Science.gov

Sample records for 2nd century ad

  1. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  2. Stable isotopic evidence for diet at the Imperial Roman coastal site of Velia (1st and 2nd centuries AD) in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Biazzo, Marco; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Garnsey, Peter; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Lelli, Roberta; Salvadei, Loretana; Tartaglia, Gianna; Nava, Alessia; Renò, Lorena; Fiammenghi, Antonella; Rickards, Olga; Bondioli, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Here we report on a stable isotope palaeodietary study of a Imperial Roman population interred near the port of Velia in Southern Italy during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on collagen extracted from 117 adult humans as well as a range of fauna to reconstruct individual dietary histories. For the majority of individuals, we found that stable isotope data were consistent with a diet high in cereals, with relatively modest contributions of meat and only minor contributions of marine fish. However, substantial isotopic variation was found within the population, indicating that diets were not uniform. We suggest that a number of individuals, mainly but not exclusively males, had greater access to marine resources, especially high trophic level fish. However, the observed dietary variation did not correlate with burial type, number of grave goods, nor age at death. Also, individuals buried at the necropolis at Velia ate much less fish overall compared with the contemporaneous population from the necropolis of Portus at Isola Sacra, located on the coast close to Rome. Marine and riverine transport and commerce dominated the economy of Portus, and its people were in a position to supplement their own stocks of fish with imported goods in transit to Rome, whereas at Velia marine exploitation existed side-by-side with land-based economic activities.

  3. Bone fractures as indicators of intentional violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique to the late medieval period (2nd-16th century AD).

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Novak, Mario; Bedić, Zeljka; Strinović, Davor

    2012-09-01

    To test the historically documented hypothesis of a general increase in deliberate violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique (AN; 2nd-6th c.) through the early medieval (EM; 7th-11th c.) to the late-medieval period (LM; 12th-16th c.), an analysis of the frequency and patterning of bone trauma was conducted in three skeletal series from these time periods. A total of 1,125 adult skeletons-346 from the AN, 313 from the EM, and 466 from the LM series-were analyzed. To differentiate between intentional violence and accidental injuries, data for trauma frequencies were collected for the complete skeleton, individual long bones, and the craniofacial region as well as by type of injury (perimortem vs. antemortem). The results of our analyses show a significant temporal increase in total fracture frequencies when calculated by skeleton as well as of individuals exhibiting one skeletal indicator of deliberate violence (sharp force lesions, craniofacial injuries, "parry" fractures, or perimortem trauma). No significant temporal increases were, however, noted in the frequencies of craniofacial trauma, "parry" fractures, perimortem injuries, or of individuals exhibiting multiple skeletal indicators of intentional violence. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the temporal increase in total fracture frequencies recorded in the eastern Adriatic was caused by a combination of factors that included not only an increase of intentional violence but also a significant change in lifestyle that accompanied the transition from a relatively affluent AN urban lifestyle to a more primitive rural medieval way of life.

  4. The Pitch: How To Analyze Ads. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rank, Hugh

    This book probes the ways ads persuade people to purchase, and attempts to teach individuals to become more discerning consumers. Critical thinking, when applied to analyzing ads, benefits consumers by helping them recognize patterns of persuasion and sort incoming information in order to get to the hidden message. The book s basic premise is that…

  5. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 1(st)-2(nd) century CE southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Stephanie; Prowse, Tracy L; Herring, D Ann; Klunk, Jennifer; Kuch, Melanie; Duggan, Ana T; Bondioli, Luca; Holmes, Edward C; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-12-05

    The historical record attests to the devastation malaria exacted on ancient civilizations, particularly the Roman Empire [1]. However, evidence for the presence of malaria during the Imperial period in Italy (1st-5th century CE) is based on indirect sources, such as historical, epigraphic, or skeletal evidence. Although these sources are crucial for revealing the context of this disease, they cannot establish the causative species of Plasmodium. Importantly, definitive evidence for the presence of malaria is now possible through the implementation of ancient DNA technology. As malaria is presumed to have been at its zenith during the Imperial period [1], we selected first or second molars from 58 adults from three cemeteries from this time: Isola Sacra (associated with Portus Romae, 1st-3rd century CE), Velia (1st-2nd century CE), and Vagnari (1st-4th century CE). We performed hybridization capture using baits designed from the mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes of Plasmodium spp. on a prioritized subset of 11 adults (informed by metagenomic sequencing). The mtDNA sequences generated provided compelling phylogenetic evidence for the presence of P. falciparum in two individuals. This is the first genomic data directly implicating P. falciparum in Imperial period southern Italy in adults.

  6. The adenovirus type 2-simian virus 40 hybrid virus Ad2+ND4 requires deletion variants to grow in monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, A M; Westphal, H

    1983-01-01

    The Ad2+ND4 virus is an adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) recombination. The Ad2 genome of this recombinant has a rearrangement within early region 3; Ad2 DNA sequences between map positions 81.3 and 85.5 have been deleted, and the SV40 DNA sequences between map positions 0.11 and 0.626 have been inserted into the deletion in an 81.3-0.626 orientation. Nonhybrid Ad2 is defective in monkey cells; however, the Ad2+ND4 virus can replicate in monkey cells due to the expression of the SV40-enhancing function encoded by the DNA insert. Stocks of the Ad2+ND4 hybrid were produced in primary monkey cells by using the progeny of a three-step plaque purification procedure and were considered to be homogeneous populations of Ad2+ND4 virions because they induced plaques in primary monkey cells by first-order kinetics. By studying the kinetics of plaque induction in continuous lines (BSC-1 and CV-1) of monkey cells, we have found that stocks (prepared with virions before and after plaque purification) of Ad2+ND4 are actually heterogeneous populations of Ad2+ND4 virions and Ad2+ND4 deletion variants that lack SV40 and frequently Ad2 DNA sequences at the left Ad2-SV40 junction. Due to the defectiveness of the Ad2+ND4 virus, the production of progeny in BSC-1 and CV-1 cells requires complementation between the Ad2+ND4 genome and the genome of an Ad2+ND4 deletion variant. Since the deletion variants that have been obtained from Ad2+ND4 stocks do not express the SV40-enhancing function in that they cannot produce progeny in monkey cells, we conclude that they are providing an Ad2 component that is essential for the production of Ad2+ND4 progeny. These data imply that the Ad2+ND4 virus is incapable of replicating in singly infected primary monkey cells without generating deletion variants that are missing various amounts of DNA around the left Ad2-SV40 junction in the hybrid genome. As the deletion variants that arise from the Ad2+ND4 virus are created by nonhomologous

  7. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine.

  8. Stable isotope and trace element studies on gladiators and contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD)--mplications for differences in diet.

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts.

  9. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  10. [Health and environment: the 2nd public health revolution.].

    PubMed

    Cicolella, André

    2010-01-01

    As of the mid-19th century, most infectious disease epidemics have been fought and slowed down by taking action on the environment (water, housing, waste) and education. This constitutes the 1st public health revolution paradigm. As we face the current epidemic of chronic diseases and the failure of the dominant biomedical model to stop them, a 2nd public health revolution is needed. The vision for this 2nd public health revolution requires a new paradigm built upon an eco-systemic definition of health and the recognition of the legitimacy for citizen participation based on the precautionary principle.

  11. 'Diabetes' as described by Byzantine writers from the fourth to the ninth century AD: the Graeco-Roman influence.

    PubMed

    Christopoulou-Aletra, H; Papavramidou, N

    2008-05-01

    Diabetes was first extensively described by Aretaeus of Cappadocia, and his contemporary, Galen of Pergamum, in the second century AD. Aretaeus is said to have introduced the term diabetes, though there are some indications of previous references to the term. When referring to the disease, Galen accepts that the term belongs to 'other writers'. There are, in fact, many other Graeco-Roman accounts of diabetes, and in this paper we also examine the texts of Pliny the Elder (first century AD), Rufus of Ephesos (early second century AD), Oribasius (fourth century AD), Stephanus Alexandrinus (fifth century AD), Aetius (sixth century AD), Alexander of Tralles (sixth century AD), and Theophilus Protospatharius (seventh century AD ), together with his contemporaries Paulus of Aegina, Stephanus of Athens and Leon of Pella (ninth century AD). All these writers use almost the same terminology when referring to the disease, and consider that symptoms of excessive thirst and urination are due to disease of the kidneys and the bladder. Similar treatments are also advocated, and relate to nutritional advice, herbal medications, poultices, bloodletting and abstinence from diuretic substances. Although there are no notable differences between the writings of Byzantine physicians and the earlier descriptions attributed to Aretaeus and Galen, this literature testifies to the fact that these physicians were well aware of a disease that Galen considered rare.

  12. 2nd Generation ELT Performance Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimson, Chad M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Search And Rescue is supporting RTCA SC-229 with research and recommendations for performance specifications for the 2nd generation of emergency locator transmitters. Areas for improvement and methods for collecting data will be presented.

  13. Aquatic pollution, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book systematically covers all aspects of water pollution in marine and freshwater systems. Didactic style, frequent use of case studies and an extensive bibliography facilitate understanding of fundamental concepts. Offers basic, relevant ecological and toxicological information. Straightforward presentation of the scientific aspects of environmental issues. Information updated, particularly the discussion of toxicology and the case studies of water pollution. Three new chapters on acid rain, groundwater pollution and plastics are added.

  14. Maternal Genetic Ancestry and Legacy of 10th Century AD Hungarians

    PubMed Central

    Csősz, Aranka; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csákyová, Veronika; Langó, Péter; Bódis, Viktória; Köhler, Kitti; Tömöry, Gyöngyvér; Nagy, Melinda; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv

    2016-01-01

    The ancient Hungarians originated from the Ural region in today’s central Russia and migrated across the Eastern European steppe, according to historical sources. The Hungarians conquered the Carpathian Basin 895–907 AD, and admixed with the indigenous communities. Here we present mitochondrial DNA results from three datasets: one from the Avar period (7th–9th centuries) of the Carpathian Basin (n = 31); one from the Hungarian conquest-period (n = 76); and a completion of the published 10th–12th century Hungarian-Slavic contact zone dataset by four samples. We compare these mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment sequences and haplogroup results with published ancient and modern Eurasian data. Whereas the analyzed Avars represents a certain group of the Avar society that shows East and South European genetic characteristics, the Hungarian conquerors’ maternal gene pool is a mixture of West Eurasian and Central and North Eurasian elements. Comprehensively analyzing the results, both the linguistically recorded Finno-Ugric roots and historically documented Turkic and Central Asian influxes had possible genetic imprints in the conquerors’ genetic composition. Our data allows a complex series of historic and population genetic events before the formation of the medieval population of the Carpathian Basin, and the maternal genetic continuity between 10th–12th century and modern Hungarians. PMID:27633963

  15. Maternal Genetic Ancestry and Legacy of 10th Century AD Hungarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csősz, Aranka; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csákyová, Veronika; Langó, Péter; Bódis, Viktória; Köhler, Kitti; Tömöry, Gyöngyvér; Nagy, Melinda; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv

    2016-09-01

    The ancient Hungarians originated from the Ural region in today’s central Russia and migrated across the Eastern European steppe, according to historical sources. The Hungarians conquered the Carpathian Basin 895–907 AD, and admixed with the indigenous communities. Here we present mitochondrial DNA results from three datasets: one from the Avar period (7th–9th centuries) of the Carpathian Basin (n = 31) one from the Hungarian conquest-period (n = 76) and a completion of the published 10th–12th century Hungarian-Slavic contact zone dataset by four samples. We compare these mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment sequences and haplogroup results with published ancient and modern Eurasian data. Whereas the analyzed Avars represents a certain group of the Avar society that shows East and South European genetic characteristics, the Hungarian conquerors’ maternal gene pool is a mixture of West Eurasian and Central and North Eurasian elements. Comprehensively analyzing the results, both the linguistically recorded Finno-Ugric roots and historically documented Turkic and Central Asian influxes had possible genetic imprints in the conquerors’ genetic composition. Our data allows a complex series of historic and population genetic events before the formation of the medieval population of the Carpathian Basin, and the maternal genetic continuity between 10th–12th century and modern Hungarians.

  16. [The Dynamics of the Composition of mtDNA Haplotypes of the Ancient Population of the Altai Mountains from the Early Bronze Age (3rd Millennium BC) to the Iron Age (2nd-1st Centuries BC)].

    PubMed

    Gubina, M A; Kulikov, I V; Babenko, V N; Chikisheva, T A; Romaschenko, A G; Voevoda, M I; Molodin, V I

    2016-01-01

    The mtDNA polymorphism in representatives of various archaeological cultures of the Developed Bronze Age, Early Scythian, and Hunnish-Sarmatian periods was analyzed (N = 34). It detected the dominance of Western-Eurasian haplotypes (70.6%) in mtDNA samples from the representatives of the ancient population of the Early Bronze Age--Iron Age on the territory of Altai Mountains. Since the 8th to the 7th centuries BC, a sharp increase was revealed in the Eastern-Eurasian haplogroups A, D, C, andZ (43.75%) as compared to previous cultures (16.7%). The presence of haplotype 223-242-290-319 of haplogroup A8 in Dolgans, Itelmens, Evens, Koryaks, and Yakuts indicates the possible long-term presence of its carriers in areas inhabited by these populations. The prevalence of Western-Eurasian haplotypes is observed not only in the Altai Mountains but also in Central Asia (Kazakhstan) and the South of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. All of the three studied samples from the Western-Eurasian haplogroups were revealed to contain U, H, T, and HV. The ubiquitous presence of haplotypes of haplogroup H and some haplogroups of cluster U (U5al, U4, U2e, and K) in the vast territory from the Yenisei River basin to the Atlantic Ocean may indicate the direction of human settlement, which most likely occurred in the Paleolithic Period from Central Asia.

  17. Tycho Brahe, Abū Macshar, and the comet beyond Venus (ninth century A.D.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, Ralph; Kunitzsch, Paul; Mugrauer, Markus; Luge, Daniela; van Gent, Rob

    2016-05-01

    From his observations of the A.D. 1572 super-nova and the A.D. 1577 comet, Tycho Brahe concluded that such transient celestial objects are outside the Earth's atmosphere, and he quoted the 9th century A.D. Persian astrologer and astronomer Abu Mashar: Dixit Albumasar, Cometa supra Venerem visus fuit, i.e. that he had reported much earlier that comets were seen beyond Venus. However, even from a more detailed Latin translation, the observations and logic behind Abu Mashar's conclusion were not understandable. We present here the original Arabic text (MS Ankara, Saib 199) together with our translation and interpretation: Abu Mashar reported that he had observed Venus in (or projected onto) the tail of a comet and concluded that the comet was behind Venus, because he had observed the extinction of Venus due to the cometary tail to be negligible (light of Venus was unimpaired). He then concluded that the comet would be located behind Venus. He also mentioned that others had observed Jupiter and Saturn in cometary tails, so that those comets would even be located beyond those two outer planets - in the sphere of the stars. The dates of the observed close conjunctions were not mentioned; using known orbital elements for a few comets, we found a few close conjunctions between comets and planets from A.D. 770 to 868, but we cannot be sure regarding which conjunctions were reported. While the argument of Abu Mashar is not correct (as cometary tails are optically thin), parts of the conclusion - namely that comets are outside the Earth atmosphere and beyond the moon - is correct. This may have helped Tycho Brahe to come to his revolutionary conclusion.

  18. PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The "PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework, 2nd Edition" provides the foundation for the three international assessments planned as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016: PIRLS, PIRLS Literacy, and ePIRLS. PIRLS represents the…

  19. Medical museum, 2nd surgical hospital.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Alan J

    2013-12-01

    When his unit, the 2nd Surgical Hospital (MA), was established at An Khe in January 1966, MAJ Rich began collecting retrieved foreign bodies along with documentation of the wound. A museum displaying these objects was established at one end of the operating room Quonset hut. During Rich's tour of duty, there were 324 cases where the patient was wounded by a punji stick, representing 38% wounds because of hostile action.

  20. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  1. Gut Microbiome of an 11th Century A.D. Pre-Columbian Andean Mummy.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Dowd, Scot E; Toranzos, Gary A; Marota, Isolina; Cano, Raul J

    2015-01-01

    The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses.

  2. Gut Microbiome of an 11th Century A.D. Pre-Columbian Andean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Dowd, Scot E.; Toranzos, Gary A.; Marota, Isolina; Cano, Raul J.

    2015-01-01

    The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses. PMID:26422376

  3. Patterns of Irregular Burials in Western Europe (1st-5th Century A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Marco; Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Irregular burials (IB—burials showing features that contrast with the majority of others in their geographic and chronological context) have been the focus of archaeological study because of their relative rarity and enigmatic appearance. Interpretations of IB often refer to supposed fear of the dead or to social processes taking place in time-specific contexts. However, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of IB for various geographical contexts is still lacking, a fact that hampers any discussion of these burials on a larger scale. Methods Here, we collected a bibliographic dataset of 375 IB from both Britain and Continental Europe, altogether spanning a time period from the 1st to the 5th century AD. Each burial has been coded according to ten dichotomous variables, further analyzed by means of chi-squared tests on absolute frequencies, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Results Even acknowledging the limits of this study, and in particular the bias represented by the available literature, our results point to interesting patterns. Geographically, IB show a contrast between Britain and Continental Europe, possibly related to historical processes specific to these regions. Different types of IB (especially prone depositions and depositions with the cephalic extremity displaced) present a series of characteristics and associations between features that permit a more detailed conceptualization of these occurrences from a socio-cultural perspective that aids to elucidate their funerary meaning. Conclusions and Significance Altogether, the present work stresses the variability of IB, and the need to contextualize them in a proper archaeological and historical context. It contributes to the discussion of IB by providing a specific geographic and chronological frame of reference that supports a series of hypotheses about the cultural processes possibly underlying their occurrence. PMID:26115408

  4. Akhawayni (?-983 AD): A Persian neuropsychiatrist in the early medieval era (9th-12th Century AD).

    PubMed

    Zargaran, Arman; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Seyyed Rouhollah; Mehdizadeh, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The early medieval era is also called the Islamic Golden Age because of the significant rise in sciences, including medicine. Abū Bakr Rabi' ibn Ahmad Akhawayni Bukhāri (better known as Akhawayni) was one of the notable medical practitioners in his lifetime. His fame was in neuroscience and he became known as Pezeshk-e-Divanegan (Physician to the Insane). His only surviving book, Hidāyat al-Muta'allimin fi al-Tibb (The Students' Handbook of Medicine), is the first medical textbook in Persian, after Islam. Akhawayni gathered and categorized available knowledge on neuropsychiatry and added his own. He was the first to describe sleep paralysis and to suggest pragmatic rather than supernatural treatment. He was also the first to present fever cure and his descriptions of meningitis (Lisarghos in Hidāyat), mania, psychosis (Malikhulia), dementia (Ghotrab), etc., are close to current concepts.

  5. Seismically induced liquefaction structures in La Magdalena archaeological site, the 4th century AD Roman Complutum (Madrid, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pascua, M. A.; Silva, P. G.; Perucha, M. A.; Giner-Robles, J. L.; Heras, C.; Bastida, A. B.; Carrasco, P.; Roquero, E.; Lario, J.; Bardaji, T.; Pérez-López, R.; Elez, J.

    2016-10-01

    The ancient Roman city of Complutum (Alcalá de Henares, Madrid), founded in the 1st century AD, was one of the most important cities of Hispania. The old Roman city was destroyed, abruptly abandoned, relocated close by and rebuilt during the late 4th century AD. Destruction of the city and its relocation has not yet been explained by archaeologists. In this paper, with our multidisciplinary approach, we identify and characterize earthquake archaeological effects (EAEs) affecting the archaeological site, the La Magdalena, an agricultural holding 4 km from the core of Complutum. The most important EAEs in the site are liquefactions (sand dikes and explosive sand-gravel craters) affecting Roman structures, such as water tanks (cisterns), houses and graves. Ground liquefaction generated significant ground cracks, explosive craters and folds in foundations of buildings. Several other Roman sites throughout the valley were also abandoned abruptly during the 4th century AD, in some cases with EAEs of similar origin. This suggests the occurrence of a 5.0-6.6 Mw seismic event in the zone, in accordance with the minimum empirical limit of seismically-induced liquefaction and the maximum surface rupture length of the Henares fault.

  6. 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Martinez, Ed; Arcadi, Marla

    2005-01-01

    Included are presentations from the 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop. The purpose of the second workshop was to continue to unite the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers and mission designers and planners; whose expertise, experience and interests are in the areas of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics of planetary entry vehicles. Mars lander missions and the first probe mission to Titan made 2004 an exciting year for planetary exploration. The Workshop addressed entry probe science, engineering challenges, mission design and instruments, along with the challenges of reconstruction of the entry, descent and landing or the aerocapture phases. Topics addressed included methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed; techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder and Mars MER; upcoming missions such as the imminent entry of Huygens and future Mars entry probes; and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.

  7. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Definition Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert M.; Stucker, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Mid-Term Report summarizes the status of Kelly Space & Technology's activities during the first two and one half months of the program. This report was presented to the cognoscente Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) and selected Marshall Space Flight Center staff members on 26 September 2000. The report has been approved and is distributed on CD-ROM (as a PowerPoint file) in accordance with the terms of the subject contract, and contains information and data addressing the following: (1) Launch services demand and requirements; (2) Architecture, alternatives, and requirements; (3) Costs, pricing, and business cases analysis; (4) Commercial financing requirements, plans, and strategy; (5) System engineering processes and derived requirements; and (6) RLV system trade studies and design analysis.

  8. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism.

    PubMed

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-11-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th-10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today's Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the 'Great Moravian Empire' in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions.

  9. IBA investigations of loose garnets from Pietroasa, Apahida and Cluj-Someşeni treasures (5th century AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugoi, R.; Oanţă-Marghitu, R.; Calligaro, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the archaeometric investigations of 418 loose garnets from Pietroasa and Cluj-Someşeni treasures and Apahida II and III princely grave inventories (5th century AD). The chemical composition of the gems was determined by external beam micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator of C2RMF, Paris, France. Complementary observations made by Optical Microscopy revealed details on the gemstones cutting and polishing and permitted to identify certain mineral inclusions. The compositional results evidenced several types of garnets from the pyralspite series, suggesting distinct provenances for these Early Medieval gems.

  10. Evidence of active tectonics on a Roman aqueduct system (II-III century A.D.) near Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Montone, Paola; Pirro, Mario; Boschi, Enzo

    2004-04-01

    In this paper we describe evidence of strong tectonic deformation affecting two aqueducts of Roman age (II-III century A.D.). The channels are located approximately 20 km northeast of Rome along the ancient Via Tiburtina. Brittle and ductile deformation affects these two structures, including extensional joint systems, NE-oriented faults, and horizontal distortion. This deformation is consistent with right-lateral movement on major N-striking faults, and represents the first evidence that tectonic deformation took place in historical times in the vicinity of Rome, with local strike-slip movement superimposed on a regional extensional fault system.

  11. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle NASA Led Propulsion Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Design, development and test of a 2nd generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is presented. This current paper discusses the following: 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project, Overview of NASA Led Tasks in Propulsion, Gen2 Turbo Machinery Technology Demonstrator, and Combustion Devices Test Bed, GRCop-84 Sheet For Combustion Chambers, Nozzles and Large Actively Cooled Structures

  12. Heraklas on knots: sixteen surgical nooses and knots from the first century A.D.

    PubMed

    Hage, J Joris

    2008-04-01

    In the first century of our common era, the Greek physician Heraklas wrote a brief essay on how to tie 16 knots and nooses for surgical and orthopedic purposes. His work is reintroduced and discussed here because its place in the origin and evolution of surgery needs to be properly acknowledged and recorded in the current medical literature. To do so, Raeder's definitive Greek edition of the oldest extant manuscripts of Heraklas' essay was studied along with the various illustrated interpretations of his text published over the last six centuries. Moreover, the contemporary literature was searched for current applications of Heraklas' knots by use of a database of surgical knots. It was found that seven of Heraklas' 16 knots and nooses were still applied surgically of late, and that four of these have even been recently rediscovered for such applications. Therefore, it is concluded that Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine medicine had a rich knowledge and high standards. Contemporary surgical techniques may be found to be truly ancient if we search deep enough, far enough, and long enough.

  13. Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th) century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M; Scholz, Holger C

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th)-17(th) centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th)-8(th) centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

  14. Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L.; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M.; Scholz, Holger C.

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19th and 20th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14th–17th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6th–8th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics. PMID:23658525

  15. Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Ilıca, A. Turan; Karaçalıoğlu, Özgür; Damla Yılmaz, Nalan; Başoğlu, Okşan; Kılıc, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

    Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

  16. Media Research Techniques. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Arthur Asa

    Suggesting it is a good idea for students to try their hands at doing media research themselves, this book presents a number of research projects that students will find interesting and that they can do with minimum experience in a limited amount of time. The second edition has added chapters on experimentation, historical research, comparative…

  17. Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD.

    PubMed

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Gusev, Alexander Vasilevich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Svyatova, Evgenia Olegovna

    2015-12-01

    We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant's abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times.

  18. Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD

    PubMed Central

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Gusev, Alexander Vasilevich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Svyatova, Evgenia Olegovna

    2015-01-01

    We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant’s abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times. PMID:26602874

  19. 2ND FLOOR HALLWAY LOOKING EAST, NOTE PRESSED TIN CEILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2ND FLOOR HALLWAY LOOKING EAST, NOTE PRESSED TIN CEILING - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Building No. 29, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  20. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  1. Molecular motors and the 2nd law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhisong

    2014-03-01

    Molecular motors from biology and nanotechnology often operate on chemical energy of fuel molecules in an isothermal environment, unlike macroscopic heat engines that draw energy from a heat flow between two temperatures. Nevertheless, isothermal molecular motors are still subject to the 2nd law of thermodynamics in a fundamental way: their directional motion must cost a finite amount of energy other than the environmental heat even though no work is done; otherwise the 2nd law would be violated. Hence the 2nd law requires a finite energy price for pure direction of molecular motors. But what is the lowest price of direction allowed by the 2nd law? And how does the 2nd law-decreed price of direction limit performance of molecular motors? In the talk, I shall present our theoretical study of the 2nd law-molecular motor link on basis of the accumulated biomotor phenomenology, and also introduce our experimental effort to develop biomimetic DNA bipedal nanomotors following the mechanistic guidelines out of the theoretical study. [Main contents of this talk are from references:] This work is partially supported by FRC grants R-144-000-259-112, R-144-000-290-112 and R-144-000-320-112.

  2. Ecological Census Techniques - 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Edited By William J.

    2006-08-01

    This is an updated version of the best selling first edition, Ecological Census Techniques, with updating, some new chapters and authors. Almost all ecological and conservation work involves carrying out a census or survey. This practically focussed book describes how to plan a census, the practical details and shows with worked examples how to analyse the results. The first three chapters describe planning, sampling and the basic theory necessary for carrying out a census. In the subsequent chapters international experts describe the appropriate methods for counting plants, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds. As many censuses also relate the results to environmental variability, there is a chapter explaining the main methods. Finally, there is a list of the most common mistakes encountered when carrying out a census. Gives worked examples and describes practical details The chapter on research planning provides an approach for planning any research, not just those relating to census techniques Latest edition of a very highly-regarded book. Includes new authors, each chapter has been updated, and additional chapters on sampling and designing research programmes have been added

  3. Handbook of corrosion data, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, B.; Anderson, D.

    1995-12-31

    As in the prior edition, in one convenient volume this book makes it easy to find what effect environment has on the corrosion of metals and alloys. Coverage on all the environments in the first edition has been updated and expanded and some 80 or more environments have been added, including food products (chocolate, milk, cider, beer, etc.), fruit juices (grape, pineapple, lemon, etc.), soil, blood, gasoline, fertilizers, etc. Presentation of the tabular information for all environments has been standardized throughout the book. The environments are listed alphabetically. Each listing includes a general description of the conditions, a comment on the corrosion characteristics of various alloys in such a situation, a bibliography of recent articles specific to the environment, tables consolidating and comparing corrosion rates at various temperatures and concentrations for various alloys, and graphical information. also included are summaries on the general corrosion characteristics of major metals and alloys. This separate section of the book considers each material group, such as aluminum, stainless steel, zinc and so forth. Additional tables are presented here to give the corrosion characteristics of various alloys in hundreds of environments.

  4. New archeointensity data from French Early Medieval pottery production (6th-10th century AD). Tracing 1500 years of geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genevey, Agnès; Gallet, Yves; Jesset, Sébastien; Thébault, Erwan; Bouillon, Jérôme; Lefèvre, Annie; Le Goff, Maxime

    2016-08-01

    Nineteen new archeointensity results were obtained from the analysis of groups of French pottery fragments dated to the Early Middle Ages (6th to 10th centuries AD). They are from several medieval ceramic production sites, excavated mainly in Saran (Central France), and their precise dating was established based on typo-chronological characteristics. Intensity measurements were performed using the Triaxe protocol, which takes into account the effects on the intensity determinations of both thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate. Intensity analyses were also carried out on modern pottery produced at Saran during an experimental firing. The results show very good agreement with the geomagnetic field intensity directly measured inside and around the kiln, thus reasserting the reliability of the Triaxe protocol and the relevance of the quality criteria used. They further demonstrate the potential of the Saran pottery production for archeomagnetism. The new archeointensity results allow a precise and coherent description of the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe during the Early Medieval period, which was until now poorly documented. They show a significant increase in intensity during the 6th century AD, high intensity values from the 7th to the 9th century, with a minimum of small amplitude at the transition between the 7th and the 8th centuries and finally an important decrease until the beginning of the 11th century. Together with published intensity results available within a radius of 700 km around Paris, the new data were used to compute a master curve of the Western European geomagnetic intensity variations over the past 1500 years. This curve clearly exhibits five intensity maxima: at the transition between the 6th and 7th century AD, at the middle of the 9th century, during the 12th century, in the second part of the 14th century and at the very beginning of the 17th century AD. Some of these peaks are smoothed, or

  5. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  6. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  7. SrF2:Nd3+ laser fluoride ceramics.

    PubMed

    Basiev, T T; Doroshenko, M E; Konyushkin, V A; Osiko, V V

    2010-12-01

    SrF(2):Nd(3+) fluoride ceramics of high optical quality was prepared and its spectroscopic and laser properties investigated. Oscillations of different optical centers depending on the excitation wavelength were obtained with a slope efficiency of up to 19%.

  8. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…

  9. Technological Characterization of Wall Paintings from the A Mithraic Tomb Dated to 4th-5th Century AD, Gargaresc, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El Salam, S.; Maniatis, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The excavations of Gargaresc started in 1965 and were one of the most important archaeological sites in Tripoli because it includes a period of about 500 years starting from the 1stc. AD was and continuing until the 5th century AD. The Mithraic tomb is one of the most important outlying monuments of Oea, 200 yards south of the western end of Gargaresc oasis, on the left of the Tripoli-Zuara road between kilometers 5 & 6. The tomb is cut in an outcrop of soft sandstone. The wall paintings found were symbolic to the religion of that period; which contained a mixture of older religions and Christian, and presented the interaction between the artistic and religious elements of that time. Several optical, chemical and mineralogical methods were applied to identify the materials, composition and technology of the plasters and mortars, as well as, the pigments used in the tomb. These are: -OP: Optical microscopy was used as the initial examination of polished cross-sections to identify the structure and microstratigraphy of the plasters and mortars as well as the painted layers. -MCT: Micro-chemical tests were used to identify the type of the plasters and mortars- calcium aluminium silicate and water-soluble salt to identify sulphates, chlorides, carbonates, nitrites and nitrates. -SM: Standard methods for chemical analysis to identify the quantitative and qualitative nature of the plasters and mortars and their mixture. -SEM & EDS: Analytical Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis system to examine the micrmorphology and determine the chemical composition of the plasters, pigments and the inclusions. -XRD: X-ray powder diffraction to identify the mineralogical composition of the plasters, mortars and pigments. On the bases of all the data obtained, it was possible to establish the nature of the plasters, mortars and their binder. The examination and analysis gave a full picture about the materials and the approximate ratio of amount of

  10. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers - 2nd Pass Correction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers—2nd Pass Correction by John E. Penn ARL-TN-0580 September 2013...September 2013 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers—2nd Pass Correction John E. Penn Sensors and Electron...COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers–2nd Pass Correction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  11. 2nd Generation RLV: Program Goals and Acquisition Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. Bart; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The risk to loss of life for Space Shuttle crewmembers is approximately one in 245 missions. U.S. launch service providers captured nearly 100%, of the commercial launch market revenues in the mid 1980s. Today, the U.S. captures less than 50% of that market. A launch system architecture is needed that will dramatically increase the safety of space flight while significantly reducing the cost. NASA's Space Launch Initiative, which is implemented by the 2nd Generation RLV Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center, seeks to develop technology and reusable launch vehicle concepts which satisfy the commercial launch market needs and the unique needs of NASA. Presented in this paper are the five primary elements of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan along with the highest level goals and the acquisition strategy of the 2nd Generation RLV Program. Approval of the Space Launch Initiative FY01 budget of $290M is seen as a major commitment by the Agency and the Nation to realize the commercial potential that space offers and to move forward in the exploration of space.

  12. The Possible Interpretation of a Mural in a Sixth Century Koguryo Tumulus as an AD 555 Solar Eclipse Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il-Seong, Nha; Nha, Sarah L.

    Large numbers of tumuli are a feature of the Koguryo Kingdom (37 BC to AD 668), one of the Three Kingdoms in ancient Korea, and their interiors contain an extremely diverse range of murals. Quite a number of these murals include astronomical motifs, including the stars, the Sun and the Moon.

  13. [Native or not? Isotope analysis of a female skeleton on the 9th century A.D. from Elsau, Canton Zurich, Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Tütken, Thomas; Langenegger, Elisabeth; Wild, Werner

    2008-03-01

    At Elsau near Winterthur (CH), a 9th century AD grave with a female skeleton was found in 2003. This grave was reopened one to six years after burial. After manipulating the partially decayed skeleton, the grave was filled with a layer of rocks and a claw of a sea eagle as well as the paw of a fox was placed on top. At least from this time onwards, the grave was situated in the annex of a church. Because of this special burial site for the 42 year old woman, who suffered from different severe illnesses, it is thought that she belonged to the upper class. The postmortal changes at the grave are exceptional and even after thorough research, no equivalent burial procedures are known from this area. To investigate the possibility if the woman migrated to the region of Elsau, the oxygen and strontium isotope composition of several teeth and one long bone of her skeleton was analysed. The results indicate a certain but restricted mobility within the northern Alpine foreland and as a result changes of the isotope composition of the food and drinking water during her childhood. Immigration from regions in which similar burial customs to those used for the woman persisted into the 9th century AD can be largely excluded based on the isotope composition of her skeletal remains. The mobility in the pre-Alpine region supports the interpretation that the woman belonged to the upper class, whose properties where widely distributed.

  14. The 2nd generation VLTI path to performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woillez, Julien; Alonso, Jaime; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bonnet, Henri; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Egner, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Gonté, Frédéric; Guieu, Sylvain; Haguenauer, Pierre; Mérand, Antoine; Pettazzi, Lorenzo; Poupar, Sébastien; Schöller, Markus; Schuhler, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The upgrade of the VLTI infrastructure for the 2nd generation instruments is now complete with the transformation of the laboratory, and installation of star separators on both the 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) and the 8-m Unit Telescopes (UTs). The Gravity fringe tracker has had a full semester of commissioning on the ATs, and a first look at the UTs. The CIAO infrared wavefront sensor is about to demonstrate its performance relative to the visible wavefront sensor MACAO. First astrometric measurements on the ATs and astrometric qualification of the UTs are on-going. Now is a good time to revisit the performance roadmap for VLTI that was initiated in 2014, which aimed at coherently driving the developments of the interferometer, and especially its performance, in support to the new generation of instruments: Gravity and MATISSE.

  15. Philips' 2nd generation Novallure LED candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Pei, Zhigang; Yuan, Chuan; Jiang, Tan; Lu, Zhengsong; Wang, Yuqian; Duan, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Yan; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Ye

    2010-08-01

    Finding an energy efficient replacement of incandescent candle lamp has been a technical challenge. Compact fluorescent lamps, for example, can be miniaturized to fit the form factor of a candle lamp but they fail to reproduce its "sparkle" effect. Empowered by solid state lighting technology along with original optical design, Philips has successfully developed LED-powered candle lamps "Novallure" with great energy savings (2W power consumption with lumen output of 55 lumen) and the "butterfly" radiation pattern that mimics the sparkle effect from an incandescent candle lamp. With new high performance LED packages, novel under-cut prismatic optics and state-of-the-art electronic driver solution and thermal solution, we have developed a 2nd generation Novallure with breakthrough performance: a dimmable 2700K 136 lumen LED candle lamp with CRI 90.

  16. Refraction data survey: 2nd generation correlation of myopia.

    PubMed

    Greene, Peter R; Medina, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    The objective herein is to provide refraction data, myopia progression rate, prevalence, and 1st and 2nd generation correlations, relevant to whether myopia is random or inherited. First- and second-generation ocular refraction data are assembled from N = 34 families, average of 2.8 children per family. From this group, data are available from N = 165 subjects. Inter-generation regressions are performed on all the data sets, including correlation coefficient r, and myopia prevalence [%]. Prevalence of myopia is [M] = 38.5 %. Prevalence of high myopes with |R| >6 D is [M-] = 20.5 %. Average refraction is  = -1.84 D ± 3.22 (N = 165). For the high myopes, |R| >6 D, prevalence for the parents is [M-] = 25 %, for the 2nd generation [M-] = 16.5 %. Average myopia level for the high myopes, both generations, is  = -7.52 D ± 1.31 D (N = 33). Regression parameters are calculated for all the data sets, yielding correlation coefficients in the range r = 0.48-0.72 for some groups of myopes and high myopes, fathers to daughters, and mothers to sons. Also of interest, some categories show essentially no correlation, -0.20 < r < 0.20, indicating that the refractive errors occur randomly. Time series results show myopia diopter rates = -0.50 D/year.

  17. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  18. Cancer and its Treatment in Main Ancient Books of Islamic Iranian Traditional Medicine (7th to 14th Century AD)

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tayarani-Najaran, Nilufar; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Islamic medicine is regarded as a comprehensive medical school with a long, glorious and worldwide reputation. Some of the physicians of this school are famous worldwide and have contributed valuable services to the scientific world. Given the dramatically increasing prevalence of cancer and the relative inefficacy of current medications, there is a great demand for the introduction of effective therapeutic approaches. To this end, integration of traditional medicine with modern medical treatments represents a promising option. In this essay, methods of diagnosis and treatment of cancer have been mentioned from the viewpoint of five famous physicians before the Mongolian attack who used Islamic medicine, namely Rhazes, Akhaveyni, Ahwazi, Avicenna and Jorjani. The ideas discussed dates back to a period between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. PMID:23482830

  19. Pre-Columbian treponemal disease from 14th century AD Safed, Israel, and implications for the medieval eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2003-06-01

    In 1912, 68 medieval crania were excavated from a cave at Safed in the eastern Mediterranean and brought to the United Kingdom. It is only recently that these skulls have been studied for evidence of disease. One adult individual demonstrates multiple lesions of the cranial vault, compatible with treponematosis. Radiocarbon dating suggests the year of death to be between 1290-1420 AD. This range equates to the mamluk period, just after the crusades. This is the oldest dated case of treponematosis in the Middle East, and the first to confirm its presence there before the epidemiologically important transatlantic voyage of Christopher Columbus. The finding has significant implications for our understanding of the introduction of the disease to the Middle East and of the medieval diagnosis of ulcerating skin conditions by medical practitioners in the Mediterranean world.

