternative antigen collection systems. Microenvironmental antigen concentrations were found to be lognormally distributed within the test homes and within each microenvironment. With the relatively large quantity of sample material collected and the ease with which the HDVI was able to collect samples from a wide variety of substrates, the new unit was determined to be well suited for surface dust and dust mite antigen collection studies.

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO A THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICAL STIMULATES PHAGOCYTOSIS IN JUVENILE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Exposure to a Thyroid Disrupting Chemical Stimulates Phagocytosis in Juvenile Sprague-Dawley Rats.
    AA Rooney1, R Matulka2, and R Luebke3. 1NCSU/US EPA CVM, Department of Anatomy, Physiological Sciences and Radiology, Raleigh, NC;2UNC Department of Toxicology, Cha...

  16. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE SUPPRESSES JUVENILE IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MALE, BUT NOT FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE SUPPRESSES JUVENILE IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MALE, BUT NOT FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS. AA Rooney1 and RW Luebke2. 1NCSU/USEPA CVM, Department of Anatomy, Physiological Sciences, and Radiology, Raleigh, NC;2USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC.
    The ability of the ...

  17. RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ALLERGIC-TYPE RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ALLERGIC-TYPE RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF Stachybotrys chartarum IN BALB/C MICE. ME Viana1, N Haykal-Coates2, S H Gavett2, MJ Selgrade2, and M D W Ward2. 1APR/CVM, NCSU, Raleigh, NC, USA. 2NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.
    Rationale: assess the ab...

  18. Typographia: A Hybrid, Alphabetic Exploration of Raleigh, NC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, David

    2010-01-01

    "As compositionists delve more deeply into the material and technical dimensions of digital media, the contemporary arts should be valued as a source for new approaches to hybrid forms of writing and textuality." In addition to "Typographia", this work includes a companion essay (PDF): From Street to Software: How a Lettered "Flaneur" Invented a…

  19. Dillard Drive Middle & Elementary School, Raleigh, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Dillard Drive Middle & Elementary School (North Carolina) that incorporates daylighting in the majority of the classrooms, the gymnasium, dining room, and media center. The design also uses advanced lighting controls, fiber optic networking, automatic environmental controls, and an energy management system that…

  20. 78 FR 3964 - Request for Public Comment, Raleigh County Memorial Airport, Beckley, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ..., Room 101, Beaver, West Virginia 25813. In addition, one copy of any comments submitted to the FAA must... Circle, Room 105, Beaver, West Virginia 25813. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Connie...

  1. Ducts Sealing Using Injected Spray Sealant, Raleigh, North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques - manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  2. Electrorheological fluids; Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference, Raleigh, NC, Aug. 7-9, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J. D.; Sprecher, A. F.; Conrad, Hans

    The present conference on electrorheological fluids discusses ER fluid mechanisms and related fundamentals, ER fluid materials, characterization and property measurement, engineering with ER fluids, and ER fluid devices and applications. Attention is given to viscoelastic behavior of ER fluids, ER fluid modeling, possible phase transition in ERs, and measuring forces between particles in a model ER fluid. Topics addressed include miscellaneous ER phenomena, an overview of ER fluid design, tribological aspects of ER fluid behavior with respect to nonpolar base liquids, the role of water in ER fluids, and the electrorheology of the suspension of zeolite particles in silicone oil. Also discussed are applications of ER materials in vibration control, the control of damping in distributed systems using ER fluids, the fluid property and mechanical design considerations in ER-fluid clutches and brakes, devices using ER fluids, and a case study of tension control using ER fluids.

  3. Nova Experiments Examining Raleigh-Taylor Instability in Materials with Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, S.V.; Kalantar, D.H.; Colvin, J.D.; Gold, D.M.; Mikaelian, K.O.; Remington, B.A.; Wiley, L.G.

    1999-10-06

    Material strength can affect the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid materials, where growth occurs through plastic flow. In order to study this effect at megabar pressures, we have shocked metal foils using hohlraum x-ray drive on Nova, and observed the growth of pre-imposed modulations with x-ray radiography. Previous experiments employing Cu foils did not conclusively show strength effects for resolvable wavelengths. Therefore, we have redesigned the experiment to use aluminum foils. As aluminum has higher specific strength at pressures {approx}1 Mbar, the new design is predicted to show growth reduction due to strength of at least a factor of two for some wavelengths in the observable range of 10 - 50 {micro}m. We have also modified the drive history to extend the interval of uniform acceleration and to reduce the risk of melting the foils with coalesced shocks. The design changes, as well as Nova operational constraints, limit peak pressures to 1-1.5 Mbar. Foil surface motion has been measured with high sensitivity by laser interferometry to look for thermal expansion due to preheat. We have continued to pursue dynamic x-ray diffraction as the most definitive measurement of crystal state.

  4. Methods and Apparatuses for Signaling with Geometric Constellations in a Raleigh Fading Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsoum, Maged F. (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Communication systems are described that use signal constellations, which have unequally spaced (i.e., `geometrically` shaped) points. In many embodiments, the communication systems use specific geometric constellations that are capacity optimized at a specific SNR (signal to noise ratio). In addition, ranges within which the constellation points of a capacity optimized constellation can be perturbed and are still likely to achieve a given percentage of the optimal capacity increase compared to a constellation that maximizes d (sub min) (i.e. minimum distance between constellations) are also described. Capacity measures that are used in the selection of the location of constellation points include, but are not limited to, parallel decode (PD) capacity and joint capacity.

  5. 78 FR 12238 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... FR 14817). A limited maintenance plan for CO is a maintenance plan that is available to states that... nonattainment for the 8-hour CO NAAQS. See 56 FR 56694, November 6, 1991. These areas subsequently attained the... data and a 10-year maintenance plan submitted for the Winston-Salem Area. See 59 FR 48399....

  6. City of Raleigh, Wilders Grove Service Center, Solid Waste Services Facility. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Cox; Bill Black; Battle, Fred

    2015-07-22

    Final Report for DOE Grant EE0002808. Grant award was for technology demonstration of geothermal energy systems. One of the major objectives identified for the demonstration portion of the grant was to prove the viability of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems in significantly reducing energy usage of HVAC and domestic water heating systems compared to traditional systems. Data were monitored and conclusions drawn, including estimating payback timeframes and documenting lessons learned.

  7. 78 FR 12267 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Winston-Salem carbon monoxide (CO) maintenance areas. Specifically, the State submitted a limited maintenance plan update for CO, showing continued attainment of the 8-hour CO National Ambient Air Quality.../Durham and Winston-Salem Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  8. 77 FR 38376 - Request for Public Comment, Raleigh County Memorial Airport, Beckley, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Airport Circle, Room 101, Beaver, West Virginia 25813. In addition, one copy of any comments submitted to... Airport Circle, Room 105, Beaver, West Virginia 25813. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Connie...

  9. SOUTHEASTCON '85; Proceedings of the Conference, Raleigh, NC, March 31-April 3, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-05-01

    Current developments in electronics technology and related fields are examined in reviews and reports. Subject areas covered include computer-aided education, power generation and transmission, electromagnetics, VLSI design tools, control theory, microprocessor interfacing and applications, computer networks, computer vision, electrooptical sensors, engineering education, computer algorithms and architectures, signal processing, solid-state devices, logic design, biological systems, controller design, and radio communications. Consideration is given to reduction of intersatellite interference by means of polarization diversity, simulation of scattering from continuous surfaces, C-band satellite receivers, performance assessment of tracking filters, range simulation for laser-ranger testing, and accelerated stress testing of amorphous silicon solar cells.

  10. 78 FR 37118 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... three of North Carolina's CO areas as a result. See 59 FR 48399 and 60 FR 39258. Section 175A(b... maintenance areas. See 71 FR 14817, March 24, 2006. Although North Carolina has previously satisfied the... 2009 design value as 1.3 ppm. See 78 FR 12238. The value reported by the State was actually 1.2 ppm...

  11. 78 FR 22198 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Charlotte, Raleigh/Durham and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... action. DATES: The direct final rule published at 78 FR 12238 on February 22, 2013, is withdrawn as of... February 22, 2013 (78 FR 12238), EPA proposed to approve North Carolina's August 2, 2012, SIP submission... subsequent final action based upon the proposed rulemaking action, also published on February 22, 2013 (78...

  12. 77 FR 73978 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 93 Under Alternative Site Framework, Raleigh/Durham, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ..., the Board adopted the alternative site framework (ASF) (74 FR 1170, 01/12/2009; correction 74 FR 3987, 01/22/2009; 75 FR 71069- 71070, 11/22/2010) as an option for the ] establishment or reorganization of... Federal Register (77 FR 16536-16537, 03/21/12) and the application has been processed pursuant to the...

  13. North Carolina Council of Vocational Teacher Educators. Proceedings of the Annual Summer Workshop (11th, Raleigh, North Carolina, August 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Randy L., Ed.

    This proceedings contains six papers selected by a review committee composed of teacher educators from North Carolina. The following papers are included: "Status of Ethics Instruction in Business Classrooms in North Carolina" (Vivian Arnold); "Middle School Students' Perceptions of Family and Consumer Sciences Teaching as a Career" (Cheryl L.…

  14. Academy of Human Resource Development Conference Proceedings (Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, March 8-12, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter, Ed.

    This two-volume document contains the proceedings of the 2000 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). Volume 1 contains the following materials: conference overview; text of a town forum on social responsibility and human resource development (HRD); papers from symposia 1-24; and papers from innovative sessions 1-4. The…

  15. 78 FR 43141 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... inviting public comment (78 FR 17635, 3-22-2013). The FTZ Board has determined that no further review of... Production Activity, Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates), Youngsville, North Carolina...

  16. 78 FR 17635 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Production Activity; Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates); Youngsville, North Carolina The... production of aluminum offset printing plates for the printing industry. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ... rates during customs entry procedures that apply to aluminum printing plates (duty- free) for...

  17. Thermomechanical and Thermochemical Behavior of a Hafnium-20 Percent Tantalum Alloy. Ph.D. Thesis - North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the thermomechanical and thermochemical behavior of a high temperature, oxidation resistant, hafnium-20 percent tantalum alloy. The elastic and shear moduli of this alloy were determined in air up to 1000 C and in vacuum up to 2000 C using a mechanical resonance technique. The internal friction of the alloy was measured up to temperatures greater than 1400 C. Room temperature stress-strain behavior of the oxidized and unoxidized alloy was established. The effect of annealing on the elastic and shear moduli of the extruded rod material was investigated. The martensitic-type phase transformation occurring in the alloy was studied using hot stage metallography and electron microscopy. Static oxidation tests were conducted on the alloy at temperatures from 1000 C to 1700 C with weight gain measurements made as a function of time and temperatures. Surface morphology studies were conducted on the oxide coatings formed at the different temperatures using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  18. Vocational Agriculture in the Changing South. Proceedings of a Two Day Conference (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liner, Hugh L., Ed.

    Changes occurring in the rural South and the changing educational needs of the southern youth were topics of this conference. Consideration was also given to job opportunities, role of vocational education in developing employee traits and providing training desired by employers, training vocational agriculture teachers, and relationships of…

  19. 78 FR 70531 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 93-Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... dose counter, Advair diskus, Advair diskus inhalation powder, fluticasone/salmeterol aerosol inhalers... aluminum powder, empty aerosol cans, pressure can spray valves, diskus subassemblies, multi-dose powder inhalers, novel dry powder inhalers, multi-dose powder inhaler subassembly and placebo, multi-dose...

  20. Meeting report: American Aging Association 40th Annual Meeting, Raleigh, North Carolina, June 3-6, 2011.

    PubMed

    Swan, Melanie

    2011-08-01

    The focus of the 2011 American Aging Association meeting was emerging concepts in the mechanisms of aging. Many of the usual topics in aging were covered, such as dietary restriction (DR), inflammation, stress resistance, homeostasis and proteasome activity, sarcopenia, and neural degeneration. There was also discussion of newer methods, such as microRNAs and genome sequencing, that have been employed to investigate gene expression variance with aging and genetic signatures of longevity. Aging as a field continues to mature, including the following areas: Using a systems approach to tracing conserved pathways across organisms; sharpening definitions of sarcopenia, frailty, and health span; and distinguishing interventions by age tier (early-onset versus late-onset). A preconference session on late-onset intervention concluded that there are numerous benefits to deriving such interventions. Conference talks applied the biology of aging in a translational manner to intervention development. Using an individual's own stem cells to regenerate organs for transplantation and as a cell source for cellular therapies could be a powerful near-term solution to disease. Several proposed interventions were pharmaceutical, myostatin inhibition, losartan, Janus kinase (JAK) pathway inhibitors, and enalapril for frailty and sarcopenia, and metformin to promote the Nrf2 antiinflammation response. In DR, protein restriction was found to be better than general calorie restriction. Short-term fasting may be helpful in chemotherapy, surgery, and acute stress, simultaneously increasing the killing of cancer cells by chemotherapy, while improving the survival of normal cells. Immune system interventions remain elusive, although statins may help to improve cellular senescence promoted bacterial infection. Engineered enzymes may be useful in lysosomal catabolism. Dietary restriction mimetics, most promisingly involving target of rapamycin (TOR; TORC1 inhibition and rapamycin), may be more feasible than dietary restriction. PMID:21851178

  1. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, NC; Authorization of Production Activity; Revlon Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... (77 FR 65856-65857, 10/31/12). The FTZ Board has determined that no further review of the activity is...; Revlon Consumer Products Corporation (Hair Coloring Products); Oxford, NC On October 10, 2012,...

  2. WORKSHOP ON HEALTH EFFECTS OF TRANSPORTATION-RELATED POLLUTANTS, HELD AT RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA, ON JUNE 15-16, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Department of Transportation, recognizing the need for further health effects research data in assessing the environmental implication of its policies over the next several years, called upon the Environmental Protection Agency's health effects group to bring together key exp...

  3. 77 FR 16536 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh/Durham, NC; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... zone under the alternative site framework (ASF) adopted by the Board (74 FR 1170-1173, 1/12/09 (correction 74 FR 3987, 1/22/09); 75 FR 71069-71070, 11/22/10). The ASF is an option for grantees for the... approved by the Board on November 4, 1983 (Board Order 233, 48 FR 52108, 11/16/83) and expanded on...

  4. 78 FR 45909 - Designation for the Amarillo, TX; Cairo, IL; Baton Rouge, LA; Raleigh, NC; and Belmond, IA Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...)). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the December 28, 2012 Federal Register (77 FR 76453), GIPSA requested applications... Forestry (Louisiana), North Carolina Department of Agriculture (North Carolina), and D.R. Schaal...

  5. Degradation Mechanisms in Aluminum Matrix Composites: Alumina/Aluminum and Boron/Aluminum. Ph.D. Thesis - North Carolina State Univ. at Raleigh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of fabrication and long term thermal exposure (up to 10,000 hours at 590 K) on two types of aluminum matrix composites were examined. An alumina/aluminum composite, was made of continuous alpha Al2O3 fibers in a matrix of commercially pure aluminum alloyed with 2.8% lithium. The mechanical properties of the material, the effect of isothermal exposure, cyclic thermal exposure, and fatigue are presented. Two degradation mechanisms are identified. One was caused by formation of a nonstoichiometric alumina during fabrication, the other by a loss of lithium to a surface reaction during long term thermal exposure. The other composite, boron/aluminum, made of boron fibers in an aluminum matrix, was investigated using five different aluminum alloys for the matrices. The mechanical properties of each material and the effect of isothermal and cyclic thermal exposure are presented. The effects of each alloy constituent on the degradation mechanisms are discussed. The effects of several reactions between alloy constituents and boron fibers on the composite properties are discussed.

  6. Makin' It Happen with Business & Marketing Education. Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference Proceedings (13th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 16-17, 1996). Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, L. Keith, Ed.

    This proceedings includes the following papers: "Dealing with Discipline Problems in Schools" (Allen); "Developing Global Awareness" (Arnold); "Desktop Publishing Using WordPerfect 6.0 for Windows" (Broughton); "Learn and Earn" (Cauley); "Using the Computer to Teach Merchandising Math" (Clodfelter); "Schoolwide Network Makin' It Happen" (Crews);…

  7. Whatever Happened to What's His Name. A Follow-Up Survey of Inactive Applicants in the Raleigh, N.C. Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Employment Security Commission, Raleigh. Job Market Research Center.

    The North Carolina Employment Security Commission (ESC) conducted a followup study of the 986 State applicants deactivated during August 1968 and 6 months later to ascertain the effectiveness of the program. This report is concerned primarily with the 6-month followup. The 586 applicants who responded to the first questionnaire were mailed the…

  8. An Analytical Investigation of an Oscillating Wedge in a Supersonic Perfect Gas Flow. Ph.D Thesis - North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    Several aspects of the oscillating wedge are investigated to evaluate both the resulting trends for the wedge and methods of analyzing unsteady flows. An existing hypersonic small disturbance theory for an oscillating thin wedge is extended and applied. A perturbation method involving linearization about the known flow is then derived and discussed. Subsequently, a finite difference technique for calculating the complete unsteady flow field of the wedge in motion is presented and discussed in conjunction with some calculated quasi-static nonlinear trends.

  9. A Poor Harvest: North Carolina's Rural Schools. A Reprint of Articles Published in The Raleigh News and Observer, March 26-28, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Bill; Bolch, Judy

    This series of newspaper articles evaluates North Carolina's schools and establishes a relationship between the state's rural poverty and low student achievement levels. Test scores in 1988 are consistently low in all but four of the poorest rural counties. Small schools are disappearing from rural areas. Large schools can offer students more…

  10. Building Bridges to Tomorrow in Business and Marketing Education. Atlantic Coast Business and Marketing Education Conference Proceedings (15th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 20-21, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swope, John A., Ed.

    This proceedings includes the following papers: "Using Multimedia in Computer Applications" (Delores Barnhill); "Becoming an International Educator: Why, How, and What" (Ray D. Bernardi); "Online Courses--A Bridge for Education" (Phyllis J. Broughton); "Web Page Maintenance" (Linda Carr, Mary Cauley); "Teaching Suggestions to Help Students Prevent…

  11. NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RECENT ADVANCES IN POLLUTANT MONITORING OF AMBIENT AIR AND STATIONARY SOURCES, HELD AT RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA MAY 4-7, 1982

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second national symposium to explore recent developments that may improve the state-of-the-art for monitoring techniques was presented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (EMSL), May 4 through May 7, 1982, at the Mission Va...

  12. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANT POLLUTION AND ITS CONTROL. PROCEEDINGS: VOLUME I, HELD AT THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA ON SEPTEMBER 12-17, 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings consist of 97 technical papers covering such areas as analytical methods for photochemical oxidants and precursors; causes of urban, suburban, and non-urban oxidant; biological effects; oxidant control strategies; and trends in emissions and emission control techn...

  13. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANT POLLUTION AND ITS CONTROL. PROCEEDINGS: VOLUME II, HELD AT THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA ON SEPTEMBER 12-17, 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings consist of 97 technical papers covering such areas as analytical methods for photochemical oxidants and precursors; causes of urban, suburban, and non-urban oxidant; biological effects; oxidant control strategies; and trends in emissions and emission control techn...

  14. To designate the Federal building and United States courthouse located at 300 Fayetteville Street in Raleigh, North Carolina, as the "Jesse Helms Federal Building and United States Courthouse".

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ellmers, Renee L. [R-NC-2

    2012-11-27

    11/28/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Back to the Future with Business and Marketing Education. Annual Atlantic Coast Business and Marketing Education Conference Proceedings (12th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 17-18, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Randy L., Ed.

    This proceedings includes: "Bridging the International Learning Gap" (Arnold); "Back to the Future" (Baker); "Conducting Successful Class Projects over the Internet" (Beasley); "The Need for Ethics Instruction at the High School Level" (Brown); "Incorporating Industry-Based Skills Standards into High School Secretarial Programs" (Bunn);…

  16. Oversight Hearing on the Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965: Raleigh, North Carolina. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (Raleigh, NC, June 28, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education.

    In one of a series of hearings held in communities around the nation on the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965, the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education met to hear testimony from higher education administrators and others from the state of North Carolina. The witnesses addressed a full range of issues concerning higher…

  17. Closed vitrification of mouse oocytes using the CryoLogic vitrification method: A modification that improves developmental competence

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jun Woo; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the mouse oocyte vitrification outcomes of the CryoLogic vitrification method (CVM) and the conventional open method using a Cryotop. Two CVM methods (original CVM and modified CVM) were tested. Methods Mature oocytes obtained from female BDF-1 mice were vitrified by two-step exposure to equilibrium and vitrification solutions. Three vitrification protocols were tested on three groups: the CVM-kit, modified CVM, and Cryotop groups. After exposure to the two solutions, the oocytes were vitrified. After warming, the oocytes were fertilized in vitro, and the embryo development was assessed. Blastomeres positive for caspase were counted using an in situ assay kit. The spindle morphology and chromosome configurations of warmed vitrified oocytes were also assessed. Results The modified CVM and Cryotop groups showed similar developmental capacities, and similar proportions of cells with intact spindles and chromosome configurations. The modified CVM protocol was superior to the original CVM protocol for developmental competence and intact spindle preservation. However, the CVM group showed a relatively higher number of apoptotic cells in blastocysts. Conclusion Closed vitrification using the modified CVM protocol may be used as an alternative to the conventional open method, but strategies to decrease apoptosis in the blastomere need to be investigated. PMID:24505560

  18. An Odyssey into the New Millennium: Rediscover 21st Century Business & Marketing Education. Proceedings of the Annual Atlantic Coast Business & Marketing Education Conference (18th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 15-17, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sheila, Ed.

    The following 13 papers on business and marketing education are included in this document: "Internet Marketing" (Herb Brown, Jerry Kandies); "Disk This . . . Paper Flow on the Go!" (Mary Evans, Wilbur Whitley); "Production and Evaluation of On-Line Tutorials" (Margie Gallagher, Evelyn Farrior, Jane Geissler); "Basic Skills Needed for Entry-Level…

  19. Moving Business and Marketing Education into the 21st Century. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Atlantic Coast Business and Marketing Education Conference (17th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 18-19, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, David, Ed.

    This document contains 21 presentations from a conference on business and marketing education. The following papers are included: "Microsoft Excel 2000" (Jeff Fuller); "Clueless in the Classroom? Hints To Help!" (Mary W. Evans); "A Strategy To Improve Narrative-Number Linkage in Business Writing" (Ellis A. Hayes); "Corporate View: Bringing Realism…

  20. Making the Year 2000 a Sure Winner. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Atlantic Coast Business and Marketing Education Conference (16th, Raleigh, North Carolina, February 19-20, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Patricia, Ed.

    This document contains 21 presentations from a conference on business and marketing education. The following papers are included: "Business and Marketing Education: In Tune with the Times" (Clarice P. Brantley); "Portfolio Assessment--A Sure Winner" (Ann Bullock); "The Effect of the Year 2000 on Web Page Maintenance" (Linda Carr);…

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (20th, Raleigh, NC, October 31-November 3, 1998). Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenson, Sarah, Ed.; Dawkins, Karen, Ed.; Blanton, Maria, Ed.; Coulombe, Wendy, Ed.; Kolb, John, Ed.; Norwood, Karen, Ed.; Stiff, Lee, Ed.

    This conference proceedings contains three plenary session reports, 12 working group and 79 research reports, 35 short oral reports, 60 poster session reports, and two discussion group reports. Major papers (excluding "short orals" and "posters") include: (1) "Semantical Obstacles in Mathematics Understanding" (Carlos Arteaga and Manuel Santos);…

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (20th, Raleigh, NC, October 31-November 3, 1998). Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenson, Sarah, Ed.; Dawkins, Karen, Ed.; Blanton, Maria, Ed.; Coulombe, Wendy, Ed.; Kolb, John, Ed.; Norwood, Karen, Ed.; Stiff, Lee, Ed.

    This conference proceedings contains three plenary session reports, 12 working group and 79 research reports, 35 short oral reports, 60 poster session reports, and two discussion group reports. The titles of all papers (excluding "short orals", "posters", and brief discussion group reports) are: (1) "On Relationships between Psychological and…

  3. ANALYSIS OF ANDROGEN- AND EGF-RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT PHALLUS AFTER EXPOSURE TO VINCLOZOLIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of Androgen- and EGF-Receptor Expression in the Fetal Rat Phallus After Exposure to Vinclozolin
    Cynthia Wolf1,2, Barbara Abbott1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.1
    1USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC 27711, 2NCSU, Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Ral...

  4. Human cervicovaginal mucus contains an activity that hinders HIV-1 movement.

    PubMed

    Shukair, S A; Allen, S A; Cianci, G C; Stieh, D J; Anderson, M R; Baig, S M; Gioia, C J; Spongberg, E J; Kauffman, S M; McRaven, M D; Lakougna, H Y; Hammond, C; Kiser, P F; Hope, T J

    2013-03-01

    Cervical and vaginal epithelia are primary barriers against HIV type I (HIV-1) entry during male-to-female transmission. Cervical mucus (CM) is produced by the endocervix and forms a layer locally as well as in the vaginal compartment in the form of cervicovaginal mucus (CVM). To study the potential barrier function of each mucus type during HIV-1 transmission, we quantified HIV-1 mobility in CM and CVM ex vivo using fluorescent microscopy. Virions and 200-nm PEGylated beads were digitally tracked and mean-squared displacement was calculated. The mobility of beads increased significantly in CVM compared with CM, consistent with the known decreased mucin concentration of CVM. Unexpectedly, HIV-1 diffusion was significantly hindered in the same CVM samples in which bead diffusion was unhindered. Inhibition of virus transport was envelope-independent. Our results reveal a previously unknown activity in CVM that is capable of impeding HIV-1 mobility to enhance mucosal barrier function. PMID:22990624

  5. Removal characteristics of plasma chemical vaporization machining with a pipe electrode for optical fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Takino, Hideo; Yamamura, Kazuya; Sano, Yasuhisa; Mori, Yuzo

    2010-08-10

    Plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) is a high-precision chemical shaping method using rf plasma generated in the proximity of an electrode in an atmospheric environment. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the removal characteristics of plasma CVM using a pipe electrode. Polished fused silica plates were processed by plasma CVM, polishing, and precision grinding under various conditions. The removal rate of plasma CVM was about 4 to 1100 times faster than that of polishing, and the maximum removal rate was almost equal to that of precision grinding. The roughness of the resultant surfaces was almost the same as that of the polished surfaces.

  6. Incidence and trends of cardiovascular mortality after common cancers in young adults: Analysis of surveillance, epidemiology and end-results program

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in survivors of major cancers and identify its trends over the past two decades. METHODS: We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end-results 19 registry to identify young adults (20-49 years), diagnosed with the following major primary cancers: Lung, breast, liver/intrahepatic bile duct, pancreas, prostate, colorectal, and ovarian from 1990 through 2012 and identified the cumulative incidence of CVM after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: We identified a total of 301923 cancers (breast 173748, lung 38938, colorectal 31722, prostate 22848, ovary 16065, liver 9444, pancreas 9158). A total of 2297 (0.8%) of patients had incident CVM. Lung (10-year cumulative CVM 2.4%) and liver (1.73%) cancers had the highest incidence of CVM, while breast (0.6%) and prostate (1.2%) had the lowest CVM mortality, even after multiple adjustments (P < 0.001). Overall, there was a significant improvement in CVM since 1990 [2005-2012 vs 1990-1994, adjusted HR 0.63 (0.54-0.72), P < 0.001]. This was driven by improvements in CVM in lung cancers (P = 0.02), breast (P < 0.001), and a trend in ovarian cancer (P = 0.097). There was no statistically significant improvement in CVM among survivors of colorectal, pancreatic, liver, or prostate cancers. CONCLUSION: The risk of CVM differs among different cancers, and is highest among survivors of lung and liver cancers. The incidence of CVM has decreased over the past 2 decades mainly among survivors of lung and breast cancers. PMID:27354894

  7. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... from clones and their offspring out of the food chain until CVM could further evaluate the issue. back to top FDA Studies Cloning For more than five years, CVM ... evaluate the safety of food from these animals. The resulting report, called a ...

  8. Using the Contingent Valuation Method for Dollar Valuations of Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hider, Philip

    2008-01-01

    An application of the contingent valuation method (CVM) for estimating the economic value of a regional public library service is described, and some of the key methodological issues surrounding CVM and other stated preference techniques are discussed with reference to library use and funding contexts. Given the range of valuations that can result…

  9. Continuous Video Modeling to Assist with Completion of Multi-Step Home Living Tasks by Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Foster, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated a relatively new video-based procedure, continuous video modeling (CVM), to teach multi-step cleaning tasks to high school students with moderate intellectual disability. CVM in contrast to video modeling and video prompting allows repetition of the video model (looping) as many times as needed while the user completes…

  10. 78 FR 57057 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium; Meloxicam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Internet may obtain these documents at the CVM FOIA Electronic Reading Room: http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/CentersOffices/OfficeofFoods/CVM/CVMFOIAElectronicReadingRoom/default.htm . This rule does not meet the... that does not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. ]...

  11. Draft genome sequences of Streptococcus bovis strains ATCC 33317 and JB1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the draft genome sequences of Streptococcus bovis type strain ATTC 33317 (CVM42251) isolated from cow dung and strain JB1 (CVM42252) isolated from a cow rumen in 1977. Strains were subjected to Next Generation sequencing and the genome sizes are approximately 2 MB and 2.2 MB, respectively....

  12. The migrations of Drosophila muscle founders and primordial germ cells are interdependent.

    PubMed

    Stepanik, Vincent; Dunipace, Leslie; Bae, Young-Kyung; Macabenta, Frank; Sun, Jingjing; Trisnadi, Nathanie; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2016-09-01

    Caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells migrate from posterior to anterior of the Drosophila embryo as two bilateral streams of cells to support the specification of longitudinal muscles along the midgut. To accomplish this long-distance migration, CVM cells receive input from their environment, but little is known about how this collective cell migration is regulated. In a screen we found that wunen mutants exhibit CVM cell migration defects. Wunens are lipid phosphate phosphatases known to regulate the directional migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs). PGC and CVM cell types interact while PGCs are en route to the somatic gonadal mesoderm, and previous studies have shown that CVM impacts PGC migration. In turn, we found here that CVM cells exhibit an affinity for PGCs, localizing to the position of PGCs whether mislocalized or trapped in the endoderm. In the absence of PGCs, CVM cells exhibit subtle changes, including more cohesive movement of the migrating collective, and an increased number of longitudinal muscles is found at anterior sections of the larval midgut. These data demonstrate that PGC and CVM cell migrations are interdependent and suggest that distinct migrating cell types can coordinately influence each other to promote effective cell migration during development. PMID:27578182

  13. [Advances in congenital vertebral malformation caused by genomic copy number variation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenlei; Wu, Nan; Wu, Zhihong; Zuo, Yuzhi; Qiu, Guixing

    2016-04-01

    Congenital vertebral malformation (CVM) is a congenital vertebral structural deformity caused by abnormal somitogenesis during embryonic development, of which the reason lies in gene mutation or abnormal regulation of the genes that coordinate somitogenesis during embryonic period. ICVAS had proposed a new classification algorithm for CVM, which facilitated exploration for its genetic etiology. Genomic Copy Number Variation (CNV) is a kind of DNA mutation, which is important for human evolution, phenotype polymorphism and diseases. Series of advances have been made on genetic causes of CVM, especially on CVM caused by CNV. CNVs of chromosome 16p11.2, 10q24.31, 17p11.2, 20p11, 22q11.2 and a few other regions are associated with CVM, indicating that gene dosage may play important roles in the development of the spinal cord. PMID:27029207

  14. 7 CFR 305.31 - Irradiation treatment of imported regulated articles for certain plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Drug Administration under 21 CFR part 179. (2) Be constructed so as to provide physically separate... Quarantine, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, 1730 Varsity Drive, Suite 400, Raleigh, NC 27606... for Plant Health Science and Technology, 1730 Varsity Drive, Suite 400, Raleigh, NC 27606. The...

  15. The Quest for Historical Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Explains how the author put a young adult book on Sir Walter Raleigh into the proper historical context. Describes reading other authors about the Elizabethan period and discovering the passions that motivated explorers, and suggests further reading on Sir Walter Raleigh and this period in history. (LRW)

  16. Pretreatment of human cervicovaginal mucus with pluronic F127 enhances nanoparticle penetration without compromising mucus barrier properties to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Ensign, Laura M; Lai, Samuel K; Wang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Ming; Mert, Olcay; Hanes, Justin; Cone, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Mucosal drug delivery nanotechnologies are limited by the mucus barrier that protects nearly all epithelial surfaces not covered with skin. Most polymeric nanoparticles, including polystyrene nanoparticles (PS), strongly adhere to mucus, thereby limiting penetration and facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that PS rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), if the CVM has been pretreated with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated, nonmucoadhesive nanoparticles (PS-PEG) did not change in F127-pretreated CVM, implying that F127 did not significantly alter the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM, indicating that the presence of F127 did not reduce adhesive interactions between CVM and the virions. In contrast to treatment with a surfactant that has been approved for vaginal use as a spermicide (nonoxynol-9 or N9), there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for 1 week. Pluronic F127 pretreatment holds potential as a method to safely improve the distribution, retention, and efficacy of nanoparticle formulations without compromising CVM barrier properties to pathogens. PMID:25347518

  17. Pretreatment of Human Cervicovaginal Mucus with Pluronic F127 Enhances Nanoparticle Penetration without Compromising Mucus Barrier Properties to Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal drug delivery nanotechnologies are limited by the mucus barrier that protects nearly all epithelial surfaces not covered with skin. Most polymeric nanoparticles, including polystyrene nanoparticles (PS), strongly adhere to mucus, thereby limiting penetration and facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that PS rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), if the CVM has been pretreated with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated, nonmucoadhesive nanoparticles (PS–PEG) did not change in F127-pretreated CVM, implying that F127 did not significantly alter the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM, indicating that the presence of F127 did not reduce adhesive interactions between CVM and the virions. In contrast to treatment with a surfactant that has been approved for vaginal use as a spermicide (nonoxynol-9 or N9), there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for 1 week. Pluronic F127 pretreatment holds potential as a method to safely improve the distribution, retention, and efficacy of nanoparticle formulations without compromising CVM barrier properties to pathogens. PMID:25347518

  18. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Malformations among Newborns in Monchegorsk (North-West Russia): a Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Postoev, Vitaly A.; Talykova, Ljudmila V.; Vaktskjold, Arild

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular malformations (CVM) are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia) and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 new-borns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM. Significance for public health Cardiovascular malformation is one of the most common groups of birth defects. It is considered an important public health issue, as these malformations are the main cause of infant deaths in developed countries. Precise estimates about the prevalence and perinatal survival are needed to organise and plan health care for such newborns. Our study is the first report from the Russian Federation based on data from population-based birth registers. PMID:25343136

  19. Screening for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase, complex vertebral malformation, bovine citrullinaemia, and factor XI deficiency in Holstein cows reared in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS), complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine citrullinaemia (BC) and factor XI deficiency (FXID) are autosomal recessive hereditary disorders, which have had significant economic impact on dairy cattle breeding worldwide. In this study, 350 Holstein cows reared in Turkey were screened for BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID genotypes to obtain an indication on the importance of these defects in Turkish Holsteins. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from blood and the amplicons of BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID were obtained by using PCR. PCR products were digested with TaqI, AvaI and AvaII restriction enzymes for BLAD, DUMPS, and BC, respectively. These digested products and PCR product of FXID were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide. CVM genotypes were detected by DNA sequencing. Additionally, all genotypes were confirmed by DNA sequencing to determine whether there was a mutant allele or not. Results Fourteen BLAD, twelve CVM and four FXID carriers were found among the 350 Holstein cows examined, while carriers of DUMPS and BC were not detected. The mutant allele frequencies were calculated as 0.02, 0.017, and 0.006 for BLAD, CVM and FXID, respectively with corresponding carrier prevalence of 4.0% (BLAD), 3.4% (CVM) and 1.2% (FXID). Conclusion This study demonstrates that carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are present in the Turkish Holstein population, although at a low frequency. The actual number of clinical cases is unknown, but sporadic cases may appear. As artificial insemination is widely used in dairy cattle breeding, carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are likely present within the population of breeding sires. It is recommended to screen breeding sires for these defective genes in order to avoid an unwanted spread within the population. PMID:20929557

  20. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the top How do you determine if a veterinary drug is safe to market? As mandated by the ... to the top How does CVM remove unsafe veterinary drugs from the market? See Withdrawal of New Animal ...

  1. 75 FR 39541 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; “The Dairy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Veterinary Medicine (CVM), regulates the manufacture and distribution of food additives and drugs that will... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; ``The Dairy Practitioner's Role in Residue Avoidance Survey'' AGENCY: Food...

  2. 75 FR 6037 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... enter the human food chain immediately at the completion of an investigational study. CVM's monitoring... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... Medicine AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  3. FDA Kids' Home Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stay Healthy! Kids & Teens CVM Kid's Page National Agricultural Library Kids and Teens page - ? - Spotlight Pill Bottle ... For Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs ...

  4. Incidence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, complex vertebral malformation, and deficiency of uridine-5-monophosphate synthase carriers in Brazilian Girolando cattle.

    PubMed

    Paiva, D S; Fonseca, I; Pinto, I S B; Ianella, P; Campos, T A; Caetano, A R; Paiva, S R; Silva, M V G B; Martins, M F

    2013-01-01

    Among the various hereditary diseases that have been widely studied in dairy cattle, bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), deficiency of uridine-5-monophosphate synthase (DUMPS), and complex vertebral malformation (CVM) are noteworthy because of their high impact on overall herd productivity as a consequence of increased calf mortality. The aim of this study was to verify the frequency of carriers of BLAD, CVM, and DUMPS mutant alleles in cows and bulls from the National Girolando Progeny Test carried out in Brazil by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific PCR assays. A total of 777 animals were genotyped for BLAD, 783 for CVM, and 122 for DUMPS. The frequencies of carriers for BLAD and CVM were 0.77 and 1.53%, respectively, whereas no carriers of DUMPS were observed. PMID:24065661

  5. Willingness to pay for public health services in rural Central Java, Indonesia: methodological considerations when using the contingent valuation method.

    PubMed

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Okubo, Ichiro

    2014-06-01

    In the health sectors of low- and middle-income countries, contingent valuation method (CVM) studies on willingness to pay (WTP) have been used to gather information on demand variation or financial perspectives alongside price setting, such as the introduction of user fees and valuation of quality improvements. However, WTP found in most CVM studies have only explored the preferences that consumers express through their WTP without exploring whether they are actually able to pay for it. Therefore, this study examines the issues pertaining to WTP estimation for health services using the conventional CVM. We conducted 202 household interviews in 2008, in which we asked respondents about three types of public health services in Indonesia and assessed WTP estimated by the conventional CVM as well as in the scenario of "resorting to debt" to recognize their budget constraints. We find that all the demand curves for both WTP scenarios show gaps. Furthermore, the gap for midwife services is negatively affected by household income and is larger for the poor. These results prove that CVM studies on WTP do not always reveal WTP in the latter scenario. Those findings suggest that WTP elicited by the conventional CVM is different to that from the maximum price that prevents respondents from resorting to debt as their WTP. In order to bridge this gap in the body of knowledge on this topic, studies should improve the scenarios that CVM analyses use to explore WTP. Furthermore, because valuing or pricing health services based on the results of CVM studies on WTP alone can exacerbate the inequity of access to these services, information provided by such studies requires careful interpretation when used for this purpose, especially for the poor and vulnerable sections of society. PMID:24713191

  6. Implication of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency DNA-based testing on disease frequency in the Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Schütz, E; Scharfenstein, M; Brenig, B

    2008-12-01

    Two inherited lethal disorders, bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) and complex vertebral malformation (CVM), play a major role in breeding of Holstein cattle. Both inherited diseases are based on single nucleotide polymorphisms that have been known for 12 and 7 yr, respectively. A total of 25,753 cattle were genotyped for BLAD (18,200 tests) and CVM (14,493 tests) in our laboratory since the beginning of the genotyping programs for these diseases. Based on founder effects, the CVM mutation is thought to be linked to milk production. The BLAD was genotyped using RFLP until 2001; then a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay on a LightCycler was used, as for CVM genotyping. By using single nucleotide polymorphism-aided breeding, the allelic frequency of the BLAD and CVM mutations in the active sire population was reduced from 9.4% in 1997 to 0.3% in 2007 (BLAD) and from 8.3% in 2002 to 2.3% in 2007 (CVM), with calculated half-life of the mutant allele of 2.1 yr for BLAD and 3.6 yr for CVM. An observed increase of BLAD frequency in 1999 could be attributed to the massive use of a BLAD-positive sire tested falsely negative in another laboratory. These data show that marker-assisted selection is capable of substantially reducing the frequency of a mutation within a period of not more than 5 yr. The different selection strategies against the lethal recessive allele in CVM and BLAD are reflected in the different reduction rates of the specific allele frequencies. PMID:19038961

  7. Cerebral venous malformation with meningioma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MU, QINGCHUN; ZHANG, KUN; WANG, JUSTIN; SAYARI, ARASH; HUANG, HAIYAN

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year-old female patient was admitted to The First Hospital of Jilin University (Changchun, China) on 1st October 2011 with a 10-day history of discontinuous, whole-brain headache and a 1-year history of impaired vision and memory deterioration, accompanied by right facial numbness. Clinical signs and radiological features observed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) led to the diagnosis of an intracranial meningioma accompanied by a cerebral venous malformation (CVM). The patient underwent neurosurgical resection of the meningioma, but required no further treatment for the CVM. At a 1-year follow-up examination, the patient continued to complain of discontinuous headache. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to reconfirm the CVM diagnosis; however, no treatment was administered due to the high risks of treatment and only mild symptoms experienced by the patient. The present case demonstrates the efficacy of DSA for detecting the presence and specific nature of CVM, and compares the value of MRI and DSA in the diagnosis of CVM. The majority of CVM patients exhibit no clinical symptoms, and the disease prognosis is typically favorable. PMID:26998016

  8. The Role of the Cluster Variation Method in the First Principles Calculation of Phase Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Becker, J. D.

    The Cluster Variation Method (CVM) proposed by Professor Kikuchi to study cooperative phenomena in solids has played a major role in the development of phenomenological and first principles theories of phase equilibrium. The CVM provides an accurate and rigorous framework for the study of the configurational thermodynamics of alloys. As such, the method has been a powerful tool in the quest for insight into the main contributions to alloy phase stability and in the interpretation of complex and extensive experimental data. The early successes of the CVM have also been instrumental in the development of ab-initio methods for the reliable description of phase equilibrium and, in particular, of phase diagrams. These new developments have relied heavily on the CVM and on the theoretical ideas put forth over 40 years ago by Professor Kikuchi. Here, we review the use of the CVM in the first-principles computation of phase diagrams, and present results for the Zr-Nb system. The theory that emerges is one that incorporates the calculation of total energies in the local density approximation, configurational entropies using the CVM, and vibrational modes in the Debye-Grüneisen approximation.

  9. HYDROLOGIC UNITS - NORTH CAROLINA (14-DIGIT HUC BOUNDARIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Raleigh Office in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, and the NC Dept. of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality developed the Hydrologi...

  10. HYDROLOGIC UNITS - NORTH CAROLINA (6-DIGIT HUC BOUNDARIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Raleigh Office in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, and the NC Dept. of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality developed the Hydrologi...

  11. HYDROLOGIC UNITS - NEUSE RIVER BASIN, NC 5-KM BUFFERED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Raleigh Office in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, and the NC Dept. of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality developed the Hydrologi...

  12. HYDROLOGIC UNITS - NORTH CAROLINA (8-DIGIT HUC BOUNDARIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Raleigh Office in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, and the NC Dept. of Envirmnment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality developed the Hydrologi...

  13. HYDROLOGIC UNITS - NORTH CAROLINA (11-DIGIT HUC BOUNDARIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Raleigh Office in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, and the NC Dept. of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality developed the Hydrologi...

  14. Terrestrial Carbon [Environmental Pollution: Part I, Special Issue, March 2002; Part II, Special Issue Supplement to 116/3, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Mickler, Robert; McNulty, Steven

    2002-03-01

    These issues contain a total of forty-four peer reviewed science papers on terrestrial carbon presented at the Advances in Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Inventory, Measurements, and Monitoring Conference held in Raleigh, N.C., in October 2000.

  15. NASA's 2013 REEL Science Communications contest: Hurricane Science

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video on NASA satellite and aircraft observations of hurricanes was produced by Will Reiss and Erik Borchers, students at Cardinal Gibbons High School in Raleigh, North Carolina. Will and Erik...

  16. 76 FR 19097 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ...), Ali Ismailzada, Partner/CFO, Application Type: New NVO License. Alpha-Raleigh USA, Limited Liability... Logistics LLC (OFF), 8394 Elder Creek Road, Sacramento, CA 95828, Officers: Lisa L. Germen, Vice...

