Science.gov

Sample records for 2nd generation hts

  1. Design and manufacture of a D-shape coil-based toroid-type HTS DC reactor using 2nd generation HTS wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Sangjin; Jin, Yoon-Su; Oh, Yunsang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the design specifications and performance of a real toroid-type high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The target inductance of the HTS DC reactor was 400 mH. The expected operating temperature was under 20 K. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. Performances of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor were analyzed through experiments conducted under the steady-state and charge conditions. The fundamental design specifications and the data obtained from this research will be applied to the design of a commercial-type HTS DC reactor.

  2. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    SciTech Connect

    Usov, Igor O; Arendt, Paul N; Stan, Liliana; Holesinger, Terry G; Foltyn, Steven R; Depaula, Raymond F

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  3. 2nd Generation ELT Performance Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimson, Chad M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Search And Rescue is supporting RTCA SC-229 with research and recommendations for performance specifications for the 2nd generation of emergency locator transmitters. Areas for improvement and methods for collecting data will be presented.

  4. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  5. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Definition Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert M.; Stucker, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Mid-Term Report summarizes the status of Kelly Space & Technology's activities during the first two and one half months of the program. This report was presented to the cognoscente Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) and selected Marshall Space Flight Center staff members on 26 September 2000. The report has been approved and is distributed on CD-ROM (as a PowerPoint file) in accordance with the terms of the subject contract, and contains information and data addressing the following: (1) Launch services demand and requirements; (2) Architecture, alternatives, and requirements; (3) Costs, pricing, and business cases analysis; (4) Commercial financing requirements, plans, and strategy; (5) System engineering processes and derived requirements; and (6) RLV system trade studies and design analysis.

  6. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle NASA Led Propulsion Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Design, development and test of a 2nd generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is presented. This current paper discusses the following: 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project, Overview of NASA Led Tasks in Propulsion, Gen2 Turbo Machinery Technology Demonstrator, and Combustion Devices Test Bed, GRCop-84 Sheet For Combustion Chambers, Nozzles and Large Actively Cooled Structures

  7. 2nd Generation RLV: Program Goals and Acquisition Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. Bart; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The risk to loss of life for Space Shuttle crewmembers is approximately one in 245 missions. U.S. launch service providers captured nearly 100%, of the commercial launch market revenues in the mid 1980s. Today, the U.S. captures less than 50% of that market. A launch system architecture is needed that will dramatically increase the safety of space flight while significantly reducing the cost. NASA's Space Launch Initiative, which is implemented by the 2nd Generation RLV Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center, seeks to develop technology and reusable launch vehicle concepts which satisfy the commercial launch market needs and the unique needs of NASA. Presented in this paper are the five primary elements of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan along with the highest level goals and the acquisition strategy of the 2nd Generation RLV Program. Approval of the Space Launch Initiative FY01 budget of $290M is seen as a major commitment by the Agency and the Nation to realize the commercial potential that space offers and to move forward in the exploration of space.

  8. Refraction data survey: 2nd generation correlation of myopia.

    PubMed

    Greene, Peter R; Medina, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    The objective herein is to provide refraction data, myopia progression rate, prevalence, and 1st and 2nd generation correlations, relevant to whether myopia is random or inherited. First- and second-generation ocular refraction data are assembled from N = 34 families, average of 2.8 children per family. From this group, data are available from N = 165 subjects. Inter-generation regressions are performed on all the data sets, including correlation coefficient r, and myopia prevalence [%]. Prevalence of myopia is [M] = 38.5 %. Prevalence of high myopes with |R| >6 D is [M-] = 20.5 %. Average refraction is  = -1.84 D ± 3.22 (N = 165). For the high myopes, |R| >6 D, prevalence for the parents is [M-] = 25 %, for the 2nd generation [M-] = 16.5 %. Average myopia level for the high myopes, both generations, is  = -7.52 D ± 1.31 D (N = 33). Regression parameters are calculated for all the data sets, yielding correlation coefficients in the range r = 0.48-0.72 for some groups of myopes and high myopes, fathers to daughters, and mothers to sons. Also of interest, some categories show essentially no correlation, -0.20 < r < 0.20, indicating that the refractive errors occur randomly. Time series results show myopia diopter rates = -0.50 D/year.

  9. The 2nd generation VLTI path to performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woillez, Julien; Alonso, Jaime; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bonnet, Henri; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Egner, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Gonté, Frédéric; Guieu, Sylvain; Haguenauer, Pierre; Mérand, Antoine; Pettazzi, Lorenzo; Poupar, Sébastien; Schöller, Markus; Schuhler, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The upgrade of the VLTI infrastructure for the 2nd generation instruments is now complete with the transformation of the laboratory, and installation of star separators on both the 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) and the 8-m Unit Telescopes (UTs). The Gravity fringe tracker has had a full semester of commissioning on the ATs, and a first look at the UTs. The CIAO infrared wavefront sensor is about to demonstrate its performance relative to the visible wavefront sensor MACAO. First astrometric measurements on the ATs and astrometric qualification of the UTs are on-going. Now is a good time to revisit the performance roadmap for VLTI that was initiated in 2014, which aimed at coherently driving the developments of the interferometer, and especially its performance, in support to the new generation of instruments: Gravity and MATISSE.

  10. Philips' 2nd generation Novallure LED candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Pei, Zhigang; Yuan, Chuan; Jiang, Tan; Lu, Zhengsong; Wang, Yuqian; Duan, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Yan; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Ye

    2010-08-01

    Finding an energy efficient replacement of incandescent candle lamp has been a technical challenge. Compact fluorescent lamps, for example, can be miniaturized to fit the form factor of a candle lamp but they fail to reproduce its "sparkle" effect. Empowered by solid state lighting technology along with original optical design, Philips has successfully developed LED-powered candle lamps "Novallure" with great energy savings (2W power consumption with lumen output of 55 lumen) and the "butterfly" radiation pattern that mimics the sparkle effect from an incandescent candle lamp. With new high performance LED packages, novel under-cut prismatic optics and state-of-the-art electronic driver solution and thermal solution, we have developed a 2nd generation Novallure with breakthrough performance: a dimmable 2700K 136 lumen LED candle lamp with CRI 90.

  11. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  12. Aging Studies of 2nd Generation BaBar RPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    The BaBar detector, operating at the PEPII B factory of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), installed over 200 2nd generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in 2002. The streamer rates produced by backgrounds and signals from normal BaBar running vary considerably (0.1- >20 Hz/cm2) depending on the layer and position of the chambers, thus providing a broad spectrum test of RPC performance and aging. The lowest rate chambers have performed very well with stable efficiencies averaging 95%. Other chambers had rate-dependant inefficiencies due to Bakelite drying which were reversed by the introduction of humidified gases. RPC inefficiencies in the highest rate regions of the higher rate chambers have been observed and also found to be rate dependant. The inefficient regions grow with time and have not yet been reduced by operation with humidified input gas. Three of these chambers were converted to avalanche mode operation and display significantly improved efficiencies. The rate of production of HF in the RPC exhaust gases was measured in avalanche and streamer mode RPCs and found to be comparable despite the lower current of the avalanche mode RPCs.

  13. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  14. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  15. Development of a brushless HTS exciter for a 10 kW HTS synchronous generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumby, Chris W.; Badcock, Rodney A.; Sung, Hae-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Min; Jiang, Zhenan; Pantoja, Andres E.; Bernardo, Patrick; Park, Minwon; Buckley, Robert G.

    2016-02-01

    HTS synchronous generators, in which the rotor coils are wound from high-T c superconducting wire, are exciting attention due to their potential to deliver very high torque and power densities. However, injection of the large DC currents required by the HTS rotor coils presents a technical challenge. In this paper we discuss the development of a brushless HTS exciter which operates across the cryostat wall to inject a superconducting DC current into the rotor coil circuit. This approach fundamentally alters the thermal load upon the cryogenic system by removing the need for thermally inefficient normal-conducting current leads. We report results from an experimental laboratory device and show that it operates as a constant voltage source with an effective internal resistance. We then discuss the design of a prototype HTS-PM exciter based on our experimental device, and describe its integration with a demonstration HTS generator. This 200 RPM, 10 kW synchronous generator comprises eight double pancake HTS rotor coils which are operated at 30 K, and are energised to 1.5 T field through the injection of 85 A per pole. We show how this excitation can be achieved using an HTS-PM exciter consisting of 12 stator poles of 12 mm YBCO coated-conductor wire and an external permanent magnet rotor. We demonstrate that such an exciter can excite the rotor windings of this generator without forming a thermal-bridge across the cryostat wall. Finally, we provide estimates of the thermal load imposed by our prototype HTS-PM exciter on the rotor cryostat. We show that duty cycle operation of the device ensures that this heat load can be minimised, and that it is substantially lower than that of equivalently-rated conventional current leads.

  16. A study on the required performance of a 2G HTS wire for HTS wind power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Minwon; Go, Byeong-Soo; Yu, In-Keun

    2016-05-01

    YBCO or REBCO coated conductor (2G) materials are developed for their superior performance at high magnetic field and temperature. Power system applications based on high temperature superconducting (HTS) 2G wire technology are attracting attention, including large-scale wind power generators. In particular, to solve problems associated with the foundations and mechanical structure of offshore wind turbines, due to the large diameter and heavy weight of the generator, an HTS generator is suggested as one of the key technologies. Many researchers have tried to develop feasible large-scale HTS wind power generator technologies. In this paper, a study on the required performance of a 2G HTS wire for large-scale wind power generators is discussed. A 12 MW class large-scale wind turbine and an HTS generator are designed using 2G HTS wire. The total length of the 2G HTS wire for the 12 MW HTS generator is estimated, and the essential prerequisites of the 2G HTS wire based generator are described. The magnetic field distributions of a pole module are illustrated, and the mechanical stress and strain of the pole module are analysed. Finally, a reasonable price for 2G HTS wire for commercialization of the HTS generator is suggested, reflecting the results of electromagnetic and mechanical analyses of the generator.

  17. Production and verification of a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jilun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Si, Fei; Jiang, Xiufeng; Liu, Haijin

    2016-01-01

    Clonal fishes are useful tools in biology and aquaculture studies due to their isogenicity. In Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), a group of homozygous clones was created by inducing meiogynogenesis in eggs from a mitogynogenetic homozygous diploid. As the clones reached sexual maturity, meiogynogenesis was again induced in order to produce a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder. After 3 months, there were 611 healthy, surviving individuals. Twenty-four microsatellite markers, that covered all the linkage groups of Japanese flounder, were used to identify the homozygosity of the 2nd generation clones; no heterozygous locus was detected. This indicates that the production of a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder was successful. Restriction-site DNA associated sequencing at the genomic level also confirmed the homozygosity and clonality of the 2nd generation clonal group. Furthermore, these 2nd generation clones had a small coefficient of variation for body shape indices at 210 days of age and showed a high degree of similarity in body characteristics among individuals. The successful production of 2nd generation clones has laid the foundation for the large-scale production of clonal Japanese flounder. PMID:27767055

  18. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Potential Commercial Development Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Rogacki, John R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The presentation will discuss potential commercial development scenarios for a Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle. The analysis of potential scenarios will include commercial rates of return, government return on investment, and market considerations. The presentation will include policy considerations in addition to analysis of Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle economics. The data discussed is being developed as a part of NASA's Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program, for consideration as potential scenarios for enabling a next generation system. Material will include potential scenarios not previously considered by NASA or presented at other conferences. Candidate paper has not been presented at a previous meeting, and conference attendance of the author has been approved by NASA.

  19. Support to 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    In this final report regarding support to the second generation RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) propulsion project office, a list of tasks accomplished is presented. During this period, Lee & Associates, LLC participated in numerous Systems Requirements Reviews (SRR) related to the Cobra development program.

  20. Characterization and calibration of 2nd generation slope measuring profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, Frank; Buchheim, Jana; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    High spectral resolution and nanometer sized foci of 3rd generation SR beamlines can only be achieved by means of ultra precise optical elements. The improved brilliance and the coherence of free electron lasers (FEL) even push the accuracy limits and make the development of a new generation of ultra precise reflective optical elements mandatory. Typical elements are wave front preserving plane mirrors (lengths of up to 1 m, residual slope errors ˜0.05 μrad (rms) and values of 0.1 nm (rms) for the micro-roughness) and curved optical elements like spheres, toroids or elliptical cylinder (residual slope error ˜0.25 μrad (rms) and better). These challenging specifications and the ongoing progress in finishing technology need to be matched by improved accuracy metrology instruments. We will discuss the results of recent developments in the field of metrology made in the BESSY-II-optics laboratory (BOL) at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB), by the use of vertical angle comparator (VAC) in use to calibrate the nanometer optical component measuring machine (NOM). The BESSY-NOM represents an ultra accurate type of slope measuring instruments characterized by an accuracy of 0.05 μrad (rms) for plane substrates and 0.2 μrad (rms) for significant curved surfaces.

  1. Automated CFD Database Generation for a 2nd Generation Glide-Back-Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pandya, Shishir A.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Tejmil, Edward

    2003-01-01

    A new software tool, AeroDB, is used to compute thousands of Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions for a 2nd generation glide-back booster in one week. The solution process exploits a common job-submission grid environment using 13 computers located at 4 different geographical sites. Process automation and web-based access to the database greatly reduces the user workload, removing much of the tedium and tendency for user input errors. The database consists of forces, moments, and solution files obtained by varying the Mach number, angle of attack, and sideslip angle. The forces and moments compare well with experimental data. Stability derivatives are also computed using a monotone cubic spline procedure. Flow visualization and three-dimensional surface plots are used to interpret and characterize the nature of computed flow fields.

  2. Thermal analysis for the HTS stator consisting of HTS armature windings and an iron core for a 2.5 kW HTS generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, P.; Qu, T.-M.; Lai, L.-F.; Wu, M.-S.; Yu, X.-Y.; Han, Z.

    2016-05-01

    Most present demonstrations of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motors/generators are partially superconducting, only installing HTS coils on the rotor as excitation windings. The possible applicability of HTS armature windings is an interesting research topic because these windings can certainly increase the power density attributed to a potentially high armature loading capacity. In this study, we analysed the thermal behaviours of a developed 2.5 kW-300 rpm synchronous generator prototype that consists of an HTS stator with Bi-2223-Ag armature windings on an iron core and a permanent magnet (PM) rotor. The entire HTS stator, including the iron core, is cooled with liquid nitrogen through conduction cooling. The rated frequency is set at 10 Hz to reduce AC loss. The properties of the HTS windings and the iron core are characterized, and the temperatures in the HTS stator under different operation conditions are measured. The estimated iron loss is 11.5 W under operation in 10 Hz at liquid nitrogen temperature. Conduction cooling through the silicon iron core is sufficient to cool the iron core and to compensate for the temperature increment caused by iron loss. The stable running capacity is limited to 1.6 kW when the armature current is 12.6 A (effective values) due to the increasing temperature in the slots as a result of the AC loss in the HTS coils. The thermal contact between the HTS coils and the cooling media should be improved in the future to take away the heat generated by AC loss.

  3. NASA 2nd Generation RLV Program Introduction, Status and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan L.; Smith, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI), managed by the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2ndGen RLV) Program, was established to examine the possibility of revolutionizing space launch capabilities, define conceptual architectures, and concurrently identify the advanced technologies required to support a next-generation system. Initial Program funds have been allocated to design, evaluate, and formulate realistic plans leading to a 2nd Gen RLV full-scale development (FSD) decision by 2006. Program goals are to reduce both risk and cost for accessing the limitless opportunities afforded outside Earth's atmosphere fo civil, defense, and commercial enterprises. A 2nd Gen RLV architecture includes a reusable Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle, an on-orbit transport and return vehicle, ground and flight operations, mission planning, and both on-orbit and on-the-ground support infrastructures All segments of the architecture must advance in step with development of the RLV if a next-generation system is to be fully operational early next decade. However, experience shows that propulsion is the single largest contributor to unreliability during ascent, requires the largest expenditure of time for maintenance, and takes a long time to develop; therefore, propulsion is the key to meeting safety, reliability, and cost goals. For these reasons, propulsion is SLI's top technology investment area.

  4. Simulation of an HTS Synchronous Superconducting Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zermeno, Victor M. R.; Abrahamsen, Asger B.; Mijatovic, Nenad; Sorensen, Mads Peter; Jensen, Bogi B.; Pedersen, Niels F.

    In this work we present a simulation of a synchronous generator with superconducting rotor windings. As many other electrical rotating machines, superconducting generators are exposed to ripple fields that could be produced from a wide variety of sources: short circuit, load change, mechanical torque fluctuations, etc. Unlike regular conductors, superconductors, experience high losses when exposed to AC fields. Thus, calculation of such losses is relevant for machine design to avoid quenches and increase performance. Superconducting coated conductors are well known to exhibit nonlinear resistivity, thus making the computation of heating losses a cumbersome task. Furthermore, the high aspect ratio of the superconducting materials involved adds a penalty in the time required to perform simulations.The chosen strategy for simulation is as follows: A mechanical torque signal together with an electric load is used to drive the finite element model of a synchronous generator where the current distribution in the rotor windings is assumed uniform. Then, a second finite element model for the superconducting material is linked to calculate the actual current distribution in the windings of the rotor. Finally, heating losses are computed as a response to the electric load. The model is used to evaluate the transient response of the generator.

  5. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  6. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd-generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  7. Life Cycle Systems Engineering Approach to NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Safie, Fayssal; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd- generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1 -in- 10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. Given a candidate architecture that possesses credible physical processes and realistic technology assumptions, the next set of analyses address the system's functionality across the spread of operational scenarios characterized by the design reference missions. The safety/reliability and cost/economics associated with operating the system will also be modeled and analyzed to answer the questions "How safe is it?" and "How much will it cost to acquire and operate?" The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and

  8. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Control and Irradiated EPC 2nd Generation GaN FETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Results of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  9. VLT interferometer upgrade for the 2nd generation of interferometric instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonté, Frederic; Woillez, Julien; Schuhler, Nicolas; Egner, Sebastian; Merand, Antoine; Abad, José Antonio; Abadie, Sergio; Abuter, Roberto; Acuña, Margarita; Allouche, Fatmé; Alonso, Jaime; Andolfalto, Luigi; Antonelli, Pierre; Avila, Gerardo; Barriga, Pablo José; Beltran, Juan; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bolados, Carlos; Bonnet, Henri; Bourget, Pierre; Brast, Roland; Bristow, Paul; Caniguante, Luis; Castillo, Roberto; Conzelmann, Ralf; Cortes, Angela; Delplancke, Françoise; Del Valle, Diego; Derie, Frederic; Diaz, Alvaro; Donoso, Reinaldo; Dorn, Reinhold; Duhoux, Philippe; Dupuy, Christophe; Eisenhauer, Frank; Elao, Christian; Fuenteseca, Eloy; Fernandez, Ruben; Gaytan, Daniel; Glindemann, Andreas; Gonzales, Jaime; Guieu, Sylvain; Guisard, Stephane; Haguenauer, Pierre; Haimerl, Andreas; Heinz, Volker; Henriquez, Juan Pablo; van der Heyden, P.; Hubin, Norbert; Huerta, Rodrigo; Jochum, Lieselotte; Leiva, Alfredo; Lévêque, Samuel; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Luco, Fernando; Mardones, Pedro; Mellado, Angel; Osorio, Juan; Ott, Jürgen; Pallanca, Laurent; Pavez, Marcus; Pasquini, Luca; Percheron, Isabelle; Pirard, Jean-Francois; Than Phan, Duc; Pineda, Juan Carlos; Pino, Andres; Poupar, Sebastien; Ramírez, Andres; Reinero, Claudio; Riquelme, Miguel; Romero, Juan; Rivinius, Thomas; Rojas, Chester; Rozas, Felix; Salgado, Fernando; Scheithauer, Silvia; Schmid, Christian; Schöller, Markus; Siclari, Waldo; Stephan, Christian; Tamblay, Richard; Tapia, Mario; Tristram, Konrad; Valdes, Guillermo; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Wright, Andrew; Zins, Gerard

    2016-08-01

    ESO is undertaking a large upgrade of the infrastructure on Cerro Paranal in order to integrate the 2nd generation of interferometric instruments Gravity and MATISSE, and increase its performance. This upgrade started mid 2014 with the construction of a service station for the Auxiliary Telescopes and will end with the implementation of the adaptive optics system for the Auxiliary telescope (NAOMI) in 2018. This upgrade has an impact on the infrastructure of the VLTI, as well as its sub-systems and scientific instruments.

  10. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders.

  11. Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

  12. Enabling the 2nd Generation in Space: Building Blocks for Large Scale Space Endeavours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhardt, D.; Garretson, P.; Will, P.

    Today the world operates within a "first generation" space industrial enterprise, i.e. all industry is on Earth, all value from space is from bits (data essentially), and the focus is Earth-centric, with very limited parts of our population and industry participating in space. We are limited in access, manoeuvring, on-orbit servicing, in-space power, in-space manufacturing and assembly. The transition to a "Starship culture" requires the Earth to progress to a "second generation" space industrial base, which implies the need to expand the economic sphere of activity of mankind outside of an Earth-centric zone and into CIS-lunar space and beyond, with an equal ability to tap the indigenous resources in space (energy, location, materials) that will contribute to an expanding space economy. Right now, there is no comfortable place for space applications that are not discovery science, exploration, military, or established earth bound services. For the most part, space applications leave out -- or at least leave nebulous, unconsolidated, and without a critical mass -- programs and development efforts for infrastructure, industrialization, space resources (survey and process maturation), non-traditional and persistent security situational awareness, and global utilities -- all of which, to a far greater extent than a discovery and exploration program, may help determine the elements of a 2nd generation space capability. We propose a focus to seed the pre-competitive research that will enable global industry to develop the necessary competencies that we currently lack to build large scale space structures on-orbit, that in turn would lay the foundation for long duration spacecraft travel (i.e. key technologies in access, manoeuvrability, etc.). This paper will posit a vision-to-reality for a step wise approach to the types of activities the US and global space providers could embark upon to lay the foundation for the 2nd generation of Earth in space.

  13. The New 2nd-Generation SRF R&D Facility at Jefferson Lab: TEDF

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Reilly, Anthony V.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a near-complete renovation of the SRF-based accelerator research and development facilities at Jefferson Lab. The project to accomplish this, the Technical and Engineering Development Facility (TEDF) Project has completed the first of two phases. An entirely new 3,100 m{sup 2} purpose-built SRF technical work facility has been constructed and was occupied in summer of 2012. All SRF work processes with the exception of cryogenic testing have been relocated into the new building. All cavity fabrication, processing, thermal treatment, chemistry, cleaning, and assembly work is collected conveniently into a new LEED-certified building. An innovatively designed 800 m2 cleanroom/chemroom suite provides long-term flexibility for support of multiple R&D and construction projects as well as continued process evolution. The characteristics of this first 2nd-generation SRF facility are described.