  20. Langerhans cell histiocytosis or tuberculosis on a medieval child (Oppidum de la Granède, Millau, France - 10th-11th centuries AD).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Antony; Saint-Pierre, Christophe; Naji, Stephan; Panuel, Michel; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    In 2008, a skeleton of a 1 - 2.5-year-old child radiocarbon dated from the 10th - 11th century AD was discovered on the oppidum of La Granède (Millau, France). It presents multiple cranial osteolytic lesions having punched-out or geographical map-like aspects associated with sequestrum and costal osteitis. A multi 3D digital approach (CT, μCT and virtual reconstruction) enabled us to refine the description and identify the diploic origin of the lytic process. Furthermore, precise observation of the extent of the lesions and associated reorganization of the skeletal micro-structure were possible. From these convergent pieces of evidence, the differential diagnosis led to three possibilities: Langerhans cell histiocytosis, tuberculosis, or Langerhans cell histiocytosis and tuberculosis.

  1. What's Up With Mercury's 2nd-Degree Shape?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, E.; Phillips, R. J.; Zhong, S.

    2015-12-01

    The long-wavelength topography and geoid of a planet are basic observations fundamental to understanding the planet's thermal and dynamical history. Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft have significantly reduced the uncertainty in the spherical harmonic 2nd-degree (l2) topography and gravity coefficients. Similar to those of the Moon, the long wavelength shape and geoid of Mercury are significantly out of hydrostatic equilibrium [Perry et al., 2015]. The diversion from equilibrium of the Moon has been attributed to orbital evolution and the "freezing-in" of a fossil bulge. With respect to Mercury, the disequilibrium of the l2 shape and geoid is unlikely to be due to its orbital history [Matsuyama and Nimmo, 2009]. Non-hydrostatic models can explain the gravity and shape of Mercury. Buoyancy from thermal anomalies isostatically supporting the surface falls short of reproducing the observed l2 admittance and topography. We explore three scenarios that can generate high admittances at degree-2: flexural/membrane loading on the surface, buoyant structures within the mantle, or topography on the core-mantle boundary. We discuss both isostatic and dynamic models of compensation, and include variations of viscosity structure and elastic properties. However, typical sources of these mechanisms (e.g. large volcanic provinces that collectively have symmetry about the equator or mantle convection with a strong l2 component) are not obviously present on Mercury.

  2. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Maria L.; Dolganova, Irina N.; Gevorgyan, Narine; Guzman, Angela; Papoyan, Aram; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The ICTP smr2633: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications" (OPTICS-2014) http://indico.ictp.it/event/a13253/ was held in Yerevan and Ashtarak, Armenia, on 1-5 September 2014. The Symposium was organized by the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) with the collaboration of the SPIE Armenian Student Chapter, the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-Pyrkal, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the BMSTU SPIE & OSA student chapters. The International Symposium OPTICS-2014 was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics. This symposium "Optics and its Applications" was the First Official ICTP Scientific Event in Armenia. The presentations at OPTICS-2014 were centered on these topics: optical properties of nanostructures; quantum optics & information; singular optics and its applications; laser spectroscopy; strong field optics; nonlinear & ultrafast optics; photonics & fiber optics; optics of liquid crystals; and mathematical methods in optics.

  3. [Microsurgical 2nd toe transfer for catastrophic hand reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Placer, A; Lozano, Ja

    2007-01-01

    The correct reconstruction of the catastrophic hand requires complex surgical techniques. The microsurgical transference of a toe is indicated when all other reconstructive options are shown to be useless for the reconstruction of the required clamp function. In this clinical note we set out the case of a 32 year old man, who came to our accident and emergency department after suffering a traffic accident. After exploration the diagnosis was that of catastrophic left hand, among other policontusions. Urgent surgery was carried out, saving the maximum possible viable structures. The immediate result of this surgery was a hand with 1st, 4th and 5th functional fingers. As the essential clamp function between the 1st and 4th or 5th fingers was not totally satisfactory, we decided to reconstruct the 3rd finger of his hand with his ipsilateral 2nd toe. All pertinent studies to determine vascularisation of the flap were carried out in planning the surgery, and the microsurgical transfer was then realized, which was successful. Today, after a suitable rehabilitation, the patient has recovered a satisfactory function of heavy and fine clamp in the operated hand. Toe to hand transfer is a good option for finger reconstruction and its function. Rehabilitation is the key to functional recovery.

  4. Aging Studies of 2nd Generation BaBar RPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    The BaBar detector, operating at the PEPII B factory of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), installed over 200 2nd generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in 2002. The streamer rates produced by backgrounds and signals from normal BaBar running vary considerably (0.1- >20 Hz/cm2) depending on the layer and position of the chambers, thus providing a broad spectrum test of RPC performance and aging. The lowest rate chambers have performed very well with stable efficiencies averaging 95%. Other chambers had rate-dependant inefficiencies due to Bakelite drying which were reversed by the introduction of humidified gases. RPC inefficiencies in the highest rate regions of the higher rate chambers have been observed and also found to be rate dependant. The inefficient regions grow with time and have not yet been reduced by operation with humidified input gas. Three of these chambers were converted to avalanche mode operation and display significantly improved efficiencies. The rate of production of HF in the RPC exhaust gases was measured in avalanche and streamer mode RPCs and found to be comparable despite the lower current of the avalanche mode RPCs.

  5. Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

  6. Historical mapping reveals causes and temporal patterns of woodland contraction in Austur-Skaftafellssýsla from the 12th century AD to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurmundsson, Friðþór S.; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Erlendsson, Egill; Þorbjarnarson, Höskuldur

    2016-04-01

    Land-cover changes in Iceland over the last millennium encompass birch (Betula pubescens) woodland depletion and extensive soil erosion. Yet few studies have focused on spatial change of birch woodland coverage in Iceland over centuries and why and how the woodland depletion took place. The main objectives of this study are: (1) to map the woodland distribution today in Austur-Skaftafellssýsla (3041 km2) in southern Iceland; (2) to map woodland holdings over a period of 900 years from eleventh. AD 1100 to the early 20th century; (3) explain the relative impacts of socio-economic and natural forces on woodland cover over this period. We use a combined approach of historical reconstruction from diverse written archives, GIS techniques and field work. The woodland in Austur-Skaftafellssýsla now covers 73.2 km2 (2.5% of the study area). The woodland holdings, 44 in total, are regularly listed in the church inventories from 1179 to 1570 and are owned by the church. In the first complete register for the district in 1641 the woodland holdings were 73, owned and used by 58 estates, and distributed across Austur-Skaftafellssýsla. All the main patches of woodland remain today, with the exception of four minor woodlands which were exhausted near the end of the 19th century. The woodland was used for firewood and charcoal making as well as grazing during the study period but, crucially, in most cases only one estate had authority over each holding, none were commons. The main driving force behind the development of woodlands was socio-economic, rather than natural, where the form of ownership was fundamental for the fate of the woodland. Harsh climate and volcanism were not directly responsible for woodland depletion. The latter half of the 19th century was the period of greatest woodland loss. This period coincides with considerable expansion in livestock numbers, especially sheep and associated all year around grazing, at a time when the Little Ice Age culminated in

  7. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  8. PREFACE: 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO 2008'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, P.; Kolodziej, J. J.; Konior, J.; Szymonski, M.

    2009-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers presented at the 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO2008', that was held in Kraków, Poland, 25-28 June 2008. It was organized jointly by the Polish Chemical Society, Polish Physical Society, Polish Vacuum Society, and the Centre for Nanometer-scale Science and Advanced Materials (NANOSAM) of the Jagiellonian University. The meeting presentations were categorized into the following topics: 1. Nanomechanics and nanotribology 2. Characterization and manipulation in nanoscale 3. Quantum effects in nanostructures 4. Nanostructures on surfaces 5. Applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine 6. Nanotechnology in education 7. Industrial applications of nanotechnology, presentations of the companies 8. Nanoengineering and nanomaterials (international sessions shared with the fellows of Maria-Curie Host Fellowships within the 6th FP of the European Community Project 'Nano-Engineering for Expertise and Development, NEED') 9. Nanopowders 10. Carbon nanostructures and nanosystems 11. Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics 12. Nanomaterials in catalysis 13. Nanospintronics 14. Ethical, social, and environmental aspects of nanotechnology The Conference was attended by 334 participants. The presentations were delivered as 7 invited plenary lectures, 25 invited topical lectures, 78 oral and 108 poster contributions. Only 1/6 of the contributions presented during the Conference were submitted for publication in this Proceedings volume. From the submitted material, this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains 37 articles that were positively evaluated by independent referees. The Organizing Committee gratefully acknowledges all these contributions. We also thank all the referees of the papers submitted for the Proceedings for their timely and thorough work. We would like to thank all members of the National Program Committee for their work in the selection process of

  9. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Doughty, Christine; Gasperikova, Erika; Peterson, John; Conrad, Mark; Cook, Paul; Tiemi, Onishi

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  10. Highlights of the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamen; Fatima, Vayani; Fatima, Nazeefa; Das, Sayoni; Rahman, Farzana; Hassan, Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    Following the success of the 1 st Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK, a 2 nd Student Symposium took place on 7 th October 2015 at The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich, UK. This short report summarizes the main highlights from the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium. PMID:27239284

  11. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 69, 2nd Quarter 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    force and justice.”21 About half a century later, French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal mused that “justice without force is...and Lawes of Armes,” in The Strategy Makers, 69, 80. 22 Blaise Pascal , Pensées sur la Réligion et d’autres sujets, published posthumously (Paris: G

  12. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  13. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Baer-Keeley, Melanie; Fortheringham, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development Conference was held in association with Earth Day 1997, five years after the first Interface Conference. Rapid population growth in California has intensified the inevitable conflict between land development and preservation of natural ecosystems. Sustainable development requires wise use of diminishing natural resources and, where possible, restoration of damaged landscapes. These Earth Week Celebrations brought together resource managers, scientists, politicians, environmental consultants, and concerned citizens in an effort to improve the communication necessary to maintain our natural biodiversity, ecosystem processes and general quality of life. As discussed by our keynote speaker, Michael Soule, the best predictor of habitat loss is population growth and nowhere is this better illustrated than in California. As urban perimeters expand, the interface between wildlands and urban areas increases. Few problems are more vexing than how to manage the fire prone ecosystems indigenous to California at this urban interface. Today resource managers face increasing challenges of dealing with this problem and the lead-off section of the proceedings considers both the theoretical basis for making decisions related to prescribed burning and the practical application. Habitat fragmentation is an inevitable consequence of development patterns with significant impacts on animal and plant populations. Managers must be increasingly resourceful in dealing with problems of fragmentation and the often inevitable consequences, including susceptibility to invasive oganisms. One approach to dealing with fragmentation problems is through careful landplanning. California is the national leader in the integration of conservation and economics. On Earth Day 1991, Governor Pete Wilson presented an environmental agenda that promised to create between land owners and environmentalists, agreements that would guarantee the protection of

  14. 1st- and 2nd-order motion and texture resolution in central and peripheral vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Sperling, G.

    1995-01-01

    STIMULI. The 1st-order stimuli are moving sine gratings. The 2nd-order stimuli are fields of static visual texture, whose contrasts are modulated by moving sine gratings. Neither the spatial slant (orientation) nor the direction of motion of these 2nd-order (microbalanced) stimuli can be detected by a Fourier analysis; they are invisible to Reichardt and motion-energy detectors. METHOD. For these dynamic stimuli, when presented both centrally and in an annular window extending from 8 to 10 deg in eccentricity, we measured the highest spatial frequency for which discrimination between +/- 45 deg texture slants and discrimination between opposite directions of motion were each possible. RESULTS. For sufficiently low spatial frequencies, slant and direction can be discriminated in both central and peripheral vision, for both 1st- and for 2nd-order stimuli. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, at both retinal locations, slant discrimination is possible at higher spatial frequencies than direction discrimination. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, motion resolution decreases 2-3 times more rapidly with eccentricity than does texture resolution. CONCLUSIONS. (1) 1st- and 2nd-order motion scale similarly with eccentricity. (2) 1st- and 2nd-order texture scale similarly with eccentricity. (3) The central/peripheral resolution fall-off is 2-3 times greater for motion than for texture.

  15. First chemical evidence of royal purple as a material used for funeral treatment discovered in a Gallo-Roman burial (Naintré, France, third century AD).

    PubMed

    Devièse, Thibaut; Ribechini, Erika; Baraldi, Pietro; Farago-Szekeres, Bernard; Duday, Henri; Regert, Martine; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2011-10-01

    Violet-purple residues collected from a Gallo-Roman burial dated back to the second half of the third century A.D. and excavated at Naintré (France) were chemically investigated by multi-analytical methodology involving the use of Raman spectroscopy, direct exposure-mass spectrometry (DE-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV-visible). Little is known about funeral treatment and rituals during Roman times. Retrieving valuable information on these by chemical analysis of organic residues was thus a key aspect of this work. Analyses demonstrated the presence of the very precious purple colorant obtained from shellfish glands commonly known as Tyrian or royal purple and its exceptional preservation. Chemical investigation and archaeological evidence have shown that purple was widely spread after the deposition of the body for burial. These results are the earliest chemical evidence of purple colorant used during funeral rituals (not as textile dye) and enabled us to highlight new aspects of funeral practices in Roman times.

  16. Evaluation of elemental status of ancient human bone samples from Northeastern Hungary dated to the 10th century AD by XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    János, I.; Szathmáry, L.; Nádas, E.; Béni, A.; Dinya, Z.; Máthé, E.

    2011-11-01

    The present study is a multielemental analysis of bone samples belonging to skeletal individuals originating from two contemporaneous (10th century AD) cemeteries (Tiszavasvári Nagy-Gyepáros and Nagycserkesz-Nádasibokor sites) in Northeastern Hungary, using the XRF analytical technique. Emitted X-rays were detected in order to determine the elemental composition of bones and to appreciate the possible influence of the burial environment on the elemental content of the human skeletal remains. Lumbar vertebral bodies were used for analysis. Applying the ED(P)XRF technique concentration of the following elements were determined: P, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br and Sr. The results indicated post mortem mineral exchange between the burial environment (soil) and bones (e.g. the enhanced levels of Fe and Mn) and referred to diagenetic alteration processes during burials. However, other elements such as Zn, Sr and Br seemed to be accumulated during the past life. On the basis of statistical analysis, clear separation could not be observed between the two excavation sites in their bone elemental concentrations which denoted similar diagenetic influences, environmental conditions. The enhanced levels of Sr might be connected with the past dietary habits, especially consumption of plant food.

  17. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  18. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  19. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  20. 42. OVERALL OF 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM OFF MILL NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. OVERALL OF 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM OFF MILL NO. 2. NOTE TRUSSWORK. SPACE TO RIGHT OF COLUMNS IS PART OF 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADDITION. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  1. 22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING MACHINE. LIGHT TABLE USED TO CHECK FOR CLOTH DEFECTS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  2. VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT CASCADES TOWARDS FILTRATION PLANT AND LOS ANGELES RESERVOIR - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Cascades Structures, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 27. INTERIOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 2ND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER SPACE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 2ND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER SPACE, LOOKING UP AT CIRCULAR MOTIF AND BANDS IN THE CEILING ABOVE THE ACOUSTICAL TILES - Ford Motor Company Plant, 700 South Union Street, Alexandria, Independent City, VA

  4. Production and verification of a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jilun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Si, Fei; Jiang, Xiufeng; Liu, Haijin

    2016-01-01

    Clonal fishes are useful tools in biology and aquaculture studies due to their isogenicity. In Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), a group of homozygous clones was created by inducing meiogynogenesis in eggs from a mitogynogenetic homozygous diploid. As the clones reached sexual maturity, meiogynogenesis was again induced in order to produce a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder. After 3 months, there were 611 healthy, surviving individuals. Twenty-four microsatellite markers, that covered all the linkage groups of Japanese flounder, were used to identify the homozygosity of the 2nd generation clones; no heterozygous locus was detected. This indicates that the production of a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder was successful. Restriction-site DNA associated sequencing at the genomic level also confirmed the homozygosity and clonality of the 2nd generation clonal group. Furthermore, these 2nd generation clones had a small coefficient of variation for body shape indices at 210 days of age and showed a high degree of similarity in body characteristics among individuals. The successful production of 2nd generation clones has laid the foundation for the large-scale production of clonal Japanese flounder. PMID:27767055

  5. Synthesis of Inorganic Materials, 2nd, Revised and Updated Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Ulrich; Hüsing, Nicola

    2005-02-01

    This second edition of a very well received advanced textbook retains the chemist's viewpoint in its comprehensive overview of methods for chemical synthesis of inorganic materials. The second chapter now includes a section on biomorphic ceramics, while one on LEDs has been added to Chapter 3. Chapter 4 now includes a more thorough explanation of borate glasses, with certain sections being completely rearranged. In addition, Chapter 6 has been extensively revised, and a whole new sub-chapter added on coordination polymers. The general principles and requirements are discussed for each method given, along with selected examples of technically applied materials, as well as the material properties and applications of the resulting products. Furthermore, numerous tables with further examples help in assessing the scope and limitation of the various methods and in choosing a suitable synthesis for any given problem. Intended for both courses in inorganic chemistry and materials science, this volume is equally valuable for all researchers working on the borderline of these two disciplines.

  6. Organic Chemistry, 2nd Edition (by Paula Y. Bruice)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Marlene G.

    1998-11-01

    Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1998, xxx +1256 pp, 6 appendices. ISBN 0-13-841925-6. $99. The author has made some constructive changes to the second edition of this visually pleasing book. The chapter order has been rearranged so that all of spectroscopy is covered in two adjoining chapters (new problems combining NMR and IR have been added), all of the chapters on bioorganic chemistry are grouped together (information on reducing sugars has been added), and the last section now covers heterocycles, pericyclic reactions, polymer synthesis, multistep synthetic strategies, and drug design. The publisher offers additional material at its Web site and a paperback for students assisting them in using the Internet. The ChemCentral Organic Web site has problem sets to supplement each chapter (including hints for struggling students) and animations of molecules undergoing reactions. In addition the Web site provides syllabus construction software for instructors. The accompanying study guide/solutions manual, written by the textbook author, contains a glossary, answers to chapter problems, and a practice test (for the first twenty chapters). There are sections called "special topics" which offer in-depth treatment of pH, pKa, buffers, and the electron-pushing formalism.

  7. Madeira Extreme Floods: 2009/2010 Winter. Case study - 2nd and 20th of February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, V.; Marques, J.; Silva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Floods are at world scale the natural disaster that affects a larger fraction of the population. It is a phenomenon that extends it's effects to the surrounding areas of the hydrographic network (basins, rivers, dams) and the coast line. Accordingly to USA FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) flood can be defined as:"A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties from: Overflow of inland or tidal waters; Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; Mudflow; Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined above." A flash flood is the result of intense and long duration of continuous precipitation and can result in dead casualties (i.e. floods in mainland Portugal in 1967, 1983 and 1997). The speed and strength of the floods either localized or over large areas, results in enormous social impacts either by the loss of human lives and or the devastating damage to the landscape and human infrastructures. The winter of 2009/2010 in Madeira Island was characterized by several episodes of very intense precipitation (specially in December 2009 and February 2010) adding to a new record of accumulated precipitation since there are records in the island. In February two days are especially rainy with absolute records for the month of February (daily records since 1949): 111mm and 97mm on the 2nd and 20th respectively. The accumulated precipitation ended up with the terrible floods on the 20th of February causing the lost of dozens of human lives and hundreds of millions of Euros of losses The large precipitation occurrences either more intense precipitation in a short period or less intense precipitation during a larger period are sometimes the precursor of

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Mind, Matter and Quantum Mechanics (2nd edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, G.

    2004-07-01

    that theory, construed as a description of reality.' This is taken to be entirely different within quantum mechanics. `The core idea of quantum mechanics is to describe our activities as knowledge-seeking and knowledge-using agents.' `21st century science does not reduce human beings to mechanical automata. Rather it elevates human beings to agents whose free choices can, according to the known laws, actually influence their behaviour.' An example with respect to perception is discussed: `Why, when we look at a triangle, do we experience three lines joined at three points and not some pattern of neuron firings?' The brain `does not convert an actual whole triangle into some jumbled set of particle motions; rather it converts a concatenation of separate external events into the actualization of some single integrated pattern of neural activity that is congruent to the perceived whole triangle.' How convincing is this proposal? It is hard to tell. I think Henry Stapp did a good job, but there are tight limitations to any such endeavour. Quantum mechanics is often strange indeed, but it also gives rise to our classical world around us. For the emergence of classicality jumps and measurement projections (the basic phenomena connected with those fundamental events of choice) are not needed. Therefore, I doubt whether the explanation of the evolution of our world really allows (or requires) that much free choice. On the other hand, most scientist will agree that empirical science was not possible without free will: we could not ask independent questions if this asking was part of a deterministic trajectory. The fact that the result of a quantum measurement is indeterminate (within given probabilities) does certainly not explain free will. How about the type of measurment? The experimentalist will have to assume that he can select the pertinent observable within some limits. But given a certain design the so-called pointer basis (producing stable measurement results) is no

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell (2nd edn) Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell (2nd edn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peskin, Michael E.

    2011-04-01

    and topology, and applications to condensed matter systems including the Peierls instability and the quantum Hall fluid. It is a large amount of territory to cover in a single volume. Few derivations are more than one page long. Those that fit in that space are very smooth, but others are too abbreviated to be fully comprehensible. The prose that accompanies the derivations, though, is always enticing. Zee misses no opportunity to point out that an argument he gives opens the door to some deeper subject that he encourages the reader to explore. I do warn students that it is easy to learn from this book how to talk quantum field theory without understanding it. To avoid this pitfall, it is important (as Zee emphasizes) to fill in the steps of his arguments with hard calculation. One topic from which Zee does not restrain himself is the quantum theory of gravity. In the first hundred pages we find a `concise introduction to curved spacetime' that includes a very pretty derivation of the Christoffel symbol from the geodesic equation. Toward the end of the book, there is a set of chapters devoted to the quantization of the gravitational field. The structure of the graviton propagator is worked out carefully. The van Dam-Veltman discontinuity between massless and massive spin 2 exchange is explained clearly. But after this Zee runs out of steam in presenting fully worked arguments. Still, there is room for more prose on connections to the great mysteries of the subject: the ultraviolet behavior, the cosmological constant, and the unification of forces. A new chapter added to the second edition discusses `Is Einstein Gravity The Square Of Yang-Mills Theory?' and suggests an affirmative answer, based on brand-new developments in perturbative quantum field theory. Quantum field theory is a large subject that still has not reached its definitive form. As such, there is room for many textbooks of complementary character. Zee states frankly, `It is not the purpose of this book

  10. 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of China (ESC) and Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME) hosted the 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases in Beijing, China, May 23-27, 2011. The theme of the Forum was “Impact of global climate ch...

  11. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This NERL-Cincinnati publication, “Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition” was prepared as the continuation of an initiative to gather together under a single cover a compendium of standardized laborato...

  12. Stem cells and cancer immunotherapy: Arrowhead’s 2nd annual cancer immunotherapy conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from academia and industry gathered on April 4 and 5, 2013, in Washington DC at the Arrowhead’s 2nd Annual Cancer Immunotherapy Conference. Two complementary concepts were discussed: cancer “stem cells” as targets and therapeutic platforms based on stem cells.

  13. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Maxfield, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Evaluation of a Hand Washing Program for 2nd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program.…

  15. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  16. The Effect of Using Computer Edutainment on Developing 2nd Primary Graders' Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Abdel Raheem, Azza Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempted to examine the effect of using computer edutainment on developing 2nd graders' writing skills. The study comprised thirty-second year primary stage enrolled in Bani Hamad primary governmental school, Minia governorate. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one…

  17. The Campi Flegrei caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 uc(ad))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36 hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive crisis

  18. The Campi Flegrei caldera: historical revision and new data on seismic crises, bradyseisms, the Monte Nuovo eruption and ensuing earthquakes (twelfth century 1582 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Ciuccarelli, Cecilia

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic historical study of the seismic, bradyseismic and eruptive activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera. The aim is to make a revised historical data available for accurate volcanological interpretation, supplying additional data and highlighting spurious previous data. The analysis begins with the supposed 1198 eruption, which did not actually take place. No information is available for the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As far as the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are concerned, only direct sources were examined for this paper, and they include many different types of evidence. The chronological breadth of the analysis has also provided information about the seismic crises and bradyseisms prior to the eruption of 1538. The exceptional nature of this 1538 eruption attracted the attention of intellectuals, diplomats and natural philosophers, who left valuable accounts, which we have analysed, and which include many that are still available in their original manuscript form. The previous studies concerning the 1538 eruption were based on 23 (variously used) sources. We have examined 35 additional sources bringing the overall corpus of sources analysed to 58. The results provide a more precise scenario of events preceding the 1538 eruption, including bradyseismic activity starting from the end of the fifteenth century. The chronology of the phenomena described comprises the core result of this study, and has been constructed so as to clarify the time, location and impact of each event. For the 1538 eruption, a countdown is included which may also have a predictive value. For the last 36?| hours before eruption began, the countdown is hour-by-hour. The effects of the eruption and earthquakes on people, structures and society are also described for Pozzuoli, Agnano and Naples. The areas where heavy materials and ash fell are likewise indicated, as well are the earth tremors felt by the population from the eruptive

  19. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.4: Vortex Transport by Uniform Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d. The CESE method is a time accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist, the 2nd-order accurate version was used. In regards to the ez4d code, it is an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available. As part of its architecture, ez4d has the capability to utilize multi-thread and Messaging Passage Interface (MPI) for parallel runs.

  20. A Communications Guide for Sustainable Development: How Interested Parties Become Partners, 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Hund, Gretchen; Engel-Cox, Jill A.

    2016-03-06

    The 2nd edition is an updated version plus an e-book. This book was developed to assist organizations in designing and managing their communication and stakeholder involvement programs. The guidebook describes a step-by-step approach, provides case studies, and presents tools to consider. The book uses a scenario approach to outline changes an organization may confront, and provides a menu of communication and engagement activities that support organizational decision making.

  1. Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Prague 2004

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P; Johnston, K; Meeuwisse, W; Aubry, M; Cantu, R; Dvorak, J; Graf-Baumann, T; Kelly, J; Lovell, M; Schamasch, P

    2005-01-01

    In November 2001, the 1st International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was held in Vienna, Austria to provide recommendations for the improvement of safety and health of athletes who suffer concussive injuries in ice hockey, football (soccer), and other sports. The 2nd International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was organised by the same group and held in Prague, Czech Republic in November 2004. It resulted in a revision and update of the Vienna consensus recommendations, which are presented here.

  2. Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Prague 2004

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P; Johnston, K; Meeuwisse, W; Aubry, M; Cantu, R; Dvorak, J; Graf-Baumann, T; Kelly, J; Lovell, M; Schamasch, P

    2005-01-01

    In November 2001, the 1st International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was held in Vienna, Austria to provide recommendations for the improvement of safety and health of athletes who suffer concussive injuries in ice hockey, football (soccer), and other sports. The 2nd International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was organised by the same group and held in Prague, Czech Republic in November 2004. It resulted in a revision and update of the Vienna consensus recommendations, which are presented here. PMID:15793085

  3. Graphical shapes of the 2nd type singularities of a 3-RR̠R planar mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buium, F.; Duca, C.; Doroftei, I.; Leohchi, D.

    2016-08-01

    This paper intends to discuss about singularity curves of 2nd type inside the workspace of a 3R̠RR planar parallel mechanism used as robot structure. In order to attain this goal we will use certain variation of the links dimensional parameters. This characterization of the mechanism singularities located inside mechanism workspace depends on the dimensional parameters and can be useful in mechanism designing accorded to some functional particularities in the sense that it can help in avoiding singular configurations.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  5. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  6. NASA 2nd Generation RLV Program Introduction, Status and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan L.; Smith, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI), managed by the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2ndGen RLV) Program, was established to examine the possibility of revolutionizing space launch capabilities, define conceptual architectures, and concurrently identify the advanced technologies required to support a next-generation system. Initial Program funds have been allocated to design, evaluate, and formulate realistic plans leading to a 2nd Gen RLV full-scale development (FSD) decision by 2006. Program goals are to reduce both risk and cost for accessing the limitless opportunities afforded outside Earth's atmosphere fo civil, defense, and commercial enterprises. A 2nd Gen RLV architecture includes a reusable Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle, an on-orbit transport and return vehicle, ground and flight operations, mission planning, and both on-orbit and on-the-ground support infrastructures All segments of the architecture must advance in step with development of the RLV if a next-generation system is to be fully operational early next decade. However, experience shows that propulsion is the single largest contributor to unreliability during ascent, requires the largest expenditure of time for maintenance, and takes a long time to develop; therefore, propulsion is the key to meeting safety, reliability, and cost goals. For these reasons, propulsion is SLI's top technology investment area.

  7. Development of fetal intestinal length during 2nd-trimester in normal and pathologic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Marnerides, Andreas; Ghazi, Sam; Sundberg, Anders; Papadogiannakis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Linear growth of the human fetal gastrointestinal tract is not often discussed in the literature, and little is known about the effects of chromosomal abnormalities and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on intestinal length, especially during the 2nd trimester. Accurate evaluation of intestinal length and knowledge of normal and reference values are of clinical importance. For example, intestinal resection may be necessary in preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis or mid-gut volvulus, and the surgeon should use data to be judicious in the amount removed. Linear measurements are essential in evaluating fetal development ultrasonographically and are an integral part of the postmortem examination. The intestinal lengths of 203 2nd-trimester fetuses and premature infants were measured. Small intestine length (SIL), colon length (CL), total bowel length (TBL; TBL  =  SIL + CL), and the length of the appendix (AL) increased with gestational age. No differences between the genders were observed. Colon length increased secondary to maceration, but no such effects were shown on SIL, TBL, or AL. No differences were shown in relation to IUGR. Small intestine length, CL, and TBL, but not AL, were shorter in fetuses with trisomy 21. Appendix length was not affected by any of the studied factors. We propose that the measurement of the length of the appendix may be used as an additional parameter for the postmortem evaluation of gestational age. Furthermore, its assessment may have potential as an ultrasonographic indicator of gestational age, particularly for the 2nd trimester.

  8. Healing of rat mouth mucosa after irradiation with CO2, Nd:YAG, and CO2-Nd:YAG combination lasers.

    PubMed

    Luomanen, M; Rauhamaa-Mäkinen, R; Meurman, J H; Kosloff, T; Tiitta, O

    1994-08-01

    The healing process of wounds made by a combination laser was studied in 90 rats. The laser system enabled both separate and combined use of CO2 and Nd:YAG laser irradiations. The laser wounds and the control excision wounds made by alligator forceps appeared on both sides of the tongue. Specimens from the wound sites were taken immediately, 6 h, and 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 21, 28, and 42 days after surgery. The wound-healing process was studied by macroscopic evaluation before preparing the specimens for light microscopy. Some differences were noted in the wound-healing process among the three groups into which the experimental animals were divided. Tissue coagulation damage was most extensive in the Nd:YAG laser sites, where it was observed in its full extent 4 days after surgery. Epithelial cells were seen to begin to proliferate in all the wounds 6 h after surgery. Re-epithelialization was completed by between 7 (CO2) and 21 days (Nd:YAG) at all the wound sites. The inflammatory cell infiltration was more prominent in the Nd:YAG and the CO2-Nd:YAG combination laser wounds than in the CO2 and excision wounds during healing. Tissue regeneration occurred faster with less contraction in the combination CO2-Nd:YAG wounds than in Nd:YAG wounds. The best macroscopic healing result was seen in the CO2 wound sites. The combination laser was effective both at cutting and at coagulating tissue. Combining the CO2 and Nd:YAG laser irradiation into one beam resulted in a greater incision depth than what could have been expected from using the two lasers separately.

  9. Historical and Metallurgical Characterization of a "Falchion" Sword Manufactured in Caino (Brescia, Italy) in the Early 17th Century A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonelli, G.; Faccoli, M.; Gotti, R.; Roberti, R.; Cornacchia, G.

    2016-08-01

    A historical and metallurgical characterization of a "falchion" sword manufactured in Caino (Brescia, northern Italy) and dating from the early 17th century was performed to understand the manufacture methods of a Renaissance sword. At first, a set of size measurements was carried out to look for the existence of constant and/or recurring macroscopic sizes, which would indicate a standardized production, or of any type of proportionality between different parts of a sword, which would prove an intentional design activity. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, quantometer analyses, and Vickers microhardness tests were then employed to analyze the microstructure and obtain the mechanical properties. All the metallurgical work is supported by an accurate study on the chemical composition of both metal-matrix and nonmetallic inclusions, which allowed for rebuilding and evaluating the efficiency of the whole production process.

  10. Rapid strand-plain accretion in the northeastern Nile Delta in the 9th century A.D. and the demise of the port of Pelusium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Stanley, Daniel Jean

    1999-02-01

    An unusually large (˜1 km3) and rapid influx of Nile River sediment in the early 800s (a.d.) resulted in accretion of an extensive strand plain (6 to 15 m thick, 35 km long, and as much as 12 km wide) on the subsiding northeastern Nile Delta margin, Egypt. This event is related to blockage of the Pelusiac branch and breaking through of a new distributary to the west of present-day Port Said, probably representing initiation of the Damietta branch. The sand is of analytically identical age throughout the area and was deposited within less than ˜60 yr, as indicated by 14C and amino acid racemization analyses of Donax shells from a series of cores. Radiocarbon dates, in combination with historical accounts by Al-Jakubi, who found the strand plain already in existence when he visited the area in the late 800s, place this event in the early 800s. Nilometer flood records suggest that the sequence of great floods of 813, 816, and 820 may have been the triggering events. This sudden displacement of sand caused Pelusium, then the principal port and fortified city of the northeastern Nile Delta located at the mouth of the Pelusiac branch, to be cut off from both the Nile and the Mediterranean, and led to its decline and eventual abandonment by the 12th century, when the Crusaders arrived.

  11. Mars Curriculum for K-12 Science Education, 2nd Edition, Making Tracks on Mars Teacher Resource and Activity Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubele, J. C.; Stanley, J.; Grochowski, A.; Jones, K.; Aragon, J.

    2012-03-01

    A Mars K-12 curriculum, created by the New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, is now in 2nd edition DVD, approved by NASA educational review, 508 compliant to ensure accessibility for people with disabilities, and applicable to MSL.

  12. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  13. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  14. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd-generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  15. Life Cycle Systems Engineering Approach to NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Safie, Fayssal; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd- generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1 -in- 10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. Given a candidate architecture that possesses credible physical processes and realistic technology assumptions, the next set of analyses address the system's functionality across the spread of operational scenarios characterized by the design reference missions. The safety/reliability and cost/economics associated with operating the system will also be modeled and analyzed to answer the questions "How safe is it?" and "How much will it cost to acquire and operate?" The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and

  16. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  17. 2ND EF Conference in Turbulent Heat Transfer, Manchester, UK 1998. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    1WB.7C 1W1UC •v*ataj «vnlMlai i-V 1 iBriMHI MWBlaj fprriatfa ■ HSV Of»U» Ia»fUC T-4UC : BBIW OIJIHIIM 1 *>IMC T»«MC (g) (h) Figure 7 Local...t’ k THE UNIVERSITY y MANCHESTER UMIST 2nd EF Conference in TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER Manchester, UK 1 998 Approved /or public vil...QXTALTTY INSPECTED 1 CONTENTS VOLUME I Session 1 : Heat Transfer Under Simple Shearing (Chairmen: B. E. Launder and T. J. Hanratty) Y. Na, D. V

  18. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively.

  19. Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of a Coarse-Grained Mg-2Zn-2Nd Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Jonas, John J.; Yue, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Compression tests were performed on samples of Mg-2Zn-2Nd at 673 K (400 °C) and at three different strain rates. At 0.1/s, three mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) were observed to operate: discontinuous DRX (DDRX), twinning DRX (TDRX), and continuous DRX (CDRX). At 0.01/s, DDRX took place as a result of grain boundary bulging, followed by CDRX on further straining. At 0.001/s, only CDRX was observed. At a strain of 0.3, the activation of multiple DRX mechanisms in the 0.1/s samples produced the weakest deformation textures.

  20. Secular Motion in a 2nd Degree and Order-Gravity Field with no Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Hu, W.

    2001-03-01

    The motion of a particle about a non-rotating 2nd degree and order-gravity field is investigated. Averaging conditions are applied to the particle motion and a qualitative analysis which reveals the general character of motion in this system is given. It is shown that the orbit plane will either be stationary or precess about the body's axis of minimum or maximum moment of inertia. It is also shown that the secular equations for this system can be integrated in terms of trigonometric, hyperbolic or elliptic functions. The explicit solutions are derived in all cases of interest.

  1. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Control and Irradiated EPC 2nd Generation GaN FETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Results of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  2. VLT interferometer upgrade for the 2nd generation of interferometric instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonté, Frederic; Woillez, Julien; Schuhler, Nicolas; Egner, Sebastian; Merand, Antoine; Abad, José Antonio; Abadie, Sergio; Abuter, Roberto; Acuña, Margarita; Allouche, Fatmé; Alonso, Jaime; Andolfalto, Luigi; Antonelli, Pierre; Avila, Gerardo; Barriga, Pablo José; Beltran, Juan; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bolados, Carlos; Bonnet, Henri; Bourget, Pierre; Brast, Roland; Bristow, Paul; Caniguante, Luis; Castillo, Roberto; Conzelmann, Ralf; Cortes, Angela; Delplancke, Françoise; Del Valle, Diego; Derie, Frederic; Diaz, Alvaro; Donoso, Reinaldo; Dorn, Reinhold; Duhoux, Philippe; Dupuy, Christophe; Eisenhauer, Frank; Elao, Christian; Fuenteseca, Eloy; Fernandez, Ruben; Gaytan, Daniel; Glindemann, Andreas; Gonzales, Jaime; Guieu, Sylvain; Guisard, Stephane; Haguenauer, Pierre; Haimerl, Andreas; Heinz, Volker; Henriquez, Juan Pablo; van der Heyden, P.; Hubin, Norbert; Huerta, Rodrigo; Jochum, Lieselotte; Leiva, Alfredo; Lévêque, Samuel; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Luco, Fernando; Mardones, Pedro; Mellado, Angel; Osorio, Juan; Ott, Jürgen; Pallanca, Laurent; Pavez, Marcus; Pasquini, Luca; Percheron, Isabelle; Pirard, Jean-Francois; Than Phan, Duc; Pineda, Juan Carlos; Pino, Andres; Poupar, Sebastien; Ramírez, Andres; Reinero, Claudio; Riquelme, Miguel; Romero, Juan; Rivinius, Thomas; Rojas, Chester; Rozas, Felix; Salgado, Fernando; Scheithauer, Silvia; Schmid, Christian; Schöller, Markus; Siclari, Waldo; Stephan, Christian; Tamblay, Richard; Tapia, Mario; Tristram, Konrad; Valdes, Guillermo; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Wright, Andrew; Zins, Gerard

    2016-08-01

    ESO is undertaking a large upgrade of the infrastructure on Cerro Paranal in order to integrate the 2nd generation of interferometric instruments Gravity and MATISSE, and increase its performance. This upgrade started mid 2014 with the construction of a service station for the Auxiliary Telescopes and will end with the implementation of the adaptive optics system for the Auxiliary telescope (NAOMI) in 2018. This upgrade has an impact on the infrastructure of the VLTI, as well as its sub-systems and scientific instruments.