  17. Familial Incidence of Cardiovascular Malformations in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kelle, Angela M; Qureshi, Muhammad Y; Olson, Timothy M; Eidem, Benjamin W; O'Leary, Patrick W

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive left-sided congenital heart lesions exhibit familial clustering, and familial echocardiographic screening for bicuspid aortic valve has become standard practice. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a severe left-sided obstructive lesion; however, familial screening is not universally recommended. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence of cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) in first-degree relatives of HLHS probands. First-degree relatives were screened for CVM by transthoracic echocardiography. Screening was completed in 152 family members (97 parents and 55 siblings) of 52 probands. Of these, 17 of 152 (11%) had CVM. Anomalies detected included: bicuspid aortic valve in 5 (3%), isolated dilated ascending aorta in 4 (3%), coarctation of the aorta in 1, partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection in 1, anomalous, intramural coronary artery in 1, bicuspid pulmonary valve in 1, and other anomalies in 4. Most were previously undiagnosed (11 of 17, 65%). Fourteen of 52 families (27%) had ≥1 relative with CVM. Overall, 7 of 55 siblings (13%), 5 of 46 fathers (11%) and 5 of 51 mothers (10%) had CVM. Although the incidence of CVM in first-degree relatives of HLHS probands was lower in this cohort than previously reported, it remained substantial, with at least one additional member having CVM in 27% of families. The frequent occurrence of undiagnosed CVM highlights the importance of routine familial screening in HLHS. In fact, even if screening was done in childhood, it may be appropriate to screen again in the third or fourth decade to exclude isolated enlargement of the ascending aorta. PMID:26433269

  18. The usefulness of dental and cervical maturation stages in New Zealand children for Disaster Victim Identification.

    PubMed

    Timmins, Kimberley; Liversidge, Helen; Farella, Mauro; Herbison, Peter; Kieser, Jules

    2012-06-01

    Age estimation of young victims of natural and un-natural disasters remains a crucial and challenging task during the process of Disaster Victim Identification (DVI). The purpose of this study was to compare dental maturity using the Demirjian and Cameriere methods and to explore the relationship between dental age and cervical vertebral maturity (CVM) using the Hassel and Farman method for a group of New Zealand children. The study used lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs of 200 orthodontic patients aged 7-17 years. Dental age was calculated from mandibular tooth formation stages using the Demirjian and Cameriere methods by calculating the ratio of tooth length to apex width for these teeth. CVM was assessed using stages from Hassel and Farman. Reliability of maturity from reassessment of 20 radiographs showed good agreement for the three methods. Chronological and dental ages were compared using a mixed model. Descriptive statistics of dental ages by CVM stage were calculated. The results show that both dental methods were similar in assessing maturity. A disadvantage of using the Cameriere method was that all seven teeth reached maturity at 13.69 and 14.06 years in females and males respectively, compared to age 16 using the Dermijian method. Females reached CVM stages at earlier chronological and dental ages than males. Mean chronological age for CVM stages 2-5 is about 1 year earlier in females than males. The Demirjian and Cameriere methods of dental maturity and CVM are reliable and useful in assessing dental and skeletal maturity. Ideally in a DVI situation, both the methods of Demirjian and Cameriere, together with CVM, should be employed in the ageing of individuals suspected of being between 7 and 16 years. PMID:21667171

  19. Using the Averaging-Based Factorization to Assess CyberShake Hazard Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Jordan, T. H.; Callaghan, S.; Graves, R. W.; Olsen, K. B.; Maechling, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The CyberShake project of Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) combines stochastic models of finite-fault ruptures with 3D ground motion simulations to compute seismic hazards at low frequencies (< 0.5 Hz) in Southern California. The first CyberShake hazard model (Graves et al., 2011) was based on the Graves & Pitarka (2004) rupture model (GP-04) and the Kohler et al. (2004) community velocity model (CVM-S). We have recently extended the CyberShake calculations to include the Graves & Pitarka (2010) rupture model (GP-10), which substantially increases the rupture complexity relative to GP-04, and the Shaw et al. (2011) community velocity model (CVM-H), which features different sedimentary basin structures than CVM-S. Here we apply the averaging-based factorization (ABF) technique of Wang & Jordan (2013) to compare CyberShake models and assess their consistency with the hazards predicted by the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models (Power et al., 2008). ABF uses a hierarchical averaging scheme to separate the shaking intensities for large ensembles of earthquakes into relative (dimensionless) excitation fields representing site, path, directivity, and source-complexity effects, and it provides quantitative, map-based comparisons between models with completely different formulations. The CyberShake directivity effects are generally larger than predicted by the Spudich & Chiou (2008) NGA directivity factor, but those calculated from the GP-10 sources are smaller than those of GP-04, owing to the greater incoherence of the wavefields from the more complex rupture models. Substituting GP-10 for GP-04 reduces the CyberShake-NGA directivity-effect discrepancy by a factor of two, from +36% to +18%. The CyberShake basin effects are generally larger than those from the three NGA models that provide basin-effect factors. However, the basin excitations calculated from CVM-H are smaller than from CVM-S, and they show a stronger frequency dependence, primarily because

  20. Immunoglobulin Classes and Biological Functions of Campylobacter (Vibrio) fetus Antibodies in Serum and Cervicovaginal Mucus

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L. B.; Schurig, G. D.; Duncan, J. R.; Corbeil, R. R.; Winter, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Serum and cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) antibodies from heifers after genital infection or systemic immunization with Campylobacter (Vibrio) fetus were classified according to their immunoglobulin class, antigenic specificities, and biological functions. Only immunoglobulin (Ig) A antibodies, specific both for O and superficial, heat-labile, whole-cell (W) antigens, were detected in CVM of convalescent animals. After systemic immunization, antibodies in serum were directed principally to W antigens and were located in IgG1, IgG2, and IgM classes; CVM antibodies of the same specificity were detected only in the IgG subclasses. Functional tests revealed that antibodies of W specificity, whether of the IgA or IgG class, were capable of immobilizing the organism. However, IgG antibodies immobilized with clumping, whereas IgA antibodies immobilized single organisms within the 3-min period. None of the antibody preparations was bactericidal in the presence of homologous complement when the infecting strain was used as the target organism, but a bactericidal effect was observed when the target strain was rough and non-encapsulated. Both serum and CVM from systemically immunized animals opsonized C. fetus organisms, but CVM from locally immunized animals containing IgA antibodies was not opsonic. It is hypothesized that functions of immobilization for IgA and IgG and of opsonization for IgG are important features of protective immunity in venereal vibriosis. PMID:4609902

  1. [Temporal stability of river ecological restoration based on the assessment of contingent valuation method: a case study of Shanghai urban river].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Whether the assessment results of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) have temporal stability is an important issue in examining the reliability of CVM findings, and also, is critical to decide whether CVM can be applied to evaluate the ecosystem services value in China. Taking the ecological restoration along the Caohejing River in Shanghai as a case, three CVM survey schemes with one month apart and two years apart were designed. Then, 426, 498, and 200 questionnaires in these surveys were comparatively analyzed, respectively. The mean values of the willingness to pay (WTP) from the three surveys were 14. 2, 14. 1, and 18. 0 RMB, and the median values were 5, 5, and 10 RMB, respectively. With the comparison of the WTP distribution and the main statistics, the analysis of the factors affecting the WTP, and the test of the significances of temporal variables, it was found that the CVM results from the surveys with one-month apart had temporal stability, while those from the surveys with two years apart presented definite difference. PMID:23898647

  2. Evaluation of CBS 600 carburized steel as a gear material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1979-01-01

    Gear endurance tests were conducted with one lot of consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI 9310 gears and one lot of air-melt CBS 600 gears. The gears were 8 pitch with a pitch diameter of 8.89 centimeters (3.5 in.). Bench-type rolling-element fatigue tests were also conducted with one lot of CVM AISI 9310, three lots of CVM CBS 600, and one of air-melt CBS 600 material. The rolling-element bars were 0.952 centimeter (0.375 in.) in diameter. The CBS 600 material exhibited pitting fatigue lives in both rolling-element specimens and gears at least equivalent to that of CVM AISI 9310. Tooth fracture failure occurred with the CBS 600 gears after overrunning a fatigue spall, but it did not occur with the CVM AISI 9310 gears. Tooth fracture in the CBS 600 was attributed to excessive carbon content in the case, excessive case depth, and a higher than normal core hardness.

  3. Clinical, Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Congenital Vertebral Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Giampietro, P.F.; Raggio, C.L.; Blank, R.D.; McCarty, C.; Broeckel, U.; Pickart, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) pose a significant health problem because they can be associated with spinal deformities, such as congenital scoliosis and kyphosis, in addition to various syndromes and other congenital malformations. Additional information remains to be learned regarding the natural history of congenital scoliosis and related health problems. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the process of somite formation, which gives rise to vertebral bodies, there is a wide gap in our understanding of how genetic factors contribute to CVM development. Maternal diabetes during pregnancy most commonly contributes to the occurrence of CVM, followed by other factors such as hypoxia and anticonvulsant medications. This review highlights several emerging clinical issues related to CVM, including pulmonary and orthopedic outcome in congenital scoliosis. Recent breakthroughs in genetics related to gene and environment interactions associated with CVM development are discussed. The Klippel-Feil syndrome which is associated with cervical segmentation abnormalities is illustrated as an example in which animal models, such as the zebrafish, can be utilized to provide functional evidence of pathogenicity of identified mutations. PMID:23653580

  4. Nematic phase in the J1-J2 square-lattice Ising model in an external field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Alejandra I.; Stariolo, Daniel A.; Almarza, Noé G.

    2015-05-01

    The J1-J2 Ising model in the square lattice in the presence of an external field is studied by two approaches: the cluster variation method (CVM) and Monte Carlo simulations. The use of the CVM in the square approximation leads to the presence of a new equilibrium phase, not previously reported for this model: an Ising-nematic phase, which shows orientational order but not positional order, between the known stripes and disordered phases. Suitable order parameters are defined, and the phase diagram of the model is obtained. Monte Carlo simulations are in qualitative agreement with the CVM results, giving support to the presence of the new Ising-nematic phase. Phase diagrams in the temperature-external field plane are obtained for selected values of the parameter κ =J2/|J1| which measures the relative strength of the competing interactions. From the CVM in the square approximation we obtain a line of second order transitions between the disordered and nematic phases, while the nematic-stripes phase transitions are found to be of first order. The Monte Carlo results suggest a line of second order nematic-disordered phase transitions in agreement with the CVM results. Regarding the stripes-nematic transitions, the present Monte Carlo results are not precise enough to reach definite conclusions about the nature of the transitions.

  5. Characterization of cumulus cloud fields using trajectories in the center of gravity versus water mass phase space: 1. Cloud tracking and phase space description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiblum, Reuven H.; Altaratz, Orit; Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham; Kostinski, Alexander B.; Khain, Alexander P.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Fredj, Erick; Dagan, Guy; Pinto, Lital; Yaish, Ricki; Chen, Qian

    2016-06-01

    We study the evolution of warm convective cloud fields using large eddy simulations of continental and trade cumulus. Individual clouds are tracked a posteriori from formation to dissipation using a 3-D cloud-tracking algorithm, and results are presented in the phase space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space). The CvM space is shown to contain rich information on cloud field characteristics, cloud morphology, and common cloud development pathways, together facilitating a comprehensive understanding of the cloud field. In this part we show how the meteorological (thermodynamic) conditions that determine the cloud properties are projected on the CvM phase space and how changes in the initial conditions affect the clouds' trajectories in this space. This part sets the stage for a detailed microphysical analysis that will be shown in part II.

  6. Testing long-period ground-motion simulations of scenario earthquakes using the Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah mainshock: Evaluation of finite-fault rupture characterization and 3D seismic velocity models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, Robert W.; Aagaard, Brad T.

    2011-01-01

    Using a suite of five hypothetical finite-fault rupture models, we test the ability of long-period (T>2.0 s) ground-motion simulations of scenario earthquakes to produce waveforms throughout southern California consistent with those recorded during the 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. The hypothetical ruptures are generated using the methodology proposed by Graves and Pitarka (2010) and require, as inputs, only a general description of the fault location and geometry, event magnitude, and hypocenter, as would be done for a scenario event. For each rupture model, two Southern California Earthquake Center three-dimensional community seismic velocity models (CVM-4m and CVM-H62) are used, resulting in a total of 10 ground-motion simulations, which we compare with recorded ground motions. While the details of the motions vary across the simulations, the median levels match the observed peak ground velocities reasonably well, with the standard deviation of the residuals generally within 50% of the median. Simulations with the CVM-4m model yield somewhat lower variance than those with the CVM-H62 model. Both models tend to overpredict motions in the San Diego region and underpredict motions in the Mojave desert. Within the greater Los Angeles basin, the CVM-4m model generally matches the level of observed motions, whereas the CVM-H62 model tends to overpredict the motions, particularly in the southern portion of the basin. The variance in the peak velocity residuals is lowest for a rupture that has significant shallow slip (<5 km depth), whereas the variance in the residuals is greatest for ruptures with large asperities below 10 km depth. Overall, these results are encouraging and provide confidence in the predictive capabilities of the simulation methodology, while also suggesting some regions in which the seismic velocity models may need improvement.

  7. Screening for toxic phorbol esters in jerky pet treat products using LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Nishshanka, Upul; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi; Chattopadhaya, Chaitali; Kijak, Philip J; Chu, Pak-Sin; Reimschuessel, Renate; Tkachenko, Andriy; Ceric, Olgica; De Alwis, Hemakanthi G

    2016-05-01

    Since 2007, the U.S. FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) has been investigating reports of pets becoming ill after consuming jerky pet treats. Jerky used in pet treats contains glycerin, which can be made from vegetable oil or as a byproduct of biodiesel production. Because some biodiesel is produced using oil from Jatropha curcas, a plant that contains toxic compounds including phorbol esters, CVM developed a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) screening method to evaluate investigational jerky samples for the presence of these toxins. Results indicated that the samples analyzed with the new method did not contain Jatropha toxins at or above the lowest concentration tested. PMID:27038400

  8. 78 FR 28851 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Center for Veterinary Medicine Using the Food and Drug Administration's Electronic Submission Gateway... Format using the FDA Electronic Submissions Gateway.'' DATES: Submit either electronic or written... Electronic Submission Gateway-- 21 CFR 11.2 (OMB Control Number 0910-0454)--Extension CVM accepts...

  9. Characterization of cumulus cloud fields using trajectories in the center of gravity versus water mass phase space: 2. Aerosol effects on warm convective clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiblum, Reuven H.; Altaratz, Orit; Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham; Kostinski, Alexander B.; Khain, Alexander P.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Fredj, Erick; Dagan, Guy; Pinto, Lital; Yaish, Ricki; Chen, Qian

    2016-06-01

    In Part I of this work a 3-D cloud tracking algorithm and phase space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space) were introduced and described in detail. We showed how new physical insight can be gained by following cloud trajectories in the CvM space. Here this approach is used to investigate aerosol effects on cloud fields of warm cumuli. We show a clear effect of the aerosol loading on the shape and size of CvM clusters. We also find fundamental differences in the CvM space between simulations using bin versus bulk microphysical schemes, with the bin scheme precipitation expressing much higher sensitivity to changes in aerosol concentrations. Using the bin microphysical scheme, we find that the increase in cloud center of gravity altitude with increase in aerosol concentrations occurs for a wide range of cloud sizes. This is attributed to reduced sedimentation, increased buoyancy and vertical velocities, and increased environmental instability, all of which are tightly coupled to inhibition of precipitation processes and subsequent feedbacks of clouds on their environment. Many of the physical processes shown here are consistent with processes typically associated with cloud invigoration.

  10. Whole-genome sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strains isolated from agricultural sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana strain CVM42234 isolated from chick feed in 2012 and Salmonella Cubana strain 76814 isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 base pairs, respectively....

  11. 76 FR 6143 - Draft Guidance for Industry on “Target Animal Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on ``Target Animal Safety and... guidance for industry ( 215) entitled ``Target Animal Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and... for review by the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation...

  12. 75 FR 6035 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Teleconference in Electronic Format to The Center for Veterinary Medicine AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... meeting or teleconference in electronic format to the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM). DATES: Submit... Meeting or Teleconference in Electronic Format to The Center for Veterinary Medicine--21 CFR 10.65...

  13. 75 FR 58411 - Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public...: ``Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) eSubmitter Workshop.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to..., Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food and Drug Administration, 7520 Standish Pl., Rockville,...

  14. 78 FR 53772 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Federal Register of May 16, 2013 (78 FR 28851), FDA published a 60-day notice requesting public comment on... Information in Electronic Format to the Center for Veterinary Medicine Using the Food and Drug Administration... CFR 11.2 (OMB Control Number 0910-0454)--Extension The Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)...

  15. 75 FR 22598 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office and Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Protocol Without Data in Electronic Format to the Center for Veterinary Medicine AGENCY: Food and Drug... Industry on How to Submit a Protocol Without Data in Electronic Format to the Center for Veterinary... drug sponsors, the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reviews protocols for safety and...

  16. Listeria monocytogenes septicemia in an immunocompromised dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An 11-year-old, male castrated, Boston terrier was presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Small Animal Emergency Service (NCSU-CVM-SAER) with a two-day history of progressive ataxia, left-sided head tilt, and anorexia. The dog had previously been diagnosed wi...

  17. 75 FR 16001 - New Animal Drugs; Removal of Obsolete and Redundant Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ....hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of August 8, 2003 (68 FR... Study Implementation (DESI) program (68 FR 47332). CVM proposed to withdraw the new animal drug.... In that final rule (71 FR 16219, March 31, 2006), FDA removed from the tables in Sec....

  18. 77 FR 69634 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food-Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ....hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of November 23, 2011 (76 FR... and describes criteria that the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) thinks are the most appropriate... current thinking on the topic. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and does...

  19. Comparison of the Effects of Continuous Video Modeling, Video Prompting, and Video Modeling on Task Completion by Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Foster, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effects of three procedures (video prompting: VP, video modeling: VM, and continuous video modeling: CVM) on task completion by three high school students with moderate intellectual disability. The comparison was made across three sets of fundamentally different tasks (putting away household items in clusters of two items;…

  20. 75 FR 22598 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office and Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... enter the human food chain immediately at the completion of an investigational study. CVM's monitoring... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for... Format to the Center for Veterinary Medicine AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  1. 75 FR 6034 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Food Purposes in Electronic Format to the Center for Veterinary Medicine AGENCY: Food and Drug... Medicine (CVM). DATES: Submit written or electronic comments on the collection of information by April 6... Human Food Purposes in Electronic Format to the Center for Veterinary Medicine--Section 512(j) of...

  2. A Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility and MIC-distributions in Enterococcus Isolates Originating from Humans, Animals and Retail Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) is a collaborative effort between the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA CVM), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The NARMS prog...

  3. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must..., manufacturing, processing, packaging, and holding such animal feeds conform to current good manufacturing... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl.,...

  4. An assessment of household willingness to pay for curbside recycling: a comparison of payment card and referendum approaches.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Thomas W; Lichtkoppler, Frank R; Jones, Keith R; Zondag, Randall H

    2005-07-01

    Curbside recycling is a tool that communities use to reduce the need for landfill space. This study provides contingent valuation estimates of household willingness to pay (WTP) to continue a curbside recycling program in the face of budget cuts. Comparisons of two forms of the contingent valuation method (CVM) are provided: a single bounded referendum and a payment card. Neither approach emerges as unambiguously superior. Response rates were virtually identical. Both approaches show that support for curbside recycling is highly sensitive to price. Regression results from the payment card provided a more thorough identification of socio-demographic variables associated with WTP than the referendum, but the explanatory power of the two regressions did not differ significantly. The referendum estimates of mean WTP exceed those from the payment card, although the disparities are less than those typically reported in the CVM literature. Local policy makers cited the CVM results as influencing their decisions regarding funding options for the future of the program, and seemed to appreciate the fact that the two approaches provided a fairly narrow range of estimates of WTP. In an era when more of the burden of financing of environmental programs is being shifted to the local level, use of CVM to estimate the WTP of consumers for highly disaggregated goods and services designed to achieve environmental improvement will likely become more relevant to local decision makers who are interested in understanding their constituents' views. PMID:15854733

  5. Depletion of penicillin G residues in sows after intramuscular injection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US-FDA CVM has not established a tolerance for penicillin residues in swine tissues, but across much of Europe and Asia a tolerance of 50 ppb penicillin G is in effect. In the US, heavy sows are often treated with extra-label doses of penicillin G, however appropriate pre-slaughter withdrawal p...

  6. 78 FR 46966 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... small businesses (76 FR 45818, August 1, 2011). The comment period for this request ended November 30... Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) and the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM). Thus, as the starting... FR 45639). Utilizing the method set forth in section 736(c)(1) of the FD&C Act, FDA has calculated...

  7. 76 FR 45820 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspections, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... activities on behalf of FDA's product centers, including the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) and the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), which have FSMA implementation responsibilities... inspection trips related to FDA's food and veterinary medicine programs, which averaged a total of...

  8. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  9. Quasi-static compression and tensile stress-strain curves, tantalum - 10% tungsten and 300 grade maraging steel. Final memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Benck, R.F.; Silsby, G.F.

    1986-05-01

    The results of quasi-static compression and tension tests of tantalum -10% tungsten alloy and Vascomax 300 CVM 300 trade maraging steel are presented. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield strength and ultimate strength were determined at test temperatures of 23.9 C. Results provide engineering properties documentation for materials used in several terminal ballistic tests.

  10. Spectral Amplification Factors of Long-Period (3 to 10 s) Strong Ground Motions in and around the Los Angeles Basin during the Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake of April 4, 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatayama, K.; Kalkan, E.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated spectral amplification factors of long-period ground motions (3 to 10 s) in the Los Angeles (LA) basin by computing Fourier spectral ratios of the basin sites with respect to the surrounding reference hard-rock sites from the Mw7.2 April 4, 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake records and presented period-specific (4, 6, 8 and 10 s) maps of amplification factors for the long periods. This earthquake was the first event providing many (236) high-quality recordings to study spatial variation of long-period amplification in the LA basin. We also tried numerical wave propagation simulations for two of the recent 3D seismic-velocity models for south California: SCEC (Southern California Earthquake Center) CVM (Community Velocity Model)-4.0 and CVM-H 6.2 to examine how these models account for the observed long-period amplification factors. Comparison of the period-specific maps of amplification factors between the observation and the simulation for the two velocity models shows that both CVM-4.0 and CVM-H 6.2 can roughly reproduce the observed amplification factors with the period range of 8 to 10 s in the LA basin. Concerning the shorter-period range (4 to 6 s), however, both of the two models leave more to be improved so that the observed amplification factors can be better simulated. We also find that CVM-4.0 has an advantage over CVM-H 6.2 in terms of the south-eastern part of the LA basin, because CVM-H 6.2 indicates non-observed large amplification there, while CVM-4.0 does not indicate the false amplification. For the period of 10 s, the largest amplification factor of about 5 was observed in the central part of the LA basin, which is well simulated in terms of good agreements between the observed and the simulated amplification factors. The simulation from the two velocity models also indicates the large amplification even in the San Gabriel (SG) valley, which disagrees with the observation. For 8 s, larger amplification factors of about 5 were observed

  11. Diffusion of Immunoglobulin G in Shed Vaginal Epithelial Cells and in Cell-Free Regions of Human Cervicovaginal Mucus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Schroeder, Holly A.; Nunn, Kenetta L.; Woods, Karen; Anderson, Deborah J.; Cone, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) is a viscoelastic gel containing a complex mixture of mucins, shed epithelial cells, microbes and macromolecules, such as antibodies, that together serve as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Here, to investigate the affinity between IgG and different mucus constituents, we used Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) to measure the diffusion of IgG in fresh, minimally modified CVM. We found that CVM exhibits substantial spatial variations that necessitate careful selection of the regions in which to perform FRAP. In portions of CVM devoid of cells, FRAP measurements using different IgG antibodies and labeling methods consistently demonstrate that both exogenous and endogenous IgG undergo rapid diffusion, almost as fast as in saline, in good agreement with the rapid diffusion of IgG in mid-cycle endocervical mucus that is largely devoid of cells. This rapid diffusion indicates the interactions between secreted mucins and IgG must be very weak and transient. IgG also accumulated in cellular debris and shed epithelial cells that had become permeable to IgG, which may allow shed epithelial cells to serve as reservoirs of secreted IgG. Interestingly, in contrast to cell-free regions of CVM, the diffusion of cell-associated IgG was markedly slowed, suggesting greater affinity between IgG and cellular constituents. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of the role of IgG in mucosal protection against infectious diseases, and may also provide a framework for using FRAP to study molecular interactions in mucus and other complex biological environments. PMID:27362256

  12. Assessment of skeletal maturation with permanent mandibular second molar calcification stages among a group of Nepalese orthodontic patients

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Jamal; Shrestha, Basanta Kumar; Yadav, Rajiv; Ghimire, Tika Ram

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of growth status of a patient is a key component in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing patients with skeletal discrepancy. Skeletal maturation based on hand-wrist radiograph and cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) are commonly used methods of growth assessment. Studies have shown that stages of dental calcification can also be used to assess skeletal maturation status of an individual, whereas other studies have suggested that the relationship between dental calcification and skeletal maturation should be interpreted with caution owing to racial variation. Objective To evaluate the relationship between permanent mandibular second molar calcification stages and skeletal maturity assessed by CVM among a group of Nepalese orthodontic patients. Materials and methods One hundred and sixty-eight digital radiographs (84 orthopantomograms and 84 lateral cephalograms) were obtained from the records of 84 patients who sought orthodontic treatment in Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopaedic Unit, Department of Dentistry, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu. Two parameters were used in this study, namely, CVM stages from lateral cephalogram and Demirjian index (DI) stages from orthopantomogram. The evaluation of digital radiographs was carried out on a computer screen with a resolution of 1,280×800 pixels. The association between DI stages of permanent mandibular second molar and CVM stages was assessed. Results A statistically significant association was found between DI and CVM stages for both male and female subjects with Pearson’s contingency coefficient value of 0.751 and 0.766 for male and female subjects, respectively. Conclusion Skeletal maturation can be reliably assessed with dental calcification stages of permanent mandibular second molar for Nepalese orthodontic patients. PMID:27099531

  13. 5S Clavam Biosynthesis Is Controlled by an Atypical Two-Component Regulatory System in Streptomyces clavuligerus

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Thomas; Zelyas, Nathan J.; Cai, Hui; Tahlan, Kapil; Wong, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces clavuligerus produces a collection of five clavam metabolites, including the clinically important β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid, as well as four structurally related metabolites called 5S clavams. The paralogue gene cluster of S. clavuligerus is one of three clusters of genes for the production of these clavam metabolites. A region downstream of the cluster was analyzed, and snk, res1, and res2, encoding elements of an atypical two-component regulatory system, were located. Mutation of any one of the three genes had no effect on clavulanic acid production, but snk and res2 mutants produced no 5S clavams, whereas res1 mutants overproduced 5S clavams. Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses showed that transcription of cvm7p (which encodes a transcriptional activator of 5S clavam biosynthesis) and 5S clavam biosynthetic genes was eliminated in snk and in res2 mutants but that snk and res2 transcription was unaffected in a cvm7p mutant. Both snk and res2 mutants could be complemented by introduction of cvm7p under the control of an independently regulated promoter. In vitro assays showed that Snk can autophosphorylate and transfer its phosphate group to both Res1 and Res2, and Snk-H365, Res1-D52, and Res2-D52 were identified as the phosphorylation sites for the system. Dephosphorylation assays indicated that Res1 stimulates dephosphorylation of Res2∼P. These results suggest a regulatory cascade in which Snk and Res2 form a two-component system controlling cvm7p transcription, with Res1 serving as a checkpoint to modulate phosphorylation levels. Cvm7P then activates transcription of 5S clavam biosynthetic genes. PMID:22751548

  14. OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES (MAPK) FOLLOWING AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE EXPOSURE (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES (MAPK) FOLLOWING AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE EXPOSURE (PM). E S Roberts1, R Jaskot2, J Richards2, and K L Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC a...

  15. HYDROLOGIC UNITS - NEUSE RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Raleigh Office in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, and the NC Dept. of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality developed the Hydrolo...

  16. EFFECTS OF EXCESS NITROGEN IN THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    From its headwaters northwest of Durham, NC, where the Eno and Flat Rivers join; the Neuse River flows in a southeasterly direction first into the Piedmont region past Raleigh and Smithfield. The river continues into the coastal region through Goldsboro, Kinston, and into the tid...

  17. 7 CFR 305.32 - Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved interstate from areas quarantined for fruit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for Plant Health Science and Technology, 1730 Varsity Drive, Suite 400, Raleigh, NC 27606. Before the... Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... facility and treatment protocol must be approved by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service....

  18. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweetpotatoes from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, 1730 Varsity Drive, Suite 400, Raleigh, NC 27606. (B) The pallet-load...

  19. 7 CFR 352.30 - Untreated oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Quarantine, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, 1730 Varsity Drive, Suite 400, Raleigh, NC 27606... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS... elsewhere as may be required by the inspector, pursuant to this part, in order to prevent plant...

  20. 7 CFR 305.2 - Approved treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, 1730 Varsity Drive, Suite 400, Raleigh, NC 27606-5202. Upon receipt...

  1. 7 CFR 305.2 - Approved treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, 1730 Varsity Drive, Suite 400, Raleigh, NC 27606-5202. Upon receipt...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: Separation of Manure Solids from Flushed Swine Waste. Hoffland Environmental Inc. Drag Screen and Clarifier

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Hoffland Drag Screen and Clarifier was conducted at the North Carolina State University's Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory, in Raleigh, North Carolina. The farm is designed to operate as a research and teaching facility with the capacity for 250 so...

  3. Marker-Assisted Selection in Eastern Soft Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft winter wheat breeders in the eastern United States have been quick to adopt marker-assisted selection (MAS) as a tool for developing improved cultivars. The Eastern Regional Small Grains Genotyping Lab at Raleigh, NC has ongoing collaborative projects on MAS with most public programs in the re...

  4. Estimates of genetic parameters for Holstein cows for test-day yield traits with a random regression cubic spline model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters were estimated with REML for individual test-day milk, fat, and protein yields and SCS with a random regression cubic spline model. Test-day records of Holstein cows that calved from 1994 through early 1999 were obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems in Raleigh, North Car...

  5. Researchers Mull STEM Gender Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Intrigued by the interviews with high school valedictorians that the Raleigh, N.C., News & Observer publishes this time each year, researcher E. Ann York decided to gather up three years' worth of its stories to look for any gender differences in the aspirations of these highest-achieving local students. Were boys more likely to strive for careers…

  6. DEVELOPMENTAL ATRAZINE EXPOSURE SUPPRESSES IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MALE, BUT NOT FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Atrazine Exposure Suppresses Immune Function in Male, but not Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Andrew A. Rooney,*,1 Raymond A. Matulka,? and Robert Luebke?

    *College of Veterinary Medicine, Anatomy, Physiological Sciences and Radiology, NCSU, Raleigh, North...

  7. AIR PARTICULATE POLLUTION EXPOSURE INDUCES SYSTEMIC OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HEALTHY MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air particulate pollution exposure induces systemic oxidative stress in healthy mice

    Elizabeth S Roberts1 and Kevin L Dreher2. 1 College or Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC , 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC

    Epidemiological s...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: TRITON SYSTEMS, LLC SOLID BOWL CENTRIFUGE, MODEL TS-5000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Triton Systems, LLC Solid Bowl Centrifuge Model TS-5000 (TS-5000) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The TS-5000 was 48" in diameter and 30" deep, with a bowl capacity of 16 ft3. ...

  9. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  10. COMPARISON OF DAILY AND WEEKLY PRECIPITATION SAMPLING EFFICIENCES USING AUTOMATIC COLLECTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precipitation samples were collected for approximately 90 daily and 50 weekly sampling periods at Finley Farm, near Raleigh, NC from August 1981 through October 1982. Ten wet-deposition samplers were used. Four samplers were operated for daily sampling, and 6 samplers were operat...

  11. MUTAGENIC ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCES APPORTIONED BY RECEPTOR MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the winter of 1985, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collected air quality data and samples in residential locations in Albuquerque. ew Mexico and Raleigh, North Carolina as part of its Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP). ne of the major objectives of these...

  12. Developing a Billion Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergen, Christopher; Rego, Lyndon; Wright, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Intentionally developing the leadership capacity of all students is a necessary requirement for schools around the world. The Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, N.C., has been at the center of this work and presents three schools as examples: Ravenscroft School in Raleigh, N.C., the African Leadership Academy in Johannesburg, South…

  13. MAP KINASE SIGNALING IN PULMONARY FIBROBLASTS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND BRONCHOAL VEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF) FROM HEALTHY AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAP KINASE SIGNALING IN PULMONARY FIBROBLASTS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF) FROM HEALTHY AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS. 1P Zhang, UP Kodavanti. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, 1School of Vet Med, NCSU, Raleigh, NC
    Exposure to PM ma...

  14. TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS. Zhe Zhang*, Huawei Shi, Clement Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910; Chong S. Kim, National Health and En...

  15. Peanut Roaster Temperatures Relative to Salmonella Kill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ARS, Market Quality and Handling Research Unit, Raleigh NC 27695 In response to the limited peanut butter contamination incident of 2006/7, studies were initiated to examine the effect of various time and temperature protocols on log kill levels for Salmonella on peanuts. The objective of the work ...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: BROME AGRI SALES, LTD., MAXIMIZER SEPARATOR, MODEL MAX 1016 - 03/01/WQPC-SWP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Brome Agri Sales Ltd. Maximizer Separator, Model MAX 1016 (Maximizer) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The Maximizer is an inclined screen solids separator that can be used to s...

  17. 78 FR 34303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... redesignation requests and the maintenance plans for the Charlotte-Gastonia Area on July 5, 1995 (60 FR 34859), Greensboro- Winston-Salem-High Point Area on September 9, 1993 (58 FR 47391), and the Raleigh-Durham Area on April 18, 1994 (59 FR 18300). II. Analysis of the State's Submittal EPA's primary consideration...

  18. 78 FR 58184 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... plans for the Charlotte-Gastonia Area on July 5, 1995 (60 FR 34859), the Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point Area on September 9, 1993 (58 FR 47391), and the Raleigh-Durham Area on April 18, 1994 (59 FR... in EPA's June 7, 2013, proposed rulemaking. See 78 FR 34303. The comment period for this...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  4. The Secrets of St. Agnes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Janell

    2006-01-01

    This article reveals the disturbing truths uncovered by a retired biology professor about the past practices of a North Carolina hospital. In the 1990s, Irene Clark was a biology professor at St. Augustine's College, a historically Black college in Raleigh, North Carolina. One day, a janitor asked the native Virginian what she knew about the…

  5. Unmaking Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh Beltline. This system won…

  6. Expeditions and the Social Construction of the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beames, Simon

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how 14 British youth were influenced by a 10-week expedition to Ghana with Raleigh International. It employs a theoretical framework based on the symbolic interactionist writing of Blumer (1969), Mead (1934), and Cooley (1962, 1964). The framework helps to understand how the meanings that participants held for different…

  7. 75 FR 17177 - West Virginia Disaster #WV-00016

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION West Virginia Disaster WV-00016 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... Virginia (FEMA-1893-DR), dated 03/29/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, Mudslides, and Landslides..., Kanawha, Mercer, Raleigh. Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): West Virginia: Boone,...

  8. 77 FR 60002 - West Virginia Disaster #WV-00029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION West Virginia Disaster WV-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated 09/19/ 2012. Incident: Severe Storms and Straight-line Winds. Incident...; Nicholas; Raleigh. Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): West Virginia: Boone; Braxton;...

  9. PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALLERGENS IN EXTRACTS OF STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALLERGENS IN EXTRACTS OF Stachybotrys chartarum. M E Viana1, MJ Selgrade2, and M D Ward2. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, USA. 2NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    Exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum has been associated with the development of serious health ...

  10. 75 FR 34973 - Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the Agricultural Energy Program Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the... currently accepting stakeholder feedback on future energy related topics and questionnaire content for.../ or via mail to: USDA-NASS, Energy Content Team, P.O. Box 27767, Raleigh, NC 27611; or fax to:...

  11. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1990 EPA/AWMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM: MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1990 EPA/AWMA Symposium was held May 1-4, 1990 in Raleigh, N.C. he technical program consisted of 178 presentations held in 2O separate sessions. he sessions focused on recent advances in the measurement and monitoring of toxic and related pollutants. ew sessions to the sympo...

  12. SUMMARY OF THE EPA/A&WMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM: MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC & RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint conference co-sponsored by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory of the U.S Environmental Protection Agency and the Air & Waste Management Association was held at Raleigh, North Carolina, May 1-4, 1990. he technical program consisted of 187 presentat...

  13. The National Conference on Desegregation in Higher Education: An Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeff E.

    An evaluation report from a national conference on desegregation in higher education is presented. The conference was held in Raleigh, North Carolina, July 18-20, 1979, under the auspices of North Carolina Central University. Conference sponsors were the ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Educational Testing Service, the North Carolina…

  14. RESEARCH APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Research Apprenticeship Program began in 1990 as a collaborative effort between EPA's Office of Research and Development in Research Triangle Park, NC and Shaw University in Raleigh, NC to address the under representation of minorities in the fields of science and engineering...

  15. 75 FR 62182 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Cumberland, Sampson, and Duplin Counties, North Carolina (T.I.P Project R-2303). Those actions grant licenses... Bern Avenue, Ste 410, Raleigh, North Carolina, 27601-1418; Telephone: (919) 747-7014; e-mail: clarence.coleman@dot.gov . FHWA North Carolina Division Office's normal business hours are 8 a.m. to 5...

  16. REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT OF AIRWAY RESPONSES TO SULOFUR DIOXIDE (SO2) IN AN INTACT, AWAKE GUINEA PIG MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time measurment of airway responses to Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in an intact, awake guinea pig model. J Stanek1,2, Q Krantz2, J Nolan2, D Winsett2, W Watkinson2, and D Costa2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NCSU, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, ETD, NHEERL, US...

  17. 77 FR 3326 - Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement in Orange County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 3326] [FR Doc.... Clarence W. Coleman, Jr., Preconstruction and Environmental Team Leader, Raleigh, North Carolina. [FR Doc... Environmental Impact Statement in Orange County, NC AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),...

  18. PROCEEDINGS: EPA/AEERL'S INDOOR AIR QUALITY/POLLUTION PREVENTION WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents an EPA-sponsored workshop on indoor air quality (IAQ) and pollution prevention (P2) at the North Carolina State University (NCSU) College of Textiles in Raleigh, NC, March 9-10, 1993. oals of the workshop were to identify P2 opportunities and to obtain recomm...

  19. Proceedings of the 2nd workshop on lyme disease in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, C.S.; Levine, J.F.; Snoddy, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    This volume provides author prepared abstracts of oral presentation at the Second Workshop on Lyme Disease in the Southeast head in Raleigh, North Carolina September 7-9, 1993. The 33 presentations covered various aspects of the epidemic including geographical distribution of various species of ticks, transmission risks, Lyme Disease epidemiology, and taxonomic aspects.

  20. Easing Overcrowded High Schools with Limited Capital Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lighthall, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The greatest capital expenditure a school system can make is a high school. What can be done to accommodate students and programs when funding is scarce, high schools are crowded, and more students are expected? The Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina, first addressed this issue when enrollment growth more than…

  1. Harriot, Thomas (c. 1560-1621)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Teacher, probably born in Oxfordshire, Harriot travelled with Sir Walter Raleigh to Virginia as cartographer and navigator, writing on his return A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia. He was Ralegh's tutor and mathematics teacher and introduced simplified notation for algebra, inventing the symbols < for `less than' and > for `greater than', as well as . for multiplication...

  2. 76 FR 1663 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ..., P. E., Director of Preconstruction and Environment, Federal Highway Administration, 310 New Bern Avenue, Suite 410, Raleigh, North Carolina 27601-1418, Telephone: (919) 747-7014; e-mail: clarence...; e-mail: gthorpe@ncdot.gov . NCDOT's normal business hours are 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. (Eastern...

  3. Thinking Like a Whole Building: Whole Foods Market New Construction Summary, U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    Whole Foods Market participates in the U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) to identify and develop cost-effective, readily deployed, replicable energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for commercial buildings. Whole Foods Market is working with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on a retrofit and a new construction CBP project. Whole Foods Market's CBP new construction project is a standalone store in Raleigh, North Carolina. Whole Foods Market examined the energy systems and the interactions between those systems in the design for the new Raleigh store. Based on this collaboration and preliminary energy modeling, Whole Foods Market and NREL identified a number of cost-effective EEMs that can be readily deployed in other Whole Foods Market stores and in other U.S. supermarkets. If the actual savings in the Raleigh store - which NREL will monitor and verify - match the modeling results, each year this store will save nearly $100,000 in operating costs (Raleigh's rates are about $0.06/kWh for electricity and $0.83/therm for natural gas). The store will also use 41% less energy than a Standard 90.1-compliant store and avoid about 3.7 million pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.

  4. Advisory List of Instructional Media for Reduction of Sex Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.

    Instructional media appropriate to schools' efforts to reduce sex bias are described in this advisory list. Entries were selected from those materials submitted by publishers which received favorable reviews by educators. Most materials were evaluated by members of the Raleigh, North Carolina chapter of the National Organization for Women.…

  5. Attending to Teacher Attire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Ruth E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts by school superintendents to develop dress codes for school employees. Describes link between teacher dress and student decorum. Includes excerpts from staff dress codes from three school districts: Goose Creek Consolidated School District, Baytown, Texas; Denver Public Schools, Colorado; Wake County Public Schools, Raleigh,…

  6. Spatial Gradients and Source Apportionment of Volatile Organic Compounds Near Roadways

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reported near a highway in Raleigh, NC (traffic volume of approximately 125,000 vehicles/day). Levels of VOCs generally decreased exponentially with perpendicular distance from the roadway 10-100m). The EPA Chemical Mass ...

  7. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN ALTERS TESTOSTERONE ESTERIFICATION IN MUD SNAILS (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Biocide Tributyltin Alters Testosterone Esterification in Mud Snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta)

    Meredith P. Gooding and Gerald A. LeBlanc
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633

    Tributyltin (TBT...

  8. 75 FR 43 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Beckley, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Memorial Airport, Beckley, WV, in the Federal Register on October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53408), Docket No. FAA... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Beckley, WV AGENCY... that modifies Class E airspace at Raleigh County Memorial Airport, Beckley, WV. This rule increases...

  9. IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE ADULT AND NEONATAL TESTIS
    Chad R. Blystone1, 2, David J. Dix2, and John C. Rockett2
    1Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Box 7633, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA and 2U.S. Envi...

  10. 76 FR 76453 - Notice of Applications for Deregistration Under Section 8(f) of the Investment Company Act of 1940

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... River, OH 44116. Old Mutual Emerging Managers Fund, L.L.C. Old Mutual Emerging Managers Institutional..., Federated Quality Bond Fund II, Federated Capital Income Fund II and Federated Capital Appreciation Fund II.... Applicant's Address: 8540 Colonnade Center Dr., Suite 401, Raleigh, NC 27615. Ibero-America Fund,...

  11. IN VITRO LUNG ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER-ASSOCIATED METALS - MODULATION BY EXPOSURE TO TNF-ALPHA, IL-BETA, OR IFN-GAMMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO LUNG ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER-ASSOCIATED METALS - MODULATION BY EXPOSURE TO TNF , IL-1 , OR IFN .

    JA Dye, KE Peoples*, CL Hayes?. US EPA, ORD, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, RTP, NC, *HHMI-SRI, NCSU, Raleigh, NC...

  12. A+ Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Underwood Elementary School in Raleigh, North Carolina, offers 100 electives with names like Crystal Ball (study of the future), Coastal Ecology, and Magical Math. This magnet school has an open admissions policy, an outstanding reputation in creative dramatics, teachers who are self starting, and a principal with vision and organization. (MT)

  13. DIESEL AND CARBON PARTICLES ENHANCE HOUSE DUST MITE-INDUCED PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel and Carbon Particles Enhance House Dust Mite-Induced Pulmonary Hypersensitivity in Brown Norway Rats. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels2, D. Winsett2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, M. Madden2 and M.I. Gilmour2. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC and 2 USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Ep...

  14. The North Carolina Capitol: Pride of the State. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Howard

    North Carolina's state capitol rises majestically on Union Square in downtown Raleigh, a city created in 1792 to serve as North Carolina's permanent capital. Built between 1833-40, the granite building is one of the finest and best preserved examples of civic Greek Revival architecture in the United States. This lesson is based on the National…

  15. (AMD) ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY DATA NEAR ROADWAYS USING A DISPERSION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a dispersion model to analyze measurements made during a field study conducted by the U.S. EPA in July-August 2006, to estimate the impact of traffic emissions on air quality at distances of tens of meters from an 8 lane highway located in Raleigh, North Carolina. The air...

  16. ON-ROAD REMOTE SENSING OF AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS IN THE RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NORTH CAROLINA AREA: 1997-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes automobile exhaust remote sensing data collected by EPA at a number of sites in the Research Triangle Park, NC area during 1997. Data were also collected at one site in Raleigh, NC from 1998 through 2001 for the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) study of re...

  17. Learning while Undocumented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2008-01-01

    North Carolina's 58 community colleges have been key players in the state's fast-shifting economy, driven in large part by the numerous businesses flocking to the high-technology Raleigh-Durham Research Triangle area. Major employers like IBM, Novartis, Credit Suisse, and EA Associates have all partnered with North Carolina Community College…

  18. Estimates of correlations among yield traits and somatic cell score with different models to adjust for bovine somatotropin effects on Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of Holstein cows from the Dairy Records Processing Center at Raleigh, NC were edited to obtain three data sets: 65,720 first, 50,694 second, and 65,445 later lactations. Correlations among yield traits (preadjusted to 305 days of lactation, mature equivalent, and twice a day milking) and som...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR-ROAD POLLUTANT GRADIENTS USING PATH-INTEGRATED OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding motor vehicle emissions, near roadway pollutant dispersion, and their potential impact to near roadway populations is an area of growing interest. A field study was conducted near 1-440 in Raleigh NC in July and August of 2006. This paper presents a subset of measur...

  20. Thinking Like a Whole Building: A Whole Foods Market New Construction Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.; Doebber, I.; Hirsch, A.; McIntyre, M.; Scheib, J.

    2011-04-01

    Whole Foods Market participates in the U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) to identify and develop cost-effective, readily deployed, replicable energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for commercial buildings. Whole Foods Market is working with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on a retrofit and a new construction CBP project. Whole Foods Market's CBP new construction project is a standalone store in Raleigh, North Carolina. Whole Foods Market examined the energy systems and the interactions between those systems in the design for the new Raleigh store. Based on this collaboration and preliminary energy modeling, Whole Foods Market and NREL identified a number of cost-effective EEMs that can be readily deployed in other Whole Foods Market stores and in other U.S. supermarkets. If the actual savings in the Raleigh store - which NREL will monitor and verify - match the modeling results, each year this store will save nearly $100,000 in operating costs (Raleigh's rates are about $0.06/kWh for electricity and $0.83/therm for natural gas). The store will also use 41% less energy than a Standard 90.1-compliant store and avoid about 3.7 million pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.