  14. Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-07

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

  15. Characterization of γ and γ' phases in 2nd and 4th generation single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietara, Maciej; Neumeier, Steffen; Göken, Mathias; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    A Ni based single crystal superalloy from the 2nd generation, PWA 1484, and one from the 4th generation, PWA 1497, were comparatively studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and nanoindentation technique in an atomic force microscope (NI-AFM) after high temperature creep deformation. During primary creep of both generations of superalloys, γ' precipitates start to coalesce and grow directionally. Further creep deformation leads to the topological inversion and coarsening of the rafted microstructure. The NI-AFM technique was used for measurements of the hardness of the γ and γ' phases in as-received and creep deformed samples in various conditions. The g matrix of the PWA 1497 superalloy is on average 0.8 GPa harder than that of PWA 1484 that can be explained by higher content of Re and Ru, since they partition predominantly to the matrix phase.

  16. Concepts for using trapped-flux HTS in motors and generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, John R.; Strasik, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examine the expected performance of a brushless motor/generator that uses trapped-flux (TF) bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to provide magnetomotive force, where the stator windings are used to create the TF. A key feature is the use of dysprosium (Dy) for the stator and rotor cores. We also examine methods to energize TF in HTS for generators used in pulsed-power applications.

  17. STARS 2.0: 2nd-generation open-source archiving and query software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winegar, Tom

    2008-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope is in process of developing an open-source alternative to the 1st-generation software and databases (STARS 1) used for archiving and query. For STARS 2, we have chosen PHP and Python for scripting and MySQL as the database software. We have collected feedback from staff and observers, and used this feedback to significantly improve the design and functionality of our future archiving and query software. Archiving - We identified two weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS archiving software: a complex and inflexible table structure and uncoordinated system administration for our business model: taking pictures from the summit and archiving them in both Hawaii and Japan. We adopted a simplified and normalized table structure with passive keyword collection, and we are designing an archive-to-archive file transfer system that automatically reports real-time status and error conditions and permits error recovery. Query - We identified several weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS query software: inflexible query tools, poor sharing of calibration data, and no automatic file transfer mechanisms to observers. We are developing improved query tools and sharing of calibration data, and multi-protocol unassisted file transfer mechanisms for observers. In the process, we have redefined a 'query': from an invisible search result that can only transfer once in-house right now, with little status and error reporting and no error recovery - to a stored search result that can be monitored, transferred to different locations with multiple protocols, reporting status and error conditions and permitting recovery from errors.

  18. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  19. A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

  20. Using 2nd generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in frontline management of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jayakar, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Choices in medicine come with responsibility. With several TKI's (Tyrosine kinase inhibitors) available for front-line management of CML (Chronic Myeloid Leukemia), an astute clinician has to personalise, rationalise and take a pragmatic approach towards selection of the best drug for the ‘patient in question’. Though it is hotly debated as to which TKI will triumph, the truth of this debate lies in individualising treatment rather than a general ‘all size fits all’ approach with imatinib. I personally believe that the second generation TKI's will suit most patient clinical profiles rather than prescribing imatinib to all and I have strived to make a strong case for them in front line treatment of CML. Though Imatinib may remain the first line choice for some patients, my efforts in this debate are mainly geared towards breaking the myth that imatinib is the sole ‘block buster’ on the CML landscape PMID:24665456

  1. Heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Jiang, Zhenan; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2016-11-01

    The development of an effective high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generator is currently a research focus; however, the reduction of heat loss of a large-scale HTS generator is a challenge. This study deals with a heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter. The generator module consists of an HTS rotor of the generator and an HTS flux pump exciter. The specifications of the module were described, and the detailed configuration of the module was illustrated. For the heat loss analysis of the module, the excitation loss of the flux pump exciter, eddy current loss of all of the structures in the module, radiation loss, and conduction loss of an HTS coil supporter were assessed using a 3D finite elements method program. In the case of the conduction loss, different types of the supporters were compared to find out the supporter of the lowest conduction loss in the module. The heat loss analysis results of the module were reflected in the design of the generator module and discussed in detail. The results will be applied to the design of large-scale superconducting generators for wind turbines including a cooling system.

  2. RF SOI CMOS technology on 1st and 2nd generation trap-rich high resistivity SOI wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi Esfeh, B.; Makovejev, S.; Basso, Didier; Desbonnets, Eric; Kilchytska, V.; Flandre, D.; Raskin, J.-P.

    2017-02-01

    In this work three different types of UNIBOND™ Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafers including one standard HR-SOI and two types of trap-rich high resistivity HR-SOI substrates named enhanced signal integrity high resistivity silicon-on-insulator (eSI HR-SOI) provided by SOITEC are studied and compared. The DC and RF performances of these wafers are compared by means of passive and active devices such as coplanar waveguide (CPW) lines, crosstalk- and noise injection-structures as well as partially-depleted (PD) SOI MOSFETs. It is demonstrated that by employing enhanced signal integrity high resistivity silicon-on-insulator (eSI HR-SOI) compared to HR-SOI wafer, a reduction of 24 dB is measured on both generations of trap-rich HR-SOI for 2nd harmonics. Furthermore, it is shown that in eSI HR-SOI, digital substrate noise is effectively reduced compared with HR-SOI. Purely capacitive behavior of eSI HR-SOI is demonstrated by crosstalk structure. Reduction of self-heating effect in the trap-rich HR-SOI with thinner BOX is finally studied.

  3. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  4. Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report 2nd Generation Implementing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-09-14

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document.

  5. Testing of machine wound second generation HTS tape Vacuum Pressure Impregnated coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaffield, D.; Lewis, C.; Eugene, J.; Ingles, M.; Peach, D.

    2014-05-01

    Delamination of second generation (2G) High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes has previously been reported when using resin based insulation systems for wound coils. One proposed root cause is the differential thermal contraction between the coil former and the resin encapsulated coil turns resulting in the tape c-axis tensile stress being exceeded. Importantly, delamination results in unacceptable degradation of the superconductor critical current level. To mitigate the delamination risk and prove winding, jointing and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) processes in the production of coils for superconducting rotating machines at GE Power Conversion two scaled trial coils have been wound and extensively tested. The coils are wound from 12mm wide 2G HTS tape supplied by AMSC onto stainless steel 'racetrack' coil formers. The coils are wound in two layers which include both in-line and layer-layer joints subject to in-process test. The resin insulation system chosen is VPI and oven cured. Tests included; insulation resistance, repeat quench and recovery of the superconductor, heat runs and measurement of n-value, before and after multiple thermal cycling between ambient and 35 Kelvin. No degradation of coil performance is evidenced.

  6. Efficient 2(nd) and 4(th) harmonic generation of a single-frequency, continuous-wave fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, Thomas; Imai, Yutaka; Masuda, Hisashi; Eguchi, Naoya; Saito, Masaki; Kubota, Shigeo

    2008-02-04

    We demonstrate efficient cavity-enhanced second and fourth harmonic generation of an air-cooled, continuous-wave (cw), single-frequency 1064 nm fiber-amplifier system. The second harmonic generator achieves up to 88% total external conversion efficiency, generating more than 20-W power at 532 nm wavelength in a diffraction-limited beam (M(2) < 1.05). The nonlinear medium is a critically phase-matched, 20-mm long, anti-reflection (AR) coated LBO crystal operated at 25 degrees C. The fourth harmonic generator is based on an AR-coated, Czochralski-grown beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal optimized for low loss and high damage threshold. Up to 12.2 W of 266-nm deep-UV (DUV) output is obtained using a 6-mm long critically phase-matched BBO operated at 40 degrees C. This power level is more than two times higher than previously reported for cw 266-nm generation. The total external conversion efficiency from the fundamental at 1064 nm to the fourth harmonic at 266 nm is >50%.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Electrochem's PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Michael C.; Hoberecht, Mark

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program is being developed to meet national needs for civil and commercial space access with goals of reducing the launch costs, increasing the reliability, and reducing the maintenance and operating costs. To this end, NASA is considering an all- electric capability for NGLT vehicles requiring advanced electrical power generation technology at a nominal 20 kW level with peak power capabilities six times the nominal power. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been identified as a viable candidate to supply this electrical power; however, several technology aspects need to be assessed. Electrochem, Inc., under contract to NASA, has developed a breadboard power generator to address these technical issues with the goal of maximizing the system reliability while minimizing the cost and system complexity. This breadboard generator operates with dry hydrogen and oxygen gas using eductors to recirculate the gases eliminating gas humidification and blowers from the system. Except for a coolant pump, the system design incorporates passive components allowing the fuel cell to readily follow a duty cycle profile and that may operate at high 6:1 peak power levels for 30 second durations. Performance data of the fuel cell stack along with system performance is presented to highlight the benefits of the fuel cell stack design and system design for NGLT vehicles.

  8. Research on the 2nd generation biofuel BIOXDIESEL in aspects of emission of toxic substances in exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struś, M. S.; Poprawski, W.; Rewolte, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents results of research of Diesel engines emission of toxic substances in exhaust gases fuelled with a second generation biofuel BIOXDIESEL, which is a blend of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters obtained from waste resources such waste vegetable and animal fats, bioethanol and standard Diesel fuel. Presented results are very promising, showing that the emission of toxic substances in exhaust gases are significantly reduced when fuelling with BIOXDIESEL fuel in comparison with standard Diesel fuel.

  9. An analytical benchmark and a Mathematica program for MD codes: Testing LAMMPS on the 2nd generation Brenner potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata, Antonino; Micheletti, Andrea; Ryu, Seunghwa; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-10-01

    An analytical benchmark and a simple consistent Mathematica program are proposed for graphene and carbon nanotubes, that may serve to test any molecular dynamics code implemented with REBO potentials. By exploiting the benchmark, we checked results produced by LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) when adopting the second generation Brenner potential, we made evident that this code in its current implementation produces results which are offset from those of the benchmark by a significant amount, and provide evidence of the reason.

  10. Autocommander: A Supervisory Controller for Integrated Guidance and Control for the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, J. E.; Lawrence, D. A.; Zhu, J. J.; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical architecture for integrated guidance and control that achieves risk and cost reduction for NASA's 2d generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Guidance, attitude control, and control allocation subsystems that heretofore operated independently will now work cooperatively under the coordination of a top-level autocommander. In addition to delivering improved performance from a flight mechanics perspective, the autocommander is intended to provide an autonomous supervisory control capability for traditional mission management under nominal conditions, G&C reconfiguration in response to effector saturation, and abort mode decision-making upon vehicle malfunction. This high-level functionality is to be implemented through the development of a relational database that is populated with the broad range of vehicle and mission specific data and translated into a discrete event system model for analysis, simulation, and onboard implementation. A Stateflow Autocoder software tool that translates the database into the Stateflow component of a Matlab/Simulink simulation is also presented.

  11. FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions: 2-year clinical results with 2nd or newer generation DES

    PubMed Central

    Arvydas, Baranauskas; Vilhelmas, Bajoras; Povilas, Budrys; Aleksandras, Laucevičius; Giedrius, Davidavičius

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite improvements in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology, treatment strategies for long coronary artery lesions remain a controversial issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term clinical results after FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions. Materials and methods. A total of 74 consecutive patients with significant (mean FFR 0.61 ± 0.11) coronary artery lesions ≥30 mm in length were included in the prospective study. All patients were treated with FFR guided PCI implanting newer generation Biolimus, Everolimus or Zotarolimus eluting stents. Clinical endpoints – target vessel revascularization (TVR) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) – were recorded at 1 and 2 years. Results. 100% angiographic procedure success was achieved, the mean post procedural FFR was 0.88 ± 0.06. At 2-year follow-up, 6 (8.1%) patients had ischemia driven TVR, all within the first 12 months. There were no target vessel related acute coronary syndromes and definite stent thromboses in the study group. At 2 years, the total MACE rate was 29.7%. There was a trend towards a higher TVR rate in patients with overlapping DES vs single DES implanted (9.6 vs 4.5%, p = 0.6). On regression analysis, the total stent length had no influence on the TVR rate. Conclusions. At 2 years after stenting long coronary lesions with newer generation DES the TVR rate was 8.1%, which is acceptable in the high cardiovascular risk population with diffuse coronary artery disease. The total stent length did not affect the long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:28356786

  12. New approaches for improving the production of the 1st and 2nd generation ethanol by yeast.

    PubMed

    Kurylenko, Olena; Semkiv, Marta; Ruchala, Justyna; Hryniv, Orest; Kshanovska, Barbara; Abbas, Charles; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Sibirny, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Increase in the production of 1st generation ethanol from glucose is possible by the reduction in the production of ethanol co-products, especially biomass. We have developed a method to reduce biomass accumulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the manipulation of the intracellular ATP level due to overexpression of genes of alkaline phosphatase, apyrase or enzymes involved in futile cycles. The strains constructed accumulated up to 10% more ethanol on a cornmeal hydrolysate medium. Similar increase in ethanol accumulation was observed in the mutants resistant to the toxic inhibitors of glycolysis like 3-bromopyruvate and others. Substantial increase in fuel ethanol production will be obtained by the development of new strains of yeasts that ferment sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic feedstocks, especially xylose, a pentose sugar. We have found that xylose can be fermented under elevated temperatures by the thermotolerant yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. We combined protein engineering of the gene coding for xylose reductase (XYL1) along with overexpression of the other two genes responsible for xylose metabolism in yeast (XYL2, XYL3) and the deletion of the global transcriptional activator CAT8, with the selection of mutants defective in utilizing ethanol as a carbon source using the anticancer drug, 3-bromopyruvate. Resulted strains accumulated 20-25 times more ethanol from xylose at the elevated temperature of 45°C with up to 12.5 g L(-1) produced. Increase in ethanol yield and productivity from xylose was also achieved by overexpression of genes coding for the peroxisomal enzymes: transketolase (DAS1) and transaldolase (TAL2), and deletion of the ATG13 gene.

  13. Direct and non-destructive proof of authenticity for the 2nd generation of Brazilian real banknotes via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Franco, Marcos Fernando; Regino, Karen Gomes; Lehmann, Eraldo Luiz; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Using a desorption/ionization technique, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (EASI-MS), documents related to the 2nd generation of Brazilian Real currency (R$) were screened in the positive ion mode for authenticity based on chemical profiles obtained directly from the banknote surface. Characteristic profiles were observed for authentic, seized suspect counterfeit and counterfeited homemade banknotes from inkjet and laserjet printers. The chemicals in the authentic banknotes' surface were detected via a few minor sets of ions, namely from the plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), most likely related to the official offset printing process, and other common quaternary ammonium cations, presenting a similar chemical profile to 1st-generation R$. The seized suspect counterfeit banknotes, however, displayed abundant diagnostic ions in the m/z 400-800 range due to the presence of oligomers. High-accuracy FT-ICR MS analysis enabled molecular formula assignment for each ion. The ions were separated by 44 m/z, which enabled their characterization as Surfynol® 4XX (S4XX, XX=40, 65, and 85), wherein increasing XX values indicate increasing amounts of ethoxylation on a backbone of 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (Surfynol® 104). Sodiated triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TBG) of m/z 229 (C10H22O4Na) was also identified in the seized counterfeit banknotes via EASI(+) FT-ICR MS. Surfynol® and TBG are constituents of inks used for inkjet printing.

  14. Early onset hypercholesterolemia induced by the 2nd-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rea, Delphine; Mirault, Tristan; Cluzeau, Thomas; Gautier, Jean-François; Guilhot, François; Dombret, Hervé; Messas, Emmanuel

    2014-07-01

    Despite a well-recognized clinical benefit of the 2(nd)-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with imatinib-resistant/-intolerant or newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia, recent evidence suggests that nilotinib has a propensity to increase the risk of occlusive arterial events, especially in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors. Given the key role of lipids in cardiovascular diseases, we studied the plasma lipid profile and global cardiovascular risk prior to and during nilotinib therapy in a series of 27 patients in the setting of a prospective single center study. Data from a minimum 1-year follow up showed that nilotinib significantly increased total, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol within three months. Consequently, the proportion of patients with non-optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from 48.1% to 88.9% by 12 months, leading to cholesterol-lowering drug intervention in 22.2% of patients. The proportion of patients with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 40.7% to 7.4% by 12 months. In contrast, a significant decrease in triglycerides was observed. Global cardiovascular risk worsened in 11.1% of patients due to diabetes or occlusive arterial events. Whether hypercholesterolemia was the main driver of occlusive arterial events was uncertain: a longer follow up is necessary to ask whether nilotinib-induced hypercholesterolemia increases long-term risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Nevertheless, given key atherogenic properties of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we conclude that when prescribing nilotinib, commitment to detect lipid disorders at baseline and during follow up is mandatory given their frequency, requirement for changes in lifestyle or drug intervention, and potential for long-term cardiovascular complications.

  15. Development of the 2nd generation z(Redshift) and early universe spectrometer & the study of far-IR fine structure emission in high-z galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    The 2nd generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), is a long-slit echelle-grating spectrometer (R~1000) for observations at submillimeter wavelengths from 200 to 850 microm. Its design is optimized for the detection of redshifted far-infrared spectral lines from galaxies in the early universe. Combining exquisite sensitivity, broad wavelength coverage, and large (˜2.5%) instantaneous bandwidth, ZEUS-2 is uniquely suited for studying galaxies between z˜0.2 and 5---spanning the peaks in both the star formation rate and number of AGN in the universe. ZEUS-2 saw first light at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in the Spring of 2012 and was commissioned on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) in November 2012. Here we detail the design and performance of ZEUS-2, first however we discuss important science results that are examples of the science enabled by ZEUS-2. Using the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-1) we made the first high-z detections of the [NII] 122 microm and [OIII] 88 microm lines. We detect these lines from starburst galaxies between z ˜2.5 and 4 demonstrating the utility of these lines for characterizing the properties of early galaxies. Specifically we are able to determine the most massive star still on the main sequence, the number of those stars and a lower limit on the mass of ionized gas in the source. Next we present ZEUS-2's first science result. Using ZEUS-2 on APEX we have detected the [CII] 158 microm line from the z = 1.78 galaxy H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 +/- 0.42) ˜ 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-infrared luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [OI] 63 microm line we are able to conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high redshift analogue of a local ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, i.e. it is likely the site of a compact starburst due to a major merger. This detection, combined with the ZEUS-1 observations of the [NII

  16. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenhofer, J.; Grundmann, J.; Klaus, G.; Nick, W.

    2008-02-01

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ("conventional") components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  17. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  18. Progress in research, development, and pre-commercial deployment of second generation HTS wires in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Christen, David K.

    2006-10-01

    US efforts to develop and deploy "second generation" (2G) high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires that use the compound Y1Ba2Cu3Ox (YBCO) or other rare-earth (RE) superconducting materials are described. Wires have been demonstrated in 20 to >200-m lengths with the YBCO deposited using vapor deposition or wet chemical processes in ultra-thin layers onto textured, buffered metallic templates, which forces the grains of the RE-BCO into near perfect alignment. Critical currents for these pre-commercial wires are now within striking distance of those achieved for commercial BSSCO wires. One expected advantage of 2G wire is a 5-fold decrease in the price of wire compared with first generation wires. Another advantage of 2G wire is the intrinsic behavior of YBCO in the presence of a strong magnetic field. Enhancements in flux pinning of at least a factor of two have been demonstrated for MOCVD and MOD deposited YBCO films. US progress towards meeting the challenging goals for the year 2006, including current exceeding 300 A/cm width (77 K, self-field) in 100-m lengths and engineering current density exceeding 10,000 A/cm2 (65 K, 3-T) is reported. In addition, initial efforts toward engineering the conductor for the mechanical and electrical properties needed for strong magnetic field applications are described.

  19. Development of synchronous machines with HTS rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummeth, P.; Frank, M.; Nick, W.; Nerowski, G.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-10-01

    Optimized design of synchronous machines can be achieved by use of HTS tape conductors. The introduction of an iron-free air-core stator winding and replacement of the rotor's copper windings by Bi-2223 tapes allows to develop very compact HTS machines with less than half the weight and volume, higher efficiency and excellent operational behavior compared to conventional devices. In consequence these rotating machines with HTS rotors become very attractive for ship drives, power generation and industrial applications. A 400 kW synchronous HTS machine was designed, manufactured and tested at Siemens. Main goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of basic concepts. Development of a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is currently under way.

  20. A novel HTS SMES application in combination with a permanent magnet synchronous generator type wind power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. H.; Kim, A. R.; Kim, S.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Seong, K. C.; Won, Y. J.

    2011-11-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is a DC current driven device and can be utilized to improve power quality particularly in connection with renewable energy sources due to higher efficiency and faster response than other devices. This paper suggests a novel connection topology of SMES which can smoothen the output power flow of the wind power generation system (WPGS). The structure of the proposed system is cost-effective because it reduces a power converter in comparison with a conventional application of SMES. One more advantage of SMES in the proposed system is to improve the capability of low voltage ride through (LVRT) for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) type WPGS. The proposed system including a SMES has been modeled and analyzed by a PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the novel SMES application strategy to not only mitigate the output power of the PMSG but also improve the capability of LVRT for PMSG type WPGS.

  1. Control system for the 2nd generation Berkeley AutoMounters (BAM2) at GM/CA CAT macromolecular crystallography beamlines.

    PubMed

    Makarov, O; Hilgart, M; Ogata, C; Pothineni, S; Cork, C

    2011-09-01

    GM/CA CAT at Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is an NIH funded facility for crystallographic structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray diffraction.A second generation Berkeley automounter is being integrated into the beamline control system at the 23-BM experimental station. This new device replaces the previous all-pneumatic gripper motions with a combination of pneumatics and XYZ motorized linear stages. The latter adds a higher degree of flexibility to the robot including auto-alignment capability, accommodation of a larger capacity sample Dewar of arbitrary shape, and support for advanced operations such as crystal washing, while preserving the overall simplicity and efficiency of the Berkeley automounter design.

  2. Population pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, and pharmacodynamics of 2nd generation dopamine transporter selective benztropine analogs developed as potential substitute therapeutics for treatment of cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Syed, Shariq A; Newman, Amy H; Othman, Ahmed A; Eddington, Natalie D

    2008-05-01

    A second generation of N-substituted 3alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)methoxy]-tropanes (GA 1-69, JHW 005 and JHW 013) binds with high affinity to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and are highly selective toward DAT compared to muscarinic receptor binding (M1). The objective of this study was to characterize brain distribution, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics [extracellular brain dopamine (DA) levels] of three novel N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogs in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BZT analogs displayed a higher distribution (Vd = 8.69-34.3 vs. 0.9 L/kg) along with longer elimination (t l/2: 4.1-5.4 vs. 0.5 h) than previously reported for cocaine. Brain-to-plasma partition coefficients were 1.3-2.5 vs. 2.1 for cocaine. The effect of the BZT analogs on extracellular brain (DA) levels ranged from minimal effects (GA 1-69) to several fold elevation (approximately 850% of basal DA for JHW 013) at the highest dose evaluated. PK/PD analysis of exposure-response data resulted in lower IC50 values for the BZT analogs compared to cocaine indicating their higher potency to inhibit DA reuptake (0.1-0.3 vs. 0.7 mg/L). These BZT analogs possess significantly different PK and PD profiles as compared to cocaine suggesting that further evaluation as cocaine abuse therapeutics is warranted.