  3. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th–10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter–gatherer economies

    PubMed Central

    Sergusheva, Elena A.; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N.; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W.; Tarasov, Pavel E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440–890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter–gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early–Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the “Satsumon type” barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the “Okhotsk type” spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley

  4. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    PubMed

    Leipe, Christian; Sergusheva, Elena A; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W; Tarasov, Pavel E

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly

  5. [How to read and understand Registries for Evaluating Patient Outcomes: A User's Guide (2nd Edition)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2013-09-01

    Registry studies (RS) get more and more attention in recent years because it can reflect the health care situations of the real world. There are a number of large scale RS for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). RS are observational studies that can complement randomized controlled trials (RCT). RS have an irreplaceable position in real word study (RWS), especially for small probability events. There are some different characters and qualities in RS. Registries for Evaluating Patient Outcomes: A User's Guide (2nd Edition) was published by the agency for healthcare research and quality (AHRQ) in 2010. It described the details of how to establish, maintain, and evaluate RS, and using 38 RS samples to illustrate the possible problems in undertaking such research. The User's Guide (2nd Edition) provides a reliable reference document for RS. TCM injections post-marketing safety surveillance RS is a national program involving multiple centers in China. This program can further improve RS quality their application in China and is a good illustration of how to follow this guide accurately.

  6. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence.

  7. A novel 2nd-order bandpass MFSS filter with miniaturized structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, C. Y.; Gao, J. S.; Feng, X. G.

    2015-08-01

    In order to effectively obtain a miniaturized structure and good filtering properties, we propose a novel 2nd-order bandpass metamaterial frequency selective surface (MFSS) filter which contains two capacitive layers and one inductive layer, where there are multi-loop metallic patches as shunt capacitor C and planar wire grids as series inductor L respectively. Unlike the traditional operation way—the tuned elements used in resonant surface approximately equal to one wavelength in circumference and the structure thickness with a spacing of a quarter wavelength apart, by changing the value of L and C and matching multilayer dielectric to adjust the LC coupling resonance and the resonance impedance respectively, the proposed MFSS filter can achieves a miniatured structure with ideal bandpass properties. Measurement results of the fabricated prototype of the bandpass filter (BPF) indicate that the dimension of the tuned element on resonant surface is approximately 0.025 wavelength, i.e., 0.025λ. At the same time, the filter has the stable center frequency of f0 = 1.53GHz and the transmittance of T ⩾ 96.3% and high Q-value for the TE/TM wave polarization at various incidence angles. The novel 2nd-order bandpass MFSS filter with miniaturized structure not only can decrease structure dimension, but also has a wide range of applications to microwave and infrared band.

  8. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  9. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, E.; Smith, M.

    2012-07-26

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  10. Establishment of the World Health Organization 2(nd) International Standard for Factor XI, Plasma, Human.

    PubMed

    Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The 1(st) International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1(st) IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2(nd) IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2(nd) IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1(st) IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2(nd) IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp.

  11. Establishment of the World Health Organization 2nd International Standard for Factor XI, Plasma, Human

    PubMed Central

    Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The 1st International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1st IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2nd IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2nd IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1st IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2nd IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp. PMID:28373973

  12. Simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge Implantation and 2nd Stage Auricular Reconstruction for Microtia with Aural Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Lynne Hsueh Yee; Xiang, Ling; del Prado, Jocelynne; Ee Chin, Ling; Beltrame, Millo Achille

    2011-01-01

    Aural atresia and severe microtia are associated malformations that result in problems with hearing and cosmesis, associated speech and language difficulties and diminished self-esteem. In cases where middle ear ossiculoplasty and aural atresia canalplasty are expected to give poor hearing outcomes that would eventually require the use of hearing aids, bone anchored hearing aids or active middle ear implants may be better options. This case report describes a simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge implantation and 2nd stage auricular reconstruction with rib graft cartilage for an 11-year-old boy with grade III microtia and aural atresia 8 months after the 1st stage reconstruction. Audiometric results of the Vibrant Soundbridge aided ear were comparable to that of the contralateral hearing aid aided ear. PMID:26557321

  13. A Perpendicular Biased 2nd Harmonic Cavity for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C. Y.; Dey, J.; Madrak, R. L.; Pellico, W.; Romanov, G.; Sun, D.; Terechkine, I.

    2015-07-13

    A perpendicular biased 2nd harmonic cavity is currently being designed for the Fermilab Booster. Its purpose cavity is to flatten the bucket at injection and thus change the longitudinal beam distribution so that space charge effects are decreased. It can also with transition crossing. The reason for the choice of perpendicular biasing over parallel biasing is that the Q of the cavity is much higher and thus allows the accelerating voltage to be a factor of two higher than a similar parallel biased cavity. This cavity will also provide a higher accelerating voltage per meter than the present folded transmission line cavity. However, this type of cavity presents technical challenges that need to be addressed. The two major issues are cooling of the garnet material from the effects of the RF and the cavity itself from eddy current heating because of the 15 Hz bias field ramp. This paper will address the technical challenge of preventing the garnet from overheating.

  14. Preliminary GPS orbit combination results of the IGS 2nd reprocessing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    International GNSS Service (IGS) has contributed to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame by reprocessing historic GPS network data and submitting Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions and Earth Rotation Parameters. For the 2nd reprocessing campaign, Analysis Centers (ACs) used up to 21 years of GPS observation data with daily integrations. IERS2010 conventions are applied to model the physical effects of the Earth. Total eight ACs have participated (7 Global solutions, and 2 Tide Gauge solutions) by reprocessing entire time series in a consistent way using the latest models and methodology. IGS combined daily SINEX TRF and EOP combinations have already been submitted to the IERS for ITRF2013. This presentation mainly focuses on the preliminary quality assessment of the reprocessed AC orbits. Quality of the orbit products are examined by examining the repeatability between daily AC satellite ephemeris. Power spectral analysis shows the background noise characteristics of each AC products, and its periodic behaviors.

  15. Automated CFD Database Generation for a 2nd Generation Glide-Back-Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pandya, Shishir A.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Tejmil, Edward

    2003-01-01

    A new software tool, AeroDB, is used to compute thousands of Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions for a 2nd generation glide-back booster in one week. The solution process exploits a common job-submission grid environment using 13 computers located at 4 different geographical sites. Process automation and web-based access to the database greatly reduces the user workload, removing much of the tedium and tendency for user input errors. The database consists of forces, moments, and solution files obtained by varying the Mach number, angle of attack, and sideslip angle. The forces and moments compare well with experimental data. Stability derivatives are also computed using a monotone cubic spline procedure. Flow visualization and three-dimensional surface plots are used to interpret and characterize the nature of computed flow fields.

  16. Computation of equivalent poles placement for class of 2nd order discrete bilinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadek, Lukasz; Koszalka, Leszek; Burnham, Keith

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces an adaptation of the classical linear control theory representation of zeros, poles and gain into a bilinear approach. The placement of poles at the complex plane is a complete description of plants dynamics; hence it is a convenient form from which calculation of various properties, e.g. rise time, settling time, is plausible. Such technique can be adjusted into the bilinear structure if poles of a quasi-linear representation (linear with respect to input) are concerned. The research outcomes with conclusion on the equivalent poles displacement and generalized rules for a 2nd order bilinear system equivalent poles input dependent loci. The proposed approach seems to be promising, as simplification of design and identification of a bilinear system increases transparency during modelling and control in practical applications and hence it may be followed by applicability of such structure in common industrial problems.

  17. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. H. Kim, T. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source.

  18. Simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge Implantation and 2nd Stage Auricular Reconstruction for Microtia with Aural Atresia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lynne Hsueh Yee; Xiang, Ling; Del Prado, Jocelynne; Ee Chin, Ling; Beltrame, Millo Achille

    2011-07-01

    Aural atresia and severe microtia are associated malformations that result in problems with hearing and cosmesis, associated speech and language difficulties and diminished self-esteem. In cases where middle ear ossiculoplasty and aural atresia canalplasty are expected to give poor hearing outcomes that would eventually require the use of hearing aids, bone anchored hearing aids or active middle ear implants may be better options. This case report describes a simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge implantation and 2(nd) stage auricular reconstruction with rib graft cartilage for an 11-year-old boy with grade III microtia and aural atresia 8 months after the 1(st) stage reconstruction. Audiometric results of the Vibrant Soundbridge aided ear were comparable to that of the contralateral hearing aid aided ear.

  19. The New 2nd-Generation SRF R&D Facility at Jefferson Lab: TEDF

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Reilly, Anthony V.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a near-complete renovation of the SRF-based accelerator research and development facilities at Jefferson Lab. The project to accomplish this, the Technical and Engineering Development Facility (TEDF) Project has completed the first of two phases. An entirely new 3,100 m{sup 2} purpose-built SRF technical work facility has been constructed and was occupied in summer of 2012. All SRF work processes with the exception of cryogenic testing have been relocated into the new building. All cavity fabrication, processing, thermal treatment, chemistry, cleaning, and assembly work is collected conveniently into a new LEED-certified building. An innovatively designed 800 m2 cleanroom/chemroom suite provides long-term flexibility for support of multiple R&D and construction projects as well as continued process evolution. The characteristics of this first 2nd-generation SRF facility are described.

  20. Enabling the 2nd Generation in Space: Building Blocks for Large Scale Space Endeavours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhardt, D.; Garretson, P.; Will, P.

    Today the world operates within a "first generation" space industrial enterprise, i.e. all industry is on Earth, all value from space is from bits (data essentially), and the focus is Earth-centric, with very limited parts of our population and industry participating in space. We are limited in access, manoeuvring, on-orbit servicing, in-space power, in-space manufacturing and assembly. The transition to a "Starship culture" requires the Earth to progress to a "second generation" space industrial base, which implies the need to expand the economic sphere of activity of mankind outside of an Earth-centric zone and into CIS-lunar space and beyond, with an equal ability to tap the indigenous resources in space (energy, location, materials) that will contribute to an expanding space economy. Right now, there is no comfortable place for space applications that are not discovery science, exploration, military, or established earth bound services. For the most part, space applications leave out -- or at least leave nebulous, unconsolidated, and without a critical mass -- programs and development efforts for infrastructure, industrialization, space resources (survey and process maturation), non-traditional and persistent security situational awareness, and global utilities -- all of which, to a far greater extent than a discovery and exploration program, may help determine the elements of a 2nd generation space capability. We propose a focus to seed the pre-competitive research that will enable global industry to develop the necessary competencies that we currently lack to build large scale space structures on-orbit, that in turn would lay the foundation for long duration spacecraft travel (i.e. key technologies in access, manoeuvrability, etc.). This paper will posit a vision-to-reality for a step wise approach to the types of activities the US and global space providers could embark upon to lay the foundation for the 2nd generation of Earth in space.

  1. Conference Proceedings: 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International; Disability in the Family. (Brighton, England, September 18-21, 1978)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Association for Disability and Rehabilitation, London (England).

    The conference proceedings of the 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International (1978) on the theme disability in the family contains the agenda and approximately 80 papers. National presentations consider the theme in papers by representatives of Finland, Hungary, Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal, Hong Kong, India, The German…

  2. Curriculum on the Edge of Survival: How Schools Fail to Prepare Students for Membership in a Democracy. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Typically, school curriculum has been viewed through the lens of preparation for the workplace or higher education, both worthy objectives. However, this is not the only lens, and perhaps not even the most powerful one to use, if the goal is to optimize the educational system. "Curriculum on the Edge of Survival, 2nd Edition," attempts to define…

  3. Comparative analysis of 1st, 2nd, and 4th year MD students' attitudes toward Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    PubMed Central

    Riccard, Christopher P; Skelton, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Background To identify and report the attitudes and beliefs of 1st, 2nd, and 4th year medical students toward complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Methods The previously validated and reliability tested CHBQ was administered to medical students attending the University of South Florida School of Medicine. Results Significant changes were found between both 1st (46.0 ± 7.7) and 4th (37.8 ± 15.7) year students and 2nd (48.3 ± 7.8) and 4th (37.8 ± 15.7) year students. No significant difference was found between 1st (46.0 ± 7.7) and 2nd (48.3 ± 7.8) year students. When comparing scores based on gender, a significant difference was present between males (41.2 ± 12.2) and females (46.1 ± 11.0). Conclusion CHBQ scores were significantly more positive in both 1st and 2nd year medical students in comparison with 4th year student's scores. These findings suggest that as student exposure to allopathic techniques and procedures increases during the last year of medical school, their attitudes toward CAM decrease. Females were also significantly more likely to have stronger positive attitudes toward CAM than males, though both genders represented an overall positive attitude toward CAM. PMID:18799010

  4. The Hyphen as a Syllabification Cue in Reading Bisyllabic and Multisyllabic Words among Finnish 1st and 2nd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häikiö, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Finnish ABC books present words with hyphens inserted at syllable boundaries. Syllabification by hyphens is abandoned in the 2nd grade for bisyllabic words, but continues for words with three or more syllables. The current eye movement study investigated how and to what extent syllable hyphens in bisyllabic ("kah-vi" "cof-fee")…

  5. Give It a Shot! Toolkit for Nurses and Other Immunization Champions Working with Secondary Schools. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Chu, Lynda; Wooley, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent immunization saves lives--but promoting immunization takes time and thought, and today's nurses and other health advocates are faced with a host of ever-expanding responsibilities in a time of reduced budgets and staff. This toolkit is thus structured as an easy and reliable resource. This 2nd edition contains: (1) a 64-page manual;…

  6. International Conference on Hyperbolic Problems (2nd). Theory, Numerical Methods and Applications, 14-18 March 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    SOlution of’ th icai Ele quations. Proceedings of (lie 2nd European Conference on Multigrid 3. - --- AND B. KoRSN (1997). A Non-linear Afiultq,’rid...of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, India A new upwind scheme called Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS) method has been

  7. Perspectives on Art Therapy: The Proceedings of the Pittsburgh Conference on Art Therapy (2nd, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 20, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ellen A., Ed.; Rubin, Judith A., Ed.

    The proceedings of the 2nd annual Pittsburgh Conference on Art Therapy (with handicapped persons) consists of 44 items including full length papers, summaries of previously published papers, descriptions of workshops, and a limited number of abstracts (submitted by those who chose not to present a paper or workshop description). The papers are…

  8. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  9. Efficient Simulation of Wing Modal Response: Application of 2nd Order Shape Sensitivities and Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Liu, Youhua

    2000-01-01

    At the preliminary design stage of a wing structure, an efficient simulation, one needing little computation but yielding adequately accurate results for various response quantities, is essential in the search of optimal design in a vast design space. In the present paper, methods of using sensitivities up to 2nd order, and direct application of neural networks are explored. The example problem is how to decide the natural frequencies of a wing given the shape variables of the structure. It is shown that when sensitivities cannot be obtained analytically, the finite difference approach is usually more reliable than a semi-analytical approach provided an appropriate step size is used. The use of second order sensitivities is proved of being able to yield much better results than the case where only the first order sensitivities are used. When neural networks are trained to relate the wing natural frequencies to the shape variables, a negligible computation effort is needed to accurately determine the natural frequencies of a new design.

  10. Wind-US Results for the AIAA 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance III; Foster, Lancert; Mankbadi, Mina

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains Wind-US results presented at the 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The workshop was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Breathing Propulsion Systems Integration Technical Committee with the purpose of assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics for air breathing propulsion applications. Attendees included representatives from government, industry, academia, and commercial software companies. Participants were encouraged to explore and discuss all aspects of the simulation process including the effects of mesh type and refinement, solver numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. The first set of challenge cases involved computing the thrust and discharge coefficients for a 25deg conical nozzle for a range of nozzle pressure ratios between 1.4 and 7.0. Participants were also asked to simulate two cases in which the 25deg conical nozzle was bifurcated by a solid plate, resulting in vortex shedding (NPR=1.6) and shifted plume shock (NPR=4.0). A second set of nozzle cases involved computing the discharge and thrust coefficients for a convergent dual stream nozzle for a range of subsonic nozzle pressure ratios. The workshop committee also compared the plume mixing of these cases across various codes and models. The final test case was a serpentine inlet diffuser with an outlet to inlet area ratio of 1.52 and an offset of 1.34 times the inlet diameter. Boundary layer profiles, wall static pressure, and total pressure at downstream rake locations were examined.

  11. Minimal Clinically Important Difference on Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd Version

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Deli, Gabriella; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the estimates of minimal clinically important difference for Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) total score and dimensions. Methods. The subject population consisted of 413 PD patients. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and PDSS-2 were assessed. Nine months later the PDSS-2 was reevaluated with the Patient-Reported Global Impression Improvement Scale. Both anchor-based techniques (within patients' score change method and sensitivity- and specificity-based method by receiver operating characteristic analysis) and distribution-based approaches (effect size calculations) were utilized to determine the magnitude of minimal clinically important difference. Results. According to our results, any improvements larger than −3.44 points or worsening larger than 2.07 points can represent clinically important changes for the patients. These thresholds have the effect size of 0.21 and −0.21, respectively. Conclusions. Minimal clinically important differences are the smallest change of scores that are subjectively meaningful to patients. Studies using the PDSS-2 as outcome measure should utilize the threshold of −3.44 points for detecting improvement or the threshold of 2.07 points for observing worsening. PMID:26539303

  12. Evaluation of a hand washing program for 2nd-graders.

    PubMed

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program. The program consisted of interactive class discussions and activities using GlitterBug training devices and agar plate materials. A one-factor repeated measure analysis of variance indicated a statistically significant 34% decrease in the absenteeism rate for students in the intervention group. Chi-square analyses on agar plate data indicated that students had cleaner hands after washing. Qualitative data from parents and teachers indicated that a majority of the students were engaging in hand-washing behavior. These results indicate that integrating a learner-centered interactive program in a multiple-week structure can lead to improvement in hand hygiene behavior.

  13. Introduction of the 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollet, Stefan; Maxwell, Reed; Dages, Cecile; Mouche, Emmanuel; Mugler, Claude; Paniconi, Claudio; Park, Young-Jin; Putti, Mario; Shen, Chaopeng; Stisen, Simon; Sudicky, Edward; Sulis, Mauro; Ji, Xinye

    2015-04-01

    The 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project commenced in June 2013 with a workshop at Bonn University funded by the German Science Foundation and US National Science Foundation. Three test cases were defined and compared that are available online at www.hpsc-terrsys.de including a tilted v-catchment case; a case called superslab based on multiple slab-heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity along a hillslope; and the Borden site case, based on a published field experiment. The goal of this phase is to further interrogate the coupling of surface-subsurface flow implemented in various integrated hydrologic models; and to understand and quantify the impact of differences in the conceptual and technical implementations on the simulation results, which may constitute an additional source of uncertainty. The focus has been broadened considerably including e.g. saturated and unsaturated subsurface storages, saturated surface area, ponded surface storage in addition to discharge, and pressure/saturation profiles and cross-sections. Here, first results are presented and discussed demonstrating the conceptual and technical challenges in implementing essentially the same governing equations describing highly non-linear moisture redistribution processes and surface-groundwater interactions.

  14. Studies with Ferrous Sulfamate and Alternate Reductants for 2nd Uranium Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.L.

    2003-01-15

    A wide range of miniature mixer-settler tests were conducted to determine the source of iron and sulfur contamination in the uranium product stream (''1EU'') of H Canyon's 2nd Uranium Cycle. The problem was reproduced on the laboratory scale mixer-settlers by changing the feed location of ferrous sulfamate from stage D4 to stage D1. Other process variables effected no change. It was later determined that ferrous sulfamate (FS) solids had plugged the FS line to stage D4, causing FS to backup a ventline and enter the Canyon process at stage D1. Pluggage was almost certainly due to precipitation of FS solids during extended process downtime. During the search for the root cause, tests showed that FS solids were quite small (1-10 mm), and a portion of them could bypass the current Canyon prefilter (3-mm). Also, additional tests were done to find an alternate means of reducing and thereby removing plutonium and neptunium from the uranium product. These tests showed that FS was a more effective reductant than either ascorbic acid or a hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) / dilute FS combination.

  15. The Sciences: An Integrated Approach, 2nd Edition (by James Trefil and Robert M. Hazen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Reviewed By Megan M.

    2000-01-01

    "You're going to teach the organic chemistry section of the Natural Science class?" - one of my biology colleagues asked me last semester - "Better you than me!" "You are?" added a chemistry professor, with interest. Yet these same people ardently believe that all our students should have a basic understanding of carbon's remarkable bonding capabilities and how they relate to life on Earth. If our art or economics majors can learn about organic chemistry and genetics and astronomy, our faculty should be able to teach those same topics, regardless of their acknowledged specialties. The basis of a scientifically literate society is not expertise in specific arcane subfields of science. Scientific literacy is a general understanding of what science is, what science can and cannot do, and what scientific accomplishments have occurred over the centuries. If you subscribe to this definition of scientific literacy, James Trefil and Robert M. Hazen's The Sciences: An Integrated Approach can help you and your general science students. The self-avowed purpose of this text is to address science illiteracy in America. Trefil and Hazen propose that the best way to combat scientific illiteracy is to provide integrated science courses that focus on a broad understanding of science, rather than the specialized knowledge available to a science major. The new edition of The Sciences has been influenced by the 1996 publication of the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. While the first edition of Trefil and Hazen's book admirably addressed the integration of the natural and physical sciences, in this second edition, the authors have increased the connections between science and real-world situations and have made a more conscious effort to emphasize the process of science and the overlapping nature of scientific disciplines. The text is based on 25 "scientific concepts", one per chapter. These concepts are clearly explained in relatively jargon

  16. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  17. Overview of the 2nd Gen 3.7m HIAD Static Load Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. T.; Kazemba, C. D.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Cassell, A. M.; Anderson, P.; Lowery, A.

    2015-01-01

    To support NASAs long term goal of landing humans on Mars, technologies which enable the landing of heavy payloads are being developed. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for human class payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current launch vehicle fairing limitations. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being explored to provide a mass and volume efficient solution to atmospheric entry, including Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). In October of 2014, a 3.7m HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection sys-tem (F-TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify the designs structural performance. The 3.7m HIAD structure was constructed in a 70 deg sphere-cone stacked-toroid configuration using eight inflatable tori, which were joined together using adhesives and high strength textile webbing to help distribute the loads throughout the inflatable structure. The inflatable structure was fabricated using 2nd generation structural materials that permit an increase in use temperature to 400 C+ as compared to the 250 C limitation of the 1st generation materials. In addition to the temperature benefit, these materials also offer a 40 reduction in structure mass. The 3.7m F-TPS was fabricated using high performance materials to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen during atmospheric entry. The F-TPS was constructed of 2nd generation TPS materials increasing its heating capability from 35W sq cm to over 100W sq cm. This test article is the first stacked-torus HIAD to be fabricated and tested with a 70 deg sphere-cone. All previous stacked-torus HIADs have employed a 60o sphere-cone. To perform the static load test series, a custom test fixture was constructed. The fixture consisted of a structural tub rim with enough height to allow for dis-placement of the inflatable structure as loads were applied. The tub rim was attached to the

  18. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  19. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  20. Conference Report on the 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Mazzitelli, G.; Menard, J. E.; Mirnov, S. V.; Shimada, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Tabares, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    The 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices (ISLA-2011) was held on 27-29 April 2011 at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) with broad participation from the community working on aspects of lithium research for fusion energy development. This community is expanding rapidly in many areas including experiments in magnetic confinement devices and a variety of lithium test stands, theory and modeling and developing innovative approaches. Overall, 53 presentations were given representing 26 institutions from 10 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were given in 24 presentations, from NSTX (PPPL, USA), LTX (PPPL, USA), FT-U (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (TRINITY, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST (ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), and RFX (Padova, Italy). Sessions were devoted to: I. Lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), II. Lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), III. Special session on liquid lithium technology, IV. Lithium laboratory test stands, V. Lithium theory/modeling/comments, VI. Innovative lithium applications and VII. Panel discussion on lithium PFC viability in magnetic fusion reactors. There was notable participation from the fusion technology communities, including the IFE, IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchanges with the physics oriented magnetic confinement lithium research groups. It was agreed to continue future exchanges of ideas and data to help develop attractive liquid lithium solutions for very challenging magnetic fusion issues, such as development of a high heat flux steady-state divertor concept and acceptable plasma disruption mitigation techniques while improving plasma performance with lithium. The next workshop will be held at ENEA, Frascati, Italy in 2013.

  1. A convective divertor utilizing a 2nd-order magnetic field null

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognlien, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    New results motivate a detailed study of a magnetic divertor concept characterized by strong plasma convection near a poloidal magnetic field (Bp) null region. The configuration is that of a near-2nd-order Bp null (Bp ~ Δ r2) , as in a snowflake divertor. The concept has 2 key features: (A) Convection spreads the heat flux between multiple divertor legs and further broadens the heat-flux profile within each leg, thereby greatly reducing target-plate heat loads. (B) The heat flux is further reduced by line radiation in each leg in detachment-like ionization zones. Theory indicates that convective turbulence arises when the poloidal plasma beta, βp = 2μ0nT/B p 2 >> 1 . Measurements in TCV now more fully quantify earlier NSTX and TCV observations of plasma mixing, and related modeling of TCV indicates that strongly enhanced null-region transport is present. Convective mixing provides a stabilizing mechanism to prevent the ionization fronts (hydrogenic and impurity) from collapsing to a highly radiating core MARFE. Also, the radiating zone maps to a very small region at the midplane owing to the very weak Bp in the convective region, thus minimizing its impact on the core plasma. Detailed calculations are reported that combine features A and B noted above. The plasma mixing mechanisms are described together with the corresponding transport model implemented in the 2D UEDGE edge transport code. UEDGE calculations are presented that quantify the roles of mixing, impurity radiation, and detachment stability for a realistic snowflake configuration. Work in collaboration with D.D. Ryutov, S.I. Krasheninnikov, and M.V. Umansky. Performed for the U.S. DoE by LLNS, LLC, LLNL, under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  3. Evaluation of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test for Use in States' Child Outcomes Measurement Systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaum, Batya; Gattamorta, Karina A.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test (BDI-2 ST) for use in states' child outcomes accountability systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Complete Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-2), assessment data were obtained for 142 children, ages 2 to 62 months, who…

  4. The Formation of a Renaissance Nobleman: William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury 1591-1668.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danushevskaya, Anna V.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the humanist ideal of nobility and humanist views about the type of education that would produce noblemen. Details the life and education of William Cecil, also known as Viscount Cranborne, as it pertains to humanist education culture established in the 16th and 17th centuries. (KDR)

  5. Prison Education in England and Wales. (2nd Revised Edition). Mendip Papers MP 022.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, Paul

    In response to prison disturbances in England and Wales in the late 1980s, the education program for prisoners was improved and more prisoners were given access to educational services. Although education is a relatively new phenomenon in the English and Welsh penal system, by the 20th century, education had become an integral part of prison life.…

  6. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  7. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  8. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed.

  9. [Re-operations for 2nd primary lung cancer detected during follow-up after lung cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Masanori

    2013-07-01

    Re-operations for 2nd primary lung cancers are one of the most challenging modality for thoracic surgeons. Surgeons should have knowledge of indication of re-operations as well as surgical techniques and perioperative management of patients with 2nd primary lung cancers. When performing repeated pulmonary resection on the same side of the 1st surgery, following points are important for accomplishment of a safe re-operation:1.Wide thoracotomy with muscle dissections is recommended. 2.Throughout adhesion lysis between lung parenchyma and surrounding structures are required before manipulating pulmonary vessels. 3.The main pulmonary artery is encircled before dissection of the pulmonary artery. 4.Surgeons should be familiar with intrapericardial exposure of the main pulmonary artery. The techniques consist of division of the ligament of arteriosum, incision of the pericardium, and encircle of the origin of the mail pulmonary. Re-operations for metachronous lung cancers provided favorable survival in patients with adequate physiologic pulmonary reserve.

  10. Environmental Organic Chemistry, 2nd Edition (Rene P. Schwarzenback, Philip M. Gschwend, and Dieter M. Imboden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cindy M.

    2003-10-01

    In summary the authors have added substantially new material and improved the consistency of presentation in this second edition. This text should continue to be the leader in the field of environmental organic chemistry.

  11. Physical properties of double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ohoyama, Kenji

    2013-01-15

    The crystal, magnetic structures and physical properties of the double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are investigated through powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. The Rietveld analysis reveals that the Nd and Os ions are arranged with regularity over the six-coordinate B sites in a distorted perovskite ABO{sub 3} framework. The monoclinic crystal structure described by space group P2{sub 1}/n (tilt system a{sup -}a{sup -}c{sup +}) becomes more distorted with decreasing temperature from 300 K down to 2.5 K. This compound shows a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} below 65 K. An antiferromagnetic ordering of Nd{sup 3+} also occurs at lower temperatures ({approx}20 K). The magnetic structure is of Type I and the magnetic moments of Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. - Graphical Abstract: The Magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is of Type I, and the magnetic moments of the Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structures of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are determined to be monoclinic below 300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its electrical resistivity shows a Mott variable-range hopping behavior with localized carriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An antiferromagnetic ordering of the Os{sup 5+}moment occurs at 65 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is determined to be of Type I.

  12. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  13. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders.

  14. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  15. PREFACE: 1st-2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome - Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YRMR Organizing Committee; Cannuccia, E.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2011-03-01

    Students in science, particularly in physics, face a fascinating and challenging future. Scientists have proposed very interesting theories, which describe the microscopic and macroscopic world fairly well, trying to match the quantum regime with cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena in all their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. More and more accurate and complex experiments have been devised and these are now going to test the paradigms of physics. Notable experiments include: the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is going to shed light on the physics of the Standard Model of Particles and its extensions; the Planck-Herschel satellites, which target a very precise measurement of the properties of our Universe; and the Free Electron Lasers facilities, which produce high-brilliance, ultrafast X-ray pulses, allowing the investigation of the fundamental processes of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. These projects are the result of huge collaborations spread across the world, involving scientists belonging to different and complementary research fields: physicists, chemists, biologists and others, keen to make the best of these extraordinary laboratories. Even though each branch of science is experiencing a process of growing specialization, it is very important to keep an eye on the global picture, remaining aware of the deep interconnections between inherent fields. This is even more crucial for students who are beginning their research careers. These considerations motivated PhD students and young post-docs connected to the Roman scientific research area to organize a conference, to establish the background and the network for interactions and collaborations. This resulted in the 1st and 2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome (http://ryrm.roma2.infn.it), one day conferences aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics in Italy

  16. Challenges Facing Hispanic-Serving Institutions in the First Decade of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de los Santos, Alfredo G., Jr.; Cuamea, Karina Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the presidents and chancellors of Hispanic-serving institutions identified 5 challenges that their institutions will face as the end of the first decade of the 21st century approaches. Almost 8 of 10 respondents listed lack of funding as the most important challenge. The 2nd most important issue was the poor academic preparedness of…

  17. Bibliographic Control or Chaos: An Agenda for National Bibliographic Services in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    This paper addresses bibliographic services in the 21st century. The paper begins by reviewing achievements of the past 30 years, including Universal Bibliographic Control (UBC), MARC, International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD), and the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2). The cataloging of electronic resources is…

  18. A low-pass differentiation filter based on the 2nd-order B-spline wavelet for calculating augmentation index.

    PubMed

    He, Zijun; Zhang, Yongliang; Ma, Zuchang; Hu, Fusong; Sun, Yining

    2014-06-01

    The key point to calculate augmentation index (AIx) related to cardiovascular diseases is the precise identification of the shoulder point. The commonly used method for extracting the shoulder point is to calculate the fourth derivative of the pulse waveform by numerical differentiation. However, this method has a poor anti-noise capability and is computationally intensive. The aims of this study were to develop a new method based on the 2nd-order B-spline wavelet for calculating AIx, and to compare it with numerical differentiation and Savitzky-Golay digital differentiator (SGDD). All the three methods were applied to pulse waveforms derived from 60 healthy subjects. There was a significantly high correlation between the proposed method and numerical differentiation (r=0.998 for carotid pulses, and r=0.997 for radial pulses), as well as between the proposed method and the SGDD (r=0.995 for carotid pulses, and r=0.993 for radial pulses). In addition, the anti-noise capability of the proposed method was evaluated by adding simulated noise (>10Hz) on pulse waveforms. The results showed that the proposed method was advantageous in noise tolerance than the other two methods. These findings indicate that the proposed method can quickly and accurately calculate AIx with a good anti-noise capability.

  19. Proceedings of the Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium (2nd) Held in Cocoa Beach, Florida on December 2-4, 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    PROCEEDINGS 2ND BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 Cocoa Beach, Florida Sponsored by the Directorate of Research Defense Equal...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 298-102 USAPPC V1.00 PROCEEDINGS 2nd BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA...Proceedings Editor Published April 1998 Preface PROCEEDINGS 2nd BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA The EO/EEO

  20. 2nd Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    It was an honor and a great pleasure for all those involved in its organization to welcome the participants to the ''Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean'' (RADIO 2014) international conference that was held from 7th to 10th April 2014 at the Sugar Beach Resort, Wolmar, Flic-en-Flac, Mauritius. RADIO 2014 is the second of a series of conferences organized in the Indian Ocean region. The aim of the conference is to discuss recent developments, theories and practical applications covering the whole scope of radio-frequency engineering, including radio waves, antennas, propagation, and electromagnetic compatibility. The RADIO international conference emerged following discussions with engineers and scientists from the countries of the Indian Ocean as well as from other parts of the world and a need was felt for the organization of such an event in this region. Following numerous requests, the Island of Mauritius, worldwide known for its white sandy beaches and pleasant tropical atmosphere, was again chosen for the organization of the 2nd RADIO international conference. The conference was organized by the Radio Society, Mauritius and the Local Organizing Committee consisted of scientists from SUPELEC, France, the University of Mauritius, and the University of Technology, Mauritius. We would like to take the opportunity to thank all people, institutions and companies that made the event such a success. We are grateful to our gold sponsors CST and FEKO as well as URSI for their generous support which enabled us to partially support one PhD student and two scientists to attend the conference. We would also like to thank IEEE-APS and URSI for providing technical co-sponsorship. More than hundred and thirty abstracts were submitted to the conference. They were peer-reviewed by an international scientific committee and, based on the reviews, either accepted, eventually after revision, or rejected. RADIO 2014 brought together participants from twenty countries spanning

  1. 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (IC-RMM2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of materials and their rheological behaviors during their manufacturing processes and in their applications in many cases can help to increase the efficiency and competitiveness not only of the finished goods and products but the organizations and societies also. The more scientific supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive products with better thermal, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (ic-rmm2) and the parallel organized symposiums of the 1st International Symposium on Powder Injection Molding (is-pim1) and the 1st International Symposium on Rheology and Fracture of Solids (is-rfs1) are the followings: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of modeling and measurements of rheological properties and behavior of materials under processing and applications; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different disciplines, different nations, countries and continents. The international conference ic-rmm2 and symposiums of is-pim1 and is-rfs1 provide a platform among the leading international scientists, researchers, PhD students and engineers for discussing recent achievements in measurement, modeling and application of rheology in materials technology and materials science of liquids, melts, solids, crystals and amorphous structures. Among thr major fields of interest are the influence of materials structures, mechanical stresses, temperatures, deformation speeds and shear rates on rheological and physical properties, phase transformation of foams, foods, polymers, plastics and other competitive materials like ceramics

  2. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones -- Phase I, 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Black, Bill; Biraud, Sebastien

    2009-03-31

    This is the year-end report of the 2nd year of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix 3. Literature survey of published information on the relationship between geologic and hydrologic characteristics of faults was conducted. The survey concluded that it may be possible to classify faults by indicators based on various geometric and geologic attributes that may indirectly relate to the hydrologic property of faults. Analysis of existing information on the Wildcat Fault and its surrounding geology was performed. The Wildcat Fault is thought to be a strike-slip fault with a thrust component that runs along the eastern boundary of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is believed to be part of the Hayward Fault system but is considered inactive. Three trenches were excavated at carefully selected locations mainly based on the information from the past investigative work inside the LBNL property. At least one fault was encountered in all three trenches. Detailed trench mapping was conducted by CRIEPI (Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industries) and LBNL scientists. Some intriguing and puzzling discoveries were made that may contradict with the published work in the past. Predictions are made regarding the hydrologic property of the Wildcat Fault based on the analysis of fault structure. Preliminary conceptual models of the Wildcat Fault were proposed. The Wildcat Fault appears to have multiple splays and some low angled faults may be part of the flower structure. In parallel, surface geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity survey and seismic reflection profiling along three lines on the north and south of the LBNL site. Because of the steep terrain, it was difficult to find optimum locations for survey lines as it is desirable for them to be as

  3. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  4. Electrical Properties and Superconductivity of MSr2Nd2-xCexCu2O10-δ (M=Ta, Nb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Qian, Yitai; Li, Rukang; Wang, Shiwei; Chen, Zuyao; Chen, Zhaojia; Wang, Nanling; Zhou, Guien

    1992-09-01

    A new series of layered cuprate compounds MSr2Nd2-xCexCu2O10-δ (M=Ta, Nb) have been synthesized. The structure of the compounds is similar to that of T1-1222. A peak in the R-T curve for the sample of TaSr2Nd1.3Ce0.7Cu2O10-δ has been observed at about 50 K. For the sample of NbSr2Nd1.45Ce0.55Cu2O10-δ, metal-like conductivity behaviour has been observed. We have found superconductivity at about 13.2 K in the samples of NbSr2Nd2-xCexCu2O10-δ (x=0.49, 0.50, 0.51, 0.52).

  5. [In search of the ideal surgical treatment for lymphedema. Report of 2nd European Conference on supermicrosurgery (Barcelona - March 2012)].

    PubMed

    Rausky, J; Robert, N; Binder, J-P; Revol, M

    2012-12-01

    Since more than 50 years, many surgeons all around the world try to find the perfect surgical technique to treat limb lymphedemas. Decongestive physiotherapy associated with the use of a compressive garment has been the primary choice for lymphedema treatment. Many different surgical techniques have been developed, however, to date, there is no consensus on surgical procedure. Most surgical experts of lymphedema met in the second European Conference on supermicrosurgery, organized on March 1st and 2nd 2012, in San Pau Hospital, Barcelona. Together they tried to clarify these different options and ideally a strategy for using these techniques.

  6. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/ Austria | November 28th - 29th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation. PMID:25713602

  7. Comparison of the large scale structure of the ISM in the 2nd and 3rd Galactic Quadrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; Kiss, Cs.

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we are questing the large scale structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) using IRAS/ISSA 60 and 100 mum maps in the 3rd Galactic Quadrant (GQ). Here we identified 41 loop-like intensity enhancements and analysed their far-infrared (FIR) properties. We found major differences in the distribution and characteristics of these features when comparing the results of the 2nd and the 3rd GQs. This discrepancy can be satisfactorily explained by basic differences of the structure of the ISM in these two Galactic Quadrants.