  1. SNAP/SHOT Your Ability to Support That Next Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ernest L.

    SNAP/SHOT (System Network Analysis Program-Simulated Host Overview Technique) is a discrete simulation of a network and/or host model available through IBM at the Raleigh System Center. The simulator provides an analysis of a total IBM Communications System. Input data must be obtained from RMF, SMF, and the CICS Analyzer to determine the existing…

  2. Year 3 Magnet Schools Assistance Program Annual Progress Report, 2009-10. E&R Report No. 10.09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasfield, Jon; Cárdenas, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The three Magnet Schools Assistance Program (MSAP) schools: East Garner International Baccalaureate Magnet Middle School (EGMMS), Garner International Baccalaureate Magnet High School (GMHS), and Southeast Raleigh Leadership and Technology Magnet High School (SRMHS) have shown progress on MSAP performance measures during the 3rd year of the grant.…

  3. COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE. P. Singh1, C.A.J. Dick2, J. Richards3, M.J. Daniels3, and M.I. Gilmour3. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 2UNC, Chapel Hill, NC and 3 USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, (ETD,...

  4. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  5. 5-AZA-2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE-INDUCED DYSMORPHOGENESIS IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    5-AZA-2'-deoxycytidine-induced dysmorphogenesis in the rat.

    Branch S, Chernoff N, Brownie C, Francis BM.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA. S_Branch@ncsu.edu

    5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (d-AZA) causes tem...

  6. APA District Branch / State Association Directory

    MedlinePlus

    ... Society Executive Director Battista, Beverlie 109 Cable St Buffalo, NY 14206-3550 Phone : (716) 824-7829 wnypsychsoc@aol.com North Carolina North Carolina Psychiatric Association Executive Director Huffman, Robin 4917 Waters Edge Dr Ste 250 Raleigh, NC 27606-2459 ...

  7. Paraprofessional of the Year 2009: Tina Adams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt among the staff and managers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) Libraries, Raleigh, that advanced library technician Tina Adams deserves to be the winner of the "Library Journal's "Paraprofessional of the Year Award for 2009." "Certainly this library has never seen anyone like her before, not in my nine years on staff,"…

  8. 75 FR 67767 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... actions performed by EPA at the following sites: Sauer Dump Site in Dundalk, Maryland; 68th Street Dump Site in Baltimore, Maryland; Casmalia Disposal Site near Santa Maria, California; BCX Tank Superfund Site in Jacksonville, Florida; Ward Transformer Site, Raleigh, North Carolina; and the Portland...

  9. 75 FR 29545 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... & NVO), 800 S. Pacific Coast Highway, Suite 8406, Redondo Beach, CA 90277. Officers: Li Mei, Manager... Top Drive, Weston, FL 33332. Officers: Graeme W. Rodriquez, President, (Qualifying Individual). Wendy... Reefco Transport dba Foodcareplus (OFF & NVO), 314-021 W. Millbrook Road, Raleigh, NC 27609....

  10. Religion and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Marion, Ed.

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference of social scientists and ministers on "Religion and Social Change" held at the North Carolina State University (Raleigh). Five seminars were held on the topics of (1) economic progress; (2) the distribution of income, status, and power; (3) the local community decision-making process; (4)…

  11. INCREASING DIVERSITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING: THE ORD RESEARCH APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The "Research Apprenticeship Program for High School Students" began in 1990 as a collaborative effort between EPA's Office of Research and Development in Research Triangle Park, NC and Shaw University, an Historically Black College/University (HBCU) in Raleigh, NC. The program a...

  12. PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero.

    Cherrington JW, Chernoff N.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com

    Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

  13. Evaluation of the southern California seismic velocity models through simulation of recorded events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Khoshnevis, Naeem; Cheng, Keli

    2016-06-01

    Significant effort has been devoted over the last two decades to the development of various seismic velocity models for the region of southern California, United States. These models are mostly used in forward wave propagation simulation studies, but also as base models for tomographic and source inversions. Two of these models, the community velocity models CVM-S and CVM-H, are among the most commonly used for this region. This includes two alternative variations to the original models, the recently released CVM-S4.26 which incorporates results from a sequence of tomographic inversions into CVM-S, and the user-controlled option of CVM-H to replace the near-surface profiles with a VS30-based geotechnical model. Although either one of these models is regarded as acceptable by the modeling community, it is known that they have differences in their representation of the crustal structure and sedimentary deposits in the region, and thus can lead to different results in forward and inverse problems. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of these models when used to predict the ground motion in the greater Los Angeles region by means of an assessment of a collection of simulations of recent events. In total, we consider 30 moderate-magnitude earthquakes (3.5 < Mw < 5.5) between 1998 and 2014, and compare synthetics with data recorded by seismic networks during these events. The simulations are done using a finite-element parallel code, with numerical models that satisfy a maximum frequency of 1 Hz and a minimum shear wave velocity of 200 m s-1. The comparisons between data and synthetics are ranked quantitatively by means of a goodness-of-fit (GOF) criteria. We analyse the regional distribution of the GOF results for all events and all models, and draw conclusions from the results and how these correlate to the models. We find that, in light of our comparisons, the model CVM-S4.26 consistently yields better results.

  14. Evaluation of the Southern California Seismic Velocity Models through Simulation of Recorded Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Khoshnevis, Naeem; Cheng, Keli

    2016-03-01

    Significant effort has been devoted over the last two decades to the development of various seismic velocity models for the region of southern California, United States. These models are mostly used in forward wave propagation simulation studies, but also as base models for tomographic and source inversions. Two of these models, the community velocity models CVM-S and CVM-H, are among the most commonly used for this region. This includes two alternative variations to the original models, the recently released CVM-S4.26 which incorporates results from a sequence of tomographic inversions into CVM-S, and the user-controlled option of CVM-H to replace the near-surface profiles with a VS30-based geotechnical (GTL) model. Although either one of these models is regarded as acceptable by the modeling community, it is known that they have differences in their representation of the crustal structure and sedimentary deposits in the region, and thus can lead to different results in forward and inverse problems. In this article we evaluate the accuracy of these models when used to predict the ground motion in the greater Los Angeles region by means of an assessment of a collection of simulations of recent events. In total, we consider 30 moderate-magnitude earthquakes (3.5 < Mw < 5.5) between 1998 and 2014, and compare synthetics with data recorded by seismic networks during these events. The simulations are done using a finite element parallel code, with numerical models that satisfy a maximum frequency of 1 Hz and a minimum shear wave velocity of 200 m/s. The comparisons between data and synthetics are ranked quantitatively by means of a goodness-of-fit (GOF) criteria. We analyze the regional distribution of the GOF results for all events and all models, and draw conclusions from the results and how these correlate to the models. We find that, in light of our comparisons, the model CVM-S4.26 consistently yields better results.

  15. Pitting fatigue characteristics of AISI M-50 and super nitralloy spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Chevalier, J. L.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    Two groups of 3.50-in. pitch-diameter spur gears, without tip relief, made from consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI M-50 steel and CVM super nitralloy (5Ni-2A1) were tested under conditions which produced fatigue pitting. The M-50 gears had fatigue lives approximately 50 percent longer than the super nitralloy gears. Both groups of gears failed by classical rolling-element fatigue at the pitch circle. When the gears were overrun past initial spall formation, the spalled M-50 gear teeth failed by fatigue fracture. The M-50 material had higher wear than the super nitralloy material. Differences in fatigue life and wear were not considered statistically significant.

  16. A life study of AISI M-50 and Super Nitralloy spur gears with and without tip relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted at 170 F with groups of 3.5-in.-pitch-diameter spur gear with and without tip relief made of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) Spur Nitralloy (5Ni-2Al) and CVM AISI M-50 steel. The AISI M-50 gears without tip relief had lives approximately 50 percent longer than the Super Nitralloy gears without tip relief. However, the Super Nitralloy gears with tip relief had lives equal to the AISI M-50 gears without tip relief. The difference in lives were not statistically significant. All gears failed by classical pitting fatigue at the pitch circle. However, the AIAI M-50 gears with tip relief failed by tooth fracture. AISI M-50 gear sets without tip relief having a spalled gear tooth which were deliberately overrun after spalling had occurred, failed by tooth fracture.

  17. Estimating residents' willingness to pay for groundwater protection in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Danh Thanh; Huynh, Khai Viet

    2014-11-01

    Groundwater in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is facing the pollution and it needs to be protected. Searching literature reviews on economic valuation techniques, the contingent valuation method (CVM) has been popularly applied to estimate the economic value of water protection. This approach is based on a hypothetical scenario in which respondents are requested through questionnaires to reveal their maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for the water protection project. The study used the approach of CVM to analyze the households' motivations and their WTP for the program of groundwater protection in the Mekong Delta. The study performed that the residents in the delta were willing to pay approximately 141,730 VND (US6.74) per household a year. Groundwater could be an inferior good with the negative income effect found in the demanding for clean groundwater. Respondent's gender and groundwater-related health risk consideration were factors sensitively affecting the probability of demanding for groundwater protection.

  18. Effect of tip relief on endurance characteristics of super nitralloy and AISI M-50 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted with two groups of 8.89-centimeter (3.5-in.) pitch diameter spur gears with standard 20 deg involute profile with tip relief made of CVM Super-Nitralloy (5Ni-2Al) and CVM AISI M-50 at a temperature of 350 K (170 F). Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief had a life 150 percent that of gears without tip relief. An increased scoring phenomenon was noted with the Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief. Through-hardened AISI M-50 gears with tip relief failed due to tooth fracture. AISI M-50 gears without tip relief had a life approximately 40 times greater than the AISI M-50 gears with tip relief.

  19. Assessing the comprehensive restoration of an urban river: an integrated application of contingent valuation in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Liu, Qiuxia; Lin, Liqing; Lv, Huafang; Wang, Yao

    2013-08-01

    Around 2000, China began to address the comprehensive restoration of its urban rivers and attempt to restore river ecosystem services. This paper reports an integrated contingent valuation of the ecosystem services of Zhangjiabang Creek in Shanghai, which is in the most developed region of China. A total of 1440 questionnaires were delivered, and 1153 were returned as usable in August 2008. The willingness to pay for the restoration of the urban river is 20.22 RMB (2.91 USD) per month per household under the payment card and 110.64 RMB (15.92 USD) under the dichotomous format. Several important methodological issues of the contingent valuation method (CVM) are observed, including the disparity between willingness to pay and willingness to accept, the difference between payment card and dichotomous choice question formats, and the comparison of different models in welfare estimation using dichotomous choice data. Several new findings are disclosed for these three issues of CVM. PMID:23707722

  20. Application of the contingent valuation method in a developing country: a case study of the Yusufeli dam in northeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alp, Emre; Yetiş, Ulkü

    2010-01-01

    Hydroelectric power plants and dams often play an important role in developing countries in terms of their contribution to economy. In accordance with the energy policies of Turkish Republic, Yusufeli Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant in Northeastern Turkey have been initiated. In this study, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was conducted in Yusufeli Village to determine the environmental costs of the Yusufeli Project. The purpose is to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) of Yusufeli Village residents for restoration of the environmental impacts of the dam project and also to investigate the underlying economic, psychological, and social motivations for WTP. WTP was calculated as US$761 per person which can further be used in the cost-benefit analysis. The results from the study suggest that application of the CVM in rural and urban areas located in the same region can show differences. PMID:20595759

  1. Comparisons of modified Vasco X-2 and AISI 9310 gear steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Endurance tests were conducted with four groups of spur gears manufactured from three heats of consumable electrode vacuum melted (CVM) modified Vasco X-2. Endurance tests were also conducted with gears manufactured from CVM AISI 9310. Bench type rolling element fatigue tests were conducted with both materials. Hardness measurements were made to 811 K. There was no statistically significant life difference between the two materials. Life differences between the different heats of modified Vasco X-2 can be attributed to heat treat variation and resultant hardness. Carburization of gear flanks only can eliminate tooth fracture as a primary failure mode for modified Vasco X-2. However, a tooth surface fatigue spall can act as a nucleus of a tooth fracture failure for the modified Vasco X-2.

  2. Neospora caninum and complex vertebral malformation as possible causes of bovine fetal mummification

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Mohamed Elshabrawy; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Akita, Masashi; Nishibori, Masahide

    2009-01-01

    Bovine neosporosis, caused by Neospora caninum is a leading cause of abortion in cattle. We postulated that neosporosis could lead to fetal death and mummification. Fifteen mummified fetuses were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the mutation in the bovine SLC35A3 gene that causes complex vertebral malformation (CVM) and the pNC-5 gene which identifies N. caninum infection. DNA was extracted from the mummified fetuses and the sex of the mummies was determined by PCR. The CVM mutation was not detected in the mummified fetuses, but 4 fetuses were positive for N. caninum infection. The ages of the mummies with N. caninum infection were 100, 113, 123, and 131 days. Twelve of the 15 mummified fetuses were male. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of N. caninum as a possible cause of bovine fetal mummification. PMID:19436446

  3. Aspects of fracture mechanics in cryogenic model design. Part 2: NTF materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Lisagor, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Results of fatigue crack growth and fracture toughness tests conducted on three candidate materials are presented. Fatigue crack growth and fracture toughness tests were conducted on NITRONIC 40 at room temperature and -275 F. Fracture toughness tests were also conducted on Vascomax 200 and 250 maraging steel from room temperature to -320 F. NITRONIC 40 was used to make the Pathfinder 1 model. The fatigue crack growth rate tests were conducted at room temperature and -275 F on three-point notch bend specimens. The fracture toughness tests on the as received and stress relieved materials at -275 F were conducted on the center crack tension specimens. Toughness tests were also conducted on Vascomax CVM-200 and CVM-250 maraging steel from room temperature to -320 F using round and rectangular compact specimens.

  4. Passive imaging of hydrofractures in the South Belridge diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Ilderton, D.C.; Patzek, T.W.; Rector, J.W.; Vinegar, H.J.

    1996-03-01

    The authors present the results of a seismic analysis of two hydrofractures spanning the entire diatomite column (1,110--1,910 ft or 338--582 m) in Shell`s Phase 2 steam drive pilot in South Belridge, California. These hydrofractures were induced at two depths (1,110--1,460 and 1,560--1,910 ft) and imaged passively using the seismic energy released during fracturing. The arrivals of shear waves from the cracking rock (microseismic events) were recorded at a 1 ms sampling rate by 56 geophones in three remote observation wells, resulting in 10 GB of raw data. These arrival times were then inverted for the event locations, from which the hydrofracture geometry was inferred. A five-dimensional conjugate-gradient algorithm with a depth-dependent, but otherwise constant shear wave velocity model (CVM) was developed for the inversions. To validate CVM, they created a layered shear wave velocity model of the formation and used it to calculate synthetic arrival times from known locations chosen at various depths along the estimated fracture plane. These arrival times were then inverted with CVM and the calculated locations compared with the known ones, quantifying the systematic error associated with the assumption of constant shear wave velocity. They also performed Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses on the synthetic arrival times to account for all other random errors that exist in field data. After determining the limitations of the inversion algorithm, they hand-picked the shear wave arrival times for both hydrofractures and inverted them with CVM.

  5. Studies of niobium hydride phase transitions using the cluster-variation method

    SciTech Connect

    Soteros, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Using the cluster-variation method (c.v.m.) to study metal hydrides, phase behavior of niobium hydride (NbH) is predicted. Using the c.v.m. and the tetrahedral lattice, several different lattice-gas models were developed for NbH; the single tetragonal cell (STC) model, the double tetragonal cell (DTC) model, and the (12,1)-cluster model. The STC and DTC models are designed to study the ordered phases {beta}, {var epsilon}, and {epsilon} while the (12,1)-cluster model can be used to study the {alpha}-{alpha}{prime} - {beta} transition. Linear-programming techniques study the ground states of these models and cluster algebra and ground-state programs which could be useful for other c.v.m. models. For the STC ground-state analysis, if the interaction range is confined to the STC (14th neighbors on the tetrahedral lattice), then (1) it is possible to predict the {beta} and {epsilon} but not {var epsilon} phases, and (2) many-body interactions are needed to eliminate pure-phase ground states at 0.25 concentration (H/Nb). No ordered phase at 0.25 in the NbH phase diagrams evidences that many-body interactions are necessary for NbH phase-behavior prediction. The STC c.v.m. results compare with tetragonal-lattice Monte Carol results, and the generated phase diagrams are qualitatively similar (in the ordered regions) to experimental NbH phase diagrams.

  6. Genetic analysis of 17 Y-STRs in a Mestizo population from the Central Valley of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Santana, Carla; Noris, Gino; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Magaña, Jonathan J; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S; Muñoz, Maria de Lourdes; Gómez, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to portray the complex diversity of the Mexican Mestizo population, which represents 98.8% of the entire population of Mexico. We compiled extended haplotype data of the Y chromosome from populations in the Central Valley of Mexico (CVM), which we compared with other Mestizo and parental (Amerindian, European, and African) populations. A complex ancestral relationship was found in the CVM population, suggesting cosmopolitan origins. Nevertheless, the most preeminent lineages point toward a European ancestry, where the R1b lineage was most frequent. In addition, important frequencies of Amerindian lineages were also found in the Mestizo sample studied. Interestingly, the Amerindian ancestry showed a remarkable substructure, which was represented by the two main founding lineages: QL54 (× M3) and M3. However, even within each lineage a high diversity was found despite the small number of sample bearers of these lineages. Further, we detected important genetic differences between the CVM populations and the Mexican Mestizo populations from the north and south. This result points to the fact that Mestizo populations present different ancestral proportions, which are related to the demographic events that gave origin to each population. Finally, we provide additional forensic statistical parameters that are useful in the interpretation of genetic analysis where autosomal loci are limited. Our findings illustrate the complex genetic background of the Mexican Mestizo population and reinforce the need to encompass more geographic regions to generate more robust data for forensic applications. PMID:25959695

  7. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; Alarcón, José Antonio; McNamara, James A; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation. PMID:27513752

  8. Applicability of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to Dog and Cat Owners for Teaching Veterinary Clinical Communications.

    PubMed

    Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned. PMID:27075274

  9. HIV Inhibition by Lactobacilli: Easier in a Test Tube Than in Real Life

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, Iara M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A lactobacillus-dominant vaginal microbiota has been shown to decrease heterosexual HIV transmission. Nunn et al. now report that a vaginal microbiota dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus is associated with a relative inability of HIV pseudoviral particles to transverse cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) in vitro [mBio 6(5):e01084-15, 2015, doi:10.1128/mBio.01084-15]. The purported inhibitory mechanism is the interaction between carboxyl groups present on HIV and in CVM that occurred only under acidic conditions when carboxyl groups were protonated. L. crispatus produces high levels of lactic acid and results in the lowest vaginal pH when it is the dominant vaginal bacterium. In addition, high levels of lactic acid inhibit the proliferation of other bacteria that might negatively affect CVM structure. The utility of enhancing L. crispatus dominance to inhibit HIV transmission awaits assessment of the influence of ejaculated semen on this property and investigations on the role of Lactobacillus products such as d-lactic acid in this property. PMID:26443461

  10. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; McNamara, James A.; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation. PMID:27513752

  11. Short communication: Distribution of recessive genetic defect carriers in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Sun, D X; Fan, X H; Xie, Y; Chu, Q; Sun, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S L; Gong, W J; Chen, S H; Li, Y H; Shi, W H; Zhang, Y

    2011-11-01

    In dairy cattle, 4 important recessive hereditary diseases exist: complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), citrullinemia (CTLN), and deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS). Holstein Associations in developed countries have established monitoring systems for such disorders in Holstein bulls for decades. Over the past decades, China has continuously imported Holstein semen and embryos, mainly from North America but also from Europe. The dissemination of such genetic defects was undetermined until now, although efforts were taken to develop molecular techniques and detect carriers for CVM and BLAD in small populations of Chinese dairy cattle. Thus, herein we extensively screened 732 proven bulls participating in artificial insemination programs and 136 young bulls entering progeny test from 15 bull stations in China for CVM, BLAD, CTLN, and DUMPS. The proportion of carriers of the defects was found to be 7.72, 1.38, 0.23, and 0.12%, respectively. Given our findings, early diagnostic and monitoring systems on recessive inherited disorders among proven and young bulls entering the national genetic improvement programs for dairy cattle of China should be established immediately, in which a series of measures will be taken to prevent further spreading of such disorders and gradually eliminate them in the dairy cattle population in China. PMID:22032394

  12. Circular Vibration Planing of Inconel 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettiarachchi, Nandita Kalyanakumara; Moriwaki, Toshimichi; Shibasaka, Toshiro; Nakamoto, Keiichi

    Circular vibration milling (CVM) is achieved by vibrating a milling cutter about the machine tool spindle axis in a circular path, in addition to its rotary motion. CVM has been proven capable of producing better surface finishes on difficult to cut materials. However, the CVM process is far slower than conventional milling process. In circular vibration planing (CVP) process, the cutting tool is clamped without rotation and fed at a speed comparable to the feed speed of conventional milling. By superimposing circular vibration motion, necessary cutting speed could be achieved keeping the feed speed at realistic values. Inconel 718 was machined by CVP and conventional milling at a similar feed rate. It was observed that CVP could reduce tool wear and hence produce better surface finishes than conventional milling. A geometric simulation showed a major difference between uncut chip shapes of the two processes. The difference of uncut chip shapes suggests that in CVP process, less rubbing occurs between tool flank face and work before the tool penetrates in to the work to form a chip. The reduced rubbing of the flank face is proposed as the reson for reduced tool wear in CVP when compared with conventional milling.

  13. Comparing Mutational Variabilities

    PubMed Central

    Houle, D.; Morikawa, B.; Lynch, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have reviewed the available data on V(M), the amount of genetic variation in phenotypic traits produced each generation by mutation. We use these data to make several qualitative tests of the mutation-selection balance hypothesis for the maintenance of genetic variance (MSB). To compare V(M) values, we use three dimensionless quantities: mutational heritability, V(M)/V(E); the mutational coefficient of variation, CV(M); and the ratio of the standing genetic variance to V(M), V(G)/V(M). Since genetic coefficients of variation for life history traits are larger than those for morphological traits, we predict that under MSB, life history traits should also have larger CV(M). This is confirmed; life history traits have a median CV(M) value more than six times higher than that for morphological traits. V(G)/V(M) approximates the persistence time of mutations under MSB in an infinite population. In order for MSB to hold, V(G)/V(M) must be small, substantially less than 1000, and life history traits should have smaller values than morphological traits. V(G)/V(M) averages about 50 generations for life history traits and 100 generations for morphological traits. These observations are all consistent with the predictions of a mutation-selection balance model. PMID:8807316

  14. [WTP guidance technology: a comparison of payment card, single-bounded and double-bounded dichotomous formats for evaluating non-use values of Sanjiang Plain ecotourism water resources].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Guang; Wang, Qiu-Dan; Li, Chen-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Contingent valuation method (CVM) is the most widespread method to assess resources and value of environmental goods and services. The guidance technology of willingness to pay (WTP) is an important means of CVM. Therefore, the study on the WTP guidance technology is an important approach to improve the reliability and validity of CVM. This article conducted comprehensive evaluation on non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain by using payment card, single-bound dichotomous choice and double-bound dichotomous choice. Results showed that the socio-economic attributes were consistent with the willingness to pay in the three formats, and the tender value, age, educational level, annual income and the concern level had significant effect on the willingness to pay, while gender and job did not have significant influence. The WTP value was 112.46 yuan per capita with the payment card, 136.15 with the single-bound dichotomous choice, and 168.74 with the double-bound dichotomous choice. Comprehensive consideration of the nature of the investigation, investigation costs and statistical techniques, the result of double-bound dichotomous choice (47.86 x 10(8) yuan · a(-1)) was best in accordance with the reality, and could be used as non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain. The format of questionnaire was very important to improve its validity, and made a great influence on the WTP. PMID:25757326

  15. High speed video analysis of rockfall fence system evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.A.; Lucero, J.P.

    1998-07-01

    Rockfall fence systems are used to protect motorists from rocks, dislodged from slopes near roadways, which would potentially roll onto the road at high speeds carrying significant energy. There is an unfortunate list of such rocks on unprotected roads that have caused fatalities and other damage. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel from the Engineering Science and Applications Division, Measurement Technology Group (ESA-MT), participated in a series of rockfall fence system tests at a test range in Rifle, Colorado during March 1998. The tests were for the evaluation and certification of four rockfall fence system designs of Chama Valley Manufacturing (CVM), a Small Business, located in Chama, New Mexico. Also participating in the tests were the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) who provided the test range and some heavy equipment support and High Tech Construction who installed the fence systems. LANL provided two high speed video systems and operators to record each individual rockfall on each fence system. From the recordings LANL then measured the linear and rotational velocities at impact for each rockfall. Using the LANL velocity results, CVM then could calculate the impact energy of each rockfall and therefore certify each design up to the maximum energy that each fence system could absorb without failure. LANL participated as an independent, impartial velocity measurement entity only and did not contribute to the fence systems design or installation. CVM has published a more detailed final report covering all aspects of the project.

  16. Modeling of Virion Collisions in Cervicovaginal Mucus Reveals Limits on Agglutination as the Protective Mechanism of Secretory Immunoglobulin A

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alex; McKinley, Scott A.; Shi, Feng; Wang, Simi; Mucha, Peter J.; Harit, Dimple; Forest, M. Gregory; Lai, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), a dimeric antibody found in high quantities in the gastrointestinal mucosa, is broadly associated with mucosal immune protection. A distinguishing feature of sIgA is its ability to crosslink pathogens, thereby creating pathogen/sIgA aggregates that are too large to traverse the dense matrix of mucin fibers in mucus layers overlying epithelial cells and consequently reducing infectivity. Here, we use modeling to investigate this mechanism of “immune exclusion” based on sIgA-mediated agglutination, in particular the potential use of sIgA to agglutinate HIV in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) and prevent HIV transmission. Utilizing reported data on HIV diffusion in CVM and semen, we simulate HIV collision kinetics in physiologically-thick mucus layers–a necessary first step for sIgA-induced aggregation. We find that even at the median HIV load in semen of acutely infected individuals possessing high viral titers, over 99% of HIV virions will penetrate CVM and reach the vaginal epithelium without colliding with another virion. These findings imply that agglutination is unlikely to be the dominant mechanism of sIgA-mediated protection against HIV or other sexually transmitted pathogens. Rather, we surmise that agglutination is most effective against pathogens either present at exceedingly high concentrations or that possess motility mechanisms other than Brownian diffusion that significantly enhance encounter rates. PMID:26132216

  17. Impact of ultrasound on solid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from maritime pine sawdust waste. Kinetics, optimization and large scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Meullemiestre, A; Petitcolas, E; Maache-Rezzoug, Z; Chemat, F; Rezzoug, S A

    2016-01-01

    Maritime pine sawdust, a by-product from industry of wood transformation, has been investigated as a potential source of polyphenols which were extracted by ultrasound-assisted maceration (UAM). UAM was optimized for enhancing extraction efficiency of polyphenols and reducing time-consuming. In a first time, a preliminary study was carried out to optimize the solid/liquid ratio (6g of dry material per mL) and the particle size (0.26 cm(2)) by conventional maceration (CVM). Under these conditions, the optimum conditions for polyphenols extraction by UAM, obtained by response surface methodology, were 0.67 W/cm(2) for the ultrasonic intensity (UI), 40°C for the processing temperature (T) and 43 min for the sonication time (t). UAM was compared with CVM, the results showed that the quantity of polyphenols was improved by 40% (342.4 and 233.5mg of catechin equivalent per 100g of dry basis, respectively for UAM and CVM). A multistage cross-current extraction procedure allowed evaluating the real impact of UAM on the solid-liquid extraction enhancement. The potential industrialization of this procedure was implemented through a transition from a lab sonicated reactor (3 L) to a large scale one with 30 L volume. PMID:26384903

  18. Brief communication: a proposed method for the assessment of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains using cervical vertebrae maturation.

    PubMed

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of age-at-death in non-adult skeletal remains is under constant review. However, in many past societies an individual's physical maturation may have been more important in social terms than their exact age, particularly during the period of adolescence. In a recent article (Shapland and Lewis: Am J Phys Anthropol 151 (2013) 302-310) highlighted a set of dental and skeletal indicators that may be useful in mapping the progress of the pubertal growth spurt. This article presents a further skeletal indicator of adolescent development commonly used by modern clinicians: cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM). This method is applied to a collection of 594 adolescents from the medieval cemetery of St. Mary Spital, London. Analysis reveals a potential delay in ages of attainment of the later CVM stages compared with modern adolescents, presumably reflecting negative environmental conditions for growth and development. The data gathered on CVM is compared to other skeletal indicators of pubertal maturity and long bone growth from this site to ascertain the usefulness of this method on archaeological collections. PMID:24318949

  19. Introduction and digest to the Special Issue on Chemical Effects of Water on the Deformation and Strengths of Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Stephen H.

    1984-06-01

    The important role of pore pressure in promoting such brittle processes as cataclasis, hydraulic fracturing, large-scale faulting, and earthquakes within the crust is widely accepted in geology and geophysics [Hubbert and Willis, 1957; Hubbert and Rubey, 1959; Handin, 1958; Handin et al., 1963; Brace and Martin, 1968; Healy et al., 1968; Raleigh et al., 1976; Sibson, 1973, 1980; Raleigh and Evernden, 1981]. Provided that fluid pressure is fully communicated with rock pore space, the effective normal stresses that control crack growth, macroscopic fracture, and friction are reduced by the magnitude of the fluid pressui'e. Beyond this physical effect of pore fluids, there are chemical effects of water on the strength of rocks that are also important in governing differential stresseg and flow in the continental crust. Some of these chemical effects of water on rock deformation have long been recognized.

  20. Panel recommendations on Oil Spill Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, George L.

    A technical panel was convened by the Minerals Management Services (MMS) of the Department of Interior to identify deficiencies and recommend improvements in their Oil Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model. Members of the panel were J. M. Bane, Jr. (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), G. S. Janowitz (North Carolina State University, Raleigh), T. H. Lee (University of Miami, Miami, Fla.), G. L. Mellor (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.), M. L. Spaulding (University of Rhode Island, Kingston), and F. M. Vukovich (Research Triangle Institute, Raleigh-Durham, N.C.).The present OSRA model uses climatologically derived near-surface velocity fields on which are superposed oil trajectory velocities derived from the so-called “3.5% rule”: this uses a wind series derived from a “transition probability matrix” statistical approach.

  1. On the interaction between the external magnetic field and nanofluid inside a vertical square duct

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Kashif; Ahmad, Shabbir; Ahmad, Shahzad Ashraf, Muhammad; Asif, Muhammad

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we numerically study how the external magnetic field influences the flow and thermal characteristics of nanofluid inside a vertical square duct. The flow is considered to be laminar and hydrodynamically as well as thermally developed, whereas the thermal boundary condition of constant heat flux per unit axial length with constant peripheral temperature at any cross section, is assumed. The governing equations are solved using the spectral method and the finite difference method. Excellent comparison is noted in the numerical results given by the two methods but the spectral method is found to be superior in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. We have noted that the flow reversal due to high Raleigh number may be controlled by applying an external magnetic field of suitable strength. Moreover, the Nusselt number is found to be almost a linear function of the nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, for different values of the Raleigh number and the magnetic parameter.

  2. Dental and Chronological Ages as Determinants of Peak Growth Period and Its Relationship with Dental Calcification Stages

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between dental, chronological, and cervical vertebral maturation growth in the peak growth period, as well as to study the association between the dental calcification phases and the skeletal maturity stages during the same growth period. Methods: Subjects were selected from orthodontic pre-treatment cohorts consisting of 420 subjects where 255 were identified and enrolled into the study, comprising 145 girls and 110 boys. The lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs were examined from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dental age was assessed according to the method of Demirjian, and skeletal maturation according to the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method. Statistical elaboration included Spearman Brown formula, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression analysis, paired samples t-test, and Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient. Results: Chronological and dental age showed a high correlation for both gender(r =0.741 for boys, r = 0.770 for girls, p<0.001). The strongest correlation was for the CVM Stage IV for both males (r=0.554) and females (r=0.68). The lowest correlation was for the CVM Stage III in males (r=0.433, p<0.001) and for the CVM Stage II in females (r=0.393, p>0.001). The t-test revealed statistically significant differences between these variables (p<0.001) during the peak period. A statistically significant correlation (p<0.001) between tooth calcification and CVM stages was determined. The second molars showed the highest correlation with CVM stages (CVMS) (r= 0.65 for boys, r = 0.72 for girls). Conclusion: Dental age was more advanced than chronological for both boys and girls for all CVMS. During the peak period these differences were more pronounced. Moreover, all correlations between skeletal and dental stages were statistically significant. The second molars showed the highest correlation whereas the

  3. EFFECTS OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS DISEASE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS DISEASE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN BROWN NORWAY RATS (P. Singhl, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2,
    C.A.J. Dick', K.B. Adlerl and M.I. Gilmour2, INCSU, Raleigh, N.C., 2NHEERL/ORD/ USEPA, RTP, N.C. and 3UNC, Chapel Hill, N.C.)The interaction between ...

  4. LIQUID BUTANE FILLED LOAD FOR A LINER DRIVEN PEGASUS EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. SALAZAR; W. ANDERSON; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously [1,2].

  5. Liquid butane filled load for a liner driven Pegasus experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M. A.; Armijo, E. V.; Anderson, W. E.; Atchison, W. L.; Bartos, J. J.; Garcia, F.; Randolph, B.; Sheppard, M. G.; Stokes, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment (Fig.1) was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously.

  6. Production Mechanisms, Number Concentration, Size Distribution. Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Petters, Markus; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Bates. Tim; O'Dowd, Colin; Reid, Jeff; Lewis, Ernie R.; Gantt, Brett; Anguelova, Magdalena D.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Bird, James; Callaghan, Adrian H.; Ceburnis, Darius; Chang, Rachel; Clark, Antony; deLeeuw, Gerrit; Deane, Grant; DeMott, Paul J.; Elliot, Scott; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fairall, Chris W.; Hawkins, Lelia; Hu, Yongxiang; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Over forty scientists from six countries convened in Raleigh, NC on June 4-6 2012 to review the status and prospects of sea spray aerosol research. Participants were researchers from the oceanography and atmospheric science communities, including academia, private industry, and government agencies. The recommendations from the working groups are summarized in a science prioritization matrix that is meant to prioritize the research agenda and identify areas of investigation by the magnitude of their impact on proposed science questions. Str

  7. A Simple Sensor Model for THUNDER Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    A quasi-static (low frequency) model is developed for THUNDER actuators configured as displacement sensors based on a simple Raleigh-Ritz technique. This model is used to calculate charge as a function of displacement. Using this and the calculated capacitance, voltage vs. displacement and voltage vs. electrical load curves are generated and compared with measurements. It is shown this model gives acceptable results and is useful for determining rough estimates of sensor output for various loads, laminate configurations and thicknesses.

  8. Falls Lake melange, a polydeformed accretionary complex in the North Carolina piedmont

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.W. Jr.; Blake, D.E.; Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Stoddard, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Falls Lake melange in the eastern Piedmont of North Carolina is composed of mafic and ultramafic blocks and pods of diverse shapes and sizes, from about 1 cm to 7 km in length, dispersed without stratigraphic continuity in a matrix of pelitic schist and metagraywacke. The melange lies between the Carolina slate belt on the west and the Raleigh belt on the east. This terrane has been mapped in detail from near Wilton in Granville County, southward for about 40 km to west Raleigh in Wake County. Preliminary petrologic and geochemical data suggest an oceanic crustal origin for the mafic and ultramafic inclusions. Although the lenticular shapes of most fragments are attributable to ductile deformation, a few more equant fragments that are clearly overprinted by the earliest recognized matrix schistosity have round to angular shapes resembling sedimentary clasts. These observations suggest formation by a combination of sedimentary and tectonic processes, perhaps in the accretionary wedge of a convergent plate margin. The Falls Lake melange and the overlying late Proterozoic to Early Cambrian volcanic-arc terrane of the accreted Carolina slate belt were thrust upon a probably continental terrane of the Raleigh belt before overprinting by late Paleozoic folding and metamorphism. The melange and its folded basal decollement are truncated on the east by a later fault of the Nutbush Creek system and have not been found east of this fault.

  9. Automated detection of cracks on the faying surface within high-load transfer bolted speciments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, Gregory; Kollgaard, Jeffrey R.

    2003-07-01

    Boeing is currently conducting evaluation testing of the Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVMTM) system offered by Structural Monitoring Systems, Ltd (SMS). Initial testing has been conducted by SMS, with further test lab validations to be performed at Boeing in Seattle. Testing has been conducted on dog bone type specimens that have been cut at the center line. A notch was cut at one of the bolt holes and a CVM sensor installed on both sides of the plate. The doublers were added and a single line of 4 bolts along the longitudinal center line were used to attach the doubler plates to the dog bone type specimen. In this way, a high load transfer situation exists between the two halves of the dog bone specimen and the doubler plates. The CVM sensors are slightly over 0.004" (0.1mm) in thickness and are installed directly upon the faying surface of the dog bone specimen. Testing was conducted on an Instron 8501 Servohydraulic testing machine at the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Australia. The standard laboratory equipment offered by Structural Monitoring Systems, Ltd was used for crack detection. This equipment included the Kvac (vacuum supply) and the Sim8 (flow meter). The Sim8 was electrically connected to the Instron machine so that as soon as a crack was detected, fatigue loading was halted. The aim of the experiment was for CVM to detect a crack on the faying surface of the specimens at a length of 0.050" +/- 0.010". This was accomplished successfully. CVM has been developed on the principle that a small volume maintained at a low vacuum is extremely sensitive to any ingress of air. In addition to the load bearing sensors described above, self-adhesive, elastomeric sensors with fine channels on the adhesive face have been developed. When the sensors have been adhered to the structure under test, these fine channels, and the structure itself, form a manifold of galleries alternately at low vacuum and atmospheric pressure

  10. Economic Value of Instream Flow for Non-Commercial Whitewater Boating Using Recreation Demand and Contingent Valuation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John; McTernan, James

    2014-03-01

    Whitewater river kayaking and river rafting require adequate instream flows that are often adversely affected by upstream water diversions. However, there are very few studies in the USA of the economic value of instream flow to inform environmental managers. This study estimates the economic value of instream flow to non-commercial kayakers derived using a Travel Cost Method recreation demand model and Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), a type of Contingent Behavior Method (CBM). Data were obtained from a visitor survey administered along the Poudre River in Colorado. In the dichotomous choice CVM willingness to pay (WTP) question, visitors were asked if they would still visit the river if the cost of their trip was Y higher, and the level of Y was varied across the sample. The CVM yielded an estimate of WTP that was sensitive to flows ranging from 55 per person per day at 300 Cubic Feet per Second (CFS) to a maximum 97 per person per day at flows of 1900 CFS. The recreation demand model estimated a boater's number of trips per season. We found the number of trips taken was also sensitive to flow, ranging from as little as 1.63 trips at 300 CFS to a maximum number of 14 trips over the season at 1900 CFS. Thus, there is consistency between peak benefits per trip and number of trips, respectively. With an average of about 100 non-commercial boaters per day, the maximum marginal values per acre foot averages about 220. This value exceeds irrigation water values in this area of Colorado.

  11. [Diet as a cardiovascular risk factor in family medicine].

    PubMed

    Bergman Marković, Biserka; Katić, Milica; Vrdoljak, Davorka; Kranjcević, Ksenija; Jasna, Vucak; Ivezić Lalić, Dragica

    2010-05-01

    Although Mediterranean country by its geographic position, according to cardiovascular mortality (CVM) rate, Croatia belongs to Central-East European countries with high CV mortality. Prevention by changing nutritional habits is population (public health programmes) or individually targeted. General practitioner (GP) provides care for whole person in its environment and GP's team plays a key role in achieving lifestyle changes. GPs intervention is individually/group/family targeted by counselling or using printed leaflets (individual manner, organized programmes). Adherence to lifestyle changes is not an easy task; it is higher when recommendations are simple and part of individually tailored programme with follow- ups included. Motivation is essential, but obstacles to implementation (by patient and GPs) are also important. Nutritional intervention influences most important CV risk factors: cholesterol level, blood pressure (BP), diabetes. Restriction in total energy intake with additional nutritional interventions is recommended. Lower animal fat intake causes CVM reduction by 12%, taking additional serving of fruit/day by 7% and vegetables by 4%. Restriction of dietary salt intake (3 g/day) lowers BP by 2-8 mm Hg, CVM by 16%. Nutritional intervention gains CHD and stroke redact in healthy adults (12%, 11% respectively). Respecting individual lifestyle and nutrition, GP should suggest both home cooking and careful food declaration reading and discourage salt adding. Recommended daily salt intake is < or =6 g. In BP lowering, salt intake restriction (10-12 to 5-6 g/day) is as efficient as taking one antihypertensive drug. Lifestyle intervention targeting nutritional habits and pharmacotherapy is the most efficient combination in CV risk factors control. PMID:20649077

  12. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age.

  13. Cumulative discounted expressions of sire genotypes for the complex vertebral malformation and beta-casein loci in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Kearney, J F; Amer, P R; Villanueva, B

    2005-12-01

    Based on discounted gene-flow principles, a set of recursive equations was developed to quantify the value of using sires with a specific genotype for an identified gene in a commercial dairy herd. Two examples were used to demonstrate the usefulness of the method. The first example deals with the implications of using sires that are known carriers of the lethal recessive genetic defect, complex vertebral malformation (CVM). The second example examines the value of using sires homozygous for the A2 allele of beta-casein. Results are presented in terms of cumulative discounted expressions. These are then multiplied by the economic values of specific genotypes to determine the cost or benefit of using these sires. In general, the degree of mortality and the required price reduction for carrier sires increased as the proportion of carrier sires used, the duration of sire use, and the initial frequency in the cow herd increased. A semen discount of 3.10 pound sterling per CVM straw used would be required to offset the expected mortality when 20% of CVM carrier sires are used for 3 yr when 5% of cows are carriers. The cumulative discounted expressions' of using sires homozygous for the A2 allele of beta-casein also increased when the proportion and duration of carrier sire use and the initial frequency of the A2 allele increased. Assuming an A2A2 cow is worth 160 pound sterling more than a non-A2A2 cow, the expected benefit of using A2A2 sires in a 100-cow herd for 5 yr would be 57 pound sterling,120 for a 20-yr planning horizon. The results of this study demonstrate how the starting gene frequency in the herd, and the proportion and duration of use of sires of particular genotypes are critical to the economic implications of using single genes in commercial dairy farms. PMID:16291634

  14. Effectiveness of lipopolysaccharide as an intrauterine immunomodulator in curing bacterial endometritis in repeat breeding cross-bred cows.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Sidhu, S S; Dhaliwal, G S; Pangaonkar, G R; Nanda, A S; Grewal, A S

    2000-05-31

    Antibiotics are usually used to combat microbial infections of the uterus, responsible for hindering establishment of pregnancy in cross-bred cows. The major disadvantages of antibiotics are: development of bacterial resistance, high costs and diminishing uterine defense mechanisms (UDM). As an alternative therapy, intrauterine application of Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide (E. coli LPS) as a uterine defense stimulator was used in this study in confirmed clinical cases of repeat breeding associated with bacterial endometritis. In the treated group (n=12), on the day of estrus, 100 microg of E. coli LPS dissolved in 30-ml sterile phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was infused intrauterine; while in the control group (n=12), only 30 ml of PBS was infused. Six-hour post-treatment, in the treatment group uterine washings showed a 100-fold increase in the total leucocytic count (TLC). Out of the cellular contents, more than 80% of the cells were recognised as neutrophils; above 60% were alive and their phagocytic activity was five bacteria/neutrophil. Such a cellular response was maintained until 72-h post-treatment. At the subsequent estrus period, the cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) became clear in 9 out of 12 cows (75%) and showed no bacterial growth. In the control group, similar micro-organisms were present in CVM of all the 12 cows before and after the PBS infusions. During the subsequent estrus, all nine cows with sterile CVM in the treatment group conceived while only one cow conceived from the control group. It was concluded that, administration of intrauterine E. coli LPS as single infusion in cows with bacterial endometritis stimulated UDM and cleared the infection within one estrous cycle, and thereby restoring fertility. PMID:10837976

  15. UCVM: Open Source Software for Understanding and Delivering 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physics-based ground motion simulations can calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through 3D velocity models of the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) framework to help researchers build structured or unstructured velocity meshes from 3D velocity models for use in wave propagation simulations. The UCVM software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Currently, the platform supports multiple California models, including SCEC CVM-S4 and CVM-H 11.9.1, and has been designed to support models from any region on earth. UCVM is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. In this presentation, we describe improvements to the UCVM software. The current version, UCVM 14.3.0, released in March of 2014, supports the newest Southern California velocity model, CVM-S4.26, which was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations using CVM-S4 as the starting model (Lee et al., this meeting), and the Broadband 1D velocity model used in the CyberShake 14.2 study. We have ported UCVM to multiple Linux distributions and OS X. Also included in this release is the ability to add small-scale stochastic heterogeneities to extract Cartesian meshes for use in high-frequency ground motion simulations. This tool was built using the C language open-source FFT library, FFTW. The stochastic parameters (Hurst exponent, correlation length, and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio) can be customized by the user. UCVM v14.3.0 also provides visualization scripts for constructing cross-sections, horizontal slices, basin depths, and Vs30 maps. The interface allows researchers to visually review velocity models . Also, UCVM v14.3.0 can extract

  16. Cryogenic Model Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, W. M.; Kuhn, N. S.; Berry, R. F.; Newman, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    An overview and status of current activities seeking alternatives to 200 grade 18Ni Steel CVM alloy for cryogenic wind tunnel models is presented. Specific improvements in material selection have been researched including availability, strength, fracture toughness and potential for use in transonic wind tunnel testing. Potential benefits from utilizing damage tolerant life-prediction methods, recently developed fatigue crack growth codes and upgraded NDE methods are also investigated. Two candidate alloys are identified and accepted for cryogenic/transonic wind tunnel models and hardware.