  3. Redox cycling compounds generate H2O2 in HTS buffers containing strong reducing reagents--real hits or promiscuous artifacts?

    PubMed

    Johnston, Paul A

    2011-02-01

    Redox cycling compounds (RCCs) generate μM concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the presence of strong reducing agents, common buffer components used to maintain the catalytic activity and/or folding of target proteins for high throughput screening (HTS) assays. H(2)O(2) generated by RCCs can indirectly inhibit the catalytic activity of proteins by oxidizing accessible cysteine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine, or selenocysteine residues, and indeed several important classes of protein targets are susceptible to H(2)O(2)-mediated inactivation; protein tyrosine phosphatases, cysteine proteases, and metalloenzymes. The main sources of H(2)O(2) in cells are the Nox enzyme/SOD systems, peroxisome metabolism, and the autoxidation of reactive chemicals by enzyme mediated redox cycling at both the microsomal and mitochondrial sites of electron transport. Given the role of H(2)O(2) as a second messenger involved in the regulation of many signaling pathways it is hardly surprising that compounds that can generate intracellular H(2)O(2) by enzyme mediated redox cycling would have pleiotropic effects. RCCs can therefore have serious negative consequences for the probe and/or lead generation process: primary HTS assay hit rates may be inflated by RCC false positives; crucial resources will be diverted to develop and implement follow up assays to distinguish RCCs from real hits; and screening databases will become annotated with the promiscuous activity of RCCs. In an attempt to mitigate the serious impact of RCCs on probe and lead generation, two groups have independently developed assays to indentify RCCs.

  4. Redox cycling compounds generate H2O2 in HTS buffers containing strong reducing reagents – real hits or promiscuous artifacts?

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Redox cycling compounds (RCCs) generate µM concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of strong reducing agents, common buffer components used to maintain the catalytic activity and/or folding of target proteins for high throughput screening (HTS) assays. H2O2 generated by RCCs can indirectly inhibit the catalytic activity of proteins by oxidizing accessible cysteine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine or selenocysteine residues, and indeed several important classes of protein targets are susceptible to H2O2-mediated inactivation; protein tyrosine phosphatases, cysteine proteases, and metalloenzymes. The main sources of H2O2 in cells are the Nox enzyme/SOD systems, peroxisome metabolism, and the autoxidation of reactive chemicals by enzyme mediated redox cycling at both the microsomal and mitochondrial sites of electron transport. Given the role of H2O2 as a second messenger involved in the regulation of many signaling pathways it is hardly surprising that compounds which can generate intracellular H2O2 by enzyme mediated redox cycling would have pleiotropic effects. RCCs can therefore have serious negative consequences for the probe and/or lead generation process: primary HTS assay hit rates may be inflated by RCC false positives; critical resources will be diverted to develop and implement follow up assays to distinguish RCCs from real hits; and screening databases will become annotated with the promiscuous activity of RCCs. In an attempt to mitigate the serious impact of RCCs on probe and lead generation, two groups have independently developed assays to indentify RCCs. PMID:21075044

  5. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the

  6. [Implications of TCGA Network Data on 2nd Generation Immunotherapy Concepts Based on PD-L1 and PD-1 Target Structures].

    PubMed

    Peters, I; Tezval, H; Kramer, M W; Wolters, M; Grünwald, V; Kuczyk, M A; Serth, J

    2015-11-01

    The era of cytokines, given to patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) as part of an unspecific immunomodulatory treatment concept, seems to have ended with the introduction of targeted therapies. However, preliminary data from studies on treatment with checkpoint inhibitors (e. g. anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1) may point the way to second-generation immunotherapy. The rationale of such immunomodulatory treatment is to stop or interrupt the tumour from "escaping" the body's immune defence. Thompson et al. report that increased protein expression of PD-L1 (CD274/ B7-H1) in tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating immune cells (TILs; lymphocytes and histiocytes) is associated with unfavourable clinical pathological parameters as well as poor survival. In small pilot groups of mRCC patients it was found that increased PD-L1 protein expression in tumours and TILs may be correlated with the objective response to anti-PD-1 treatment. Sometimes, however, a very wide variety of response rates was observed, which raises the question if this can be explained by individual expression levels of PD-L1 (CD 274) or PD-1 (PDCD1).Recently published data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) Network now provide a genome-wide data base that allows us to review or validate the molecular results obtained in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) to date.In this study, we analysed the TCGA KIRC mRNA expression data for PD-L1 and PD-1 for a possible association with clinical pathological parameters and the survival of 417 ccRCC patients.The mRNA expression of PD-L1 in primary nephrectomy specimens revealed no significant association with unfavourable clinical parameters. Interestingly, though, a positive correlation with patient survival was found (HR=0,59, p=0,006).These results, which partly contradict the concept applied to date, point out the necessity to ascertain the characteristics of PD-L1 and PD-1 expression at mRNA and protein

  7. 2nd Generation QUATARA Flight Computer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, Jay; Keys, Andrew; Fraticelli, Jose Molina; Capo-Iugo, Pedro; Peeples, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Single core flight computer boards have been designed, developed, and tested (DD&T) to be flown in small satellites for the last few years. In this project, a prototype flight computer will be designed as a distributed multi-core system containing four microprocessors running code in parallel. This flight computer will be capable of performing multiple computationally intensive tasks such as processing digital and/or analog data, controlling actuator systems, managing cameras, operating robotic manipulators and transmitting/receiving from/to a ground station. In addition, this flight computer will be designed to be fault tolerant by creating both a robust physical hardware connection and by using a software voting scheme to determine the processor's performance. This voting scheme will leverage on the work done for the Space Launch System (SLS) flight software. The prototype flight computer will be constructed with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components which are estimated to survive for two years in a low-Earth orbit.

  8. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

    1994-09-27

    A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

  9. Reflective HTS switch

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1994-01-01

    A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

  10. Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oomen, Marijn; Herkert, Werner; Bayer, Dietmar; Kummeth, Peter; Nick, Wolfgang; Arndt, Tabea

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

  11. Development of HTS Magnet for Rotating Gantry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaki, Kenji; Koyanagi, Kei; Takayama, S. Shigeki; Ishii, Yusuke; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Ogitsu, Toru; iwata, Yoshiyuki; Noda, Koji

    The effectiveness of heavy-ion radiotherapy for cancer treatment has been recognized by medical experts and the public. However, due to the large size of the equipment, this therapy has not been widely adopted. In particular, the rotating gantries used to irradiate patients with the heavy-ion beams from any direction may be as heavy as 600 tons in our estimation. By employing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires in these rotating gantries and increasing the magnetic field generated by the deflecting coils, the total weight of the rotating gantry can be reduced to around the weight of those used for proton radiotherapy. A project for developing an HTS deflecting magnet for heavy-ion radiotherapy has been underway since 2013, supported by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED). The aim of this project is to develop fundamental technologies for designing and fabricating HTS deflecting magnets, such as irregular magnetic field estimating techniques, design technology for HTS magnets, high-precision HTS coil winding technology, AC loss estimating techniques, and thermal runaway estimating techniques and to fabricate a small model of an HTS deflecting magnet and evaluate its performance. In this paper, the project's progress will be described.

  12. PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The "PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework, 2nd Edition" provides the foundation for the three international assessments planned as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016: PIRLS, PIRLS Literacy, and ePIRLS. PIRLS represents the…

  13. Medical museum, 2nd surgical hospital.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Alan J

    2013-12-01

    When his unit, the 2nd Surgical Hospital (MA), was established at An Khe in January 1966, MAJ Rich began collecting retrieved foreign bodies along with documentation of the wound. A museum displaying these objects was established at one end of the operating room Quonset hut. During Rich's tour of duty, there were 324 cases where the patient was wounded by a punji stick, representing 38% wounds because of hostile action.

  14. HTS magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Flögel-Delor, Uta; Rothfeld, Rolf; Wippich, Dieter; Riedel, Thomas

    2002-08-01

    Radial HTS magnetic bearings (SMB) up to 200 mm size are developed and tested in prototype fast rotating machines to demonstrate the potential to replace conventional bearings. The individual rotational bearing components HTS and PM, their physical interaction and technology is reviewed. Characterisation experiments are conducted to understand the rotor dynamic behaviour. In terms of unbalance and critical speeds the suspended wheels and rotors compare favourably with conventional bearing devices. The rationale of our present bearing technology lies in the assembling of both low-speed magnetic bearings for centrifugal and wafer processing units up to 20,000 rpm as well as a high-speed optical mirror accelerated to rim speed of more than 500 m/s (174,000 rpm) confirming stable low-drag and low energy operation. Two new-type U shaped semicircle HTS bearings coupled each with a 6 W/80 K cryocooler of the Stirling type allow the contact-free operation of a Si wafer carrier in semiconductor wet processes.

  15. Waveform control pulse magnetization for HTS bulk magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Shigeuchi, Koji; Okuda, Sayo; Watasaki, Masahiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-03-01

    For the past 10 years, we have studied high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnets for use in electromagnetic rotating machines. If the magnetic field effectively magnetizes the HTS bulk, then the size of the motor and generator can be reduced without a reduction in output. We showed that the melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O HTS bulk effectively traps a high magnetic field using waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM). WCPM makes it possible to generate any pulsed magnetic field waveform by appropriately changing the duty ratio of the pulse width modulation. By chopping so that the pulsed magnetic field has a period of about 1ms, the WCPM technology enables active control of the rise time and suppresses magnetic flux motion that decreases magnetization efficiency. This method is also useful for any HTS bulk magnet, and the high magnetic flux density is trapped in the HTS bulk by a single pulse magnetic field. We developed a magnetizer that has a feedback system from the penetrated magnetic flux density to realize WCPM. In this research, using only a single pulse magnetic field of WCPM method at 77K, an HTS bulk with a 45mm diameter and 19mm thickness trapped a maximum magnetic field of 1.63T, which is more than 90% of the trapped magnetic flux density by FC magnetization. This result suggests that the pulse magnetizing method can replace the conventional field-cooled method and promote the practical use of HTS magnets for electromagnetic power applications.

  16. 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Martinez, Ed; Arcadi, Marla

    2005-01-01

    Included are presentations from the 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop. The purpose of the second workshop was to continue to unite the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers and mission designers and planners; whose expertise, experience and interests are in the areas of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics of planetary entry vehicles. Mars lander missions and the first probe mission to Titan made 2004 an exciting year for planetary exploration. The Workshop addressed entry probe science, engineering challenges, mission design and instruments, along with the challenges of reconstruction of the entry, descent and landing or the aerocapture phases. Topics addressed included methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed; techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder and Mars MER; upcoming missions such as the imminent entry of Huygens and future Mars entry probes; and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.

  17. Mobile conduction-cooled HTS SMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Shi, J.; Chen, L.; Guo, F.; Fang, J.; Wen, J.

    2010-11-01

    An immovable 35 kJ/7 kW high-Tc superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS SMES) system had been developed in the Electric Power System Dynamic Simulation Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in 2005. In order to adapt for on-site experimental conditions, the mechanical configuration of the magnet is reinforced and the SMES system is assembled in a special container to be freighted to the actual power system for the feasibility study on different applications at different sites. The mobile HTS SMES system had withstood various kinds of poor road surfaces and then arrived at the experimental site on August 18, 2009. In this paper, the reconstructed configuration and the shock absorption of the magnet are presented. The field test results show that the mobile SMES system can operate on the power network at different locations and suppress effectively power fluctuation of the generator terminal.

  18. Present status and future trends of R&D for HTS rotational machines in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Osami

    2014-09-01

    Various HTS rotating machines, from multiple MW class to several 10 kW class, are being developed in Japan. R&D statuses of those machines are reviewed. Design studies of various types of HTS wind power generators are also conducted in Japan and their merits and demerits are discussed. Based on the present R&D statuses, future technical trends of HTS machines are discussed.

  19. Development of HTS-SQUID Gradiometer with an External HTS Multiturn Thin Film Pickup Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraoka, M.; Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Takai, H.; Tanabe, K.

    Highly-sensitive HTS-SQUIDs are applied to various systems such as eddy-current non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and compact magnetometer systems. To avoid unstable operation of the SQUID due to an excitation field, a flux transformer made of normal Cu wire is used to separate the pickup coil and SQUID. However, the resistance of the flux transformer generates thermal noise and reduces the signal bandwidth at low frequencies. In this study, we investigate use of a superconducting flux transformer with resistive connections (SFTR). The SFTR consists of pickup and input coils made of HTS thin films. The two coils are connected by using an HTS coated conductor. The input coil is stacked on an HTS thin film gradiometer. From the measured results of resistances of the connections between each coil and the coated conductor, it was found that the resistance of bonding wire was a dominant component. The estimated resistance of the SFTR was 7.2 mΩ, corresponding to a lower cut-off frequency of 11.7 Hz.

  20. Rotor compound concept for designing an industrial HTS synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashani, M.; Hosseina, M.; Sarrafan, K.; Darabi, A.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, producing power with smaller amount of losses become as a goal in our daily life. Today, large amount of energy waste in power networks all around the world. The main reason is “resistive electric equipments” of power networks. Since early 1980s, simultaneous with the development of high temperature superconductive (HTS) technology, superconductors gently attracted the mankind attentions. Using superconductive equipments instead of conventional resistive ones are result in salient electric loss reduction in power systems. Especially to reduce losses in power networks superconductive industrial rotating machines can potentially perform a significant role. In early recent century, first generation of HTS rotating machines was born. But unfortunately they have long way to penetrate the commercial markets yet. In HTS rotating machines the conventional copper made windings are replaced with the HTS superconductors. In this paper an industrial HTS synchronous motor with YBCO coated conductor field windings was designed. As a new approach, model was equipped with a compound rotor that includes both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. So, large amount of heavy iron made part was replaced by light non-magnetic material such as G-10 fiberglass. Furthermore, in this structure iron loss in rotor could be reduced to its lowest value. Also less weight and more air gap energy density were the additional advantages. Regarding zero electric loss production in field windings and less iron loss in rotor construction, this model potentially is more effective than the other iron made HTS motors.

  1. Elements of the Next Generation Science Standards' (NGSS) New Framework for K-12 Science Education aligned with STEM designed projects created by Kindergarten, 1st and 2nd grade students in a Reggio Emilio project approach setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, Nicole

    This paper examines how elements of the Next Generation Science Standards' (NGSS) New Framework for K-12 Science Education standards (National Research Council 2011)---specifically the cross-cutting concept "cause and effect" are aligned with early childhood students' creation of projects of their choice. The study took place in a Reggio Emilio-inspired, K-12 school, in a multi-aged kindergarten, first and second grade classroom with 14 students. Students worked on their projects independently with the assistance of their peers and teachers. The students' projects and the alignment with the Next Generation Science Standards' New Framework were analyzed by using pre and post assessments, student interviews, and discourse analysis. Results indicate that elements of the New Framework for K-12 Science Education emerged through students' project presentation, particularly regarding the notion of "cause and effect". More specifically, results show that initially students perceived the relationship between "cause and effect" to be negative.

  2. Hysteresis and reluctance electric machines with bulk HTS elements. Recent results and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; M-A Koneev, S.; Poltavets, V. N.; Larionoff, A. E.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Oswald, B.; Best, K.-J.; Strasser, T.

    2000-05-01

    Two new types of HTS electric machine are considered. The first type is hysteresis motors and generators with cylindrical and disc rotors containing bulk HTS elements. The second type is reluctance motors with compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors. The compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors, consisting of joined alternating bulk HTS (YBCO) and ferromagnetic (iron) plates, provide a new active material for electromechanical purposes. Such rotors have anisotropic properties (ferromagnetic in one direction and diamagnetic in the perpendicular one). Theoretical and experimental results for HTS hysteresis and reluctance motors are presented. A series of hysteresis HTS motors with output power rating from 1 kW (at 50 Hz) up to 4 kW (at 400 Hz) and a series of reluctance HTS motors with output power 2-18.5 kW (at 50 Hz) were constructed and successfully tested. It was shown that HTS reluctance motors could reach two to five times better overall dimensions and specific power than conventional asynchronous motors of the same size and will have higher values of power factor (cos ϕ≥0.7 to 0.8).

  3. HTS magnetometers for fetal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Wakai, R T; Paulson, D N; Schwartz, B

    2004-11-30

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID sensors have adequate magnetic field sensitivity for adult magnetocardiography (MCG) measurements, but it remains to be seen how well they perform for fetal MCG (fMCG), where the heart signals are typically ten times smaller than the adult signals. In this study, we assess the performance of a prototype HTS SQUID system; namely, a three-SQUID gradiometer formed from three vertically-aligned HTS dc-SQUID magnetometers integrated into a fiberglass liquid nitrogen dewar of diameter 12.5 cm and height 30 cm. Axial gradiometers with short or long baseline, as well as a second order gradiometer, can be formed out of these magnetometers via electronic subtraction. The calibrated magnetometer sensitivities at 1 kHz are 109 fT/square root of Hz, 155 fT/square root of Hz and 51 fT/square root of Hz. Direct comparison is made between the HTS SQUID system and a LTS SQUID system by making recordings with both systems during the same session on adult and fetal subjects. Although the fMCG could be resolved with the HTS SQUID system in most near-term subjects, the signal-to-noise ratio was relatively low and the system could not be operated outside of a shielded room.

  4. Parametric Study of HTS Coil Quench Protection Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Joseph; Zarnstorff, Michael; Zhai, Yuhu

    2016-10-01

    Next generation fusion devices require high magnetic fields to adequately contain burning plasmas. Use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils to generate these magnetic fields would lower energy cost of operation as well as increase stability of the superconducting state compared to low temperature superconducting coils. However, use of HTS coils requires developing quench protection strategies to prevent damage to the coils. One technique involves the utilization of copper discs and other conductors mutually coupled to the HTS coil to quickly extract the current from the coil. Another technique allows conduction between HTS turns to reduce the current in the coil during quench. This project describes a parametric study of the HTS coil and resistive-conductor setup in order to determine limiting cases of the geometry in an attempt to optimize current extraction and coil protection during quench scenarios. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program.

  5. Reduction of Thermal Loss in HTS Windings by Using Magnetic Flux Deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Koshiba, Y.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yanamoto, T.

    Efforts on the generation of intensified magnetic flux have been made for the optimized shape of HTS winding applications. This contributes to the high efficiency of the rotating machines using HTS windings. Heat generation from the HTS windings requires to be suppressed as much as possible, when those coils are under operation with either direct or alternative currents. Presently, the reduction of such thermal loss generated by the applied currents on the HTS coils is reported with a magnetic flux deflection system. The HTS coils are fixed together with flattened magnetic materials to realize a kind of redirection of the flux pathway. Eventually, the magnetic flux density perpendicular to the tape surface (equivalent to the a-b plane) of the HTS tape materials is reduced to the proximity of the HTS coil. To verify the new geometry of the surroundings of the HTS coils with magnetic materials, a comparative study of the DC coil voltage was done for different applied currents in prototype field-pole coils of a ship propulsion motor.

  6. 2ND FLOOR HALLWAY LOOKING EAST, NOTE PRESSED TIN CEILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2ND FLOOR HALLWAY LOOKING EAST, NOTE PRESSED TIN CEILING - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Building No. 29, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  7. Molecular motors and the 2nd law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhisong

    2014-03-01

    Molecular motors from biology and nanotechnology often operate on chemical energy of fuel molecules in an isothermal environment, unlike macroscopic heat engines that draw energy from a heat flow between two temperatures. Nevertheless, isothermal molecular motors are still subject to the 2nd law of thermodynamics in a fundamental way: their directional motion must cost a finite amount of energy other than the environmental heat even though no work is done; otherwise the 2nd law would be violated. Hence the 2nd law requires a finite energy price for pure direction of molecular motors. But what is the lowest price of direction allowed by the 2nd law? And how does the 2nd law-decreed price of direction limit performance of molecular motors? In the talk, I shall present our theoretical study of the 2nd law-molecular motor link on basis of the accumulated biomotor phenomenology, and also introduce our experimental effort to develop biomimetic DNA bipedal nanomotors following the mechanistic guidelines out of the theoretical study. [Main contents of this talk are from references:] This work is partially supported by FRC grants R-144-000-259-112, R-144-000-290-112 and R-144-000-320-112.

  8. What's Up With Mercury's 2nd-Degree Shape?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, E.; Phillips, R. J.; Zhong, S.

    2015-12-01

    The long-wavelength topography and geoid of a planet are basic observations fundamental to understanding the planet's thermal and dynamical history. Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft have significantly reduced the uncertainty in the spherical harmonic 2nd-degree (l2) topography and gravity coefficients. Similar to those of the Moon, the long wavelength shape and geoid of Mercury are significantly out of hydrostatic equilibrium [Perry et al., 2015]. The diversion from equilibrium of the Moon has been attributed to orbital evolution and the "freezing-in" of a fossil bulge. With respect to Mercury, the disequilibrium of the l2 shape and geoid is unlikely to be due to its orbital history [Matsuyama and Nimmo, 2009]. Non-hydrostatic models can explain the gravity and shape of Mercury. Buoyancy from thermal anomalies isostatically supporting the surface falls short of reproducing the observed l2 admittance and topography. We explore three scenarios that can generate high admittances at degree-2: flexural/membrane loading on the surface, buoyant structures within the mantle, or topography on the core-mantle boundary. We discuss both isostatic and dynamic models of compensation, and include variations of viscosity structure and elastic properties. However, typical sources of these mechanisms (e.g. large volcanic provinces that collectively have symmetry about the equator or mantle convection with a strong l2 component) are not obviously present on Mercury.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF HTS CONDUCTORS FOR ELECTRIC POWER APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, A.; Rupich, M.

    2012-10-23

    Second generation (2G) technologies to fabricate high-performance superconducting wires developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were transferred to American Superconductor via this CRADA. In addition, co-development of technologies for over a decade was done to enable fabrication of commercial high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high performance. The massive success of this CRADA has allowed American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) to become a global leader in the fabrication of HTS wire and the technology is fully based on the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) technology invented and developed at ORNL.