  8. THE 2nd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 10–14 APRIL 2010, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Baharnoori, Moogeh; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Boucher, Aurelie A.; Buchy, Lisa; Chaddock, Christopher; Chiliza, Bonga; Föcking, Melanie; Fornito, Alex; Gallego, Juan A.; Hori, Hiroaki; Huf, Gisele; Jabbar, Gul A.; Kang, Shi Hyun; El Kissi, Yousri; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Modinos, Gemma; Abdel-Fadeel, Nashaat A.M.; Neubeck, Anna-Karin; Ng, Hsiao Piau; Novak, Gabriela; Owolabi, Olasunmbo.O.; Prata, Diana P.; Rao, Naren P.; Riecansky, Igor; Smith, Darryl C.; Souza, Renan P.; Thienel, Renate; Trotman, Hanan D.; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Woodberry, Kristen A.; O'Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, was held in Florence, Italy, April 10–15, 2010. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs of each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged from each session and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these reviews. It is hoped that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:20934307

  9. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/Austria|November 28th-29th, 2013.

    PubMed

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation.

  10. Lord John, 2nd Baron Wrottesley and the Wrottesley Hall Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, J.

    2006-12-01

    Lord John Wrottesley (1798-1867) was a man of considerable importance in the field of 19th century science, particularly during the first three decades of the Victorian era. He held a number of important offices during this time, including being President of the Royal Astronomical Society (1841 to 1843), of which he was a founder member in 1820; President of the Royal Society 1854 to 1857; and President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science for 1860. He was always to seek a good understanding between scientists and government, and also to promote the general public understanding of science. Although today the name of Lord John Wrottesley is largely forgotten, he created a legacy that remains with us to the present day.

  11. Combining Infrastructure and Ad Hoc Collaboration for Data Management in Mobile Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Elizabeth M. Royer. "Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing." Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications...Charles Perkins, ACM SIGCOMM󈨢 Conference on Communications Architectures, Protocols and Applications 22. Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson , A

  12. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS < 0), where the entropy is a degree of uniformity. What is the entropy? Loosely speaking, sand on the beach is more uniform at a higher entropy value than the rocks composing a mountain - the internal binding energy tells the paleontologists the existence of information. To a politician, landside voting results has only the winning information but more entropy, while a non-uniform voting distribution record has more information. For the human's effortless brain at constant temperature, we can solve the minimum of Helmholtz free energy (H = E - TS) by computing BSS, and then their pairwise-entropy source correlation function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (

  13. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  14. [Medical support of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Leonik, S I; Lemeshkin, R N

    2015-02-01

    Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front. An activity of the medical An activity of the medical service of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front is a typical example of the medical support of troops during the final stages of World War II. Forms and methods of medical support management, which were developed during the war, haven't lost their importance in modern conditions. These methods include the establishment of specialized surgical and therapeutic field hospital, establishment of medical institutions in the Army, which worked on the evacuation directions and reserve of mobile hospitals and transport, timely extension of the first echelons of the hospital base front to change institutions hospital deployed the army base. A research of experience in organizing medical support of the offensive operations performed during the last year of World War II provides the material for the development of the theory of modern medical support operations and ability to provide on this basis, the continuity of the hospitals, the continuity of qualified and specialized medical care, improve the performance of diagnostic and treatment work.

  15. Influence of Nd dopant amount on microstructure and photoluminescence of TiO2:Nd thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcieszak, Damian; Mazur, Michal; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Morgiel, Jerzy; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Misiewicz, Jan

    2015-10-01

    TiO2 and TiO2:Nd thin films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering process from mosaic Ti-Nd targets with various Nd concentration. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopic techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) in the near infrared obtained upon 514.5 nm excitation was also examined. The relationship between the Nd concentration, structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of prepared thin films was investigated and discussed. XRD and TEM measurements showed that an increase in the Nd concentration in the thin films hinders the crystal growth in the deposited coatings. Depending on the Nd amount in the thin films, TiO2 with the rutile, mixed rutile-amorphous or amorphous phase was obtained. Transmittance measurements revealed that addition of Nd dopant to titania matrix did not deteriorate optical transparency of the coatings, however it influenced on the position of the fundamental absorption edge and therefore on the width of optical band gap energy. All TiO2:Nd thin films exhibited PL emission that occurred at ca. 0.91, 1.09 and 1.38 μm. Finally, results obtained for deposited coatings showed that titania with the rutile structure and 1.0 at.% of Nd was the most efficient in VIS to NIR photon conversion.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  17. The 2nd phase of the LEANDRE program: Water-vapor DIAL measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaglia, P.; Bruneau, D.; Pelon, J.

    1992-01-01

    As a follow-on of the backscattered lidar, a differential absorption lidar (LEANDRE 2) is now being developed as part of the LEANDRE program for airborne meteorological studies. The primary measurement objective of LEANDRE 2 is water vapor. Pressure and temperature measurements are aimed at a second stage. The goals are to obtain a horizontal resolution of a few hundred meters for a vertical resolution of less than a hundred meters, with an absolute accuracy of 10 percent for humidity measurement. As compatibility is an important feature between the 2 first phases of LEANDRE, most of the LEANDRE 1 sub-system will be used and adapted for LEANDRE 2. For example, detection electronics, central computer, detectors and telescope will be the same. However, important modifications have to be done on the laser source, and spectral control has to be added. Most of the work is thus devoted to those developments, and the status is presented here.

  18. Early and comprehensive management of atrial fibrillation: executive summary of the proceedings from the 2nd AFNET-EHRA consensus conference 'research perspectives in AF'.

    PubMed

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Bax, Jeroen; Blomstrom-Lundquist, Carina; Calkins, Hugh; Camm, A John; Cappato, Ricardo; Cosio, Francisco; Crijns, Harry; Diener, Hans-Christian; Goette, Andreas; Israel, Carsten W; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lip, Gregory Y H; Nattel, Stanley; Page, Richard L; Ravens, Ursula; Schotten, Ulrich; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Vardas, Panos; Waldo, Albert; Wegscheider, Karl; Willems, Stephan; Breithardt, Günter

    2009-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes important mortality and morbidity on a population-level. So far, we do not have the means to prevent AF or AF-related complications adequately. Therefore, over 70 experts on atrial fibrillation convened for the 2nd AFNET/EHRA consensus conference to suggest directions for research to improve management of AF patients (Appendix 1). The group defined three main areas in need for research in AF: 1. better understanding of the mechanisms of AF; 2. Improving rhythm control monitoring and management; and 3. comprehensive cardiovascular risk management in AF patients. The group put forward the hypothesis that successful therapy of AF and its associated complications will require comprehensive therapy. This applies e.g. to the "old" debate of "rate versus rhythm control", since rhythm control is generally added to underlying (continued) rate control therapy, but also to the emerging debate of "antiarrhythmic drugs versus catheter ablation", of which both may be needed in most patients to maintain sinus rhythm, but also to therapy of conditions that predispose to AF and contribute to cardiovascular complications such as stroke, cognitive decline, heart failure, and acute coronary syndromes. We call for research initiatives aiming at a better understanding of the different causes of AF and its complications, and at development and validation of mechanism-based therapies. The future of AF therapy may require a combination of management of underlying and concomitant conditions, early and comprehensive rhythm control therapy, adequate control of ventricular rate and cardiac function, and continuous therapy to prevent AF-associated complications (e.g. antithrombotic therapy). The reasons for these suggestions are detailed in this paper.

  19. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  20. Effect of the nanocrystalline structure type on the optical properties of TiO2:Nd (1 at.%) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Michal; Wojcieszak, Damian; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Misiewicz, Jan; Morgiel, Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films, each doped with the same amount of neodymium (1 at.%) were deposited by Low Pressure Hot Target Reactive Sputtering and High Energy Reactive Magnetron Sputtering processes in order to obtain anatase and rutile thin film structures respectively. The microstructure and phase composition were analyzed using the transmission electron microscopy method including high resolution electron microscopy imaging. The measurements of the optical properties showed, that both prepared thin films were transparent in the visible light range and had a low extinction coefficient of ca. 3 ṡ 10-3. The thin film with the anatase structure had a lower cut-off wavelength and refractive index and a higher value of optical energy band gap as-compared to the TiO2:Nd coating with the rutile structure. Simultaneously, more efficient photoluminescence emission was observed for the rutile thin films.

  1. 2nd ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer: locally advanced stage III non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, W E E; De Ruysscher, D; Weder, W; Le Péchoux, C; De Leyn, P; Hoffmann, H; Westeel, V; Stahel, R; Felip, E; Peters, S

    2015-08-01

    To complement the existing treatment guidelines for all tumour types, ESMO organises consensus conferences to focus on specific issues in each type of tumour. The 2nd ESMO Consensus Conference on Lung Cancer was held on 11-12 May 2013 in Lugano. A total of 35 experts met to address several questions on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in each of four areas: pathology and molecular biomarkers, first-line/second and further lines of treatment in advanced disease, early-stage disease and locally advanced disease. For each question, recommendations were made including reference to the grade of recommendation and level of evidence. This consensus paper focuses on locally advanced disease.

  2. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories.

  3. The 2nd Order Focusing by Energy for TOF Sector Field Mass Analyzer with an Orthogonal Acceleration: Theory, Modeling, Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poteshin, S. S.; Chernyshev, D. M.; Sysoev, Alexey A.; Sysoev, Alexander A.

    Currently axially symmetric type of analyzer with an electrostatic sector fields (AESF) is rarely used to construct time-of-flight mass spectrometers. The main drawback, hindering the wider use of the analyzers of this type, is the lack of chromatic second-order focusing by energy. However, the configuration of AESF in combination with orthogonal accelerator (OA) allows to achieved it through compensation of energy aberrations of the analyzer in the system of orthogonal input of the ion beam. In the presented work the results of theoretical calculation, simulation and experimentally obtained data are compared. Characteristics of the analyzer with OA in a large extent depend on the parameters of the incoming ion beam. Data of modeling the 2nd stage of gas-dynamic interface, which have the greatest influence on the parameters of the ion beam, is provided.

  4. Characterization of γ and γ' phases in 2nd and 4th generation single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietara, Maciej; Neumeier, Steffen; Göken, Mathias; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    A Ni based single crystal superalloy from the 2nd generation, PWA 1484, and one from the 4th generation, PWA 1497, were comparatively studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and nanoindentation technique in an atomic force microscope (NI-AFM) after high temperature creep deformation. During primary creep of both generations of superalloys, γ' precipitates start to coalesce and grow directionally. Further creep deformation leads to the topological inversion and coarsening of the rafted microstructure. The NI-AFM technique was used for measurements of the hardness of the γ and γ' phases in as-received and creep deformed samples in various conditions. The g matrix of the PWA 1497 superalloy is on average 0.8 GPa harder than that of PWA 1484 that can be explained by higher content of Re and Ru, since they partition predominantly to the matrix phase.

  5. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically better than open hepatectomy: preparing for the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Go; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Han, Ho-Seong; Kaneko, Hironori; Buell, Joseph F

    2014-10-01

    Six years have passed since the first International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection was held. This comparatively new surgical technique has evolved since then and is rapidly being adopted worldwide. We compared the theoretical differences between open and laparoscopic liver resection, using right hepatectomy as an example. We also searched the Cochrane Library using the keyword "laparoscopic liver resection." The papers retrieved through the search were reviewed, categorized, and applied to the clinical questions that will be discussed at the 2nd Consensus Conference. The laparoscopic hepatectomy procedure is more difficult to master than the open hepatectomy procedure because of the movement restrictions imposed upon us when we operate from outside the body cavity. However, good visibility of the operative field around the liver, which is located beneath the costal arch, and the magnifying provide for neat transection of the hepatic parenchyma. Another theoretical advantage is that pneumoperitoneum pressure reduces hemorrhage from the hepatic vein. The literature search turned up 67 papers, 23 of which we excluded, leaving only 44. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are underway, but their results are yet to be published. Most of the studies (n = 15) concerned short-term results, with some addressing long-term results (n = 7), cost (n = 6), energy devices (n = 4), and so on. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically superior to open hepatectomy in terms of good visibility of the operative field due to the magnifying effect and reduced hemorrhage from the hepatic vein due to pneumoperitoneum pressure. However, there is as yet no evidence from previous studies to back this up in terms of short-term and long-term results. The 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection will arrive at a consensus on the basis of the best available evidence, with video presentations focusing on surgical techniques and the publication

  6. CO2 dynamics in nested catchments: a longitudinal perspective from soil to 1st and 2nd order streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Lehmann, J.; Riha, S. J.; Couto, E. G.

    2005-12-01

    Fluxes of CO2 from terrestrial to aquatic environments were investigated in a nested catchment study in the seasonally-dry southern Amazon. Dissolved CO2 concentrations in groundwater springs, four 1st order streams and one 2nd order stream were determined via routine sampling and in-situ monitoring. CO2 concentrations were monitored in the soil atmosphere to 8m. Belowground, the seasonal trend in soil CO2 concentrations at depth lagged that of seasonal water table dynamics, with peak concentrations (8.7% CO2 vol/vol at 4m) occurring one month after maximum water table height, indicating a shift in root respiration and plant water uptake to deeper soil layers during the dry season. Peak dissolved CO2 concentrations in springs and streams lagged the soil CO2 maximum by an additional month. During storm events, streamflow CO2 concentrations were found to decrease initially, reflecting the initial contribution of low-CO2 direct precipitation and surface runoff. Streamwater CO2 then increased as the contribution of pre-event water to storm flow increased. Dissolved CO2 in springs was also found to increase during storm events. Diurnal fluctuations in dissolved CO2 of springs were also observed, indicating the connectivity of the biosphere, pedosphere and hydrosphere for headwater catchments. The dissolved CO2 concentration within 1st order streams decreases rapidly downstream from stream sources, with spring CO2 concentration 3.3 times that at headwater catchment outlets. This initial outgassing of CO2 within 1st order streams was found to be accompanied by a corresponding increase in the pH of stream water. However, dissolved CO2 concentrations were not found to be significantly different between 1st and 2nd order streams. This suggests a discontinuity between some processes at the terrestrial-aquatic interface in headwater catchments and those of larger-order watersheds.

  7. Directional fidelity of nanoscale motors and particles is limited by the 2nd law of thermodynamics--via a universal equality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhisong; Hou, Ruizheng; Efremov, Artem

    2013-07-21

    Directional motion of nanoscale motors and driven particles in an isothermal environment costs a finite amount of energy despite zero work as decreed by the 2nd law, but quantifying this general limit remains difficult. Here we derive a universal equality linking directional fidelity of an arbitrary nanoscale object to the least possible energy driving it. The fidelity-energy equality depends on the environmental temperature alone; any lower energy would violate the 2nd law in a thought experiment. Real experimental proof for the equality comes from force-induced motion of biological nanomotors by three independent groups - for translational as well as rotational motion. Interestingly, the natural self-propelled motion of a biological nanomotor (F1-ATPase) known to have nearly 100% energy efficiency evidently pays the 2nd law decreed least energy cost for direction production.

  8. Detection of 1st- and 2nd-order temporal-envelope cues in a patient with left superior cortical damage.

    PubMed

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Maillet, Didier; Moroni, Christine; Belin, Catherine; Lorenzi, Christian

    2004-06-01

    This psychophysical study explores the extent to which the auditory cortex is necessary for various aspects of temporal-envelope perception, that is, perception of the slow temporal modulations in amplitude known to be crucial for sound identification. The ability to detect 1st- and 2nd-order sinusoidal amplitude modulation (AM) is evaluated in a single patient showing left-hemisphere damage encroaching the primary and secondary auditory cortices. Here, 1st- and 2nd-order AM refer to (1) sinusoidal variation in the amplitude of a 2 kHz pure tone, and (2) sinusoidal variation in the depth of a 64 Hz AM applied to the 2 kHz pure tone, respectively. The results replicate previous findings by showing that damage to the left auditory cortex results in a selective deficit in auditory sensitivity to the lowest 1St-order AM (i.e., 1st-order AM frequencies < 16 Hz). Moreover, a dissociation is apparent between the ability to detect 1st- and 2nd-order temporal-envelope cues. The patient shows poorer than normal ability to detect 2nd-order AM at low frequencies ranging from 4-23 Hz, but normal ability to detect the high (64 Hz) 1st-order AM carrying these 2nd-order modulations. This result indicates that damage to the left primary and secondary auditory cortices affects the ability to detect temporal variations in the local properties of sounds(such as AM depth). It is also consistent with the idea that, as in vision, central nonlinear mechanisms are involved in the computation of such local (or 2nd-order) temporal properties.

  9. The first discovery of cryptotephra of the catastrophic eruptions of the Baitoushan volcano in the tenth century A.D. in the shelf deposits of the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akulichev, V. A.; Astakhov, A. S.; Malakhov, M. I.; Aksentov, K. I.; Karabtsov, A. A.; Mar'yash, A. A.; Alatortsev, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The interlayers of the cryptotephra of different episodes of the catastrophic eruption of the Baitoushan volcano (Paektu-san, Changbaishan-Tianchi) in the 10th century were discovered in the sedimentary cover of Amur Bay in the Sea of Japan by the geochemical and paleomagnetic characteristics. The petrochemistry of the volcanic glass indicates the possible occurrence of pyroclastic material in the B-Tm layer and more recent episodes that have not been identified before in the sediments of the Sea of Japan. The impact of the eruption on the bay environment is noted. It is shown that the medieval state of Balhae occupying vast areas and adjacent to the volcano no longer existed after the more earlier episodes of eruption.

  10. Annual International Conference on Aging Aircraft (2nd) Held in Baltimore, Maryland on 3-5 October 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    prone to corrosion. thority. The more cost -effective solution to the corro- Data have been obtained that show some sion problem is to adopt early programs...Airplane - 100 U.S. Registered Airplanes - Est. Final Rule AD Effective January - Total Cost /Airplane $80,000 1990 - AD Effective May 8, 1989 * 747 0...2,300,000/Airplane - Total Cost /Airplane $58,000 - Est. Final Rule AD Effective January - AD Effective August 21, 1989 1990 Figure 5 - First Application of

  11. Roles of doping ions in afterglow properties of blue CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wako, A. H.; Dejene, B. F.; Swart, H. C.

    2014-04-01

    Eu2+ doped and Nd3+ co-doped calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+) phosphor was prepared by a urea-nitrate solution combustion method at furnace temperatures as low as 500 °C. The produced CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ powder was investigated in terms of phase composition, morphology and luminescence by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Photoluminescence (PL) techniques respectively. XRD analysis depicts a dominant monoclinic phase that indicates no change in the crystalline structure of the phosphor with varying concentration of Eu2+ and Nd3+. SEM results show agglomerates with non-uniform shapes and sizes with a number of irregular network structures having lots of voids and pores. The Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and (FTIR) spectra confirm the expected chemical components of the phosphor. PL measurements indicated one broadband excitation spectra from 200 to 300 nm centered around 240 nm corresponding to the crystal field splitting of the Eu2+ d-orbital and an emission spectrum in the blue region with a maximum on 440 nm. This is a strong indication that there was dominantly one luminescence center, Eu2+ which represents emission from transitions between the 4f7 ground state and the 4f6-5d1 excited state configuration. High concentrations of Eu2+ and Nd3+ generally reduce both intensity and lifetime of the phosphor powders. The optimized content of Eu2+ is 1 mol% and for Nd3+ is 1 mol% for the obtained phosphors with excellent optical properties. The phosphor also emits visible light at around 587 and 616 nm. Such emissions can be ascribed to the 5D0-7F1 and 5D0-7F2 intrinsic transition of Eu3+ respectively. The decay characteristics exhibit a significant rise in initial intensity with increasing Eu2+ doping concentration while the decay time increased with Nd3+ co-doping. The observed afterglow can be ascribed to the generation of suitable traps due to the presence of the Nd3

  12. Experimental observations on the response of 1(st) and 2(nd) order fibre optic long period grating coupling bands to the deposition of nanostructured coatings.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen W; Cheung, C S; Tatam, Ralph P

    2007-10-01

    The sensitivity of attenuation bands corresponding to the 2(nd) order coupling to cladding modes by a fibre optic long period grating (LPG) to the deposition of nanostructured coatings is investigated and compared with that of the 1(st) order coupling. The experimental observations support previously reported theoretical descriptions of LPGs with nanoscale coatings.

  13. Research and Prediction of the Application of Multimedia Teaching Aid in Teaching Technical Education on the 2nd Level of Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebila, Ján

    2011-01-01

    The purpose and the main aim of the pedagogic experiment were to practically verify the success of Multimedia Teaching Aid (MTA) in conditions of primary schools. We assumed that the use of our multimedia teaching aid in teaching technical education on the 2nd level of primary schools would significantly affect the level of knowledge of pupils…

  14. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of vegetation and report of mummified apple seeds found in the cellar of a first-century Roman villa on Elba Island.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Claudio; Scali, Monica; Vignani, Rita; Cambi, Franco; Dugerdil, Lucas; Faleri, Claudia; Cresti, Mauro

    In the late Roman Republic period (2nd-1st century BC), in the area of San Giovanni on Elba Island, previously subject to intense extraction of iron ore, a rustic villa was established by Marco Valerio Messalla, a supreme Roman magistrate. The foundations of the walls were discovered and excavated by an archaeological mission. Palaeobotanical analysis of a set of stratigraphic layers was performed. Palynological slides showed remains of palynomorphic and non-pollen objects, while data combined with anthracological investigations confirmed the hypothesis that in the 1st century AD the villa was destroyed by a fire that created a compact crust under which were discovered four broken Roman amphorae containing about five hundred apple seeds. Comparisons of archaeological and fresh seeds from reference collections showed discontinuous morphology except for one group of archaeological samples. DNA was isolated from seeds that had well-preserved embryos in all groups. DNA extracts from archaeological, wild and modern domestic seeds (controls) were amplified by PCR and tested with SSR molecular markers, followed by genome analysis.

  15. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  16. 2nd dimensional GC-MS analysis of sweat volatile organic compounds prepared by solid phase micro-extraction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Oh, Chang-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of an individual's odor from sweat, breath and skin provide important information for criminal tracking in field of forensic science. Solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) was used to determine human sweat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles. The mass spectrometric analysis (with electron impact mode) followed by 2nd dimensional separation with two different GC columns (one polar and one relatively nonpolar) connected in parallel were used to identify the 574 compounds from sweat samples. The components included alcohols, aldehydes, aliphatics/aromatics, carboxylic acids, esters, ketones, and other organic compounds (amides/amines, thio/thioesters, oxide, sulfides, nitro compounds). Of these compounds, 1-tridecanol, 1,3-bis(1,1-dimethyl ethyl)-benzene, 4,4'-(1-methylethylidene) bis-phenol and 7-acetyl-6-ethyl-1,1,4,4,-tetramethyl-tetraline were common components in all donor's sweat volatile samples. Age-related specific compounds were also detected. The results suggest that characteristic volatile profiles of human sweat emanations could provide the valuable information to forensic scientists.

  17. RF SOI CMOS technology on 1st and 2nd generation trap-rich high resistivity SOI wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi Esfeh, B.; Makovejev, S.; Basso, Didier; Desbonnets, Eric; Kilchytska, V.; Flandre, D.; Raskin, J.-P.

    2017-02-01

    In this work three different types of UNIBOND™ Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafers including one standard HR-SOI and two types of trap-rich high resistivity HR-SOI substrates named enhanced signal integrity high resistivity silicon-on-insulator (eSI HR-SOI) provided by SOITEC are studied and compared. The DC and RF performances of these wafers are compared by means of passive and active devices such as coplanar waveguide (CPW) lines, crosstalk- and noise injection-structures as well as partially-depleted (PD) SOI MOSFETs. It is demonstrated that by employing enhanced signal integrity high resistivity silicon-on-insulator (eSI HR-SOI) compared to HR-SOI wafer, a reduction of 24 dB is measured on both generations of trap-rich HR-SOI for 2nd harmonics. Furthermore, it is shown that in eSI HR-SOI, digital substrate noise is effectively reduced compared with HR-SOI. Purely capacitive behavior of eSI HR-SOI is demonstrated by crosstalk structure. Reduction of self-heating effect in the trap-rich HR-SOI with thinner BOX is finally studied.

  18. Explicit formulas for 2nd-order driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C-X. )

    2012-04-25

    Optimization of nonlinear driving terms have become a useful tool for designing storage rings, especially modern light sources where the strong nonlinearity is dominated by the large chromatic effects of quadrupoles and strong sextupoles for chromaticity control. The Lie algebraic method is well known for computing such driving terms. However, it appears that there was a lack of explicit formulas in the public domain for such computation, resulting in uncertainty and/or inconsistency in widely used codes. This note presents explicit formulas for driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles, which can be considered as thin elements. The computation is accurate to the 4th-order Hamiltonian and 2nd-order in terms of magnet parameters. The results given here are the same as the APS internal note AOP-TN-2009-020. This internal nte has been revised and published here as a Light Source Note in order to get this information into the public domain, since both ELEGANT and OPA are using these formulas.

  19. 1st and 2nd order Raman scattering from n-Graphene Layer (nGL) Films on Silicon Substrates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Awnish; Chen, Gugang; Eklund, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Results of room temperature Raman scattering experiments on graphene and n-graphene layer films (nGLs) will be presented [1]. We find that the G band at ˜ 1582 cm-1 exhibits an interesting upshift in frequency with 1/n which we tentatively assign to a surface strain phenomenon connected with surface roughness of the substrate and compensated by the increase in stiffness of the nGL with increasing n. Interesting n-specific bands are observed in the ˜1350 cm-1 (or D-band) region which may correlate with deviations from planarity of the nGL. The second order scattering is very interesting and for small n (n<4) the (2D' or G') band intensity at ˜ 2700 cm-1 is actually higher than the first-order G-band scattering. The shape of this band is sensitive to n and thus can be used to identify n without an AFM measurement. Whereas, the 2D' band is sensitive to n, the 2nd order 2G band ˜ 3248 cm-1 is independent of n. These observations will be discussed in terms of the phonon and electronic dispersion of nGLs. 1 A. Gupta, G. Chen, P. Joshi, S. Tadigadapa and P.C. Eklund, `` Raman Scattering from High-Frequency Phonons in Supported n-Graphene Layer Films'' NanoLett (in Press).

  20. Increasing the water temperature of a 2nd order stream reach: Hydraulic aspects of a whole-stream manipulative experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.; Canhoto, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    What will happen when water temperatures of streams increases, due to climate changes or in connection with rapidly changing human systems? Trying to answer to this question a whole-stream manipulative experiment was undertaken, where an increase in water temperature was artificially induced on a 2nd order stream reach. The main objective of this poster is to describe this experiment focusing on the design of the hydraulic system. The system maintained a steady flow while allowing natural variation in abiotic factors and was successfully used to evaluate the effects of warming on a stream ecosystem at several levels of biological organization. A constant flow of stream water was controlled by a hydraulic setup (~22m long; ~1.5m width) subdivided into two independent channels. One channel of the study reach received heated water (~3°C above the other), while the other received water at stream ambient temperature. The warming system maintained a steady gravity controlled flow making use of weirs and valves.

  1. Fabrication of 30 mm long baseline single-layer 2nd-order high- Tc SQUID gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soon-Gul; Oh, Soo-Ho; Kang, Chan Seok; Kim, In-Seon

    2007-09-01

    We have designed and fabricated a 30 mm long baseline 2nd-order SQUID gradiometer from a single-layer YBa 2Cu 3O 7 film. The design rule was the same as that of our previous study on short baseline gradiometers. Three linearly aligned 10.2 mm × 10.2 mm pickup loops were coupled directly to a dc SQUID to measure ∂ 2Bz/∂ x2. The device had an overall size of 70.2 mm × 10.6 mm and was patterned from a single layer of YBa 2Cu 3O 7 film on a sapphire substrate by argon ion milling with a photoresist mask. The Josephson element of the SQUID was YBa 2Cu 3O 7 nanobridges formed by focused ion beam writing technique. Balancing of the device was achieved by optimizing the inductance of the center loop. Estimated sensitivity of the gradiometer was ∼1.8 × 10 -10 T/m 2/Hz 1/2, which is equivalent to a field noise of 160 fT/Hz 1/2, for an intrinsic SQUID flux noise of 10 -5 ϕ0/Hz 1/2.

  2. Horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus amongst British 2nd World War soldiers in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Gill, G V; Bell, D R; Vandervelde, E M

    1991-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is much more common in tropical than in temperate countries. Visitors to the tropics are thus at risk from HBV, though the degree of risk, and the routes of infection involved are uncertain. We report serological markers of HBV in two groups of 2nd World War soldiers, who served in the Thai/Burma jungles. The groups comprised 100 ex-prisoners of the Japanese (POW), and 100 Burma Campaign Veterans (BCV). Surface antigen to HBV (HbsAg) was positive in 0% of POW and 2% of BCV (P = not significant). Surface antibody (anti-HBs) and core antibody (anti-HBc) were both positive in 40% POW and 13% BCV (P less than 0.001). Quoted UK prevalence rates for these markers are 0.1% for HBsAg, 1.5% for anti-HBs and 0.7% for anti-HBc. Both groups thus show very high rates of past HBV infection. For the POW there were many possible reasons, including contaminated surgical instruments and needles, blood transfusions, and multiple beatings with common weapons. None of these factors operated significantly for BCV. Malarial transmission was, however, intense in both groups, though more so in POW. The data thus again raise the possibility of horizontal transmission of HBV by biting insects in tropical countries.

  3. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  4. Universe (2nd edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, W.J. III

    1988-01-01

    A general text on astronomy is presented. The foundations of the science are reviewed, including descriptions of naked-eye observatons of eclipses and planetary motions and such basic tools as Kepler's laws, the fundamental properties of light, and the optics of telescopes. The formation of the solar system is addressed, and the planets and their satellites are discussed individually. Solar science is treated in detail. Stellar evolution is described chronologically from birth to death. Molecular clouds, star clusters, nebulae, neutron stars, black holes, and various other phenomena that occur in the life of a star are examined in the sequence in which they naturally occur. A survey of the Milky Way introduces galactic astronomy. Quasars and cosmology are addressed, including the most recent developments in research. 156 references.

  5. A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    accumulate between these entities.” Capra [34] proposes to use a human trust model based on human interactions in a trust model for fully distributed...network environments such as MANETs. Capra defines trust as the degree of a belief about the behavior of other entities (or agents). Li and Singhal [35...2004. [34] L. Capra , “Toward a Human Trust Model for Mobile Ad-hoc Net- works,” Proc. 2nd UK-UbiNet Workshop, 5-7 May 2004, Cambridge University

  6. century drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  7. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  8. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  9. Use of prelecture assignment to enhance learning in pharmacology lectures for the 2nd year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Marya; Mallick, Ayaz Khurram

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Majority of teaching hours allotted by the Medical Council of India in pharmacology are utilized in the form of didactic lecture. Although these lectures are an excellent tool to deliver the information to a large group of students, it usually ends up as a one-sided teaching session with most students being the passive listeners. To make these lectures interesting and effective, we introduced the students to prelecture assignment (PLA) in the form of clinical case before the delivery of the lecture. Methods: This prospective educational trial was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology with undergraduate medical students in their 2nd year of their professional course. They were divided into two groups of 75 each. Group A was provided the PLA before the lecture. Group B students directly attended the lecture, sans the PLA. Multiple-choice questions-based test was conducted 2 days after the lecture. Students who failed to complete the assignment and were absent from the lecture and test were excluded from the study. Feedback from the students was obtained after the lecture. The scores in the test and responses were compiled and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results were expressed in percentages and as mean ± standard deviation as applicable. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty-six students from Group A and 42 from Group B appeared for the test. The students who were given PLA scored better. They felt more confident in answering and understood the topic better than the students of other group. Conclusion: PLA is a useful teaching-learning tool. The pharmacology lectures are interactive, interesting, and easy to understand with this tool. PMID:28031612

  10. Differences in risk factors for 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    in 't Woud, Sander Groen; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; van Gelder, Marleen M.H.J.; Olney, Richard S.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. Methods A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. Results In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Conclusions Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. PMID:25181604

  11. ENABLE -- A systolic 2nd level trigger processor for track finding and e/[pi] discrimination for ATLAS/LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Klefenz, F.; Noffz, K.H.; Zoz, R. . Lehrstuhl fuer Informatik V); Maenner, R. . Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen)

    1994-08-01

    The Enable Machine is a systolic 2nd level trigger processor for the transition radiation detector (TRD) of ATLAS/LHC. It is developed within the EAST/RD-11 collaboration at CERN. The task of the processor is to find electron tracks and to reject pion tracks according to the EAST benchmark algorithm in less than 10[mu]s. Track are identified by template matching in a ([psi],z) region of interest (RoI) selected by a 1st level trigger. In the ([psi],z) plane tracks of constant curvature are straight lines. The relevant lines form mask templates. Track identification is done by histogramming the coincidences of the templates and the RoI data for each possible track. The Enable Machine is an array processor that handles tracks of the same slope in parallel, and tracks of different slope in a pipeline. It is composed of two units, the Enable histogrammer unit and the Enable z/[psi]-board. The interface daughter board is equipped with a HIPPI-interface developed at JINR/-Dubna, and Xilinx 'corner turning' data converter chips. Enable uses programmable gate arrays (XILINX) for histogramming and synchronous SRAMs for pattern storage. With a clock rate of 40 MHz the trigger decision time is 6.5 [mu]s and the latency 7.0 [mu]s. The Enable machine is scalable in the RoI size as well as in the number of tracks processed. It can be adapted to different recognition tasks and detector setups. The prototype of the Enable Machine has been tested in a beam time of the RD6 collaboration at CERN in October 1993.

  12. Interaction between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Fipronil on 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei; Wei, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.) and LC50 of fipronil, the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and fipronil on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that pretreatment of the tested insects at 30 °C for 2, 4 and 8h could somewhat decrease the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations. The LC50 values of fipronil increased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were below zero. These results indicated that real mortalities were less than theoretical ones and antagonism was found in the treatments of fipronil at 0.39 and 0.78 mg/L after heat pretreatment at 30 °C at 2, 4 and 8 h. However, pretreatment at 30 °C for 12h could increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations, the LC50 of fipronil decreased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were above zero, which indicated real mortalities were higher than theoretical ones. Pretreatment of the tested insects at 35 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 12h was found to increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations which resulted in the decrease of LC50 values of fipronil and c.f. above zero in all treatments with only one exception. Most interactions were assessed as synergism. The results indicated that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:20877489

  13. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  14. Biological Damage Threshold Induced by Ultrashort Fundamental, 2nd, and 4th Harmonic Light Pulses from a Mode-Locked Nd: Glass Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    BY ULTRASHORT FUNDAMENTAL, 2ND, AND 4TH HARMONIC LIGHT PULSES 00 , FROM A MODE-LOCKED Nd:GLASS LASER C Adam P. Bruckner, Ph.D. J. Michael Schurr, Ph.D...Medicine, Aerospace Medical Division, AFSC, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. Dr. Taboada (USAFSAM/RZL) was the Laboratory Project Scientist-in-Charge. When... TABOADA , Ph.D. /AONN E. PICKERING, M.S. Project Scientist Chief, Radiation Sciences Division ROY L. DEHART Colonel, USAF, MC Commander UNCLASSIFIED S

  15. All-optical 1st- and 2nd-order differential equation solvers with large tuning ranges using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaisheng; Hou, Jie; Huang, Zhuyang; Cao, Tong; Zhang, Jihua; Yu, Yuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-02-09

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal computation scheme for solving 1st- and 2nd-order linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with tunable constant coefficients by using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers (FP-SOAs). By changing the injection currents of FP-SOAs, the constant coefficients of the differential equations are practically tuned. A quite large constant coefficient tunable range from 0.0026/ps to 0.085/ps is achieved for the 1st-order differential equation. Moreover, the constant coefficient p of the 2nd-order ODE solver can be continuously tuned from 0.0216/ps to 0.158/ps, correspondingly with the constant coefficient q varying from 0.0000494/ps(2) to 0.006205/ps(2). Additionally, a theoretical model that combining the carrier density rate equation of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with the transfer function of the Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is exploited to analyze the solving processes. For both 1st- and 2nd-order solvers, excellent agreements between the numerical simulations and the experimental results are obtained. The FP-SOAs based all-optical differential-equation solvers can be easily integrated with other optical components based on InP/InGaAsP materials, such as laser, modulator, photodetector and waveguide, which can motivate the realization of the complicated optical computing on a single integrated chip.

  16. Hybrid distributed Raman amplification combining random fiber laser based 2nd-order and low-noise LD based 1st-order pumping.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin-Hong; Rao, Yun-Jiang; Yuan, Cheng-Xu; Li, Jin; Yan, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zi-Nan; Zhang, Wei-Li; Wu, Han; Zhu, Ye-Yu; Peng, Fei

    2013-10-21

    A configuration of hybrid distributed Raman amplification (H-DRA), that is formed by incorporating a random fiber laser (RFL) based 2nd-order pump and a low-noise laser-diode (LD) based 1st-order pump, is proposed in this paper. In comparison to conventional bi-directional 1st-order DRA, the effective noise figure (ENF) is found to be lower by amount of 0 to 4 dB due to the RFL-based 2nd-order pump, depending on the on-off gain, while the low-noise 1st-order Raman pump is used for compensating the worsened signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the vicinity towards the far end of the fiber and avoiding the potential nonlinear impact induced by excess injection of pump power and suppressing the pump-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer. As a result, the gain distribution can be optimized along ultra-long fiber link, due to combination of the 2nd-order RFL and low-noise 1st-order pumping, making the transmission distance be extended significantly. We utilized such a configuration to achieve ultra-long-distance distributed sensing based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). A repeater-less sensing distance record of up to 154.4 km with 5 m spatial resolution and ~ ± 1.4 °C temperature uncertainty is successfully demonstrated.

  17. Cloud Occurrence Measurements Over Sea during the 2nd 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) Field Campaign in Palawan Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antioquia, C. T.; Uy, S. N.; Caballa, K.; Lagrosas, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ground based sky imaging cameras have been used to measure cloud cover over an area to aid in radiation budget models. During daytime, certain clouds tend to help decrease atmospheric temperature by obstructing sunrays in the atmosphere. Thus, the detection of clouds plays an important role in the formulation of radiation budget in the atmosphere. In this study, a wide angled sky imager (GoPro Hero 2) was brought on board M/Y Vasco to detect and quantity cloud occurrence over sea during the 2nd 7SEAS field campaign. The camera is just a part of a number of scientific instruments used to measure weather, aerosol chemistry and solar radiation among others. The data collection started during the departure from Manila Bay on 05 September 2012 and went on until the end of the cruise (29 September 2012). The camera was placed in a weather-proof box that is then affixed on a steel mast where other instruments are also attached during the cruise. The data has a temporal resolution of 1 minute, and each image is 500x666 pixels in size. Fig. 1a shows the track of the ship during the cruise. The red, blue, hue, saturation, and value of the pixels are analysed for cloud occurrence. A pixel is considered to "contain" thick cloud if it passes all four threshold parameters (R-B, R/B, R-B/R+B, HSV; R is the red pixel color value, blue is the blue pixel color value, and HSV is the hue saturation value of the pixel) and considered thin cloud if it passes two or three parameters. Fig. 1b shows the daily analysis of cloud occurrence. Cloud occurrence here is quantified as the ratio of the pixels with cloud to the total number of pixels in the data image. The average cloud cover for the days included in this dataset is 87%. These measurements show a big contrast when compared to cloud cover over land (Manila Observatory) which is usually around 67%. During the duration of the cruise, only one day (September 6) has an average cloud occurrence below 50%; the rest of the days have

  18. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  19. ONR Workshop on Magnetohydrodynamic Submarine Propulsion (2nd), Held in San Diego, California on November 16-17, 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Michael Faraday in the early eighteenth century, is still new with a lot of scientific issues left to explore. In the past decade, research has been focused...D.C. Experts from all over the country were invited for the two-day brainstorming sessions to explore the underlying issues of MIHD propulsion...its feasibilit’,. Some important issues were identified, solutions of which are of great significance fo" a successful MHD underwater thruster

  20. [The advent of a newborn specialty: 19th century pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Baudon, Jean-Jacques

    2017-04-05

    Pediatrics began under the most unfavorable conditions that are difficult to imagine nowadays. Children at the start of the 19th century were considered as negligible. The death rate was tremendous, increased by the work of children in factories as soon as 6 years of age in textile industries. In upper classes, infants were fed by a wet nurse, far from their parents and death rate was high as well. The emergence of pediatrics was the result of work carried out in adult medicine in the first half of the 19th century: clinical anatomic method, knowledge of contagious diseases even before the discovery of bacteria, birth of bacteriology. During the whole century, infectious diseases contributed in a large part to children mortality, as that of adults, by cholera, typhus, variola, diphtheria, measles and tuberculosis. Progresses noted during the 2nd part of the century resulted from beginning of hygiene, antisepsis, nutrition improvement, taking consideration of children as human being asking for protection. In contrast, therapeutics as serotherapy, vaccinations at the break of the 20th century played a secondary role.