  17. UCVM: An Open Source Software Package for Querying and Visualizing 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide foundational data for ground motion simulations that calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) package for both Linux and OS X. This unique framework provides a cohesive way for querying and visualizing 3D models. UCVM v14.3.0, supports many Southern California velocity models including CVM-S4, CVM-H 11.9.1, and CVM-S4.26. The last model was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations on CVM-S4. Recently, UCVM has been used to deliver a prototype of a new 3D model of central California (CCA) also based on full-3D tomographic inversions. UCVM was used to provide initial plots of this model and will be used to deliver CCA to users when the model is publicly released. Visualizing models is also possible with UCVM. Integrated within the platform are plotting utilities that can generate 2D cross-sections, horizontal slices, and basin depth maps. UCVM can also export models in NetCDF format for easy import into IDV and ParaView. UCVM has also been prototyped to export models that are compatible with IRIS' new Earth Model Collaboration (EMC) visualization utility. This capability allows for user-specified horizontal slices and cross-sections to be plotted in the same 3D Earth space. UCVM was designed to help a wide variety of researchers. It is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. It is also used to provide the initial input to SCEC's CyberShake platform. For those interested in specific data points, the software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Also included in the last release was the ability to add small

  18. Role of digitalis-like substance in the hypertension of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and simulated weightlessness in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamnani, M. B.; Chen, S.; Haddy, F. J.; Yuan, C.; Mo, Z.

    1998-01-01

    We have examined the role of plasma Na+-K+ pump inhibitor (SPI) in the hypertension of streptozotocin induced insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) in reduced renal mass rats. The increase in blood pressure (BP) was associated with an increase in extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), and SPI and a decrease in myocardial Na+,K+ATPase (NKA) activity, suggesting that increased SPI, which inhibits cardiovascular muscle (CVM) cell NKA activity, may be involved in the mechanism of IDDM-hypertension. In a second study, using prolonged suspension resulted in a decrease in cardiac NKA activity, suggesting that cardiovascular deconditioning following space flight might in part result from insufficient SPI.

  19. The response of hydrophobic organics and potential toxicity in streams to urbanization of watersheds in six metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, W.L., Jr.; Goodbred, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in streams along a gradient of urban land-use intensity in and around six metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh - Durham, North Carolina; and Denver - Fort Collins, Colorado, in 2003; and Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee - Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Portland, Oregon, in 2004 to examine relations between percent urban land cover in watersheds and the occurrence, concentrations, and potential toxicity of hydrophobic compounds. Of the 142 endpoints measured in SPMD dialysates, 30 were significantly (alpha = 0.05) related to the percent of urban land cover in the watersheds in at least one metropolitan area. These 30 endpoints included the aggregated measures of the total number of compounds detected and relative toxicity (Microtox?? and P450RGS assays), in addition to the concentrations of 27 individual hydrophobic compounds. The number of compounds detected, P450RGS assay values, and the concentrations of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were significantly related to percent urban land cover in all six metropolitan areas. Pentachloroanisole, the most frequently detected compound, was significantly related to urban land cover in all metropolitan areas except Dallas - Fort Worth. Petrogenic PAHs and dibenzofurans were positively related to percent urban land cover in Atlanta, Raleigh - Durham, Denver, and Milwaukee - Green Bay. Results for other endpoints were much more variable. The number of endpoints significantly related to urban land cover ranged from 6 in Portland to 21 Raleigh-Durham. Based on differences in the number and suite of endpoints related to urban intensity, these results provide evidence of differences in factors governing source strength, transport, and/or fate of hydrophobic compounds in the six metropolitan areas studied. The most consistent and significant results were that bioavailable, aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists increase in streams as basins become

  20. Quantifying the Effects of Wheat Residue on Severity of Stagonospora nodorum Blotch and Yield in Winter Wheat.

    PubMed

    Mehra, L K; Cowger, C; Weisz, R; Ojiambo, P S

    2015-11-01

    Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungus Parastagonospora nodorum, is a major disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Residue from a previously infected wheat crop can be an important source of initial inoculum, but the effects of infected residue on disease severity and yield have not previously been quantified. Experiments were conducted in Raleigh and Salisbury, North Carolina, in 2012, 2013, and 2014 using the moderately susceptible winter wheat cultivar DG Shirley. In 2014, the highly susceptible cultivar DG 9012 was added to the experiment and the study was conducted at an additional site in Tyner, North Carolina. Four (2012) or six (2013 and 2014) wheat residue treatments were applied in the field in a randomized complete block design with five replicates. Treatments in 2012 were 0, 30, 60, and 90% residue coverage of the soil surface, while 10 and 20% residue treatments were added in 2013 and 2014. Across site-years, disease severity ranged from 0 to 50% and increased nonlinearly (P < 0.05) as residue level increased, with a rapid rise to an upper limit and showing little change in severity above 20 to 30% soil surface coverage. Residue coverage had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on disease severity in all site-years. The effect of residue coverage on yield was only significant (P < 0.05) for DG Shirley at Raleigh and Salisbury in 2012 and for DG 9012 at Salisbury in 2014. Similarly, residue coverage significantly (P < 0.05) affected thousand-kernel weight only of DG 9012 in 2014 at Raleigh and Salisbury. Our results showed that when wheat residue was sparse, small additions to residue density produced greater increases in SNB than when residue was abundant. SNB only led to effects on yield and test weight in the most disease-conducive environments, suggesting that the economic threshold for the disease may be higher than previously assumed and warrants review. PMID:26167761

  1. FIBER-TEX 1991: The Fifth Conference on Advanced Engineering Fibers and Textile Structures for Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at a joint NASA/North Carolina State University/DoD/Clemson University/Drexel University conference on Fibers, Textile Technology, and Composites Structures held at the College of Textiles Building on Centennial Campus of North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina on October 15-17, 1991. Conference papers presented information on advanced engineering fibers, textile processes and structures, structural fabric production, mechanics and characteristics of woven composites, pultruded composites, and the latest requirements for the use of textiles in the production of composite materials and structures. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

  2. Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, E.; Mas, C.

    1998-11-13

    Presently, the US EPA is constructing a new complex at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina to consolidate its research operations in the Raleigh-Durham area. The National Computer Center (NCC) is currently in the design process and is planned for construction as partof this complex. Implementation of the new technologies can be planned as part of the normal construction process, and full credit for elimination of the conventional technologies can be taken. Several renewable technologies are specified in the current plans for the buildings. The objective of this study is to identify measures that are likely to be both technically and economically feasible.

  3. Coordination procedure for radio relay and communication satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckerman, J.

    1973-01-01

    A global rain rate statistic model is used to link microwave propagation statistics to measurable rain statistics in order to develop international telecommunication site criteria for radio relay and communication satellite services that minimize interference between receivers and transmitters. This rain coordination procedure utilizes a rain storm cell size, a statistical description of the rainfall rate within the cell valid for most of the earth's surface, approximations between Raleigh scatter and constancy of precipitation with altitude, and an analytic relation between radar reflectivity and rain rate.

  4. Dynamics of a spinning spacecraft during extension of flexible appendages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J.; Keat, J.; Messac, A.

    1984-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of analyzing the deployment of flexible appendages from a central rigid hub of a spinning spacecraft. The rigorous mathematical modeling of mass flow and changing structural configuration of the spacecraft during deployment, while the vehicle experiences small elastic deflection and small angular rate, is presented. The equations of motion are obtained in terms of integro-partial differential equations. An approximate solution for the equations of motion is obtained by using a Raleigh-Ritz method and numerical results are presented for several deployment strategies. For every instantaneous physical configuration of the spacecraft, that extension rate which will lead to unstable behavior is also determined.

  5. An instability in neutron stars at birth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Adam; Fryxell, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation show that a generic Raleigh-Taylor-like instability occurs in the mantles of nascent neutron stars, that it is possibly violent, and that the standard spherically symmetric models of neutron star birth and supernova explosion may be inadequate. Whether this 'convective' instability is pivotal to the supernova mechanism, pulsar nagnetic fields, or a host of other important issues that attend stellar collapse remains to be seen, but its existence promises to modify all questions concerning this most energetic of astronomical phenomena.

  6. HL-20 Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Robert Vess, a lecturer in mechanical and aerospace engineering at North Carolina State Univeristy, Raleigh, N.C., installs the window flange trim on a full-size engineering model of the HL-20 lifting body for the NASA Langley Research Center. The model, which is approximately 29 feet long, was built by NCSU and North Carolina Agricultural and Technical Univeristy, Greensboro, N.C., for studying crew seating arrangements, habitability, equipment layout, crew ingress and egress, and maintance and handling operations. The studies will take place at Langley and at the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.

  7. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  8. FIBER-TEX 1991: The Fifth Conference on Advanced Engineering Fibers and Textile Structures for Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at a joint NASA/North Carolina State University/DoD/Clemson University/Drexel University conference on Fibers, Textile Technology, and Composites Structures held at the College of Textiles Building on Centennial Campus of North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina on October 15-17, 1991. Conference papers presented information on advanced engineering fibers, textile processes and structures, structural fabric production, mechanics and characteristics of woven composites, pultruded composites, and the latest requirements for the use of textiles in the production of composite materials and structures.

  9. Whole Building Efficiency for Whole Foods: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Doebber, I.; Hirsch, A.

    2013-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnered with Whole Foods Market under the Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program to design and implement a new store in Raleigh, North Carolina. The result was a design with a predicted energy savings of 40% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, and 25% energy savings over their standard design. Measured performance of the as-built building showed that the building did not achieve the predicted performance. A detailed review of the project several months after opening revealed a series of several items in construction and controls items that were not implemented properly and were not fully corrected in the commissioning process.

  10. Case Studies on the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-01

    September 2002 · NREL/SR-620-32819 Case Studies on the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy S. Gouchoe, V. Everette, and R. Haynes North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute · Battelle · Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 September 2002 · NREL/SR-620-32819Case Studies on the Effecti

  11. Vaginal delivery of paclitaxel via nanoparticles with non-mucoadhesive surfaces suppresses cervical tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Yu, Tao; Wang, Ying-Ying; Lai, Samuel K.; Zeng, Qi; Miao, Bolong; Tang, Benjamin C.; Simons, Brian W.; Ensign, Laura; Liu, Guanshu; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; Juang, Chih-Yin; Mert, Olcay; Wood, Joseph; Fu, Jie; McMahon, Michael T.; Wu, T.-C.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hanes, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the cervicovaginal tract using nanoparticles may reduce adverse side effects associated with systemic chemotherapy, while improving outcomes for early stage cervical cancer. We hypothesize drug-loaded nanoparticles must rapidly penetrate cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) lining the female reproductive tract to effectively deliver their payload to underlying diseased tissues in a uniform and sustained manner. We develop paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles, composed entirely of polymers used in FDA-approved products, which rapidly penetrate human CVM and provide sustained drug release with minimal burst effect. We further employ a mouse model with aggressive cervical tumors established in the cervicovaginal tract to compare paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (conventional particles , or CP) and similar particles coated with Pluronic® F127 (mucus-penetrating particles , or MPP). CP are mucoadhesive and, thus, aggregated in mucus, while MPP achieve more uniform distribution and close proximity to cervical tumors. Paclitaxel-MPP suppress tumor growth more effectively and prolong median survival of mice compared to free paclitaxel or paclitaxel-CP. Histopathological studies demonstrate minimal toxicity to the cervicovaginal epithelia, suggesting paclitaxel-MPP may be safe for intravaginal use. These results demonstrate for the first time the in vivo advantages of polymer-based MPP for treatment of tumors localized to a mucosal surface. PMID:24339398

  12. Asymptotic approach to model testing for heteroscedastic spatial regression with independent observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somayasa, Wayan

    2016-02-01

    We derive a functional central limit theorem for heteroscedastic spatial regressions by applying the generalized version of Prohorov's theorem. By our technique we get the limit process which is expressed as a function of a centered set-indexed Gaussian process including the standard set-indexed Brownian sheet as a special case. The result can be used to approximate the distributions of a type of Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) and Cramér-von Mises (CvM) functionals of the set-indexed partial sums (Cumulative Sum) processes of the least squares residuals which are useful for testing the adequateness of an assumed regression model. A simulation study is performed to investigate the finite sample sizes behavior of the tests. It is shown by simulation that among the two tests, the CvM test tends to have better power than KS test for testing first-order model against nonparametric or parametric alternative. An application of the established method in real data is also discussed.

  13. Assessing Conformance with Benford's Law: Goodness-Of-Fit Tests and Simultaneous Confidence Intervals.

    PubMed

    Lesperance, M; Reed, W J; Stephens, M A; Tsao, C; Wilton, B

    2016-01-01

    Benford's Law is a probability distribution for the first significant digits of numbers, for example, the first significant digits of the numbers 871 and 0.22 are 8 and 2 respectively. The law is particularly remarkable because many types of data are considered to be consistent with Benford's Law and scientists and investigators have applied it in diverse areas, for example, diagnostic tests for mathematical models in Biology, Genomics, Neuroscience, image analysis and fraud detection. In this article we present and compare statistically sound methods for assessing conformance of data with Benford's Law, including discrete versions of Cramér-von Mises (CvM) statistical tests and simultaneous confidence intervals. We demonstrate that the common use of many binomial confidence intervals leads to rejection of Benford too often for truly Benford data. Based on our investigation, we recommend that the CvM statistic Ud(2), Pearson's chi-square statistic and 100(1 - α)% Goodman's simultaneous confidence intervals be computed when assessing conformance with Benford's Law. Visual inspection of the data with simultaneous confidence intervals is useful for understanding departures from Benford and the influence of sample size. PMID:27018999

  14. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J. Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between 42 and 57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay.

  15. Exploring the use of tablet PCs in veterinary medical education: opportunity or obstacle?

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; van der Merwe, Deon

    2014-01-01

    A tablet PC is a laptop computer with a touch screen and a digital pen or stylus that can be used for handwritten notes and drawings. The use of tablet PCs has been investigated in many disciplines such as engineering, mathematics, science, and education. The purpose of this article is to explore student and faculty attitudes toward and experiences with tablet PCs 6 years after the implementation of a tablet PC program in the College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at Kansas State University (K-State). This study reports that the use of tablet PCs has enhanced students' learning experiences through learner-interface interaction, learner-content interaction, learner-instructor interaction, and learner-learner interaction. This study also identifies digital distraction as the major negative experience with tablet PCs during class time. The tablet PC program provides CVM faculty the potential to pursue technology integration strategies that support expected learning outcomes and provides students the potential to develop self-monitoring and self-discipline skills that support learning with digital technologies. PMID:24855031

  16. Assessing Conformance with Benford’s Law: Goodness-Of-Fit Tests and Simultaneous Confidence Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Lesperance, M.; Reed, W. J.; Stephens, M. A.; Tsao, C.; Wilton, B.

    2016-01-01

    Benford’s Law is a probability distribution for the first significant digits of numbers, for example, the first significant digits of the numbers 871 and 0.22 are 8 and 2 respectively. The law is particularly remarkable because many types of data are considered to be consistent with Benford’s Law and scientists and investigators have applied it in diverse areas, for example, diagnostic tests for mathematical models in Biology, Genomics, Neuroscience, image analysis and fraud detection. In this article we present and compare statistically sound methods for assessing conformance of data with Benford’s Law, including discrete versions of Cramér-von Mises (CvM) statistical tests and simultaneous confidence intervals. We demonstrate that the common use of many binomial confidence intervals leads to rejection of Benford too often for truly Benford data. Based on our investigation, we recommend that the CvM statistic Ud2, Pearson’s chi-square statistic and 100(1 − α)% Goodman’s simultaneous confidence intervals be computed when assessing conformance with Benford’s Law. Visual inspection of the data with simultaneous confidence intervals is useful for understanding departures from Benford and the influence of sample size. PMID:27018999

  17. Radiological Indicators of Bone Age Assessment in Cephalometric Images. Review

    PubMed Central

    Durka-Zając, Magdalena; Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Derwich, Marcin; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Łoboda, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to assess bone age accurately is important and allows to diagnose the patient correctly and to plan orthodontic treatment appropriately. The aim of the work is to present views of different authors on the subject of using cephalometric images to determine bone age and its significance for conducting appropriate orthodontic treatment. Publications from the PubMed medical database were analyzed. Search criteria: bone age assessment, CVM method. Ultimately, 36 papers out of 1354 publications were selected. The research of many authors confirms the usefulness of various methods using cephalometric images to assess skeletal age. Currently, the CVM method devised by Baccetti et al. is the most frequently mentioned one in literature. It seems that bone age assessment methods based on evaluating the morphological structure of the cervical vertebrae in cephalometric images can clearly differentiate skeletal maturity in children regardless of their race or sex. Bearing in mind the constant technological progress in medicine and stomatology, bone age assessment methods need to be perfected in order to alleviate their impact on the patient as much as possible. PMID:27536337

  18. An alumni survey to assess self-reported career preparation attained at a US veterinary school.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Laura E; Ainsworth, J A

    2007-01-01

    The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) has challenged veterinary schools to improve self-assessment of curricular outcomes. One way to assess the quality of education is to gather feedback from alumni. To successfully gather feedback using a questionnaire, questions must be pertinent to veterinary education and include quantifiable responses. Several principles must be applied in questionnaire development to ensure that the questions address the intended issues, that questions are interpreted correctly and consistently, and that responses are quantifiable. The objectives of the questionnaire for alumni of Mississippi State University's College of Veterinary Medicine (MSU-CVM) were twofold: (1) to determine whether graduates were comparable to their US peers in terms of work opportunities and salary, and (2) to evaluate how well the CVM curriculum prepared students to begin their veterinary careers. Demographic categories used by the AVMA and published knowledge, skills, attitudes, and aptitudes of veterinary graduates were used in developing the questions. College-specific questions, such as those relating to student activities and impressions of college resources, were also incorporated. Questionnaires were mailed to participants, who could respond via the World Wide Web. Questionnaire results allowed leaders within the college to determine which aspects of alumni's experiences were exceptionally positive, which needed immediate response, and which might require further study. This article describes the application of principles in developing, administering, and analyzing responses to a questionnaire regarding veterinary education. PMID:18326782

  19. Radiological Indicators of Bone Age Assessment in Cephalometric Images. Review.

    PubMed

    Durka-Zając, Magdalena; Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Derwich, Marcin; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Łoboda, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The ability to assess bone age accurately is important and allows to diagnose the patient correctly and to plan orthodontic treatment appropriately. The aim of the work is to present views of different authors on the subject of using cephalometric images to determine bone age and its significance for conducting appropriate orthodontic treatment. Publications from the PubMed medical database were analyzed. Search criteria: bone age assessment, CVM method. Ultimately, 36 papers out of 1354 publications were selected. The research of many authors confirms the usefulness of various methods using cephalometric images to assess skeletal age. Currently, the CVM method devised by Baccetti et al. is the most frequently mentioned one in literature. It seems that bone age assessment methods based on evaluating the morphological structure of the cervical vertebrae in cephalometric images can clearly differentiate skeletal maturity in children regardless of their race or sex. Bearing in mind the constant technological progress in medicine and stomatology, bone age assessment methods need to be perfected in order to alleviate their impact on the patient as much as possible. PMID:27536337

  20. Impact of Perceived Importance of Ecosystem Services and Stated Financial Constraints on Willingness to Pay for Riparian Meadow Restoration in Flanders (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wendy Y.; Aertsens, Joris; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven; De Nocker, Leo

    2014-08-01

    The strategic importance of ecosystem service valuation as an operational basis for policy decisions on natural restoration has been increasingly recognized in order to align the provision of ecosystem services with the expectation of human society. The contingent valuation method (CVM) is widely used to quantify various ecosystem services. However, two areas of concern arise: (1) whether people value specific functional ecosystem services and overlook some intrinsic aspects of natural restoration, and (2) whether people understand the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules given in the contingent scenarios. Using a peri-urban riparian meadow restoration project in Flanders, Belgium as a case, we explored the impacts of residents' perceived importance of various ecosystem services and stated financial constraints on their willingness-to-pay for the proposed restoration project employing the CVM. The results indicated that people tended to value all the benefits of riparian ecosystem restoration concurrently, although they accorded different importances to each individual category of ecosystem services. A longer payment scheme can help the respondents to think more about the flow of ecosystem services into future generations. A weak temporal embedding effect can be detected, which might be attributed to respondents' concern about current financial constraints, rather than financial bindings associated with their income and perceived future financial constraints. This demonstrates the multidimensionality of respondents' financial concerns in CV. This study sheds light on refining future CV studies, especially with regard to public expectation of ecosystem services and the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules.

  1. Loss of col8a1a function during zebrafish embryogenesis results in congenital vertebral malformations.

    PubMed

    Gray, Ryan S; Wilm, Thomas P; Smith, Jeff; Bagnat, Michel; Dale, Rodney M; Topczewski, Jacek; Johnson, Stephen L; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2014-02-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) occur in 1 in 1000 live births and in many cases can cause spinal deformities, such as scoliosis, and result in disability and distress of affected individuals. Many severe forms of the disease, such as spondylocostal dystostosis, are recessive monogenic traits affecting somitogenesis, however the etiologies of the majority of CVM cases remain undetermined. Here we demonstrate that morphological defects of the notochord in zebrafish can generate congenital-type spine defects. We characterize three recessive zebrafish leviathan/col8a1a mutant alleles ((m531, vu41, vu105)) that disrupt collagen type VIII alpha1a (col8a1a), and cause folding of the embryonic notochord and consequently adult vertebral column malformations. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a transient loss of col8a1a function or inhibition of Lysyl oxidases with drugs during embryogenesis was sufficient to generate vertebral fusions and scoliosis in the adult spine. Using periodic imaging of individual zebrafish, we correlate focal notochord defects of the embryo with vertebral malformations (VM) in the adult. Finally, we show that bends and kinks in the notochord can lead to aberrant apposition of osteoblasts normally confined to well-segmented areas of the developing vertebral bodies. Our results afford a novel mechanism for the formation of VM, independent of defects of somitogenesis, resulting from aberrant bone deposition at regions of misshapen notochord tissue. PMID:24333517

  2. Seasonal determinations of algal virus decay rates reveal overwintering in a temperate freshwater pond.

    PubMed

    Long, Andrew M; Short, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    To address questions about algal virus persistence (i.e., continued existence) in the environment, rates of decay of infectivity for two viruses that infect Chlorella-like algae, ATCV-1 and CVM-1, and a virus that infects the prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina parva, CpV-BQ1, were estimated from in situ incubations in a temperate, seasonally frozen pond. A series of experiments were conducted to estimate rates of decay of infectivity in all four seasons with incubations lasting 21 days in spring, summer and autumn, and 126 days in winter. Decay rates observed across this study were relatively low compared with previous estimates obtained for other algal viruses, and ranged from 0.012 to 11% h(-1). Overall, the virus CpV-BQ1 decayed most rapidly whereas ATCV-1 decayed most slowly, but for all viruses the highest decay rates were observed during the summer and the lowest were observed during the winter. Furthermore, the winter incubations revealed the ability of each virus to overwinter under ice as ATCV-1, CVM-1 and CpV-BQ1 retained up to 48%, 19% and 9% of their infectivity after 126 days, respectively. The observed resilience of algal viruses in a seasonally frozen freshwater pond provides a mechanism that can support the maintenance of viral seed banks in nature. However, the high rates of decay observed in the summer demonstrate that virus survival and therefore environmental persistence can be subject to seasonal bottlenecks. PMID:26943625

  3. Economic amenity values of wildlife: Six case studies in Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Elwood L.; Carline, Robert; Guldin, Richard W.; Cordell, H. Ken

    1993-09-01

    The travel clost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM) were used to evaluate the economic value of six different ecotourism activities involving observation of wildlife in Pennsylvania. The six activities were: catch-and-release trout fishing; catch-and-release trout fishing with fly-fishing equipment; viewing waterfowl; watching elk; observing migration flights of raptors; and seeing live wildlife in an environmental education setting. TCM results provided significant statistical relationships between level of use and travel costs for the two types of trout fishing activities. CVM provided estimates of consumer surplus for the other four sites. The consumers' surplus value (1988 dollars) of all six activities to participants amounted to a total of more than 1.28 million annually—twice the total out-of-pocket expenditures of approximately 640,000 spent to visit the sites. The economic amenity values of the six activities compare favorably with similarly derived values in other studies for hunting, fishing, hiking, and backpacking in dispersed recreation environments and wilderness areas in western states.

  4. Multi-view L2-SVM and its multi-view core vector machine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengquan; Chung, Fu-lai; Wang, Shitong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a novel L2-SVM based classifier Multi-view L2-SVM is proposed to address multi-view classification tasks. The proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier does not have any bias in its objective function and hence has the flexibility like μ-SVC in the sense that the number of the yielded support vectors can be controlled by a pre-specified parameter. The proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier can make full use of the coherence and the difference of different views through imposing the consensus among multiple views to improve the overall classification performance. Besides, based on the generalized core vector machine GCVM, the proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier is extended into its GCVM version MvCVM which can realize its fast training on large scale multi-view datasets, with its asymptotic linear time complexity with the sample size and its space complexity independent of the sample size. Our experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier for small scale multi-view datasets and the proposed MvCVM classifier for large scale multi-view datasets. PMID:26773824

  5. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 1, Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L.

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

  6. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. )

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

  7. Constraints on Alleghanian vertical displacements in the southern Appalachian Piedmont, based on aluminum-in-hornblende barometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vyhnal, C.R.; McSween, H.Y Jr. )

    1990-10-01

    Aluminum-in-hornblende barometry of Alleghanian granitoid plutons in the southern Appalachian Piedmont provides new constraints on synorogenic, vertical crustal displacements. Systematic differences in depths of emplacement between plutons in the Carolina slate belt and the Charlotte and Kings Mountain belts appear to confirm previously proposed Alleghanian folding of earlier isothermal surfaces. The Kiokee and Raleigh belts represent ductile horsts that have undergone as much as 18.5 and 15.1 km, respectively, or normal displacement along boundary faults prior to late Alleghanian dextral shearing Plutons in or near the Eastern slate and Belair belts were emplaced at depths similar to those in the Carolina slate belt. Plutons partly or completely covered by Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments, however, appear to have been emplaced deeper and earlier, perhaps reflecting uplift prior to Alleghanian time. Geothermal gradients for the various lithotectonic belts estimated from these data are consistent with the previously recognized decrease in Alleghanian metamorphic overprinting away from the Kiokee-Raleigh belt thermal axis.

  8. Invertebrate response to changes in streamflow hydraulics in two urban areas in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Rodney R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Stream hydrology is foundational to aquatic ecosystems and has been shown to be a structuring element for fish and invertebrates. The relations among urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrate communities were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment Program by using measures of stream hydraulics in two areas of the United States. Specifically, the hypothesis that the effects of urbanization on streamflow and aquatic biota are transferable across geographic regions was tested. Data from sites in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Milwaukee–Green Bay, Wisconsin, were compared and indicate that increasing urbanization has an effect on hydraulic characteristics (Reynolds number, shear stress, and stream power for example) in each metropolitan area, though limited commonality of significant correlations was noted between areas. Correspondence of significant correlations between invertebrate and hydraulic metrics between study areas also was limited. The links between urbanization, hydraulics, and invertebrates could be seen only in the Raleigh data. Connections among these three elements in the Milwaukee–Green Bay data were not clear and likely were obscured by antecedent land cover. Observed biotic differences due to hydrology and urbanization characteristics are not similar between geographic regions.

  9. Publish or Perish: The Case of Thomas Harriot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, Owen

    2007-12-01

    In 1585 the 25-year old Thomas Harriot set foot on Roanoke Island, just inside the barrier island of what is now North Carolina but what was then called Virginia. Harriot, under the patronage of Sir Walter Raleigh, was the cartographer and navigational expert on a colonizing expedition, and he was perhaps the first scientist to take up temporary residence in North America. On his return to Britain he published, at the insistence of Raleigh, a now quite rare promotional pamphlet, A briefe and true report of the New Found Land of Virginia (1588). This was the only thing he published in his lifetime, so his reputation virtually perished. Centuries later his 10,000 pages of manuscripts began to be investigated, so we now know that he anticipated Galileo in the discovery of sunspots, though his telescopic drawings of the moon were strongly influenced by what he saw in Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. Harriot corresponded briefly with Kepler, and had he shared his optical observations, the law of refraction might have become available much earlier. Harriot died in 1621 of cancer of the nose, possibly exacerbated by a habit he helped to import from America, "drinking” tobacco fumes.

  10. Community paramedics fill gaps, take load off EDs.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    In a continuing effort to ease demand on busy EDs, some communities are coming up with new ways to leverage paramedics. Under a three-year pilot program in Raleigh, NC, a select group of paramedics with added training are being used to assess patients with mental health or addiction problems and transfer them to alternative facilities when appropriate. In Robbinsdale, MN, a community paramedicine program is filling in care gaps for patients with chronic diseases and other complaints who are at risk for repeat ED visits or inpatient hospitalizations. * Administrators of the Raleigh, NC, program say that in 2013, paramedics diverted more than 300 patients to alternative facilities. Of these, only 20% to 25% need further transport to the hospital. * Every time the NC paramedics divert a patient from the ED to an alternative facility, they return an estimated 14 bed-hours back to the ED. * In addition to responding to patients with non-urgent needs, the Robbinsdale, MN, community paramedicine program is a referral source for ED physicians who are concerned about follow-up care for patients who have presented to the ED with medical problems that require ongoing attention. PMID:24640290

  11. Dynamic characteristics of piezoelectric shear deformable composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolar, Ramesh

    2004-07-01

    Layered composites have attracted attention for their high specific stiffness, high specific strength, and application specific tailoring of their properties. It is also recognized that layered composites are prone to delamination failure in addition to other failure modes. Consideration of transverse shear on the deformation behavior of the composites is an important aspect in the study of delamination mode failure of such plates. In this paper, we consider the effects of including the transverse shear deformation on the vibration characteristics of layered piezoelectric composites. The formulation is based on the Raleigh-Ritz method using the beam characteristic functions. MATLAB based symbollic math tool box is used in evaluating th eintegrals resulting from the Raleigh Ritz approach. Various commonly occuring boundary conditions are discussed. Results are provided showing the effects of the shear deformation on the dynamics of layered laminated composites. The effects of laminate thickness, fiber orientation, and the plate aspect ratios on the free vibration characteristics of the composite laminates are given to demonstrate the methodology described.

  12. Muco-inert nanoparticle probes and drug carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-Ying

    2011-12-01

    Mucus coats the exposed surfaces of the eyes and respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI) and cervicovaginal (CV) tracts, and protects mucosal tissues against pathogens and other foreign particulates. Most foreign particles are effectively trapped in mucus through steric and adhesive interactions, and are rapidly eliminated by different mucus clearance mechanisms. Nevertheless, mucus also immobilizes conventional drug and gene carriers, thereby precluding sustained and targeted drug delivery to mucosal sites. Synthetic particles engineered with muco-inert surfaces, and some viruses, can readily penetrate mucus gel, and may serve as useful probes to understand the biophysical barrier properties of mucus. Improved understanding of the mucus barrier could provide insights into methods to enhance drug and gene delivery at mucosal surfaces, as well as understanding the occasional failure of mucus to protect against infection or injury. Recently, muco-inert nanoparticles were developed by conjugating a dense layer of low MW polyethylene glycol to particle surfaces. Since they are slowed only by steric obstruction from the mucus mesh, various sized muco-inert nanoparticles can be used to probe the microstructure and microrheology of mucus. I applied this technique to determine whether the mucus barrier may be altered by exogenous factors, including the presence of detergent, pH changes and synthetic nanoparticles. I first studied the microrheology of native human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), and found that CVM behaves as a viscoelastic solid at length scales ≥ 1 microm (preventing large particles from diffusing through) but as a viscoelastic liquid at length scales up to at least 500 nm (allowing smaller particles to diffuse through low viscosity fluid-filled pores). Treating CVM with a nonionic detergent, N9, shifted the viscoelastic liquid-solid transition point to < 200 nm, suggesting hydrophobic interactions between mucin fibers play an important role in regulating the

  13. Muco-inert nanoparticle probes and drug carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-Ying

    2011-12-01

    Mucus coats the exposed surfaces of the eyes and respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI) and cervicovaginal (CV) tracts, and protects mucosal tissues against pathogens and other foreign particulates. Most foreign particles are effectively trapped in mucus through steric and adhesive interactions, and are rapidly eliminated by different mucus clearance mechanisms. Nevertheless, mucus also immobilizes conventional drug and gene carriers, thereby precluding sustained and targeted drug delivery to mucosal sites. Synthetic particles engineered with muco-inert surfaces, and some viruses, can readily penetrate mucus gel, and may serve as useful probes to understand the biophysical barrier properties of mucus. Improved understanding of the mucus barrier could provide insights into methods to enhance drug and gene delivery at mucosal surfaces, as well as understanding the occasional failure of mucus to protect against infection or injury. Recently, muco-inert nanoparticles were developed by conjugating a dense layer of low MW polyethylene glycol to particle surfaces. Since they are slowed only by steric obstruction from the mucus mesh, various sized muco-inert nanoparticles can be used to probe the microstructure and microrheology of mucus. I applied this technique to determine whether the mucus barrier may be altered by exogenous factors, including the presence of detergent, pH changes and synthetic nanoparticles. I first studied the microrheology of native human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), and found that CVM behaves as a viscoelastic solid at length scales ≥ 1 microm (preventing large particles from diffusing through) but as a viscoelastic liquid at length scales up to at least 500 nm (allowing smaller particles to diffuse through low viscosity fluid-filled pores). Treating CVM with a nonionic detergent, N9, shifted the viscoelastic liquid-solid transition point to < 200 nm, suggesting hydrophobic interactions between mucin fibers play an important role in regulating the

  14. Citizens' distrust of government and their protest responses in a contingent valuation study of urban heritage trees in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy Y; Hua, Junyi

    2015-05-15

    Protest response is a common aspect of contingent valuation (CV) studies, which has attracted growing attention from scholars worldwide. Distrust of government, understood as one of the major reasons for protest response, has been prevalent across transitional China experiencing dramatic changes in its economy, society and natural environment. Citizen distrust of government would significantly hinder the efficiency and validity of the contingent valuation method (CVM) application focusing on the provision of public environmental and ecological goods in China, as a large proportion of protest responses might be induced. Hitherto little has been done to link residents' trust in government to their environmental behaviors in developing and transitional economies like China where CVM has been increasingly applied to generate meaningful and reliable information for integrating both ecological and socioeconomic perspectives into policy decisions. This study aims to investigate the discrepancies between protest responses induced by distrust of government and non-protest responses, using the contingent valuation of heritage trees in Guangzhou as a case. The combination of a set of debriefing questions and several attitudinal questions is employed in the questionnaire. Based on logit analysis and discriminant analysis, it has been found that protestors who distrust government and non-protestors share similar salient values associated with urban heritage trees in Guangzhou, especially their distinctive historical and cultural values, in comparison with ordinary urban trees. Residents with low familiarity with heritage trees (who rarely visit sites with heritage trees, know little about management and conservation techniques, and consider present management to be ineffective) are likely to act as protesters with the "distrust of government" belief. Only if more opportunities are provided for residents to obtain access to urban heritage tree sites, more information (about

  15. A new EEG measure using the 1D cluster variation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maren, Alianna J.; Szu, Harold H.

    2015-05-01

    A new information measure, drawing on the 1-D Cluster Variation Method (CVM), describes local pattern distributions (nearest-neighbor and next-nearest neighbor) in a binary 1-D vector in terms of a single interaction enthalpy parameter h for the specific case where the fractions of elements in each of two states are the same (x1=x2=0.5). An example application of this method would be for EEG interpretation in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs), especially in the frontier of invariant biometrics based on distinctive and invariant individual responses to stimuli containing an image of a person with whom there is a strong affiliative response (e.g., to a person's grandmother). This measure is obtained by mapping EEG observed configuration variables (z1, z2, z3 for next-nearest neighbor triplets) to h using the analytic function giving h in terms of these variables at equilibrium. This mapping results in a small phase space region of resulting h values, which characterizes local pattern distributions in the source data. The 1-D vector with equal fractions of units in each of the two states can be obtained using the method for transforming natural images into a binarized equi-probability ensemble (Saremi & Sejnowski, 2014; Stephens et al., 2013). An intrinsically 2-D data configuration can be mapped to 1-D using the 1-D Peano-Hilbert space-filling curve, which has demonstrated a 20 dB lower baseline using the method compared with other approaches (cf. SPIE ICA etc. by Hsu & Szu, 2014). This CVM-based method has multiple potential applications; one near-term one is optimizing classification of the EEG signals from a COTS 1-D BCI baseball hat. This can result in a convenient 3-D lab-tethered EEG, configured in a 1-D CVM equiprobable binary vector, and potentially useful for Smartphone wireless display. Longer-range applications include interpreting neural assembly activations via high-density implanted soft, cellular-scale electrodes.

  16. The effects of rearing density on growth, size heterogeneity and inter-individual variation of feed intake in monosex male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L.

    PubMed

    Azaza, M S; Assad, A; Maghrbi, W; El-Cafsi, M

    2013-11-01

    The growth dispersion of farmed fish is a subject of increasing interest and one of the most important factors in stocking density. On a duration of 60 days, the effect of stocking density on the growth, coefficient of variation and inter-individual variation of feed intake (CVFI) of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (14.9 ± 1.2 g) were studied in an experimental tank-based flow-through system. Groups of fish were stocked at four stocking densities: 200, 400, 600 and 800 fish/m3, corresponding to a density of ∼3, 6, 9 and 12 kg/m3 and referred to as D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. Each treatment was applied to triplicate groups in a completely randomized design. No treatment-related mortality was observed. The fish densities increased throughout the experiment from 3 to 23.5, 6 to 43.6, 9 to 56.6 and 12 to 69 kg/m3. Results show that mass gain and specific growth rate (SGR, %M/day) were negatively correlated with increased stocking density. Groups of the D1 treatment reached a mean final body mass (FBM) of 119.3 g v. 88.9 g for the D4 groups. Feed conversion ratios (FCRs) were 1.38, 1.54, 1.62 and 1.91 at D1, D2, D3 and D4 treatments, respectively. Growth heterogeneity, expressed by the inter-individual variations of fish mass (CVM), was significantly affected by time (P < 0.001), stocking density (P < 0.001) and their interaction (P < 0.05). The difference in CVM was particularly conspicuous towards the end of the experiment and was positively correlated with stocking density. Similarly, radiographic study shows that CVFI was also found to be significantly greater for groups reared at high stocking densities (D3 and D4) than the other treatments (D1 and D2). These differences in both CVM and CVFI related to the stocking density need to be taken into account by husbandry practices to assure the production of more homogeneous fish size. A simple economic analysis indicates a parabolic relationship between profit and density with optimal final

  17. Estimating the economic benefits of maintaining residential lake levels at an irrigation reservoir: A contingent valuation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John; Smith, Adam; Huszar, Paul

    2005-08-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) was used to estimate homeowners' willingness to pay for water leasing to maintain stable lake levels at an irrigation reservoir in a residential neighborhood. A binary logit model was used to analyze households' voter referendum responses for maintaining the lake level. The median willingness to pay (WTP) was found to be 368 per year for lakefront residents and 59 per year for off-lake residents. The median WTP for lakefront residents was significantly different from off-lake residents at the 90% confidence level. Using the median WTP for lakefront and nonlakefront residents, we found that the increase in homeowner association fees would generate approximately $43,000, enough money to lease sufficient water to reach the target higher lake level in a normal water year.

  18. Evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities - Implementation of the WTP-WTA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopsidas, Odysseas; Batzias, Fragiskos

    2012-12-01

    In this work, a methodological framework under the form of an algorithmic procedure, including 28 activity stages and 6 decision nodes, has been developed for evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities. The main part of this procedure is a modification of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), which is heavily relied on survey-based estimation of WTP-WTA (willingness to pay/accept, respectively). The survey may take place either under a strictly controlled environment or in situ and as-is ('laboratory conditions' or 'field conditions', respectively, in the terminology of experimental economics). Implementation of this methodology is presented, referring to three cases of industrial pollution (in three different sites) caused by (i) a cement producing units, (ii) an oil refinery complex, and (iii) an industrialized small city with an intensively polluted port, where several industrial units co-exist, all of them located in the vicinity of Athens, Greece. The results are interpreted/discussed and conclusions are drawn.

  19. Estimating the economic benefits of maintaining residential lake levels at an irrigation reservoir: A contingent valuation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John; Smith, Adam; Huszar, Paul

    2005-08-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) was used to estimate homeowners' willingness to pay for water leasing to maintain stable lake levels at an irrigation reservoir in a residential neighborhood. A binary logit model was used to analyze households' voter referendum responses for maintaining the lake level. The median willingness to pay (WTP) was found to be $368 per year for lakefront residents and $59 per year for off-lake residents. The median WTP for lakefront residents was significantly different from off-lake residents at the 90% confidence level. Using the median WTP for lakefront and nonlakefront residents, we found that the increase in homeowner association fees would generate approximately $43,000, enough money to lease sufficient water to reach the target higher lake level in a normal water year.

  20. Boundary lubrication of formulated C-ethers in air to 300 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Friction and wear measurements were made in dry and moist air on CVM M-50 steel lubricated with six C-ether formulations containing phosphorus ester and organic acid additives. Results were compared to those obtained with a formulated Type 2 ester and the C-ether base fluid. A ball-on-disk sliding friction apparatus was used. Experimental conditions were a 1-kilogram load, 17 meter-per-minute (100 rpm) surface speed, and a 25 to 300 C disk temperature range. The C-ether base fluid and the C-ether formulations yielded lower wear than the ester under most test conditions. The C-ether formulations exhibited higher friction coefficients than the ester from 150 to 300 C and similar or lower values from 25 to 150 C.

  1. Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricant was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricants tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwear additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt % sulfur and 0.1 wt % phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

  2. Effect of five lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Spur-gear surface fatigue tests were conducted with five lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The lot of gears was divided into five groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants are classified as either a synthetic hydrocarbon, mineral oil, or ester-based lubricant. All five lubricants have imilar viscosity and pressure-viscosity coefficients. A pentaerythritol base stock without sufficient antiwear additives produced a surface fatigue life pproximately 22 percent that of the same base stock with chlorine and phosphorus type additives. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears tested. No statistical difference in the 10-percent surface fatigue life was produced with four of the five lubricants.

  3. Estimating farmers' willingness to pay for climate change adaptation: the case of the Malaysian agricultural sector.

    PubMed

    Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Junsheng, Ha; Akhtar, Rulia; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Kari, Fatimah Binti

    2015-02-01

    This paper estimates Malaysian farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in the Malaysian agricultural sector. We used the contingent valuation method (CVM) for a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues in the Malaysian agricultural sector. Structured questionnaires were distributed among the sampled farmers. The study found that 74 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme and that several socioeconomic and motivation factors have greater influence on their WTP. This paper clearly specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support policy makers to better design an efficient adaptation framework for adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change. PMID:25632900

  4. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations

  5. Steady-state boundary lubrication with formulated C-ethers to 260 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    Steady state wear and friction studies were made at boundary lubrication conditions in a pin on disk (pure iron on rotating CVM M 50 steel) sliding friction apparatus with five C ether formulated fluids (modified polyphenyl ether containing phosphrous ester, organic acid, and other additives). Conditions included 20, 150, and 260 C disk temperatures, dry air test atmosphere, 1 kilogram load, 50 rpm disk speed, and test times to 130 minutes. Results were compared with those obtained with a formulated MIL L 27502 candidate ester and the C ether base fluid. Three of the C ether formulations gave better lubrication than both reference fluids under most conditions. The other two C ether formulations yielded higher wear rates and friction coefficients than the C ether base fluid for most of the temperature range. Only one C ether formulation showed consistently higher steady state wear rates than the ester.

  6. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations

  7. Detection of cancer cells using SapC-DOPS nanovesicles.

    PubMed

    Davis, Harold W; Hussain, Nida; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Unlike normal cells, cancer cells express high levels of phosphatidylserine on the extracellular leaflet of their cell membrane. Exploiting this characteristic, our lab developed a therapeutic agent that consists of the fusogenic protein, saposin C (SapC) which is embedded in dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) vesicles. These nanovesicles selectively target cancer cells and induce apoptosis. Here we review the data supporting use of SapC-DOPS to locate tumors for surgical resection or for treatment. In addition, there is important evidence suggesting that SapC-DOPS may also prove to be an effective novel cancer therapeutic reagent. Given that SapC-DOPS is easily labeled with lipophilic dyes, it has been combined with the far-red fluorescent dye, CellVue Maroon (CVM), for tumor targeting studies. We also have used contrast agents incorporated in the SapC-DOPS nanovesicles for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and review that data here. Administered intravenously, the fluorescently labeled SapC-DOPS traversed the blood-brain tumor barrier enabling identification of brain tumors. SapC-DOPS-CVM also detected a variety of other mouse tumors in vivo, rendering them observable by optical imaging using IVIS and multi-angle rotational optical imaging. Dye is detected within 30 min and remains within tumor for at least 7 days, whereas non-tumor tissues were unstained (some dye observed in the liver was transient, likely representing degradation products). Additionally, labeled SapC-DOPS ex vivo delineated tumors in human histological specimens. SapC-DOPS can also be labeled with contrast reagents for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In conclusion, labeled SapC-DOPS provides a convenient, specific, and nontoxic method for detecting tumors while concurrently offering a therapeutic benefit. PMID:27160923

  8. Changes in serum potassium levels during hospitalization in patients with worsening heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (from the EVEREST trial).