  10. Development of Magnet Technologies for HTS Insert Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesche, Rainer; Uglietti, Davide; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; March, Stephen; Marinucci, Claudio; Stepanov, Boris; Glowa, Natalia

    An existing Nb3Sn laboratory magnet generating a magnetic field of 12 T is intended to be upgraded to 16 T by means of the use of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert coil. An outline design of the HTS insert coil is presented. In the design, the aspects of the maximum achievable operation current, the required copper cross-section to ensure a hot spot temperature below 200 K and the resulting forces and stresses have been considered. The length of the insert coil has been selected in such a way that the field uniformity will be better than 1% within a sphere of 3 cm diameter. The protection of the whole magnet system (LTS & HTS insert) is briefly described.

  11. The effect of temperature on pinning mechanisms in HTS composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikova, A. P.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Pinning mechanism in samples of second generation tapes (2G) of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) was studied The critical current and the pinning force were calculated from the magnetization curves measured in the temperature range of 4.2 - 77 K in magnetic fields up to 14 Tesla using vibration sample magnetometer. To determine the pinning mechanism the dependences of pinning force on magnetic field were constructed according to the Dew-Hughes model and Kramer's rule. The obtained dependences revealed a significant influence of the temperature on effectiveness of different types of pinning. At low temperatures the 2G HTS tapes of different manufacturers demonstrated an equal efficiency of the pinning centers but with temperature increase the differences in pinning mechanisms as well as in properties and effectiveness of the pinning centers become obvious. The influence of the pinning mechanism on the energy losses in HTS tapes was shown.

  12. Safety profile of bilastine: 2nd generation H1-antihistamines.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F

    2012-12-01

    Bilastine is a new H1 antagonist with no sedative side effects, no cardiotoxic effects, and no hepatic metabolism. In addition, bilastine has proved to be effective for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. Pharmacological studies have shown that bilastine is highly selective for the H1 receptor in both in vivo and in vitro studies, and with no apparent affinity for other receptors. The absorption of bilastine is fast, linear and dose-proportional; it appears to be safe and well tolerated at all doses levels in healthy population. Multiple administration of bilastine has confirmed the linearity of the kinetic parameters. The distribution in the brain is undetectable. The safety profile in terms of adverse effects is very similar to placebo in all Phase I, II and III clinical trials. Bilastine (20 mg), unlike cetirizine, does not increase alcohol effects on the CNS. Bilastine 20 mg does not increase the CNS depressant effect of lorazepam. Bilastine 20 mg is similar to placebo in the driving test. Therefore, it meets the current criteria for medication used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

  13. 2nd Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S.; Tanelli, S.; Haddad, Z.; Im, E.

    2012-01-01

    Dual-frequency operation with Ku-band (13.4 GHz) and Ka-band (35.6 GHz). Geometry and frequencies chosen to simulate GPM radar. Measures reflectivity at co- and cross-polarizations, and Doppler. Range resolution is approx. 60 m. Horizontal resolution at surface is approx. 1 km. Reflectivity calibration is within 1.5 dB, based on 10 deg sigmaO at Ku-band and Mie scattering calculations in light rain at Ka-band. LDR measurements are OK to near -20 dB; LDR lower than this is likely contaminated by system cross-polarization isolation. Velocity is motion-corrected total Doppler, including particle fall speed. Aliasing can be seen in some places; can usually be dealiased with an algorithm. .

  14. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2G RLV). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve; Sides, Steve; Kmiec, Tom; Arbogast, Tim; Mayers, Tom; Doehnert, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This is a revised final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  15. Engine design considerations for 2nd generation supersonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental and economic goals projected for advanced supersonic transports will require revolutionary improvements in propulsion systems. Variable cycle engine concepts that incorporate unique components and advanced technologies show promise in meeting these goals. Pratt & Whitney Aircraft is conducting conceptual design studies of variable cycle engine concepts under NASA sponsorship. This paper reviews some of the design considerations for these engine concepts. Emphasis is placed on jet noise abatement, reduction of emissions, performance improvements, installation considerations, hot-section characteristics and control system requirements. Two representative variable cycle engine concepts that incorporate these basic design considerations are described.

  16. The adenovirus type 2-simian virus 40 hybrid virus Ad2+ND4 requires deletion variants to grow in monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, A M; Westphal, H

    1983-01-01

    The Ad2+ND4 virus is an adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) recombination. The Ad2 genome of this recombinant has a rearrangement within early region 3; Ad2 DNA sequences between map positions 81.3 and 85.5 have been deleted, and the SV40 DNA sequences between map positions 0.11 and 0.626 have been inserted into the deletion in an 81.3-0.626 orientation. Nonhybrid Ad2 is defective in monkey cells; however, the Ad2+ND4 virus can replicate in monkey cells due to the expression of the SV40-enhancing function encoded by the DNA insert. Stocks of the Ad2+ND4 hybrid were produced in primary monkey cells by using the progeny of a three-step plaque purification procedure and were considered to be homogeneous populations of Ad2+ND4 virions because they induced plaques in primary monkey cells by first-order kinetics. By studying the kinetics of plaque induction in continuous lines (BSC-1 and CV-1) of monkey cells, we have found that stocks (prepared with virions before and after plaque purification) of Ad2+ND4 are actually heterogeneous populations of Ad2+ND4 virions and Ad2+ND4 deletion variants that lack SV40 and frequently Ad2 DNA sequences at the left Ad2-SV40 junction. Due to the defectiveness of the Ad2+ND4 virus, the production of progeny in BSC-1 and CV-1 cells requires complementation between the Ad2+ND4 genome and the genome of an Ad2+ND4 deletion variant. Since the deletion variants that have been obtained from Ad2+ND4 stocks do not express the SV40-enhancing function in that they cannot produce progeny in monkey cells, we conclude that they are providing an Ad2 component that is essential for the production of Ad2+ND4 progeny. These data imply that the Ad2+ND4 virus is incapable of replicating in singly infected primary monkey cells without generating deletion variants that are missing various amounts of DNA around the left Ad2-SV40 junction in the hybrid genome. As the deletion variants that arise from the Ad2+ND4 virus are created by nonhomologous

  17. Application of shielding current in bulk HTS to control magnetic field distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kii, T.

    2016-03-01

    Superconducting shielding current is excited when external field is applied to superconductor. In case for field cooling of bulk superconductor, shielding current is an origin of strong trapped field. When external field is changed to a properly arranged bulk HTS array, various magnetic field distribution can be formed by an excited shielding current in each bulk HTS. This paper presents a simple intuitively method to design magnetic field distribution using supercurrents in bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) array. In this method, an ideal current path for intended field distribution is represented by shielding currents in bulk HTS array. Expected performance can be roughly estimated by using Biot-Savart law. As examples, Maxwell coil pair and helical field generator are designed. This method can be applied to design various magnet devices using bulk HTS array.

  18. Theory of AC Loss in Cables with 2G HTS Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, J.R.; Malozemoff, A.P.

    2009-09-13

    While considerable work has been done to understand AC losses in power cables made of first generation (1G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires, use of second generation (2G) HTS wires brings in some new considerations. The high critical current density of the HTS layer 2G wire reduces the surface superconductor hysteretic losses. Instead, gap and polygonal losses, flux transfer losses in imbalanced two layer cables and ferromagnetic losses for wires with NiW substrates constitute the principal contributions. Current imbalance and losses associated with the magnetic substrate can be minimized by orienting the substrates of the inner winding inward and the outer winding outward.

  19. [Food intake regulation - 2nd part].

    PubMed

    Brunerová, Ludmila; Anděl, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The review article summarizes the principles of hedonic regulation of food intake which represents the food intake independent on the maintenance of homeostasis. The theory describing hedonic regulation, so called Incentive Salience Theory, comprises three major processes: liking (positive attribution to food stimulus), wanting (motivation to gain it) and learning (identification of these stimuli and distinguishing them from those connected with aversive reaction). Neuronal reward circuits are the anatomical and functional substrates of hedonic regulation. They react to gustatory and olfactory (or visual) stimuli associated with food intake. A food item is preferred in case its consumption is connected with a pleasant feeling thus promoting the behavioural reaction. The probability of this reaction after repetitive exposure to such a stimulus is increased (learned preference). On the contrary, learned aversion after repetitive exposure is connected with avoidance of a food item associated with a negative feeling. Main mediators of hedonic regulation are endocannabinoids, opioids and monoamines (dopamine, serotonin). Dopamine in dorsal striatum via D2 receptors generates food motivation as a key means of survival, however in ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) is responsible for motivation to food bringing pleasure. Serotonin via its receptors 5-HT1A a T-HT2C decreases intake of palatable food. It plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, particularly mental anorexia. There, a food restriction represents a kind of automedication to constitutionally pathologically increased serotonin levels. Detailed understanding of processes regulating food intake is a key to new pharmacological interventions in eating disorders.

  20. 2nd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet (ft3) generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Experimental Stochatics (2nd edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiberg, P.

    2004-05-01

    Otto Moeschlin and his co-authors have written a book about simulation of stochastic systems. The book comes with a CD-ROM that contains the experiments discussed in the book, and the text from the book is repeated on the CD-ROM. According to the authors, the aim of the book is to give a quick introduction to stochastic simulation for `all persons interested in experimental stochastics'. To please this diverse audience, the authors offer a book that has four parts. Part 1, called `Artificial Randomness', is the longest of the four parts. It gives an overview of the generation, testing and basic usage of pseudo random numbers in simulation. Although algorithms for generating sequences of random numbers are fundamental to simulation, it is a slightly unusual choice to give it such weight in comparison to other algorithmic topics. The remaining three parts consist of simulation case studies. Part 2, `Stochastic Models', treats four problems---Buffon's needle, a queuing system, and two problems related to the kinetic theory of gases. Part 3 is called `Stochastic Processes' and discusses the simulation of discrete time Markov chains, birth--death processes, Brownian motion and diffusions. The last section of Part 3 is about simulation as a tool to understand the traffic flow in a system controlled by stoplights, an area of research for the authors. Part4 is called `Evaluation of Statistical Procedures'. This section contains examples where simulation is used to test the performance of statistical methods. It covers four examples: the Neymann--Pearson lemma, the Wald sequential test, Bayesian point estimation and Hartigan procedures. The CD-ROM contains an easy-to-install software package that runs under Microsoft Windows. The software contains the text and simulations from the book. What I found most enjoyable about this book is the number of topics covered in the case studies. The highly individual selection of applications, which may serve as a source of inspiration

  2. [Health and environment: the 2nd public health revolution.].

    PubMed

    Cicolella, André

    2010-01-01

    As of the mid-19th century, most infectious disease epidemics have been fought and slowed down by taking action on the environment (water, housing, waste) and education. This constitutes the 1st public health revolution paradigm. As we face the current epidemic of chronic diseases and the failure of the dominant biomedical model to stop them, a 2nd public health revolution is needed. The vision for this 2nd public health revolution requires a new paradigm built upon an eco-systemic definition of health and the recognition of the legitimacy for citizen participation based on the precautionary principle.

  3. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  4. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  5. SrF2:Nd3+ laser fluoride ceramics.

    PubMed

    Basiev, T T; Doroshenko, M E; Konyushkin, V A; Osiko, V V

    2010-12-01

    SrF(2):Nd(3+) fluoride ceramics of high optical quality was prepared and its spectroscopic and laser properties investigated. Oscillations of different optical centers depending on the excitation wavelength were obtained with a slope efficiency of up to 19%.

  6. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…

  7. Magnetic Forces Simulation of Bulk HTS over Permanent Magnetic Railway with Numerical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiyun; Zhuang, Shujun

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic levitation forces of bulk high temperature superconductor (HTS) above two types permanent magnet railway (PMR) is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The models are formulated by H-formulation and resolving codes is developed using Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG). The E- J power law is used to describe the electrical field vs. current density nonlinear characteristic of HTS. The applied magnetic fields induced by the PMR are calculated by the standard analysis method with the equivalent surface current model. By the method, the calculation formulation of magnetic fields generated by Halbach PMR and symmetrical PMR is derived respectively. The simulation results show that the finite element dynamic mesh rebuilding problem of HTS magnetic levitation transportation system comprised of bulk HTS and PMR can be easily avoided by the methods.

  8. Dielectrically Loaded HTS Spiral Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, J.; Hanna, D.; Vlasov, Y. A.; Larkins, G. L.; Moeckly, B. H.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work is to fabricate, test, and study a dielectrically loaded high temperature superconductor (HTS) spiral antenna that would operate in the frequency band of 10 MHz to 200 MHz. The antenna is formed by depositing and patterning a YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) thin film on top of 4-inch-diameter sapphire and Yittria Stabilized ZrO2 substrates. The presence of the HTS material guarantees low conductor loss in the antenna. A thick epitaxial layer of strontium titanate (STO) is then deposited on top of the YBCO for high dielectric constant loading. This set-up can be simulated using the Fidelity software routine, a Finite Difference Time Domain based program from Zeland, Inc. We have simulated the performance of this antenna structure, first in free space and then after loading with the dielectric slabs. Important parameters such as feed point impedance and antenna gain are studied for different simulation conditions. The dielectric ensures reduced feed point impedance as well as improvement of the low frequency response of the antenna.

  9. Cryogenic Cooling System for 5 kA, 200 μH Class HTS DC Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heecheol; Kim, Seokho; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Park, Taejun; Kim, A.-rong; Lee, Sangjin

    DC reactors, made by aluminum busbar, are used to stabilize the arc of an electric furnace. In the conventional arc furnace, the transport current is several tens of kilo-amperes and enormous resistive loss is generated. To reduce the resistive loss at the DC reactor, a HTS DC reactor can be considered. It can dramatically improve the electric efficiency as well as reduce the installation space. Similar with other superconducting devices, the HTS DC reactor requires current leads from a power source in room temperature to the HTS coil in cryogenic environment. The heat loss at the metal current leads can be minimized through optimization process considering the geometry and the transport current. However, the transport current of the HTS DC reactor for the arc furnace is much larger than most of HTS magnets and the enormous heat penetration through the current lead should be effectively removed to keep the temperature around 70∼77 K. Current leads are cooled down by circulation of liquid nitrogen from the cooling system with a stirling cryocooler. The operating temperature of HTS coil is 30∼40 K and circulation of gaseous helium is used to remove the heat generation at the HTS coil. Gaseous helium is transported through the cryogenic helium blower and a single stage GM cryocooler. This paper describes design and experimental results on the cooling system for current leads and the HTS coil of 5 kA, 200 μH class DC reactor as a prototype. The results are used to verify the design values of the cooling systems and it will be applied to the design of scale-up cooling system for 50 kA, 200 μH class DC reactor.

  10. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers - 2nd Pass Correction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers—2nd Pass Correction by John E. Penn ARL-TN-0580 September 2013...September 2013 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers—2nd Pass Correction John E. Penn Sensors and Electron...COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers–2nd Pass Correction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  11. Development and construction of an HTS rotor for ship propulsion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nick, W.; Frank, M.; Kummeth, P.; Rabbers, J. J.; Wilke, M.; Schleicher, K.

    2010-06-01

    A low-speed high-torque HTS machine is being developed at Siemens on the basis of previous steps (400kW demonstrator, 4MVA generator). The goal of the programme is to utilize the characteristic advantages offered by electrical machines with HTS-excited rotor, such as efficiency, compact size, and dynamic performance. To be able to address future markets, requirements from ship classification as well as potential customers have to be met. Electromagnetic design cannot be focused on nominal operation only, but has to deal with failure modes like short circuit too. Utilization of superconductor requires to consider margins taking into account that the windings have to operate reliably not only in "clean" laboratory conditions, but in rough environment with the stator connected to a power converter. Extensive quality control is needed to ensure homogenous performance (current capacity, electrical insulation, dimensions) for the large quantity of HTS (45 km). The next step was to set up and operate a small-scale "industrial" manufacturing process to produce HTS windings in a reproducible way, including tests at operating conditions. A HTS rotor includes many more components compared to a conventional one, so tough geometric tolerances must be met to ensure robust performance of the system. All this gives a challenging task, which will be concluded by cold testing of the rotor in a test facility. Then the rotor will be delivered for assembly to the stator. In following machine tests the performance of the innovative HTS drive system will be demonstrated.

  12. Synchronous motor with HTS-2G wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezhin, D.; Ilyasov, R.; Kozub, S.; Kovalev, K.; Verzhbitsky, L.

    2014-05-01

    One of the applications of new high-temperature superconductor materials (HTS) is field coils for synchronous electrical machines. The use of YBCO 2G HTS tapes (HTS-2G) allows increasing of magnetic flux density in the air gap, which will increase the output power and reduce the dimensions of the motor. Such motors with improved characteristics can be successfully used in transportation as traction motor. In MAI-based "Center of Superconducting machines and devices" with the support of "Rosatom" has been designed and tested a prototype of the 50 kW synchronous motor with radial magnetic flux from a field-coils based on HTS-2G tapes. The experimental and theoretical results are presented.

  13. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, E.; Smith, M.

    2012-07-26

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  14. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  15. Integration of HTS Cables in the Future Grid of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Aanhaanen, G.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    Due to increasing power demand, the electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. The future transmission grid will obtain electrical power generated by decentralized renewable sources, together with large scale generation units located at the coastal region. In this way electrical power has to be distributed and transmitted over longer distances from generation to end user. Potential grid issues like: amount of distributed power, grid stability and electrical loss dissipation merit particular attention. High temperature superconductors (HTS) can play an important role in solving these grid problems. Advantages to integrate HTS components at transmission voltages are numerous: more transmittable power together with less emissions, intrinsic fault current limiting capability, lower ac loss, better control of power flow, reduced footprint, less magnetic field emissions, etc. The main obstacle at present is the relatively high price of HTS conductor. However as the price goes down, initial market penetration of several HTS components (e.g.: cables, fault current limiters) is expected by year 2015. In the full paper we present selected ways to integrate EHV AC HTS cables depending on a particular future grid scenario in the Netherlands.

  16. Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, G. S.

    2010-11-01

    A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

  17. Reliability Test of a 1-kW Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Hts Cable Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.-L.; Henzler, G. W.; Royal, J. H.; Billingham, J. F.

    2010-04-01

    The recent progress of a large Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler is reported based on 24/7 operation since August 2008 in a high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable application at American Electric Power's (AEP) Bixby Road substation in Columbus, OH. The 20-kW pressure wave generator (PWG) has been upgraded to a second generation design. The in-line configured pulse tube coldhead, rated at 1 kW at 77 K, was developed by Praxair. The objective of the continued testing at the HTS cable demonstration facility is to accumulate cryocooler operating hours and demonstrate system reliability. The cryocooler uses a parallel flow from the main vacuum subcooling refrigerator then both flows are supplied to the HTS cable inlet. The cryocooler operation has shown consistent results with satisfactory cooling performance. The field demonstrated thermodynamic efficiency is 15% of Carnot at 72 K.

  18. R&D ERL: HTS Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.; Muratore, J.; Plate, S.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative feature of the ERL project is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The HTS solenoid design offers many advantages because of several unique design features. Typically the solenoid is placed outside the cryostat which means that the beam gets significantly defused before a focusing element starts. In the current design, the solenoid is placed inside the cryostat which provides an early focusing structure and thus a significant reduction in the emittance of the electron beam. In addition, taking full advantage of the high critical temperature of HTS, the solenoid has been designed to reach the required field at {approx}77 K, which can be obtained with liquid nitrogen. This significantly reduces the cost of testing and allows a variety of critical pre-tests which would have been prohibitively expensive at 4 K in liquid helium because of the additional requirements of cryostat and associated facilities.

  19. US effort on HTS power transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, S.

    2011-11-01

    Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert's ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year's program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification, Dielectric system design approach, Dewar development for containing phase assemblies, cryo-cooling system design approach, etc. will be described. Finally; overall program schedule, critical milestone events, test plans and progress to date will be

  20. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. H. Kim, T. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source.

  1. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Maria L.; Dolganova, Irina N.; Gevorgyan, Narine; Guzman, Angela; Papoyan, Aram; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The ICTP smr2633: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications" (OPTICS-2014) http://indico.ictp.it/event/a13253/ was held in Yerevan and Ashtarak, Armenia, on 1-5 September 2014. The Symposium was organized by the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) with the collaboration of the SPIE Armenian Student Chapter, the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-Pyrkal, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the BMSTU SPIE & OSA student chapters. The International Symposium OPTICS-2014 was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics. This symposium "Optics and its Applications" was the First Official ICTP Scientific Event in Armenia. The presentations at OPTICS-2014 were centered on these topics: optical properties of nanostructures; quantum optics & information; singular optics and its applications; laser spectroscopy; strong field optics; nonlinear & ultrafast optics; photonics & fiber optics; optics of liquid crystals; and mathematical methods in optics.

  2. [Microsurgical 2nd toe transfer for catastrophic hand reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Placer, A; Lozano, Ja

    2007-01-01

    The correct reconstruction of the catastrophic hand requires complex surgical techniques. The microsurgical transference of a toe is indicated when all other reconstructive options are shown to be useless for the reconstruction of the required clamp function. In this clinical note we set out the case of a 32 year old man, who came to our accident and emergency department after suffering a traffic accident. After exploration the diagnosis was that of catastrophic left hand, among other policontusions. Urgent surgery was carried out, saving the maximum possible viable structures. The immediate result of this surgery was a hand with 1st, 4th and 5th functional fingers. As the essential clamp function between the 1st and 4th or 5th fingers was not totally satisfactory, we decided to reconstruct the 3rd finger of his hand with his ipsilateral 2nd toe. All pertinent studies to determine vascularisation of the flap were carried out in planning the surgery, and the microsurgical transfer was then realized, which was successful. Today, after a suitable rehabilitation, the patient has recovered a satisfactory function of heavy and fine clamp in the operated hand. Toe to hand transfer is a good option for finger reconstruction and its function. Rehabilitation is the key to functional recovery.

  3. Performance test of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor for industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Baik, S. K.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Lee, S. H.; Hong, J. P.; Jo, Y. S.; Ryu, K. S.

    2008-09-01

    This paper deals with development activities of high temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor at DOOSAN heavy industry and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) in Korea, and is sponsored by DAPAS program which is supported by Korean government. The final aim of the project is realization of HTS motor in the field of industry such as large driving pumps, fans and compressors for utility and industrial environments. At present time, 1 MW HTS motor is developed for the purpose to fully represent the design and manufacturing issues for the larger capacity machine. The number of pole and rotating speed of machine are 2 pole and 3600 rpm. The HTS field coil of the developed motor is cooled by way of neon thermosyphon mechanism and the stator coil is cooled by water through hollow copper conductor. This paper describes status of 1 MW HTS motor development, such as design, fabrication and performance test results, which was conducted at steady state in generator mode and motor mode.

  4. Progress in American Superconductor's HTS wire and optimization for fault current limiting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malozemoff, Alexis P.