  1. Report on the Geomagnetic Electrokinetograph (2nd). The General Theory of the Electric Potential Field Induced in Deep Ocean Currents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-01-01

    campo ad origin; (a) a natural origin in the chanr,% of water velocity and (b) aa artificial origin in the change of interelectrode potential resulting...correction, E is the vectorial volt- age produced by the cross product of v the water motion vector and H the magnetic field vector. Under present

  2. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  3. Characterization of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands of NADPH oxidase 5 by fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Superoxide generated by non-phagocytic NADPH oxidases (NOXs) is of growing importance for physiology and pathobiology. The calcium binding domain (CaBD) of NOX5 contains four EF-hands, each binding one calcium ion. To better understand the metal binding properties of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands, we characterized the N-terminal half of CaBD (NCaBD) and its calcium-binding knockout mutants. Results The isothermal titration calorimetry measurement for NCaBD reveals that the calcium binding of two EF-hands are loosely associated with each other and can be treated as independent binding events. However, the Ca2+ binding studies on NCaBD(E31Q) and NCaBD(E63Q) showed their binding constants to be 6.5 × 105 and 5.0 × 102 M-1 with ΔHs of -14 and -4 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that intrinsic calcium binding for the 1st non-canonical EF-hand is largely enhanced by the binding of Ca2+ to the 2nd canonical EF-hand. The fluorescence quenching and CD spectra support a conformational change upon Ca2+ binding, which changes Trp residues toward a more non-polar and exposed environment and also increases its α-helix secondary structure content. All measurements exclude Mg2+-binding in NCaBD. Conclusions We demonstrated that the 1st non-canonical EF-hand of NOX5 has very weak Ca2+ binding affinity compared with the 2nd canonical EF-hand. Both EF-hands interact with each other in a cooperative manner to enhance their Ca2+ binding affinity. Our characterization reveals that the two EF-hands in the N-terminal NOX5 are Ca2+ specific. Graphical abstract PMID:22490336

  4. The current status of research into Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on ADHD: From Childhood to Adult Disease.

    PubMed

    Thome, Johannes; Reddy, Duvvoor Prathap

    2009-12-01

    Despite being a devastating psychiatric condition with high prevalence, ADHD has traditionally been widely under-researched, specifically in adult patients. Therefore, the recent surge in scientific projects focusing on ADHD is impressive. By reviewing selected research findings presented at the 2nd International Congress on ADHD, this paper gives an overview about current state-of-the art research in such different areas as diagnosis, classification, epidemiology, differential diagnosis and comorbidity, neurobiology (including molecular genetics, proteomics, neuroimaging and electrophysiology), environmental factors, modelling of ADHD, treatment (pharmacological and non-pharmacological), as well as forensic and social aspects.

  5. Second-order adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology (2nd-ASAM) for computing exactly and efficiently first- and second-order sensitivities in large-scale linear systems: I. Computational methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacuci, Dan G.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the second-order forward and adjoint sensitivity analysis methodologies (2nd-FSAM and 2nd-ASAM) for computing exactly and efficiently the second-order functional derivatives of physical (engineering, biological, etc.) system responses (i.e., "system performance parameters") to the system's model parameters. The definition of "system parameters" used in this work includes all computational input data, correlations, initial and/or boundary conditions, etc. For a physical system comprising Nα parameters and Nr responses, we note that the 2nd-FSAM requires a total of (Nα2/2 + 3Nα / 2) large-scale computations for obtaining all of the first- and second-order sensitivities, for all Nr system responses. On the other hand, for one functional-type system response, the 2nd-ASAM requires one large-scale computation using the first-level adjoint sensitivity system for obtaining all of the first-order sensitivities, followed by at most Nα large-scale computations using the second-level adjoint sensitivity systems for obtaining exactly all of the second-order sensitivities. Therefore, the 2nd-FSAM should be used when Nr ≫Nα, while the 2nd-ASAM should be used when Nα ≫Nr. The original 2nd-ASAM presented in this work should enable the hitherto very difficult, if not intractable, exact computation of all of the second-order response sensitivities (i.e., functional Gateaux-derivatives) for large-systems involving many parameters, as usually encountered in practice. Very importantly, the implementation of the 2nd-ASAM requires very little additional effort beyond the construction of the adjoint sensitivity system needed for computing the first-order sensitivities.

  6. Carbon dioxide emissions and the overshoot ratio change resulting from the implementation of 2nd Energy Master Plan in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The direction of the energy policies of the country is important in the projection of environmental impacts of the country. The greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of the energy sector in South Korea is very huge, about 600 MtCO2e in 2011. Also the carbon footprint due to the energy consumption contributes to the ecological footprint is also large, more than 60%. Based on the official plans (the national greenhouse gases emission reduction target for 2030 (GHG target for 2030) and the 2nd Energy Master Plan (2nd EMP)), several scenarios were proposed and the sensitivity of the GHG emission amount and 'overshoot ratio' which is the ratio of ecological footprint to biocapacity were estimated. It was found that to meet the GHG target for 2030 the ratio of non-emission energy for power generation should be over 71% which would be very difficult. We also found that the overshoot ratio would increase from 5.9 in 2009 to 7.6 in 2035. Thus, additional efforts are required to reduce the environmental burdens in addition to optimize the power mix configuration. One example is the conversion efficiency in power generation. If the conversion efficiency in power generation rises up 50% from the current level, 40%, the energy demand and resultant carbon dioxide emissions would decrease about 10%. Also the influence on the environment through changes in consumption behavior, for example, the diet choice is expected to be meaningful.

  7. Management of osteoporosis in central and eastern Europe (CEE): conclusions of the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE", 21-22 November 2008, Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Roman S; Resch, Heinrich

    2009-12-01

    In November 2008, the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)" was held in Warsaw, Poland. Discussions at this meeting focused on the identification and discussion of diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic measures used in CEE. Evaluated information was used to identify issues regarding diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis in these countries to facilitate the subsequent setup of appropriate support and development strategies. The main debate was structured according to the following five subjects: (1) present status and future perspectives for implementation of FRAX(R) into local (CEE) diagnostic algorithms, (2) principles of drug selection in osteoporosis treatment in CEE countries, (3) nonpharmacological interventions in osteoporosis treatment and prophylaxis in CEE countries, (4) treatment benefit evaluation, and (5) cost-effectiveness and evaluation of reimbursement policies in CEE countries. The most important and substantial comments of the delegates are summarized in the present article. The multinational panel of experts with representatives from many CEE countries as well as Austria and Switzerland made the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE" a perfect platform to identify issues and needs regarding diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis as well as the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis management in CEE countries. The information gained will serve as a basis for the development of strategies to resolve the identified issues at the "3rd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE" in November 2009.

  8. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  9. Microgravimetric and magnetometric three-dimensional analysis in the 2nd section of the Bosque de Chapultepec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo-Zenil, D.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, J.; García-Serrano, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Bosque de Chapultepec is the most important recreational area in Mexico City. In the early 20th century construction material in this region was exploited illegally generating a clandestine system of mines without any registration or census. Later in the early 50's it was planned the creation of a park in the area, nonetheless many mines were blocked by debris or vegetation and only a few mines were filled to build the infrastructure of the park. In June 2006, the collapse of the foundation slab of the Lago Mayor emptied 5000 cubic meters of water, which made clear the need of near surface geophysics studies to locate instabilities due to underground cavities. This work describes the progress of microgravimetry and magnetometry studies located in a forest region where the collapse of a mine entrance occurred. This mine has 4 known branches, but the full extent or if these branches are connected to the entrance of another filled mine located approximately to 100 meters is unknown. The results of this work, in correlation with the geological model and preliminary results of seismic and electrical methods, show lateral variations that may be associated with cavities and possible structural faults, which represent hazards to the Bosque de Chapultepec.

  10. What Is a University in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    The term "university" has a longstanding history, yet its definition remains highly contentious at the turn of the century. According to conventional scholarship, the first university initially appeared as far back as the 12th century with the formation of the University of Paris and the University of Bologna (circa 1150 AD). Other scholars,…

  11. PREFACE: 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium on the Fundamental and Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices and Technologies (RJUS TeraTech - 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Valeriy; Ryzhii, Viktor; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) Bauman Moscow State Technical University Moscow, Russia, 3-6 June, 2013 The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) was held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University on 3-6 June 2013 and was devoted to modern problems of terahertz optical technologies. RJUS TeraTech 2013 was organized by Bauman Moscow State Technical University in cooperation with Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) and University of Buffalo (The State University of New York, USA). The Symposium was supported by Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Moscow, Russia) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant number 13-08-06100-g). RJUS TeraTech - 2013 became a foundation for sharing and discussing modern and promising achievements in fundamental and applied problems of terahertz optical technologies, devices based on grapheme and grapheme strictures, condensed matter of different nature. Among participants of RJUS TeraTech - 2013, there were more than 100 researchers and students from different countries. This volume contains proceedings of the 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies'. Valeriy Karasik, Viktor Ryzhii and Stanislav Yurchenko Bauman Moscow State Technical University Symposium chair Anatoliy A Aleksandrov, Rector of BMSTU Symposium co-chair Valeriy E Karasik, Head of the Research and Educational Center 'PHOTONICS AND INFRARED TECHNOLOGY' (Russia) Invited Speakers Taiichi Otsuji, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Akira Satou, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Michael Shur, Electrical, Computer and System Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, USA Natasha

  12. Byzantine psychosomatic medicine (10th- 15th century).

    PubMed

    Eftychiadis, A C

    1999-01-01

    Original elements of the psychosomatic medicine are examined by the most important byzantine physicians and medico-philosophers during the 10th -15th centuries. These topics concern the psycosomatic unity of the human personality, the psychosomatic disturbances, diseases and interactions, organic diseases, which cause psychical disorders, psychical pathological reactions, which result in somatic diseases, the psychology of the depth of the soul, the psychosomatic pathogenetic reasons of psychiatric and neurological diseases and suicide, the influence of witchcraft on psychosomatic affections, maniac and demoniac patients. The psychosomatic treatment has a holistic preventive and curative character and encloses sanitary and dietary measures, physiotherapy, curative bathing, strong purgation, pharmaceutical preparations proportional to the disease, religious disposition, psychoanalysis and psychotherapy with dialogue and the contribution of the divine factor. The late byzantine medical science contributed mainly to the progress of the psychosomatic medicine and therapeutics. The saint woman physician Hermione (1st -2nd cent.) is considered as the protectress of psychosomatic medicine.

  13. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  14. Report from the 2nd Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit of the Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease (D&CVD) EASD Study Group.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Oliver; Standl, Eberhard; Catrinoiu, Doina; Genovese, Stefano; Lalic, Nebojsa; Skra, Jan; Valensi, Paul; Rahelic, Dario; Ceriello, Antonio

    2017-03-11

    The 2nd Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit of the Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease (D&CVD) EASD Study Group was held on the 20th-21st October 2016 in Munich. This second Summit was organized in light of recently published CVOTs on diabetes, with the aim of serving as a reference meeting for discussion on this topic. Along with presentations on the results of the most recently published CVOTs, panel discussions on trial implications for reimbursement and the perspective of cardiologists and/or nephrologists, as well as on CVOTs weaknesses and potentials constituted the heart of the program. Future activities of the D&CVD EASD Study Group in 2017 include an annual meeting in Milano and the 3rd CVOT Summit on Diabetes of the D&CVD EASD Study Group, in Munich ( http://www.dcvd.org ).

  15. Phase transition in tungsten-bronze Li2Pb2Nd2W2Ti4Nb4O30 ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, B. N.; Das, Piyush R.; Padhee, R.; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2013-08-01

    The polycrystalline sample of Li2Pb2Nd2W2Ti4Nb4O30 was prepared by a solid-state reaction technique. Room temperature X-ray structural analysis confirms the formation of a single-phase compound. The morphology of the sintered sample recorded by scanning electron microscope exhibits a uniform grain distribution. Detailed studies of the nature of variation of dielectric constant, tangent loss, and polarization with temperature and frequency confirmed the existence of ferroelectricity in the material at room temperature. The temperature and frequency dependence of impedance parameters (impedance, modulus, etc.) of the material exhibits a strong correlation of its microstructure (i.e., bulk, grain boundary, etc.). Furthermore, the temperature dependence of DC conductivity shows a typical Arrhenius behavior of the material. The nature of variation of pyroelectric coefficient and current with temperature suggests that material has good pyroelectric properties useful for pyroelectric detector.

  16. Crystal structure of nonsuperconducting Pb 2(Sr 0.94Nd 0.06) 2(Nd 0.76Sr 0.24)Cu 3O 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayri, Eric A.; Kvick, Åke

    1990-01-01

    The crystal structure of Pb 2(Sr 0.94Nd 0.06) 2(Nd 0.76Sr 0.24)Cu 3O 8 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound was found to be orthorhombic ( Cmmm) with a = 5.437(3), b = 5.472(2), c = 15.797(7)Å and Z = 2. In the structure double layers of CuO square pyramids are separated by (Nd, Sr) oxygen deficient layers which are stacked between (PbO)Cu(PbO) slabs. The oxygen in the Pb planes is shifted toward a pair of Pb atoms resulting in an orthorhombic distortion of the tetragonal unit cell. The possibilities for modulations and superlattices are discussed as is the role of the PbO planes in superconductivity.

  17. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  18. Wound healing and soft tissue effects of CO2, contact Nd: YAG and combined CO2-Nd: YAG laser beams on rabbit trachea.

    PubMed

    Laranne, J; Lagerstedt, A; Pukander, J; Rantala, I

    1997-11-01

    Rabbit trachea was used as an experimental model to study tissue effects and healing of full-thickness tracheal lesions produced by CO2, contact Nd: YAG and combined, coaxial CO2-Nd: YAG (Combo) laser beams. Two power settings (10 W and 16 W) were used with CO2 and contact Nd: YAG lasers. Three different CO2/Nd:YAG power ratios (1:1, 1:2 and 1:4) and power settings (12 W 15 W and 16 W) were used with the Combolaser. Histological specimens for light and transmission electron microscopy were prepared immediately and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days postoperatively. The wound with the most precise and fastest healing was produced by contact Nd: YAG laser. CO2 laser produced a moderate amount of charring and the largest amount of coagulated tissue with a slightly prolonged healing period. In the acute phase, tissue defects produced by the Combolaser with power ratios 1:1 and 1:2 resembled the CO2 laser lesions but with slightly less charring. The power ratio 1:4 diminished the cutting properties of the beam considerably. During the healing period the Combolaser produced the most intensive inflammation and granulation tissue formation resulting in delayed regeneration of the lesion. In transmission electron micrographs the most severe damage to chondrocytes was seen after using the Combolaser. These findings indicate that the Combolaser produces deeper tissue damage than CO2 or contact Nd:YAG laser. However, the Combolaser appears to be suitable for tracheobronchial operations, owing to its good simultaneous cutting and haemostatic properties.

  19. The influence of Nd3+ in CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor fabricated by combustion synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiping; Yang, Yong; Li, Xingmin; Li, Xu; Liu, Chong; Feng, Jianwei

    2005-01-01

    Eu2+, Nd3+ co-doped calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4) phosphor with high brightness and long afterglow were fabricated by urea-nitrate solution combustion synthesis at 600°C. The phosphor powder of combustion synthesis were generally more homogeneous and had fewer impurity than phosphor fabricated by conventional solid-state methods, the character could conduce to obtain more exact data. The excitation and emission spectrum indicated that there waxs only one luminescence center Eu2+, both of the characteristic spectrums of Eu3+ and Nd3+ weren't discovered. As a secondary activator, Nd3+ could make remarkable influence on the afterglow of phosphor. From altering the moral ratio of Eu2+ and Nd3+, the lasting time of afterglow and thermoluminescence were studied respectively, when Nd3+ wasn't appended, the intensity of initial brightness could compared with other materials which had different ratio of Eu2+ and Nd3+, however the brightness of afterglow decayed rapidly, the lasting time and brightness of afterglow were improved with reduce the radio of Eu2+ and Nd3+, while the ratio achieved some value, the lasting time of afterglow become shorten with the reduce of ratio of Eu2+ and Nd3+. Moreover the depth of trap was calculated from the parameter of thermoluminescence. However, the emission spectrum and XRD patterns didn't change obviously with the altering ratio of Eu2+ and Nd3+. It showed that the little amount of doped rear earth ions (Eu2+ and Nd3+) had almost no effect on the CaAl2O4 phase composition. Based on these conclusions, the model of the luminescence process of CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Nd3+ was built.

  20. Twenty First Century Space Propulsion Study Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    90265-7783 June 1991 Final Report DTIC ELECTE JUL15I9U ~> PHILLIPS LABOR.ATORY Propulsion Directorate ~ AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND EDWARDS AIR FORCE...Century Space Propulsion Study (Addendum) (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Forward, Robert L. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT...AL-TR-90-030, 21st Century Space Propulsion Study, October 1990, AD: A229279) evaluates a number of new space propulsion and sensor concepts. The major

  1. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  2. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  3. 21st Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

  4. The Safety of Artemisinin Derivatives for the Treatment of Malaria in the 2nd or 3rd Trimester of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, Anna Maria; Sevene, Esperanca; Dellicour, Stephanie; Weiss, Noel S.; Emerson, Scott; Steketee, Richard; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Stergachis, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Given the high morbidity for mother and fetus associated with malaria in pregnancy, safe and efficacious drugs are needed for treatment. Artemisinin derivatives are the most effective antimalarials, but are associated with teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in animal models when used in early pregnancy. However, several organ systems are still under development later in pregnancy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women treated with artemisinins monotherapy or as artemisinin-based combination therapy during the 2nd or 3rd trimesters relative to pregnant women who received non-artemisinin antimalarials or none at all. Pooled odds ratio (POR) were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model with a 0.5 continuity correction for zero events. Eligible studies were identified through Medline, Embase, and the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium Library. Twenty studies (11 cohort studies and 9 randomized controlled trials) contributed to the analysis, with 3,707 women receiving an artemisinin, 1,951 a non-artemisinin antimalarial, and 13,714 no antimalarial. The PORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for stillbirth, fetal loss, and congenital anomalies when comparing artemisinin versus quinine were 0.49 (95% CI 0.24–0.97, I2 = 0%, 3 studies); 0.58 (95% CI 0.31–1.16, I2 = 0%, 6 studies); and 1.00 (95% CI 0.27–3.75, I2 = 0%, 3 studies), respectively. The PORs comparing artemisinin users to pregnant women who received no antimalarial were 1.13 (95% CI 0.77–1.66, I2 = 86.7%, 3 studies); 1.10 (95% CI 0.79–1.54, I2 = 0%, 4 studies); and 0.79 (95% CI 0.37–1.67, I2 = 0%, 3 studies) for miscarriage, stillbirth and congenital anomalies respectively. Treatment with artemisinin in 2nd and 3rd trimester was not associated with increased risks of congenital malformations or miscarriage and may be was associated with a reduced risk of stillbirths compared to quinine. This study updates the reviews

  5. The Futures of Adult Educator(s): Agency, Identity and Ethos. Joint Conference Proceedings of the 2nd ESREA/ReNAdET Meeting and the 4th TQF Seminar (Tallinn, Estonia, November 9-11, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Jogi, Larissa, Ed.; Jutte, Wolfgang, Ed.; Zarifis, Georgios K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume contains the papers presented in the 2nd ESREA|ReNAdet meeting that was jointly organised with the VET & CULTURE Network in the University of Tallinn (Estonia), 9-11 November 2011. The papers that appear in the volume discuss the future (or the futures) of adult educators in respect to issues of developing their identities…

  6. Development and Validation of Big Four Personality Scales for the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2nd Edition (SNAP-2)

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, William R.; Rudick, Monica M.; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently, integrative, hierarchical models of personality and personality disorder (PD)—such as the Big Three, Big Four and Big Five trait models—have gained support as a unifying dimensional framework for describing PD. However, no measures to date can simultaneously represent each of these potentially interesting levels of the personality hierarchy. To unify these measurement models psychometrically, we sought to develop Big Five trait scales within the Schedule for Adaptive and Nonadaptive Personality–2nd Edition (SNAP-2). Through structural and content analyses, we examined relations between the SNAP-2, Big Five Inventory (BFI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) ratings in a large data set (N = 8,690), including clinical, military, college, and community participants. Results yielded scales consistent with the Big Four model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Introversion, and Antagonism) and not the Big Five as there were insufficient items related to Openness. Resulting scale scores demonstrated strong internal consistency and temporal stability. Structural and external validity was supported by strong convergent and discriminant validity patterns between Big Four scale scores and other personality trait scores and expectable patterns of self-peer agreement. Descriptive statistics and community-based norms are provided. The SNAP-2 Big Four Scales enable researchers and clinicians to assess personality at multiple levels of the trait hierarchy and facilitate comparisons among competing “Big Trait” models. PMID:22250598

  7. XUV spectra of 2nd transition row elements: identification of 3d-4p and 3d-4f transition arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokasani, Ragava; Long, Elaine; Maguire, Oisin; Sheridan, Paul; Hayden, Patrick; O'Reilly, Fergal; Dunne, Padraig; Sokell, Emma; Endo, Akira; Limpouch, Jiri; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-12-01

    The use of laser produced plasmas (LPPs) in extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray lithography and metrology at 13.5 nm has been widely reported and recent research efforts have focused on developing next generation sources for lithography, surface morphology, patterning and microscopy at shorter wavelengths. In this paper, the spectra emitted from LPPs of the 2nd transition row elements from yttrium (Z = 39) to palladium (Z = 46), with the exception of zirconium (Z = 40) and technetium (Z = 43), produced by two Nd:YAG lasers which delivered up to 600 mJ in 7 ns and 230 mJ in 170 ps, respectively, are reported. Intense emission was observed in the 2-8 nm spectral region resulting from unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) due to 3d-4p, 3d-4f and 3p-3d transitions. These transitions in a number of ion stages of yttrium, niobium, ruthenium and rhodium were identified by comparison with results from Cowan code calculations and previous studies. The theoretical data were parameterized using the UTA formalism and the mean wavelength and widths were calculated and compared with experimental results.

  8. The photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of novel green long-lasting phosphorescence materials Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+,Nd3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Q.; Ding, W.; Su, Q.

    2007-04-01

    The novel green long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) material Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+,Nd3+ was systematically investigated by means of photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission, a thermal quenching process, long-lasting phosphorescent emission, decay curves, chromaticity and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra. It is clearly observed that there exist two distinguishable Eu sites, EuI for 426-nm and EuII for 504-nm emissions, but only the green LLP appears at the EuII site. The emissions for both PL and LLP are due to the 5d→4f transitions. The green phosphorescence with the chromaticity coordination x=0.196, y=0.506 can still be observed in the dark for no less than 5 h by the naked eye. The results of TL show that Nd3+ ions induce the predominating band at 335 K, associated with the charge-trapping centers that are responsible for the appearance of intense green phosphorescence.

  9. Report on 2nd Royan Institute International Summer School on developmental biology and stem cells Tehran, Iran, 17-22nd July 2011.

    PubMed

    Newgreen, Donald; Grounds, Miranda; Jesuthasan, Suresh; Rashidi, Hassan; Familari, Mary

    2012-03-01

    The 2nd Royan Institute International Summer School was built around the topic of stem cells and grounding in the discipline of developmental biology. The meeting provided not only direct transfer of technical and intellectual information, the normal process in scientific meetings, but was also a forum for the exchange of personal ideas of science as a creative pursuit. This summer school introduced aspiring young Iranian scientists to international researchers and exposed the latter to a rich culture that highly values learning and education, attested by the confident, intelligent young men and women who asked probing questions and who were eager to participate in the workshops. Hossein Baharvand's dedication and passion for science have led to an impressive record of national and international peer-reviewed publications and an increasing number of students who pursue science in Iran, and shows how the right people can create an environment where good science, good science education and motivation will flourish. This report summarizes some of the activities of the workshop in the Royan Institute and the impressions of the visiting scientists in the wider context of the scientific and cultural heritage of Iran.

  10. Report on the 2nd International Consortium on Hallucination Research: Evolving Directions and Top-10 “Hot Spots” in Hallucination Research

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a report on the 2nd meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research, held on September 12th and 13th 2013 at Durham University, UK. Twelve working groups involving specialists in each area presented their findings and sought to summarize the available knowledge, inconsistencies in the field, and ways to progress. The 12 working groups reported on the following domains of investigation: cortical organisation of hallucinations, nonclinical hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to phenomenology, culture and hallucinations, subtypes of auditory verbal hallucinations, a Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale multisite study, visual hallucinations in the psychosis spectrum, hallucinations in children and adolescents, Research Domain Criteria behavioral constructs and hallucinations, new methods of assessment, psychological therapies, and the Hearing Voices Movement approach to understanding and working with voices. This report presents a summary of this meeting and outlines 10 hot spots for hallucination research, which include the in-depth examination of (1) the social determinants of hallucinations, (2) translation of basic neuroscience into targeted therapies, (3) different modalities of hallucination, (4) domain convergence in cross-diagnostic studies, (5) improved methods for assessing hallucinations in nonclinical samples, (6) using humanities and social science methodologies to recontextualize hallucinatory experiences, (7) developmental approaches to better understand hallucinations, (8) changing the memory or meaning of past trauma to help recovery, (9) hallucinations in the context of sleep and sleep disorders, and (10) subtypes of hallucinations in a therapeutic context. PMID:24282321

  11. Results of on-line tests of the ENABLE prototype, a 2nd level trigger processor for the TRT of ATLAS/LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Noffz, K.H.; Kugel, A.; Klefenz, F.; Zoz, R.; Maenner, R.

    1994-12-31

    The Enable Machine is a systolic 2nd level trigger processor for the transition radiation tracker (TRT) of ATLAS/LHC. The task of the processor is to find the best candidate for a lepton track in a high background of pions according to the EAST benchmark algorithm in less than 10 {mu}s. As described earlier, this is done in three steps. First all interesting tracks are histogrammed by accumulating for each track the coincidences between the track mask and the region-of-interest (RoI). Next the best defined track is identified. Eventually this track is classified as e or {pi}. A prototype has been developed and tested within the EAST/RD-11 collaboration at CERN. It operates at 50 MHz and finds up to 400 tracks in less than 10 {mu}s. It is assembled of an interface board and one or more histogrammer boards. The modular design makes the Enable Machine easily scalable. The histogrammer units are systolic arrays consisting of a matrix of 36 field programmable gate arrays. Through this it is possible to optimize the trigger algorithm, to adapt it to a changed detector setup, and even to implement completely new algorithms. For the beam tests in autumn 1993 at CERN the overall functionality within the detector environment could be shown. The authors were able to link successfully the Enable prototype to the detector raw data stream as well as to the data acquisition.

  12. The effect of magnetic field annealing on the texture of 2nd recrystallization for a deformed Fe-3.2% Si steel sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byung Geol; Part, Su Dong; Kim, Shang Shu

    2004-12-01

    The effects of deformation on 2nd recrystallization behavior with or without magnetic field for a 1st recrystallized electrical steel sheet have been investigated. Annealing temperatures (800, 1000 °C) and cold-rolling rates (50, 70 %) were experimental parameters. A magnetic field of 5 T using a superconducting magnet at a heating rate of 15 °C/min was applied in a direction parallel to the rolling direction. The intensity of α-fiber was increased due to the deformation and, in particular, the formation of {100}<110> component was tremendous. Considerable formation of {001}<100> component was also found. At 800 °C, α-fiber was developed rapidly due to deformation, and η-fiber was also formed in the components {100}<100> and {110}<100> The effect of magnetic field annealing was more significant at 800 °C, while the effect at 1000 °C was negligible. These results are discussed in a phenomenological context considering the atomic fluctuation and magnetic induction depending on annealing temperature and magnetic field.

  13. General Physics, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternheim, Morton M.; Kane, Joseph W.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces physics to science students with a wide range of interests. Unlike many other physics texts, the coverage and emphasis here is influenced by the specific needs of science majors, including those in the life sciences, and thus treats topics such as geometric optics, mechanics of fluids and acoustics. The derivative is introduced in Chapter One and integrals are used sparingly until electricity and magnetism are covered. Entire chapters are devoted to applications of physics covering subjects such as nerve conduction, ionizing radiation and nuclear magnetic resonance, demonstrating the widespread utility of physics and the unity of science. To aid in comprehension, calculations involving calculus are carried out with a good deal of detail and discussion. Each chapter features a checklist of terms to define or explain as well as problems and exercises. Additional problems and exercises are located in the Supplementary Topics section.

  14. Contaminant Hydrogeology, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James E.

    Groundwater is a valuable resource that has received much attention over the last couple of decades. Extremely large sums of money have been and will be spent on groundwater contamination problems and the public has become increasingly sensitive to groundwater issues. Groundwater contamination has even become the subject of a major Hollywood movie with the recent release of A Civil Action starring John Travolta. The high profile of groundwater contaminant problems, the associated relatively strong job market over the last 20 years, and the general shift toward an environmental emphasis in science and engineering have resulted in a sustained high demand for senior undergraduate courses and graduate programs in hydrogeology Many voice the opinion that we have seen the peak demand for hydrogeologists pass, but the placement of graduates from hydrogeology programs into career-oriented positions has remained very high.

  15. Sedimentary petrology. 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, H.

    1992-01-01

    The second edition of Sedimentary Petrology is extensively revised and updated; much effort has been expended to strengthen the weaknesses of the earlier edition, and much of this effort has been successful. It consists of sixteen chapters. Following two introductory chapters (occurrence of sedimentary rocks; weathering and soils), eleven chapters cover the various sedimentary rock types. Coverage is allocated in proportion to their relative abundance and relative ease of study -- three chapters on conglomerates and sandstones (textures and structures, composition, and diagenesis); one on mud rocks; three on carbonates (limestone textures, structures, and environments; limestone mineralogy and diagenesis; and dolostones); and one each on evaporites, cherts, iron-rich rocks, and phosphorites. A novel and useful chapter on paleogeothermometry rounds out the discussion of rocks, followed by chapters on The Development of a Research Project'' and common laboratory methods.

  16. Longwall mining. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2006-10-15

    The book covers US longwall mining technology that was developed and practiced in the US for the past 30 years. It covers all phases of longwall technology in 14 chapters. Each chapter is devoted to a subsystem of equipment or engineering technology. Each chapter begins with a brief introduction on the historical trends of development of the subsystem equipment or engineering technology, followed by a detailed description of the subsystem and engineering technology as they are practiced in the US today.

  17. Electromagnetic Fields, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangsness, Roald K.

    1986-07-01

    This revised edition provides patient guidance in its clear and organized presentation of problems. It is rich in variety, large in number and provides very careful treatment of relativity. One outstanding feature is the inclusion of simple, standard examples demonstrated in different methods that will allow students to enhance and understand their calculating abilities. There are over 145 worked examples; virtually all of the standard problems are included.

  18. Modern Physics, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Kenneth S.

    1995-08-01

    Bring Modern Physics to Life with a Realistic Software Simulation! Enhance the thorough coverage of Krane's Modern Physics 2e with hands-on, real-world experience! Modern Physics Simulations, developed by the Consortium for Upper-Level Physics Software (CUPS), offers complex, realistic calculations of models of various physical systems. Like all of the CUPS simulations, it is remarkably easy to use, yet sophisticated enough for explorations of new ideas. Important Features Include: * Powerful simulations covering Historic Experiments in Electron Diffraction, Laser Cavities & Dynamics, Classical Scattering, Nuclear Properties & Decays, Special Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, and the Hydrogen Atom & the H2+ Molecule. * Pascal source code for all programs and a number of exercises suggesting specific ways the programs can be modified. * Graphical (often animated) displays in most simulations. The entire CUPS simulation series consists of nine books/software simulations which cover Astrophysics, Electricity and Magnetism, Classical Mechanics, Modern Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Solid State Physics, Thermal and Statistical Physics, and Waves and Optics.

  19. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: Pigments and glazes characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L. F.; Casimiro, T. M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co3O4 (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co2SiO4, Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the17th C.) - 824 cm-1 band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4, Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm-1 bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  20. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 17th century. Part 1: pigments and glazes characterization.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ferreira, L F; Casimiro, T M; Colomban, Ph

    2013-03-01

    Two sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the first and second halves of the 17th century were studied carefully with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: Ground State Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Laser Induced Luminescence (LIL) and Proton Induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for a Chinese Ming porcelain, Wanli period (16th/beginning of the 17th centuries), which served as an influence for the initial Lisbon's faience production. By combining information of the different non-destructive spectroscopic techniques used in this work, it was possible to conclude that: Co(3)O(4) (Co II and Co III) can be found in the silicate matrix and is the blue pigment in the "Especieiro" sample (1st half of the 17th C.). Cobalt olivine silicate (Co(2)SiO(4), Co II only) was clearly identified as the blue pigment in "Aranhões" sample (2nd half of the 17th C.) - 824 cm(-1) band in the micro-Raman-spectrum. Cobalt aluminate (CoAl(2)O(4), Co II only) is the blue pigment in the Wanli plate - 203 and 512 cm(-1) bands in the micro-Raman spectrum. The blue pigment in the 1st half 17th century of Lisbon's production was obtained by addition of a cobalt ore in low concentrations, which gives no specific Raman signature, because of complete dissolution in the glass. However, in most cases of the 2nd half 17th century, the Raman signature was quite evident, from a cobalt silicate. These findings point to the use of higher temperature kilns in the second case.

  1. Adding and Deleting Images

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  2. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  3. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  4. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola".

  5. The truncated Newton using 1st and 2nd order adjoint-state method: a new approach for traveltime tomography without rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretaudeau, F.; Metivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Virieux, J.

    2013-12-01

    named as the truncated Newton (TCN) (Métivier et al. 2012) with a more accurate estimation of the impact of the Hessian. We propose an efficient implementation for first-arrival traveltime tomography. In TCN, the model update Δm is obtained through the iterative resolution of the Newton linear system H Δm = - g. Based on a matrix-free conjugate gradient resolution, the iterative solver requires only the computation of the gradient and of Hessian-vector products. We propose a generalization of the computation of the gradient using the adjoint-state method that allows to consider receivers located anywhere. Then the Hessian-vector products are computed using an original formulation based on a 2nd-order adjoint-state method, at the cost of an additional forward modeling. The TCN algorithm is composed of two nested loops: an internal loop to compute Δm, and an external loop where a line search is performed to update the subsurface parameters. TCN thus considers locally the inversion of the traveltime data using an estimation of the full Hessian (both 1st and 2nd order terms) at an acceptable cost. Tomography with TCN is an improvement over the simple gradient-based adjoint-state tomography due to its good convergence property, to the better consideration of illumination, and is a promising tool for multi-parameter inversion as rescaling is given by the Hessian.

  6. The 1st and the 2nd Italian Consensus Conferences on low-density lipoprotein-apheresis. A practical synopsis and update

    PubMed Central

    Stefanutti, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The clinical indications and guidelines for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis set by the 1st Italian Consensus Conference held in Ostuni in 1990 and completed in 1992, but never published, are reported schematically. In 1994, within the Project “Prevention and control of the factors of the disease (FATMA)” by the Italian National Research Council, subproject 8 “Control of cardiovascular disease”, a “Hearing on therapeutic apheresis: need for a target-oriented project” was organised. The meeting was the last scientific initiative on LDL-apheresis supported by public funds in Italy. After roughly two decades of use of LDL-apheresis, new guidelines were required based on the latest scientific evidence. In 2006, the Italian multicentre study on LDL-apheresis Working Group (IMSLDLa-WP), a scientific initiative at national level, was developed. It initially gathered together 19 Italian centres qualified for the application of lipid apheresis and LDL-apheresis (2007–2008), then 23 in 2010, located in the north, south, centre of Italy and in Sicily and Sardinia. The multicentre study aimed to validate the protocol for selecting patients and to create a network between the Italian centres. A secondary objective was the creation of a database of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia and other severe forms of dyslipidaemia undergoing treatment with LDL-apheresis using the available techniques. Since LDL-apheresis has multidisciplinary treatment indications, the agreement on the new guidelines was reached through a panel of experts, of different medical and surgical specialties, with scientific and medical interest in the treatment indications, application and development of LDL-apheresis. The initiatives of the IMSLDLa-WP led to the 2nd Italian Consensus Conference on LDL-apheresis held in Rome in 2009. The previous and most recent guidelines are reported here synoptically. PMID:27416576

  7. 2nd International Symposium on Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering (REES-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavadyan, Levon, Prof; Sachkov, Viktor, Prof; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr.; Bogdan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd International Symposium «Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering» (REES2015) was jointly organized by Tomsk State University (Russia), National Academy of Science (Armenia), Shenyang Polytechnic University (China), Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering (Russia), Siberian Physical-technical Institute (Russia), and Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) in September, 7-15, 2015, Belokuriha, Russia. The Symposium provided a high quality of presentations and gathered engineers, scientists, academicians, and young researchers working in the field of rare and rare earth elements mining, modification, separation, elaboration and application, in order to facilitate aggregation and sharing interests and results for a better collaboration and activity visibility. The goal of the REES2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on rare and rare earth elements technologies. The Symposium was aimed at presenting new trends in rare and rare earth elements mining, research and separation and recent achievements in advanced materials elaboration and developments for different purposes, as well as strengthening the already existing contacts between manufactures, highly-qualified specialists and young scientists. The topics of the REES2015 were: (1) Problems of extraction and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (2) Methods and approaches to the separation and isolation of rare and rare earth elements with ultra-high purity; (3) Industrial technologies of production and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (4) Economic aspects in technology of rare and rare earth elements; and (5) Rare and rare earth based materials (application in metallurgy, catalysis, medicine, optoelectronics, etc.). We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the Universities and Sponsors supporting the Symposium, and everyone who contributed to the organization of the event and to

  8. Early onset hypercholesterolemia induced by the 2nd-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rea, Delphine; Mirault, Tristan; Cluzeau, Thomas; Gautier, Jean-François; Guilhot, François; Dombret, Hervé; Messas, Emmanuel

    2014-07-01

    Despite a well-recognized clinical benefit of the 2(nd)-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with imatinib-resistant/-intolerant or newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia, recent evidence suggests that nilotinib has a propensity to increase the risk of occlusive arterial events, especially in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors. Given the key role of lipids in cardiovascular diseases, we studied the plasma lipid profile and global cardiovascular risk prior to and during nilotinib therapy in a series of 27 patients in the setting of a prospective single center study. Data from a minimum 1-year follow up showed that nilotinib significantly increased total, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol within three months. Consequently, the proportion of patients with non-optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from 48.1% to 88.9% by 12 months, leading to cholesterol-lowering drug intervention in 22.2% of patients. The proportion of patients with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 40.7% to 7.4% by 12 months. In contrast, a significant decrease in triglycerides was observed. Global cardiovascular risk worsened in 11.1% of patients due to diabetes or occlusive arterial events. Whether hypercholesterolemia was the main driver of occlusive arterial events was uncertain: a longer follow up is necessary to ask whether nilotinib-induced hypercholesterolemia increases long-term risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Nevertheless, given key atherogenic properties of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we conclude that when prescribing nilotinib, commitment to detect lipid disorders at baseline and during follow up is mandatory given their frequency, requirement for changes in lifestyle or drug intervention, and potential for long-term cardiovascular complications.