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadiya S; Campia, Umberto; Chioncel, Ovidiu; Zannad, Faiez; Rossignol, Patrick; Maggioni, Aldo P; Swedberg, Karl; Konstam, Marvin A; Senni, Michele; Nodari, Savina; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Subacius, Haris; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-03-15

    Both hyperkalemia and hypokalemia may be related to heart failure (HF) therapy and are associated with adverse outcomes. Abnormalities in serum potassium levels in hospitalized patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (EF) have not been previously investigated. A post hoc analysis was performed in 1,907 hospitalized patients with worsening HF and reduced EF in the placebo arm of the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in HF Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial. Serum potassium was measured at randomization and at discharge or day 7. The co-primary end points were all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular mortality or the first HF hospitalization (CVM + HFH). The association between inhospital change in potassium levels and time to outcomes was evaluated using multivariate Cox regression models. Study participants had a mean age of 65.6 ± 12.0 years and were on optimal guideline-directed medical therapies, including β blockers (77%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (85%), and aldosterone antagonists (55%). Baseline potassium concentration was 4.3 ± 0.6 mEq/l, and hyperkalemia or hypokalemia was seen in 6.5% of the participants. On average, serum potassium level increased by 0.21 ± 0.66 mEq/l, p <0.0001, during hospitalization. Inhospital potassium change was not associated with either the primary or the secondary end point over a median follow-up of 9.9 months. In conclusion, in patients with reduced EF hospitalized for worsening HF, serum potassium abnormalities are common at baseline (within 48 hours of admission) and potassium levels increase during hospitalization, despite aggressive diuretic therapy. However, they are not associated with all-cause or CVM or HFH. Inhospital changes in potassium may limit the implementation of evidence-based therapies such as mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. PMID:25728846

  9. Cerebral vascular malformations: Time-resolved CT angiography compared to DSA

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Cheemun; Chakraborty, Santanu; dos Santos, Marlise P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to prospectively test the hypothesis that time-resolved CT angiography (TRCTA) on a Toshiba 320-slice CT scanner enables the same characterization of cerebral vascular malformation (CVM) including arteriovenous malformation (AVM), dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), pial arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) and developmental venous anomaly (DVA) compared to digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Materials and methods Eighteen (eight males, 10 females) consecutive patients (11 AVM, four DAVF, one PAVF, and two DVA) underwent 19 TRCTA (Aquillion one, Toshiba) for suspected CVM diagnosed on routine CT or MRI. One patient with a dural AVF underwent TRCTA and DSA twice before and after treatment. Of the 18 patients, 13 were followed with DSA (Artis, Siemens) within two months of TRCTA. Twenty-three sequential volume acquisitions of the whole head were acquired after injection of 50 ml contrast at the rate of 4 ml/sec. Two patients with DVA did not undergo DSA. Two TRCTA were not assessed because of technical problems. TRCTAs were independently reviewed by two neuroradiologists and DSA by two other neuroradiologists and graded according to the Spetzler-Martin classification, Borden classification, overall diagnostic quality, and level of confidence. Weighted kappa coefficients (k) were calculated to compare reader’s assessment of DSA vs TRCTA. Results There was excellent (k = 0.83 and 1) to good (k = 0.56, 0.61, 0.65 and 0.67) agreement between the different possible pairs of neuroradiologists for the assessment of vascular malformations. Conclusion TRCTA may be a sufficient noninvasive substitute for conventional DSA in certain clinical situations. PMID:26246101

  10. ShakeOut and its Effects in Los Angeles and Oxnard Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, R.; Ramírez-Guzmán, L.; López, J.; Urbanic, J.; Bielak, J.; O'Hallaron, D.

    2007-12-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of earthquakes have given a deeper understanding of wave propagation and site effects in urban regions. In this work we study the impact of a potential major earthquake on the San Andreas Fault with significant seismic hazard in the Greater Los Angeles Basin. We present results for the ShakeOut simulation---a rupture beginning near Salton Sea, California, heading 270 km northwest along the fault, that produces a Mw 7.8 earthquake in a geographical region which includes all major populated areas of Southern California and northern Mexico, in a 600 km by 300 km by 80 km volume, for a maximum frequency of 1.0 Hz and a minimum shear wave velocity of 200 m/s. For the material model, we use a discretized version of SCEC's CVM4 velocity model, called CVM-Etree. The simulation was performed at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center using Hercules, a finite element octree-based, parallel software developed by the Quake Group at Carnegie Mellon University. Hercules implements a highly efficient end-to-end algorithm for solving the wave field in highly heterogeneous media due to kinematic faulting. We verify our results by comparing synthetic seismograms computed with a parallel finite difference code by Robert Graves (URS) for a similar scenario earthquake, for a maximum frequency of 0.5 Hz and minimum shear wave velocity of 500 m/s. We focus our analysis of the results of the 1.0 Hz ShakeOut simulation on the Los Angeles Basin area, and the Santa Clara River Valley and Oxnard Plain. We examine the site effects present in these two areas and their proneness to capture and amplify seismic waves due to their geological features. Results show a direct correlation between the amplification levels and the local soil and basin profiles.

  11. The Current Landscape of Genetic Testing in Cardiovascular Malformations: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Landis, Benjamin J; Ware, Stephanie M

    2016-01-01

    Human cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) frequently have a genetic contribution. Through the application of novel technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, DNA sequence variants associated with CVMs are being identified at a rapid pace. While clinicians are now able to offer testing with NGS gene panels or whole exome sequencing to any patient with a CVM, the interpretation of genetic variation remains problematic. Variable phenotypic expression, reduced penetrance, inconsistent phenotyping methods, and the lack of high-throughput functional testing of variants contribute to these challenges. This article elaborates critical issues that impact the decision to broadly implement clinical molecular genetic testing in CVMs. Major benefits of testing include establishing a genetic diagnosis, facilitating cost-effective screening of family members who may have subclinical disease, predicting recurrence risk in offsprings, enabling early diagnosis and anticipatory management of CV and non-CV disease phenotypes, predicting long-term outcomes, and facilitating the development of novel therapies aimed at disease improvement or prevention. Limitations include financial cost, psychosocial cost, and ambiguity of interpretation of results. Multiplex families and patients with syndromic features are two groups where disease causation could potentially be firmly established. However, these account for the minority of the overall CVM population, and there is increasing recognition that genotypes previously associated with syndromes also exist in patients who lack non-CV findings. In all circumstances, ongoing dialog between cardiologists and clinical geneticists will be needed to accurately interpret genetic testing and improve these patients' health. This may be most effectively implemented by the creation and support of CV genetics services at centers committed to pursuing testing for patients. PMID:27504451

  12. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in females and males in different cervical vertebral maturation stages

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shreya; Deoskar, Anuradha; Gupta, Puneet; Jain, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in female and male subjects at various cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 60 subjects, 30 females and 30 males, in the age range of 8-23 years. For all subjects, serum IGF-1 level was estimated from blood samples by means of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). CVM was assessed on lateral cephalograms using the method described by Baccetti. Serum IGF-1 level and cervical staging data of 30 female subjects were included and taken from records of a previous study. Data were analyzed by Kruska-Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was carried out and alpha value was set at 0.003. RESULTS: Peak value of serum IGF-1 was observed in cervical stages CS3 in females and CS4 in males. Differences between males and females were observed in mean values of IGF-1 at stages CS3, 4 and 5. The highest mean IGF-1 levels in males was observed in CS4 followed by CS5 and third highest in CS3; whereas in females the highest mean IGF-1 levelswas observed in CS3 followed by CS4 and third highest in CS5. Trends of IGF-1 in relation to the cervical stages also differed between males and females. The greatest mean serum IGF-1 value for both sexes was comparable, for females (397 ng/ml) values were slightly higher than in males (394.8 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Males and females showed differences in IGF-1 trends and levels at different cervical stages. PMID:25992990

  13. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between $42 and $57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay. PMID:26319030

  14. Determination of polarization fields in group III-nitride heterostructures by capacitance-voltage-measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychetsky, Monir; Koslow, Ingrid; Avinc, Baran; Rass, Jens; Wernicke, Tim; Bellmann, Konrad; Sulmoni, Luca; Hoffmann, Veit; Weyers, Markus; Wild, Johannes; Zweck, Josef; Witzigmann, Bernd; Kneissl, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The polarization fields in wurtzite group III-nitrides strongly influence the optical properties of InAlGaN-based light emitters, e.g., the electron and hole wave function overlap in quantum wells. In this paper, we propose a new approach to determine these fields by capacitance-voltage measurements (CVM). Sheet charges generated by a change of the microscopic polarization at heterointerfaces influence the charge distribution in PIN junctions and therefore the depletion width and the capacitance. We show that it is possible to determine the strength and direction of the internal fields by comparing the depletion widths of two PIN junctions, one influenced by internal polarization fields and one without as a reference. For comparison, we conducted coupled Poisson/carrier transport simulations on the CVM of the polarization-influenced sample. We also demonstrate the feasibility and limits of the method by determining the fields in GaN/InGaN and GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures on (0001) c-plane grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and compare both evaluation methods. The method yields (-0.50 ± 0.07) MV/cm for In0.08Ga0.92N/GaN, (0.90 ± 0.13) MV/cm for Al0.18Ga0.82N/GaN, and (2.0 ± 0.3) MV/cm for Al0.31Ga0.69N/GaN heterostructures.

  15. Rare DNA copy number variants in cardiovascular malformations with extracardiac abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Lalani, Seema R; Shaw, Chad; Wang, Xueqing; Patel, Ankita; Patterson, Lance W; Kolodziejska, Katarzyna; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Ou, Zhishuo; Tian, Qi; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Jinnah, Amina; Ali, Sophia; Malik, Aamir; Hixson, Patricia; Potocki, Lorraine; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Dawson, Brian; Beaudet, Arthur L; Boricha, Fatima M; Whittaker, Runako; Li, Chumei; Ware, Stephanie M; Cheung, Sau Wai; Penny, Daniel J; Jefferies, John Lynn; Belmont, John W

    2013-01-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) occur in 5–8 per 1000 live births. Recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) are among the known causes of syndromic CVMs, accounting for an important fraction of cases. We hypothesized that many additional rare CNVs also cause CVMs and can be detected in patients with CVMs plus extracardiac anomalies (ECAs). Through a genome-wide survey of 203 subjects with CVMs and ECAs, we identified 55 CNVs >50 kb in length that were not present in children without known cardiovascular defects (n=872). Sixteen unique CNVs overlapping these variants were found in an independent CVM plus ECA cohort (n=511), which were not observed in 2011 controls. The study identified 12/16 (75%) novel loci including non-recurrent de novo 16q24.3 loss (4/714) and de novo 2q31.3q32.1 loss encompassing PPP1R1C and PDE1A (2/714). The study also narrowed critical intervals in three well-recognized genomic disorders of CVM, such as the cat-eye syndrome region on 22q11.1, 8p23.1 loss encompassing GATA4 and SOX7 and 17p13.3-p13.2 loss. An analysis of protein-interaction databases shows that the rare inherited and de novo CNVs detected in the combined cohort are enriched for genes encoding proteins that are direct or indirect partners of proteins known to be required for normal cardiac development. Our findings implicate rare variants such as 16q24.3 loss and 2q31.3-q32.1 loss, and delineate regions within previously reported structural variants known to cause CVMs. PMID:22929023

  16. Cardiovascular malformations and other cardiovascular abnormalities in neurofibromatosis 1.

    PubMed

    Lin, A E; Birch, P H; Korf, B R; Tenconi, R; Niimura, M; Poyhonen, M; Armfield Uhas, K; Sigorini, M; Virdis, R; Romano, C; Bonioli, E; Wolkenstein, P; Pivnick, E K; Lawrence, M; Friedman, J M

    2000-11-13

    Although it is well recognized that a peripheral vasculopathy may occur in patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), it is unclear whether cardiovascular abnormalities are more common. We reviewed the frequency of cardiovascular abnormalities, in particular, cardiovascular malformations (CVMs), among 2322 patients with definite NF1 in the National Neurofibromatosis Foundation International Database from 1991-98. Cardiovascular malformations were reported in 54/2322 (2.3%) of the NF1 patients, only 4 of whom had Watson syndrome or NF1-Noonan syndrome. There was a predominance of Class II "flow" defects [Clark, 1995: Moss and Adams' Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and Adolescents Including the Fetus and Young Adult. p 60-70] (43/54, 80%) among the NF1 patients with CVMs. Pulmonic stenosis, that was present in 25 NF1 patients, and aortic coarctation, that occurred in 5, constitute much larger proportions of all CVMs than expected. Of interest was the paucity of Class I conotruncal defects (2 patients with tetralogy of Fallot), and the absence of atrioventricular canal, anomalous pulmonary venous return, complex single ventricle and laterality defects. Besides the 54 patients with CVMs, there were 27 patients with other cardiac abnormalities (16 with murmur, 5 with mitral valve prolapse, 1 with intracardiac tumor, and 5 with electrocardiogram abnormalities). No patient in this study had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There were 16 patients who had a peripheral vascular abnormality without an intracardiac CVM, plus an additional 4 patients among those with a CVM who also had a peripheral vascular abnormality. PMID:11078559

  17. Comparison between 3-Nitrooxyphenyl acetylsalicylate (NO-ASA) and O2-(acetylsalicyloxymethyl)-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (NONO-ASA) as Safe Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Antioxidant Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Velazquez, Carlos A.; Pruski, April; Nia, Kamran V.; Abdellatif, Khaled R.; Keefer, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is an underlying etiological factor in carcinogenesis; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and their chemically modified NO-releasing prodrugs (NO-NSAIDs) are promising chemopreventive agents. The aim of this study was to conduct a head-to-head comparison between two NO-ASAs possessing different NO donor groups, an organic nitrate [3-nitrooxyphenyl acetylsalicylate (NO-ASA; NCX-4016)] and an N-diazeniumdiolate [NONO-ASA, O2- (acetylsalicyloxymethyl)-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (NONO-ASA; CVM-01)], as antiulcerogenic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic agents. All drugs were administered orally at equimolar doses. For antiulcerogenic study, 6 h after administration, the number and size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs from euthanized animals were counted. Tissue samples were frozen for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde determination. For anti-inflammatory study, 1 h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 6 h. For antipyretic study, 1 h after dosing, fever was induced by intraperitoneal LPS, and body core temperatures measured for 5 h. For analgesic study, time-dependent analgesic effect of prodrugs was evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Drugs were administered 30 min after carrageenan. NO-ASA and NONO-ASA were equipotent as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents but were better than aspirin. Despite a drastic reduction of PGE2 in stomach tissue, both prodrugs were devoid of gastric side effects. Lipid peroxidation induced by aspirin was higher than that observed by prodrugs. SOD activity induced by both prodrugs was similar, but approximately 2-fold higher than that induced by aspirin. CVM-01 is as effective as NCX-4016 in anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic assays in vivo, and it showed an equivalent safety profile in the stomach. These results underscore the use of N-diazeniumdiolate moieties

  18. The Current Landscape of Genetic Testing in Cardiovascular Malformations: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Benjamin J.; Ware, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Human cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) frequently have a genetic contribution. Through the application of novel technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, DNA sequence variants associated with CVMs are being identified at a rapid pace. While clinicians are now able to offer testing with NGS gene panels or whole exome sequencing to any patient with a CVM, the interpretation of genetic variation remains problematic. Variable phenotypic expression, reduced penetrance, inconsistent phenotyping methods, and the lack of high-throughput functional testing of variants contribute to these challenges. This article elaborates critical issues that impact the decision to broadly implement clinical molecular genetic testing in CVMs. Major benefits of testing include establishing a genetic diagnosis, facilitating cost-effective screening of family members who may have subclinical disease, predicting recurrence risk in offsprings, enabling early diagnosis and anticipatory management of CV and non-CV disease phenotypes, predicting long-term outcomes, and facilitating the development of novel therapies aimed at disease improvement or prevention. Limitations include financial cost, psychosocial cost, and ambiguity of interpretation of results. Multiplex families and patients with syndromic features are two groups where disease causation could potentially be firmly established. However, these account for the minority of the overall CVM population, and there is increasing recognition that genotypes previously associated with syndromes also exist in patients who lack non-CV findings. In all circumstances, ongoing dialog between cardiologists and clinical geneticists will be needed to accurately interpret genetic testing and improve these patients’ health. This may be most effectively implemented by the creation and support of CV genetics services at centers committed to pursuing testing for patients. PMID:27504451

  19. Detection of Haplotypes Associated with Prenatal Death in Dairy Cattle and Identification of Deleterious Mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C.; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10−4) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

  20. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as "active transportation"), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9-23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5-6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5-38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15-59) premature deaths potentially could be avoided if the entire

  1. Chemists report slurry breakthroughs for syngas-to-alcohol process

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-04-24

    Scientists at North Carolina State University (Raleigh) report that they have developed an alcohol synthesis process that uses a high-temperature slurry reactor with a conventional zinc chromite methanol catalyst. The scientists say it is the first time zinc-chromite catalysts have been used in slurry reactors at temperatures as high as 375 C. They add that it could lead to a synthesis gas (syngas)-based route to higher alcohols and to broader commercial applications for slurry reactors. Slurry reactors typically operate at less than 300 C, limiting applications for many high-volume industrial applications. By extending the temperature 100 C, says George Roberts, a chemist at North Carolina State, the work could {open_quotes}open up chemistry never run in slurry reactors before.{close_quotes} Roberts points to potential for use in partial oxidation reactions and synthesis routes involving formaldehyde.

  2. SOLAR POWERING OF HIGH EFFICIENCY ABSORPTION CHILLER

    SciTech Connect

    Randy C. Gee

    2004-11-15

    This is the Final Report for two solar cooling projects under this Cooperative Agreement. The first solar cooling project is a roof-integrated solar cooling and heating system, called the Power Roof{trademark}, which began operation in Raleigh, North Carolina in late July 2002. This system provides 176 kW (50 ton) of solar-driven space cooling using a unique nonimaging concentrating solar collector. The measured performance of the system during its first months of operation is reported here, along with a description of the design and operation of this system. The second solar cooling system, with a 20-ton capacity, is being retrofit to a commercial office building in Charleston, South Carolina but has not yet been completed.

  3. Transient natural convection inside rigid drops in a liquid-liquid direct-contact heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Natural convection was simulated inside spherical container and drops. The transient Navier-Stokes and energy equations were solved by employing finite-difference techniques. Pseudosteady-state natural convection inside spheres was simulated. Pseudosteady state was maintained by keeping the driving force for natural convection constant. To obtain pseudosteady state conditions, the temperature at the inside surface of the sphere was steadily increased so that the temperature difference between the surface and the center remained constant. The results were compared to experimental data found in the literature. It was found that the Nusselt number (Pr > 0.7) for pseudosteady state correlated to the Raleigh number by the following relation: Nu = 1.19Ra{sup .2215}, 10{sup 5} < Ra < 10{sup 8}. The simulation results were compared to experimental data of two other researchers who measured drop-temperature profiles in direct-contact heat-exchange columns. The simulation results demonstrate good correlation to the experimental data.

  4. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. )

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  5. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L.

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  6. Super-resolving quantum radar: Coherent-state sources with homodyne detection suffice to beat the diffraction limit

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Kebei; Lee, Hwang; Gerry, Christopher C.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2013-11-21

    There has been much recent interest in quantum metrology for applications to sub-Raleigh ranging and remote sensing such as in quantum radar. For quantum radar, atmospheric absorption and diffraction rapidly degrades any actively transmitted quantum states of light, such as N00N states, so that for this high-loss regime the optimal strategy is to transmit coherent states of light, which suffer no worse loss than the linear Beer's law for classical radar attenuation, and which provide sensitivity at the shot-noise limit in the returned power. We show that coherent radar radiation sources, coupled with a quantum homodyne detection scheme, provide both longitudinal and angular super-resolution much below the Rayleigh diffraction limit, with sensitivity at shot-noise in terms of the detected photon power. Our approach provides a template for the development of a complete super-resolving quantum radar system with currently available technology.

  7. Flow reference method testing and analysis: Wind tunnel experimental results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the results of wind tunnel tests that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted in 1997 as part of a major study to evaluate potential improvements to Method 2, EPA`s test method for measuring flue gas volumetric flow in stacks. Conducted in the Merrill Subsonic Wind Tunnel at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, the wind tunnel tests were designed to evaluate how accurately various probes can measure angles and velocity of flow under prescribed conditions and, additionally, to calibrate the probes for use in planned field experiments. To provide a basis for selecting probes for subsequent field tests, the wind tunnel testing was performed over a range of velocity, pitch, and yaw angle settings approximating the conditions encountered at actual utility sites.

  8. The consumer cost of calcium from food and supplements.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer L; Lanou, Amy; Barnard, Neal D

    2002-11-01

    Nutritional authorities encourage consumers to include calcium-rich foods in their daily diets. However, consumer purchases are driven not only by health considerations and dietary preferences, but also by cost. This study assessed the cost of calcium from a wide variety of food sources, as well as supplements, based on retail prices in Seattle, San Francisco, Raleigh, NewYork City, and Washington, D.C., while controlling for seasonal variation. Costs were adjusted based on calcium absorption fractions. Calcium carbonate supplements emerged as the least expensive source of calcium, at roughly one-third the cost of the least expensive food source of calcium. The least expensive food sources of calcium were Total cereal, skim milk, and calcium-fortified orange juice from frozen concentrate. This information is useful for dietitians, health professionals, and consumers in meeting calcium requirements on a budget. PMID:12449293

  9. Basic principles and mechanisms of selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Drzymala, J.; Allen, R.W.; Hu, Y.-C.; Tyson, D.; Xiaoping, Qiu; Lessa, A.

    1990-01-01

    Numerous measurements of the heat of immersion of coal were conducting using several different particle size fractions of No. 2 Gas Seam coal from Raleigh County, West Virginia. The heat of immersion was determined in water, methanol, heptane, hexadecane and neohexane (2,2-dimethybutane). A comparison of the results with those determined previously for Illinois No. 6 coal is discussed. A number of potential pyrite depressants for use in oil agglomeration of coal were screened by testing the response of sulfidized mineral pyrite to agglomeration with heptane in the presence of the potential depressant. The following were tested; sodium dithionite, sodium thiosulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, titanous chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Oxone (a form of potassium monopersulfate), pyrogallol, quebracho (colloidal dispersant derived from tree bark), milk whey, and several organic thiols. Ferric chloride was applied to mixtures of Upper Freeport coal and sulfidized mineral pyrite before subjecting the mixtures to agglomeration with heptane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. On the Breakup of Patterened Nanoscale Copper Rings into Nanoparticles: Competing Instability and Transport Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Wu, Yeuyeng; Rack, P. D.; Diez, Javier A; Kondic, Lou

    2010-01-01

    Nanolithographically patterned copper rings were synthesized, and the self-assembly of the rings into ordered nanoparticle/nanodrop arrays was accomplished via nanosecond pulsed laser heating above the melt threshold. The resultant length scale was correlated to the transport and instability growths that occur during the liquid lifetime of the melted copper rings. For 13-nm-thick rings, a change in the nanoparticle spacing with the ring width is attributed to a transition from a Raleigh-Plateau instability to a thin film instability because of competition between the cumulative transport and instability timescales. To explore the competition between instability mechanisms further, we carried out experiments with 7-nm-thick rings. In agreement with the theoretical predictions, these rings break up in both the azimuthal and radial directions, confirming that a simple hydrodynamic model captures the main features of the processes leading to the breakup.

  11. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Council, Sarah E.; Horvath, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects. PMID:27047587

  12. MAIZE: a 1 MA LTD-Driven Z-Pinch at The University of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Gomez, M. R.; Zier, J. C.; Tang, W. W.; French, D. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Cuneo, M. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Kim, A. A.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.

    2009-01-21

    Researchers at The University of Michigan have constructed and tested a 1-MA Linear Transformer Driver (LTD), the first of its type to reach the USA. The Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, (MAIZE), is based on the LTD developed at the Institute of High Current Electronics in collaboration with Sandia National Labs and UM. This LTD utilizes 80 capacitors and 40 spark gap switches, arranged in 40 'bricks,' to deliver a 1 MA, 100 kV pulse with 100 ns risetime into a matched resistive load. Preliminary resistive-load test results are presented for the LTD facility.Planned experimental research programs at UM include: a) Studies of Magneto-Raleigh-Taylor instability of planar foils, and b) Vacuum convolute studies including cathode and anode plasma.

  13. Low-cost microprocessor-based photon correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, N. S.; Choudhary, D. M.

    1983-04-01

    A simple cost-effective microprocessor-based correlator is described which can be used for Gaussian as well as non-Gaussian light sources. Error calculations are presented to show that there is no significant improvement in accuracy by adopting 4-bit word length in preference to 3-bit word length. The instrument can also be used in Raman and Raleigh scattering experiments. A few experimental results are presented bringing out the importance of correlation averaging in S/N enhancement. Some autocorrelograms for fluctuations in the scattered light from polystyrene spheres suspended in water are also presented. The instrument can sample 1500 points and calculate 85 correlations in each scan. All the parameters such as number of samples, number of correlations, number of scans, and the sampling time are user programmable.

  14. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom.

    PubMed

    Council, Sarah E; Horvath, Julie E

    2016-03-01

    The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects. PMID:27047587

  15. Assays for the classification of two types of esterases: carboxylic ester hydrolases and phosphoric triester hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Anspaugh, Douglas D; Roe, R Michael

    2002-11-01

    Assays for the Classification of Two Types of Esterases: Carboxylic Ester Hydrolase and Phosphoric Triester Hydrolase (Douglas D. Anspaugh and Michael Roe, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina). This unit describes assays that quantitate two types of esterase the carboxylic ester hydrolases and the phosphoric triester hydrolases. Carboxylic ester hydrolases include the B-esterases, which are inhibited by organophosphorus compounds. Among the phosphoric triester hydrolases is aryldialkylphosphatase, which has been called A-esterase or paraoxonase due to its ability to oxidize paraoxon and other organophosphates. These assays are colorimetric and miniaturized for rapid simultaneous testing of multiple, small-volume samples in a microtiter plate format. There is also a discussion of the history of esterase nomenclature and the reasons why this large group of enzymes is so difficult to classify. PMID:20945297

  16. Geotechnical practice in dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings, Geotechnical Practice in Dam Rehabilitation, consists of papers presented at the Specialty Conference sponsored by the Geotechnical Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 25-28, 1993. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of the rehabilitation of dams, including case histories and current geotechnical practice. The topics covered by this proceeding include: (1) inspection and monitoring of dams; (2) investigation and evaluation of dams and foundations; (3) risk and reliability assessment; (4) increasing reservoir capacity, spillway modifications and overtopping; (5) seepage control; (6) improving stability of dams, foundations and reservoir slopes; (7) rehabilitation for seismic stability; and (8) geosynthetics and ground improvement techniques.

  17. Atlas of TOMS ozone data collected during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE), 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, David E.; Uccellini, Louis W.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1986-01-01

    Data from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instrument aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite were collected daily in real time during the GALE (Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment) from January 15 through March 15, l986. The TOMS ozone data values were processed into GEMPAK format and transferred from the Goddard Space Flight Center to GALE operations in Raleigh-Durham, NC, in as little as three hours for use, in part, to direct aircraft research flights recording in situ measurements of ozone and water vapor in areas of interest. Once in GEMPAK format, the ozone values were processed into gridded form using the Barnes objective analysis scheme and contour plots of the ozone created. This atlas provides objectively analyzed contour plots of the ozone for each of the sixty days of GALE as well as four-panel presentations of the ozone analysis combined on the basis of GALE Intensive Observing Periods (IOP's).

  18. Compressive and shear buckling analysis of metal matrix composite sandwich panels under different thermal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1993-01-01

    Combined inplane compressive and shear buckling analysis was conducted on flat rectangular sandwich panels using the Raleigh-Ritz minimum energy method with a consideration of transverse shear effect of the sandwich core. The sandwich panels were fabricated with titanium honeycomb core and laminated metal matrix composite face sheets. The results show that slightly slender (along unidirectional compressive loading axis) rectangular sandwich panels have the most desirable stiffness-to-weight ratios for aerospace structural applications; the degradation of buckling strength of sandwich panels with rising temperature is faster in shear than in compression; and the fiber orientation of the face sheets for optimum combined-load buckling strength of sandwich panels is a strong function of both loading condition and panel aspect ratio. Under the same specific weight and panel aspect ratio, a sandwich panel with metal matrix composite face sheets has much higher buckling strength than one having monolithic face sheets.

  19. High-temperature, high-pressure optical port for rocket engine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcher, Ray; Nemeth, Ed; Powers, W. T.

    1993-06-01

    This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and test of a window assembly for instrumentation of liquid-fueled rocket engine hot gas systems. The window was designed to allow optical measurements of hot gas in the SSME fuel preburner and appears to be the first window designed for application in a rocket engine hot gas system. Such a window could allow the use of a number of remote optical measurement technologies including: Raman temperature and species concentration measurement, Raleigh temperature measurements, flame emission monitoring, flow mapping, laser-induced florescence, and hardware imaging during engine operation. The window assembly has been successfully tested to 8,000 psi at 1000 F and over 11,000 psi at room temperature. A computer stress analysis shows the window will withstand high temperature and cryogenic thermal shock.

  20. Analysis of experimental shaft seal data for high-performance turbomachines, as for Space Shuttle main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braun, M. J.; Mullen, R. L.; Burcham, R. E.; Diamond, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    High-pressure, high-temperature seal flow (leakage) data for nonrotating and rotating Raleigh-step and convergent-tapered-bore seals were characterized in terms of a normalized flow coefficient. The data for normalized Rayleigh-steip and nonrotating tapered-bore seals were in reasonable agreement with theory, but data for the rotating tapered-bore seals were not. The tapered-bore-seal operational clearances estimated from the flow data were significantly larger than calculated. Although clearances are influenced by wear from conical to cylindrical geometry and errors in clearance corrections, the problem was isolated to the shaft temperature - rotational speed clearance correction. The geometric changes support the use of some conical convergence in any seal. Under these conditions rotation reduced the normalized flow coefficiently by nearly 10 percent.

  1. Analysis of experimental shaft seal data for high-performance turbomachines - As for Space Shuttle main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.; Braun, M. J.; Burcham, R. E.; Diamond, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    High-pressure, high-temperature seal flow (leakage) data for nonrotating and rotating Raleigh-step and convergent-tapered-bore seals were characterized in terms of a normalized flow coefficient. The data for normalized Rayleigh-step and nonrotating tapered-bore seals were in reasonable agreement with theory, but data for the rotating tapered-bore seals were not. The tapered-bore-seal operational clearances estimated from the flow data were significantly larger than calculated. Although clearances are influenced by wear from conical to cylindrical geometry and errors in clearance corrections, the problem was isolated to the shaft temperature - rotational speed clearance correction. The geometric changes support the use of some conical convergence in any seal. Under these conditions rotation reduced the normalized flow coefficiently by nearly 10 percent.

  2. Selected Physical, Chemical, and Biological Data for 30 Urbanizing Streams in the North Carolina Piedmont Ecoregion, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giddings, E.M.; Moorman, Michelle; Cuffney, Thomas F.; McMahon, Gerard; Harned, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides summarized physical, chemical, and biological data collected during a study of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment study. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of streams across a gradient of urban intensity. Thirty sites were selected along an urbanization gradient that represents conditions in the North Carolina Piedmont ecoregion, including the cities of Raleigh, Durham, Cary, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, High Point, Asheboro, and Oxford. Data collected included streamflow variability, stream temperature, instream chemistry, instream aquatic habitat, and collections of the algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. In addition, ancillary data describing land use, socioeconomic conditions, and urban infrastructure were compiled for each basin using a geographic information system analysis. All data were processed and summarized for analytical use and are presented in downloadable data tables, along with the methods of data collection and processing.

  3. Temperature and water quality effects in simulated woodland pools on the infection of Culex mosquito larvae by Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, D.R.; Axtell, R.C.

    1987-06-01

    Asexual stages of the California (CA) isolate of Lagenidium giganteum cultured on sunflower seed extract (SFE)-agar, were applied to outdoor pools containing Culex larvae near Raleigh, NC in August and September 1984. Infection rates among the larvae ranged from 19 to 74% at 2-4 days posttreatment and subsequent epizootics eliminated most of the newly hatched larvae for at least 10 days posttreatment. Substantial reductions in numbers of larvae and adult emergence were achieved from a single application of the fungus. Water quality and temperature data are presented. From laboratory assays of organically polluted water, the percent infection of Culex quinquefasciatus by the fungus was correlated with water quality and temperature. A logistic model of water quality (COD and NH/sub 3/-N) effects on infectivity rates by the CA isolate is described.

  4. Response of Stream Chemistry During Base Flow to Gradients of Urbanization in Selected Locations Across the Conterminous United States, 2002-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Harned, Douglas A.; Hall, David W.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    During 2002-2004, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program conducted a study to determine the effects of urbanization on stream water quality and aquatic communities in six environmentally heterogeneous areas of the conterminous United States--Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; and Portland, Oregon. This report compares and contrasts the response of stream chemistry during base flow to urbanization in different environmental settings and examines the relation between the exceedance of water-quality benchmarks and the level of urbanization in these areas. Chemical characteristics studied included concentrations of nutrients, dissolved pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, and chloride in base flow. In three study areas where the background land cover in minimally urbanized basins was predominantly forested (Atlanta, Raleigh-Durham, and Portland), urban development was associated with increased concentrations of nitrogen and total herbicides in streams. In Portland, there was evidence of mixed agricultural and urban influences at sites with 20 to 50 percent urban land cover. In two study areas where agriculture was the predominant background land cover (Milwaukee-Green Bay and Dallas-Fort Worth), concentrations of nitrogen and herbicides were flat or decreasing as urbanization increased. In Denver, which had predominantly shrub/grass as background land cover, nitrogen concentrations were only weakly related to urbanization, and total herbicide concentrations did not show any clear pattern relative to land cover - perhaps because of extensive water management in the study area. In contrast, total insecticide concentrations increased with increasing urbanization in all six study areas, likely due to high use of insecticides in urban applications and, for some study areas, the proximity of urban land cover to the sampling sites. Phosphorus

  5. Relation of urbanization to stream fish assemblages and species traits in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; Gregory, M. Brian; May, Jason T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of fish assemblages and fish traits with urbanization and selected environmental variables in nine major United States metropolitan areas. The strongest relations between fishes and urbanization occurred in the metropolitan areas of Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; and Portland, Oregon. In these areas, environmental variables with strong associations (rs ≥ 0.70) with fish assemblages and fish traits tended to have strong associations with urbanization. Relations of urbanization with fish assemblages and fish traits were weaker in Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Raleigh, North Carolina. Environmental variables associated with fishes varied among the metropolitan areas. The metropolitan areas with poor relations may have had a limited range of possible response because of previous landscape disturbances. Given the complexities of urban landscapes in different metropolitan areas, our results indicate that caution is warranted when generalizing about biological responses to urbanization.

  6. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mazor, E.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He, /sup 40/Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic helium and argon-40 formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 to 3%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 to 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 to 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as Cl or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range.

  7. Numerical Simulation of a Tornado Generating Supercell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of tornadoes from a tornado generating supercell is investigated with a large eddy simulation weather model. Numerical simulations are initialized with a sounding representing the environment of a tornado producing supercell that affected North Carolina and Virginia during the Spring of 2011. The structure of the simulated storm was very similar to that of a classic supercell, and compared favorably to the storm that affected the vicinity of Raleigh, North Carolina. The presence of mid-level moisture was found to be important in determining whether a supercell would generate tornadoes. The simulations generated multiple tornadoes, including cyclonic-anticyclonic pairs. The structure and the evolution of these tornadoes are examined during their lifecycle.

  8. Accelerating the culture change!

    PubMed

    Klunk, S W; Panetta, J; Wooten, J

    1996-11-01

    Exide Electronics, a major supplier of uninterruptible power system equipment, embarked on a journey of changing a culture to improve quality, enhance customer responsiveness, and reduce costs. This case study examines the evolution of change over a period of seven years, with particular emphasis on the most recent years, 1992 through 1995. The article focuses on the Raleigh plant operations and describes how each succeeding year built on the successes and fixed the shortcomings of the prior years to accelerate the culture change, including corrective action and continuous improvement processes, organizational structures, expectations, goals, achievements, and pitfalls. The real challenge to changing the culture was structuring a dynamic approach to accelerate change! The presentation also examines how the evolutionary process itself can be created and accelerated through ongoing communication, regular feedback of progress and goals, constant evaluation and direction of the process, and measuring and paying for performance. PMID:10162360

  9. Short term visits for collaborative research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horie, Yasuyuki

    1994-12-01

    Two Russian scientists were invited to spend six months at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, to develop and promote individual research interactions that are of mutual benefits in the field of shock compression chemistry. The principal results of their visits are: (1) up-to-date reviews and evaluations not only of their own research activities, but also of Russian publications since 1986; (2) a comparative study of U.S. and Russian approaches to the modeling of heterogeneous continual; and (3) the development of a new computational technique to analyze and interpret the mesoscale response of heterogeneous media to shock loading. A further extension of the third project will be continued at one of the home institutions in Russia under the auspices of the program titled 'Industrial Partnering with the New Independent States of the Former Soviet Union.'

  10. Long codas of coupled wave systems in seismic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Thomas H.

    2002-11-01

    Quite some time ago it was pointed out that the damage patterns and Fourier spectra of the 1985 earthquake in Mexico City are only compatible with a resonant effect of horizontal waves with the approximate speed of sound waves in water [see Flores et al., Nature 326, 783 (1987)]. In a more recent paper it was pointed out that this indeed will occur with a very specific frequency selection for a coupled system of Raleigh waves at the interface of the bottom of the ancient lakebed with the more solid deposits, and an evanescent sound wave in the mud above [see J. Flores et al., Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 89, 14-21 (1999)]. In the present talk we shall go over these arguments again and show that strong reflection at the edges of the lake must occur to account for the strong magnification entailing necessarily a long coda, and that the mecanism can be understood in the same terms.

  11. Unraveling the loblolly's secrets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-06

    Breeding better trees has not been the sort of project guaranteed to win a scientist fast tenure. They take years to mature and decades may pass before the progeny of a cross can be evaluated. But Ron Sederoff and David O'Malley of North Carolina State University at Raleigh have now created a shortcut with a genetic map of the loblolly pine, a major source of wood pulp and paper products as well as timber that normally takes 12-15 years to mature. Using polymerase chain reaction techniques to amplify and analyze pine DNA, the researchers plotted about 200 markers on the tree's twelve pairs of chromosomes - in effect, the most extensive map ever made of a woody plant. Within a couple of years associations will emerge between the genetic markers and specific traits. By screening the DNA of seedlings, scientists will be able to known which trees they want to produce.

  12. Intellectual parachute and balloon systems based on fiber optic technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, Alexander M.; Nikolaev, Pavel M.; Nikolaev, Yuri M.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Zastela, Mikhail Yu.; Morozov, Gennady A.

    2014-04-01

    For any parachute system, it is important to predict the opening forces it will experience in order to make a safe and economic choice of materials to be used. Developed fiber optic sensors on two twisted fibers with the locked ends and variable twisting step have been used for creation of intellectual knots of perspective vehicles, in particular, parachute canopies and slings. We decided to change our measuring procedure from measuring of transmitted power or its Raleigh scattering in different ends of twisted fibers onto Brillouin scattering characterization. For this situation we offered the kind of method of frequency variation to get the information about the frequency shift and Q-factor of the Brillouin scattering in each sensor.

  13. Flood of December 25, 1987, in Millington, Tennessee and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, James G.; Gamble, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    Intense rainfall totaling 9.2 in. in a 12-hour period on December 24-25, 1987, and 14.8 in for the period December 24-27 caused record floods in Millington, Tennessee and vicinity. The peak discharge of Big Creek at Raleigh-Millington Road was almost twice the discharge of the 100-year flood discharge and that of Loosahatchie River near Arlington was about equal to the 50-year flood discharge. The inundated area and flood elevations are depicted on a map of Millington, Tennessee and vicinity. Water surface profiles for the peak of December 25, 1987, for Loosahatchie River, Big Creek, Royster Creek, North Fork Creek, Casper Creek, and an unnamed tributary to Big Creek are shown. Flood damages and cleanup costs for this record flood have been estimated at about $9.2 million. (USGS)

  14. Modeling of Compressible Flow with Friction and Heat Transfer Using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the verification and validation of a quasi one-dimensional pressure based finite volume algorithm, implemented in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), for predicting compressible flow with friction, heat transfer and area change. The numerical predictions were compared with two classical solutions of compressible flow, i.e. Fanno and Rayleigh flow. Fanno flow provides an analytical solution of compressible flow in a long slender pipe where incoming subsonic flow can be choked due to friction. On the other hand, Raleigh flow provides analytical solution of frictionless compressible flow with heat transfer where incoming subsonic flow can be choked at the outlet boundary with heat addition to the control volume. Nonuniform grid distribution improves the accuracy of numerical prediction. A benchmark numerical solution of compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle with friction and heat transfer has been developed to verify GFSSP's numerical predictions. The numerical predictions compare favorably in all cases.

  15. Mapping Urban Ecosystem Services Using High Resolution Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil

  16. Nutrient sources to urban streams in three metropolitan areas of the United States using dual nitrate isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, E. M.; Kendall, C.; Tate, C.; Sprague, L.; Giddings, E.; Gregory, M. B.; Falcone, J.

    2008-12-01

    Urbanization can have considerable impacts on streamwater quality, discharge, and biota. In particular, high population densities and impervious surface cover make urban streams susceptible to excess nutrients, particularly nitrate, derived from human waste inputs and also from surface runoff of atmospherically- deposited nitrogen. Here we use dual nitrate isotopes to examine nutrient sources to a 88 streams in 3 metropolitan areas of the U.S.: Atlanta (Georgia), Denver (Colorado), and Raleigh-Durham (North Carolina). For each metropolitan area, streams were selected in basins spanning a gradient of urban intensity and to minimize natural variability. This study was part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program's assessment of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems across urban areas of the U.S. Periodic samples were collected from 30 basins in the Raleigh-Durham and Atlanta areas and 28 basins in the Denver area between October 2002 and September 2003. In 260 analyses, δ15N and δ18O values varied widely. In this presentation, we examine potential causes for the large range in observed isotope values and discuss how these values may vary with indicators of urbanization including road and population density, urban intensity, and land cover. For example, preliminary analyses indicate that δ18O values are generally higher in basins with high road density, suggesting that urban drainage, transportation infrastructure, and impervious surface cover may expedite the delivery of atmospherically- deposited nitrogen to surface waters. These results are expected to further our understanding of nitrate dynamics in urban systems and provide essential information for the successful management of urban water quality.

  17. Effects of antecedent land cover on physical, chemical, and biological responses to urbanization in streams across the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffney, T. F.; Qian, S.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of streams were assessed across gradients of urbanization in 9 metropolitan areas of the conterminous US (Boston, MA; Raleigh; NC, Birmingham, AL; Atlanta, GA; Milwaukee-Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas-Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program. Gradients of urbanization were established on the basis of a multimetric index of urban intensity that combined land cover, population, and road density. Simple regression models established that the condition of biological communities (e.g., invertebrate responses) showed statistically significant degradation as urbanization increased in six (Boston, Raleigh, Birmingham, Atlanta, Salt Lake, and Portland) of the nine metropolitan areas. Multiple regression models incorporating basin-scale land cover (e.g., forest, agricultural land) and environmental variables (e.g., water temperature, chemistry, hydrology) did not substantially improve the explanatory power of the regressions and could not explain differences in responses among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical models incorporating basin- and regional-scale predictors demonstrated that regional-scale climate (air temperature and precipitation) and antecedent land cover (i.e., land cover being converted to urban) predicted invertebrate responses to urbanization. The lack of identifiable urban responses for Milwaukee-Green Bay, Denver, and Dallas-Fort Worth were associated with high levels of antecedent agriculture (row crops and grazing) that degraded the biological communities and obscured the effects of urbanization. Urbanization was associated with increases in conductivity, nutrients, pesticides, and hydrologic variability. Levels of these variables at background sites were higher in regions with high antecedent agriculture; consequently, the effects of urbanization appeared to be

  18. The effects of urban warming on herbivore abundance and street tree condition.

    PubMed

    Dale, Adam G; Frank, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Trees are essential to urban habitats because they provide services that benefit the environment and improve human health. Unfortunately, urban trees often have more herbivorous insect pests than rural trees but the mechanisms and consequences of these infestations are not well documented. Here, we examine how temperature affects the abundance of a scale insect, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on one of the most commonly planted street trees in the eastern U.S. Next, we examine how both pest abundance and temperature are associated with water stress, growth, and condition of 26 urban street trees. Although trees in the warmest urban sites grew the most, they were more water stressed and in worse condition than trees in cooler sites. Our analyses indicate that visible declines in tree condition were best explained by scale-insect infestation rather than temperature. To test the broader relevance of these results, we extend our analysis to a database of more than 2700 Raleigh, US street trees. Plotting these trees on a Landsat thermal image of Raleigh, we found that warmer sites had over 70% more trees in poor condition than those in cooler sites. Our results support previous studies linking warmer urban habitats to greater pest abundance and extend this association to show its effect on street tree condition. Our results suggest that street tree condition and ecosystem services may decline as urban expansion and global warming exacerbate the urban heat island effect. Although our non-probability sampling method limits our scope of inference, our results present a gloomy outlook for urban forests and emphasize the need for management tools. Existing urban tree inventories and thermal maps could be used to identify species that would be most suitable for urban conditions. PMID:25054326

  19. The Effects of Urban Warming on Herbivore Abundance and Street Tree Condition

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Adam G.; Frank, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Trees are essential to urban habitats because they provide services that benefit the environment and improve human health. Unfortunately, urban trees often have more herbivorous insect pests than rural trees but the mechanisms and consequences of these infestations are not well documented. Here, we examine how temperature affects the abundance of a scale insect, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on one of the most commonly planted street trees in the eastern U.S. Next, we examine how both pest abundance and temperature are associated with water stress, growth, and condition of 26 urban street trees. Although trees in the warmest urban sites grew the most, they were more water stressed and in worse condition than trees in cooler sites. Our analyses indicate that visible declines in tree condition were best explained by scale-insect infestation rather than temperature. To test the broader relevance of these results, we extend our analysis to a database of more than 2700 Raleigh, US street trees. Plotting these trees on a Landsat thermal image of Raleigh, we found that warmer sites had over 70% more trees in poor condition than those in cooler sites. Our results support previous studies linking warmer urban habitats to greater pest abundance and extend this association to show its effect on street tree condition. Our results suggest that street tree condition and ecosystem services may decline as urban expansion and global warming exacerbate the urban heat island effect. Although our non-probability sampling method limits our scope of inference, our results present a gloomy outlook for urban forests and emphasize the need for management tools. Existing urban tree inventories and thermal maps could be used to identify species that would be most suitable for urban conditions. PMID:25054326

  20. Modeling anomalous surface - wave propagation across the Southern Caspian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Priestly, K.F.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.A.