    2016-11-01

    American Superconductor has developed composite coated conductor tape-shaped wires using high temperature superconductor (HTS) on a flexible substrate with laminated metal stabilizer. Such wires enable many applications, each requiring specific optimization. For example, coils for HTS rotating machinery require increased current density J at 25-50 K. A collaboration with Argonne, Brookhaven and Los Alamos National Laboratories and several universities has increased J using an optimized combination of precipitates and ion irradiation defects in the HTS. Major commercial opportunities also exist to enhance electric power grid resiliency by linking substations with distribution-voltage HTS power cables [10]. Such links provide alternative power sources if one substation's transmission-voltage power is compromised. But they must also limit fault currents which would otherwise be increased by such distribution-level links. This can be done in an HTS cable, exploiting the superconductor-to-resistive transition when current exceeds the wires' critical J. A key insight is that such transitions are usually nonuniform; so the wire must be designed to prevent localized hot spots from damaging the wire or even generating gas bubbles in the cable causing dielectric breakdown. Analysis shows that local heating can be minimized by increasing the composite tape's total thickness, decreasing its total resistance in the normal state and decreasing its critical J. This conflicts with other desirable wire characteristics. Optimization of these conflicting requirements is discussed.

  5. AC HTS Transmission Cable for Integration into the Future EHV Grid of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Aanhaanen, G.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    Due to increasing power demand, the electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. The future grid must be capable to transmit all the connected power. Power generation will be more decentralized like for instance wind parks connected to the grid. Furthermore, future large scale production units are expected to be installed near coastal regions. This creates some potential grid issues, such as: large power amounts to be transmitted to consumers from west to east and grid stability. High temperature superconductors (HTS) can help solving these grid problems. Advantages to integrate HTS components at Extra High Voltage (EHV) and High Voltage (HV) levels are numerous: more power with less losses and less emissions, intrinsic fault current limiting capability, better control of power flow, reduced footprint, etc. Today's main obstacle is the relatively high price of HTS. Nevertheless, as the price goes down, initial market penetration for several HTS components is expected by year 2015 (e.g.: cables, fault current limiters). In this paper we present a design of intrinsically compensated EHV HTS cable for future grid integration. Discussed are the parameters of such cable providing an optimal power transmission in the future network.

  6. Cancer and virus leads by HTS, chemical design and SEA data mining.

    PubMed

    Thepchatri, Pahk; Min, Jaeki; Ganesh, Thota; Du, Yuhong; Lewis, Iestyn; Kurtkaya, Serdar; Prussia, Andrew; Li, Lian; Sneed, Blossom; Plemper, Richard K; Fu, Haian; Liotta, Dennis C; Snyder, James P; Dingledine, Raymond; Sun, Aiming

    2009-01-01

    A variety of medicinal chemistry approaches can be used for the identification of hits, generation of leads and to accelerate the development of drug candidates. The Emory Chemical and Biology Discovery Center (ECBDC) has been an active participant in the NIH's high-throughput screening (HTS) endeavor to identify potent small molecule probes for poorly studied proteins. Several of Emory's projects relate to cancer or virus infection. We have chosen three successful examples including discovery of potent measles virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, development of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) blockers and identification of angiogenesis inhibitors using transgenic Zebrafish as a HTS model. In parallel with HTS, a unique component of the Emory virtual screening (VS) effort, namely, substructure enrichment analysis (SEA) program has been utilized in several cases.

  7. Cancer and Virus Leads by HTS, Chemical Design and SEA Data Mining

    PubMed Central

    Thepchatri, Pahk; Min, Jaeki; Ganesh, Thota; Du, Yuhong; Lewis, Iestyn; Kurtkaya, Serdar; Prussia, Andrew; Li, Lian; Plemper, Richard K.; Fu, Haian; Liotta, Dennis C.; Snyder, James P.; Dingledine, Raymond; Sun, Aiming

    2015-01-01

    A variety of medicinal chemistry approaches can be used for the identification of hits, generation of leads and to accelerate the development of drug candidates. The Emory Chemical and Biology Discovery Center (ECBDC) has been an active participant in the NIH’s high-throughput screening (HTS) endeavor to identify potent small molecule probes for poorly studied proteins. Several of Emory’s projects relate to cancer or virus infection. We have chosen three successful examples including discovery of potent measles virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, development of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) blockers and identification of angiogenesis inhibitors using transgenic Zebrafish as a HTS model. In parallel with HTS, a unique component of the Emory virtual screening (VS) effort, namely, substructure enrichment analysis (SEA) program has been utilized in several cases. PMID:19807668

  8. Total AC loss study of 2G HTS coils for fully HTS machine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Yuan, Weijia; Kvitkovic, Jozef; Pamidi, Sastry

    2015-11-01

    The application of HTS coils for fully HTS machines has become a new research focus. In the stator of an electrical machine, HTS coils are subjected to a combination of an AC applied current and AC external magnetic field. There is a phase shift between the AC current and AC magnetic field. In order to understand and estimate the total AC loss of HTS coils for electrical machines, we designed and performed a calorimetric measurement for a 2G HTS racetrack coil. Our measurement indicates that the total AC loss is greatly influenced by the phase shift between the applied current and the external magnetic field when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the tape surface. When the applied current and the external magnetic field are in phase, the total AC loss is the highest. When there is a 90 degree phase difference, the total AC loss is the lowest. In order to explain this phenomenon, we employ H formulation and finite element method to model the 2G HTS racetrack coil. Our calculation agrees well with experimental measurements. Two parameters are defined to describe the modulation of the total AC loss in terms of phase difference. The calculation further reveals that the influence of phase difference varies with magnetic field direction. The greatest influence of phase difference is in the perpendicular direction. The study provides key information for large-scale 2G HTS applications, e.g. fully HTS machines and superconducting magnetic energy storage, where the total AC loss subjected to both applied currents and external magnetic fields is a critical parameter for the design.

  9. PREFACE: 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO 2008'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, P.; Kolodziej, J. J.; Konior, J.; Szymonski, M.

    2009-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers presented at the 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO2008', that was held in Kraków, Poland, 25-28 June 2008. It was organized jointly by the Polish Chemical Society, Polish Physical Society, Polish Vacuum Society, and the Centre for Nanometer-scale Science and Advanced Materials (NANOSAM) of the Jagiellonian University. The meeting presentations were categorized into the following topics: 1. Nanomechanics and nanotribology 2. Characterization and manipulation in nanoscale 3. Quantum effects in nanostructures 4. Nanostructures on surfaces 5. Applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine 6. Nanotechnology in education 7. Industrial applications of nanotechnology, presentations of the companies 8. Nanoengineering and nanomaterials (international sessions shared with the fellows of Maria-Curie Host Fellowships within the 6th FP of the European Community Project 'Nano-Engineering for Expertise and Development, NEED') 9. Nanopowders 10. Carbon nanostructures and nanosystems 11. Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics 12. Nanomaterials in catalysis 13. Nanospintronics 14. Ethical, social, and environmental aspects of nanotechnology The Conference was attended by 334 participants. The presentations were delivered as 7 invited plenary lectures, 25 invited topical lectures, 78 oral and 108 poster contributions. Only 1/6 of the contributions presented during the Conference were submitted for publication in this Proceedings volume. From the submitted material, this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains 37 articles that were positively evaluated by independent referees. The Organizing Committee gratefully acknowledges all these contributions. We also thank all the referees of the papers submitted for the Proceedings for their timely and thorough work. We would like to thank all members of the National Program Committee for their work in the selection process of

  10. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Doughty, Christine; Gasperikova, Erika; Peterson, John; Conrad, Mark; Cook, Paul; Tiemi, Onishi

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  11. Highlights of the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamen; Fatima, Vayani; Fatima, Nazeefa; Das, Sayoni; Rahman, Farzana; Hassan, Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    Following the success of the 1 st Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK, a 2 nd Student Symposium took place on 7 th October 2015 at The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich, UK. This short report summarizes the main highlights from the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium. PMID:27239284

  12. Electrical parameter evaluation of a 1 MW HTS motor via analysis and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, H. J.; Kwon, W. S.; Park, G. S.

    2009-06-01

    A 1 MW class HTS (high-temperature superconducting) synchronous motor has been developed. Design concerns of the developed motor are focused on smaller machine size and higher efficiency than conventional motors or generators with the same rating simultaneously reducing expensive Bi-2223 HTS wire which is used for superconducting field coil carrying the operating current around 30 K (-243 °C). Influence of an important parameter, synchronous reactance, has been analyzed on the machine performances such as voltage variation and output power during motor and generator operation. The developed motor was also analyzed by three-dimensional electromagnetic FEM (finite element method) to get magnetic field distribution, inductance, electromagnetic stress and so forth. This motor is aimed to be utilized for industrial application such as large motors operating in large plants. The HTS field coil of the developed motor is cooled by way of Neon thermosiphon mechanism and the stator (armature) coil is cooled by water through hollow copper conductor. This paper also describes evaluation of some electrical parameters from performance test results which were obtained at steady state in generator and motor mode of our HTS machine.

  13. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Baer-Keeley, Melanie; Fortheringham, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development Conference was held in association with Earth Day 1997, five years after the first Interface Conference. Rapid population growth in California has intensified the inevitable conflict between land development and preservation of natural ecosystems. Sustainable development requires wise use of diminishing natural resources and, where possible, restoration of damaged landscapes. These Earth Week Celebrations brought together resource managers, scientists, politicians, environmental consultants, and concerned citizens in an effort to improve the communication necessary to maintain our natural biodiversity, ecosystem processes and general quality of life. As discussed by our keynote speaker, Michael Soule, the best predictor of habitat loss is population growth and nowhere is this better illustrated than in California. As urban perimeters expand, the interface between wildlands and urban areas increases. Few problems are more vexing than how to manage the fire prone ecosystems indigenous to California at this urban interface. Today resource managers face increasing challenges of dealing with this problem and the lead-off section of the proceedings considers both the theoretical basis for making decisions related to prescribed burning and the practical application. Habitat fragmentation is an inevitable consequence of development patterns with significant impacts on animal and plant populations. Managers must be increasingly resourceful in dealing with problems of fragmentation and the often inevitable consequences, including susceptibility to invasive oganisms. One approach to dealing with fragmentation problems is through careful landplanning. California is the national leader in the integration of conservation and economics. On Earth Day 1991, Governor Pete Wilson presented an environmental agenda that promised to create between land owners and environmentalists, agreements that would guarantee the protection of

  14. Structural modeling of HTS tapes and cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, N. C.; Chiesa, L.; Takayasu, M.

    2016-12-01

    Structural finite element analysis (FEA) has been used as an insightful tool to investigate the electromechanical behavior of HTS REBCO tapes and twisted stacked-tape cables under tension, torsion, bending and combined loads. A novel technique was developed for modeling the layered composite structure of the 2G tapes with structural solid-shell elements in ANSYS®. The FEA models produced detailed strain information for the REBCO superconducting layer which was then paired with an analytical model to predict the critical current performance of the 2G HTS tapes under various loads. Two commercially available HTS tapes (SuperPower and SuNAM) under tension, torsion and combined tension-torsion were first analyzed with FEA and compared with available experimental results at 77 K. A sharp critical current degradation was experienced at the yield strength of the tapes under tension and below a 100 mm twist-pitch under torsion. Combined tension-torsion loads had a more gradual degradation of critical current for twist-pitches of 115 mm or shorter but had a negligible difference compared to pure tension for longer twist-pitches. Using the structural solid-shell technique for modeling 2G tapes in ANSYS®, an FEA methodology for simulating full scale three-dimensional HTS stacked-tape cables under pure bending was created. A model of a Twisted-Stacked Tape Cable (TSTC), a configuration first proposed at MIT, was initially developed and then adapted to the slotted-core HTS Cable-In-Conduit Conductor produced by the ENEA laboratory in Italy. The numerical axial strain of the HTS REBCO tapes within the cables as calculated by FEA were found to agree with an analytical model for two cases: perfect-slip (frictionless) and no-slip (bonded). The ENEA CICC model was also compared with recent experimental critical current data at 77 K and was found to match best using a low friction coefficient of 0.02 indicating that the tapes within the cable freely slide with respect to each other

  15. HTS Magnets for Advanced Magnetoplasma Space Propulsion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carte, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R. Squire, J.P.; Schwenterly, S.W.

    1999-07-12

    Plasma rockets are being considered for both Earth-orbit and interplanetary missions because their extremely high exhaust velocity and ability to modulate thrust allow very efficient use of propellant mass. In such rockets, a hydrogen or helium plasma is RF-heated and confined by axial magnetic fields produced by coils around the plasma chamber. HTS coils cooled by the propellant are desirable to increase the energy efficiency of the system. We describe a set of prototype high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils that are being considered for the VASIMR ( Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) thruster proposed for testing on the Radiation Technology Demonstration (RTD) satellite. Since this satellite will be launched by the Space Shuttle, for safety reasons liquid helium will be used as propellant and coolant. The coils must be designed to operate in the space environment at field levels of 1 T. This generates a unique set of requirements. Details of the overall winding geometry and current density, as well as the challenging thermal control aspects associated with a compact, minimum weight design will be discussed.

  16. 5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

  17. 1st- and 2nd-order motion and texture resolution in central and peripheral vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Sperling, G.

    1995-01-01

    STIMULI. The 1st-order stimuli are moving sine gratings. The 2nd-order stimuli are fields of static visual texture, whose contrasts are modulated by moving sine gratings. Neither the spatial slant (orientation) nor the direction of motion of these 2nd-order (microbalanced) stimuli can be detected by a Fourier analysis; they are invisible to Reichardt and motion-energy detectors. METHOD. For these dynamic stimuli, when presented both centrally and in an annular window extending from 8 to 10 deg in eccentricity, we measured the highest spatial frequency for which discrimination between +/- 45 deg texture slants and discrimination between opposite directions of motion were each possible. RESULTS. For sufficiently low spatial frequencies, slant and direction can be discriminated in both central and peripheral vision, for both 1st- and for 2nd-order stimuli. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, at both retinal locations, slant discrimination is possible at higher spatial frequencies than direction discrimination. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, motion resolution decreases 2-3 times more rapidly with eccentricity than does texture resolution. CONCLUSIONS. (1) 1st- and 2nd-order motion scale similarly with eccentricity. (2) 1st- and 2nd-order texture scale similarly with eccentricity. (3) The central/peripheral resolution fall-off is 2-3 times greater for motion than for texture.

  18. Image processing for HTS SQUID probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, T.; Koetitz, R.; Itozaki, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawabe, U.

    2005-10-01

    An HTS SQUID probe microscope has been developed using a high-permeability needle to enable high spatial resolution measurement of samples in air even at room temperature. Image processing techniques have also been developed to improve the magnetic field images obtained from the microscope. Artifacts in the data occur due to electromagnetic interference from electric power lines, line drift and flux trapping. The electromagnetic interference could successfully be removed by eliminating the noise peaks from the power spectrum of fast Fourier transforms of line scans of the image. The drift between lines was removed by interpolating the mean field value of each scan line. Artifacts in line scans occurring due to flux trapping or unexpected noise were removed by the detection of a sharp drift and interpolation using the line data of neighboring lines. Highly detailed magnetic field images were obtained from the HTS SQUID probe microscope by the application of these image processing techniques.

  19. RADIATION RESISTANT HTS QUADRUPOLES FOR RIA.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA,R.; ANERELLA,M.; HARRISON,M.; ET AL.

    2004-10-03

    Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated doses comparable to those in nuclear reactors than in accelerators, and very high heat loads ({approx}15 kw) make the quadrupole magnets in the fragment separator one of the most challenging elements of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Removing large heat loads, protecting the superconducting coils against quenching, the long term survivability of magnet components, and in particular, insulation that can retain its functionality in such a harsh environment, are the major challenges associated with such magnets. A magnet design based on commercially available high temperature superconductor (HTS) and stainless steel tape insulation has been developed. HTS will efficiently remove these large heat loads and stainless steel can tolerate these large radiation doses. Construction of a model magnet has been started with several coils already built and tested. This paper presents the basic magnet design, results of the coil tests, the status and the future plans. In addition, preliminary results of radiation calculations are also presented.

  20. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  1. AC Losses of Prototype HTS Transmission Cables

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, J.A.; Dresner, L.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Olsen, S.K.; Sinha, U.; Tolbert, J.C.

    1998-09-13

    Since 1995 Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have jointly designed, built, and tested nine, l-m long, high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cable prototypes. This paper summarizes the AC loss measurements of five of the cables not reported elsewhere, and compares the losses with each other and with theory developed by Dresner. Losses were measured with both a calorimetric and an electrical technique. Because of the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes, the cables can be operated stably beyond their critical currents. The AC losses were measured in this region as well as below critical currents. Dresner's theory takes into account the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes and calculates the AC losses both below and above the critical current. The two sets of AC 10SS data agree with each other and with the theory quite welL In particular, at low currents of incomplete penetration, the loss data agree with the theoretical prediction of hysteresis loss based on only the outer two Iayers carrying the total current.

  2. First Russian long length HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Eduard P.; Vysotsky, Vitaly S.; Firsov, Valery P.

    2012-11-01

    The Russian R&D Program for superconducting power devices is underway, supported both by government and electric power companies. In this program R&D on HTS power cables is considered as most advanced and close to commercialization. In the framework of the program, several, heavily instrumented, 5 m cables have been tested following by the 30 m - 3 phase experimental power cable development and testing in 2008-2009. The latest achievement is development and testing of the first long length 3 × 200 m power cable with rating 1.5/2 kA-20 kV. In parallel with just the cable development the innovative cryogenic system has been developed as well for the cable cooling. The system is using neon as working substance and radial turbo-machines in refrigerator. Cooling power is up to ∼8 kW at 65 K, inter-maintenance time ∼30,000 h. The cryogenic pump with superconducting motor can be used to provide subcooled liquid nitrogen flow ∼0.1-1.5 kg/s at 0.1-2.5 MPa pressure. After extensive tests at special test facility, HTS power cable and cryogenic system are planning to be installed at some substation in Moscow utility grid. In this review some details about Russian HTS power application program, 200 m cable and cryogenic system designs and tests results are presented.

  3. THE UTILIZATION OF THE NTP-HTS DATA IN CHEMICAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of environmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project. To date, HTS results for a set of 1,408 compounds tested in 6 cell viability assays have been released via PubChem. This abstract explores herein the utility of the HTS data for predicting animal and human toxicity. To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of environmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project. To date, HTS results for a set of 1,408 compounds tested in 6 cell viability assays have been released via PubChem. This abstract explores herein the utility of the HTS data for predicting animal and human toxicity.

  4. Two applications of HTS technology on an airborne platform

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes two applications for HTS technology on an airborne platform. The first application is a RF front-end for an 8 to 40 GHz microwave/ millimeter-wave ESM system. The second application is a 2 to 4 GHz HTS Spiral Antenna Array System. The HTS microwave front-end unit consists of an HTS diplexer, and two low noise preamplifiers. The design demonstrates the benefits of HTS technology while providing a near-term insertion on a military airborne platform. The HTS Spiral Antenna Array System utilizes a 4 element conical spiral array (conventional technology) and a beamforming network consisting of a HTS power combiner, a HTS bandpass filter, HTS coupler, and a conventional technology low noise preamplifier. Both applications utilize low insertion loss HTS devices coupled with the cryogenic cooling of conventional low noise preamplifiers to lower the overall noise figure of the systems. The HTS Spiral Antenna Array System provides a 3 dB improvement in SNR over the best available conventional technology system. A 3 dB improvement in SNR can be compared to the doubling of the antenna aperture which provides a 3 dB gain increase, but at the expense of a decreased field of view. A 3 dB increase in SNR can also be viewed as a 41% increase in usable target range. The HTS antenna system maintains a wide field of view with a performance that approaches a steerable beam antenna. This is a cost effective approach for improving the collection capability of a system without the expense of developing a steerable beam antenna and the associated beam control hardware (tracker) and software.

  5. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  6. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  7. 42. OVERALL OF 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM OFF MILL NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. OVERALL OF 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM OFF MILL NO. 2. NOTE TRUSSWORK. SPACE TO RIGHT OF COLUMNS IS PART OF 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADDITION. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  8. 22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING MACHINE. LIGHT TABLE USED TO CHECK FOR CLOTH DEFECTS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  9. VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT CASCADES TOWARDS FILTRATION PLANT AND LOS ANGELES RESERVOIR - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Cascades Structures, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 27. INTERIOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 2ND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER SPACE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 2ND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER SPACE, LOOKING UP AT CIRCULAR MOTIF AND BANDS IN THE CEILING ABOVE THE ACOUSTICAL TILES - Ford Motor Company Plant, 700 South Union Street, Alexandria, Independent City, VA

  11. High output power electric motors with bulk HTS elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Kovalev, K. L.; Penkin, V. T.; Poltavets, V. N.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Akimov, I. I.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.; Krabbes, G.

    2003-04-01

    New types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk HTS (YBCO and Bi-Ag) elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, “trapped field” and composed synchronous HTS machines are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the single-domain and polycrystal YBCO ceramic samples and plate shape Bi-Ag elements. The test results of the series of hysteresis, reluctance, “trapped field” and composed with permanent magnets HTS motors with output power rating 0.1-18 kW and current frequency 50 and 400 Hz are given. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit of HTS motors is 4-7 times better than for conventional electric machines. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental characteristics of the developed HTS motors show that they are in good agreement. The test results for liquid nitrogen cryogenic pump system with hysteresis 500 W HTS motor are discussed. The designs and first test results of HTS motor operating in the media of liquid nitrogen with output power 100 kW and power factor more than 0.8 are given. Future development and applications of new types of HTS motors for aerospace technology, on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

  12. Superconducting Electric Machine with Permanent Magnets and Bulk HTS Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, A. V.; Vasich, P. S.; Dezhin, D. S.; Kovalev, L. K.; Kovalev, K. L.; Poltavets, V. N.; Penkin, V. T.

    Theoretical methods of calculating of two-dimensional magnetic fields, inductive parameters and output characteristics of the new type of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motors with a composite rotor are presented. The composite rotor has the structure containing HTS flat elements, permanent magnets and ferromagnetic materials. The developed calculation model takes into account the concentrations and physical properties of these rotor elements. The simulation results of experimental HTS motor with a composite rotor are presented. The application of new type of HTS motor in different constructions of industrial high dynamic drivers is discussed.

  13. Assessment of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) electric motors for rotorcraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doernbach, Jay

    1990-01-01

    The successful development of high temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. Applications of high temperature superconductors have been envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft and solar powered aircraft. The potential of HTS electric motors and generators for providing primary shaft power for rotorcraft propulsion is examined. Three different sized production helicopters were investigated; namely, the Bell Jet Ranger, the Sikorsky Black Hawk and the Sikorsky Super Stallion. These rotorcraft have nominal horsepower ratings of 500, 3600, and 13400 respectively. Preliminary results indicated that an all-electric HTS drive system produces an improvement in rotorcraft Takeoff Gross Weight (TOGW) for those rotorcraft with power ratings above 2000 horsepower. The predicted TOGW improvements are up to 9 percent for the medium-sized Sikorsky Black Hawk and up to 20 percent for the large-sized Sikorsky Super Stallion. The small-sized Bell Jet Ranger, however, experienced a penalty in TOGW with the all-electric HTS drive system.