  9. Direct and non-destructive proof of authenticity for the 2nd generation of Brazilian real banknotes via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Franco, Marcos Fernando; Regino, Karen Gomes; Lehmann, Eraldo Luiz; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Using a desorption/ionization technique, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (EASI-MS), documents related to the 2nd generation of Brazilian Real currency (R$) were screened in the positive ion mode for authenticity based on chemical profiles obtained directly from the banknote surface. Characteristic profiles were observed for authentic, seized suspect counterfeit and counterfeited homemade banknotes from inkjet and laserjet printers. The chemicals in the authentic banknotes' surface were detected via a few minor sets of ions, namely from the plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), most likely related to the official offset printing process, and other common quaternary ammonium cations, presenting a similar chemical profile to 1st-generation R$. The seized suspect counterfeit banknotes, however, displayed abundant diagnostic ions in the m/z 400-800 range due to the presence of oligomers. High-accuracy FT-ICR MS analysis enabled molecular formula assignment for each ion. The ions were separated by 44 m/z, which enabled their characterization as Surfynol® 4XX (S4XX, XX=40, 65, and 85), wherein increasing XX values indicate increasing amounts of ethoxylation on a backbone of 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (Surfynol® 104). Sodiated triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TBG) of m/z 229 (C10H22O4Na) was also identified in the seized counterfeit banknotes via EASI(+) FT-ICR MS. Surfynol® and TBG are constituents of inks used for inkjet printing.

  10. PREFACE: 2nd International School and Conference Saint-Petersburg OPEN on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures (SPbOPEN2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International School and Conference ''Saint Petersburg OPEN 2015'' on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures was held on April 6 - 8, 2015 at St. Petersburg Academic University. The School and Conference included a series of invited talks given by leading professors with the aim to introduce young scientists with actual problems and major advances in physics and technology. The keynote speakers were Mikhail V. Maximov (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia) Vladimir G. Dubrovskii (St. Petersburg Academic University and St. Petersburg State University, Russia) Anton Yu. Egorov (JSC Connector Optics, Russia) Victor V. Luchinin (St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, Russia) Vladislav E. Bugrov (St. Petersburg University of Internet Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Russia) Vitali A. Schukin (VI Systems, Germany) Yuri P. Svirko (University of Eastern Finland, Finland) During the poster session all undergraduate and graduate students attending the conference presented their works. A sufficiently large number of participants, with more than 170 student attendees from all over the world, allowed the Conference to provide a fertile ground for fruitful discussions between the young scientists as well as to become a perfect platform for valuable discussions between student authors and highly experienced scientists. The best student papers, which were selected by the Program Committee and by the invited speakers basing on the theses and their poster presentation, were awarded with diplomas of the conference - see the photos. This year ''Saint Petersburg OPEN 2015'' is organized by St. Petersburg Academic University in cooperation with Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. The School and Conference is supported by Russian Science Foundation, SPIE (The International Society for Optics and Photonics), OSA (The Optical Society) and by Skolkovo Foundation. It is a continuation of the annual schools and seminars for

  11. Vocational Education and Training in Europe on the Threshold of the 21st Century. UNEVOC-OEEK Symposium in Preparation for the International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education (2nd, Crete, Greece, September 23-26, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Berlin (Germany).

    Following nine introductory papers that explain the work of various organizations involved in vocational training in Europe, the conference papers are organized around five themes: (1) vocational education and training and new technologies; (2) environmental education and training; (3) the changing role of the public and private sectors in…

  12. Development of the 2nd generation z(Redshift) and early universe spectrometer & the study of far-IR fine structure emission in high-z galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    The 2nd generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), is a long-slit echelle-grating spectrometer (R~1000) for observations at submillimeter wavelengths from 200 to 850 microm. Its design is optimized for the detection of redshifted far-infrared spectral lines from galaxies in the early universe. Combining exquisite sensitivity, broad wavelength coverage, and large (˜2.5%) instantaneous bandwidth, ZEUS-2 is uniquely suited for studying galaxies between z˜0.2 and 5---spanning the peaks in both the star formation rate and number of AGN in the universe. ZEUS-2 saw first light at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in the Spring of 2012 and was commissioned on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) in November 2012. Here we detail the design and performance of ZEUS-2, first however we discuss important science results that are examples of the science enabled by ZEUS-2. Using the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-1) we made the first high-z detections of the [NII] 122 microm and [OIII] 88 microm lines. We detect these lines from starburst galaxies between z ˜2.5 and 4 demonstrating the utility of these lines for characterizing the properties of early galaxies. Specifically we are able to determine the most massive star still on the main sequence, the number of those stars and a lower limit on the mass of ionized gas in the source. Next we present ZEUS-2's first science result. Using ZEUS-2 on APEX we have detected the [CII] 158 microm line from the z = 1.78 galaxy H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 +/- 0.42) ˜ 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-infrared luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [OI] 63 microm line we are able to conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high redshift analogue of a local ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, i.e. it is likely the site of a compact starburst due to a major merger. This detection, combined with the ZEUS-1 observations of the [NII

  13. Value added data archiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berard, Peter R.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers in the Molecular Sciences Research Center (MSRC) of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) currently generate massive amounts of scientific data. The amount of data that will need to be managed by the turn of the century is expected to increase significantly. Automated tools that support the management, maintenance, and sharing of this data are minimal. Researchers typically manage their own data by physically moving datasets to and from long term storage devices and recording a dataset's historical information in a laboratory notebook. Even though it is not the most efficient use of resources, researchers have tolerated the process. The solution to this problem will evolve over the next three years in three phases. PNL plans to add sophistication to existing multilevel file system (MLFS) software by integrating it with an object database management system (ODBMS). The first phase in the evolution is currently underway. A prototype system of limited scale is being used to gather information that will feed into the next two phases. This paper describes the prototype system, identifies the successes and problems/complications experienced to date, and outlines PNL's long term goals and objectives in providing a permanent solution.

  14. Managing the 21st Century Air Force Reserve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-16

    Concept of Operations, (Version 8.2), 6. 72 LtCol Michael Phan , Force Generation Enabling Concept, (AF/REX, 9 Aug 2010 DRAFT), 2. Figure 6 Source...10. 78 2 nd Letter Staff Comments Provided by LtCol Michael Phan , AF/REX. 79 2 nd Letter Staff Comments Provided by LtCol Michael Phan , AF/REX...80 2 nd Letter Staff Comments Provided by LtCol Michael Phan , AF/REX. 81 2 nd Letter Staff Comments Provided by LtCol Michael Phan , AF/REX. 82

  15. Suidas (tenth century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Greek encyclopedist. In the course of reading Suidas's Lexicon, EDMOND HALLEY mistakenly connected the naming of the Saros cycle of 223 synodic months by the tenth century Greek lexicographer Suidas with the eclipse cycle of the same period. The solar eclipse cycle is thus now known by the name that Suidas used for another phenomenon. Halley's mistake accounts for the historical confusion that th...

  16. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation through centuries].

    PubMed

    Gajić, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    THE ANCIENT TIMES: Many early civilisations left testimonies about ancient times and resuscitation, as well. Some of them did it successfully and some of them did it less successfully; however, all of them wished to help a dying person and to bring him back to life. The first trustworthy note can be found in the Bible--Old Testament as a very realistic description of resuscitation of a child. THE MIDDLE AGES: The medieval scientists, Paracelsus and Vesalius, described first successful resuscitation attempts in the 15th and 16th century. These two men successfully applied ventilation methods by air inflation with blacksmith bellows. THE MODERN ERA: The first defibrillation was recorded in the 18th century in England, which was conducted by one of the volunteer society members. With the development of mechanics and techniques, the first precursors of modern respirators were introduced in the 19th century. The age of modern cardiopulmonary resuscitation began in the middle of 20th century, when Dr Peter Safar brought in the combination of artificial ventilation and chest compressions as the standard for implementing resuscitation. Adrenalin and defibrillation were introduced into the resuscitation techniques by Dr Redding and Dr Kouwenhaven, respectively; thus beginning the advance life support administration, which has been applied, with minor changes, until today.

  17. The Chemical Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Ralph E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses present and future problems of producing clean energy. Graphically presents the changing patterns of fuel use in the United States over the past century, and predicts population growth and energy sources and consumption up to the year 2100 for the United States and the world. (JR)

  18. A century of Dutch neurology.

    PubMed

    Koehler, P J; Bruyn, G W; Moffie, D

    1998-12-01

    The Netherlands Society of Neurology evolved from the Society of Psychiatry founded in 1871. The name was changed into Netherlands Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (NSPN) in 1897. In the same year, the word neurology was also added to the name of the journal. The Society steadily blossomed, but in 1909 the first signs of dissatisfaction occurred: the Amsterdam Neurologists Society was founded. A few split-offs would follow. The number of members of the NSPN increased from 205 in 1920 to 585 in 1960. In the early 1960s, the Society was reorganised and would consist of two sections, one for psychiatry and one for neurology. However, this would not last, as a full separation was established in 1974. For several reasons, the name of the journal was changed four times until it assumed its present name in 1974. The 100th volume of CNN was not published, as expected. in 1996, but in 1998, because of two skipped publication years, one during WWII and another in the 1970s. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, teaching of neurology was mostly given within the frame of psychiatry, following the German tradition of 'brainpsychiatry' (organic or biologic psychiatry). The first official chair of psychiatry was founded at Utrecht, 1893 (Winkler). In Amsterdam, private teachers such as Delprat taught 'electro-therapy and nervous diseases' since the 1880s. The first extraordinary chair of neurology and electrotherapy was founded for his successor, Wertheim Salomonson in 1899. The first university clinic for psychiatry and neurology started at the Amsterdam Municipal University, when Winkler became professor of psychiatry and neurology in Amsterdam in 1896. Around the turn of the century, chairs of psychiatry and neurology were also founded in Groningen and Leiden. Separate chairs for neurology and psychiatry appeared in Amsterdam in 1923 and in Utrecht in 1936. Following an initiative of Brouwer, the first neurological university clinic opened its doors in

  19. Second-order adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology (2nd-ASAM) for computing exactly and efficiently first- and second-order sensitivities in large-scale linear systems: II. Illustrative application to a paradigm particle diffusion problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacuci, Dan G.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents an illustrative application of the second-order adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology (2nd-ASAM) to a paradigm neutron diffusion problem, which is sufficiently simple to admit an exact solution, thereby making transparent the underlying mathematical derivations. The general theory underlying 2nd-ASAM indicates that, for a physical system comprising Nα parameters, the computation of all of the first- and second-order response sensitivities requires (per response) at most (2Nα + 1) "large-scale" computations using the first-level and, respectively, second-level adjoint sensitivity systems (1st-LASS and 2nd-LASS). Very importantly, however, the illustrative application presented in this work shows that the actual number of adjoint computations needed for computing all of the first- and second-order response sensitivities may be significantly less than (2Nα + 1) per response. For this illustrative problem, four "large-scale" adjoint computations sufficed for the complete and exact computations of all 4 first- and 10 distinct second-order derivatives. Furthermore, the construction and solution of the 2nd-LASS requires very little additional effort beyond the construction of the adjoint sensitivity system needed for computing the first-order sensitivities. Very significantly, only the sources on the right-sides of the diffusion (differential) operator needed to be modified; the left-side of the differential equations (and hence the "solver" in large-scale practical applications) remained unchanged. All of the first-order relative response sensitivities to the model parameters have significantly large values, of order unity. Also importantly, most of the second-order relative sensitivities are just as large, and some even up to twice as large as the first-order sensitivities. In the illustrative example presented in this work, the second-order sensitivities contribute little to the response variances and covariances. However, they have the

  20. Drastic Aridification Caused the Decline of Oasis Civilizations on the Silk Route during the Eighth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, K.; Song, S.; Huang, C.

    2003-12-01

    Availability of water, and response to shortage of it, plays an important role in shaping human history. Near a century ago, Ellsworth Huntington (1907) suggested that the developments of ancient civilizations in Inner Asian and their invasions into China and Europe were pulsed by climatic changes. In revisiting this proposition, here we present a paleoclimatic record of the past 5000 years deduced from carbon isotopic ratio of organic carbon and percentage of aragonite in bulk sediments of a radiometrically dated sedimentary core of Lake Bosten, Xinjiang, China. Together the two proxies of aridity provide a detailed record of climatic fluctuation of the Inner Asia. The arid periods are well characterized by high content of authigenic aragonite and heavier values of carbon isotopic ratio of organic carbon in the bulk sediments (implying dominance of C4 plants which thrived under arid condition). Conversely, the humid/wet periods are marked by lighter carbon isotopic values (indicating presence of C3 plants of humid climateœcand absence of aragonite. The Western Region (Xi-Y"1) area of China enjoyed a long period of stable and humid condition from 2nd century B.C. to the 8th century when many oasis city-states were established and Buddhism spread from India. A drastic deterioration of climate during the eighth century appears to cause the decline of those once strived ancient civilizations in the eastern side of the Tarim Basin along the Silk Routes.

  1. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  2. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  3. AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2005-12-02

    We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.

  4. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    PubMed

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  5. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  6. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  7. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS black holes with Dirac hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

    2011-10-01

    We provide evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at ω F , we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total spatially averaged probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordström black holein a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis support that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profile is the preferred ground state at low temperatures.

  8. AdS-Carroll branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. E.; ter Veldhuis, T.

    2016-11-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d + 1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  9. ADS Based on Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping

    An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.

  10. AdS spacetimes from wrapped D3-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.

    2007-12-01

    We derive a geometrical characterization of a large class of AdS3 and AdS2 supersymmetric spacetimes in type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class of supersymmetric spacetimes with an {{\\bb R}}^{1,1} or {{\\bb R}} (time) factor that are associated with D3 branes wrapping calibrated two or three cycles, respectively, in manifolds with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and G2 holonomy. We show how two explicit AdS solutions, previously constructed in gauged supergravity, satisfy our more general G-structure conditions. For each explicit solution, we also derive a special holonomy metric which, although singular, has an appropriate calibrated cycle. After analytic continuation, some of the classes of AdS spacetimes give rise to known classes of BPS bubble solutions with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times {\\it SO}(4), {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times U(1) and {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4) symmetry. These have 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetry, respectively. We present a new class of 1/8 BPS geometries with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SU}(2) symmetry, obtained by analytic continuation of the class of AdS spacetimes associated with D3-brane wrapped on associative three cycles.

  11. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  12. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  13. Solutions of free higher spins in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Shao, Kai-Nan

    2011-11-01

    We consider free massive and massless higher integer spins in AdS backgrounds in general D dimensions. We obtain the solutions corresponding to the highest-weight state of the spin-ℓ representations of the SO (2 , D - 1) isometry groups. The solution for the spin-ℓ field is expressed recursively in terms of that for the spin- (ℓ - 1). Thus starting from the explicit spin-0, all the higher-spin solutions can be obtained. These solutions allow us to derive the generalized Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, and analyze the asymptotic falloffs. In particular, solutions with negative mass square in general have falloffs slower than those of the Schwarzschild AdS black holes in the AdS boundaries.

  14. Proceedings of Symposium on the Interaction of Non-Nuclear Munitions with Structures (2nd), Held at Panama City Beach, Florida on April 15-18, 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    CONCRETE 101 BLAST AND FRAGMENT RESISTANT SYSTEMS 24 STRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO GAS PRESSURE (BFR) - TEST RESULTS LOADING Bernard C.J. Vienings, Hully...design and Services Explosives Safety Board, Department retrofitting of buildings to resist accidental of Defense, AD 487554, July, 1966. explosions...These bars were located at the 1/3 points of the door. 23 % %% . - Z . BLAST AND FRAGMENT RESISTANT SYSTERS (BFR) - TEST R.SULTS Bernard C.J

  15. Diffusion and chaos from near AdS2 horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity D = κ/c ρ and butterfly velocity v B in holographic models that flow to AdS2 × R d fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS2 and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension Δ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = v B 2 /(2 πT).

  16. Density functional theory calculations on the active site of biotin synthase: mechanism of S transfer from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster and the role of 1st and 2nd sphere residues.

    PubMed

    Rana, Atanu; Dey, Subal; Agrawal, Amita; Dey, Abhishek

    2015-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed on the active site of biotin synthase (BS) to investigate the sulfur transfer from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster to dethiobiotin (DTB). The active site is modeled to include both the 1st and 2nd sphere residues. Molecular orbital theory considerations and calculation on smaller models indicate that only an S atom (not S²⁻) transfer from an oxidized Fe(2)S(2) cluster leads to the formation of biotin from the DTB using two adenosyl radicals generated from S-adenosyl-L-methionine. The calculations on larger protein active site model indicate that a 9-monothiobiotin bound reduced cluster should be an intermediate during the S atom insertion from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster consistent with experimental data. The Arg260 bound to Fe1, being a weaker donor than cysteine bound to Fe(2), determines the geometry and the electronic structure of this intermediate. The formation of this intermediate containing the C9-S bond is estimated to have a ΔG(≠) of 17.1 kcal/mol while its decay by the formation of the 2nd C6-S bond is calculated to have a ΔG(≠) of 29.8 kcal/mol, i.e. the 2nd C-S bond formation is calculated to be the rate determining step in the cycle and it leads to the decay of the Fe(2)S(2) cluster. Significant configuration interaction (CI), present in these transition states, helps lower the barrier of these reactions by ~30-25 kcal/mol relative to a hypothetical outer-sphere reaction. The conserved Phe285 residue near the Fe(2)S(2) active site determines the stereo selectivity at the C6 center of this radical coupling reaction. Reaction mechanism of BS investigated using DFT calculations. Strong CI and the Phe285 residue control the kinetic rate and stereochemistry of the product.

  17. Measurement of the Earth's rotation: 720 BC to AD 2015.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, F R; Morrison, L V; Hohenkerk, C Y

    2016-12-01

    New compilations of records of ancient and medieval eclipses in the period 720 BC to AD 1600, and of lunar occultations of stars in AD 1600-2015, are analysed to investigate variations in the Earth's rate of rotation. It is found that the rate of rotation departs from uniformity, such that the change in the length of the mean solar day (lod) increases at an average rate of +1.8 ms per century. This is significantly less than the rate predicted on the basis of tidal friction, which is +2.3 ms per century. Besides this linear change in the lod, there are fluctuations about this trend on time scales of decades to centuries. A power spectral density analysis of fluctuations in the range 2-30 years follows a power law with exponent -1.3, and there is evidence of increased power at a period of 6 years. There is some indication of an oscillation in the lod with a period of roughly 1500 years. Our measurements of the Earth's rotation for the period 720 BC to AD 2015 set firm boundaries for future work on post-glacial rebound and core-mantle coupling which are invoked to explain the departures from tidal friction.

  18. Measurement of the Earth's rotation: 720 BC to AD 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. R.; Morrison, L. V.; Hohenkerk, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    New compilations of records of ancient and medieval eclipses in the period 720 BC to AD 1600, and of lunar occultations of stars in AD 1600-2015, are analysed to investigate variations in the Earth's rate of rotation. It is found that the rate of rotation departs from uniformity, such that the change in the length of the mean solar day (lod) increases at an average rate of +1.8 ms per century. This is significantly less than the rate predicted on the basis of tidal friction, which is +2.3 ms per century. Besides this linear change in the lod, there are fluctuations about this trend on time scales of decades to centuries. A power spectral density analysis of fluctuations in the range 2-30 years follows a power law with exponent -1.3, and there is evidence of increased power at a period of 6 years. There is some indication of an oscillation in the lod with a period of roughly 1500 years. Our measurements of the Earth's rotation for the period 720 BC to AD 2015 set firm boundaries for future work on post-glacial rebound and core-mantle coupling which are invoked to explain the departures from tidal friction.

  19. Measurement of the Earth's rotation: 720 BC to AD 2015

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, F. R.; Morrison, L. V.

    2016-01-01

    New compilations of records of ancient and medieval eclipses in the period 720 BC to AD 1600, and of lunar occultations of stars in AD 1600–2015, are analysed to investigate variations in the Earth’s rate of rotation. It is found that the rate of rotation departs from uniformity, such that the change in the length of the mean solar day (lod) increases at an average rate of +1.8 ms per century. This is significantly less than the rate predicted on the basis of tidal friction, which is +2.3 ms per century. Besides this linear change in the lod, there are fluctuations about this trend on time scales of decades to centuries. A power spectral density analysis of fluctuations in the range 2–30 years follows a power law with exponent −1.3, and there is evidence of increased power at a period of 6 years. There is some indication of an oscillation in the lod with a period of roughly 1500 years. Our measurements of the Earth’s rotation for the period 720 BC to AD 2015 set firm boundaries for future work on post-glacial rebound and core–mantle coupling which are invoked to explain the departures from tidal friction. PMID:28119545

  20. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  1. The management century.

    PubMed

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it.

  2. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George; Megrelidze, Luka

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the AdSN+1 particle realized on the coset SO(2, N)/SO (1,N). Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of 𝔰𝔬(2, N). We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO(N) covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum levels. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of 𝔰𝔬(2, N) for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss an SO(N) covariant supersymmetric extension of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS2 and AdS3 given by recent works.

  3. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  4. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  5. Adding Biotin to Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Without Lipid Accelerates the Growth of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Takashi; Kaneda, Shinya; Shimono, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have previously demonstrated that Candida albicans requires multivitamins (MVs) or lipid to increase rapidly in parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions. In this study, in detail, the effects of vitamins on the growth of C. albicans in PN solutions without lipid were investigated. Methods: In the 1st experiment, a commercial PN solution without lipid was supplemented with water-soluble vitamins (SVs: vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C, folic acid, nicotinamide, biotin and panthenol), water-insoluble vitamins (IVs: vitamins A, D, E and K) or both (MVs). In the 2nd experiment, the test solutions were prepared by supplementing the PN solution with one of each or all of the SVs. In the 3rd experiment, another commercial peripheral PN (PPN) solution without lipid was supplemented with SVs, nicotinic acid, biotin or both nicotinic acid and biotin. In each of the experiments, a specified number of C. albicans organisms was added to each test solution, and all of the test solutions were allowed to stand at room temperature (23-26ºC). The number of C. albicans was counted at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the addition of the organism. Results: In the 1st experiment, the C. albicans increased rapidly in the PN solution supplemented with the SVs, but increased slowly without the SVs, regardless of the addition of the IVs. In the 2nd experiment, the C. albicans increased rapidly in the PN solution supplemented with the SVs or biotin, but increased slowly with each of the other water-soluble vitamins. In the 3rd experiment, the C. albicans increased rapidly in the PPN solution supplemented with the SVs or biotin, but increased slowly with the addition of nicotinic acid. Conclusions: These results suggested that adding MVs or SVs to PN solutions without lipid promotes the growth of C. albicans, and that this effect is mostly attributable to biotin. PMID:27648003

  6. Thin films sputtered from Ba{sub 2}NdFeNb{sub 4}O{sub 15} multiferroic targets on BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} coated substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bodeux, Romain; Michau, Dominique; Maglione, Mario; Josse, Michaël

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of Ba{sub 2}NdFeNb{sub 4}O{sub 15}/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BaM) heterostructures by RF magnetron sputtering. • Growth of TTB layer were retained regardless of the underlayer (Pt bottom electrode or BaM). • Dielectric and magnetic properties were obtained from the Pt/TTB/BaM/Pt stacks. - Abstract: Ba{sub 2}NdFeNb{sub 4}O{sub 15} tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB)/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BaM) hexaferrite bilayers have been grown by RF magnetron sputtering on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si (PtS) substrates. The BaM layer is textured along (0 0 1) while the TTB layer is multioriented regardless of the PtS or BaM/PtS substrate. Dielectric properties of TTB films are similar to those of bulk, i.e., ε ∼ 150 and a magnetic hysteresis loop is obtained from TTB/BaM bilayers, thanks to the BaM component. This demonstrates the possibility of transferring to 2 dimensional structures the composite multiferroic system TTB/BaM previously identified in 3 dimensional bulk ceramics.

  7. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  8. A century of silence.

    PubMed

    Danielian, Jack

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses how crimes of genocide go beyond a need for naked power, economic aggrandizement, or territorial conquest. Such crimes involve psychogenic and psychodynamic underpinnings that can be terrifying to contemplate. Yet their psychological study is essential. The Armenian genocide has been taken as a point of reference. Because the Armenian genocide has resulted in nearly a century-long effort of perpetrator denial, it can provide an important case study of how long-standing trauma and denial reinforce each other and illuminate each other. As a result, this genocide has aptly been called the "secret genocide," the "unremembered genocide," and a "crime without a name." The author holds that genocidal trauma (and trauma in general) is contagious and the contagion is likely to be insidious. All who come in contact with it can come away marked, including victim, victim families and progeny, observers, advocates, researchers, and yes, perpetrators.

  9. A deformation of AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

    2004-11-01

    We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.

  10. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  11. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  12. Tachyon inflation in an AdS braneworld with backreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Neven; Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Djordjevic, Goran S.; Milosevic, Milan

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the inflationary scenario based on the tachyon field coupled with the radion of the second Randall-Sundrum model (RSII). The tachyon Lagrangian is derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the five-dimensional bulk. The AdS5 geometry of the bulk is extended to include the radion. Using the Hamiltonian formalism we find four nonlinear field equations supplemented by the modified Friedmann equations of the RSII braneworld cosmology. After a suitable rescaling we reduce the parameters of our model to only one free parameter related to the brane tension and the AdS5 curvature. We solve the equations numerically assuming a reasonably wide range of initial conditions determined by physical considerations. Varying the free parameter and initial conditions we confront our results with the Planck 2015 data.

  13. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of SU (2 , 2) can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of SU(2)L × SU(2)R that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell generalized Weyl curvature SL (2 , C) spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of AdS5. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on AdS5 and some applications are also discussed.

  14. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2016-11-01

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [arXiv:1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of {E}_{d(d)}× {R}+ generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  15. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; ...

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  16. Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Y. V.

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling usingAdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  17. A Century of Skills Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The author is a historian of education and has written often about the educational enthusiasms and fads of the past century. One of her books, titled "Left Back," tells the story of the rise and fall of one fad after another across the 20th century. In brief, what she has found is that in the land of American pedagogy, innovation is frequently…

  18. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  19. A Century of Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Patrick N.

    The history of technology and industrial education in the United States provides lessons that should be heeded if current advances such as tech prep are to succeed. Practical, vocation-oriented education has been an urgent objective for U.S. education three times in the 20th century. At the turn of the century, manual training (later manual arts)…

  20. Advanced Doubling Adding Method for Radiative Transfer in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Quanhua; Weng, Fuzhong

    2006-12-01

    The doubling adding method (DA) is one of the most accurate tools for detailed multiple-scattering calculations. The principle of the method goes back to the nineteenth century in a problem dealing with reflection and transmission by glass plates. Since then the doubling adding method has been widely used as a reference tool for other radiative transfer models. The method has never been used in operational applications owing to tremendous demand on computational resources from the model. This study derives an analytical expression replacing the most complicated thermal source terms in the doubling adding method. The new development is called the advanced doubling adding (ADA) method. Thanks also to the efficiency of matrix and vector manipulations in FORTRAN 90/95, the advanced doubling adding method is about 60 times faster than the doubling adding method. The radiance (i.e., forward) computation code of ADA is easily translated into tangent linear and adjoint codes for radiance gradient calculations. The simplicity in forward and Jacobian computation codes is very useful for operational applications and for the consistency between the forward and adjoint calculations in satellite data assimilation.

  1. A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    combatants, makes attacks on military personnel and facilities more likely than in the past. Terror in Antiquity: 1st -14th Century AD The...passengers as hostages for demands made publicly against the Israeli government. The combination of these unique events, added to the international scope...Columbia University Press, 1998), 90. 1-19 Today, terrorists are organizing themselves in more fluid ad hoc amalgamations of individuals who appear

  2. Seventeenth-century uplift in eastern Hokkaido, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, B.F.; Furakawa, R.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Ikeda, Y.; Kashima, K.; Kawase, K.; Kelsey, H.M.; Moore, A.L.; Nanayama, F.; Nishimura, Y.; Odagiri, S.; Ota, Y.; Park, S.-C.; Satake, K.; Sawai, Y.; Shimokawa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Shores of eastern Hokkaido rose by perhaps 1 m a few centuries ago. The uplifted area extended at least 50 km along the southern Kuril Trench. It included the estuaries Akkeshi-ko and Hichirippu, on the Pacific coast, and Fu??ren-ko and Onneto??, which open to the Okhotsk Sea. At each estuary, intertidal and subtidal flats rose with respect to tide level; wetland plants colonized the emerging land; and peaty wetland deposits thereby covered mud and sand of the former flats. Previous work at Akkeshi-ko and Onneto?? showed that such emergence occurred at least three times in the past 3000 years. Volcanic-ash layers date the youngest emergence to the seventeenth century AD. New evidence from Akkeshi-ko, Hichirippu and Fu??ren-ko clarifies the age and amount of this youngest emergence. Much of it probably dates from the century's middle decades. Some of the newly emerged land remained above high tides into the middle of the eighteenth century or later. The emergence in the last half of the seventeenth century probably exceeded 0.5 m (inferred from stratigraphy and diatom palaeoecology) without far exceeding 1 m (estimated by comparing seventeenth- and eighteenth-century descriptions of Akkeshi-ko). The stratigraphy and palaeoecology of the emergence are better explained by tectonic uplift than by bay-mouth blockage, tidal-flat accretion or sea-level fall. Eastern Hokkaido needs occasional uplift, moreover, to help reconcile its raised marine terraces with its chronic twentieth-century subsidence. Because it took place above forearc mantle, eastern Hokkaido's seventeenth-century uplift probably lacks analogy with coseismic uplift that occurs above typical plate-boundary ruptures at subduction zones.

  3. The generalized added mass revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wilde, Juray

    2007-05-01

    The reformulation of the generalized or apparent added mass presented by De Wilde [Phys. Fluids 17, 113304 (2005)] neglects the presence of a drag-type force in the gas and solid phase momentum equations. Reformulating the generalized added mass accounting for the presence of a drag-type force, an apparent drag force appears next to the apparent distribution of the filtered gas phase pressure gradient over the phases already found by De Wilde in the above-cited reference. The reformulation of the generalized added mass and the evaluation of a linear wave propagation speed test then suggest a generalized added mass type closure approach to completely describe filtered gas-solid momentum transfer, that is, including both the filtered drag force and the correlation between the solid volume fraction and the gas phase pressure gradient.

  4. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  5. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2006-06-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  6. A century of smoke.

    PubMed

    Yach, D; Wipfli, H

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco kills 5 million people annually. By the mid 2020s, that figure will increase to about 10 million a year, with most of the deaths occurring in developing countries. This review explains how early technological and regulatory developments contributed to the epidemic, reveals the efforts of the tobacco industry to conceal its products' harmfulness, and stresses the role of the globalization of trade and marketing as a means of increasing consumption world-wide. The results of tens of thousands of studies published globally over the past 50 years point to an association between smoking and lung cancer and other adverse health effects, and the non-smoker's rights movement has exposed the wide-spread perils of 'secondhand' smoke. Yet, the tobacco industry continues its global expansion, and consumers in low- and middle-income countries are especially susceptible to its marketing tactics. This review ends by emphasising the need for a global public-health response, and identifies the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control as a significant effort. It stresses the need for accelerated action and innovative tobacco-control efforts, if the projected death toll is to be reduced in this century.

  7. The Cosmic Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.

    2013-04-01

    Part I. Stars and Stellar Evolution up to the Second World War: 1. The legacy of the nineteenth century; 2. The classification of stellar spectra; 3. Stellar structure and evolution; 4. The end points of stellar evolution; Part II. The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe, 1900-1939: 5. The Galaxy and the nature of spiral nebulae; 6. The origins of astrophysical cosmology; Part III. The Opening up of the Electromagnetic Spectrum: 7. The opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum and the new astronomies; Part IV. The Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies since 1945: 8. Stars and stellar evolution; 9. The physics of the interstellar medium; 10. The physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies; 11. High-energy astrophysics; Part V. Astrophysical Cosmology since 1945: 12. Astrophysical cosmology; 13. The determination of cosmological parameters; 14. The evolution of galaxies and active galaxies with cosmic epoch; 15. The origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe; 16. The very early Universe; References; Name index; Object index; Subject index.

  8. Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Therrell, Matthew D.

    2002-01-01

    The native population collapse in 16th century Mexico was a demographic catastrophe with one of the highest death rates in history. Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for "pest”) were indigenous hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by rodent hosts and aggravated by extreme drought conditions. PMID:11971767

  9. Megadrought and megadeath in 16th century Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W; Cleaveland, Malcolm K; Therrell, Matthew D

    2002-04-01

    The native population collapse in 16th century Mexico was a demographic catastrophe with one of the highest death rates in history. Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for "pest") were indigenous hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by rodent hosts and aggravated by extreme drought conditions.

  10. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  11. Modeling the potential contribution of land cover changes to the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model: impact of lateral boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guiling; Yu, Miao; Xue, Yongkang

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential impact of "idealized-but-realistic" land cover degradation on the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model (RCM) driven with lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) from three different sources, including one re-analysis data and two global climate models (GCMs). The impact of land cover degradation is quantified based on a large number of control-and-experiment pairs of simulations, where the experiment features a degraded land cover relative to the control. Two different approaches of experimental design are tested: in the 1st approach, the RCM land cover degradation experiment shares the same LBCs as the corresponding RCM control, which can be derived from either reanalysis data or a GCM; with the 2nd approach, the LBCs for the RCM control are derived from a GCM control, and the LBCs for the RCM land cover degradation experiment are derived from a corresponding GCM land cover degradation experiment. When the 1st approach is used, results from the RCM driven with the three different sources of LBCs are generally consistent with each other, indicating robustness of the model response against LBCs; when the 2nd approach is used, the RCM results show strong sensitivity to the source of LBCs and the response in the RCM is dominated by the response of the driving GCMs. The spatiotemporal pattern of the precipitation response to land cover degradation as simulated by RCM using the 1st approach closely resembles that of the observed historical changes, while results from the GCMs and the RCM using the 2nd approach bear less similarity to observations. Compared with the 1st approach, the 2nd approach has the advantage of capturing the impact on large scale circulation, but has the disadvantage of being influenced by the GCMs' internal variability and any potential erroneous response of the driving GCMs to land degradation. The 2nd approach therefore requires a large ensemble to reduce the uncertainties derived

  12. Japanese Astronomy in the Seventh Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sôma, Mitsuru; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    There are astronomical records in both the α and β volumes of the Nihongi, and we have already shown that the reliability of these records depends on which particular volumes they appeared in. In order to strengthen and extend our previous conclusion, we study more thoroughly the astronomical data in the Nihongi and analyze the reliability more precisely with reference to Chinese and Korean history books. There are only three astronomical records in the volumes of the α group, and none of these can be said to be observational. In the volumes of the β group, there is, in each of the three volumes, one record, which was surely based on actual observations. Five records of comets are common to Chinese records, but wording and the form of the records are different in Japanese and in the continental records, so the records are judged not to have been transported from China or Korea. Most of the remaining records represent local phenomena, which we believe are all based on observation. In the case of eclipse records, we not only analyze the reliability of each event but also apply elementary statistics to weather records in order to examine the completeness of the records. We conclude that there were major changes in observational astronomy in Japan during the seventh century. Specifically, observations were made during AD 620-641 and AD 672-686 (in the β group of the Nihongi), but no observations were made between AD 642 and 671 (in the α group). After AD 686 (during the Jitô era), no observations were made except for one appulse observation of Mars and Jupiter.

  13. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  14. Phase equilibria and crystal chemistry of the CaO–1/2 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CoO{sub z} system at 885 °C in air

    SciTech Connect

    Wong-Ng, W.; Laws, W.; Talley, K.R.; Huang, Q.; Yan, Y.; Martin, J.; Kaduk, J.A.

    2014-07-01

    The phase diagram of the CaO–1/2 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CoO{sub z} system at 885 °C in air has been determined. The system consists of two calcium cobaltate compounds that have promising thermoelectric properties, namely, the 2D thermoelectric oxide solid solution, (Ca{sub 3−x}Nd{sub x})Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−z} (0≤x≤0.5), which has a misfit layered structure, and Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 6} which consists of 1D chains of alternating CoO{sub 6} trigonal prisms and CoO{sub 6} octahedra. Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 6} was found to be a point compound without the substitution of Nd on the Ca site. The reported Nd{sub 2}CoO{sub 4} phase was not observed at 885 °C. A ternary (Ca{sub 1−x}Nd{sub 1+x})CoO{sub 4−z} (x=0) phase, or (CaNdCo)O{sub 4−z}, was found to be stable at this temperature. A solid solution region of distorted perovskite (Nd{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x})CoO{sub 3−z} (0≤x≤0.25, space group Pnma) was established. In the peripheral binary systems, while a solid solution region was identified for (Nd{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3−z} (0≤x≤0.2), Nd was not found to substitute in the Ca site of CaO. Six solid solution tie-line regions and six three-phase regions were determined in the CaO–Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CoO{sub z} system in air. - Graphical abstract: Phase diagram of the 1/2 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CaO–CoO{sub x} system at 885 °C, showing the limits of various solid solutions, and the tie-line relationships of various phases. - Highlights: • Phase diagram of the CaO–1/2 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CoO{sub z} system constructed. • System consists of thermoelectric oxide (Ca{sub 3−x}Nd{sub x})Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−z} (0≤x≤0.5). • Structures of (Nd{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x})CoO{sub 3−z} and (CaNdCo)O{sub 4−z} determined.

  15. A variable field neutron study of the negative magnetoresistive ruthenocuprate RuSr 2Nd 0.9Y 0.2Ce 0.9Cu 2O 10-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclaughlin, A. C.; Attfield, J. P.

    2007-03-01

    A variable field neutron diffraction study of the ruthenocuprate RuSr 2Nd 0.9Y 0.2Ce 0.9Cu 2O 10-δ, which exhibits large negative magnetoresistance, has been performed in order to determine the variation of the magnetic structure with magnetic field. Upon application of a magnetic field the ({1}/{2} {1}/{2} {1}/{2}) and ({1}/{2} {1}/{2} l) magnetic peaks reduce in intensity as the spins in the RuO 2 and CuO 2 layer cant into a ferromagnetic alignment in the ab-plane. This results in increased spin polarised transport in the CuO 2 plane and hence large negative magnetoresistance.