    1998-01-09

    The crust of the south Caspian basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediment overlying high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho depth beneath the basin is about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. Preliminary modeling of the phase velocity curves shows that this thick sediments of the south Caspian basin are also under-lain by a 30-35 km thick crystalline crust and not by typical oceanic crust. This analysis also suggest that if the effect of the over-pressuring of the sediments is to reduce Poissons` ratio, the over-pressured sediments observed to approximately 5 km do not persist to great depths. It has been shown since 1960`s that the south Caspian basin blocks the regional phase Lg. Intermediate frequency (0.02-0.04 Hz) fundamental mode Raleigh waves propagating across the basin are also severely attenuated, but the low frequency surface waves are largely unaffected. This attenuation is observed along the both east-to-west and west-to-east great circle paths across the basin, and therefore it cannot be related to a seismograph site effect. We have modeled the response of surface waves in an idealized rendition of the south Caspian basin model using a hybrid normal mode / 2-D finite difference approach. To gain insight into the features of the basin which cause the anomalous surface wave propagation, we have varied parameters of the basin model and computed synthetic record sections to compare with the observed seismograms. We varied the amount of mantel up-warp, the shape of the boundaries, the thickness and shear wave Q of the sediments and mantle, and the depth of the water layer. Of these parameters, the intermediate frequency surface waves are most severely affected by the sediments thickness and shear wave attenuation. fundamental mode Raleigh wave phase velocities measure for paths crossing the basin are extremely low.

  1. Comparison of daily and weekly precipitation sampling efficiencies using automatic collectors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Linthurst, R.A.; Ellson, J.E.; Vozzo, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation samples were collected for approximately 90 daily and 50 weekly sampling periods at Finley Farm, near Raleigh, North Carolina from August 1981 through October 1982. Ten wet-deposition samplers (AEROCHEM METRICS MODEL 301) were used; 4 samplers were operated for daily sampling, and 6 samplers were operated for weekly-sampling periods. This design was used to determine if: (1) collection efficiences of precipitation are affected by small distances between the Universal (Belfort) precipitation gage and collector; (2) measurable evaporation loss occurs and (3) pH and specific conductance of precipitation vary significantly within small distances. Average collection efficiencies were 97% for weekly sampling periods compared with the rain gage. Collection efficiencies were examined by seasons and precipitation volume. Neither factor significantly affected collection efficiency. No evaporation loss was found by comparing daily sampling to weekly sampling at the collection site, which was classified as a subtropical climate. Correlation coefficients for pH and specific conductance of daily samples and weekly samples ranged from 0.83 to 0.99.Precipitation samples were collected for approximately 90 daily and 50 weekly sampling periods at Finley farm, near Raleigh, North Carolina from August 1981 through October 1982. Ten wet-deposition samplers were used; 4 samplers were operated for daily sampling, and 6 samplers were operated for weekly-sampling periods. This design was used to determine if: (1) collection efficiencies of precipitation are affected by small distances between the University (Belfort) precipitation gage and collector; (2) measurable evaporation loss occurs and (3) pH and specific conductance of precipitation vary significantly within small distances.

  2. Hyaluron Filler Containing Lidocaine on a CPM Basis for Lip Augmentation: Reports from Practical Experience.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tanja C; Sattler, Gerhard; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-06-01

    Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers is established. As monophasic polydensified hyaluronic acid products with variable density, CPM-HAL1 (Belotero Balance Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) and CPM-HAL2 (Belotero Intense Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) are qualified for beautification and particularly natural-looking rejuvenation, respectively. The aim of this article was to assess the handling and outcome of lip augmentation using the lidocaine-containing hyaluronic acid fillers, CPM-HAL1 and CPM-HAL2. Data were documented from patients who received lip augmentation by means of beautification and/or rejuvenation using CPM-HAL1 and/or CPM-HAL2. Observation period was 4 months, with assessment of natural outcome, evenness, distribution, fluidity, handling, malleability, tolerability, as well as patient satisfaction and pain. A total of 146 patients from 21 German centers participated. Physicians rated natural outcome and evenness as good or very good for more than 95% of patients. Distribution, fluidity, handling, and malleability were assessed for both fillers as good or very good in more than 91% of patients. At every evaluation point, more than 93% of patients were very or very much satisfied with the product. A total of 125 patients (85.6%) experienced transient injection-related side effects. Pain intensity during the procedure was mild (2.72 ± 1.72 on the 0-10 pain assessment scale) and abated markedly within 30 minutes (0.42 ± 0.57). Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers produced a long-term cosmetic result. Due to the lidocaine content, procedural pain was low and transient. Accordingly, a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved that was maintained throughout the observation period. PMID:27248026

  3. Whole genome sequencing of two North American Drosophila melanogaster populations reveals genetic differentiation and positive selection

    PubMed Central

    Campo, D; Lehmann, K; Fjeldsted, C; Souaiaia, T; Kao, J; Nuzhdin, SV

    2013-01-01

    The prevailing demographic model for Drosophila melanogaster suggests that the colonization of North America occurred very recently from a subset of European flies that rapidly expanded across the continent. This model implies a sudden population growth and range expansion consistent with very low or no population subdivision. As flies adapt to new environments, local adaptation events may be expected. In order to describe demographic and selective events during North American colonization, we have generated a dataset of 35 individual whole genome sequences from inbred lines of D. melanogaster from a west coast US population (Winters, California, USA) and compared them with a public genome dataset from Raleigh (Raleigh, North Carolina, USA). We analyzed nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and describe levels of variation and divergence within and between these two North American D. melanogaster populations. Both populations exhibit negative values of Tajima’s D across the genome, a common signature of demographic expansion. We also detected a low but significant level of genome-wide differentiation between the two populations, as well as multiple allele surfing events, which can be the result of gene drift in local subpopulations on the edge of an expansion wave. In contrast to this genome-wide pattern, we uncovered a 50 kilobases segment in chromosome arm 3L that showed all the hallmarks of a soft selective sweep in both populations. A comparison of allele frequencies within this divergent region among six populations from three continents allowed us to cluster these populations in two differentiated groups, providing evidence for the action of natural selection on a global scale. PMID:24102956

  4. Behavioural response to combined insecticide and temperature stress in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Level, A; Neumann-Mondlak, A; Good, R T; Green, L M; Schmidt, J M; Robin, C

    2016-05-01

    Insecticide resistance evolves extremely rapidly, providing an illuminating model for the study of adaptation. With climate change reshaping species distribution, pest and disease vector control needs rethinking to include the effects of environmental variation and insect stress physiology. Here, we assessed how both long-term adaptation of populations to temperature and immediate temperature variation affect the genetic architecture of DDT insecticide response in Drosophila melanogaster. Mortality assays and behavioural assays based on continuous activity monitoring were used to assess the interaction between DDT and temperature on three field-derived populations from climate extremes (Raleigh for warm temperate, Tasmania for cold oceanic and Queensland for hot tropical). The Raleigh population showed the highest mortality to DDT, whereas the Queensland population, epicentre for derived alleles of the resistance gene Cyp6g1, showed the lowest. Interaction between insecticide and temperature strongly affected mortality, particularly for the Tasmanian population. Activity profiles analysed using self-organizing maps show that the insecticide promoted an early response, whereas elevated temperature promoted a later response. These distinctive early or later activity phases revealed similar responses to temperature and DDT dose alone but with more or less genetic variance depending on the population. This change in genetic variance among populations suggests that selection particularly depleted genetic variance for DDT response in the Queensland population. Finally, despite similar (co)variation between traits in benign conditions, the genetic responses across population differed under stressful conditions. This showed how stress-responsive genetic variation only reveals itself in specific conditions and thereby escapes potential trade-offs in benign environments. PMID:26864706

  5. Intra-event and Inter-event Ground Motion Variability from 3-D Broadband (0-8 Hz) Ensemble Simulations of Mw 6.7 Thrust Events Including Rough Fault Descriptions, Small-Scale Heterogeneities and Q(f)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, K.; Olsen, K. B.; Shi, Z.; Day, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    We model blind thrust scenario earthquakes matching the fault geometry of 1994 Mw 6.7 Northridge earthquake up to 8 Hz by first performing dynamic rupture propagation using a support operator method (SORD). We extend the ground motion by converting the slip-rate data to a kinematic source for the finite difference wave propagation code AWP-ODC, which incorporates an improved frequency-dependent attenuation approach. This technique has high accuracy for Q values down to 15. The desired Q function is fit to the 'effective' Q over the coarse grained-cell for low Q, and a simple interpolation formula is used to interpolate the weights for arbitrary Q. Here, we use a power-law model Q above a reference frequency in the form Q 0 f^n with exponents ranging from 0.0-0.9. We find envelope and phase misfits only slightly larger than that of the elastic case when compared with that of the frequency-wavenumber solution for both a homogenous and a layered model with a large-velocity contrast. We also include small-scale medium complexity in both a 1D layered model and a 3D medium extracted from SCEC CVM-S4 including a surface geotechnical layer (GTL). We model additional realizations of the scenario by varying the hypocenter location, and find that similar moment magnitudes are generated. We observe that while the ground motion pattern changes, the median ground motion is not affected significantly, when binned as a function of distance, and is within 1 interevent standard deviation from the median GMPEs. We find that intra-event variability for the layered model simulations is similar to observed values of single-station standard deviation. We show that small-scale heterogeneity can significantly affect the intra-event variability at frequencies greater than ~1 Hz, becoming increasingly important at larger distances from the source. We perform a parameter space study by varying statistical parameters and find that the variability is fairly independent of the correlation length

  6. Geodesy-based estimates of loading rates on faults beneath the Los Angeles basin with a new, computationally efficient method to model dislocations in 3D heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, C.; Argus, D. F.; Avouac, J. P.; Landry, W.; Barbot, S.

    2015-12-01

    North-south compression across the Los Angeles basin is accommodated by slip on thrust faults beneath the basin that may present significant seismic hazard to Los Angeles. Previous geodesy-based efforts to constrain the distributions and rates of elastic strain accumulation on these faults [Argus et al 2005, 2012] have found that the elastic model used has a first-order impact on the inferred distribution of locking and creep, underlining the need to accurately incorporate the laterally heterogeneous elastic structure and complex fault geometries of the Los Angeles basin into this analysis. We are using Gamra [Landry and Barbot, in prep.], a newly developed adaptive-meshing finite-difference solver, to compute elastostatic Green's functions that incorporate the full 3D regional elastic structure provided by the SCEC Community Velocity Model. Among preliminary results from benchmarks, forward models and inversions, we find that: 1) for a modeled creep source on the edge dislocation geometry from Argus et al [2005], the use of the SCEC CVM material model produces surface velocities in the hanging wall that are up to ~50% faster than those predicted in an elastic halfspace model; 2) in sensitivity-modulated inversions of the Argus et al [2005] GPS velocity field for slip on the same dislocation source, the use of the CVM deepens the inferred locking depth by ≥3 km compared to an elastic halfspace model; 3) when using finite-difference or finite-element models with Dirichlet boundary conditions (except for the free surface) for problems of this scale, it is necessary to set the boundaries at least ~100 km away from any slip source or data point to guarantee convergence within 5% of analytical solutions (a result which may be applicable to other static dislocation modeling problems and which may scale with the size of the area of interest). Here we will present finalized results from inversions of an updated GPS velocity field [Argus et al, AGU 2015] for the inferred

  7. Comparative safety and effectiveness of long-acting inhaled agents for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tricco, Andrea C; Strifler, Lisa; Veroniki, Areti-Angeliki; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Khan, Paul A; Scott, Alistair; Ng, Carmen; Antony, Jesmin; Mrklas, Kelly; D'Souza, Jennifer; Cardoso, Roberta; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and effectiveness of long-acting β-antagonists (LABA), long-acting antimuscarinic agents (LAMA) and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Setting Systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA). Participants 208 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) including 134 692 adults with COPD. Interventions LABA, LAMA and/or ICS, alone or in combination, versus each other or placebo. Primary and secondary outcomes The proportion of patients with moderate-to-severe exacerbations. The number of patients experiencing mortality, pneumonia, serious arrhythmia and cardiovascular-related mortality (CVM) were secondary outcomes. Results NMA was conducted including 20 RCTs for moderate-to-severe exacerbations for 26 141 patients with an exacerbation in the past year. 32 treatments were effective versus placebo including: tiotropium, budesonide/formoterol, salmeterol, indacaterol, fluticasone/salmeterol, indacaterol/glycopyrronium, tiotropium/fluticasone/salmeterol and tiotropium/budesonide/formoterol. Tiotropium/budesonide/formoterol was most effective (99.2% probability of being the most effective according to the Surface Under the Cumulative RAnking (SUCRA) curve). NMA was conducted on mortality (88 RCTs, 97 526 patients); fluticasone/salmeterol was more effective in reducing mortality than placebo, formoterol and fluticasone alone, and was the most effective (SUCRA=71%). NMA was conducted on CVM (37 RCTs, 55 156 patients) and the following were safest: salmeterol versus each OF placebo, tiotropium and tiotropium (Soft Mist Inhaler (SMR)); fluticasone versus tiotropium (SMR); and salmeterol/fluticasone versus tiotropium and tiotropium (SMR). Triamcinolone acetonide was the most harmful (SUCRA=81%). NMA was conducted on pneumonia occurrence (54 RCTs, 61 551 patients). 24 treatments were more harmful, including 2 that increased risk of pneumonia versus placebo; fluticasone and fluticasone

  8. CyberShake: Running Seismic Hazard Workflows on Distributed HPC Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Graves, R. W.; Gill, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Milner, K. R.; Yu, J.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    As part of its program of earthquake system science research, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed a simulation platform, CyberShake, to perform physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) using 3D deterministic wave propagation simulations. CyberShake performs PSHA by simulating a tensor-valued wavefield of Strain Green Tensors, and then using seismic reciprocity to calculate synthetic seismograms for about 415,000 events per site of interest. These seismograms are processed to compute ground motion intensity measures, which are then combined with probabilities from an earthquake rupture forecast to produce a site-specific hazard curve. Seismic hazard curves for hundreds of sites in a region can be used to calculate a seismic hazard map, representing the seismic hazard for a region. We present a recently completed PHSA study in which we calculated four CyberShake seismic hazard maps for the Southern California area to compare how CyberShake hazard results are affected by different SGT computational codes (AWP-ODC and AWP-RWG) and different community velocity models (Community Velocity Model - SCEC (CVM-S4) v11.11 and Community Velocity Model - Harvard (CVM-H) v11.9). We present our approach to running workflow applications on distributed HPC resources, including systems without support for remote job submission. We show how our approach extends the benefits of scientific workflows, such as job and data management, to large-scale applications on Track 1 and Leadership class open-science HPC resources. We used our distributed workflow approach to perform CyberShake Study 13.4 on two new NSF open-science HPC computing resources, Blue Waters and Stampede, executing over 470 million tasks to calculate physics-based hazard curves for 286 locations in the Southern California region. For each location, we calculated seismic hazard curves with two different community velocity models and two different SGT codes, resulting in over

  9. Use of Chemical Analysis and Assays of Semipermeable Membrane Devices Extracts to Assess the Response of Bioavailable Organic Pollutants in Streams to Urbanization in Six Metropolitan Areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, Wade L.; Goodbred, Steve L.; Leiker, Thomas L.; Inouye, Laura; Johnson, B. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Studies to assess the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems are being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The overall objectives of these studies are to (1) determine how hydrologic, geomorphic, water quality, habitat, and biological characteristics respond to land-use changes associated with urbanization in specific environmental settings, and (2) compare these responses across environmental settings. As part of an integrated assessment, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in streams along a gradient of urban land-use intensity in and around Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; and Denver-Fort Collins, Colorado, in 2003; and Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Portland, Oregon, in 2004. Sites were selected to avoid point-source discharge and to minimize natural variability within each of the six metropolitan areas. In addition to standard chemical analysis for hydrophobic organic contaminants, three assays were used to address mixtures and potential toxicity: (1) Fluoroscan provides an estimate of the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (2) the P450RGS assay indicates the presence and levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists; and (3) Microtox? measures toxicological effects on photo-luminescent bacteria. Of the 140 compounds targeted or identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis in this study, 67 were not detected. In terms of numbers and types of compounds, the following were detected: 2 wood preservatives, 6 insecticides (parent compounds), 5 herbicides, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 2 dibenzofurans, 4 polychlorinated biphenyls, 7 compounds associated with fragrances or personal care products, 4 steroids associated with wastewater, 5 polydibromated diphenyl ethers (flame retardants), 3 plasticizers, 3 antimicrobials/disinfectants, and 3 detergent metabolites. Of the 73 compounds

  10. Molecular Engineering, Photophysical and Electrochemical Characterizations of Novel Ru(II) and BODIPY Sensitizers for Mesoporous TiO2 Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Hammad Arshad

    precludes coplanarity of the naphthalene moiety, thus decreasing the extracted photocurrent response from solar device. The findings were published in Dyes and Pigments (doi:10.1016/j.dyepig.2014.08.005). For HD-7 and HD-8, intriguing difference caused by structural isomerization based on anthracene and phenanthrene stilbazole type ancillary ligands, respectively in Ru (II) sensitizers was investigated using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. It was found that the excited electrons in HD-7 are prone to ISC (intersystem crossing) much more than that in HD-8 and those triplet electrons are not being injected in TiO2 efficiently as discussed in Chapter 5. To achieve long term stability, we combined the strong electron donor characteristics of carbazole and the hydrophobic nature of long alkyl chains, C7 (HD-14 ), C18 (HD-15) and C2 (NCSU-10), tethered to N-carbazole. HD-15 showed strikingly good long term light soaking stability and maintained up to 98% of initial efficiency value compared to 92% for HD-14 and 78% for NCSU-10, as discussed in Chapter 6. Boron dipyromethene (BODIPY) dyes HB-1, HB-2 and HB-3 were synthesized and fully characterized for dye solar cells. It was found that having long alkyl chains tethered to the donor groups alone are not sufficient for achieving highly efficient photovoltaic response from BODIPY dyes (Chapter 7). Thus, replacement of fluorines from BODIPY core with long alkoxy chains has been suggested for future work.

  11. Preliminary Physical Stratigraphy and Geophysical Data From the USGS Dixon Core, Onslow County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Gonzalez, Wilma Aleman B.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Weems, Robert E.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Durand, Colleen T.

    2009-01-01

    In October through November 2006, scientists from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Region Earth Surface Processes Team (EESPT) and the Raleigh (N.C.) Water Science Center (WSC), in cooperation with the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) and the Onslow County Water and Sewer Authority (ONWASA), drilled a stratigraphic test hole and well in Onslow County, N.C. The Dixon corehole was cored on ONWASA water utility property north of the town of Dixon, N.C., in the Sneads Ferry 7.5-minute quadrangle at latitude 34deg33'35' N, longitude 77deg26'54' W (decimal degrees 34.559722 and -77.448333). The site elevation is 66.0 feet (ft) above mean sea level as determined using a Paulin precision altimeter. The corehole attained a total depth of 1,010 ft and was continuously cored by the USGS EESPT drilling crew. A groundwater monitoring well was installed in the screened interval between 234 and 254 ft below land surface. The section cored at this site includes Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments. The Dixon core is stored at the NCGS Coastal Plain core storage facility in Raleigh. The Dixon corehole is the fourth and last in a series of planned North Carolina benchmark coreholes drilled by the USGS Coastal Carolina Project. These coreholes explore the physical stratigraphy, facies, and thickness of Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene Coastal Plain sediments in North Carolina. Correlations of lithologies, facies, and sequence stratigraphy can be made with the Hope Plantation corehole, N.C., near Windsor in Bertie County (Weems and others, 2007); the Elizabethtown corehole, near Elizabethtown, N.C., in Bladen County (Self-Trail and others, 2004b); the Smith Elementary School corehole, near Cove City, N.C., in Craven County (Harris and Self-Trail, 2006; Crocetti, 2007); the Kure Beach corehole, near Wilmington, N.C., in New Hanover County (Self-Trail and others, 2004a); the Esso#1, Esso #2, Mobil #1, and Mobil #2 cores in Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds

  12. Preliminary Physical Stratigraphy and Geophysical Data of the USGS Hope Plantation Core (BE-110), Bertie County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, Robert E.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Wrege, Beth M.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Prowell, David C.; Durand, Colleen; Cobbs, Eugene F., III; McKinney, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction In March and April, 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) and the Raleigh Water Resources Discipline (WRD), drilled a stratigraphic test hole and well in Bertie County, North Carolina (fig. 1). The Hope Plantation test hole (BE-110-2004) was cored on the property of Hope Plantation near Windsor, North Carolina. The drill site is located on the Republican 7.5 minute quadradrangle at lat 36?01'58'N., long 78?01'09'W. (decimal degrees 36.0329 and 77.0192) (fig. 2). The altitude of the site is 48 ft above mean sea level as determined by Paulin Precise altimeter. This test hole was continuously cored by Eugene F. Cobbs, III and Kevin C. McKinney (USGS) to a total depth of 1094.5 ft. Later, a ground water observation well was installed with a screened interval between 315-329 feet below land surface (fig. 3). Upper Triassic, Lower Cretaceous, Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments were recovered from the site. The core is stored at the NCGS Coastal Plain core storage facility in Raleigh, North Carolina. In this report, we provide the initial lithostratigraphic summary recorded at the drill site along with site core photographs, data from the geophysical logger, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic correlations (Table 1) and initial hydrogeologic interpretations. The lithostratigraphy from this core can be compared to previous investigations of the Elizabethtown corehole, near Elizabethtown, North Carolina in Bladen County (Self-Trail, Wrege, and others, 2004), the Kure Beach corehole, near Wilmington, North Carolina in New Hanover County (Self-Trail, Prowell, and Christopher, 2004), the Esso #1, Esso #2, Mobil #1 and Mobil #2 cores in the Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds (Zarra, 1989), and the Cape Fear River outcrops in Bladen County (Farrell, 1998; Farrell and others, 2001). This core is the third in a series of planned benchmark coreholes that will be used to elucidate the

  13. Contribution of pollen to atmospheric ice nuclei concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Hader, J.; Wright, T.; McMeeking, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) contribute to the concentrations of ice nuclei (IN) in the atmosphere. Laboratory studies have shown that pollen grains, a subset of PBAP, can serve as immersion mode ice nuclei at temperatures ranging from -9 to -25 deg C. At the peak of the pollen season pollen concentrations can reach surface-level concentrations exceeding 1 per liter of air. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that the ice nucleating ability of some types of pollen is derived from non-proteinaceous macromolecules, which may become dispersed by the rupturing of the pollen sac during wetting and drying cycles. If true, this mechanism is expected to produce highly elevated IN concentrations at temperatures warmer than -25 deg C. Here we test this hypothesis by measuring ambient IN concentrations from the beginning to the end of the 2013 pollen season in Raleigh, North Carolina. Raleigh is surrounded by a dense mixed hardwood forest composed primarily of oak, hickory, and pine species. Air samples were collected using a swirling aerosol collector twice per week and the solution was analyzed for ice nuclei activity using a droplet freezing assay setup. Rainwater samples were collected during rain events at the peak of the pollen season and analyzed with the drop freezing assay to compare the potentially enhanced IN concentrations measured near the ground with IN concentrations found aloft. Raw freezing spectra were used to probe the freezing activity of both abundant and rare IN contained in sample liquids by analysis of drops that had varying degrees of preconcentration and size (~50 to ~650 μm). Extreme value statistics is used to collapse the raw freezing data into a single ice nuclei spectrum, defined as number of ice nuclei per volume of air as a function of temperature, that spans ~6 orders of magnitude in IN concentration. For a selected number of samples, concentrations of biological and non-biological ambient aerosol and particles are

  14. Dehydration embrittlement of serpentine and its implications for earthquakes at depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L.; Green, H.

    2003-04-01

    Earthquakes at depths greater than ˜50 km cannot occur by unassisted brittle failure but could be triggered by embrittlement accompanying dehydration of hydrous minerals (e.g. Raleigh and Paterson, 1965). However, there is some question whether such embrittlement will occur if the ΔV of the dehydration reaction is negative, as occurs with increasing pressure for most low-pressure hydrous minerals. To test this hypothesis, we have chosen an extensively-serpentinized peridotite, in which the serpentine mineral present, antigorite, has a large stability field at elevated pressure and temperature. We conducted triaxial deformation experiments at constant strain rate using a Griggs-type apparatus at P = 1.0-3.4 GPa and T = 550-750 ^oC, and rapid-pumping experiments at comparable temperatures in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus, culminating at P = 6 GPa. Over this pressure range, the ΔV of reaction varies from highly positive to significantly negative. At the lowest temperatures, no reaction was observed. In deformation experiments at these conditions, faulting due to brittle failure was produced at low pressure but at high pressure deformation was ductile. At temperatures outside the stability field of antigorite, samples that were only pressurized and annealed did not show faulting. However, specimens subjected to a differential stress during dehydration displayed faults and localized zones of dehydration products consisting of very fine-grained new olivine or talc, +/- enstatite (grain size less than 200 nm). Deformed samples also showed Mode I cracks and fluid inclusions inside large crystals of relict olivine. Extensive fluid reactions were also observed along the grain boundaries between the relict olivine and antigorite. These observations indicate that antigorite dehydration under stress triggers faulting under conditions where the ΔV of reaction is negative as well as those where ΔV is positive. We do not yet know why this is so. We conclude that

  15. Realization of thermal Convection into the initial Earth's Core on the Stage of planetary Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Professor Khachay, Yurie

    2015-04-01

    Convection in the Earth's core is not only the main mechanism of heat-mass transfer, but the significant component of the MHD mechanism of geomagnetic field generation. However the research of different convection forms on the Earth's accumulation stage had been so far not produced. Regarding the convection realization into the initial core of the growing proto planet we can distinguish some qualitative different stages. The earliest from them for the area of the planets of the Earth's group had been realized in to the pre planetary bodies, when the energy dissipation by the decay of the short living radioactive, first of all 26Al, provided the melted state of the inner areas of the proto planet. By that the masses and relative velocities of body's impacts during the process of accumulation had been small. That stipulated the low temperature values of the growing proto planetary surface [1] and the background of Raleigh heat convection realization. On the next stage of the planetary accumulation the contribution of short living isotopes to the energetic process during the decay 26Al decreased, but the energy contribution from the body's impact increased. The balance of the energy on the surface of the proto planet leaded to the melted state of the upper envelope and to the inelastic character of the impact. Further during the increase of the proto planetary mass, increase of the pressure and the melting temperature with the depth and decrease of the intensity of the dissipate energy by the body's impact, which became more elastic because of the silicate part, the background of the Raleigh heat convection can be realized [2]. However the falling of accumulated bodies can lead to the random distribution of the heat anomalies, which we could research only in the frame of the 3-D model [3-4]. For researching of the MHD mechanism of geomagnetic field generation developing yet on the stage of Earth's accumulation in that paper are presented the results of numerical

  16. Boundary lubrication of formulated C-ether in air to 300 deg C. 1: Phosphorus ester additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Hady, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Friction and wear measurements were made on CVM M-50 steel lubricated with three C-ether (modified polyphenyl ether) formulations in dry and wet air. Results were compared to those obtained with a formulated Type 2 ester and the C-ether base fluid. A ball-on-disk sliding friction apparatus was used. Experimental conditions were a 1-kilogram load, a 17-meter-perminute (100-rpm) surface speed, and a 25 to 300 C (77 to 572 F) disk temperature range. The C-ether base fluid and the three formulated C-ether fluids yielded lower wear than the Type 2 ester over the entire temperature range. All C-ether fluids exhibited slightly higher friction coefficients than the ester from 150 to 300 C (302 to 572 F) and similar values from 25 to 150 C (77 to 302 F). In general, lower wear rates were observed with the C-ethers when tested in wet air as compared to a dry air atmosphere.

  17. Implementing the Contingent Valuation Method for supporting decision making in the waste management sector.

    PubMed

    Gaglias, A; Mirasgedis, S; Tourkolias, C; Georgopoulou, E

    2016-07-01

    This study presents an application of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) for valuing the environmental impacts associated with the operation of landfills for residues following waste treatment and depicts how the results of the analysis can be used for decision making in the field of waste management. The survey was conducted in Ikaria, Greece, a medium-sized island in the northern Aegean Sea, with a view to estimate the amount of compensatory benefits that are socially acceptable to be attributed to the hosting community of a new landfill for residues. The results showed that the mean willingness to pay per household to create a fund for financing social and environmental programs in the community that will host the landfill in question was estimated at €6.5-6.7 per 2-month and household taking into account all households of the sample. This estimate is at the same order of magnitude but at the lower band compared to the results of other relevant studies showing that the public in Ikaria is aware for the relatively limited environmental burdens associated with the operation of landfills for residues following an integrated waste management treatment. PMID:27114113

  18. Developpement de techniques numeriques pour l'estimation, la modelisation et la prediction de proprietes thermodynamiques et structurales de systems metalliques a fort ordonnancement chimique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Jean-Philippe

    In this work, the possibility to calculate and evaluate with a high degree of precision the Gibbs energy of complex multiphase equilibria for which chemical ordering is explicitly and simultaneously considered in the thermodynamic description of solid (short range order and long range order) and liquid (short range order) metallic phases is studied. The cluster site approximation (CSA) and the cluster variation method (CVM) are implemented in a new minimization technique of the Gibbs energy of multicomponent and multiphase systems to describe the thermodynamic behaviour of metallic solid solutions showing strong chemical ordering. The modified quasichemical model in the pair approximation (MQMPA) is also implemented in the new minimization algorithm presented in this work to describe the thermodynamic behaviour of metallic liquid solutions. The constrained minimization technique implemented in this work consists of a sequential quadratic programming technique based on an exact Newton’s method (i.e. the use of exact second derivatives in the determination of the Hessian of the objective function) combined to a line search method to identify a direction of sufficient decrease of the merit function. The implementation of a new algorithm to perform the constrained minimization of the Gibbs energy is justified by the difficulty to identify, in specific cases, the correct multiphase assemblage of a system where the thermodynamic behaviour of the equilibrium phases is described by one of the previously quoted models using the FactSage software (ex.: solid_CSA+liquid_MQMPA; solid1_CSA+solid2_CSA). After a rigorous validation of the constrained Gibbs energy minimization algorithm using several assessed binary and ternary systems found in the literature, the CVM and the CSA models used to describe the energetic behaviour of metallic solid solutions present in systems with key industrial applications such as the Cu-Zr and the Al-Zr systems are parameterized using fully

  19. Economic assessment of urban watersheds: developing mechanisms for environmental protection of the Feijão river, São Carlos--SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, F H; Silva, L F; Dupas, F A; Mattedi, A P; Vergara, F E

    2014-08-01

    In order to determine the willingness of the population of São Carlos (a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil) to pay for the environmental protection (WTP) of the Feijão River's watershed, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), as well as the bidding-games technique, were used. In October 2010, 280 questionnaires were applied to a probabilistic sample of the population. A multivariate logistic regression model was built, creating five scenarios adjusted to the age and probability to pay according to the significant variables found. Concerning the WTP, 56% of the interviewees showed willingness to pay a monthly amount using the water bill as a vehicle for this. The WTP average was 1.94 US Dollar (USD), with a standard deviation of 1.91 USD. The total annual amount for the scenario that considers the whole population over 18 years old was of USD 3,930,616.80. The main argument for the negative WTP was that the interviewees could not afford it (14%). PMID:25296217

  20. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs. PMID:26387347

  1. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member’s departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution. PMID:26562152

  2. Temporal expression analysis of angiogenesis-related genes in brain development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The current knowledge on molecular pathogenesis of cerebral vascular malformations (CVM), which are believed to arise during development, is very limited. To unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in CVMs, a detailed understanding of the brain vascular development at molecular level is crucial. In this study, we aimed to explore the temporal and comparative expression profile of angiogenesis-related genes in the establishment of brain vasculature. Methods Expression of a total of 113 angiogenesis-related genes during murine brain development has been analyzed using low-density array systems designed for angiogenesis-related genes. Bai1 (brain specific angiogenesis inhibitor-1), a recently identified novel anti-angiogenic gene, has been selected for further characterization. Results We found that 62 out of 113 analyzed genes have expression in brain development at varying levels. Nineteen of these were differentially expressed between embryonic and postnatal stages (>1.5 fold). Bai1 is strongly expressed on growing blood vessels of cerebral cortex and hippocampus, partially expressed in the lateral regions of striatum, but mostly absent on the thalamus. Conclusion By showing the comparative expression analysis of angiogenesis-related genes throughout brain development, the data presented here will be a crucial addition to further functional studies on cerebrovascular research. PMID:23020941

  3. Career attitudes of first-year veterinary students before and after a required course on veterinary careers.

    PubMed

    Fish, Richard E; Griffith, Emily H

    2014-01-01

    Careers in Veterinary Medicine is a required, one-credit-hour course at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM), which meets once weekly during veterinary students' first semester. Lectures in this course are presented by one or more veterinarians representing diverse career areas. A voluntary, anonymous survey was distributed before the first class meeting in 2011 (PRE) and at the end of the semester (POST) to assess if students' career interests changed during the semester. The survey collected basic demographic data and students' preferences (on a Likert scale) for 17 veterinary career paths. Out of 63 students, 36 (57%) in the POST survey said that their career interests had changed during the semester, and 17 of the 26 students (65%) who gave a reason credited the careers course as one factor in reconsidering their career choice. Only 3 of the 17 career paths had statistically significant PRE/POST survey differences in Likert response frequency (equine practice, pathology, and wildlife medicine), but both informal discussions with students and responses to open-ended survey questions indicated that many students valued the introduction to unfamiliar veterinary career areas. Careers in Veterinary Medicine is a vital component of recent career-planning initiatives in the college, which will be especially important to veterinary students as they face continued changes in the profession, such as the increased debt load of the new graduate and the threat of veterinary workforce oversupply. PMID:24794169

  4. Heartworms, macrocyclic lactones, and the specter of resistance to prevention in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide a background to current concerns relative to the possible resistance of heartworms to macrocyclic lactones, this review summarizes various studies in which lack of efficacies (LOEs) have been observed in dogs on macrocyclic lactone preventives relative to the United States of America. Some of these studies have been published in the peer-reviewed literature, others have appeared in various reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the USA as New Animal Drug Application (NADA) summaries, and one appeared as a letter to US veterinarians. This review also discusses reports relating to the potential problem of heartworm resistance in microfilariae and third-stage larvae, as well as molecular markers associated with resistance to macrocyclic lactones within Dirofilaria immitis. As more work is being done in this area of great concern relative to the protection of dogs from infection using this class of preventives, it seems timely to summarize what is known about heartworms, their potential resistance to treatment, and the means of selecting for resistance genes in populations of this helminth in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:22776618

  5. On the structure of negative-parity states in 66Zn and 70Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleemann, L.; Eberth, J.; Neumann, W.; Zobel, V.

    1982-09-01

    Mean lifetimes of negative-parity states in 66Zn and 70Ge have been measured using the recoil distance Doppler shift technique. The states in 66Zn have been studied through the reaction 55Mn( 14N, 2pnγ) 66Zn at E = 47 MeV, those in 70Ge through the reaction 56Fe( 16O, 2pγ) 70Ge at E = 46 MeV. The measurements were performed with a plunger apparatus with a piezo-electric distance regulation. The mean lifetimes in 66Zn were measured to be 66 ± 4ps (5 - state), 43 ± 2 ps (6 - state), 192 ± 15 ps (7 - state), and 2.7 ± 1.2 ps (9 - state), those of 70Ge 19.7 ± 2 ps (5 - state), 51 ± 4 ps (6 - state), and 25.2 ± 1.4 ps (7 - state). Deduced B ( Ml) and B( E2) values are compared with theoretical predictions of a two-proton cluster-vibration coupling model (CVM) which describes these states as couplings of g {9}/{2} ⊗ (fp shell) proton clusters to zero, one and higher phonon excitations of the corresponding Ni and Zn cores. Good overall agreement between the theoretical values and the experimental data was found.

  6. Hierarchical structural health monitoring system combining a fiber optic spinal cord network and distributed nerve cell devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Tsukamoto, Haruka; Takeda, Nobuo

    2009-03-01

    This study proposes novel hierarchical sensing concept for detecting damages in composite structures. In the hierarchical system, numerous three-dimensionally structured sensor devices are distributed throughout the whole structural area and connected with the optical fiber network through transducing mechanisms. The distributed "sensory nerve cell" devices detect the damage, and the fiber optic "spinal cord" network gathers damage signals and transmits the information to a measuring instrument. This study began by discussing the basic concept of the hierarchical sensing system thorough comparison with existing fiber optic based systems and nerve systems in the animal kingdom. Then, in order to validate the proposed sensing concept, impact damage detection system for the composite structure was proposed. The sensor devices were developed based on Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVM) system and the Brillouin based distributed strain sensing was utilized to gather the damage signals from the distributed devices. Finally a verification test was conducted using prototype devices. Occurrence of barely visible impact damage was successfully detected and it was clearly indicated that the hierarchical system has better repairability, higher robustness, and wider monitorable area compared to existing systems utilizing embedded optical fiber sensors.

  7. A comparison between cervical vertebrae and modified MP3 stages for the assessment of skeletal maturity

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Ganji, Venkata Suresh Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of skeletal maturity in human individuals is an important aspect in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics because, growth guidance and fundamental structural changes are essential for treatment of skeletal discrepancies in all the three planes. Among various growth assessment methods, cervical vertebra maturation stages and hand wrist have been correlated with the individual growth changes during puberty. The purpose of this study is to determine correlation of the CVM index with the modified median phalanx index (MP3) as described by Rajagopal and Kansal. Materials and Methods: 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) of Nellore, Indian origin boys aged between 10 to 19 years and girls of 8 to 16 years were selected for the study. The subjects are selected randomly from patients visiting the Departments of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Pediatric dentistry and Oral medicine and Radiology at Narayana Dental College and Hospital. Nellore. Radiographs of left hand MP3 and lateral cephalogram were taken. Results: Cohen's kappa statistic was used to assess the agreement between the two measurements based on categorical variables. Conclusions: There was a good concordance between 6 stages of CVMI (Hassel and Farman) and the 6 stages of MP3 (Rajagopal and Kansal). Physiological maturity was earlier in females than in males when compared to the individuals of opposite sex of same chronological age. Chronological age was not a valid predictor of assessing the skeletal maturity because of significant variations in the distribution of CVMI and MP3 stages with respect to individual chronological age distribution. PMID:23633839

  8. Effect of two synthetic lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Shimski, John

    1991-01-01

    Spur-gear fatigue tests were conducted with two lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The gears were case carburized and hardened to Rockwell C60. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. The lot of gears was divided into two groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants can be classified as synthetic polyol-ester-based lubricants. One lubricant was 30 percent more viscous that the other. Both lubricants have similar pressure viscosity coefficients. Test conditions included a bulk gear temperature of 350 K, a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa at the pitch line, and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The surface fatigue life of gears tested with one lubricant was approximately 2.4 times that for gears tested with the other lubricant. The lubricant with the 30 percent higher viscosity gave a calculated elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness that was 20 percent higher than the other lubricant. This increased EHD film thickness is the most probable reason for the improvement in surface fatigue life of gears tested with this lubricant over gears tested with the less viscous lubricant.

  9. Comparison of the effectiveness of one- and two-suture prosthesis used to correct left laryngeal hemiplegia in the equine: followed by Nd:YAG laser ventricle ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Cindy; Tate, Lloyd P.; Correa, Maria T.

    1992-06-01

    The effectiveness of one or two suture prothesis in performing laryngoplasty was compared. Forty-six horses treated for left laryngeal hemiplegia at North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM) between January 1987 and April 1991 were included in the study. Thirty-seven of the horses were treated with two sutures, while nine were treated with one suture. All horses, after recovering from general anesthesia, were sedated the following day and were subjected to a transendoscopic neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser ablation of the left laryngeal ventricle. Ability to perform after treatment relative to before treatment, reduction or elimination of respiratory noise, owner or trainer satisfaction, were compared for the two suture prosthetic procedures using chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. No statistical significant differences were found for performance, reduction of noise, and owner or trainer satisfaction. The use of one or two sutures seemed to have no effect on the effectiveness of prosthetic laryngoplasty procedure followed by Nd:YAG ventricular ablation.

  10. Study of the efficacy of prosthetic laryngoplasty followed by Nd:YAG laser ventricular ablation for treatment of left laryngeal hemiplegia in the horse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Brenda; Tate, Lloyd P.; Correa, Maria T.

    1992-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to assess the efficacy of laryngoplasty surgery followed by Nd:YAG laser laryngeal ventricular ablation. Forty-three horses were included in the study that were treated at North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU- CVM) January 1987 and September 1990. Questions asked of the owners or trainers of the horses related to complications that the horses may have had since leaving the hospital, ability to perform after treatment relative to before treatment, how respiratory noise after treatment related to before treatment, results of follow-up endoscopic exams, additional surgery that may have been performed, and owner satisfaction with the procedure. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine the success of the procedure. Success was defined as a reduction of noise or improvement in performance ability. Results of the test indicated that the two procedures had an effect in reducing respiratory noise (p equals 0.0001) and increasing performance (p equals 0.0017).

  11. NTF: Soldering Technology Development for Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. T., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) brought about a new application for an old joining method, soldering. Soldering for use at cryogenic temperatures requires that solders remain ductile and free from tin-pest (grey tin), have toughness to withstand aerodynamic loads associated with flight research, and maintain their surface finishes. Solders are used to attach 347 Stainless-Steel tubing in surface grooves of models. The solder must fill up the gap and metallurgically bound to the tubing and model. Cryogenic temperatures require that only specific materials for models can be used, including: Vasco Max 200 CVM, lescalloy A-286 Vac Arc, pH 13-8 Mo. Solders identified for testing at this time are: 50% Sn - 49.5% Pb - 0.5% Sb, 95% Sn - 5% Sb, 50% In 50% Pb, and 37.5% Sn - 37.5% Pb - 25% In. With these materials and solders, it is necessary to determine their solderability. After solderability is determined, tube/groove specimens are fabricated and stressed under cryogenic temperatures. Compatible solders are then used for acutual models.

  12. Energetics and statistics of order in alloys with application to oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    de Fontaine, D. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering); Ceder, G. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Asta, M. California Univ., Berkeley, CA .

    1991-06-01

    Now that first-principles calculations of ordering transformations are becoming increasingly accurate, the deficiencies of earlier mean field methods are becoming increasingly apparent. New techniques, based on cluster expansions, are now alleviating many of the earlier problems and are producing very satisfactory results. These ideas will be illustrated for the case of oxygen ordering in the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z} superconducting compound, for which a very simple two-dimensional Ising model has been developed. The model features nearest-neighbor repulsive effective pair interactions and anisotropic (attractive/repulsive) next-nearest-neighbor interactions. CVM (cluster variation method) calculations based on this model have produced a phase diagram in remarkable agreement with experimentally determined phase boundaries. Monte Carlo simulations have confirmed the validity of the model and have provided a rationalization for the influence of oxygen order on the value of {Tc} (superconducting transition temperature) in off-stoichiometric compounds. 46 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Hierarchical fiber-optic delamination detection system for carbon fiber reinforced plastic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Banshoya, Hidehiko; Shingo, Ii; Takeda, Nobuo

    2012-10-01

    This study develops a delamination detection system by extending our previous approach for monitoring surface cracks in a large-scale composite structure. In the new system, numerous thin glass capillaries are embedded into a composite structure, and internal pressure in the built-in capillary sensors, based on comparative vacuum monitoring (CVM), is maintained as a vacuum. When delamination is induced, the capillary sensors located within the delaminated area are breached, and atmospheric air flows into the capillaries. The consequent pressure change within the capillaries is then converted into axial strain in a surface-mounted optical fiber through a transducing mechanism, which is connected to the capillaries. By monitoring the strain distribution along the optical fiber, it is possible to identify a transducing mechanism in which the pressure change occurred and thus to specify the location of the delamination. This study begins by establishing a novel sensor embedding/extracting method. The airflow characteristic in the capillary sensors is then comprehensively evaluated, determining the basic performance of the new system. The proposed detection technique is validated by taking a step-by-step approach, and finally the hierarchical fiber-optic delamination detection system is demonstrated. A further advance to be combined with a self-healing concept is also discussed.

  14. Identifying the needs of veterinary students and recent alumni in establishing a student service center.

    PubMed

    Lord, Linda K; Brandt, Jennifer C; Newhart, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Quality service for students has been identified as an important theme of higher education. In pursuing the aim of service quality, educational providers have long recognized that perceptions of service transcend the area of quality teaching and encompass the students' overall experience within the university. This article investigates the types of services that would be most beneficial to students, from the perspective of both current students and recent alumni. A cross-sectional survey of all students was conducted using an online survey. A separate survey was also conducted of alumni from the last five graduating classes. From these surveys, 94.0% of student respondents and 91.9% of alumni respondents strongly agreed with the statement "It is important for the OSU CVM (Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine) to provide on-site comprehensive student services." Both groups ranked job postings for post-graduation employment, fourth-year off-site rotation opportunities, and financial planning/budgeting among their top ranked preferred services. In addition, requests for continued or enhanced interviewing/communication skills training; individual mental, emotional, and spiritual counseling; and individual and group tutoring were predominant themes identified from the qualitative data as well as the Likert-scale questions. The findings from the study sheds light on the need for comprehensive services for veterinary students beyond those services traditionally provided in an academic setting, such as tutoring and course advising. PMID:23709113

  15. Anode purge strategy optimization of the polymer electrode membrane fuel cell system under the dead-end anode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhe; Yu, Yi; Wang, Guangjin; Chen, Xuesong; Chen, Pei; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Su

    2016-07-01

    Dead-ended anode (DEA) mode is commonly applied in fuel cell vehicles for the hydrogen purge at the anode side, to reduce fuel waste and enhance fuel cell efficiency. Anode purge is necessary and is definitely important with respect to removing liquid water and accumulated nitrogen in the gas diffusion layer and the flow field of the DEA-mode fuel cell. In this paper, the effect of different purge strategies on the stack performance and system efficiency is investigated experimentally using fast data acquisition and advanced tools, such as the fast cell voltage measurement (CVM) system and the mass spectrum. From the fast data acquisition, the voltage stability, liquid water and nitrogen concentration measurement in the anode exhaust are compared and analyzed under different purge strategy designs and using different purge valves. The results show that under the optimal purge strategy, the DEA fuel cell stack can achieve the desired stability and system efficiency based on the analysis of the cell voltage and purge volume. Moreover, the diameter of the purge valve has a great impact on the voltage stability because a diameter change will result in a different pressure drop and purge volume when the purge valve is open.