  14. Magnetizing of permanent magnets using HTS bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole which contains the HTS bulk magnet generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnet plate inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the "rewritten" magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated.

  15. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 1(st)-2(nd) century CE southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Stephanie; Prowse, Tracy L; Herring, D Ann; Klunk, Jennifer; Kuch, Melanie; Duggan, Ana T; Bondioli, Luca; Holmes, Edward C; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-12-05

    The historical record attests to the devastation malaria exacted on ancient civilizations, particularly the Roman Empire [1]. However, evidence for the presence of malaria during the Imperial period in Italy (1st-5th century CE) is based on indirect sources, such as historical, epigraphic, or skeletal evidence. Although these sources are crucial for revealing the context of this disease, they cannot establish the causative species of Plasmodium. Importantly, definitive evidence for the presence of malaria is now possible through the implementation of ancient DNA technology. As malaria is presumed to have been at its zenith during the Imperial period [1], we selected first or second molars from 58 adults from three cemeteries from this time: Isola Sacra (associated with Portus Romae, 1st-3rd century CE), Velia (1st-2nd century CE), and Vagnari (1st-4th century CE). We performed hybridization capture using baits designed from the mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes of Plasmodium spp. on a prioritized subset of 11 adults (informed by metagenomic sequencing). The mtDNA sequences generated provided compelling phylogenetic evidence for the presence of P. falciparum in two individuals. This is the first genomic data directly implicating P. falciparum in Imperial period southern Italy in adults.

  16. Influence of AC external magnetic field on guidance force relaxation between HTS bulk and NdFeB guideway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Longcai; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiasu; Zheng, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle is one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. In such a system, the HTS bulks are always exposed to time-varying external magnetic field, which is generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. So it is required to study whether the guidance force of the bulks is influenced by the inhomogeneity. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of the guidance force relaxation between the HTS bulk and the NdFeB guideway by an experiment in which AC external magnetic field generated by an electromagnet was used to simulate the time-varying external magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the guideway. From the experiment results, it was found that the guidance force was decreased with the application of the AC external magnetic field, and the decay increased with the amplitude and was almost independent of the frequency.

  17. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  18. THE USE OF NTP-HTS DATA FOR PREDICTIVE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of envoronmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project. To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of envoronmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project.

  19. Development of HTS power cable using YBCO coated conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Yagi, Masashi; Hirano, Hironobu; Yamada, Yutaka; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-10-01

    Reductions of AC losses and of cost of HTS power cables are important to put it into practical power networks. Since an YBCO-coated-conductor (YBCO tape) has higher Jc and better magnetic property than a Bi2223-Ag-sheathed-tape, an AC power cable using YBCO tapes will obtain higher performance than XLPE-cables and HTS cables using BSCCO tapes in future. Especially, an YBCO HTS cable will be expected to become a higher economical cable than a Bi cable because an YBCO tape reduced its AC losses and its wire cost. We have started developing HTS power cables using YBCO tapes. Mechanical properties, superconducting properties and other electro magnetic properties of YBCO tapes have been measured to estimate the applicability to the HTS cable. Moreover, we have developed some technologies to bring out latent potentials of YBCO tapes.

  20. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  1. International Workshop on Cooling-system for HTS Applications 2015 (IWC-HTS 2015) 14-16 October 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, Yasuharu

    2016-12-01

    International Workshop on Cooling-system for HTS Applications 2015 (IWC-HTS 2015) was held on 14-16 October 2015 at Kunibiki Messe (Shimane Prefectural Convention Center), Matsue, Shimane, Japan. The workshop was organized by the local committee on behalf of Cryogenics and Superconductivity Society of Japan (CSSJ).

  2. Overview of the 2nd Gen 3.7m HIAD Static Load Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. T.; Kazemba, C. D.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Cassell, A. M.; Anderson, P.; Lowery, A.

    2015-01-01

    To support NASAs long term goal of landing humans on Mars, technologies which enable the landing of heavy payloads are being developed. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for human class payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current launch vehicle fairing limitations. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being explored to provide a mass and volume efficient solution to atmospheric entry, including Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). In October of 2014, a 3.7m HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection sys-tem (F-TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify the designs structural performance. The 3.7m HIAD structure was constructed in a 70 deg sphere-cone stacked-toroid configuration using eight inflatable tori, which were joined together using adhesives and high strength textile webbing to help distribute the loads throughout the inflatable structure. The inflatable structure was fabricated using 2nd generation structural materials that permit an increase in use temperature to 400 C+ as compared to the 250 C limitation of the 1st generation materials. In addition to the temperature benefit, these materials also offer a 40 reduction in structure mass. The 3.7m F-TPS was fabricated using high performance materials to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen during atmospheric entry. The F-TPS was constructed of 2nd generation TPS materials increasing its heating capability from 35W sq cm to over 100W sq cm. This test article is the first stacked-torus HIAD to be fabricated and tested with a 70 deg sphere-cone. All previous stacked-torus HIADs have employed a 60o sphere-cone. To perform the static load test series, a custom test fixture was constructed. The fixture consisted of a structural tub rim with enough height to allow for dis-placement of the inflatable structure as loads were applied. The tub rim was attached to the

  3. DOE performance indicators for 2nd quarter CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a Department-wide Performance Indicator (PI) Program for trending and analysis of operational data as directed by DOE Order 5480.26. The PI Program was established to provide a means for monitoring the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) performance of the DOE at the Secretary and other management levels. This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports generated for the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) by EG&G Idaho, Inc. to meet the requirements of the PI Program as directed by the DOE Standard (DOE-STD-1048-92). The information in this tenth quarterly report, while contributing to a historical database for supporting future trending analysis, does not at this time provide a sound basis for developing trend-related conclusions. In the future, it is expected that trending and analysis of operational data will enhance the safety culture in both DOE and contractor organizations by providing an early warning of deteriorating environment, safety, and health conditions. DOE-STD-1048-92 identifies four general areas of PIs. They are: Personnel Safety, Operational Incidents, Environment, and Management. These four areas have been subdivided into 26 performance indicators. Approximately 115 performance indicator control and distribution charts comprise the body of this report. A brief summary of PIs contained in each of these general areas is provided. The four EG&G facilities whose performance is charted herein are as follows: (1) The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), (2) The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), (3) The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), and (4) The Test Reactor Area (TRA) Hot Cells.

  4. Modeling and simulation of HTS cables for scattering parameter analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Su Sik; Lee, Geon Seok; Kwon, Gu-Young; Lee, Yeong Ho; Chang, Seung Jin; Lee, Chun-Kwon; Sohn, Songho; Park, Kijun; Shin, Yong-June

    2016-11-01

    Most of modeling and simulation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are inadequate for high frequency analysis since focus of the simulation's frequency is fundamental frequency of the power grid, which does not reflect transient characteristic. However, high frequency analysis is essential process to research the HTS cables transient for protection and diagnosis of the HTS cables. Thus, this paper proposes a new approach for modeling and simulation of HTS cables to derive the scattering parameter (S-parameter), an effective high frequency analysis, for transient wave propagation characteristics in high frequency range. The parameters sweeping method is used to validate the simulation results to the measured data given by a network analyzer (NA). This paper also presents the effects of the cable-to-NA connector in order to minimize the error between the simulated and the measured data under ambient and superconductive conditions. Based on the proposed modeling and simulation technique, S-parameters of long-distance HTS cables can be accurately derived in wide range of frequency. The results of proposed modeling and simulation can yield the characteristics of the HTS cables and will contribute to analyze the HTS cables.

  5. Magnet design with 100-kA HTS STARS conductors for the helical fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, N.; Terazaki, Y.; Ito, S.; Tamura, H.; Hamaguchi, S.; Mito, T.; Hashizume, H.; Sagara, A.

    2016-12-01

    The high-temperature superconducting (HTS) option is employed for the conceptual design of the LHD-type helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1. The 100-kA-class STARS (Stacked Tapes Assembled in Rigid Structure) conductor is used for the magnet system including the continuously wound helical coils. Protection of the magnet system in case of a quench is a crucial issue and the hot-spot temperature during an emergency discharge is estimated based on the zero-dimensional and one-dimensional analyses. The number of division of the coil winding package is examined to limit the voltage generation. For cooling the HTS magnet, helium gas flow is considered and its feasibility is examined by simple analysis as a first step.

  6. Protecting Superconducting HTS-Antennas by Meta-Material Cloaks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0101 PROTECTING SUPERCONDUCTING HTS-ANTENNAS BY META-MATERIAL CLOAKS Horst Rogalla REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO THE...Superconducting HTS-Antennas by Meta-Material Cloaks Contract/Grant #: FA9550-10-1-0413 Reporting Period: 1 Aug 2010 to 31 Jan 2014 Protecting...Superconducting HTS-Antennas by Meta-Material Cloaks Frank Trang1, Horst Rogalla1, 2, and Zoya Popović1 1Dept.of ECEE, University of Colorado, Boulder

  7. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    DOEpatents

    Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, Donald L.; Dominguez, Frank

    1998-01-01

    A system for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source.

  8. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    DOEpatents

    Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Dominguez, F.

    1998-12-22

    A system is disclosed for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source. 3 figs.

  9. 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of China (ESC) and Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME) hosted the 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases in Beijing, China, May 23-27, 2011. The theme of the Forum was “Impact of global climate ch...

  10. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This NERL-Cincinnati publication, “Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition” was prepared as the continuation of an initiative to gather together under a single cover a compendium of standardized laborato...

  11. Stem cells and cancer immunotherapy: Arrowhead’s 2nd annual cancer immunotherapy conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from academia and industry gathered on April 4 and 5, 2013, in Washington DC at the Arrowhead’s 2nd Annual Cancer Immunotherapy Conference. Two complementary concepts were discussed: cancer “stem cells” as targets and therapeutic platforms based on stem cells.

  12. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Maxfield, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. Evaluation of a Hand Washing Program for 2nd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program.…

  14. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  15. The Effect of Using Computer Edutainment on Developing 2nd Primary Graders' Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Abdel Raheem, Azza Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempted to examine the effect of using computer edutainment on developing 2nd graders' writing skills. The study comprised thirty-second year primary stage enrolled in Bani Hamad primary governmental school, Minia governorate. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one…

  16. Passive radiative cooling of a HTS coil for attitude orbit control in micro-spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamori, Takaya; Ozaki, Naoya; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel radiative cooling system for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil for an attitude orbit control system in nano- and micro-spacecraft missions. These days, nano-spacecraft (1-10 kg) and micro-spacecraft (10-100 kg) provide space access to a broader range of spacecraft developers and attract interest as space development applications. In planetary and high earth orbits, most previous standard-size spacecraft used thrusters for their attitude and orbit control, which are not available for nano- and micro-spacecraft missions because of the strict power consumption, space, and weight constraints. This paper considers orbit and attitude control methods that use a superconducting coil, which interacts with on-orbit space plasmas and creates a propulsion force. Because these spacecraft cannot use an active cooling system for the superconducting coil because of their mass and power consumption constraints, this paper proposes the utilization of a passive radiative cooling system, in which the superconducting coil is thermally connected to the 3 K cosmic background radiation of deep space, insulated from the heat generation using magnetic holders, and shielded from the sun. With this proposed cooling system, the HTS coil is cooled to 60 K in interplanetary orbits. Because the system does not use refrigerators for its cooling system, the spacecraft can achieve an HTS coil with low power consumption, small mass, and low cost.

  17. Power electronics performance in cryogenic environment: evaluation for use in HTS power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Valtchev, S.; Pina, J.; Gonçalves, A.; Ventim Neves, M.; Rodrigues, A. L.

    2008-02-01

    Power electronics (PE) plays a major role in electrical devices and systems, namely in electromechanical drives, in motor and generator controllers, and in power grids, including high-voltage DC (HVDC) power transmission. PE is also used in devices for the protection against grid disturbances, like voltage sags or power breakdowns. To cope with these disturbances, back-up energy storage devices are used, like uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and flywheels. Some of these devices may use superconductivity. Commercial PE semiconductor devices (power diodes, power MOSFETs, IGBTs, power Darlington transistors and others) are rarely (or never) experimented for cryogenic temperatures, even when designed for military applications. This means that its integration with HTS power devices is usually done in the hot environment, raising several implementation restrictions. These reasons led to the natural desire of characterising PE under extreme conditions, e. g. at liquid nitrogen temperatures, for use in HTS devices. Some researchers expect that cryogenic temperatures may increase power electronics' performance when compared with room-temperature operation, namely reducing conduction losses and switching time. Also the overall system efficiency may increase due to improved properties of semiconductor materials at low temperatures, reduced losses, and removal of dissipation elements. In this work, steady state operation of commercial PE semiconductors and devices were investigated at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. Performances in cryogenic and room temperatures are compared. Results help to decide which environment is to be used for different power HTS applications.

  18. AC loss evaluation of an HTS insert for high field magnet cooled by cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, Kazuhiro; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2016-12-01

    AC losses in a high temperature superconducting (HTS) insert coil for 25-T cryogen-free superconducting magnet during its initial energization are numerically calculated under the assumption of slab approximation. The HTS insert consisting of 68 single pancakes wound using coated conductors generates a central magnetic field of 11.5 T in addition to the contribution of 14.0 T from a set of low temperature superconducting (LTS) outsert coils. Both the HTS insert and the LTS coils are cooled using cryocoolers, and energized simultaneously up to the central field of 25.5 T with a constant ramp rate for 60 min. The influences of the magnitudes and orientations of locally applied magnetic fields, magnetic interactions between turns and transport currents flowing in the windings are taken into account in the calculations of AC losses. The locally applied fields are separated into axial and radial components, and the individual contributions of these field components to the AC losses are simply summed up to obtain the total losses. The AC losses due to the axial fields become major in the beginning of energization, whereas the total losses monotonically increase with time after the AC losses due to the radial fields become major.

  19. HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, F.A.; Chorey, C.M.; Bhasin, K.B.

    1994-12-31

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and space-based systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory`s High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment II (HTSSE-II). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  20. HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, F. A.; Chorey, C. M.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1995-01-01

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and spacebased systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory's High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment 2 (HTSSE-2). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  1. Utilisation of 2nd Generation Web Technologies in Master Level Vocational Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tóth, Péter

    2009-01-01

    The Masters level Opportunities and Technological Innovation in Vocational Teacher Education project (project site: http://motivate.tmpk.bmf.hu/) aims to develop the use and management of virtual learning environments in the area of vocational teacher training, drawing on a well established international partnership of institutions providing both…

  2. Performance of 2nd Generation BaBar Resistive Plate Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Anulli, F.; Baldini, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Cheng, C.H.; Lange, D.J.; Wright, D.M.; Messner, R.; Wisniewski, William J.; Pappagallo, M.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Capra, R.; /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Oregon U. /UC, Riverside /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-07-12

    The BaBar detector has operated nearly 200 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), constructed as part of an upgrade of the forward endcap muon detector, for the past two years. The RPCs experience widely different background and luminosity-driven singles rates (0.01-10 Hz/cm{sup 2}) depending on position within the endcap. Some regions have integrated over 0.3 C/cm{sup 2}. RPC efficiency measured with cosmic rays is high and stable. The average efficiency measured with beam is also high. However, a few of the highest rate RPCs have suffered efficiency losses of 5-15%. Although constructed with improved techniques and minimal use of linseed oil, many of the RPCs, which are operated in streamer mode, have shown increased dark currents and noise rates that are correlated with the direction of the gas flow and the integrated current. Studies of the above aging effects are presented and correlated with detector operating conditions.

  3. Reed canary grass as a feedstock for 2nd generation bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Uusitalo, Jaana; Pahkala, Katri; Kontturi, Markku; Viikari, Liisa; Weymarn, Niklas von; Siika-Aho, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of reed canary grass, harvested in the spring or autumn, and barley straw were studied. Steam pretreated materials were efficiently hydrolysed by commercial enzymes with a dosage of 10-20FPU/g d.m. Reed canary grass harvested in the spring was hydrolysed more efficiently than the autumn-harvested reed canary grass. Additional β-glucosidase improved the release of glucose and xylose during the hydrolysis reaction. The hydrolysis rate and level of reed canary grass with a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase could be improved by supplementation of purified enzymes. The addition of CBH II improved the hydrolysis level by 10% in 48hours' hydrolysis. Efficient mixing was shown to be important for hydrolysis already at 10% dry matter consistency. The highest ethanol concentration (20g/l) and yield (82%) was obtained with reed canary grass at 10% d.m. consistency.

  4. Screening for an Allergic Response to 2nd Generation Biofuel Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for March 2014 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting The use of cellulosic biofuels crops can potentially reduce our carbon footprint. However, they may have unintended ecological and health effects such as increased competitiveness and allergenicity...

  5. Main Engine Prototype Development for 2nd Generation RLV RS-83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilja, John; Fisher, Mark; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation reports on the NASA project to develop a prototype for RS-83 engine designed for use on reusable launch vehicles (RLV). Topics covered include: program objectives, overview schedule, organizational chart, integrated systems engineering processes, requirement analysis, catastrophic engine loss, maintainability analysis tools, and prototype design analysis.

  6. HTS electrical machines with YBCO bulk and Ag-BSCCO plate-shape HTS elements: recent results and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.

    2001-05-01

    Novel types of electric HTS motors with the rotor containing bulk YBCO elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance “trapped field” and composed HTS motors are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the multi-domain and single-domain YBCO ceramic samples. The test results of the series of these HTS motors with output power 1-20 kW and current frequency 50 and 400 Hz are given. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit is four to five times better then for conventional electric machines. The design of a new high power HTS motor operating in the liquid nitrogen with output power 200 kW (and more) is discussed. Future applications of new types of HTS motors for airspace and on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

  7. First order sigma-delta modulator in HTS bicrystal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruck, B.; Chong, Y.; Dittmann, R.; Siegel, M.

    1999-11-01

    We have designed, fabricated and successfully tested a first-order sigma-delta modulator using a High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) multi-layer technology with bicrystal Josephson junctions. The circuit has been fabricated on an SrTiO 3 bicrystal substrate. The trilayer was fabricated by laser deposition and high-pressure sputtering. The bottom layer served as a superconducting groundplane. The Josephson junctions were formed at the bicrystal line in the upper layer. The integrator resistance has been made from a Pd/Au thin film. The circuit consists of a Single Flux Quantum (SFQ) pulse generator, a Josephson transmission line (JTL), a comparator, an integrator and an output stage. The correct operation of the modulator has been tested using dc and low frequency ac measurements. The linearity of the modulator was studied by measuring the harmonic distortions of a 19.5 kHz sine wave input signal. From the recorded spectrum, a minimum resolution of at least 6 bits can be estimated. This accuracy was limited by the noise of the preamplifier. The correct operation of the current feedback loop was demonstrated by cutting the feedback inductance.

  8. Development of High Capacity Split Stirling Cryocooler for HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Kenta; Nakano, Kyosuke; Hiratsuka, Yoshikatsu

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) developed a high-power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and fault current limiters. The experimental results of a prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in September 2013. For a U-type expander, the cooling capacity was 151 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 4 kW. Correspondingly, the coefficient of performance (COP) was about 0.038. However, the efficiency of the cryocooler is required to be COP > 0.1 and it was found that, theoretically, it is difficult to further improve the efficiency of a pulse tube cryocooler because the workflow generated at the hot end of the pulse tube cannot be recovered. Therefore, it was decided to change the expander to a free-piston type from a pulse tube type. A prototype was developed and preliminary experiments were conducted. A cooling capacity of 120 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 2.15 kW with corresponding COP of 0.056, was obtained. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  9. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.4: Vortex Transport by Uniform Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d. The CESE method is a time accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist, the 2nd-order accurate version was used. In regards to the ez4d code, it is an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available. As part of its architecture, ez4d has the capability to utilize multi-thread and Messaging Passage Interface (MPI) for parallel runs.

  10. A Communications Guide for Sustainable Development: How Interested Parties Become Partners, 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Hund, Gretchen; Engel-Cox, Jill A.

    2016-03-06

    The 2nd edition is an updated version plus an e-book. This book was developed to assist organizations in designing and managing their communication and stakeholder involvement programs. The guidebook describes a step-by-step approach, provides case studies, and presents tools to consider. The book uses a scenario approach to outline changes an organization may confront, and provides a menu of communication and engagement activities that support organizational decision making.

  11. Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Prague 2004

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P; Johnston, K; Meeuwisse, W; Aubry, M; Cantu, R; Dvorak, J; Graf-Baumann, T; Kelly, J; Lovell, M; Schamasch, P

    2005-01-01

    In November 2001, the 1st International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was held in Vienna, Austria to provide recommendations for the improvement of safety and health of athletes who suffer concussive injuries in ice hockey, football (soccer), and other sports. The 2nd International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was organised by the same group and held in Prague, Czech Republic in November 2004. It resulted in a revision and update of the Vienna consensus recommendations, which are presented here.

  12. Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Prague 2004

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P; Johnston, K; Meeuwisse, W; Aubry, M; Cantu, R; Dvorak, J; Graf-Baumann, T; Kelly, J; Lovell, M; Schamasch, P

    2005-01-01

    In November 2001, the 1st International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was held in Vienna, Austria to provide recommendations for the improvement of safety and health of athletes who suffer concussive injuries in ice hockey, football (soccer), and other sports. The 2nd International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was organised by the same group and held in Prague, Czech Republic in November 2004. It resulted in a revision and update of the Vienna consensus recommendations, which are presented here. PMID:15793085

  13. Graphical shapes of the 2nd type singularities of a 3-RR̠R planar mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buium, F.; Duca, C.; Doroftei, I.; Leohchi, D.

    2016-08-01

    This paper intends to discuss about singularity curves of 2nd type inside the workspace of a 3R̠RR planar parallel mechanism used as robot structure. In order to attain this goal we will use certain variation of the links dimensional parameters. This characterization of the mechanism singularities located inside mechanism workspace depends on the dimensional parameters and can be useful in mechanism designing accorded to some functional particularities in the sense that it can help in avoiding singular configurations.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  15. Enhanced quench propagation in 2G-HTS coils co-wound with stainless steel or anodised aluminium tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez-Chico, A. B.; Martínez, E.; Angurel, L. A.; Navarro, R.