  16. Crystal structure of nonsuperconducting Pb sub 2 (Sr sub 0. 94 Nd sub 0. 06 ) sub 2 (Nd sub 0. 76 Sr sub 0. 24 )Cu sub 3 O sub 8

    SciTech Connect

    Hayri, E.A.; Kvick, A. )

    1990-01-01

    The crystal structure of Pb{sub 2}(Sr{sub 0.94}Nd{sub 0.06}){sub 2}(Nd{sub 0.76}Sr{sub 0.24})Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The compound was found to be orthorhombic (Cmmm) with a = 5.437(3), b = 5.472(2), c = 15.797(7) {angstrom} and Z = 2. In the structure double layers of CuO square pyramids are separated by (Nd, Sr) oxygen deficient layers which are stacked between (PbO)-Cu-(PbO) slabs. The oxygen in the Pb planes is shifted toward a pair of Pb atoms resulting in an orthorhombic distortion of the tetragonal unit cell. The possibilities for modulations and superlattices are discussed as is the role of the PbO planes in superconductivity.

  17. GRANTING A LICENCE FOR OPENING A PHARMACY IN BOLOGNA DURING ACTIVITY OF THE BOLOGNESE ARTE DE' SPEZIALI (13TH - 18TH CENTURY).

    PubMed

    Oszajca, Paulina; Bela, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the main changes in legislation concerning granting the licenses for opening a new pharmacy in Bologna in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period. The organization of all traders, including apothecaries, was subordinated, as almost everywhere in Italy, to the Guilds. In the 2nd half of 16th century the Arte de' Speziali of Bologna came under the jurisdiction of the Collegio di Medicina, leading to disagreements between the two corporations. Giovanni Baldi, in his Notizie storiche su la farmacia bolognese (Bologna, 1955) mentioned one of these controversies, dating on the second half of 18th century. The Authors present this controversy basing on original documents from Archivio di Stato di Bologna.

  18. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  19. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  20. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  1. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  2. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  3. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    SciTech Connect

    Hertog, Thomas; Woerd, Ellen van der E-mail: ellen@itf.fys.kuleuven.be

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  4. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  5. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-12-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  6. Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

    2015-01-01

    Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.

  7. Cousin marriage in south-western England in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Day, Cathy; Smith, Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge of inbreeding levels in historical times is necessary to estimate the health consequences of past inbreeding, and to contextualize the current public debate about cousin marriage in Britain. This research aims to calculate the level of cousin marriage using the intensive technique of multi-source parish reconstitution and to determine whether village organization, religion and occupational class influenced the level of consanguineous marriage. A wide variety of documentary sources were used to create extensive pedigrees of spouses in over 800 marriages in the 19th century in the rural villages of Stourton and Kilmington. The closed village of Stourton had higher levels of inbreeding than the open village of Kilmington. Catholics had lower rates of 1st cousin marriage but higher rates of 2nd cousin marriage than Protestants. Farmers had higher levels of 1st cousin marriage than labourers. The levels of consanguinity in south-western Wiltshire in the 19th century were related to the economic structure of the villages and the religion and social class of the spouses.

  8. Separating Growth from Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Rochester's two academic models that offer different tools for different purposes--measuring individual learning and measuring what affects learning. The main focus of currently available growth measures is formative assessment--providing data to inform instructional planning. Value-added assessment is not a student…

  9. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

  10. Courtship American Style: Newspaper Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated an increasing social phenomenon--newspaper advertising for dating or marital partners--in terms of the bargaining process involved. Content analysis of personal ads in a popular "respectable" singles newspaper revealed a pattern of offers and requests reminiscent of a heterosexual stock market. (Author)

  11. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  12. Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n <= 4 and 2 ⌊n/2 ⌋ + 1 k supersymmetries for 4 < n <= 7 , k ∈N> 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.

  13. The Massive Wave Equation in Asymptotically AdS Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, C. M.

    2013-07-01

    We consider the massive wave equation on asymptotically AdS spaces. We show that the timelike F behaves like a finite timelike boundary, on which one may impose the equivalent of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin conditions for a range of (negative) mass parameter which includes the conformally coupled case. We demonstrate well posedness for the associated initial-boundary value problems at the H 1 level of regularity. We also prove that higher regularity may be obtained, together with an asymptotic expansion for the field near F. The proofs rely on energy methods, tailored to the modified energy introduced by Breitenlohner and Freedman. We do not assume the spacetime is stationary, nor that the wave equation separates.

  14. On jordanian deformations of AdS5 and supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-10-01

    We consider various homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations of the {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that can be obtained from the η-deformed superstring and related models by singular boosts. The jordanian deformations we obtain in this way behave similarly to the η-deformed model with regard to supergravity: T dualizing the classical sigma model it is possible to find corresponding solutions of supergravity, which, however, have dilatons that prevent T dualizing back. Hence the backgrounds of these jordanian deformations are not solutions of supergravity. Still, they do satisfy a set of recently found modified supergravity equations which implies that the corresponding sigma models are scale invariant. The abelian models that we obtain by singular boosts do directly correspond to solutions of supergravity. In addition to our main results we consider contraction limits of our main example, which do correspond to supergravity solutions.

  15. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  16. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  17. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  18. Preliminary Consideration of the ADS Research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shouxian; Fu, Shinian

    2002-08-01

    Power supply is a key issue for China's further economic development. To meet the needs of our economic growth in the next century, the part of nuclear energy in the total newly increased power supply must become larger. However, the present nuclear power stations dominated by the PWR in the world are facing some troubles. Recently, a new concept, called ADS (Accelerator Driven Subcritical system), can avoid these troubles and it is recognized as a most prospective power system for fission energy. So during the early time of nuclear power development in our country, it is worthwhile to exploit this novel idea. In this paper, the ADS research program and a proposed verification facility are described. It consists of an 300MeV/3mA low energy accelerator, a swimming pool reactor and some basic research equipment. Beam physics, such as beam halo formation, in the intense-beam accelerator is also discussed.

  19. Recent evidence of animal exploitation in the Axumite epoch, 1st-5th centuries AD.

    PubMed

    Tefera, M

    2004-02-01

    This study reports evidence of animal exploitation during the Axumite era based on a survey of architectural features, rock art and artefacts recovered from the archaeological site at Axum, northern Ethiopia. Animals and agricultural tools were identified from materials not previously examined. Pottery, rock art and animal remains revealed a range of zoological species. Agricultural implements and sacrificial vessels also provided indirect evidence of animal exploitation. It is concluded that, in addition to plough-based agriculture, the hunting of large wild animals, such as elephants and lions, and the exploitation of domestic cattle, small ruminants and poultry were part of the Axumite subsistence regime. Although it is difficult to reconstruct an overall subsistence pattern based on this study alone, the physical and biological evidence suggests that the Axumites practised combined cultivation and animal herding. Further investigation is required to study the types and breeds of animals and their distribution in time and space.

  20. Aging in Pliny's Letters: A View from the Second Century A.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebric, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the writings of a Roman aristocrat named Pliny the Younger to look at aging and the aged during the Roman Empire. Attitudes about the aged, the aging process, multigenerational upbringing, and retirement, among other topics, are discussed and illustrated. (Author/JAC)

  1. A neutron diffraction study of structural distortion and magnetic ordering in the cation-ordered perovskites Ba{sub 2}Nd{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}MoO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Oonagh M.; Cussen, Edmund J.

    2013-04-15

    The cation ordered perovskites Ba{sub 2}Nd{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}MoO{sub 6} (0.04≤x≤0.35) have been synthesised by solid-state techniques under reducing conditions at temperatures up to 1350 °C. Rietveld analyses of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data show that these compounds adopt a tetragonally distorted perovskite structure. The tetragonal distortion is driven by the bonding requirements of the Ba{sup 2+} cation that occupies the central interstice of the perovskite; this cation would be underbonded if these compounds retained the cubic symmetry exhibited by the prototypical structure. The size and charge difference between the lanthanides and Mo{sup 5+} lead to complete ordering of the cations to give a rock-salt ordering of Nd{sup 3+}/Y{sup 3+}O{sub 6} and MoO{sub 6} octahedra. The I4/m space group symmetry is retained on cooling the x=0.1, 0.2 and 0.35 samples to low temperature ca. 2 K. Ba{sub 2}Nd{sub 0.90}Y{sub 0.10}MoO{sub 6} undergoes a gradual distortion of the MoO{sub 6} units on cooling from room temperature to give two long trans bonds (2.001(2) Å) along the z-direction and four shorter apical bonds (1.9563(13) Å) in the xy-plane. This distortion of the MoO{sub 6} units stabilises the 4d{sup 1} electron in the d{sub xz} and d{sub yz} orbitals whilst the d{sub xy} orbital is increased in energy due to the contraction of the Mo–O bonds in the xy-plane. This bond extension along z is propagated through the structure and gives a negative thermal expansion of −13×10{sup −6} K{sup −1} along c. The overall volumetric thermal expansion is positive due to conventional expansion along the other two crystallographic axes. With increasing Y{sup 3+} content this distortion is reduced in x=0.2 and eliminated in x=0.35 which contains largely regular MoO{sub 6} octahedra. The x=0.1 and x=0.2 show small peaks in the neutron diffraction profile due to long range antiferromagnetic order arising from ordered moments of ca. 2 μ{sub B}. - Graphical

  2. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  3. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  4. Twenty-first century vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-10-12

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78-85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498-503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177-1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages.

  5. [Influence of antiplatelet drugs (AD) on the efectiveness of combined therapy in patients with small cell lung cancer. Part I. Influence of AD on the haemostatic system].

    PubMed

    Ochmański, Władysław

    2008-01-01

    ), fibrinogen and fibrinogen degradation products (FDP). It was shown that AD prolonged bleeding and clotting time, increased the threshold ADP and collagen concentration causing platelets aggregation as well as increased platelet aggregation ratio. The used AD (Defibrotide, Ticlide) resulted in activation of the plasma fibrynolytic system as expressed by a shortening of the ECLT, lowering of fibrinogen level and increasing FDP. The influence of observed changes in the haemostatic system, as a result of AD on the remission and survival time of patients with SCLC will be presented in the 2nd part of this paper.

  6. The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

    2002-12-01

    Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to

  7. Stability of charged global AdS4 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Raúl; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS4 solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of this stability band scales down with the charge Q, and does not survive the blow up limit to a planar geometry.

  8. AdS4/CFT3 squashed, stretched and warped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebanov, Igor R.; Klose, Thomas; Murugan, Arvind

    2009-03-01

    We use group theoretic methods to calculate the spectrum of short multiplets around the extremum of Script N = 8 gauged supergravity potential which possesses Script N = 2 supersymmetry and SU(3) global symmetry. Upon uplifting to M-theory, it describes a warped product of AdS4 and a certain squashed and stretched 7-sphere. We find quantum numbers in agreement with those of the gauge invariant operators in the Script N = 2 superconformal Chern-Simons theory recently proposed to be the dual of this M-theory background. This theory is obtained from the U(N) × U(N) theory through deforming the superpotential by a term quadratic in one of the superfields. To construct this model explicitly, one needs to employ monopole operators whose complete understanding is still lacking. However, for the U(2) × U(2) gauge theory we make a proposal for the form of the monopole operators which has a number of desired properties. In particular, this proposal implies enhanced symmetry of the U(2) × U(2) ABJM theory for k = 1,2; it makes its similarity to and subtle difference from the BLG theory quite explicit.

  9. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  10. International Survey on Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver Resection: a web-based study on the global diffusion of laparoscopic liver surgery prior to the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Iwate, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Taizo; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Go

    2014-10-01

    The technique of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been greatly improved since the first international consensus conference. Our aim was to evaluate the worldwide spread of LLR prior to the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Iwate, Japan (4-6 October 2014). The International Survey on Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver resection was designed to assess dissemination of LLR, indications, and the surgical techniques. The anonymous questionnaire was e-mailed to liver surgeons worldwide. A total of 448 liver surgeons responded to the survey. The peak age range of surgeons performing LLR was 41-50 years. Japan had by far the largest number of respondents (n = 223), followed by the US (n = 38) and France (n = 20). In Japan, the majority of surgeons performing LLR belonged to community hospitals, where LLR has been increasingly used since its implementation in 2009 or later, comprising up to 40% of all liver resection cases. In contrast, in North America and Europe, LLR was mostly performed at academic medical centers. LLR has undergone global dissemination after the first international consensus conference in 2008. Japan has experienced unparalleled, explosive diffusion characterized by the adoption of LLR at middle-tier, regional institutions.

  11. 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, California, May 2012 and 2nd International Conference held in Indianapolis, Indiana, May 2013.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Joy, Elizabeth; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon

    2014-02-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women, and involves three components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with one or more of the three Triad components, and an early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious endpoints that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhoea and osteoporosis. This consensus statement represents a set of recommendations developed following the 1st (San Francisco, California, USA) and 2nd (Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers and other healthcare providers for the screening, diagnosis and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad expert panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision-making regarding sport participation, clearance and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team and implementation of treatment contracts. This consensus paper has been endorsed by the Female Athlete Triad Coalition, an International Consortium of leading Triad researchers, physicians and other healthcare professionals, the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine.

  12. PREFACE: 2nd International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics (IWTCP-2): Modern Methods and Latest Results in Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and the 39th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-39)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Trinh Xuan; Ky, Nguyen Anh; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2015-06-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics (IWTCP-2): Modern Methods and Latest Results in Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and the 39th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-39). Both the workshop and the conference were held from 28th - 31st July 2014 in Dakruco Hotel, Buon Ma Thuot, Dak Lak, Vietnam. The NCTP-39 and the IWTCP-2 were organized under the support of the Vietnamese Theoretical Physics Society, with a motivation to foster scientific exchanges between the theoretical and computational physicists in Vietnam and worldwide, as well as to promote high-standard level of research and education activities for young physicists in the country. The IWTCP-2 was also an External Activity of the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP). About 100 participants coming from nine countries participated in the workshop and the conference. At the IWTCP-2 workshop, we had 16 invited talks presented by international experts, together with eight oral and ten poster contributions. At the NCTP-39, three invited talks, 15 oral contributions and 39 posters were presented. We would like to thank all invited speakers, participants and sponsors for making the workshop and the conference successful. Trinh Xuan Hoang, Nguyen Anh Ky, Nguyen Tri Lan and Nguyen Ai Viet

  13. [Experimental models of diabetes mellitus of the 1st and 2nd types in rats: regulation of activity of glycogen synthase by peptides of the insulin superfamily and by epidermal growth factor in skeletal muscles].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, L A; Chistiakova, O V

    2012-01-01

    The regulatory effect of peptides of the insulin hyperfamily--insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and relaxin, as well as of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on activity of glycogen synthase (GS) in rat skeletal muscles was studied in norm and in experimental diabetes mellitus of the 1st and 2nd types (DM1, DM2). In norm, peptides in vitro stimulated maximally the GS activity at a concentration of 10-8 M. The row of efficiency of the peptide action was as follows: insulin > IGF-1 > relaxin. In DM1 the basal GS activity did not change, while effect of insulin in vitro was decreased more sharply as compared with action of IGF-1 and relaxin at the 30th day of development of diabetes, i. e., the efficiency row was as follows: IGF-1 = relaxin > insulin. Administration of insulin in vivo did not restore sensitivity of the enzyme to the action of hormone in DM1. In DM2, the GS activity (both the total and active form) decreased. while the stimulatory effect ofpeptides and EGF on the enzyme was absent. Insulin introduced in vitro did not lead to restoration of the enzyme reaction. The conclusion has been made that the insulin resistance affects the basal GS activity in rat skeletal muscles as well as the regulation of the enzyme by peptides of the insulin nature and by EGF, which is more obvious in DM2, than in DM1.

  14. Report on the 4'th scientific meeting of the "Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie" (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Nov. 2'nd - Nov. 4'th, 2012.

    PubMed

    Linker, Ralf A; Meuth, Sven G; Magnus, Tim; Korn, Thomas; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2012-11-22

    From November 2nd - 4th 2012, the 4th NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. Again more than 60 participants, predominantly at the doctoral student or postdoc level, gathered to share their latest findings in the fields of neurovascular research, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Like in the previous years, the symposium provided an excellent platform for scientific exchange and the presentation of innovative projects in the stimulating surroundings of the Brandenburg outback. This year's keynote lecture on the pathophysiological relevance of neuronal networks was given by Christian Gerloff, Head of the Department of Neurology at the University Clinic of Hamburg-Eppendorf. Another highlight of the meeting was the awarding of the NEUROWIND e.V. prize for young scientists working in the field of experimental neurology. The award is donated by the Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany and is endowed with 20.000 Euro. This year the jury decided unanimously to adjudge the award to Michael Gliem from the Department of Neurology at the University Clinic of Düsseldorf (group of Sebastian Jander), Germany, for his outstanding work on different macrophage subsets in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke published in the Annals of Neurology in 2012.

  15. Three Centuries of American Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

  16. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  17. Selenography in the seventeenth century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, E. A.

    Contents: 1. Pre-telescopic observations. 2. The first telescopic observations. 3. Galileo's lunar observations. 4. Two new selenographical programmes. 5. A flurry of activity. 6. Hevelius and his Selenographia. 7. Riccioli, Grimaldi, and nomenclature. 8. Robert Hooke and selenology. 9. Cassini and La Hire. 10. Other seventeenth-century selenography. 11. Conclusion.

  18. The 21st Century Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Beverly

    The profound changes of the 21st century are transforming America into what must become a learning society. Never before have museums, libraries and the whole of the non-formal sector of educational institutions faced such challenges and opportunities. The demand is great for fresh and innovative thinking to construct a bold, new learning network…

  19. Twenty-first-century science.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, M R

    1995-01-01

    Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

  20. Toward 21st Century Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy and Education, and codirector of the school redesign network at Stanford. In this interview, Darling-Hammond describes the term "21st century skills" and shares her…

  1. Physics in the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskopf, Victor F.

    1970-01-01

    Provides a review of the great discoveries, theoretical concepts and development of physics in the 20th century. The growth and significance of diverse fields such as quantum theory, relativity theory, atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of the solid state, nuclear physics, astrophysics, plasma physics, and particle physics are…

  2. Talladega College: The First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maxine D.; Richardson, Joe M.

    The book presents the history of the growth, development, and significance of Alabama's Talladega College, a black liberal arts college, from its inception in the 1860s through the student protest movement more than a century later. The historical account emphasizes such college issues as finance, enrollment, students, educational policy, and the…

  3. Berkeley Lab 2nd Grader Outreach

    ScienceCinema

    Scoggins, Jackie; Louie, Virginia

    2016-07-12

    The Berkeley Lab IT Department sponsored a community outreach program aimed at teaching young children about computers and networks. Second graders from LeConte Elementary School joined Lab IT Staff for a day of in-depth exercises and fun.

  4. The Great Irish Famine. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, James

    Between 1845 and 1850, more than a million Irish starved to death while massive quantities of food were being exported from their country. A half million were evicted from their homes during the potato blight. A million and a half emigrated to the United States, Britain, and Australia, often on board rotting, overcrowded "coffin ships."…

  5. Space Science Reference Guide, 2nd Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Renee (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This Edition contains the following reports: GRACE: Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment; Impact Craters in the Solar System; 1997 Apparition of Comet Hale-Bopp Historical Comet Observations; Baby Stars in Orion Solve Solar System Mystery; The Center of the Galaxy; The First Rock in the Solar System; Fun Times with Cosmic Rays; The Gamma-Ray Burst Next Door; The Genesis Mission: An Overview; The Genesis Solar Wind Sample Return Mission; How to Build a Supermassive Black Hole; Journey to the Center of a Neutron Star; Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion; The Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud ; Mapping the Baby Universe; More Hidden Black Hole Dangers; A Polarized Universe; Presolar Grains of Star Dust: Astronomy Studied with Microscopes; Ring Around the Black Hole; Searching Antarctic Ice for Meteorites; The Sun; Astrobiology: The Search for Life in the Universe; Europa and Titan: Oceans in the Outer Solar System?; Rules for Identifying Ancient Life; Inspire ; Remote Sensing; What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum? What is Infrared? How was the Infrared Discovered?; Brief History of Gyroscopes ; Genesis Discovery Mission: Science Canister Processing at JSC; Genesis Solar-Wind Sample Return Mission: The Materials ; ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land; Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite Measuring Temperature Reading; The Optical Telescope ; Space Instruments General Considerations; Damage by Impact: The Case at Meteor Crater, Arizona; Mercury Unveiled; New Data, New Ideas, and Lively Debate about Mercury; Origin of the Earth and Moon; Space Weather: The Invisible Foe; Uranus, Neptune, and the Mountains of the Moon; Dirty Ice on Mars; For a Cup of Water on Mars; Life on Mars?; The Martian Interior; Meteorites from Mars, Rocks from Canada; Organic Compounds in Martian Meteorites May be Terrestrial Contaminants; Bands on Europa;Big Mountain, Big Landslide on Jupiter's Moon, Io; Cratering of the Moon; Europa's Salty Surface; The Europa Scene in the Voyager-Galileo Era; Explosive Volcanic Eruptions on the Moon; Ice on the Bone Dry Moon; Jupiter's Hot, Mushy Moon; The Moon Beyond 2002 ; Phases of the Moon; The Ph-D Project: Manned Expedition to the Moons of Mars; and Possible Life in a Europan Ocean.

  6. Groundwater in geologic processes, 2nd edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Sanford, Ward E.; Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the role of Groundwater in Geologic Processes has increased steadily over the past few decades. Hydrogeologists and geologists are now actively exploring the role of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in such fundamental geologic processes as crustal heat transfer, ore deposition, hydrocarbon migration, earthquakes, tectonic deformation, diagenesis, and metamorphism.Groundwater in Geologic Processes is the first comprehensive treatment of this body of inquiry. Chapters 1 to 4 develop the basic theories of groundwater motion, hydromechanics, solute transport, and heat transport. Chapter 5 applies these theories to regional groundwater flow systems in a generic sense, and Chapters 6 to 13 focus on particular geologic processes and environments. Relative to the first edition of Groundwater in Geologic Processes , this second edition includes a much more comprehensive treatment of hydromechanics (the coupling of groundwater flow and deformation). It also includes new chapters on "compaction and diagenesis," "metamorphism," and "subsea hydrogeology." Finally, it takes advantage of the substantial body of published research that has appeared since the first edition in 1998. The systematic presentation of theory and application, and the problem sets that conclude each chapter, make this book ideal for undergraduate- and graduate-level geology courses (assuming that the students have some background in calculus and introductory chemistry). It also serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and other professionals in the field

  7. General Physics, Study Guide, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternheim, Morton M.; Kane, Joseph W.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces physics to science students with a wide range of interests. Unlike many other physics texts, the coverage and emphasis here is influenced by the specific needs of science majors, including those in the life sciences, and thus treats topics such as geometric optics, mechanics of fluids and acoustics. The derivative is introduced in Chapter One and integrals are used sparingly until electricity and magnetism are covered. Entire chapters are devoted to applications of physics covering subjects such as nerve conduction, ionizing radiation and nuclear magnetic resonance, demonstrating the widespread utility of physics and the unity of science. To aid in comprehension, calculations involving calculus are carried out with a good deal of detail and discussion. Each chapter features a checklist of terms to define or explain as well as problems and exercises. Additional problems and exercises are located in the Supplementary Topics section.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Gravity (2nd edn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Viqar

    2008-06-01

    There has been a flurry of books on quantum gravity in the past few years. The first edition of Kiefer's book appeared in 2004, about the same time as Carlo Rovelli's book with the same title. This was soon followed by Thomas Thiemann's 'Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity'. Although the main focus of each of these books is non-perturbative and non-string approaches to the quantization of general relativity, they are quite orthogonal in temperament, style, subject matter and mathematical detail. Rovelli and Thiemann focus primarily on loop quantum gravity (LQG), whereas Kiefer attempts a broader introduction and review of the subject that includes chapters on string theory and decoherence. Kiefer's second edition attempts an even wider and somewhat ambitious sweep with 'new sections on asymptotic safety, dynamical triangulation, primordial black holes, the information-loss problem, loop quantum cosmology, and other topics'. The presentation of these current topics is necessarily brief given the size of the book, but effective in encapsulating the main ideas in some cases. For instance the few pages devoted to loop quantum cosmology describe how the mini-superspace reduction of the quantum Hamiltonian constraint of LQG becomes a difference equation, whereas the discussion of 'dynamical triangulations', an approach to defining a discretized Lorentzian path integral for quantum gravity, is less detailed. The first few chapters of the book provide, in a roughly historical sequence, the covariant and canonical metric variable approach to the subject developed in the 1960s and 70s. The problem(s) of time in quantum gravity are nicely summarized in the chapter on quantum geometrodynamics, followed by a detailed and effective introduction of the WKB approach and the semi-classical approximation. These topics form the traditional core of the subject. The next three chapters cover LQG, quantization of black holes, and quantum cosmology. Of these the chapter on LQG is the shortest at fourteen pages—a reflection perhaps of the fact that there are two books and a few long reviews of the subject available written by the main protagonists in the field. The chapters on black holes and cosmology provide a more or less standard introduction to black hole thermodynamics, Hawking and Unruh radiation, quantization of the Schwarzschild metric and mini-superspace collapse models, and the DeWitt, Hartle Hawking and Vilenkin wavefunctions. The chapter on string theory is an essay-like overview of its quantum gravitational aspects. It provides a nice introduction to selected ideas and a guide to the literature. Here a prescient student may be left wondering why there is no quantum cosmology in string theory, perhaps a deliberate omission to avoid the 'landscape' and its fauna. In summary, I think this book succeeds in its purpose of providing a broad introduction to quantum gravity, and nicely complements some of the other books on the subject.

  9. 2nd Generation QUATARA Flight Computer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, Jay; Keys, Andrew; Fraticelli, Jose Molina; Capo-Iugo, Pedro; Peeples, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Single core flight computer boards have been designed, developed, and tested (DD&T) to be flown in small satellites for the last few years. In this project, a prototype flight computer will be designed as a distributed multi-core system containing four microprocessors running code in parallel. This flight computer will be capable of performing multiple computationally intensive tasks such as processing digital and/or analog data, controlling actuator systems, managing cameras, operating robotic manipulators and transmitting/receiving from/to a ground station. In addition, this flight computer will be designed to be fault tolerant by creating both a robust physical hardware connection and by using a software voting scheme to determine the processor's performance. This voting scheme will leverage on the work done for the Space Launch System (SLS) flight software. The prototype flight computer will be constructed with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components which are estimated to survive for two years in a low-Earth orbit.

  10. Lunar architecture and urbanism, 2nd ed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2005-01-01

    As the space population grows over time, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse within a historically short time the technical challenges of space exploration that dominate current efforts. Although urban design teams will have to integrate many new disciplines into their already renaissance array of expertise, doing so will enable them to adapt ancient, proven solutions to opportunities afforded by expanding urbanism offworld. This paper updates the author's original 1988 treatment of the subject.

  11. Gas well deliquification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    James Lea; Henry Nickens; Mike Wells

    2008-03-15

    Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: Recognizing Symptoms of Liquid Loading in Gas Wells; Chapter 3: Critical Velocity; Chapter 4: Systems Nodal Analysis; Chapter 5: Sizing Tubing; Chapter 6: Compression; Chapter 7: Plunger Lift; Chapter 8: Use of Foam to Deliquefy Gas Wells; Chapter 9: Hydraulic Pumping; Chapter 10: Use of Beam Pumps to Deliquefy Gas Wells; Chapter 11: Gas Lift; Chapter 12: Electric Submersible Pumps; Chapter 13: Progressing Cavity Pumps; Chapter 14: Coal Bed Methane; Chapter 15: Production Automation. Chapter 14, by David Simpson, based in the San Juan Basin, addresses issues in coal bed methane, low pressure operations, gas compression, gas measurement, oil field construction, gas well deliquification and project management.

  12. Space physiology and medicine, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Nicogossian, A.E.; Huntoon, C.L.; Pool, S.L.; Johnson, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Physiological Adaptation to Space Flight: Overall Adaptation to Space Flight and Implications; The Neurovestibular System; Performance; The Cardiopulmonary System; Nutrition; Bone and Mineral Metabolism; Hematology, Immunology, Endocrinology, and Biochemistry; Microgravity: Stimulations and Analogs; Health Maintenance of Space Crewmemebers: Medical Evaluation for Astronaut Selection and Longitudinal Studies; Biomedical Training of Space Crews; Ground-Based Medical Programs; Countermeasures to Space Deconditioning; Medical Problems of Space Flight: Toxic Hazards in Space Operations; Radiation Exposure Issues and Medical Care and Health Maintenance in Flight.

  13. Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised

    SciTech Connect

    Link.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion, and deposition; Marine erosion and deposition; Depositional basins; Lacustrine, desert and glacial environments; Subsurface water and diagenesis; Structural geology; petroleum traps; Petroleum and reservoirs; Geological considerations and engineering practices; Rocks, reservoirs, and recovery techniques; Exploration techniques for petroleum; Bibliography Glossary; Index.

  14. Ventilation Technical Guide, 2nd Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-12

    Proficiency Codes (see Table 2) Indicate Required Training Levela 3- lvl Course 5- lvl OJT 5- lvl CDCb 7- lvl Course 4.13 Mechanical Ventilation...for deficient ventilation systems A - B - a7- lvl OJT & Advanced Course have no required training level. bCDC = Career

  15. [Food intake regulation - 2nd part].

    PubMed

    Brunerová, Ludmila; Anděl, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The review article summarizes the principles of hedonic regulation of food intake which represents the food intake independent on the maintenance of homeostasis. The theory describing hedonic regulation, so called Incentive Salience Theory, comprises three major processes: liking (positive attribution to food stimulus), wanting (motivation to gain it) and learning (identification of these stimuli and distinguishing them from those connected with aversive reaction). Neuronal reward circuits are the anatomical and functional substrates of hedonic regulation. They react to gustatory and olfactory (or visual) stimuli associated with food intake. A food item is preferred in case its consumption is connected with a pleasant feeling thus promoting the behavioural reaction. The probability of this reaction after repetitive exposure to such a stimulus is increased (learned preference). On the contrary, learned aversion after repetitive exposure is connected with avoidance of a food item associated with a negative feeling. Main mediators of hedonic regulation are endocannabinoids, opioids and monoamines (dopamine, serotonin). Dopamine in dorsal striatum via D2 receptors generates food motivation as a key means of survival, however in ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) is responsible for motivation to food bringing pleasure. Serotonin via its receptors 5-HT1A a T-HT2C decreases intake of palatable food. It plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, particularly mental anorexia. There, a food restriction represents a kind of automedication to constitutionally pathologically increased serotonin levels. Detailed understanding of processes regulating food intake is a key to new pharmacological interventions in eating disorders.

  16. 2nd International Heliophysical Year - SCIDA Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    planetarium which was installed in the venue throughout the week especially for the workshop. The planetarium , from Rice University, was brought by...the GIFT workshop organizers for a GIFT workshop demonstration. At the end of the workshop the planetarium was donated to the University of Zambia...which makes Zambia the second country, next to Ethiopia, in Africa that has a portable scientific planetarium dome. Several of the scientists and

  17. Rural Poverty Resource Directory. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gene F., Comp.; And Others

    This directory contains names and contact information for over 50 social scientists who are available for consultation on policy issues related to poverty in rural America. Part I is organized by topics that are relevant to rural poverty policies and legislation. Under each topic heading are the names; university affiliations; addresses; and…

  18. Space physiology and medicine (2nd edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E. (Editor); Huntoon, Carolyn Leach (Editor); Pool, Sam L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The fundamental biomedical issues involved in manned space flight are examined in review chapters contributed by leading U.S. experts. Sections are devoted to the history of manned space flight, the space environment, space-flight systems and procedures, physiological adaptation to space flight, health maintenance of space crewmembers, and medical problems of space flight. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  19. No-Regrets Remodeling, 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    No-Regrets Remodeling, sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is an informative publication that walks homeowners and/or remodelers through various home remodeling projects. In addition to remodeling information, the publication provides instruction on how to incorporate energy efficiency into the remodeling process. The goal of the publication is to improve homeowner satisfaction after completing a remodeling project and to provide the homeowner with a home that saves energy and is comfortable and healthy.

  20. 2nd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet (ft3) generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  1. Berkeley Lab 2nd Grader Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Scoggins, Jackie; Louie, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The Berkeley Lab IT Department sponsored a community outreach program aimed at teaching young children about computers and networks. Second graders from LeConte Elementary School joined Lab IT Staff for a day of in-depth exercises and fun.

  2. Surgical application of lasers. 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Lasers have been successfully used in several new clinical areas such as cardiovascular, orthopedic, and pulmonary surgery as well as in specialties covered in the first edition including otorhinolaryngology, dermatology and plastic surgery, gastroenterology, and urology. These advances are all discussed in this text. Introductory chapters cover the background of laser surgery, techniques and instrumentation and safety procedures. The remaining chapters cover lasers in specific fields such as endoscopic surgery, gynecology, neurosurgery and many more. The final chapters provide an overview of photodynamic therapy and the future of laser surgery.

  3. Annual Safar Symposium (2nd). Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Heart Association to include mild hypothernmia in the treatment of adults after resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest. CONCLUSIONS This grant...wounded combat casualties is an area of intense investigation. This has been particularly true since the recently level I recommendation of the American

  4. Safety Education in Driving. 2nd Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Intended for driving instruction students, this publication contains instructional materials for safety education. It contains six sections on facts and figures; defensive driving; safety devices; restraints; emergency situations; and other highway users. Each section consists of reading material followed by an activity or activities. A total of…

  5. Gastrointestinal imaging in pediatrics, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Franken, E.A. Jr.; Smith, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    Gastrointestinal imaging in pediatrics is very different from its predecessor, gastrointestinal radiology in pediatrics, which was written eight years ago. The second edition is organized by anatomic area with supplemental chapters on special procedures (i.e., angiography, nuclear medicine, computerized axial tomography and ultrasonography). This volume contains 635 pages in contrast to the first edition which consisted of 323 pages. The arrangement of this volume is by anatomic area and not be clinical problem, therefore, the reader should have some background in pediatric radiology in order to find answers to specific questions.

  6. Applied groundwater modeling, 2nd Edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Mary P.; Woessner, William W.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    This second edition is extensively revised throughout with expanded discussion of modeling fundamentals and coverage of advances in model calibration and uncertainty analysis that are revolutionizing the science of groundwater modeling. The text is intended for undergraduate and graduate level courses in applied groundwater modeling and as a comprehensive reference for environmental consultants and scientists/engineers in industry and governmental agencies.

  7. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten Reichweite. Bei Fakten und ihrer Wirkung etwa: Autonomie und Priorität von Selbstwahrnehmung und Eigensystem; etwaige Wahrnehmung durch einen Beobachter und wie sie ihm seinen Kontakt zum Objekt und dessen Darstellbarkeit in seinem Raum wiederspiegelt oder ändert, als nur für ihn relevant; in dessen Dimensionen sichtbare geometrische Bedingungen wegen diskreter Wirkung, oder logische Effekte bei Objekten kleinster Informationsmengen mit unzureichender Lokalisierbarkeit oder ihrer inadäquaten Betrachtung oder Bestimmung dort. Geboten sind genauere Untersuchungen zu Informationsgehalt, Wirkung, deren Reichweite und Gültigkeit bei einzelnen Photonen, mit Emission und durch direkt benachbart hinzukommende Absorption beendetem ereignisartigen Eigensystem, aber für materielle Beobachter unserer Welt und ihre Dimensionen zur vollständigen Lokalisierbarkeit zuwenigen wirksamen Informationen, was dort außer makroskopisch relevanten Projektionen auf Raum und Zeit sowie Lichtartigkeit auch mikroskopisch zwischenliegende Ereignisse wie Wechselwirkung in Medien oder Beugung und Retadierung oder Welleneigenschaften mit Richtungsänderung ganzzahliger Elementar- oder Wellenlängen, mit jeweiliger Kompensation im Bogen; Nichtlokalität; Unschärfen bei Bestimmung komplementärer also auf identischen Information beruhender Größen; und andere Effekte hervorruft. Voran stehen Erfahrungen zur notwendigen Bewirkung von Neuem durch alles Existente als nicht-materielle funktionelle Qualität seiner Individuation und Konkretisierung, und daher Ereignissen und Wirkung als primäre direkt etwas produzierende Naturkraft und Geometrie. Nachgefügt wurde noch eine Gegenüberstellung des Modelles mit kosmogonischen Aussagen der Offenbarungen (nur 2. Auflage).

  8. Introduction to Energy - 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassedy, Edward S.; Grossman, Peter Z.

    1998-12-01

    Energy issues such as pollution, resource depletion, global warming, nuclear power and waste are problems that demand timely solutions. This book provides a critical examination of the resources, market forces, and social impacts of modern energy production. The book addresses the dilemmas that have arisen due to society's crucial dependence on energy, particularly fossil fuels, and explores the available alternative energy producing technologies. The second edition has increased emphasis on those issues at the forefront of the current energy debate: energy sustainability, climate change, and the radical restructuring of the power industry due to de-regulation. Assuming no prior technical expertise and avoiding complex mathematical formulation, it is directed at a broad readership. The second edition will follow the first in proving especially useful as a textbook for undergraduate programs in Science, Technology and Society (STS), and as a supplementary text in a variety of courses which touch upon energy studies, including environmental and technology policy, environmental, mineral and business law, energy and resource economics. Fully updated second edition of successful first edition that was adopted on Science, Technology and Society courses Provides a critical examination of all aspects of modern energy production for non-technical readers For a broad readership from a variety of backgrounds

  9. Exploring the Extreme Universe! (2nd Edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2002-01-01

    A large array of web sites devoted to the science that the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics (LHEA) studies have been frozen in time and included on this CD. Featured are five of our 'Understanding the Extreme Universe' sites, which offer explanations about cosmic ray, gamma ray, and X-ray science and satellites, as well as cosmic distances. They also include images and engaging activities that are great for helping both children and adults to learn more about science and basic physical principles. The 'Missions That Take Us There' section contains web sites on the satellite, balloon-borne, International Space Station, and rocket missions in our Laboratory that study X-rays, gamma rays, and cosmic rays. There are also two multi-mission sites and an experiment that measures Earth's UV light in preparation for a future cosmic ray mission. Most of the sites on this CD contain high-resolution images that are great for scientific presentations, study, or just your own enjoyment. This CD shows our web sites as they existed in April of 2001. We have made sure to include the WWW address for every site, so you will know where to go to access the most current versions of them.

  10. Content of the Curriculum. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatthorn, Allan A., Ed.

    This book is for curriculum leaders at the state, district, and school levels who want specific guidelines about the recommended content of each field. Contributing authors were asked to address the following issues: standards; the influence of cognitive psychology, technology, and assessment on curriculum content; curriculum structure; current…

  11. Teaching Russian Studies, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winpenny, Patricia; Cadwell, Katherine Weeks; Cadwell, Louise; Harrison, Ryan; Starbird, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    This book is for those who want to teach about the life, history, language or culture of Russia and the former Soviet Union. Students will learn about the states of the former Soviet Union and the current political structure of Russia. Information is drawn from interviews with Russian children, traditional folktales, maps, original Russian…

  12. Bibliography of Training Aids. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Inst., Arlington, VA.

    A revision of ED 018 650, this annotated bibliography prepared by the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute lists training materials, films, and ancillary visual aids available from 34 member companies for use in air-conditioning and refrigeration training programs. Over 160 visual training aids are listed, arranged under the following…

  13. Advanced Chemistry Collection, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    Software requirements are given in Table 3. Some programs have additional special requirements. Please see the individual program abstracts at JCE Online or the documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information. Table 3. General software requirements for the Advanced Chemistry Collection.