  16. Cardiovascular malformations in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, A.E.; Ardinger, H.H.; Ardinger, R.H. Jr.

    1997-01-31

    We reviewed 215 patients (59 new, 156 from the literature) with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), and found that 95 (44%) had a cardiovascular malformation (CVM). Classifying CVMs by disordered embryonic mechanisms, there were 5 (5.3%) class I (ectomesenchymal tissue migration abnormalities), 56 (58.9%) class II (abnormal intracardiac blood flow), 25 (26.3%) class IV (abnormal extracellular matrix), and 5 (5.3%) class V (abnormal targeted growth). Comparing the frequencies of individual CVMs in this series with a control group (the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study), there were 6 individual CVMs which showed a significant difference from expected values. When frequencies of CVMs in SLOS were analyzed by mechanistic class, classes IV and V were significantly more frequent, and class I significantly less frequent, than the control group. Although CVMs in SLOS display mechanistic heterogeneity, with an overall predominance of class II CVMs, the developmental error appears to favor alteration of the cardiovascular developmental mechanisms underlying atrioventricular canal and anomalous pulmonary venous return. This information should assist the clinical geneticist evaluating a patient with possible SLOS, and should suggest research direction for the mechanisms responsible for the SLOS phenotype. 102 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  17. Endurance and failure characteristic of main-shaft jet engine bearing at 3 million DN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamberger, E. N.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.

    1976-01-01

    Groups of thirty 120-mm bore angular-contact ball bearings were endurance tested at a speed of 12,000 and 25,000 rpm (1.44 million and 3.0 million DN, where DN is the product of the bearing bore in mm and the shaft speed in rpm) and a thrust load of 66,721 N. The bearings were manufactured from a single heat of VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel. At 1.44 million and 3.0 million DN, 84,483 and 74,800 bearing test hours were accumulated, respectively. Test results were compared with similar bearings made from CVM AISI M-50 steel run under the same conditions. Bearing lives at speeds of 3 million DN with the VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel were nearly equivalent to those obtained at lower speeds. A combined processing and material life factor of 44 was found for VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel. Continuous running after a spall has occurred at 3.0 million DN can result in a destructive fracture of the bearing inner race.

  18. Effects of obstruent consonants on the F0 contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Helen M.

    2003-10-01

    When a vowel follows an obstruent consonant, the fundamental frequency in the first few tens of milliseconds of the vowel is influenced by the voicing characteristics of the consonant. The goal of the research reported here is to model this influence, with the intention of improving generation of F0 contours in rule-based speech synthesis. Data have been recorded from 10 subjects. Stops, fricatives, and the nasal /m/ were paired with the vowels /i,opena/ to form CVm syllables. The syllables mVm served as baselines with which to compare the obstruents. The target syllables were embedded in carrier sentences. Intonation was varied so that each target syllable was produced with either a high, low, or no pitch accent. Results vary among subjects, but in general, obstruent effects on F0 primarily occur when the syllable carries a high pitch. In that case, F0 is increased relative to the baseline following voiceless obstruents, but F0 closely follows the baseline following voiced obstruents. After voiceless obstruents, F0 may be increased for up to 80 ms following voicing onset. When a syllable carries a low or no pitch accent, F0 is increased slightly following all obstruents. [Work supported by NIH Grant No. DC04331.

  19. Saposin C Coupled Lipid Nanovesicles Enable Cancer-Selective Optical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kaimal, Vinod; Chu, Zhengtao; Mahller, Yonatan Y.; Papahadjopoulos-Sternberg, Brigitte; Cripe, Timothy P.; Holland, Scott K.; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nanovesicles composed of the phospholipid dioleylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) and a fusogenic protein, saposin C (SapC), selectively target and induce apoptotic cell death in a variety of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We tested whether such tumor-homing nanovesicles are capable of delivering fluorescent probes and magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents to cancerous tissue to aid in earlier detection and improve visualization. Procedures SapC–DOPS nanovesicles labeled with either a far-red fluorescent probe (CellVue® Maroon, CVM) or conjugated with a dextran coated MR contrast agent, ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO), were systemically administrated into xenografts for tumor detection using optical and MR imaging systems. Results SapC–DOPS nanovesicles were effectively detected in vivo in tumor-bearing animals using both optical and MR imaging techniques, thereby demonstrating the cancer-selective properties of these nanovesicles. Conclusions SapC–DOPS nanovesicles offer promise as a new and robust theranostic agent for broad cancer-selective detection, visualization, and potential therapy. PMID:20838909

  20. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution. PMID:26562152

  1. Heartworms, macrocyclic lactones, and the specter of resistance to prevention in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide a background to current concerns relative to the possible resistance of heartworms to macrocyclic lactones, this review summarizes various studies in which lack of efficacies (LOEs) have been observed in dogs on macrocyclic lactone preventives relative to the United States of America. Some of these studies have been published in the peer-reviewed literature, others have appeared in various reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the USA as New Animal Drug Application (NADA) summaries, and one appeared as a letter to US veterinarians. This review also discusses reports relating to the potential problem of heartworm resistance in microfilariae and third-stage larvae, as well as molecular markers associated with resistance to macrocyclic lactones within Dirofilaria immitis. As more work is being done in this area of great concern relative to the protection of dogs from infection using this class of preventives, it seems timely to summarize what is known about heartworms, their potential resistance to treatment, and the means of selecting for resistance genes in populations of this helminth in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:22776618

  2. Endurance and failure characteristics of main-shaft jet engine bearings at 3x10 to the 6th power DN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamberger, E. N.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.

    1976-01-01

    Groups of thirty 120-mm bore angular contact ball bearings were endurance tested at a speed of 12,000 and 25,000 rpm and a thrust load of 66 721 N. The bearings were manufactured from a single heat of VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel. At 1.44X1 million and 3.0x1 million DN, 84 483 and 74 800 bearing test hours were accumulated, respectively. Test results were compared with similar bearings made from CVM AISI M-50 steel run under the same conditions. Bearing lives at speeds of 3x1 million DN with the VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel were nearly equivalent to those obtained at lower speeds. A combined processing and material life factor of 44 was found for VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel. Continuous running after a spall has occurred at 3.0x1 million DN can result in a destructive fracture of the bearing inner race.

  3. Protective CD8+ T-cell responses to cytomegalovirus driven by rAAV/GFP/IE1 loading of dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yuefei; Pilgrim, Petra; Yan, Juqiang; Zhou, Wei; Jenkins, Marjorie; Gagliano, Nicoletta; Bumm, Klaus; Cannon, Martin; Milzani, Aldo; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Kast, W Martin; Cobos, Everardo; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent studies demonstrate that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-based antigen loading of dendritic cells (DCs) generates in vitro, significant and rapid cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses against viral antigens. Methods We used the rAAV system to induce specific CTLs against CVM antigens for the development of cytomegalovirus HCMV) gene therapy. As an extension of the versatility of the rAAV system, we incorporated immediate-early 1 (IE1), expressed in HCMV. Our rAAV vector induced a strong stimulation of CTLs directed against the HCMV antigen IE1. We then investigated the efficiency of the CTLs in killing IE1 targeted cells. Results A significant MHC Class I-restricted, anti-IE1-specific CTL killing was demonstrated against IE1 positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after one, in vitro, stimulation. Conclusion In summary, single PBMC stimulation with rAAV/IE1 pulsed DCs induces strong antigen specific-CTL generation. CTLs were capable to lyse low doses of peptides pulsed into target cells. These data suggest that AAV-based antigen loading of DCs is highly effective for generating human CTL responses against HCMV antigens. PMID:18834548

  4. Evaluation of advanced lubricants for aircraft applications using gear surface fatigue tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Shimski, John

    1991-01-01

    Surface pitting fatigue life tests were conducted with five lubricants, using spur gears made from a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 steel. The gears were case carbonized and hardened to a Rockwell c-60 and finish ground. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. The lot of gears was divided into five groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants can be classified as synthetic polyol-esters with various viscosities and additive packages. Test conditions included bulk gear temperature of 350 K, a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi) at the pitch line, and a speed of 10,000 RPM. The lubricant with a viscosity that provided a specific film thickness greater than one and with an additive package produced far greater gear surface fatigue lives than lubricants with a viscosity that provided specific film thickness less than one. A low viscosity lubricant with an additive package produced gear surface fatigue lives equivalent to a similar base stock lubricant with 30 percent higher viscosity, but without an additive package. Lubricants with the same viscosity and similar additive packages gave equivalent gear surface fatigue lives.

  5. Scalar Product Method in Statistical Mechanics of Boundary Tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenedese, Pierre; Kikuchi, Ryoichi

    1997-02-01

    The interphase excess free energy σ due to an interphase boundary (IPB) is calculated in the Ising model using the Scalar Product (SP) method. Different from the “sum” method calculation of σ based on the boundary profile, the SP approach skips the profile and directly evaluates σ from the equilibrium properties of the homogeneous phases meeting at the boundary. Using a series of Cluster Variation Method (CVM) approximations of the basic cluster size n, a series of σ (n) values are calculated. For the 2-D square lattice, the limit of the SP σ (n) for nrightarrow infty is very close to the exact value of Onsager for the <~ngle 10rangle orientation and to that of Fisher and Ferdinand for <~ngle 10rangle. Similar extrapolation was done for the 3-D simple cubic lattice. The result agrees well with the known Monte Carlo results. Because the SP approach does not calculate the profile, computational time and labor are much less than those of the sum method.

  6. Impacts of global warming on residential heating and cooling degree-days in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Yana; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to decrease heating demand and increase cooling demand for buildings and affect outdoor thermal comfort. Here, we project changes in residential heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the historical (1981–2010) and future (2080–2099) periods in the United States using median results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. We project future HDD and CDD values by adding CMIP5 projected changes to values based on historical observations of US climate. The sum HDD + CDD is an indicator of locations that are thermally comfortable, with low heating and cooling demand. By the end of the century, station median HDD + CDD will be reduced in the contiguous US, decreasing in the North and increasing in the South. Under the unmitigated RCP8.5 scenario, by the end of this century, in terms of HDD and CDD values considered separately, future New York, NY, is anticipated to become more like present Oklahoma City, OK; Denver, CO, becomes more like Raleigh, NC, and Seattle, WA, becomes more like San Jose, CA. These results serve as an indicator of projected climate change and can help inform decision-making. PMID:26238673

  7. The chemical evolution of oceanic and continental lithosphere: Case studies in the US Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Marlon Mauricio

    Investigations into ophiolite from California demonstrated that these ultramafic rocks formed within the mantle wedge of a subduction zone. Fore-arc locales are dominated by highly refractory peridotite, formed by hydrous-fractional partial melting that began in the garnet stability field and ended in the spinel stability field. These ophiolites also displayed enriched fluid-mobile element concentrations. Based on melt models, these elements should have extremely low concentrations, yet all pyroxenes display enriched compositions. A new algorithm was derived to model this fluid enrichment process, which represents the total addition of material to the mantle wedge source region and can be applied to any refractory mantle peridotite that has been modified by melt extraction and/or metasomatism. Investigations into the interaction of a mantle plume with continental lithosphere demonstrated that Yellowstone-Snake River Plain olivine tholeiites are compatible with genesis from a deep-seated mantle plume and were modeled via mixing of three components. The variable age, thickness, and composition of North American lithosphere guide this process. Drill core near Twin Falls, ID was examined to assess (1) the chemical evolution of olivine tholeiite, (2) how basalt evolves in continental settings, and (3) the dominant fractionation process, e.g., fractional crystallization, Raleigh fractional crystallization, or assimilation fractional crystallization.

  8. Spatial gradients and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds near roadways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, David A.; Hammond, Davyda M.; Seila, Robert L.; Burke, Janet M.; Norris, Gary A.

    Concentrations of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (C 2-C 12) are reported near a highway in Raleigh, NC. Thirty-minute samples were collected at eight locations, ranging from approximately 10-100 m perpendicular from the roadway. The highest concentrations of VOCs were generally measured closest to the roadway, and concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the roadway. The highest mean concentration for individual VOCs were for ethylene (3.10 ppbv) (mean concentration at x = 13 m), propane (2.27 ppbv), ethane (1.91 ppbv), isopentane (1.54 ppbv), toluene (0.95 ppbv), and n-butane (0.89 ppbv). Concentrations at the nearest roadway location ( x = 13 m) were generally between 2.0 and 1.5 times those from the farthest roadway location ( x = 92 m). The data were apportioned into four source categories using the EPA Chemical Mass Balance Model (CMB8.2): motor vehicle exhaust, compressed natural gas, propane gas, and evaporative gasoline. The majority of the VOCs resulted from motor vehicle exhaust (67 ± 12%) (% of total VOC at x = 13 m ± S.D.). Compressed natural gas, propane gas, and evaporative gasoline accounted for approximately 15%, 7% and 1% of the total VOC emissions, respectively, at x = 13 m.

  9. Impact of wind direction on near-road pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatram, Akula; Snyder, Michelle; Isakov, Vlad; Kimbrough, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to roadway emissions is an emerging area of research because of recent epidemiological studies reporting association between living within a few hundred meters of high-traffic roadways and adverse health effects. The air quality impact of roadway emissions has been studied in a number of field experiments, most of which have not fully considered the impact of wind direction on near-road concentrations. This paper examines the role of wind direction by using a dispersion model to analyze data from three field studies that include measurements under varying wind directions: 1) a tracer study conducted adjacent to highway 99 in Sacramento, CA in 1981-82, 2) a field study next to a highway in Raleigh, North Carolina in 2006, and 3) a field study conducted next to a depressed highway in Las Vegas, Nevada in 2010. We find that wind direction is an important variable in characterizing exposure to roadway emissions. Under stable conditions, the near-surface concentrations at receptors up to 100 m from the road increase with wind angle before dropping off at angles close to parallel to the road. It is only for pollutants with short life times does the maximum concentration occur when the wind direction is normal to the road. We also show that current dispersion models are reliable tools for interpreting observations and for formulating plans for field studies.

  10. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing.

    PubMed

    Hales, T C; Sarnak, P; Pugh, M C

    2000-11-21

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues ("the energy levels") follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks. PMID:11058156

  11. Synchrophasor Based Tracking Three-Phase State Estimator and It's Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, A. G.; Thorp, James; Centeno, Virgilio; Gardner, Matthew; Novosel, Damir; Hu, Yi; Elizondo, David

    2013-08-31

    Electric power infrastructure is one of the critical resources of the nation. Its reliability in the face of natural or man-made catastrophes is of paramount importance for the economic and public health wellbeing of a modern society. Maintaining high levels of security for the high voltage transmission back bone of the electric supply network is a task requiring access to modern monitoring tools. These tools have been made particularly effective with the advent of synchronized phasor measurement units (PMUs) which became available in late 1990s, and have now become an indispensable for optimal monitoring, protection and control of the power grid. The present project was launched with an objective of demonstrating the value of the Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) using PMUs and its applications on the Dominion Virginia Power High Voltage transmission grid. Virginia Tech is the birth place of PMUs, and was chosen to be the Principal Investigator of this project. In addition to Dominion Virginia Power, Quanta Technology of Raleigh, NC was selected to be co-Principal Investigators of this project.

  12. An Experimental Field Study of Delayed Density Dependence in Natural Populations of Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Rachael K.; Bradley, Caitlin; Apperson, Charles S.; Gould, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, a species known to transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses, is primarily a container-inhabiting mosquito. The potential for pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus has increased our need to understand its ecology and population dynamics. Two parameters that we know little about are the impact of direct density-dependence and delayed density-dependence in the larval stage. The present study uses a manipulative experimental design, under field conditions, to understand the impact of delayed density dependence in a natural population of Ae. albopictus in Raleigh, North Carolina. Twenty liter buckets, divided in half prior to experimentation, placed in the field accumulated rainwater and detritus, providing oviposition and larval production sites for natural populations of Ae. albopictus. Two treatments, a larvae present and larvae absent treatment, were produced in each bucket. After five weeks all larvae were removed from both treatments and the buckets were covered with fine mesh cloth. Equal numbers of first instars were added to both treatments in every bucket. Pupae were collected daily and adults were frozen as they emerged. We found a significant impact of delayed density-dependence on larval survival, development time and adult body size in containers with high larval densities. Our results indicate that delayed density-dependence will have negative impacts on the mosquito population when larval densities are high enough to deplete accessible nutrients faster than the rate of natural food accumulation. PMID:22563428

  13. Performance-based assessment of reconstructed images

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    During the early 90s, I engaged in a productive and enjoyable collaboration with Robert Wagner and his colleague, Kyle Myers. We explored the ramifications of the principle that tbe quality of an image should be assessed on the basis of how well it facilitates the performance of appropriate visual tasks. We applied this principle to algorithms used to reconstruct scenes from incomplete and/or noisy projection data. For binary visual tasks, we used both the conventional disk detection and a new challenging task, inspired by the Rayleigh resolution criterion, of deciding whether an object was a blurred version of two dots or a bar. The results of human and machine observer tests were summarized with the detectability index based on the area under the ROC curve. We investigated a variety of reconstruction algorithms, including ART, with and without a nonnegativity constraint, and the MEMSYS3 algorithm. We concluded that the performance of the Raleigh task was optimized when the strength of the prior was near MEMSYS's default 'classic' value for both human and machine observers. A notable result was that the most-often-used metric of rms error in the reconstruction was not necessarily indicative of the value of a reconstructed image for the purpose of performing visual tasks.

  14. Microwave processing of materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Garard, R.S.

    1997-11-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Lambda Technologies, Inc. (Lambda) of Raleigh, N.C., was initiated in May 1995. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research, Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion data for the Agreement was December 31, 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF); and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The VFMF, whose initial conception and design was funded by the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  15. Biothermal modeling of transurethral ultrasound applicators for MR-guided prostate thermal therapy (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Anthony B.; Diederich, Chris J.; Nau, William H.; Tyreus, Per D.; Gill, Harcharan; Bouley, Donna; Butts, R. K.; Rieke, Viola; Daniel, Bruce; Sommer, Graham

    2005-04-01

    Thermal ablation is a minimally-invasive treatment option for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and localized prostate cancer. Accurate spatial control of thermal dose delivery is paramount to improving thermal therapy efficacy and avoiding post-treatment complications. We have recently developed three types of transurethral ultrasound applicators, each with different degrees of heating selectivity. These applicators have been evaluated in vivo in coordination with magnetic resonance temperature imaging, and demonstrated to accurately ablate specific regions of the canine prostate. A finite difference biothermal model of the three types of transurethral ultrasound applicators (sectored tubular, planar, and curvilinear transducer sections) was developed and used to further study the performance and heating capabilities of each these devices. The biothermal model is based on the Pennes bioheat equation. The acoustic power deposition pattern corresponding to each applicator type was calculated using the rectangular radiator approximation to the Raleigh Sommerfield diffraction integral. In this study, temperature and thermal dose profiles were calculated for different treatment schemes and target volumes, including single shot and angular scanning procedures. This study also demonstrated the ability of the applicators to conform the cytotoxic thermal dose distribution to a predefined target area. Simulated thermal profiles corresponded well with MR temperature images from previous in vivo experiments. Biothermal simulations presented in this study reinforce the potential of improved efficacy of transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy of prostatic disease.

  16. Copenhagen Revisited: why the Germansdid not Achieve AN Atomic Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2002-10-01

    Michael Frayn's highly acclaimed play "Copenhagen", which reenacts the 1941 visit by Werner Heisenberg to Niels Bohr in Nazi-occupied Copenhagen, has now closed after a production in New York that won a Pulitzer Prize, and a successful tour of many cities in the US. Symposia in New York, Washington, Cambridge, Pasadena, and Raleigh have presented the science - quantum mechanics and nuclear physics - that undergirds the play, have debated its historical accuracy, and have celebrated its theatrical realization. The play, the symposia, and recently released documents have led to a new and heightened debate about old questions, among them why Heisenberg visited Bohr, what went on during their uncongenial meeting, and why the Germans did not succeed in building an atomic bomb. This in turn has resulted in a plethora of sometimes polemical articles in journals and magazines, that try to answer the questions. In this talk I will review some of the evidence, in particular about the German failure to make a bomb. While I will concentrate on the physics, the "political" factors will also be adumbrated.

  17. Second harmonic generation from small gold metallic particles: from the dipolar to the quadrupolar response.

    PubMed

    Nappa, J; Russier-Antoine, I; Benichou, E; Jonin, Ch; Brevet, P F

    2006-11-14

    Hyper Raleigh scattering, a common technique to investigate the second harmonic light scattered from a liquid suspension of molecular compounds and to determine their quadratic hyperpolarizability, has been used for aqueous suspensions of gold nanoparticles, the diameter of which ranges from 20 up to 150 nm. The hyper Rayleigh signal intensity was recorded as a function of the angle of polarization of the incident fundamental wave. For the particles with a diameter smaller than 50 nm, the response is dominated by the dipolar contribution arising from the deviation of the particle shape from that of a perfect sphere. For larger diameter particles, retardation effects in the interaction of the electromagnetic fields with the particles cannot be neglected any longer and the response deviates from the pure dipolar response, exhibiting a strong quadrupolar contribution. It is then shown that in order to quantify the relative magnitude of these two dipolar and quadrupolar contributions, a weighting parameter zeta(V) which equals unity for a pure quadrupolar contribution and vanishes for a pure dipolar response, can be introduced. PMID:17115784

  18. Trees grow on money: urban tree canopy cover and environmental justice.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Kirsten; Fragkias, Michail; Boone, Christopher G; Zhou, Weiqi; McHale, Melissa; Grove, J Morgan; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; McFadden, Joseph P; Buckley, Geoffrey L; Childers, Dan; Ogden, Laura; Pincetl, Stephanie; Pataki, Diane; Whitmer, Ali; Cadenasso, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the distributional equity of urban tree canopy (UTC) cover for Baltimore, MD, Los Angeles, CA, New York, NY, Philadelphia, PA, Raleigh, NC, Sacramento, CA, and Washington, D.C. using high spatial resolution land cover data and census data. Data are analyzed at the Census Block Group levels using Spearman's correlation, ordinary least squares regression (OLS), and a spatial autoregressive model (SAR). Across all cities there is a strong positive correlation between UTC cover and median household income. Negative correlations between race and UTC cover exist in bivariate models for some cities, but they are generally not observed using multivariate regressions that include additional variables on income, education, and housing age. SAR models result in higher r-square values compared to the OLS models across all cities, suggesting that spatial autocorrelation is an important feature of our data. Similarities among cities can be found based on shared characteristics of climate, race/ethnicity, and size. Our findings suggest that a suite of variables, including income, contribute to the distribution of UTC cover. These findings can help target simultaneous strategies for UTC goals and environmental justice concerns. PMID:25830303

  19. Impacts of global warming on residential heating and cooling degree-days in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, Yana; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-08-01

    Climate change is expected to decrease heating demand and increase cooling demand for buildings and affect outdoor thermal comfort. Here, we project changes in residential heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the historical (1981-2010) and future (2080-2099) periods in the United States using median results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. We project future HDD and CDD values by adding CMIP5 projected changes to values based on historical observations of US climate. The sum HDD + CDD is an indicator of locations that are thermally comfortable, with low heating and cooling demand. By the end of the century, station median HDD + CDD will be reduced in the contiguous US, decreasing in the North and increasing in the South. Under the unmitigated RCP8.5 scenario, by the end of this century, in terms of HDD and CDD values considered separately, future New York, NY, is anticipated to become more like present Oklahoma City, OK; Denver, CO, becomes more like Raleigh, NC, and Seattle, WA, becomes more like San Jose, CA. These results serve as an indicator of projected climate change and can help inform decision-making.

  20. Laser imprint suppression using high-Z layers at high foot intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max; Aglitskiy, Y.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Bates, J. W.; Phillips, L. S.

    2006-10-01

    Laser imprint experiments are carried out on the Nike KrF laser with induced spatial incoherence (ISI) smoothing. Most of the imprint occurs during the initial low-intensity (``foot'') part of the pulse, which is necessary to compress the target to achieve high gain. It has been found previously that a thin high-Z overcoat on the laser side of the target can be effective in suppressing imprint [S. P. Obenschain et al. Phys. Plasmas 9, 2234 (2002)]. The present experiments are designed to extend this method to higher foot intensities (˜10^13 W/cm^2), approaching those of the current high gain pellet designs. Measurements of Raleigh-Taylor (RT) amplified areal mass non-uniformity are made by face-on x-ray radiography using Bragg reflection from a curved crystal coupled to an x-ray streak camera. X-ray flux from the high-Z layer is monitored using absolutely calibrated time-resolved x-ray spectrometers. Simultaneous side-on radiography using a curved crystal allows target trajectory measurement for comparison with simulations. The effect of the high-Z layers of varying thicknesses on ISI imprint as well as re-imposed ripple growth will be presented for two different materials (Au and Pd). This work is supported by US DOE/NNSA.

  1. High Sensitivity Imprint Measurements on Nike Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max

    2005-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instability seeded by laser non-uniformity (laser imprint) is an important factor in performance of direct-drive ICF targets. Most of the imprint occurs during the initial low-intensity (``foot'') part of the pulse, necessary to compress the target to achieve high gain. Experiments are carried out on Nike KrF laser with induced spatial incoherence (ISI) smoothing. The amount of imprint is varied by changing the uniformity the foot of the pulse. The resulting Raleigh-Taylor (RT) amplified areal mass non-uniformity is measured by face-on x-ray radiography using Bragg reflection from a curved crystal coupled to an x-ray streak camera. The streak camera was recently retrofitted with a new high sensitivity CCD camera. The sensitivity of the CCD has enabled it to be fiberoptically coupled directly to the streak camera output, without an image intensifier and lens coupling. This gave an increased overall spatial resolution as well as lower noise. Because of the strong short wavelength component of RT amplified imprint, the increased resolution and lower noise resulted in much lower noise floor in the measurement. Experimental results are compared with 2D simulations using FAST hydrocode for a range of foot uniformities and intensities. Work supported by the U. S. DOE/NNSA.

  2. Reducing regional vulnerabilities and multi-city robustness conflicts using many-objective optimization under deep uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Patrick; Trindade, Bernardo; Jonathan, Herman; Harrison, Zeff; Gregory, Characklis

    2016-04-01

    Emerging water scarcity concerns in southeastern US are associated with several deeply uncertain factors, including rapid population growth, limited coordination across adjacent municipalities and the increasing risks for sustained regional droughts. Managing these uncertainties will require that regional water utilities identify regionally coordinated, scarcity-mitigating strategies that trigger the appropriate actions needed to avoid water shortages and financial instabilities. This research focuses on the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, seeking to engage the water utilities within Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill in cooperative and robust regional water portfolio planning. Prior analysis of this region through the year 2025 has identified significant regional vulnerabilities to volumetric shortfalls and financial losses. Moreover, efforts to maximize the individual robustness of any of the mentioned utilities also have the potential to strongly degrade the robustness of the others. This research advances a multi-stakeholder Many-Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM) framework to better account for deeply uncertain factors when identifying cooperative management strategies. Results show that the sampling of deeply uncertain factors in the computational search phase of MORDM can aid in the discovery of management actions that substantially improve the robustness of individual utilities as well as the overall region to water scarcity. Cooperative water transfers, financial risk mitigation tools, and coordinated regional demand management must be explored jointly to decrease robustness conflicts between the utilities. The insights from this work have general merit for regions where adjacent municipalities can benefit from cooperative regional water portfolio planning.

  3. Reducing regional vulnerabilities and multi-city robustness conflicts using many-objective optimization under deep uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, B. C.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.; Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.

    2015-12-01

    Emerging water scarcity concerns in southeastern US are associated with several deeply uncertain factors, including rapid population growth, limited coordination across adjacent municipalities and the increasing risks for sustained regional droughts. Managing these uncertainties will require that regional water utilities identify regionally coordinated, scarcity-mitigating strategies that trigger the appropriate actions needed to avoid water shortages and financial instabilities. This research focuses on the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, seeking to engage the water utilities within Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill in cooperative and robust regional water portfolio planning. Prior analysis of this region through the year 2025 has identified significant regional vulnerabilities to volumetric shortfalls and financial losses. Moreover, efforts to maximize the individual robustness of any of the mentioned utilities also have the potential to strongly degrade the robustness of the others. This research advances a multi-stakeholder Many-Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM) framework to better account for deeply uncertain factors when identifying cooperative management strategies. Results show that the sampling of deeply uncertain factors in the computational search phase of MORDM can aid in the discovery of management actions that substantially improve the robustness of individual utilities as well as of the overall region to water scarcity. Cooperative water transfers, financial risk mitigation tools, and coordinated regional demand management should be explored jointly to decrease robustness conflicts between the utilities. The insights from this work have general merit for regions where adjacent municipalities can benefit from cooperative regional water portfolio planning.

  4. Remote Sensing of Water Quality In The Belzian Coastal Zone Using Satellite Ocean Colour Imagery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavender, S.; Nunny, R.; Nagur, C.; Tillett, D.

    The Watershed Reef Interconnectivity Scientific Study (WRIScS) has been running since 1998 with the data collection primarily being undertaken by Raleigh volunteer teams, but in 2001 has also included students from the University of Plymouth. The overall objectives of the study include: - looking at how land-use practices affect the discharge of sediment and contaminants to rivers and subsequently to the sea - studying the dispersion of sediment and asso- ciated contaminants within the sea (in particular the ability of discharges to impact upon the inner margins of the barrier reef) - identifying changes in the quantities and quality of river sediment affecting the barrier reef The fourth year of the project also includes a marine remote sensing based method- ology, as the project has tried to develop a low cost monitoring strategy (for water turbidity) that can be continued after the project ends. In 2001, expeditions were being carried out from March to May and July to Septem- ber, which are the dry and rainy seasons respectively. The area is optically shallow (less than 25 metres depth) and therefore seabed effects must be taken into account. The seabed has been characterised and mapped through both acoustic and optical tech- niques (e.g. digital cameras and secchi disks). This in-situ data has been used to cor- rect the satellite SeaWiFS ocean colour imagery so that bio-geochemical maps can be derived. The presentation will describe and show the results of this low cost methodology.

  5. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing

    PubMed Central

    Hales, T. C.; Sarnak, P.; Pugh, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues (“the energy levels”) follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks. PMID:11058156

  6. Trees Grow on Money: Urban Tree Canopy Cover and Environmental Justice

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Kirsten; Fragkias, Michail; Boone, Christopher G.; Zhou, Weiqi; McHale, Melissa; Grove, J. Morgan; O’Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; McFadden, Joseph P.; Buckley, Geoffrey L.; Childers, Dan; Ogden, Laura; Pincetl, Stephanie; Pataki, Diane; Whitmer, Ali; Cadenasso, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the distributional equity of urban tree canopy (UTC) cover for Baltimore, MD, Los Angeles, CA, New York, NY, Philadelphia, PA, Raleigh, NC, Sacramento, CA, and Washington, D.C. using high spatial resolution land cover data and census data. Data are analyzed at the Census Block Group levels using Spearman’s correlation, ordinary least squares regression (OLS), and a spatial autoregressive model (SAR). Across all cities there is a strong positive correlation between UTC cover and median household income. Negative correlations between race and UTC cover exist in bivariate models for some cities, but they are generally not observed using multivariate regressions that include additional variables on income, education, and housing age. SAR models result in higher r-square values compared to the OLS models across all cities, suggesting that spatial autocorrelation is an important feature of our data. Similarities among cities can be found based on shared characteristics of climate, race/ethnicity, and size. Our findings suggest that a suite of variables, including income, contribute to the distribution of UTC cover. These findings can help target simultaneous strategies for UTC goals and environmental justice concerns. PMID:25830303

  7. Near-road multipollutant profiles: associations between volatile organic compounds and a tracer gas surrogate near a busy highway.

    PubMed

    Barzyk, Timothy M; Ciesielski, Anna; Shores, Richard C; Thoma, Eben D; Seila, Robert L; Isakov, Vlad; Baldauf, Richard W

    2012-05-01

    This research characterizes associations between multiple pollutants in the near-road environment attributed to a roadway line source. It also examines the use of a tracer gas as a surrogate of mobile source pollutants. Air samples were collected in summa canisters along a 300 m transect normal to a highway in Raleigh, North Carolina for five sampling periods spanning four days. Samples were subsequently measured for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using an electron capture gas chromatograph. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released from a finite line source adjacent to the roadway for two of the sampling periods, collected in the canisters and measured with the VOCs. Associations between each VOC, and between VOCs and the tracer, were quantified with Pearson correlation coefficients to assess the consistency of the multi-pollutant dispersion profiles, and assess the tracer as a potential surrogate for mobile source pollutants. As expected, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m,p- and o-xylenes (collectively, BTEX) show strong correlations between each other; further BTEX shows a strong correlation to SF6. Between 26 VOCs, correlation coefficients were greater than 0.8, and 14 VOCs had coefficients greater than 0.6 with the tracer gas. Even under non-downwind conditions, chemical concentrations had significant correlations with distance. Results indicate that certain VOCs are representative of a larger multi-pollutant mixture, and many VOCs are well-correlated with the tracer gas. PMID:22696809

  8. Do cities simulate climate change? A comparison of herbivore response to urban and global warming.

    PubMed

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dale, Adam G; Terando, Adam J; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Cities experience elevated temperature, CO2 , and nitrogen deposition decades ahead of the global average, such that biological response to urbanization may predict response to future climate change. This hypothesis remains untested due to a lack of complementary urban and long-term observations. Here, we examine the response of an herbivore, the scale insect Melanaspis tenebricosa, to temperature in the context of an urban heat island, a series of historical temperature fluctuations, and recent climate warming. We survey M. tenebricosa on 55 urban street trees in Raleigh, NC, 342 herbarium specimens collected in the rural southeastern United States from 1895 to 2011, and at 20 rural forest sites represented by both modern (2013) and historical samples. We relate scale insect abundance to August temperatures and find that M. tenebricosa is most common in the hottest parts of the city, on historical specimens collected during warm time periods, and in present-day rural forests compared to the same sites when they were cooler. Scale insects reached their highest densities in the city, but abundance peaked at similar temperatures in urban and historical datasets and tracked temperature on a decadal scale. Although urban habitats are highly modified, species response to a key abiotic factor, temperature, was consistent across urban and rural-forest ecosystems. Cities may be an appropriate but underused system for developing and testing hypotheses about biological effects of climate change. Future work should test the applicability of this model to other groups of organisms. PMID:25163424

  9. Fruit, vegetable and fat intake in a population-based sample of African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Gary, Tiffany L.; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Gregg, Edward W.; Williams, Desmond E.; Beckles, Gloria L. A.; Miller, Edgar J.; Engelgau, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: African Americans experience high rates of obesity and other chronic diseases, which may be related, in part, to diet. However, little is known about dietary patterns in this population, particularly from population-based data sources. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 2,172 African-American adults in Project DIRECT (Diabetes Interventions Reaching and Educating Communities Together). A baseline assessment was conducted using a multistaged population-based probability sample from Raleigh and Greensboro, NC. Daily fruit, vegetable and fat intake was evaluated using a modified version of the Block questionnaire, and then stratified results were analyzed by sociodemographic, health and behavior characteristics. STATA Survey commands were used to account for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Overall, a very small number of participants met national recommendations for > or = 2 servings of fruit (8%) and > or = 3 servings of vegetables (16%) per day. Many participants reported eating high-fat foods; the average daily fat intake was 86 g, and the average daily intake from saturated fat was 24 g. People with more education and higher incomes had a higher average daily fruit intake (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that participants' fruit, vegetable and fat intake deviated greatly from national guidelines; older people, women, participants with higher socioeconomic status and those who were physically active consumed healthier foods. These data may be useful in developing dietary and weight loss interventions for African Americans. PMID:15622690

  10. Performance of deep-rooted phreatophytic trees at a site containing total petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Ari M; Adham, Tareq; Berra, Brett; Tsao, David

    2013-01-01

    Poplar and willow tree stands were installed in 2003 at a site in Raleigh, North Carolina containing total petroleum hydrocarbon - contaminated groundwater. The objective was groundwater uptake and plume control. The water table was 5 to 6 m below ground surface (bgs) and therefore methods were used to encourage deep root development. Growth rates, rooting depth and sap flow were measured for trees in Plot A located in the center of the plume and in Plot B peripheral to the plume. The trees were initially sub-irrigated with vertically installed drip-lines and by 2005 had roots 4 to 5 m bgs. Water balance calculations suggested groundwater uptake. In 2007, the average sap flow was higher for Plot B (approximately 59 L per day per tree) than for Plot A (approximately 23 L per day per tree), probably as a result of TPH-induced stress in Plot A. Nevertheless, the estimated rate of groundwater uptake for Plot A was sufficient, relative to the calculated rate of groundwater flux beneath the stand, that a high level of plume control was achieved based on MODFLOW modeling results. Down-gradient groundwater monitoring wells installed in late 2011 should provide quantitative data for plume control. PMID:23488009

  11. Application of municipal sludge (biosolids) for agricultural purposes and groundwater nitrate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Welby, C.W. . Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    One of the more popular means of handling sewage sludge from municipalities is its application to agricultural lands. A variety of crops are grown with the expectation that plants will utilize the nitrogen. However, a complex scenario allows some of the nitrate to move below root depth and eventually to the water table at depths of up to 30 ft. The City of Raleigh, NC injects sewage sludge ( residuals'', biosolids'') into soils derived largely from the Rolesville Granite in an area of typical rolling Piedmont topography. A 1975 background study of part of the site demonstrated differences in groundwater quality between areas farmed over a period of years and areas dominated by second-growth pine and harwood forests. Groundwater quality data collected semiannually between 1982 and 1988 show gradual buildup of nitrate in some fields; in others groundwater quality apparently remains unaffected by nitrate from the sludge. Monitoring well placement may play a role in these differences. Minimum time from the sludge application to an increase in groundwater nitrate is from 9 to 12 months. An ongoing study of a 12-acre field which lay fallow for a number of years prior to sludge application in 1990 demonstrates that some nitrate does move downward fairly rapidly, its movement being recorded in both the saprolite and groundwater. Comparison of nitrate content of groundwater from monitoring wells at a nearby dairy farm shows that normal agricultural practices may also increase the nitrate content of the shallow groundwater.

  12. Arthropods of the great indoors: characterizing diversity inside urban and suburban homes

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Misha; Bayless, Keith M.; Malow, Tara L.F.; Dunn, Robert R.; Trautwein, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    Although humans and arthropods have been living and evolving together for all of our history, we know very little about the arthropods we share our homes with apart from major pest groups. Here we surveyed, for the first time, the complete arthropod fauna of the indoor biome in 50 houses (located in and around Raleigh, North Carolina, USA). We discovered high diversity, with a conservative estimate range of 32–211 morphospecies, and 24–128 distinct arthropod families per house. The majority of this indoor diversity (73%) was made up of true flies (Diptera), spiders (Araneae), beetles (Coleoptera), and wasps and kin (Hymenoptera, especially ants: Formicidae). Much of the arthropod diversity within houses did not consist of synanthropic species, but instead included arthropods that were filtered from the surrounding landscape. As such, common pest species were found less frequently than benign species. Some of the most frequently found arthropods in houses, such as gall midges (Cecidomyiidae) and book lice (Liposcelididae), are unfamiliar to the general public despite their ubiquity. These findings present a new understanding of the diversity, prevalence, and distribution of the arthropods in our daily lives. Considering their impact as household pests, disease vectors, generators of allergens, and facilitators of the indoor microbiome, advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of arthropods in homes has major economic and human health implications. PMID:26819844

  13. An alternative model for the development of the allochthonous southern Appalachian Piedmont.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zen, E.-A.

    1981-01-01

    The recent deep-seismic-reflection data across the S Appalachian Piedmont require rethinking of the tectonic relations in that area. Some of the traditional tectonic-lithostratigraphic belts of the Piedmont may be 'doubly allochthonous', that is, they may be terranes that are exotic mutually and with respect to the N American craton. These terranes may have been brought to the edge of the craton by plate-tectonic processes, in a manner similar to that proposed for the post-Triassic 'Wrangellia' in southeastern Alaska, and then obducted onto the craton as traditional thrust allochthons. If this idea is correct, then there is no compelling need for an intercontinental suture in the lower crust under the exposed southern Appalachian Piedmont; however, multiple sutures may obtain under the Coastal Plain overlap or farther off shore. The location of the Paleozoic Iapetus Ocean may also be off the present shore. The tectonic units now exposed in the Appalachian Piedmont not only may not be continuous with those of the N Appalachian region that have been considered by many authors to be the same on a cylindrical model but could have had different geologic origins. The nature of the ultramafic rocks spatially associated with the Kings Mountain belt and the Raleigh and Kiokee belts, as well as the paleomagnetic orientations of rocks of the various Piedmont belts, may provide useful tests for this microplate model.-Author

  14. Using Passive Sampling Devices to Assess Chemistry and Toxicity in Streams from six U.S Metropolitan Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, G. L.; Cuffney, T.; Tate, C.

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. population is growing by almost 3 million people a year with concomitant increase in urban development. Increased urbanization causes changes to watersheds which may affect aquatic biota by altering the physical and chemical environment. We deployed semi-membrane-permeable-devices (SPMDs) for 30 days to passively sample hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) from 180 streams in six major metropolitan areas in the U.S.: Atlanta, Georgia, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas, Denver, Colorado, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Portland, Oregon, and Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina. SPMD extracts were tested with two assays: (1)Fluoroscan which estimates PAH concentration (pyrene index) by exposing samples to UV light and (2)P450RGS which measures induction of CYP1A a liver enzyme involved in detoxification of organic contaminants. There was a strong positive relation between urban intensity and both the pyrene index and CYP1A in streams from all six metropolitan areas indicating higher HOC concentrations and greater potential toxicity at higher urbanization levels. Invertebrate community responses as measured by EPT taxa richness and benthic index of biotic integrity were also significantly and negatively correlated with both the pyrene index and CYP1A. Our results suggest that toxicity may be a factor in degradation of invertebrate communities in urban environments.

  15. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Moninger, William R.; Mamrosh, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) project, giving some history on the project, various applications of the atmospheric data, and future ideas and plans. As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, the TAMDAR project developed a small low-cost sensor that collects useful meteorological data and makes them available in near real time to improve weather forecasts. This activity has been a joint effort with FAA, NOAA, universities, and industry. A tri-agency team collaborated by developing a concept of operations, determining the sensor specifications, and evaluating sensor performance as reported by Moosakhanian et. al. (2006). Under contract with Georgia Tech Research Institute, NASA worked with AirDat of Raleigh, NC to develop the sensor. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and icing. It can compute pressure altitude, indicated and true air speed, ice accretion rate, wind speed and direction, peak and average turbulence, and eddy dissipation rate. The overall development process, sensor capabilities, and performance based on ground and flight tests is reported by Daniels (2002), Daniels et. al. (2004) and by Tsoucalas et. al. (2006). An in-service evaluation of the sensor was performed called the Great Lakes Fleet Experiment (GLFE), first reported by Moninger et. al. (2004) and Mamrosh et. al. (2005). In this experiment, a Mesaba Airlines fleet was equipped to collect meteorological data over the Great Lakes region during normal revenue-producing flights.

  16. Measurements of the Diameter and Velocity Distributions of Atomized Tablet-Coating Solutions for Pharmaceutical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterday, Kathryn; Aliseda, Alberto; Lasheras, Juan

    2009-11-01

    The atomization of colloidal suspensions is of particular interest to the manufacturing of tablets and pills used as drug delivery systems by the pharmaceutical industry. At various stages in the manufacturing process, the tablets are coated with a spray of droplets produced by co-axial atomizers. The mechanisms of droplet size and spray formation in these types of atomizers are dominated by Kelvin-Helmholtz and Raleigh-Taylor instabilities for both low[1] and high[2] Ohnesorge numbers. We present detailed phase Doppler measurements of the Sauter Mean Diameter of the droplets produced by co-axial spray atomizers using water-based colloidal suspensions with solid concentrations ranging from fifteen to twenty percent and acetone-based colloidal suspensions with solid concentrations ranging from five to ten percent. Our results compare favorably with predictions by Aliseda's model. This suggests that the final size distribution is mainly determined by the instabilities caused by the sudden acceleration of the liquid interface. [1]Varga, C. M., et al. (2003) J. Fluid Mech. 497:405-434 [2]Aliseda, A. et al. (2008). J. Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 34(2), 161-175.

  17. Computational Physics in Africa, its Scope and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Chandra

    2002-08-01

    There is a large untapped potential scientific talent available among the estimated 700 million people who live in Africa. Computational physics has the scope of playing a key role in tapping this potential and associated with this are a number of challenges. Since CCP2001, there has been a significant effort in place in addressing some of the problems faced in Africa. The effort of D.Stauffer through website: www.thp-uni-koeln.de under the umbrella of EPS and Forum on Physics in Africa through efforts of researchers of African origin in USA are some of the positive developments. Computational Physics Division of APS can play a significant role in the successful implementation of computational physics in Africa. This article explains the role of Computational Physics in Africa, its need, its scope and challenges and the contributions APS can make. References: 1. C.V.Sheth, Proceedings of CCP2001. 2. E.F. Redish in : Computers in Physics Instruction, Proceedings Aug 1-5,1988,Raleigh,North Carolina, U.S.A., Addison-Wesley, 1990. keywords: computers in physics education, computational physics. PACS: 07-05.-t, 01.50.Ht, 01.50.-i, 01.40Gm,01.40-d

  18. Production and Metrology of Cylindrical Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets with Sinusoidal Perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Balkey, M.M.; Day, R.D.; Batha, S.H.; Elliot, N.E.; Pierce, T.; Sandoval, D.L.; Garrard, K.P.; Sohn, A.