    2016-08-01

    Early quench detection and thermal stability of superconducting coils are of great relevance for practical applications. Magnets made with second generation high temperature superconducting (2G-HTS) tapes present low quench propagation velocities and therefore slow voltage development and high local temperature rises, which may cause irreversible damage. Since quench propagation depends on the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity, this may be used to achieve an improvement of the thermal stability and robustness of 2G-HTS coils. On pancake type coils, the thermal conductivity along the tapes (coil’s azimuthal direction) is mostly fixed by the 2G-HTS tape characteristics, so that the reduction of anisotropy relies on the improvement of the radial thermal conductivity, which depends on the used materials between superconducting tapes, as well as on the winding and impregnation processes. In this contribution, we have explored two possibilities for such anisotropy reduction: by using anodised aluminium or stainless steel tapes co-wound with the 2G-HTS tapes. For all the analysed coils, critical current distribution, minimum quench energy values and both tangential and radial quench propagation velocities at different temperatures and currents are reported and compared with the results of similar coils co-wound with polyimide (Kapton®) tapes.

  16. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  17. Development of fetal intestinal length during 2nd-trimester in normal and pathologic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Marnerides, Andreas; Ghazi, Sam; Sundberg, Anders; Papadogiannakis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Linear growth of the human fetal gastrointestinal tract is not often discussed in the literature, and little is known about the effects of chromosomal abnormalities and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on intestinal length, especially during the 2nd trimester. Accurate evaluation of intestinal length and knowledge of normal and reference values are of clinical importance. For example, intestinal resection may be necessary in preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis or mid-gut volvulus, and the surgeon should use data to be judicious in the amount removed. Linear measurements are essential in evaluating fetal development ultrasonographically and are an integral part of the postmortem examination. The intestinal lengths of 203 2nd-trimester fetuses and premature infants were measured. Small intestine length (SIL), colon length (CL), total bowel length (TBL; TBL  =  SIL + CL), and the length of the appendix (AL) increased with gestational age. No differences between the genders were observed. Colon length increased secondary to maceration, but no such effects were shown on SIL, TBL, or AL. No differences were shown in relation to IUGR. Small intestine length, CL, and TBL, but not AL, were shorter in fetuses with trisomy 21. Appendix length was not affected by any of the studied factors. We propose that the measurement of the length of the appendix may be used as an additional parameter for the postmortem evaluation of gestational age. Furthermore, its assessment may have potential as an ultrasonographic indicator of gestational age, particularly for the 2nd trimester.

  18. Healing of rat mouth mucosa after irradiation with CO2, Nd:YAG, and CO2-Nd:YAG combination lasers.

    PubMed

    Luomanen, M; Rauhamaa-Mäkinen, R; Meurman, J H; Kosloff, T; Tiitta, O

    1994-08-01

    The healing process of wounds made by a combination laser was studied in 90 rats. The laser system enabled both separate and combined use of CO2 and Nd:YAG laser irradiations. The laser wounds and the control excision wounds made by alligator forceps appeared on both sides of the tongue. Specimens from the wound sites were taken immediately, 6 h, and 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 21, 28, and 42 days after surgery. The wound-healing process was studied by macroscopic evaluation before preparing the specimens for light microscopy. Some differences were noted in the wound-healing process among the three groups into which the experimental animals were divided. Tissue coagulation damage was most extensive in the Nd:YAG laser sites, where it was observed in its full extent 4 days after surgery. Epithelial cells were seen to begin to proliferate in all the wounds 6 h after surgery. Re-epithelialization was completed by between 7 (CO2) and 21 days (Nd:YAG) at all the wound sites. The inflammatory cell infiltration was more prominent in the Nd:YAG and the CO2-Nd:YAG combination laser wounds than in the CO2 and excision wounds during healing. Tissue regeneration occurred faster with less contraction in the combination CO2-Nd:YAG wounds than in Nd:YAG wounds. The best macroscopic healing result was seen in the CO2 wound sites. The combination laser was effective both at cutting and at coagulating tissue. Combining the CO2 and Nd:YAG laser irradiation into one beam resulted in a greater incision depth than what could have been expected from using the two lasers separately.

  19. 2G HTS wires made on 30 μm thick Hastelloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, A.; Zhang, Y.; Knoll, A. R.; Abraimov, D.; Brownsey, P.; Kasahara, M.; Carota, G. M.; Nakasaki, R.; Cameron, J. B.; Schwab, G.; Hope, L. V.; Schmidt, R. M.; Kuraseko, H.; Fukushima, T.; Hazelton, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    REBCO (RE = rare earth) based high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires are now being utilized for the development of electric and electromagnetic devices for various industrial, scientific and medical applications. In the last several years, the increasing efforts in using the so-called second generation (2G) HTS wires for some of the applications require a further increase in their engineering current density (J e). The applications are those typically related to high magnetic fields where the higher J e of a REBCO wire, in addition to its higher irreversibility fields and higher mechanical strength, is already a major advantage over other superconducting wires. An effective way to increase the J e is to decrease the total thickness of a wire, for which using a thinner substrate becomes an obvious and attractive approach. By using our IBAD-MOCVD (ion beam assisted deposition-metal organic chemical vapor deposition) technology we have successfully made 2G HTS wires using a Hastelloy® C276 substrate that is only 30 μm in thickness. By using this thinner substrate instead of the typical 50 μm thick substrate and with a same critical current (I c), the J e of a wire can be increased by 30% to 45% depending on the copper stabilizer thickness. In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of the 2G HTS wires made on the 30 μm thick Hastelloy® C276 substrate. It was shown that with the optimization in the processing protocol, the surface of the thinner Hastelloy® C276 substrate can be readily electropolished to the quality needed for the deposition of the buffer stack. Same in the architecture as that on the standard 50 μm thick substrate, the buffer stack made on the 30 μm thick substrate showed an in-plane texture with a Δϕ of around 6.7° in the LaMnO3 cap layer. Low-temperature in-field transport measurement results suggest that the wires on the thinner substrate had achieved equivalent superconducting performance, most importantly the I

  20. Modelling ac ripple currents in HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhihan; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Dc transmission using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) offers a promising solution to the globally growing demand for effective, reliable and economic transmission of green energy up to the gigawatt level over very long distances. The credible estimation of the losses and thereby the heat dissipation involved, where ac ripples (introduced in rectification/ac-dc conversion) are viewed as a potential source of notable contribution, is highly essential for the rational design of practical HTS dc transmission cables and corresponding cryogenic systems to fulfil this demand. Here we report a targeted modelling study into the ac losses in a HTS CC subject to dc and ac ripple currents simultaneously, by solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite element method (FEM) in the commercial software package COMSOL. It is observed that the instantaneous loss exhibits only one peak per cycle in the HTS CC subject to sinusoidal ripples, given that the amplitude of the ac ripples is smaller than approximately 20% of that of the dc current. This is a distinct contrast to the usual observation of two peaks per cycle in a HTS CC subject to ac currents only. The unique mechanism is also revealed, which is directly associated with the finding that, around any local minima of the applied ac ripples, the critical state of -J c is never reached at the edges of the HTS CC, as it should be according to the Bean model. When running further into the longer term, it is discovered that the ac ripple loss of the HTS CC in full-wave rectification decays monotonically, at a speed which is found to be insensitive to the frequency of the applied ripples within our targeted situations, to a relatively low level of approximately 1.38 × 10-4 W m-1 in around 1.7 s. Comparison between this level and other typical loss contributions in a HTS dc cable implies that ac ripple currents in HTS CCs should only be considered as a minor source of dissipation in superconducting dc

  1. Method for Determining Local Current Density in 2G HTS Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bludova, A. I.

    Practically important problem is to determine the density and direction of 2G HTS induced currents at each point on the tape in order to examine its local deviations. This problem is resolved indirectly by spatial measurement of generated magnetic field with a scanning Hall sensor at a given height above the tape surface. Current density is subsequently determined by the Biot-Savart law inversion in Fourier domain. Tikhonov regularization is used in order to increase precision. Method is verified with the model current density reconstruction. Optimal calculation parameters and resulting precision are described.

  2. HTS and PCT Reliability of Chips and Flex Substrates Assembled Using a Thermosonic Flip-Chip Bonding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Cheng-Li; Kang, Min-Yi

    2012-09-01

    This study assesses the high-temperature storage (HTS) test and the pressure-cooker test (PCT) reliability of an assembly of chips and flexible substrates. After the chips were bonded onto the flexible substrates, specimens were utilized to assess the HTS test and PCT reliability. After the PCT and HTS tests, the die-shear test was applied to examine changes in die-shear forces. The microstructure of the test specimens was analyzed to evaluate reliability and to identify possible failure mechanisms. When the duration of the HTS test was increased, the percentage of gold bumps that peeled off from the surface of the copper pads on the chip side increased, and a crack was present at the bonding interface between the gold bumps and chip bond pads. This crack was due to thermal stress generated during the HTS test, and degraded the die-shear force of the assembly of chips and flexible substrates. After the PCT, the crack was present at the interface between deposited layers of copper electrodes after the specimens were subjected to the PCT for various durations. Moisture penetrated into the deposited layers of the copper electrodes, deposited layers lost their adhesion, and the crack progressed from the corner into the central bond area as the test duration increased. To improve the PCT reliability of assemblies of chips and flexible substrates using the thermosonic flip-chip bonding process, one must prevent moisture from penetrating into deposited layers of copper electrodes and prevent crack formation at the interface between nickel and copper layers. Underfill would be an effective approach to prevent moisture from penetrating into deposited layers during the PCT, thereby improving the reliability of the samples during the PCT.

  3. Monolithic HTS microwave phase shifter and other devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.M.; Kobayashi, J.H.; Guillory, E.B.; Pettiette-Hall, C.; Burch, J.F. )

    1992-08-01

    We describe a monolithic high-temperature superconductor (HTS) phase shifter based on the distributed Josephson inductance (DJI) design integrated monolithically into a 10-GHz microstrip line. This microwave circuit incorporates >1000 HTS rf SQUIDS. Recent data demonstrate the performance of this broadband HTS circuit. We observed phase shifts greater than 150[degrees] in resonant structures, and 20[degrees] in broadband circuits. The nonlinear inductance of the superconducting transmission line can be used for other novel applications, including parametric amplification. A comparison of the DJI circuit to a series array of Josephson elements (used for pulse sharpening) will contrast these two new and exciting nonlinear transmission line circuits. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Loss analysis of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, H. J.; Kwon, W. S.; Park, G. S.

    2009-03-01

    The HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) synchronous motor has advantages over the conventional synchronous motor such as smaller size and higher efficiency. Higher efficiency is due to smaller loss than the conventional motor, so it is important to do loss analysis in order to develop a machine with higher efficiency. This paper deals with machine losses those are dissipated in each part of a HTS synchronous motor. These losses are analyzed theoretically and compared with loss data obtained from experimental results of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor. Each machine loss is measured based on IEEE 115 standard and the results are analyzed and considered based on the manufacturing of the test machine.

  5. HTS power lead testing at the Fermilab magnet test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rabehl, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has tested high-temperature superconductor (HTS) power leads for cryogenic feed boxes to be placed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) interaction regions and at the new BTeV C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron. A new test facility was designed and operated, successfully testing 20 pairs of HTS power leads for the LHC and 2 pairs of HTS power leads for the BTeV experiment. This paper describes the design and operation of the cryogenics, process controls, data acquisition, and quench management systems. Results from the facility commissioning are included, as is the performance of a new insulation method to prevent frost accumulation on the warm ends of the power leads.

  6. A silver-bearing, High-Temperature, Superconducting (HTS) paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, William A.

    1990-02-01

    A substantial set of device applications awaits development of a workable, durable, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) paint. Such a paint should be truly superconducting with its critical temperature T sub c greater than 77K. For most of these applications, a high critical current (J sub c) is not required, although probably desirable. A process is described which can be used to produce silver-bearing HTS paint coatings on many engineering materials. Preliminary tests have shown good adherence to several ceramics and the ability to meet the superconducting criteria. Moreover, the coatings withstand multiple thermal cycling and stability under laboratory ambient storage conditions for periods of at least several months.

  7. Review of activities in USA on HTS materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    Rapid progress in attaining practical applications of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) has been made since the discovery of these new materials. Many critical parameters influencing HTS powder synthesis and wire processing have been identified through a combination of fundamental exploration and applied research. The complexity of these novel materials with regard to phase behavior and physical properties has become evident as a result of these careful studies. Achieving optimal mechanical and superconducting properties in wires and tapes will require further understanding and synergy among several different technical disciplines. Highlights of efforts towards producing practical superconductors for electric power applications based on rare earth-, bismuth-, and thallium-based systems are reviewed.

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions and the overshoot ratio change resulting from the implementation of 2nd Energy Master Plan in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The direction of the energy policies of the country is important in the projection of environmental impacts of the country. The greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of the energy sector in South Korea is very huge, about 600 MtCO2e in 2011. Also the carbon footprint due to the energy consumption contributes to the ecological footprint is also large, more than 60%. Based on the official plans (the national greenhouse gases emission reduction target for 2030 (GHG target for 2030) and the 2nd Energy Master Plan (2nd EMP)), several scenarios were proposed and the sensitivity of the GHG emission amount and 'overshoot ratio' which is the ratio of ecological footprint to biocapacity were estimated. It was found that to meet the GHG target for 2030 the ratio of non-emission energy for power generation should be over 71% which would be very difficult. We also found that the overshoot ratio would increase from 5.9 in 2009 to 7.6 in 2035. Thus, additional efforts are required to reduce the environmental burdens in addition to optimize the power mix configuration. One example is the conversion efficiency in power generation. If the conversion efficiency in power generation rises up 50% from the current level, 40%, the energy demand and resultant carbon dioxide emissions would decrease about 10%. Also the influence on the environment through changes in consumption behavior, for example, the diet choice is expected to be meaningful.

  9. Mars Curriculum for K-12 Science Education, 2nd Edition, Making Tracks on Mars Teacher Resource and Activity Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubele, J. C.; Stanley, J.; Grochowski, A.; Jones, K.; Aragon, J.

    2012-03-01

    A Mars K-12 curriculum, created by the New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, is now in 2nd edition DVD, approved by NASA educational review, 508 compliant to ensure accessibility for people with disabilities, and applicable to MSL.

  10. Test Results for a 25 Meter Prototype Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable for Project Hydra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, C. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; Demko, J. A.; Ellis, A.; James, D. R.; Gouge, M. J.; Tuncer, E.

    2010-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its HTS cable test facility. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture between Southwire and nkt cables. System integration and HTS wire were provided by American Superconductor Corporation who was the overall team leader of the project. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ˜200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3-Φ) HTS Triax™ design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase (7967 V phase-to-ground) and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  11. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  12. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  13. 2ND EF Conference in Turbulent Heat Transfer, Manchester, UK 1998. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    1WB.7C 1W1UC •v*ataj «vnlMlai i-V 1 iBriMHI MWBlaj fprriatfa ■ HSV Of»U» Ia»fUC T-4UC : BBIW OIJIHIIM 1 *>IMC T»«MC (g) (h) Figure 7 Local...t’ k THE UNIVERSITY y MANCHESTER UMIST 2nd EF Conference in TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER Manchester, UK 1 998 Approved /or public vil...QXTALTTY INSPECTED 1 CONTENTS VOLUME I Session 1 : Heat Transfer Under Simple Shearing (Chairmen: B. E. Launder and T. J. Hanratty) Y. Na, D. V

  14. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively.

  15. Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of a Coarse-Grained Mg-2Zn-2Nd Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Jonas, John J.; Yue, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Compression tests were performed on samples of Mg-2Zn-2Nd at 673 K (400 °C) and at three different strain rates. At 0.1/s, three mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) were observed to operate: discontinuous DRX (DDRX), twinning DRX (TDRX), and continuous DRX (CDRX). At 0.01/s, DDRX took place as a result of grain boundary bulging, followed by CDRX on further straining. At 0.001/s, only CDRX was observed. At a strain of 0.3, the activation of multiple DRX mechanisms in the 0.1/s samples produced the weakest deformation textures.

  16. Secular Motion in a 2nd Degree and Order-Gravity Field with no Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Hu, W.

    2001-03-01

    The motion of a particle about a non-rotating 2nd degree and order-gravity field is investigated. Averaging conditions are applied to the particle motion and a qualitative analysis which reveals the general character of motion in this system is given. It is shown that the orbit plane will either be stationary or precess about the body's axis of minimum or maximum moment of inertia. It is also shown that the secular equations for this system can be integrated in terms of trigonometric, hyperbolic or elliptic functions. The explicit solutions are derived in all cases of interest.

  17. HTS DC Transmission Line for Megalopolis Grid Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Sytnikov, V.; Bemert, S.; Ivanov, Yu; Krivetskiy, I.; Romashov, M.; Shakaryan, Yu; Keilin, V.; Shikov, A.; Patrikeev, V.; Lobyntsev, V.; Shcherbakov, V.

    2014-05-01

    Using of HTS AC and DC cables in electric power grids allows increasing of the transferred power, losses diminishing, decreasing of exclusion zone areas, the enhancement of the environmental conditions and fire/explosion safety of electric power systems. However, the use of DC superconducting cable lines together with converters brings additional advantages as reduction of losses in cables and suitable lowering of refrigerating plant capacity, as well as the realization of the function of short-circuit currents limitation by means of the appropriate setting of converter equipment. Russian Federal Grid Company and its R&D Center started the construction of the DC HTS power transmission line which includes the cable itself, cryogenic equipment, AC/DC converters, terminals and cable coupling boxes. This line will connect two substations in Saint-Petersburg - 330 kV "Centralnaya" and 220 kV "RP-9". The length of this HTS transmission line will be about 2500 meters. Nowadays are developed all the elements of the line and technologies of the cable manufacturing. Two HTS cable samples, each 30 m length, have been made. This paper describes the results of cables tests.

  18. Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Xu, Y.; Deng, Z.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.; Morita, M.; Teshima, H.

    2010-12-01

    We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as a suitable cryogen for the operation of HTS rotating machines with field poles composed of RE-Ba-Cu-O family materials, where RE is a rare-earth metal. Regarding the materials processing of the bulks HTS, thanks to the addition of magnetic particles to GdBa2Cu3O7 - d (Gd123) bulk superconductors an increase of more than 20% in the trapped magnetic flux density was achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature. Field-pole Gd123 bulks up to 46 mm in diameter were synthesized with the addition of Fe-B alloy magnetic particles and assembled into the synchronous machine rotor to be tested. Successful cooling of the magnetized rotor field poles down to 35 K and low-output-power rotating operation was achieved up to 720 rpm in the test machine with eight field-pole bulks. The present results show a substantial basis for making a prototype system of rotating machinery of applied HTS bulks.

  19. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  20. Roles of doping ions in afterglow properties of blue CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wako, A. H.; Dejene, B. F.; Swart, H. C.

    2014-04-01

    Eu2+ doped and Nd3+ co-doped calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+) phosphor was prepared by a urea-nitrate solution combustion method at furnace temperatures as low as 500 °C. The produced CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ powder was investigated in terms of phase composition, morphology and luminescence by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Photoluminescence (PL) techniques respectively. XRD analysis depicts a dominant monoclinic phase that indicates no change in the crystalline structure of the phosphor with varying concentration of Eu2+ and Nd3+. SEM results show agglomerates with non-uniform shapes and sizes with a number of irregular network structures having lots of voids and pores. The Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and (FTIR) spectra confirm the expected chemical components of the phosphor. PL measurements indicated one broadband excitation spectra from 200 to 300 nm centered around 240 nm corresponding to the crystal field splitting of the Eu2+ d-orbital and an emission spectrum in the blue region with a maximum on 440 nm. This is a strong indication that there was dominantly one luminescence center, Eu2+ which represents emission from transitions between the 4f7 ground state and the 4f6-5d1 excited state configuration. High concentrations of Eu2+ and Nd3+ generally reduce both intensity and lifetime of the phosphor powders. The optimized content of Eu2+ is 1 mol% and for Nd3+ is 1 mol% for the obtained phosphors with excellent optical properties. The phosphor also emits visible light at around 587 and 616 nm. Such emissions can be ascribed to the 5D0-7F1 and 5D0-7F2 intrinsic transition of Eu3+ respectively. The decay characteristics exhibit a significant rise in initial intensity with increasing Eu2+ doping concentration while the decay time increased with Nd3+ co-doping. The observed afterglow can be ascribed to the generation of suitable traps due to the presence of the Nd3

  1. [How to read and understand Registries for Evaluating Patient Outcomes: A User's Guide (2nd Edition)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2013-09-01

    Registry studies (RS) get more and more attention in recent years because it can reflect the health care situations of the real world. There are a number of large scale RS for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). RS are observational studies that can complement randomized controlled trials (RCT). RS have an irreplaceable position in real word study (RWS), especially for small probability events. There are some different characters and qualities in RS. Registries for Evaluating Patient Outcomes: A User's Guide (2nd Edition) was published by the agency for healthcare research and quality (AHRQ) in 2010. It described the details of how to establish, maintain, and evaluate RS, and using 38 RS samples to illustrate the possible problems in undertaking such research. The User's Guide (2nd Edition) provides a reliable reference document for RS. TCM injections post-marketing safety surveillance RS is a national program involving multiple centers in China. This program can further improve RS quality their application in China and is a good illustration of how to follow this guide accurately.

  2. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence.

  3. A novel 2nd-order bandpass MFSS filter with miniaturized structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, C. Y.; Gao, J. S.; Feng, X. G.

    2015-08-01

    In order to effectively obtain a miniaturized structure and good filtering properties, we propose a novel 2nd-order bandpass metamaterial frequency selective surface (MFSS) filter which contains two capacitive layers and one inductive layer, where there are multi-loop metallic patches as shunt capacitor C and planar wire grids as series inductor L respectively. Unlike the traditional operation way—the tuned elements used in resonant surface approximately equal to one wavelength in circumference and the structure thickness with a spacing of a quarter wavelength apart, by changing the value of L and C and matching multilayer dielectric to adjust the LC coupling resonance and the resonance impedance respectively, the proposed MFSS filter can achieves a miniatured structure with ideal bandpass properties. Measurement results of the fabricated prototype of the bandpass filter (BPF) indicate that the dimension of the tuned element on resonant surface is approximately 0.025 wavelength, i.e., 0.025λ. At the same time, the filter has the stable center frequency of f0 = 1.53GHz and the transmittance of T ⩾ 96.3% and high Q-value for the TE/TM wave polarization at various incidence angles. The novel 2nd-order bandpass MFSS filter with miniaturized structure not only can decrease structure dimension, but also has a wide range of applications to microwave and infrared band.