    ComputerSystemOther Software(Required by one or more programs)
    Mac OS compatibleSystem 7.6.1 or higherAcrobat Reader (included)Mathcad; Mathematica;MacMolecule2; QuickTime 4; HyperCard Player
    Windows CompatibleWindows 2000, 98, 95, NT 4Acrobat Reader (included)Mathcad; Mathematica;PCMolecule2; QuickTime 4;HyperChem; Excel

    Literature Cited

    1. General Chemistry Collection, 5th ed.; J. Chem. Educ. Software, 2001, SP16.
    2. Advanced Chemistry Collection; J. Chem. Educ. Software, 2001, SP28.

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Experimental Stochatics (2nd edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiberg, P.

    2004-05-01

    Otto Moeschlin and his co-authors have written a book about simulation of stochastic systems. The book comes with a CD-ROM that contains the experiments discussed in the book, and the text from the book is repeated on the CD-ROM. According to the authors, the aim of the book is to give a quick introduction to stochastic simulation for `all persons interested in experimental stochastics'. To please this diverse audience, the authors offer a book that has four parts. Part 1, called `Artificial Randomness', is the longest of the four parts. It gives an overview of the generation, testing and basic usage of pseudo random numbers in simulation. Although algorithms for generating sequences of random numbers are fundamental to simulation, it is a slightly unusual choice to give it such weight in comparison to other algorithmic topics. The remaining three parts consist of simulation case studies. Part 2, `Stochastic Models', treats four problems---Buffon's needle, a queuing system, and two problems related to the kinetic theory of gases. Part 3 is called `Stochastic Processes' and discusses the simulation of discrete time Markov chains, birth--death processes, Brownian motion and diffusions. The last section of Part 3 is about simulation as a tool to understand the traffic flow in a system controlled by stoplights, an area of research for the authors. Part4 is called `Evaluation of Statistical Procedures'. This section contains examples where simulation is used to test the performance of statistical methods. It covers four examples: the Neymann--Pearson lemma, the Wald sequential test, Bayesian point estimation and Hartigan procedures. The CD-ROM contains an easy-to-install software package that runs under Microsoft Windows. The software contains the text and simulations from the book. What I found most enjoyable about this book is the number of topics covered in the case studies. The highly individual selection of applications, which may serve as a source of inspiration for teachers of computational stochastic methods, is the main contribution of this electronic monograph. However, both the book and software suffer from several severe problems. Firstly, I feel that the structure of the text is weak. Probably this is partly the result of the text from the CD-ROM being put into a book format, but the short paragraphs and poorly structured sentences destroy the reading experience. Secondly, although the software is functional, I believe that, like me, many users will be disappointed by the quality of the user interface and the visualizations. The opportunities to interact with the simulations are limited. Thirdly, the presentation is slightly old fashioned and lacking in pedagogical structure. For example, flow charts and Pascal programs are used to present algorithms. To conclude, I am surprised that this electronic monograph warranted a second edition in this form. Teachers may find the examples useful as a starting point, but students and researchers are advised to look elsewhere. JG was supported by KBN grant no 2 P03A 020 24.

  15. 2nd NASA CFD Validation Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to review NASA's progress in CFD validation since the first workshop (held at Ames in 1987) and to affirm the future direction of the NASA CFD validation program. The first session consisted of overviews of CFD validation research at each of the three OAET research centers and at Marshall Space Flight Center. The second session consisted of in-depth technical presentations of the best examples of CFD validation work at each center (including Marshall). On the second day the workshop divided into three working groups to discuss CFD validation progress and needs in the subsonic, high-speed, and hypersonic speed ranges. The emphasis of the working groups was on propulsion.

  16. Emissions trading: principles and practice. 2nd

    SciTech Connect

    Tietenberg, T.H.

    2006-02-15

    The author demonstrates how emissions trading became an attractive alternative to command-and-control policies that would have required the EPA to disallow the opening of new plants in the middle of the recession-burdened 1970s. His examination of the evolution of this system includes, among other applications, the largest multinational trading system ever conceived, the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EUETG), and the use of emissions trading in the Kyoto Protocol.

  17. Gauge Field Theories, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2000-08-01

    The first edition of Gauge Field Theories, published in 1985, quickly became widely used in universities and other institutions of higher learning around the world. Written by well-known physicist Paul Frampton, the new edition continues to offer a first-rate mathematical treatment of gauge field theories, while thoroughly updating all chapters to keep pace with developments in the field. Frampton emphasizes formalism rather than experiments and provides sufficient detail for readers wishing to do their own calculations or pursue theoretical physics research. Special features of the Second Edition include: * Improved, logical organization of the material on gauge invariance, quantization, and renormalization * Major revision of the chapter on electroweak interactions, incorporating the latest precision data and discovery of the top quark * Discussions of renormalization group and quantum chromodynamics * A completely new chapter on model building

  18. Marching to Different Drummers. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guild, Pat Burke; Garger, Stephen

    First published in 1985, this revised edition focuses on diversity in education, exploring differences in style to help educators better fulfill their responsibilities and assist people in realizing their potential. Among the new chapters are a discussion of the importance of knowledge about students' culture, learning styles in light of recent…

  19. Stirling engine design manual, 2nd edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve as an introduction to Stirling cycle heat engines, as a key to the available literature on Stirling engines and to identify nonproprietary Stirling engine design methodologies. Two different fully described Stirling engines are discussed. Engine design methods are categorized as first order, second order, and third order with increased order number indicating increased complexity. FORTRAN programs are listed for both an isothermal second order design program and an adiabatic second order design program. Third order methods are explained and enumerated. In this second edition of the manual the references are updated. A revised personal and corporate author index is given and an expanded directory lists over 80 individuals and companies active in Stirling engines.

  20. Ladybugs of South Dakota, 2nd edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images of the 80 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as lady beetles, that occur in South Dakota are presented in taxonomic order. The second edition updates information, including the addition of a species new to South Dakota. Information on each species includes genus-species name, sub-fami...

  1. Preface: Insect Pathology, 2nd ed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pathology is an essential component of entomology and provides a non-chemical alternative for insect pest management. There are several groups of organisms that can infect and kill insects including viruses, fungi, microsporidia, bacteria, protists, and nematodes. The dilemma in insect patho...

  2. Astronomy For Dummies, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2005-04-01

    An accessible guide to the wonders of the night sky, now updated From asteroids to black holes, from quasars to white dwarfs, this new edition of Astronomy For Dummies takes backyard stargazers on a grand tour of the universe. Featuring star maps, charts, gorgeous full-color photographs, and easy-to-follow explanations, this fact-filled guide gives readers a leg up on the basic principles of astronomy and shows how to get the most out of binoculars, telescopes, planetarium visits, and other fun astronomical activities. This updated edition includes an updated color signature and covers the many discoveries made in recent years, as well as new astronomy Web sites.

  3. Lifelong Learning: Thematic Bibliography. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This seventh publication in the Eurydice European Unit series of thematic bibliographies draws attention to a selection of publications on the topic of lifelong learning. This annotated bibliography lists 268 books, articles, publications, and reports that have appeared since 1994. Some earlier items of published literature of special historical…

  4. Critical Social Theories. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agger, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Praised for its clarity and accessibility, this fully updated edition of "Critical Social Theories" presents a comprehensive analysis of leading social and cultural theories today. Diverse perspectives are addressed from feminism and cultural studies to postmodernism and critical theory. Written accessibly for students and faculty, the second…

  5. [Mercury (and...) through the centuries].

    PubMed

    Kłys, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Mercury has a long history, fascinating in its many aspects. Through the centuries--from ancient times to the present day--the metal in its various forms, also known under the name "quicksilver", accompanied the man and was used for diversified purposes. Today, mercury is employed in manufacturing thermometers, barometers, vacuum pumps and explosives. It is also used in silver and gold mining processes. Mercury compounds play a significant role in dentistry, pharmaceutical industry and crop protection. The contemporary use of mercury markedly decreases, but historically speaking, the archives abound in materials that document facts and events occurring over generations and the immense intellectual effort aiming at discovering the true properties and mechanisms of mercury activity. Mercury toxicity, manifested in destruction of biological membranes and binding of the element with proteins, what disturbs biochemical processes occurring in the body, was discovered only after many centuries of the metal exerting its effect on the lives of individuals and communities. For centuries, mercury was present in the work of alchemists, who searched for the universal essence or quintessence and the so-called philosopher's stone. In the early modern era, between the 16th and 19th centuries, mercury was used to manufacture mirrors. Mercury compounds were employed as a medication against syphilis, which plagued mankind for more than four hundred years--from the Middle Ages till mid 20th century, when the discovery of penicillin became the turning point. This extremely toxic therapy resulted in much suffering, individual tragedies, chronic poisonings leading to fatalities and dramatic sudden deaths. In the last fifty years, there even occurred attempts of mentally imbalanced individuals at injecting themselves with metallic mercury, also as a performance-enhancing drug. Instances of mass mercury poisoning occurred many times in the past in consequence of eating food products

  6. The inside outs of AdS3/CFT2: exact AdS wormholes with entangled CFT duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Sinha, Ritam; Sorokhaibam, Nilakash

    2015-01-01

    We present the complete family of solutions of 3D gravity (Λ < 0) with two asymptotically AdS exterior regions. The solutions are constructed from data at the two boundaries, which correspond to two independent and arbitrary stress tensors T R , , and T L , . The two exteriors are smoothly joined on to an interior region through a regular horizon. We find CFT duals of these geometries which are entangled states of two CFT's. We compute correlators between general operators at the two boundaries and find perfect agreement between CFT and bulk calculations. We calculate and match the CFT entanglement entropy (EE) with the holographic EE which involves geodesics passing through the wormhole. We also compute a holographic, non-equilibrium entropy for the CFT using properties of the regular horizon. The construction of the bulk solutions here uses an exact version of Brown-Henneaux type diffeomorphisms which are asymptotically nontrivial and transform the CFT states by two independent unitary operators on the two sides. Our solutions provide an infinite family of explicit examples of the ER=EPR relation of Maldacena and Susskind [1].

  7. Viruses in a 14th-century coprolite.

    PubMed

    Appelt, Sandra; Fancello, Laura; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel; Desnues, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Coprolites are fossilized fecal material that can reveal information about ancient intestinal and environmental microbiota. Viral metagenomics has allowed systematic characterization of viral diversity in environmental and human-associated specimens, but little is known about the viral diversity in fossil remains. Here, we analyzed the viral community of a 14th-century coprolite from a closed barrel in a Middle Ages site in Belgium using electron microscopy and metagenomics. Viruses that infect eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea were detected, and we confirmed the presence of some of them by ad hoc suicide PCR. The coprolite DNA viral metagenome was dominated by sequences showing homologies to phages commonly found in modern stools and soil. Although their phylogenetic compositions differed, the metabolic functions of the viral communities have remained conserved across centuries. Antibiotic resistance was one of the reconstructed metabolic functions detected.

  8. Improving modelled impacts on the flowering of temperate fruit trees in the Iberian Peninsula of climate change projections for 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Pérez-Lopez, David; Sánchez-Sánchez, Enrique; Centeno, Ana; Dosio, Alessandro; Lopez-de-la-Franca, Noelia

    2013-04-01

    Flowering of temperate trees needs winter chilling, being the specific requirements dependent on the variety. This work studied the trend and changes of values of chilling hours for some representative agricultural locations in Spain for the last three decades and their projected changes under climate change scenarios. According to our previous results (Pérez-López et al., 2012), areas traditionally producing fruit as the Ebro (NE of Spain) or Guadalquivir (SO) valleys, Murcia (SE) and Extremadura (SO) could have a major cold reduction of chill-hours. This would drive a change of varieties or species and may enhance the use of chemicals to complete the needs of chill hours for flowering. However, these results showed high uncertainty, partly due to the bias of the climate data used, generated by Regional Climate Models. The chilling hours were calculated with different methods according to the species considered: North Carolina method (Shaltout and Unrath, 1983) was used for apples, Utah method (Richardson et al. 1974) for peach and grapevine and the approach used by De Melo-Abreu et al. (2004) for olive trees. The climate data used as inputs were the results of numerical simulations obtained from a group of regional climate models at high resolution (25 km) from the European Project ENSEMBLES (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/) first bias corrected for temperatures and precipitation (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012). This work aims to improve the impact projections obtained in Pérez-López et al. (2012). For this purpose, variation of chill-hours between 2nd half of 20th century and 1st half of 21st century at the study locations were recalculated considering 1) a feedback in the dates in which the chilling hours are calculated, to take into account the shift of phenological dates, and 2) substituting the original ENSEMBLES data set of climate used in Pérez-López et al. (2012) by the bias corrected data set. Calculations for the 2nd half of 20th

  9. AD, the ALICE diffractive detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tello, Abraham Villatoro

    2017-03-01

    ALICE is one of the four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a complement to its Heavy-Ion physics program, ALICE started during Run 1 of LHC an extensive program dedicated to the study of proton-proton diffractive processes. In order to optimize its trigger efficiencies and purities in selecting diffractive events, the ALICE Collaboration installed a very forward AD detector during the Long Shut Down 1 of LHC. This new forward detector system consists of two stations made of two layers of scintillator pads, one station on each side of the interaction point. With this upgrade, ALICE has substantially increased its forward physics coverage, including the double rapidity gap based selection of central production, as well as the measurements of inclusive diffractive cross sections.

  10. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  11. Report on the 6th scientific meeting of the "Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie" (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Oct. 31th - Nov. 2nd, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Linker, Ralf A; Magnus, Tim; Korn, Thomas; Meuth, Sven G

    2015-01-01

    From October 31th - November 2nd, 2014, the 6th NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. 70 doctoral students and postdocs from over 25 different groups working in German and Swiss university hospitals or research institutes attended the meeting to discuss their latest experiments and findings in the fields of neuroimmunology, neurodegeneration and neurovascular research. The meeting was regarded as a very well organized platform to support research of young investigators in Germany and all participants enjoyed the stimulating environment for lively in depth discussions. According to the major aim of NEUROWIND e.V. to support younger researchers in Germany the 4th NEUROWIND YOUNG SCIENTIST AWARD for experimental neurology was awarded to Michael Breckwoldt on his work in the group of Thomas Misgeld (Institute of Neuronal Cell Biology, Technische Universität München, Germany). The successful project was published in Nature Medicine entitled "Multiparametric optical analysis of mitochondrial redox signals during neuronal physiology and pathology in vivo". This outstanding paper deals with a molecular imaging approach in living mice to optically analyze the role of mitochondrial redox signals in axons in health and disease. The award is endowed with 20.000 Euro sponsored by Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany (unrestricted educational grant). This year's keynote lecture was given by Bernhard Hemmer, Head of the Department of Neurology at the Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München. Dr. Hemmer highlighted the particular role of B cells and (auto)antibodies in multiple sclerosis (MS). As a new highlight Dr. Urbahns, head of global discovery technologies at Merck research laboratories, gave insights from research practice in the pharmaceutical industry and introduced a shift in the view on present-day drug discovery paradigms.

  12. The New York Times ad.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E; Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    Feminization of patriarchal institutions is necessary in order to eliminate the exclusivity and mutuality of hierarchical, gender, class, and race stratification. The aim of this paper is to explain the history and activities surrounding the New York Times ad on Sunday, October 7, 1984 (the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion signed by Barbara Ferraro and Patricia Hussey of the Sisters of Note Dame de Namur, Rose Dominic Trapasso of the Maryknoll Sisters, and 67 other signers). The significance of this ad for Roman Catholic feminists and suggestions for new models of relationships between feminists is given. The Statement was written by Daniel Maguire and Frances Kissling and reviewed by 20 Roman Catholic ethicists. A sponsoring committee of early signers sought other support. Catholics for a Free Choice sponsored the funding for circulation of the Statement among professional societies, but not necessarily canonical communities. Publication of the entire statement in the Times was at the height of the presidential campaign. Conservative Bishops Bernard Law of Boston and John O'Connor of Boston publicly denounced Ferraro's position. The first institutional church response came on November 14, 1984, and stated that the Statement was personal opinion and contradictory to clear and constant church teachings about abortion. On November 30, 1984, Cardinal Jean Jerome Hamer of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes responded to most presidents of canonical communities to request a public retraction from signers under threat of dismissal. The issue was obedience to the church. Several members of the canonical community and priests published retractions; negotiations with the Vatican began. Freedom of conscience and empowerment of canonical communities, as agents of their own lives, were given as reasons for the challenge to paternalism. The response was that women were subject to obedience within their communities and had taken public vows and were

  13. Intracellular Signaling and Desmoglein 2 Shedding Triggered by Human Adenoviruses Ad3, Ad14, and Ad14P1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjie; Ducournau, Corinne; Saydaminova, Kamola; Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Ho, Martin; Carter, Darrick; Zubieta, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently discovered that desmoglein 2 (DSG2) is a receptor for human adenovirus species B serotypes Ad3, Ad7, Ad11, and Ad14. Ad3 is considered to be a widely distributed human pathogen. Ad3 binding to DSG2 triggers the transient opening of epithelial junctions. Here, we further delineate the mechanism that leads to DSG2-mediated epithelial junction opening in cells exposed to Ad3 and recombinant Ad3 fiber proteins. We identified an Ad3 fiber knob-dependent pathway that involves the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases triggering the activation of the matrix-metalloproteinase ADAM17. ADAM17, in turn, cleaves the extracellular domain of DSG2 that links epithelial cells together. The shed DSG2 domain can be detected in cell culture supernatant and also in serum of mice with established human xenograft tumors. We then extended our studies to Ad14 and Ad14P1. Ad14 is an important research and clinical object because of the recent appearance of a new, more pathogenic strain (Ad14P1). In a human epithelial cancer xenograft model, Ad14P1 showed more efficient viral spread and oncolysis than Ad14. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a mutation in the Ad14P1 fiber knob could account for the differences between the two strains. While our X-ray crystallography studies suggested an altered three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Ad14P1 fiber knob in the F-G loop region, this did not significantly change the fiber knob affinity to DSG2 or the intracellular signaling and DSG2 shedding in epithelial cancer cells. IMPORTANCE A number of widely distributed adenoviruses use the epithelial junction protein DSG2 as a receptor for infection and lateral spread. Interaction with DSG2 allows the virus not only to enter cells but also to open epithelial junctions which form a physical barrier to virus spread. Our study elucidates the mechanism beyond virus-triggered junction opening with a focus on adenovirus serotype 3. Ad3 binds to DSG2 with its fiber

  14. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  15. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the... you give the price per square foot, you do not have to give the coverage area. (c) If your ad...

  16. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the... you give the price per square foot, you do not have to give the coverage area. (c) If your ad...

  17. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  18. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  19. 27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adding denaturants. 19.456... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk... proprietor shall submit a flow diagram of the intended process or method of adding denaturants. (Sec....

  20. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    MedlinePlus

    ... página en español Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads Related Items Weight Loss Challenge Diet Ads and ... control Information Network .  The Truth Behind Weight Loss Ads Claims to watch out for include: Lose weight ...

  1. Historical Literature in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.

    1997-12-01

    The Astrophysics Data System at http://adswww.harvard.edu is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at gei@cfa.harvard.edu.

  2. Projected distributions of novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Kutzbach, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Key risks associated with projected climate trends for the 21st century include the prospects of future climate states with no current analog and the disappearance of some extant climates. Because climate is a primary control on species distributions and ecosystem processes, novel 21st-century climates may promote formation of novel species associations and other ecological surprises, whereas the disappearance of some extant climates increases risk of extinction for species with narrow geographic or climatic distributions and disruption of existing communities. Here we analyze multimodel ensembles for the A2 and B1 emission scenarios produced for the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, with the goal of identifying regions projected to experience (i) high magnitudes of local climate change, (ii) development of novel 21st-century climates, and/or (iii) the disappearance of extant climates. Novel climates are projected to develop primarily in the tropics and subtropics, whereas disappearing climates are concentrated in tropical montane regions and the poleward portions of continents. Under the high-end A2 scenario, 12–39% and 10–48% of the Earth's terrestrial surface may respectively experience novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD. Corresponding projections for the low-end B1 scenario are 4–20% and 4–20%. Dispersal limitations increase the risk that species will experience the loss of extant climates or the occurrence of novel climates. There is a close correspondence between regions with globally disappearing climates and previously identified biodiversity hotspots; for these regions, standard conservation solutions (e.g., assisted migration and networked reserves) may be insufficient to preserve biodiversity. PMID:17389402

  3. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Campania has always offered suitable climatic and physiographic conditions for human settlements since prehistoric times. In particular, many Graeco-Roman towns developed along its coasts starting from the 7th-6th cent. BC. In the last decade, geoarchaelogical surveys have been carried out in the archaeological excavations of Neapolis, Paestum and Elea-Velia allowing the main steps of the landscape evolution around these towns to be defined in detail. The greek town of Neapolis rose in the late 6th cent. BC [1] on a terrace overlooking a low-relief rocky coast surrounded by volcanic hills. Port activities developed in a protected bay facing the town from the 4th-2nd cent. BC up to the 4th cent. AD, as testified by the discovery of structures and shipwrecks [2, 3, 4]. Starting from the 3rd cent. AD a spit bar formed at the bay entrance causing the progressive establishment of a lagoon which was gradually filled up by alluvial inputs and completely closed in the 5th cent. AD. During the same period, episodes of increased alluvial inputs were also recorded further west along the coast, where a narrow sandy beach formed at the cliff toe. The greek town of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, was founded in the 540 BC on a travertine terrace facing the sandy littoral of a prograding coastal plain [5]. In front of the main town door, a coastal lagoon developed thanks to the growth of a dune ridge and was probably used for harbor activities [5]. After this period the shoreline shifted seawards, another dune ridge formed and the back-ridge depression was filled with fluvial-marshy deposits, slowly drying up. Phases of travertine deposition, which characterized the SE sector of the plain all along the Holocene, were recorded in the northern and southern quarters of the town in historical times and were connected to the abandonment of the town in the early Medieval times. The greek colony of Elea-Velia was located on top of a siliciclastic promontory where the ruins of

  4. Two Centuries of Solar Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.

    2015-10-01

    In 1811, François Arago observed the disk of the Sun with his "lunette polariscopique". From the absence of detectable polarization compared with his laboratory observations of glowing solids, liquids, and flames he concluded that the Sun's visible surface is an incandescent gas. From this beginning, thanks to orders of magnitude technology improvements, a remarkable amount of what we know about the physics of the Sun has continued to flow from solar polarimetry. This short review compares some selected polarimetric discoveries with subsequent recent observations to illustrate the tremendous progress of solar polarimetry during the last two centuries.

  5. Plague: the dreadful visitation occupying the human mind for centuries.

    PubMed

    Khan, Iqbal Akhtar

    2004-05-01

    Plague is one of mankind's greatest scourges, which has swept away millions of people over the centuries. The first available record of the occurrence of this calamity, in humans, is from the Bible, in 1000 bc, in the city of Ashdod. The first definitely identified pandemic originated in Egypt in ad 542 (the Justinian Plague) and is estimated to have caused 100 million deaths. The second one, lasting for three centuries and claiming over 25 million lives appeared in 1334 in China spreading to many spots on the globe. The third pandemic occurred in Europe from the fifteenth to eighteenth century. The current pandemic began around 1860, in the Chinese province Yunnan; it reached Hong Kong in 1894 killing 100 000 individuals. Within 20 years the disease spread from southern Chinese ports throughout the world resulting in more than 10 million deaths. Since the discovery of the causative agent in 1894, there have been remarkable advancements in immunoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis. However, the disease is still active in Africa, in Asia and in Americas and has been classified as a currently re-emerging disease. A 'Plague-free World' will probably remain a dream for an indefinite period.

  6. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  7. High levels of virological failure with major genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected children after 5 years of care according to WHO-recommended 1st-line and 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens in the Central African Republic: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamant; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Mbitikon, Olivia; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Robin, Leman; Matta, Mathieu; Zeitouni, Kamal; Longo, Jean De Dieu; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Grésenguet, Gérard; Touré Kane, Ndèye Coumba; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    A large cohort of 220 HIV-1-infected children (median [range] age: 12 [4-17] years) was cared and followed up in the Central African Republic, including 198 in 1st-line and 22 in 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens. Patients were monitored clinically and biologically for HIV-1 RNA load and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) genotyping. A total of 87 (40%) study children were virological responders and 133 (60%) nonresponders. In children with detectable viral load, the majority (129; 97%) represented a virological failure. In children receiving 1st-line regimens in virological failure for whom genotypic resistance test was available, 45% displayed viruses harboring at least 1 DRM to NNRTI or NRTI, and 26% showed at least 1 major DRM to NNRTI or NRTI; more than half of children in 1st-line regimens were resistant to 1st-generation NNRTI and 24% of the children in 1st-line regimens had a major DRMs to PI. Virological failure and selection of DRMs were both associated with poor adherence. These observations demonstrate high rate of virological failure after 3 to 5 years of 1st-line or 2nd-line antiretroviral treatment, which is generally associated with DRMs and therapeutic failure. Overall, more than half (55%) of children receiving 1st-line antiretroviral treatment for a median of 3.4 years showed virological failure and antiretroviral-resistance and thus eligible to 2nd-line treatment. Furthermore, two-third (64%) of children under 2nd-line therapy were eligible to 3rd-line regimen. Taken together, these observations point the necessity to monitor antiretroviral-treated children by plasma HIV-1 RNA load to diagnose as early as possible the therapeutic failure and operate switch to a new therapeutic line.

  8. High levels of virological failure with major genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected children after 5 years of care according to WHO-recommended 1st-line and 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens in the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamant; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Mbitikon, Olivia; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Robin, Leman; Matta, Mathieu; Zeitouni, Kamal; Longo, Jean De Dieu; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Grésenguet, Gérard; Touré Kane, Ndèye Coumba; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A large cohort of 220 HIV-1-infected children (median [range] age: 12 [4–17] years) was cared and followed up in the Central African Republic, including 198 in 1st-line and 22 in 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens. Patients were monitored clinically and biologically for HIV-1 RNA load and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) genotyping. A total of 87 (40%) study children were virological responders and 133 (60%) nonresponders. In children with detectable viral load, the majority (129; 97%) represented a virological failure. In children receiving 1st-line regimens in virological failure for whom genotypic resistance test was available, 45% displayed viruses harboring at least 1 DRM to NNRTI or NRTI, and 26% showed at least 1 major DRM to NNRTI or NRTI; more than half of children in 1st-line regimens were resistant to 1st-generation NNRTI and 24% of the children in 1st-line regimens had a major DRMs to PI. Virological failure and selection of DRMs were both associated with poor adherence. These observations demonstrate high rate of virological failure after 3 to 5 years of 1st-line or 2nd-line antiretroviral treatment, which is generally associated with DRMs and therapeutic failure. Overall, more than half (55%) of children receiving 1st-line antiretroviral treatment for a median of 3.4 years showed virological failure and antiretroviral-resistance and thus eligible to 2nd-line treatment. Furthermore, two-third (64%) of children under 2nd-line therapy were eligible to 3rd-line regimen. Taken together, these observations point the necessity to monitor antiretroviral-treated children by plasma HIV-1 RNA load to diagnose as early as possible the therapeutic failure and operate switch to a new therapeutic line. PMID:28272247

  9. Reworking Seventeenth-Century Saltpetre.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Haileigh

    2016-05-01

    In the early modern period, saltpetre was perhaps best known for its role as one of the three components of gunpowder. For natural philosophers in seventeenth-century England, saltpetre also had important uses in chymistry and medicine. While some factories did successfully produce saltpetre in early modern England, the domestic industry was not on the whole a great success. Intellectuals who were keen to apply their knowledge in the real world saw this as an opportunity, and proposed a variety of new and improved methods that they claimed would produce this vital material more efficiently and in abundance. Yet their proposals remained on the page and their efforts fell flat. To understand the challenges and experiences faced by both scholars and artisan saltpetre-makers, I 'reworked' early modern methods of saltpetre-making with the Medieval Gunpowder Research Group. Reworking revealed procedural challenges and complexities that explain why, even with the best intentions, seventeenth-century natural philosophers struggled to get to grips with this important material.

  10. Urine therapy through the centuries.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy.

  11. Joule-Thomson expansion of the charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ökcü, Özgür; Aydıner, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in the T- P plane and determine the cooling-heating regions.

  12. Static Einstein-Maxwell Black Holes with No Spatial Isometries in AdS Space.

    PubMed

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen

    2016-11-25

    We explicitly construct static black hole solutions to the fully nonlinear, D=4, Einstein-Maxwell-anti-de Sitter (AdS) equations that have no continuous spatial symmetries. These black holes have a smooth, topologically spherical horizon (section), but without isometries, and approach, asymptotically, global AdS spacetime. They are interpreted as bound states of a horizon with the Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons recently discovered, for appropriate boundary data. In sharp contrast to the uniqueness results for a Minkowski electrovacuum, the existence of these black holes shows that single, equilibrium, black hole solutions in an AdS electrovacuum admit an arbitrary multipole structure.

  13. Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed.

  14. Boundary conditions for conformally coupled scalar in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae-Hyuk

    2015-06-01

    We consider conformally coupled scalar with ɸ4 coupling in AdS4 and study its various boundary conditions on AdS boundary. We have obtained perturbative solutions of equation of motion of the conformally coupled scalar with power expansion order by order in ɸ4 coupling λ up to λ2 order. In its dual CFT, we get 2, 4 and 6 point functions by using this solution with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions via AdS/CFT dictionary. We also consider marginal deformation on AdS boundary and get its on-shell and boundary effective actions.

  15. [Hospitals in Europe and Yugoslavia through the centuries].

    PubMed

    Topalović, R

    1998-01-01

    The primary object of this paper is to give a retrospective of hospital development in Europe and Yugoslavia for the past twenty-five centuries. The earliest records of hospitals called the "iatreia" date back to the V century B.C., ancient Greece. The sick in those hospitals were treated with drugs as well operated on. The Romans, during the reign of the emperor Augustus, built valetudinaries within military camps. The name "hospital" was introduced in the IV century A.D. and has been used ever since. The first hospital was founded in Cesarea, i.e. in the East Roman Empire in Asia Minor. The chronology of the hospital development in the Middle Ages is given in table 1--"Chronology of Hospital Development in the Middle Ages." St. Sava (Nemanjić) founded the first Serbian hospital in the Monastery of Hilandar about 1199 and in 1208/1209 a hospital in the Monastery of Studenica. In the hospital of the Monastery of St. Arhangel in Prizren, according to the regulations prescribed by tzar Dusan, only curable patients were to be treated. The first hospital in Vojvodina in Bac near Novi Sad dates back to 1234. More data about hospitals in former Yugoslavia are given in table 2--"The Oldest Hospitals in former Yugoslavia" and about the Frontier Hospitals in Vojvodina in table 3--"Frontier Hospitals for the Wounded and Sick in Vojvodina". The first medical high school was established in Salerno in the IX century and the first European University in Bologna in 1088, where the School of Medicine was founded in 1156. The University in Paris was founded in 1107 and in Oxford in 1145.

  16. Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-06-15

    The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

  17. From path integrals to tensor networks for the AdS /CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaji, Masamichi; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss tensor network descriptions of AdS /CFT from two different viewpoints. First, we start with a Euclidean path-integral computation of ground state wave functions with a UV cutoff. We consider its efficient optimization by making its UV cutoff position dependent and define a quantum state at each length scale. We conjecture that this path integral corresponds to a time slice of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Next, we derive a flow of quantum states by rewriting the action of Killing vectors of AdS3 in terms of the dual two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT). Both approaches support a correspondence between the hyperbolic time slice H2 in AdS3 and a version of continuous multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz. We also give a heuristic argument about why we can expect a sub-AdS scale bulk locality for holographic CFTs.

  18. = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    For all types of = 4 anti-de Sitter (AdS) supersymmetry in three dimensions, we construct manifestly supersymmetric actions for Abelian vector multiplets and explain how to extend the construction to the non-Abelian case. Manifestly = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) actions are explicitly given in the cases of (2,2) and critical (4,0) AdS supersymmetries. The = 4 vector multiplets and the corresponding actions are then reduced to (2,0) AdS superspace, in which only = 2 supersymmetry is manifest. Using the off-shell structure of the = 4 vector multiplets, we provide complete = 4 SYM actions in (2,0) AdS superspace for all types of = 4 AdS supersymmetry. In the case of (4,0) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the resulting = 2 action contains a Chern-Simons term proportional to q/r, where r is the radius of AdS 3 and q is the R-charge of a chiral scalar superfield. The R-charge is a linear inhomogeneous function of X, an expectation value of the = 4 Cotton superfield. Thus our results explain the mysterious structure of = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories on S 3 discovered in arXiv:1401.7952. In the case of (3,1) AdS supersymmetry, which has no Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action contains both a Chern-Simons term and a chiral mass-like term. In the case of (2,2) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action has no Chern-Simons and chiral mass-like terms.

  19. Servicios Relacionados. 2nd Edicion. NICHCY News Digest (Related Services. 2nd Edition. NICHCY News Digest).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Beverly

    This publication, written in Spanish, examines the requirement under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that mandates that all children with disabilities have available to them special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for employment and independent living. It investigates what…

  20. Beyond Test Scores: Adding Value to Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    At a time when teacher quality has emerged as a key factor in student learning, a statistical technique that determines the "value added" that teachers bring to student achievement is getting new scrutiny. Value-added measures compare students' growth in achievement to their expected growth, based on prior achievement and demographic…

  1. Thermodynamic geometry and phase transitions of AdS braneworld black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2017-02-01

    The thermodynamics and phase transitions of charged RN-AdS and rotating Kerr-AdS black holes in a generalized Randall-Sundrum braneworld are investigated in the framework of thermodynamic geometry. A detailed analysis of the thermodynamics, stability and phase structures in the canonical and the grand canonical ensembles for these AdS braneworld black holes are described. The thermodynamic curvatures for both these AdS braneworld black holes are computed and studied as a function of the thermodynamic variables. Through this analysis we illustrate an interesting dependence of the phase structures on the braneworld parameter for these black holes.

  2. Next-Generation A/D Sampler ADS3000+ for VLBI2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Koyama, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A high-speed A/D sampler, called ADS3000+, has been developed in 2008, which can sample one analog signal up to 4 Gbps to versatile Linux PC. After A/D conversion, the ADS3000+ can perform digital signal processing such as real-time DBBC (Digital Base Band Conversion) and FIR filtering such as simple CW RFI filtering using the installed FPGAs. A 4 Gsps fringe test with the ADS3000+ has been successfully performed. The ADS3000+ will not exclusively be used for VLBI but will also be employed in other applications.

  3. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazhari, N. S.; Momeni, Davood; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Faizal, Mir; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2017-03-01

    The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  4. [Rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-fen; Yu, Jing; Guo, Xin; Sun, Xing-long; Wang, Ding-fang

    2011-07-01

    The method of rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin was studied in the present paper. Adding sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch, caffeine and phenacetin to heroin with a certain percentage, the changes in the infrared spectrum with the concentration of heroin increasing and the detection limit of the additives were determined. Whether or not heroin can be detected in the sample with high concentration of added ingredients was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Similarly, in high purity of heroin, whether or not Raman spectroscopy can detect the added ingredients was tested. Through systematic experiments, the results showed that: using infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to test the added ingredients of heroin is a rapid and effective method. Each has both advantages and disadvantages. We should select the appropriate method according to the actual cases.

  5. The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.

  6. Physics of the Twentieth Century, and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Frederick J.

    2009-05-01

    This talk is intended for a general audience. A brief history of the two primary physical theories of the twentieth century is presented, and the similarity between the late nineteenth and the early twenty-first centuries is highlighted. In particular, the past and possible future of exact solutions in general relativity are briefly described, and reasons why time is growing short are cited.

  7. Preparing Students for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Donna; And Others

    As the 21st century approaches, many educators are debating the role of education in meeting students' and the economy's needs. This booklet describes the results of a modified Delphi study that asked a panel of 55 experts from education, business, and government how to best prepare students for the 21st century. During the course of three survey…

  8. The Century of Education. CEE DP 109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian; Murtin, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Global economic transformations have never been as dramatic as in the twentieth century. Most countries have experienced radical changes in the standards of income per capita, technology, fertility, mortality, income inequality and the extent of democracy in the course of the past century. It is the goal of many disciplines--economics, history,…

  9. The 21st-Century Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Step into a classroom in the 21st century, and the odds are it won't look all that different from one in the 20th century. One decade into the 2000s, many schools and universities have been frustrated in their efforts to upgrade their facilities and resources because of shrinking budgets. But even with the ailing economy, some education…

  10. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  11. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  12. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  13. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  14. Special Education for a New Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Lauren I., Ed.; Gandhi, Allison Gruner, Ed.; Harbour, Wendy S., Ed.; LaRock, J. D., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Special Education for a New Century" pays particularly close attention to how inclusive education practices can best be promoted in the era of standards-based accountability. An updated version of the best-selling "Special Education at the Century's End", this new volume combines cutting-edge research and theory about students…

  15. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  16. Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delice, Ã.-zgür; Durǧut, Türküler

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.

  17. "Classroom" of the Future: 2058 AD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Robert A.; Castaneda, Celia Z.

    What the classroom of the next century will be like can only be speculated upon, but, almost certainly, any changes will require self-examination of the human essence in relation to technology. One outcome of technological change may be increased freedom for humans to relate to each other on a more human basis. Also, it appears that education will…

  18. Space-like minimal surfaces in AdS × S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Harald; Drukker, Nadav; Jorjadze, George; Kalousios, Chrysostomos

    2010-04-01

    We present a four parameter family of classical string solutions in AdS 3 × S 3, which end along a light-like tetragon at the boundary of AdS 3 and carry angular momentum along two cycles on the sphere. The string surfaces are space-like and their projections on AdS 3 and on S 3 have constant mean curvature. The construction is based on the Pohlmeyer reduction of the related sigma model. After embedding in AdS 5 × S 5, we calculate the regularized area and analyze conserved charges. Comments on possible relations to scattering amplitudes are presented. We also sketch time-like versions of our solutions.

  19. Quantum corrections to supergravity on AdS2×S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Finn; Lisbão, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    We compute the off-shell spectrum of supergravity on AdS2×S2 by explicit diagonalization of the equations of motion for an effective AdS2 theory where all fields are dualized to scalars and spin-1/2 fermions. We classify all bulk modes as physical, gauge violating, and pure gauge then compute the physical spectrum by explicit cancellation of unphysical modes. We identify boundary modes as physical fields on S2 that are formally pure gauge but with gauge function that is non-normalizable on AdS2. As an application we compute the leading quantum correction to AdS2×S2 as a sum over physical fields including boundary states. The result agrees with a previous computation by Sen [1] where unphysical modes were canceled by ghosts.

  20. A Fortunate Half-Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2016-09-01

    The author has had the happy opportunity to work and study in the field of theoretical astrophysics during a half-century of unparalleled observational discovery. Quasars, pulsars, large-scale cosmic structure, galaxy evolution, and many other phenomena were discovered using revolutionary new observational techniques. In the same period of time, analytical tools ranging from new disciplines like plasma physics to enormously enhanced computational facilities became available, giving theoreticians the machinery to make some sense of this new world. At the start of the era the extragalactic world was largely framed as a quasi-homogeneous Universe of static galaxies formed by unknown and in fact unexamined processes. By the end of the period there was widespread acceptance of a self-consistent, evolving cosmological model amenable to calculation and comprehension. The author was fortunate indeed to have had the chance to collaborate with many wonderfully talented colleagues during this exciting time, attempting to unravel the multiple cosmic puzzles that nature delivered to us.