    2004-03-15

    Shock waves generated during inertial confinement fusion implosions propagate toward the center of the capsule encountering interfaces between materials with different densities, such as between the ablator and the DT fuel. These interactions are hydrodynamically unstable and the resulting instability causes mixing of the materials at the interface, which is predicted to have detrimental effects on fusion burn. In this experiment, the growth of a single-mode perturbation machined into a radiographically opaque marker layer, driven by a strong shock, is measured during a cylindrically symmetric implosion. These measurements are used to validate simulations and theories of the complex hydrodynamics. Since any perturbation on the marker layer surface will lead to instability growth, precise knowledge of the initial conditions is critical. The targets used in this experiment have up to a 3.0-{mu}m-amplitude, mode 28 ({lambda} = 98 {mu}m) sinusoidal perturbation machined into a 438-{mu}m-outerradius aluminum band with a nominal thickness of 8 {mu}m. The perturbations were machined using a fast-tool servo [B. JARED and T. A. DOW, Precision Engineering Center Annual Report, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC, p. 123 (1996)] and were metrologized using a linear variable differential transformer [FRANK J. OLIVER, Practical Instrumentation Tranducers, p. 42-45, Hayden Book Company (1971)]. In this paper, the importance of metrology is discussed and is shown to be critical to the interpretation of experimental results.

  19. A white clover system to estimate effects of tropospheric ozone on plants

    SciTech Connect

    Heagle, A.S.; Miller, J.E.; Sherrill, D.E.

    1994-05-01

    An ozone-sensitive (NC-S) and an ozone-resistant (NC-R) clone of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) were tested to determine the feasibility of using them to indicate concentrations of tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) and potential effects of O{sub 3} on plants. Plants of each clone were cloned daily in open-top field chambers to O{sub 3} concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 times the ambient concentrations for three summer seasons near Raleigh, NC. Foliar injury, foliar chlorophyll, and forage production of both clones were related directly to the O{sub 3} concentration. Ozone routinely injured leaves, suppressed foliar chlorophyll, and decreased growth of NC-S more than that of NC-R. Forage production was highly variable over a wide range of weather conditions, but the relative forage production rate of both clones under such conditions was similar and the seasonal O{sub 3} response relationship between NC-S and NC-R was relatively stable. The level of response of NC-S to O{sub 3} routinely increased from growth period to growth period suggesting an effect of previous exposure. More work is needed to calibrate the system over a wider range of ambient O{sub 3} levels and climatic conditions. 40 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. De-cloaking the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deno Stelter, Richard; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a preliminary extinction map of the Galactic Center, made by using the Raleigh-Jeans Color Excess method (Majewski et al, 2011) and a Bayesian approach. The Galactic Center, due to its high density of stars, contains the Milky Way Galaxy's majority of massive stars and their black hole/neutron star remnants. These cosmic laboratories challenge our understanding of the most extreme physical environments in the universe. However, the extinction from the intervening gas and dust is extremely high (A_V~30), and cloaks these objects from view in visible wavelengths. Near-infrared wavelengths are less susceptible to extinction from gas and dust by factors of several magnitudes, but still suffer from differential reddening at very small scales; eg, 5 arcseconds (Gosling et al MNRAS 2009). De-reddening the GC furthers broadband imaging surveys of all types, such X-ray binary IR counterpart or transient searches being carried out by CIRCE on the GTC. Furthermore, MIRADAS, with its multiplexing capability and high resolution, will take advantage of these extinction maps as well to probe the chemo-dynamics and structure of the inner Milky Way when it goes on-sky in 2018/2019.

  1. Hospital Bioterrorism Planning and Burn Surge

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B.; Rich, Preston B.; Hultman, C. Scott; Charles, Anthony G.; Jones, Samuel W.; Schmits, Grace L.; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H.; Cairns, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity. PMID:24527874

  2. Compilation of water-resources data and hydrogeologic setting for four research stations in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge physiographic provinces of North Carolina, 2000-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Brad A.; Pfeifle, Cassandra A.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Bolich, Richard E.; Campbell, Ted R.; Geddes, Donald J., Jr.; Pippin, Charles G.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data were collected to describe the hydrologic conditions at four research stations in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces of North Carolina. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, from September 2000 through September 2004 are presented in this report. The locations and periods of data collection are as follows: the Lake Wheeler Road research station (Raleigh) from April 2001 to September 2004, the Langtree Peninsula research station (Mooresville) from September 2000 to September 2004, the Upper Piedmont research station (Reidsville) from March 2002 to September 2004, and the Bent Creek research station (Asheville) from July 2002 to September 2004. Data presented in this report include well-construction characteristics for 110 wells, periodic ground-water-level measurements for 96 wells, borehole geophysical logs for 23 wells, hourly ground-water-level measurements for 12 wells, continuous-stage measurements for 2 streams, continuous water-quality measurements for 8 wells and 2 streams, periodic water-quality samples for 57 wells and 6 stream sites, slug-test results for 38 wells, and shallow ground-water-flow maps. In addition, the geology and hydrogeology at each site are summarized.

  3. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-05-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors. PMID:22679860

  4. Plant materials and amendments for controlling wind and water erosion on a fly ash disposal area: TVA Colbert Fossil Plant, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Behel, D.; Soileau, J.M.; Kelsoe, J.

    1996-12-31

    Fly ash disposal sites adjacent to fossil fueled generating plants are subject to wind and water erosion which increases the operation and maintenance costs. Gullies and unstable areas in the disposal sites require expensive leveling and filling practices. Test evaluated both warm- and cool-season cover crops established by either sod or seed. Amendments to the ash consisted of composted poultry litter (CPL), soil, soil+CPL, fertilizer and beneficial soil microbes including mycorrhizal fungi. Turf sods (419 Bermuda, Emerald zoysia, and Raleigh St. Augustine) were compared in greenhouse and field studies. Six legumes and 12 grass species were tested in the greenhouse as seeded cover crops using similar amendments and raw poultry litter (PL). Legumes grew better with CPL and Boil amendments and grasses grew better on PL and soil amendments possibly due to differences in N requirements and N supply. Cool season crops generally grew faster than warm season species in the greenhouse tests. Amendments should be mixed with the FA to ameliorate the effects of boron and salt toxicity and to increase the water holding capacity. Bermuda sod grew faster than either St, Augustine or Emerald zoysia, but requires more water. A microbial amendment increased dry matter yields of bermuda sod 2 to 3 times after 40 to 60 days over unamended controls. Microbial amendments may be justified on an economic and sustainable basis. A field study is assessing the environmental and cultural requirements to grow a cover crop on an annual basis.

  5. Poultry waste digester. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and low-cost poultry waste digester (PWD) was constructed at North Carolina State University's Poultry Research Farm at Raleigh, N.C. The PWD system was designed to process a daily output of 600 kg of manure from 4000 caged laying hens. The system consisted of two digesters connected in series, a heating system, a hot water tank, and other metering equipment. The primary and secondary digesters were horizontal cylinders located partially below ground level. They were made of Red Mud plastic lining, supported in the insulated trenches, and covered with insulated roofs. The primary digester volume was 15 m/sup 3/ with an 8 m/sup 3/ liquid volume and a gas head-space above the liquid. The secondary digester volume was 30 m/sup 3/ with a 16 m/sup 3/ liquid volume. The temperature (50/sup 0/C) of the primary digester was maintained by the hot dilution water added with manure and a SolaRoll heating mat laid underneath the plastic lining. The design, operation, performance, energy balance, and economics of the digester are discussed and evaluated in this final progress report.

  6. Mutational Effects on the Folding Dynamics of a Minimized Hairpin‡

    PubMed Central

    Scian, Michele; Shu, Irene; Olsen, Katherine A.; Hassam, Khalil; Andersen, Niels H.

    2013-01-01

    The fold stabilities and folding dynamics of a series of mutants of a model hairpin, KTW-NPATGK-WTE (HP7), are reported. The parent system and the corresponding DPATGK loop species display sub-μs folding time constants. The mutational studies revealed that ultrafast folding requires both some pre-structuring of the loop and a favorable interaction between the chain termini at the transition state. In the case of YY-DPETGT-WY, another sub-μs folding species [Davis, C. M.; Xiao, S.; Raleigh, D. P.; Dyer, R. B. (2012) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 14476–14482], a hydrophobic cluster provides the latter. In the case of HP7, the Coulombic interaction between the terminal NH3+ and CO2− units provides this; a C-terminal Glu to amidated Ala mutation results in a 5-fold folding rate retardation. The effects of mutations within the reversing loop indicate the balance between loop flexibility (favoring fast conformational searching) and turn-formation in the unfolded state is a major factor in determining the folding dynamics. The –NAAAKX- loops examined display no detectable turn formation propensity in other hairpin constructs, but do result in stable analogs of HP7. Peptide KTW-NAAAKK-WTE displays the same fold stability as HP7 but both the folding and unfolding time constants are greater by a factor of 20. PMID:23521619

  7. Mutational effects on the folding dynamics of a minimized hairpin.

    PubMed

    Scian, Michele; Shu, Irene; Olsen, Katherine A; Hassam, Khalil; Andersen, Niels H

    2013-04-16

    The fold stabilities and folding dynamics of a series of mutants of a model hairpin, KTW-NPATGK-WTE (HP7), are reported. The parent system and the corresponding DPATGK loop species display submicrosecond folding time constants. The mutational studies revealed that ultrafast folding requires both some prestructuring of the loop and a favorable interaction between the chain termini in the transition state. In the case of YY-DPETGT-WY, another submicrosecond folding species [Davis, C. M., Xiao, S., Raleigh, D. P., and Dyer, R. B. (2012) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 14476-14482], a hydrophobic cluster provides the latter. In the case of HP7, the Coulombic interaction between the terminal NH3(+) and CO2(-) units provides this; a C-terminal Glu to amidated Ala mutation results in a 5-fold retardation of the folding rate. The effects of mutations within the reversing loop indicate the balance between loop flexibility (favoring fast conformational searching) and turn formation in the unfolded state is a major factor in determining the folding dynamics. The -NAAAKX- loops examined display no detectable turn formation propensity in other hairpin constructs but do result in stable analogues of HP7. Peptide KTW-NAAAKK-WTE displays the same fold stability as HP7, but both the folding and unfolding time constants are greater by a factor of 20. PMID:23521619

  8. [Comment on] BOSP members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  9. Evolution of Ion Clouds in the Equatorial Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrochuk, Yevgeny; Blaunstein, Nathan; Mishin, Evgeny; Pedersen, Todd; Caton, Ron; Viggiano, Al; Schuman, Nick

    2015-11-01

    We report on the results of 2- and 3-dimentional numerical investigations of the evolution of samarium ion clouds injected in the equatorial ionosphere, alike the recent MOSC experiments. The ambient conditions are described by a standard model of the quiet-time equatorial ionosphere from 90 to 350 km. The altitudinal distribution of the transport processes and ambient electric and magnetic fields is taken into account. The fast process of stratification of ion clouds and breaking into small plasmoids occur only during the late stage of the cloud evolution. The role of the background plasma and its depletion zones formed due to the short-circuiting currents is not as evident as in mid latitudes. It is also revealed that the altitudinal dependence of the diffusion and drift plays a minor role in the cloud evolution at the equator. Likewise, the cloud remains stable with respect to the Raleigh-Taylor and gradient-drift instabilities. These two features are defined by the equatorial near-horizontal magnetic field which leads to a strongly-elongated ellipsoid-like plasma cloud. The critical dip angle separating the stable (equatorial) and unstable (mid-latitude) cloud regimes will be defined in future simulation studies, as well as the dependence on the ambient electric field and neutral wind. 2Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory

  10. Novel FBG interrogation technique for achieving < 100 nɛ accuracies at remote distances > 70 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Tom; O'Connor, Peter; Levins, John; McDonald, David

    2005-06-01

    Due to the development of Fibre Bragg Grating sensors for the measurement of temperature, strain and pressure many markets can benefit from optical technology. These markets are the oil and gas industry, structural and civil engineering, rail and aerospace to name a few. The advantages of using optical sensing technology are that high accuracy measurements can be performed with a passive optical system. By running one fibre along the structure or down the well, multiple points along the fibre can be tested to measure strain, temperature and pressure. Of importance with these systems is the reach that can be obtained while maintaining accuracy. A major problem with long reach system is the back reflection due to SBS and Rayleigh scattering processes which reflect part of the laser light back into the receiver which affect the sensitivity of system. This paper shows a technique to enable a reach of >70km by using a tunable laser and receiver. Techniques for the suppression of receiver noise from SBS and Raleigh scattering are implemented. In addition polarisation dependence of the FBG is considered and results of techniques to limit the effect of polarisation at long and short reaches are shown.

  11. Optics Program Simplifies Analysis and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Engineers at Goddard Space Flight Center partnered with software experts at Mide Technology Corporation, of Medford, Massachusetts, through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to design the Disturbance-Optics-Controls-Structures (DOCS) Toolbox, a software suite for performing integrated modeling for multidisciplinary analysis and design. The DOCS Toolbox integrates various discipline models into a coupled process math model that can then predict system performance as a function of subsystem design parameters. The system can be optimized for performance; design parameters can be traded; parameter uncertainties can be propagated through the math model to develop error bounds on system predictions; and the model can be updated, based on component, subsystem, or system level data. The Toolbox also allows the definition of process parameters as explicit functions of the coupled model and includes a number of functions that analyze the coupled system model and provide for redesign. The product is being sold commercially by Nightsky Systems Inc., of Raleigh, North Carolina, a spinoff company that was formed by Mide specifically to market the DOCS Toolbox. Commercial applications include use by any contractors developing large space-based optical systems, including Lockheed Martin Corporation, The Boeing Company, and Northrup Grumman Corporation, as well as companies providing technical audit services, like General Dynamics Corporation

  12. FY05 Xradia 3D (mu)XCT System Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Jr., H E; Brown, W D

    2005-08-26

    The Xradia 3D {mu}XCT system was delivered to LLNL on April 5, 2005. The system became operational the week of April 11, 2005. The Xradia 3D {mu}XCT system has been extensively used to scan several high-energy density physics (see Table 1) and other programmatic (NIF, E&E and DNT) materials, components and full assemblies. In this summary we only focus on the HEDP program. X-ray radiographs and tomograms of materials such as aerogel foams and gradient density reservoirs are being used to better understand material synthesis. Radiographs and tomograms of components include a glass capsule encapsulated within a 50-mg/cm{sup 3} SiO{sub 2} aerogel foam and then machined to final outer dimensions, while full up assemblies include low-temperature Raleigh-Taylor (LoTRT) [Brown, et al. 2005] and DDP targets. We highlight two full up assembled targets: DDPs and LoTRTs. Representative X-ray digital radiographs are shown in Figures 1 and 2 for the DDP and LoTRT, respectively. The examples very clearly show that the assemblies were performed correctly.

  13. Changes in Carbon Flux at the Duke Forest Hardwood Ameriflux Site Due to Land Cover/Land Use Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCombs, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area has been ranked by Forbes as the fastest growing cities in the United States. As a result of the rapid growth, there has been a significant amount of urban sprawl. The objective of this study was to determine if the changes in land use and land cover have caused a change in the carbon flux near the Duke Forest AmeriFlux station that was active from 2001 to 2008. The land cover and land use were assessed every two years to determine how land cover has changed at the Duke Forest Hardwoods (US-Dk2) AmeriFlux site from 2001 to 2008 using Landsat scenes. The change in land cover and land use was then compared to changes in the carbon footprint that is computed annually from 2001 to 2008. The footprint model for each wind direction determined that there are changes annually and that the research will determine if these changes are due to annual weather patterns or land use and land cover changes.

  14. Compact Doppler magnetograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Moynihan, Philip I.; Vaughan, Arthur H.; Cacciani, Alessandro

    1998-11-01

    We designed a low-cost flight instrument that images the full solar disk through two narrow band filters at the red nd blue 'wings' of the solar potassium absorption line. The images are produced on a 1024 X 1024 charge-coupled device with a resolution of 2 arcsec per pixel. Four filtergrams taken in a very short time at both wings in the left and right states of circular polarization are used to yield a Dopplergram and a magnetogram simultaneously. The noise-equivalent velocity associated with each pixel is less than 3 m/s. The measured signal is linearly proportional to the velocity in the range +/- 4000 m/s. The range of magnetic fields is from 3 to 3000 Gauss. The optical system of the instrument is simple and easily aligned. With a pixel size of 12 micrometers , the effective focal length is 126 cm. A Raleigh resolution limit of 4 arcsec is achieved with a 5-cm entrance apertures, providing an f/25 focal ratio. The foreoptic is a two-component telephoto lens serving to limit the overall optical length to 89 cm or less. The mass of the instrument is 14 kg. the power required is less than 30 Watts. The Compact Doppler Magnetograph can be used in space mission with severe mass and power requirements. It can also be effectively used for ground-based observations: large telescope, dome or other observatory facilities are not required.

  15. X-ray Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography of ICF and HEDP Materials, Subassemblies and Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W D; Martz Jr., H E

    2006-05-31

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high energy density physics (HEDP) research are being conducted at large laser facilities, such as the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics OMEGA facility and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF). At such facilities, millimeter-sized targets with micrometer structures are studied in a variety of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, equation-of-state, inertial confinement fusion and high-energy density experiments. The extreme temperatures and pressures achieved in these experiments make the results susceptible to imperfections in the fabricated targets. Targets include materials varying widely in composition ({approx}3 < Z < {approx}82), density ({approx}0.03 to {approx}20 g/cm{sup 3}), geometry (planar to spherical) and embedded structures (joints to subassemblies). Fabricating these targets with structures to the tolerances required is a challenging engineering problem the ICF and HEDP community are currently undertaking. Nondestructive characterization (NDC) provides a valuable tool in material selection, component inspection, and the final pre-shot assemblies inspection. X-rays are a key method used to NDC these targets. In this paper we discuss X-ray attenuation, X-ray phase effects, and the X-ray system used, its performance and application to characterize low-temperature Raleigh-Taylor and non-cryogenic double-shell targets.

  16. Single-Station Passive Seismic Stratigraphy for the characterization of subsurface structure of the Valtellina valley (central Alps, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, M.; Bini, A.; Bassi, S.; Giudici, M.; Monti, M.; Azzola, M.

    2012-04-01

    The reconstruction of the subsurface structure of alpine valleys plays a key-role in the evaluation of their genesis, entrenchment and tectonic evolution. As a matter of fact, their characterization is strictly dependent on borehole data (water wells, shallow geognostic logs) and land based, deep seismic reflection/refraction lines; unfortunately, the availability of these datasets is often limited by economic and logistical limitations. In this work the subsurface structure of the Valtellina buried valley (central Alps, northern Italy) was investigated by the means of Single-Station Passive Seismic Stratigraphy (S-SPSS), which yields the 1D shear velocity (Vs) profiles, based on the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratios (HVSR) of microtremors produced by Raleigh waves trapped in the ground and provided by measurements of the resonance frequencies produced by a layered seismic stratigraphy. The study area is the central part of Valtellina, W-E oriented along the Insubric line and drained by the Adda river. The sedimentary succession is known by shallow (

  17. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to urbanization in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; McMahon, G.; Kashuba, R.; May, J.T.; Waite, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrates were investigated in nine metropolitan areas (Boston, MA; Raleigh, NC; Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; Milwaukee–Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas–Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. Several invertebrate metrics showed strong, linear responses to urbanization when forest or shrublands were developed. Responses were difficult to discern in areas where urbanization was occurring on agricultural lands because invertebrate assemblages were already severely degraded. There was no evidence that assemblages showed any initial resistance to urbanization. Ordination scores, EPT taxa richness, and the average tolerance of organisms were the best indicators of changes in assemblage condition at a site. Richness metrics were better indicators than abundance metrics, and qualitative samples were as good as quantitative samples. A common set of landscape variables (population density, housing density, developed landcover, impervious surface, and roads) were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses in all non-agricultural areas. The instream environmental variables (hydrology, water chemistry, habitat, and temperature) that were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses were influenced by environmental setting (e.g., dominant ecoregion) and varied widely among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical regression models were developed that predicted invertebrate responses using only two landcover variables—basinscale landcover (percentage of basin area in developed land) and regional-scale landcover (antecedent agricultural land).

  18. Lidar investigations of atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philbrick, C. Russell; Hallen, Hans D.

    2015-09-01

    Ground based lidar techniques using Raleigh and Raman scattering, differential absorption (DIAL), and supercontinuum sources are capable of providing unique signatures to study dynamical processes in the lower atmosphere. The most useful profile signatures of dynamics in the lower atmosphere are available in profiles of time sequences of water vapor and aerosol optical extinction obtained with Raman and DIAL lidars. Water vapor profiles are used to study the scales and motions of daytime convection cells, residual layer bursts into the planetary boundary layer (PBL), variations in height of the PBL layer, cloud formation and dissipation, scale sizes of gravity waves, turbulent eddies, as well as to study the seldom observed phenomena of Brunt-Väisälä oscillations and undular bore waves. Aerosol optical extinction profiles from Raman lidar provide another tracer of dynamics and motion using sequential profiles atmospheric aerosol extinction, where the aerosol distribution is controlled by dynamic, thermodynamic, and photochemical processes. Raman lidar profiles of temperature describe the stability of the lower atmosphere and measure structure features. Rayleigh lidar can provide backscatter profiles of aerosols in the troposphere, and temperature profiles in the stratosphere and mesosphere, where large gravity waves, stratospheric clouds, and noctilucent clouds are observed. Examples of several dynamical features are selected to illustrate interesting processes observed with Raman lidar. Lidar experiments add to our understanding of physical processes that modify atmospheric structure, initiate turbulence and waves, and describe the relationships between energy sources, atmospheric stability parameters, and the observed dynamics.

  19. Hospital bioterrorism planning and burn surge.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B; Rich, Preston B; Hultman, C Scott; Charles, Anthony G; Jones, Samuel W; Schmits, Grace L; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity. PMID:24527874

  20. Water quality of the Neuse River, North Carolina : variability, pollution loads, and long-term trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas A.

    1980-01-01

    A water-quality study of the Neuse River, N.C., based on data collected during 1956-77 at the U.S. Geological Survey stations at Clayton and Kinston, employs statistical trend analysis techniques that provide a framework for river quality assessment. Overall, water-quality of the Neuse River is satisfactory for most uses. At Clayton, fecal coliform bacteria and nutrient levels are high, but algae and total-organic-carbon data indicate water-quality improvement in recent years, due probably to a new wastewater treatment plant located downstream from Raleigh, N.C. Pollution was determined by subtracting estimated natural loads of constituents from measured total loads. Pollution makes up approximately 50% of the total dissolved material transported by the Neuse. Two different data transformation methods allowed trends to be identified in constituent concentrations. The methods recomputed the concentrations as if they were determined at a constant discharge over the period of record. Although little change since 1956 can be seen in most constituents, large changes in some constituents, such as increases in potassium and sulfate, indicate that the water quality of the Neuse River has noticeably deteriorated. Increases in sulfate are probably largely due to increased long-term inputs of sulfur compounds from airborne pollutants. (USGS)

  1. Within-Colony Variation in the Immunocompetency of Managed and Feral Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Different Urban Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Appler, R. Holden; Frank, Steven D.; Tarpy, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization has the potential to dramatically affect insect populations worldwide, although its effects on pollinator populations are just beginning to be understood. We compared the immunocompetency of honey bees sampled from feral (wild-living) and managed (beekeeper-owned) honey bee colonies. We sampled foragers from feral and managed colonies in rural, suburban, and urban landscapes in and around Raleigh, NC, USA. We then analyzed adult workers using two standard bioassays for insect immune function (encapsulation response and phenoloxidase activity). We found that there was far more variation within colonies for encapsulation response or phenoloxidase activity than among rural to urban landscapes, and we did not observe any significant difference in immune response between feral and managed bees. These findings suggest that social pollinators, like honey bees, may be sufficiently robust or variable in their immune responses to obscure any subtle effects of urbanization. Additional studies of immune physiology and disease ecology of social and solitary bees in urban, suburban, and natural ecosystems will provide insights into the relative effects of changing urban environments on several important factors that influence pollinator productivity and health. PMID:26529020

  2. Physical and chemical observations in underwater explosion bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Strahle, W.C.; Liou, S.G.

    1994-12-31

    Underwater explosion bubbles are created by nearly constant volume explosions of gaseous explosives in the C-H-O-diluent system. Contained initially in glass globes it 0.1 MPa pressure, the explosions create an oscillating bubble in two modes. First, the explosions are created in a free field, and second, the explosion takes place near a flat plate. These bubbles are intended as a subscale model of the actual bubbles created by detonation of a solid explosive in an underwater configuration. Of primary interest are the bubble energy loss mechanisms in the cycle-to-cycle oscillations in the free field explosions and the impact pressure of the water jet created when exploding near a flat plate. Using CO and H{sub 2} with stoichiometric O{sub 2} and various diluents, the curious fact emerges in the free field explosions that the molecular weight of the product gases has a primary effect upon the loss mechanism. In addition, the molecular weight strongly influences the impact pressure in the flat plate tests. In particular, the lower the molecular weight, the lower the loss and the higher the impact pressure. Alternatively, the water vapor mass fraction in the product gases has a primary effect upon the loss mechanism. Indicated are the presence of evaporative and Birkhoff instability but not Raleigh-Taylor instability.

  3. Economics and societal impacts of tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluestein, Howard B.

    2011-08-01

    During the spring of 2011, there were a record number of unusually strong and devastating tornadoes in the United States, which killed more than 500 people, the most in the country since 1953. Tornadoes are responsible for more than $1 billion annually (adjusted to 2007 U.S. dollars) in property damage and for disrupting thousands of lives and businesses. The most notable tornado this past spring devastated Joplin, Mo.; tornadoes also struck such diverse locations as Springfield, Mass.; Tuscaloosa, Ala.; Raleigh, N. C.; communities near Oklahoma City, Okla.; Minneapolis, Minn.; central and east Texas; Philadelphia, Pa.; and St. Louis, Mo. It is therefore timely to assess the economic and societal impacts of tornadoes. In this book the authors use various statistical techniques to evaluate the cost of tornadoes to society. They begin by reviewing the methodologies of formulating a tornado climatology across diverse regions according to tornado intensity, deaths, injuries, and property damage, and they then provide a history of the U.S. National Weather Service's (NWS) public warning efforts, describe tornado shelters and how the public responds to warnings, and suggest ways to reduce tornado risk.

  4. Comparison of Over-the-Rail and Rail Yard Measurements of Diesel Locomotives.

    PubMed

    Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Locomotive prime mover engine emission rates are typically measured at steady-state for discrete throttle notches using an engine dynamometer weighted by a standard duty cycle. However, this method may not represent real-world locomotive emissions. A method for in-use measurement of passenger locomotives, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS), was developed to estimate duty cycle average emission rates. We conducted 48 measurements of one-way trips between Raleigh and Charlotte, NC, on 7 locomotives and 18 sets of measurements in the rail yard (RY). Real-world duty cycles differed from those used for regulatory analyses, leading to statistically significant lower cycle average NOx and HC emission rates. Compared to RY measurements, notch average NOx emission rates measured over-the-rail (OTR) at the highest two notch settings were, on average, 19% lower for four locomotives. At the highest notch, OTR CO2 emission rates were, on average, 12% lower than RY rates for five locomotives. For a more accurate representation of real-world emission rates, OTR measurements are preferred. However, using steady-state notch average RY emission rates and standard duty cycles may be tolerable for some applications. OTR versus RY cycle average emission rates typically differed by less than 10%. PMID:26421758

  5. Advanced Electrical, Optical and Data Communication Infrastructure Development

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Cobb

    2011-04-30

    The implementation of electrical and IT infrastructure systems at the North Carolina Center for Automotive Research , Inc. (NCCAR) has achieved several key objectives in terms of system functionality, operational safety and potential for ongoing research and development. Key conclusions include: (1) The proven ability to operate a high speed wireless data network over a large 155 acre area; (2) Node to node wireless transfers from access points are possible at speeds of more than 50 mph while maintaining high volume bandwidth; (3) Triangulation of electronic devices/users is possible in areas with overlapping multiple access points, outdoor areas with reduced overlap of access point coverage considerably reduces triangulation accuracy; (4) Wireless networks can be adversely affected by tree foliage, pine needles are a particular challenge due to the needle length relative to the transmission frequency/wavelength; and (5) Future research will use the project video surveillance and wireless systems to further develop automated image tracking functionality for the benefit of advanced vehicle safety monitoring and autonomous vehicle control through 'vehicle-to-vehicle' and 'vehicle-to-infrastructure' communications. A specific advantage realized from this IT implementation at NCCAR is that NC State University is implementing a similar wireless network across Centennial Campus, Raleigh, NC in 2011 and has benefited from lessons learned during this project. Consequently, students, researchers and members of the public will be able to benefit from a large scale IT implementation with features and improvements derived from this NCCAR project.

  6. Do cities simulate climate change? A comparison of herbivore response to urban and global warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dale, Adam G.; Terando, Adam; Dunn, Robert R.; Frank, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Cities experience elevated temperature, CO2, and nitrogen deposition decades ahead of the global average, such that biological response to urbanization may predict response to future climate change. This hypothesis remains untested due to a lack of complementary urban and long-term observations. Here, we examine the response of an herbivore, the scale insect Melanaspis tenebricosa, to temperature in the context of an urban heat island, a series of historical temperature fluctuations, and recent climate warming. We survey M. tenebricosa on 55 urban street trees in Raleigh, NC, 342 herbarium specimens collected in the rural southeastern United States from 1895 to 2011, and at 20 rural forest sites represented by both modern (2013) and historical samples. We relate scale insect abundance to August temperatures and find that M. tenebricosa is most common in the hottest parts of the city, on historical specimens collected during warm time periods, and in present-day rural forests compared to the same sites when they were cooler. Scale insects reached their highest densities in the city, but abundance peaked at similar temperatures in urban and historical datasets and tracked temperature on a decadal scale. Although urban habitats are highly modified, species response to a key abiotic factor, temperature, was consistent across urban and rural-forest ecosystems. Cities may be an appropriate but underused system for developing and testing hypotheses about biological effects of climate change. Future work should test the applicability of this model to other groups of organisms.

  7. Rolling tires into rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-06-01

    For Envirotire (Lillington, North Carolina), producing quality crumb rubber this summer is all in a night`s work. The tire recycling facility has operated in Lillington, which is about an hour south of Raleigh, North Carolina, for about a year and a half, since October 1995. In the summer, the plant runs at night to save money in electricity costs by operating during off-peak hours; in the winter, daytime hours also can be off-peak. In contrast to the cryogenic systems used elsewhere to recycle tires, Envirotire`s system works on mechanical principles. Before the tires are even shredded, a worker cuts the white-walls out of the tires manually, so the white does not contaminate the black end-product. A worker places the tires manually on a conveyor, which feed them up to an initial shredder that sections them quickly into pieces. While the tires are on the conveyor, dividing strips on the conveyor mark off a place for each tire. The system takes nine new tires per minute.

  8. Decomposition of Concealed and Exposed Porcine Remains in the North Carolina Piedmont.

    PubMed

    Cammack, J A; Cohen, A C; Kreitlow, K L; Roe, R M; Watson, D W

    2016-01-01

    We examined the decomposition and subsequent insect colonization of small pig carrion (Sus scrofa (L.)) placed in concealed and open environments during spring, summer, and fall in Raleigh, North Carolina, as a model for juvenile human remains. Remains were concealed in simulated attics in three manners, ranging from minimal to well-concealed. Concealment had a significant effect on the insect community colonizing the remains across all three seasons; the beetles Necrobia rufipes (DeGeer) (Cleridae) and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were the only species indicative of remains located indoors, whereas numerous fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sepsidae, and Piophilidae) and beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae, Staphylinidae, and Histeridae) species and an ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Prenolepis sp.) were indicative of remains located outdoors. Season also significantly affected the insect species, particularly the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonizing remains: Lucilia illustris (Meigen) was indicative of the spring, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) were indicative of the summer, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Calliphora vomitoria (L.) were indicative of the fall. In addition, across all seasons, colonization was delayed by 35–768 h, depending on the degree of concealment. These differences among the insect communities across seasons and concealment treatments, and the effects of concealment on colonization indicate that such information is important and should to be considered when analyzing entomological evidence for criminal investigations. PMID:26590193

  9. Modeling the impacts of traffic emissions on air toxics concentrations near roadways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatram, Akula; Isakov, Vlad; Seila, Robert; Baldauf, Richard

    The dispersion formulation incorporated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's AERMOD regulatory dispersion model is used to estimate the contribution of traffic-generated emissions of select VOCs - benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene - to ambient air concentrations at downwind receptors ranging from 10-m to 100-m from the edge of a major highway in Raleigh, North Carolina. The contributions are computed using the following steps: 1) Evaluate dispersion model estimates with 10-min averaged NO data measured at 7 m and 17 m from the edge of the road during a field study conducted in August, 2006; this step determines the uncertainty in model estimates. 2) Use dispersion model estimates and their uncertainties, determined in step 1, to construct pseudo-observations. 3) Fit pseudo-observations to actual observations of VOC concentrations measured during five periods of the field study. This provides estimates of the contributions of traffic emissions to the VOC concentrations at the receptors located from 10 m to 100 m from the road. In addition, it provides estimates of emission factors and background concentrations of the VOCs, which are supported by independent estimates from motor vehicle emissions models and regional air quality measurements. The results presented in the paper demonstrate the suitability of the formulation in AERMOD for estimating concentrations associated with mobile source emissions near roadways. This paper also presents an evaluation of the key emissions and dispersion modeling inputs necessary for conducting assessments of local-scale impacts from traffic emissions.

  10. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dembeck, Lauren M.; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M.; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster. PMID:25933381

  11. Using nonlinear ultrasound measurements to track thermal aging in modified 9%Cr ferritic martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Daniel; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Ruiz, Alberto; Joo, Young-Sang

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates early thermal aging in 9%Cr ferritic martensitic (FM) steel, which is caused by the formation of second phases during high temperature exposure. This study employs a recently developed nonlinear ultrasonic technique to explore the sensitivity of the nonlinearity parameter. Experimental results show that the nonlinearity parameter is sensitive to certain changes in material's properties such as thermal embrittlement and hardness changes; therefore, it can be used as an indicator of the thermal damage. The specimens investigated are heat treated for different holding times ranging from 200h to 3000h at 650°C. Nonlinear ultrasonic experiments are conducted for each specimen using a wedge transducer to generate and an air-coupled transducer to detect Raleigh surface waves. The amplitudes of the first and second order harmonics are measured at different propagation distances and these amplitudes are used to obtain the relative nonlinearity parameter for each specimen with a different holding time. The nonlinear ultrasonic results are compared with independent mechanical measurements and metallographic images. This research proposes the nonlinear ultrasonic technique as a nondestructive evaluation tool not only to detect thermal damage in early stages, and also to qualitatively assess the stage of thermal damage.

  12. Gone with the heat: a fundamental constraint on the imaging of dust and molecular gas in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Papadopoulos, Padelis P; Ivison, R J; Galametz, Maud; Smith, M W L; Xilouris, Emmanuel M

    2016-06-01

    Images of dust continuum and carbon monoxide (CO) line emission are powerful tools for deducing structural characteristics of galaxies, such as disc sizes, H2 gas velocity fields and enclosed H2 and dynamical masses. We report on a fundamental constraint set by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the observed structural and dynamical characteristics of galaxies, as deduced from dust continuum and CO-line imaging at high redshifts. As the CMB temperature rises in the distant Universe, the ensuing thermal equilibrium between the CMB and the cold dust and H2 gas progressively erases all spatial and spectral contrasts between their brightness distributions and the CMB. For high-redshift galaxies, this strongly biases the recoverable H2 gas and dust mass distributions, scale lengths, gas velocity fields and dynamical mass estimates. This limitation is unique to millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths and unlike its known effect on the global dust continuum and molecular line emission of galaxies, it cannot be addressed simply. We nevertheless identify a unique signature of CMB-affected continuum brightness distributions, namely an increasing rather than diminishing contrast between such brightness distributions and the CMB when the cold dust in distant galaxies is imaged at frequencies beyond the Raleigh-Jeans limit. For the molecular gas tracers, the same effect makes the atomic carbon lines maintain a larger contrast than the CO lines against the CMB. PMID:27429763

  13. Assessing and Promoting Physical Activity in African American Barbershops: Results of the FITStop Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Linnan, Laura A.; Reiter, Paul L.; Duffy, Courtney; Hales, Derek; Ward, Dianne S.; Viera, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting African American men in barbershops, assessing their physical activity, conducting physical measurements, and gauging their interest in barbershop-based health research. The authors recruited African American shop owners (n = 4), barbers (n = 6), and customers (n = 90) from four barbershops in Raleigh and Durham, North Carolina, during 2009. The participation levels were high among owners (100%), barbers (67%), and customers (81%). In addition to completing a self-administered survey, 57% (51/90) of the customers completed physical measurements. According to self-reported data, 34% (30/88) of the customers met national physical activity recommendations within the last week. Customers expressed moderately high interest in learning more about health at barbershops and joining a barbershop-based physical activity contest. The estimated recruiting cost per customer was $105.92. Barbershops offer an effective setting for recruiting African American men and conducting physical measurements as well as an interesting possible location for conducting future interventions. PMID:20413387

  14. Liquid filament instability due to stretch-induced phase separation in polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinstein, Arkadii; Kulichikhin, Valery; Malkin, Alexander; Technion-Israel Institute of Technology Collaboration; Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences Team

    2015-03-01

    The instability in a jet of a viscoelastic semi-dilute entangled polymer solution under high stretching is discussed. Initially, the variation in osmotic pressure can compensate for decrease in the capillary force, and the jet is stable. The further evolution of the polymer solution along the jet results in formation of a filament in the jet center and of a near-surface solvent layer. Such a redistribution of polymer seems like a ``phase separation'', but it is related to stretching of the jet. The viscous liquid shell demonstrates Raleigh-type instability resulting in the formation of individual droplets on the oriented filament. Experimental observations showed that this separation is starting during few first seconds, and continues of about 10 -15 seconds. The modeling shows that a jet stretching results in a radial gradient in the polymer distribution: the polymer is concentrated in the jet center, whereas the solvent is remaining near the surface. The key point of this model is that a large longitudinal stretching of a polymer network results in its lateral contraction, so a solvent is pressed out of this polymer network because of the decrease in its volume. V.K. and A.M. acknowledge the financial support of the Russian Scientific Foundation (Grant 4-23-00003).

  15. Power attenuation characteristics as switch-over criterion in personal satellite mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Jonathan P.

    1993-01-01

    A third generation mobile system intends to support communications in all environments (i.e., outdoors, indoors at home or office and when moving). This system will integrate services that are now available in architectures such as cellular, cordless, mobile data networks, paging, including satellite services to rural areas. One way through which service integration will be made possible is by supporting a hierarchical cellular structure based on umbrella cells, macro cells, micro and pico cells. In this type of structure, satellites are part of the giant umbrella cells allowing continuous global coverage, the other cells belong to cities, neighborhoods, and buildings respectively. This does not necessarily imply that network operation of terrestrial and satellite segments interconnect to enable roaming and spectrum sharing. However, the cell concept does imply hand-off between different cell types, which may involve change of frequency. Within this propsective, the present work uses power attenuation characteristics to determine a dynamic criterion that allows smooth transition from space to terrestrial networks. The analysis includes a hybrid channel that combines Rician, Raleigh and Log Normal fading characteristics.

  16. Using Gradient Analysis to Determine and Compare Invertebrate Responses to Urbanization: Can We Achieve Understanding Without Defining Reference Conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffney, T. F.; Giddings, E. M.; Coles, J. F.; Zappia, H.

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program uses a gradient design to investigate the effects of urbanization across the U.S. This design has successfully defined invertebrate responses in metropolitan areas associated with Boston, MA, Birmingham, AL, Salt Lake City, UT, and Raleigh, NC. An urban intensity index (UII) based on population, land use, land cover, and infrastructure is used to define the gradient without explicitly identifying reference sites, although the low end of the urban gradient may include such sites. Many invertebrate metrics (e.g., tolerance, biotic integrity, richness) are significantly related to UII. Detection of responses is not dependent upon reference conditions and this design can detect responses even when many low intensity (UII < 20) sites are excluded. Reference conditions can be inferred from regressions of metrics and UII by creating a "dummy" site where the components of the UII are set to background values (e.g., population = 0, road density = 0) and then extrapolating metrics for this site (UII = 0). Unfortunately, these end members (reference site conditions) tend to be highly variable and it is more difficult to determine these values than to detect the existence, form, and rate of response across the urban gradient.

  17. Colloidal electrodynamics, electrohydrodynamics and thermodynamics in confined geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yilong

    We use digital video microscopy and liquid structure theory to measure pair potentials of charged stabilized colloidal spheres in an equilibrium monolayer. Anomalous attraction is founded between like-charged spheres in different degree of confinement, different composition of spheres or substrates, at high ionic strength, or for larger spheres. Error analysis is developed to rule out artifacts. We show that one wall is enough to induce the attraction and gold substrate can enhance such effect. The recently derived configuration temperature is generalized to a hierarchy of hyperconfigurational temperatures. We show their relation to the hypervirial theorem. These temperature definitions are successfully tested experimentally for the first time via colloidal systems. The results confirmed our anomalous attractions measured in the previous chapter. As a set of constrains, hyperconfigurational temperatures are used to determine free parameters in an unknown potential. Other applications and thermodynamic considerations are discussed. The complicate electrohydrodynamic interplay of microions' fluxes and macroions in an electric field can induce many instabilities. A zoo of self-organized colloidal patterns are discovered in electrolysis of a horizontal layer of aqueous colloid. At low voltage, spheres cooperatively form various quasi-stationary microscopic clusters. At higher bias, spheres passively trace the electroconvection which is more nonlinear than its thermal analogy, the Raleigh-Benard convection. Explaining these patterns provides new challenge in pattern formation, electrokinetic of colloid and electrochemistry.

  18. The wind-forced response on a buoyant coastal current: Observations of the western Gulf of Maine plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, D. A.; Geyer, W. R.; Signell, R. P.

    1997-08-01

    The freshwater plume in the western Gulf of Maine is being studied as part of an interdisciplinary investigation of the physical transport of a toxic alga. A field program was conducted in the springs of 1993 and 1994 to map the spatial and temporal patterns of salinity, currents and algal toxicity. The observations suggest that the plume's cross-shore structure varies markedly as a function of fluctuations in alongshore wind forcing. Consistent with Ekman drift dynamics, upwelling favorable winds spread the plume offshore, at times widening it to over 50 km in offshore extent, while downwelling favorable winds narrow the plume width to as little as 10 km. Using a simple slab model, we find qualitative agreement between the observed variations of plume width and those predicted by Ekman theory for short time scales of integration. Near surface current meters show significant correlations between cross-shore currents and alongshore wind stress, consistent with Ekman theory. Estimates of the terms in the alongshore momentum equation calculated from moored current meter arrays also indicate a dominant Ekman balance within the plume. A significant correlation between alongshore currents and winds suggests that interfacial drag may be important, although inclusion of a Raleigh drag term does not significantly improve the alongshore momentum balance.

  19. Overland Flow Analysis Using Time Series of Suas-Derived Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeziorska, J.; Mitasova, H.; Petrasova, A.; Petras, V.; Divakaran, D.; Zajkowski, T.

    2016-06-01

    With the advent of the innovative techniques for generating high temporal and spatial resolution terrain models from Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) imagery, it has become possible to precisely map overland flow patterns. Furthermore, the process has become more affordable and efficient through the coupling of small UAS (sUAS) that are easily deployed with Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms that can efficiently derive 3D data from RGB imagery captured with consumer grade cameras. We propose applying the robust overland flow algorithm based on the path sampling technique for mapping flow paths in the arable land on a small test site in Raleigh, North Carolina. By comparing a time series of five flights in 2015 with the results of a simulation based on the most recent lidar derived DEM (2013), we show that the sUAS based data is suitable for overland flow predictions and has several advantages over the lidar data. The sUAS based data captures preferential flow along tillage and more accurately represents gullies. Furthermore the simulated water flow patterns over the sUAS based terrain models are consistent throughout the year. When terrain models are reconstructed only from sUAS captured RGB imagery, however, water flow modeling is only appropriate in areas with sparse or no vegetation cover.

  20. Detecting Acoustic Emissions With/Without Dehydration of Serpentine Outside P-T Field of Conventional Brittle Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Fei, Y.; Silver, P. G.; Green, H. W.

    2005-12-01

    It is currently thought that earthquakes cannot be triggered at depths greater than ~60 km by unassisted brittle failure or frictional sliding, but could be triggered by dehydration embrittlement of hydrous minerals (Raleigh and Paterson, 1965; Green and Houston, 1995; Kirby, 1995; Jung et al., 2004). Using a new multianvil-based system for detecting acoustic emissions with four channels at high pressure and high temperature that was recently developed (Jung et al., 2005), we tested this hypothesis by deforming samples of serpentine. We found that acoustic emissions were detected not only during/after the dehydration of serpentine, but even in the absence of dehydration. These emissions occurred at high pressure and high temperature, and thus outside pressure-temperature field of conventional brittle failure. Backscattered-electron images of microstructures of the post-run specimen revealed fault slip at elevated pressure, with offsets of up to ~500 μm, even without dehydration. Analysis of P-wave travel times from the four sensors confirmed that the acoustic emissions originated from within the specimen during fault slip. These observations suggest that earthquakes can be triggered by slip along a fault containing serpentine at significantly higher pressure and temperature conditions than that previously thought, even without dehydration. They are thus consistent with faulting mechanisms that appeal to dehydration embrittlement, as well as those that rely solely on the rheology of non-dehydrated serpentine.