  4. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  5. Characterization of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands of NADPH oxidase 5 by fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Superoxide generated by non-phagocytic NADPH oxidases (NOXs) is of growing importance for physiology and pathobiology. The calcium binding domain (CaBD) of NOX5 contains four EF-hands, each binding one calcium ion. To better understand the metal binding properties of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands, we characterized the N-terminal half of CaBD (NCaBD) and its calcium-binding knockout mutants. Results The isothermal titration calorimetry measurement for NCaBD reveals that the calcium binding of two EF-hands are loosely associated with each other and can be treated as independent binding events. However, the Ca2+ binding studies on NCaBD(E31Q) and NCaBD(E63Q) showed their binding constants to be 6.5 × 105 and 5.0 × 102 M-1 with ΔHs of -14 and -4 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that intrinsic calcium binding for the 1st non-canonical EF-hand is largely enhanced by the binding of Ca2+ to the 2nd canonical EF-hand. The fluorescence quenching and CD spectra support a conformational change upon Ca2+ binding, which changes Trp residues toward a more non-polar and exposed environment and also increases its α-helix secondary structure content. All measurements exclude Mg2+-binding in NCaBD. Conclusions We demonstrated that the 1st non-canonical EF-hand of NOX5 has very weak Ca2+ binding affinity compared with the 2nd canonical EF-hand. Both EF-hands interact with each other in a cooperative manner to enhance their Ca2+ binding affinity. Our characterization reveals that the two EF-hands in the N-terminal NOX5 are Ca2+ specific. Graphical abstract PMID:22490336

  6. Design and optimization of a HTS insert for solenoid magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, Giordano; de Marzi, Gianluca; Muzzi, Luigi; Celentano, Giuseppe; della Corte, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    With the availability of High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) prototype cables, based on high-performance REBCO Coated Conductor (CC) tapes, new designs can now be made for large bore high-field inserts in superconducting solenoids, thus extending the magnet operating point to higher magnetic fields. In this work, as an alternative approach to the standard trial-and-error design process, an optimization procedure for a HTS grading section design is proposed, including parametric electro-magnetic and structural analyses, using the ANSYS software coupled with a numerically-efficient optimization algorithm. This HTS grading section is designed to be inserted into a 12 T large bore Low-Temperature Superconducting (LTS) solenoid (diameter about 1 m) to increase the field up to a maximum value of at least 17 T. The optimization variables taken into consideration are the number of turns and layers and the circle-in-square jacket inner diameter in order to minimize the total needed conductor length to achieve a peak field of at least 17 T, while guaranteeing the structural integrity and manufacturing constraints. By means of the optimization, an optimal 360 m total conductor length was found, achieving 17.2 T with an operating current of 22.4 kA and a coil comprised of 18 × 12 turns, shortened of about 20% with respect to the best initial candidate architectural design. The optimal HTS insert has a bore compatible with manufacturing constraints (inner bore radius larger than 30 cm). A scaled HTS insert for validation purposes, with a reduced conductor length, to be tested in an advanced experimental facility currently under construction, is also mentioned.

  7. Test Results For a 25-m Prototype Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable for Project Hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, Christopher M; Duckworth, Robert C; Demko, Jonathan A; Ellis, Alvin R; Gouge, Michael J; James, David Randy; Tuncer, Enis

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its recently upgraded HTS cable test facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture of Southwire and nkt cables with FCL features and HTS wire provided by American Superconductor Corporation. The overall project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ~ 200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3- ) Triax design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  8. Establishment of the World Health Organization 2(nd) International Standard for Factor XI, Plasma, Human.

    PubMed

    Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The 1(st) International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1(st) IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2(nd) IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2(nd) IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1(st) IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2(nd) IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp.

  9. Establishment of the World Health Organization 2nd International Standard for Factor XI, Plasma, Human

    PubMed Central

    Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The 1st International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1st IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2nd IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2nd IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1st IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2nd IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp. PMID:28373973

  10. Simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge Implantation and 2nd Stage Auricular Reconstruction for Microtia with Aural Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Lynne Hsueh Yee; Xiang, Ling; del Prado, Jocelynne; Ee Chin, Ling; Beltrame, Millo Achille

    2011-01-01

    Aural atresia and severe microtia are associated malformations that result in problems with hearing and cosmesis, associated speech and language difficulties and diminished self-esteem. In cases where middle ear ossiculoplasty and aural atresia canalplasty are expected to give poor hearing outcomes that would eventually require the use of hearing aids, bone anchored hearing aids or active middle ear implants may be better options. This case report describes a simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge implantation and 2nd stage auricular reconstruction with rib graft cartilage for an 11-year-old boy with grade III microtia and aural atresia 8 months after the 1st stage reconstruction. Audiometric results of the Vibrant Soundbridge aided ear were comparable to that of the contralateral hearing aid aided ear. PMID:26557321

  11. A Perpendicular Biased 2nd Harmonic Cavity for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C. Y.; Dey, J.; Madrak, R. L.; Pellico, W.; Romanov, G.; Sun, D.; Terechkine, I.

    2015-07-13

    A perpendicular biased 2nd harmonic cavity is currently being designed for the Fermilab Booster. Its purpose cavity is to flatten the bucket at injection and thus change the longitudinal beam distribution so that space charge effects are decreased. It can also with transition crossing. The reason for the choice of perpendicular biasing over parallel biasing is that the Q of the cavity is much higher and thus allows the accelerating voltage to be a factor of two higher than a similar parallel biased cavity. This cavity will also provide a higher accelerating voltage per meter than the present folded transmission line cavity. However, this type of cavity presents technical challenges that need to be addressed. The two major issues are cooling of the garnet material from the effects of the RF and the cavity itself from eddy current heating because of the 15 Hz bias field ramp. This paper will address the technical challenge of preventing the garnet from overheating.

  12. Preliminary GPS orbit combination results of the IGS 2nd reprocessing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    International GNSS Service (IGS) has contributed to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame by reprocessing historic GPS network data and submitting Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions and Earth Rotation Parameters. For the 2nd reprocessing campaign, Analysis Centers (ACs) used up to 21 years of GPS observation data with daily integrations. IERS2010 conventions are applied to model the physical effects of the Earth. Total eight ACs have participated (7 Global solutions, and 2 Tide Gauge solutions) by reprocessing entire time series in a consistent way using the latest models and methodology. IGS combined daily SINEX TRF and EOP combinations have already been submitted to the IERS for ITRF2013. This presentation mainly focuses on the preliminary quality assessment of the reprocessed AC orbits. Quality of the orbit products are examined by examining the repeatability between daily AC satellite ephemeris. Power spectral analysis shows the background noise characteristics of each AC products, and its periodic behaviors.

  13. Computation of equivalent poles placement for class of 2nd order discrete bilinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadek, Lukasz; Koszalka, Leszek; Burnham, Keith

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces an adaptation of the classical linear control theory representation of zeros, poles and gain into a bilinear approach. The placement of poles at the complex plane is a complete description of plants dynamics; hence it is a convenient form from which calculation of various properties, e.g. rise time, settling time, is plausible. Such technique can be adjusted into the bilinear structure if poles of a quasi-linear representation (linear with respect to input) are concerned. The research outcomes with conclusion on the equivalent poles displacement and generalized rules for a 2nd order bilinear system equivalent poles input dependent loci. The proposed approach seems to be promising, as simplification of design and identification of a bilinear system increases transparency during modelling and control in practical applications and hence it may be followed by applicability of such structure in common industrial problems.

  14. Simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge Implantation and 2nd Stage Auricular Reconstruction for Microtia with Aural Atresia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lynne Hsueh Yee; Xiang, Ling; Del Prado, Jocelynne; Ee Chin, Ling; Beltrame, Millo Achille

    2011-07-01

    Aural atresia and severe microtia are associated malformations that result in problems with hearing and cosmesis, associated speech and language difficulties and diminished self-esteem. In cases where middle ear ossiculoplasty and aural atresia canalplasty are expected to give poor hearing outcomes that would eventually require the use of hearing aids, bone anchored hearing aids or active middle ear implants may be better options. This case report describes a simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge implantation and 2(nd) stage auricular reconstruction with rib graft cartilage for an 11-year-old boy with grade III microtia and aural atresia 8 months after the 1(st) stage reconstruction. Audiometric results of the Vibrant Soundbridge aided ear were comparable to that of the contralateral hearing aid aided ear.

  15. Recent developments in processing HTS silver-clad Bi-2223 tapes, coils and test magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J.G. Jr.; Motowidlo, L.R.; Balachandran, U.; Iwasa, Y.; Yunus, M.

    1993-10-01

    Considerable progress has been made in fabricating Bi-2223 high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires and tapes with high critical current densities that are attractive for electric power and high-field magnet applications. Powder-in-tube processed silver-clad Bi-2223 short tape samples, small coils and test magnets have been fabricated and measured at liquid nitrogen (77K), pumped liquid nitrogen (64 K), liquid neon (27K) and liquid helium (4.2K) temperatures. Optimization of thermo-mechanical process parameters have yielded J{sub c}`s in the superconducting core > 4.0 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 77K zero field and > 2.0 {times} 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2K, zero field. Long lengths (up to 70 m) of mono-core conductors were fabricated and tested to carry significant amounts of current (23 A, {approximately}15,000 A/cm{sup 2}) at liquid nitrogen temperature. Recent test magnets assembled from pancake wound coils were measured to generate magnetic fields as high as 2.6, 1.8 and 0.36 Tesla at 4.2K, 27K and 77K respectively. These results show promise towards practical utilization of HTS materials.

  16. Integrated design of cryogenic refrigerator and liquid-nitrogen circulation loop for HTS cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Ryu, Ki Nam; Yang, Hyung Suk

    2016-12-01

    A new concept of cryogenic cooling system is proposed and investigated for application to long-length HTS cables. One of major obstacles to the cable length of 1 km or longer is the difficulty in circulating liquid nitrogen (LN) along the cables, since the temperature rise and pressure drop of LN flow could be excessively large. This study attempts a breakthrough by integrating the refrigerator with the LN circulation loop in order to eliminate the cryogenic LN pumps, and generate a large LN flow with the power of compressors at ambient temperature. A variety of thermodynamic structures are investigated on standard and modified Claude cycles, where nitrogen is used as refrigerant and the LN circulation loop is included as part of the closed cycle. Four proposed cycles are fully analyzed and optimized with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS) to evaluate the FOM (figure of merit) and examine the feasibility. The modified dual-pressure cycle cooled with expander stream is recommended for long HTS cables.

  17. Development of toroid-type HTS DC reactor series for HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Sung-kyu; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Sangjin; Oh, Yunsang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes design specifications and performance of a toroid-type high-temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The first phase operation targets of the HTS DC reactor were 400 mH and 400 A. The authors have developed a real HTS DC reactor system during the last three years. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. The total system has been successfully developed and tested in connection with LCC type HVDC system. Now, the authors are studying a 400 mH, kA class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase research. The 1500 A class DC reactor system was designed using layered 13 mm GdBCO 2G HTS wire. The expected operating temperature is under 30 K. These fundamental data obtained through both works will usefully be applied to design a real toroid-type HTS DC reactor for grid application.

  18. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS < 0), where the entropy is a degree of uniformity. What is the entropy? Loosely speaking, sand on the beach is more uniform at a higher entropy value than the rocks composing a mountain - the internal binding energy tells the paleontologists the existence of information. To a politician, landside voting results has only the winning information but more entropy, while a non-uniform voting distribution record has more information. For the human's effortless brain at constant temperature, we can solve the minimum of Helmholtz free energy (H = E - TS) by computing BSS, and then their pairwise-entropy source correlation function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (

  19. Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

  20. Test and Analysis of Spliced DI-BSCCO HTS Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, S. S.; Sotnikov, D. V.; Radchenko, I. P.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Osabe, G.; Kinoshita, K.; Fujikami, J.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    For some applications, short unit lengths of HTS wires should be spliced if longer lengths are necessary and short unit lengths of HTS wires should be utilize by applying the splice technology to reduce the total wire cost in the application. The splice technology has been developed for DI-BSCCO Type HT-CA tapes by Sumitomo Electric and spliced tapes were tested in Russian Cable Institute. The test program included: measurements of splice's resistance, critical current anisotropy, thermo cycling tolerance, mechanical properties, overload tests and magnetization measurements. In the paper the results of tests are presented and discussed. The test results demonstrated that splices can be used for cable production if twisting and bending limitations are taken into account.

  1. HTS step-edge Josephson junction terahertz harmonic mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jia; Weily, Andrew R.; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Ting; Foley, Cathy P.; Guo, Yingjie Jay

    2017-02-01

    A high-temperature superconducting (HTS) terahertz (THz) frequency down-converter or mixer based on a thin-film ring-slot antenna coupled YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO)/MgO step-edge Josephson junction is reported. The frequency down-conversion was achieved using higher order harmonics of an applied lower frequency (19-40 GHz) local oscillator signal in the Josephson junction mixing with a THz signal of over 600 GHz, producing a 1-3 GHz intermediate frequency signal. Up to 31st order of harmonic mixing was obtained and the mixer operated stably at temperatures up to 77 K. The design details of the antenna, HTS Josephson junction mixer, the matching and isolation circuits, and the DC and RF performance evaluation are described in this paper.

  2. High voltage insulation of bushing for HTS power equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2012-12-01

    For the operation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power equipments, it is necessary to develop insulating materials and high voltage (HV) insulation technology at cryogenic temperature of bushing. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is an attractive dielectric liquid. Also, the polymer insulating materials are expected to be used as solid materials such as glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP), polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon), Silicon (Si) rubber, aromatic polyamide (Nomex), EPDM/Silicon alloy compound (EPDM/Si). In this paper, the surface flashover characteristics of various insulating materials in LN2 are studied. These results are studied at both AC and impulse voltage under a non-uniform field. The use of GFRP and Teflon as insulation body for HTS bushing should be much desirable. Especially, GFRP is excellent material not only surface flashover characteristics but also mechanical characteristics at cryogenic temperature. The surface flashover is most serious problem for the shed design in LN2 and operation of superconducting equipments.

  3. Application of HTS technology to cardiac dysrhythmia detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.L.; Avrin, W.F.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual design considerations and challenges for development of a contactless, mobile, single channel biomagnetic sensor system based on High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) and employing the Three-SQUID Gradiometer (TSG) concept. Operating in magnetically unshielded environments, as are encountered in many medical scenarios, this instrument class would monitor cardiac electrical activity with minimal patient preparation and intrusiveness, and would notionally be coupled with a clinically adaptive human-system interface (HSI).

  4. Electrical Model of Balanced AC HTS Power Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Willén, D.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    The future electricity grid will be more sustainable and it will have more power transmission and distribution capability with more electrical power added from decentralized sources on distribution level and from wind parks and other large sources on transmission level. More interconnections and more underground transmission and distribution will be put up. Use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables provides solutions to many of the future grid problems caused by these trends. In this paper we present an electrical model of a balanced 6 km-long three phase triaxial HTS power cable for the Dutch project being developed by a consortium of Alliander, Ultera™ and TUD. The cable currents in all three phases are balanced by selecting proper twist pitches and insulation thickness. The paper focuses on determining inductances, capacitances and AC losses of the balanced cable. Using the developed model, we also determine the voltage drop as function of the cable length, the neutral current and the effect of the imbalanced capacitances on the current distribution of the Dutch distribution cable. The model is validated and it can be used for accurate simulation of the electrical behaviour of triaxial HTS cables in electrical grids.

  5. Large Scale Applications of HTS in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimbush, Stuart C.

    New Zealand has one of the longest-running and most consistently funded (relative to GDP) programmes in high temperature superconductor (HTS) development and application worldwide. As a consequence, it has a sustained breadth of involvement in HTS technology development stretching from the materials discovery right through to burgeoning commercial exploitation. This review paper outlines the present large scale projects of the research team at the newly-established Robinson Research Institute of Victoria University of Wellington. These include the construction and grid-based testing of a three-phase 1 MVA 2G HTS distribution transformer utilizing Roebel cable for its high-current secondary windings and the development of a cryogen-free conduction-cooled 1.5 T YBCO-based human extremity magnetic resonance imaging system. Ongoing activities supporting applications development such as low-temperature full-current characterization of commercial superconducting wires and the implementation of inductive flux-pump technologies for efficient brushless coil excitation in superconducting magnets and rotating machines are also described.

  6. Enhanced HTS hit selection via a local hit rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Posner, Bruce A; Xi, Hualin; Mills, James E J

    2009-10-01

    The postprocessing of high-throughput screening (HTS) results is complicated by the occurrence of false positives (inactive compounds misidentified as active by the primary screen) and false negatives (active compounds misidentified as inactive by the primary screen). An activity cutoff is frequently used to select "active" compounds from HTS data; however, this approach is insensitive to both false positives and false negatives. An alternative method that can minimize the occurrence of these artifacts will increase the efficiency of hit selection and therefore lead discovery. In this work, rather than merely using the activity of a given compound, we look at the presence and absence of activity among all compounds in its "chemical space neighborhood" to give a degree of confidence in its activity. We demonstrate that this local hit rate (LHR) analysis method outperforms hit selection based on ranking by primary screen activity values across ten diverse high throughput screens, spanning both cell-based and biochemical assay formats of varying biology and robustness. On average, the local hit rate analysis method was approximately 2.3-fold and approximately 1.3-fold more effective in identifying active compounds and active chemical series, respectively, than selection based on primary activity alone. Moreover, when applied to finding false negatives, this method was 2.3-fold better than ranking by primary activity alone. In most cases, novel hit series were identified that would have otherwise been missed. Additional uses of and observations regarding this HTS analysis approach are also discussed.

  7. The insulation design for transmission class HTS transformer with continuous disk winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, H. G.; Kwag, D. S.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, S. H.

    2007-10-01

    In the response to the demands for electrical energy, much effort aimed to develop and commercialize HTS power equipments have been made around the world. Among them HTS transformer is one of very promising one. In Korea, companies and universities are developing a power distribution and transmission class HTS transformer that is one of the 21st century superconducting frontier projects. The composite continuous disk winding of transmission class HTS transformer is concentrically arranged H1-L-H2 from center. For the development of transmission HTS transformer with continuous disk winding, the cryogenic insulation technology should be established. We have been analyzed insulation composition and investigated electrical characteristics such as the breakdown of LN2, barrier, kapton films, flashover on FRP in LN2. We are going to compare with measured each value and apply the value to most suitable insulating design of the HTS transformer.

  8. Development of high sensitive magnetic contaminant detection system using an HTS-rf-SQUID covered with HTS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Y.; Kurosawa, R.; Uchida, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2012-03-01

    For high sensitive detection of magnetic contaminant in electrode of lithium-ion battery, high-temperature superconductor (HTS) radio-frequency (rf) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) based on a bicrystal SrTiO3 (STO) substrate was designed, and fabricated employing YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films of about 200 nm in thickness. To improve characteristics such as effective area and 1/f noise profile of the SQUID, HTS thin films on normal STO substrates were overlapped on a wide superconducting weak link and/or a slit of the SQUID in flip-chip configuration. The noise profiles of the SQUID covered with the films on the respective positions were well improved compared to that of the bare SQUID. A magnetic contaminant detection system was developed employing the HTS-rf-SQUID covered with the films on both the positions. Using this system, a tungsten ball of 30 μm in diameter was successfully detected with a signal to noise ratio of about 14.

  9. 250 kW flywheel with HTS magnetic bearing for industrial use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Riedel, T.; Rothfeld, R.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Reiner, G.; Wehlau, N.

    2008-02-01

    A 250 kW / 5 kWh engineering prototype Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) was designed, fabricated and component tested by Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ) and L-3 Communications Magnet - Motor GmbH (MM). A heavy - load vertical 0.6 ton rotor is suspended totally magnetically by an HTS radial-passive bearing on the top together with a PM bearing at the bottom. Further features are the flywheel rotor body which is manufactured from carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) in a multi-rim version and combined with an integrated high-power motor/generator. A 35 W/77 K single- stage Gifford McMahon cryo-cooler is cooling the HTS bearing to a temperature of 45 - 60 K. Functionality and efficiency of the magnetic bearing configurations, rotor control concepts and motor / generator power electric system is considered and established. Bearing stiffness parameters, damping performance, and rotational friction are measured. Testing of further components under vacuum conditions confirmed that low bearing drag and wear- free operation can be attained. The motor-generator operates with a power in excess of 250 kW and an efficiency of > 92%, including the losses of the inverters. A redundant mechanical touchdown bearing system can be activated to restore the rotor position. The separately tested flywheel components are now in the assembling status expecting first machine tests in November 2007. After studying and measuring all FESS parameters in -house the dynamical storage device will be tested in a German E.ON power station under industrial conditions.

  10. TEST RESULTS OF HTS COILS AND AN R AND D MAGNET FOR RIA.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA, R.; ANERELLA, M.; HARRISON, M.; SCHMALZLE, J.; SAMPSON, W.; ZELLER, A.

    2005-05-16

    This paper presents the successful construction and test results of a magnetic mirror model for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) that is based on High Temperature Superconductors (HTS). In addition, the performance of thirteen coils (each made with {approx}220 meters of commercially available HTS tape) is also presented. The proposed HTS magnet is a crucial part of the R&D for the Fragment Separator region where the magnets are subjected to several orders of magnitude more radiation and energy deposition than typical beam line and accelerator magnets receive during their entire lifetime. A preliminary design of an HTS dipole magnet for the Fragment Separator region is also presented.

  11. Conference Proceedings: 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International; Disability in the Family. (Brighton, England, September 18-21, 1978)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Association for Disability and Rehabilitation, London (England).

    The conference proceedings of the 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International (1978) on the theme disability in the family contains the agenda and approximately 80 papers. National presentations consider the theme in papers by representatives of Finland, Hungary, Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal, Hong Kong, India, The German…

  12. Curriculum on the Edge of Survival: How Schools Fail to Prepare Students for Membership in a Democracy. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Typically, school curriculum has been viewed through the lens of preparation for the workplace or higher education, both worthy objectives. However, this is not the only lens, and perhaps not even the most powerful one to use, if the goal is to optimize the educational system. "Curriculum on the Edge of Survival, 2nd Edition," attempts to define…

  13. Comparative analysis of 1st, 2nd, and 4th year MD students' attitudes toward Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    PubMed Central

    Riccard, Christopher P; Skelton, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Background To identify and report the attitudes and beliefs of 1st, 2nd, and 4th year medical students toward complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Methods The previously validated and reliability tested CHBQ was administered to medical students attending the University of South Florida School of Medicine. Results Significant changes were found between both 1st (46.0 ± 7.7) and 4th (37.8 ± 15.7) year students and 2nd (48.3 ± 7.8) and 4th (37.8 ± 15.7) year students. No significant difference was found between 1st (46.0 ± 7.7) and 2nd (48.3 ± 7.8) year students. When comparing scores based on gender, a significant difference was present between males (41.2 ± 12.2) and females (46.1 ± 11.0). Conclusion CHBQ scores were significantly more positive in both 1st and 2nd year medical students in comparison with 4th year student's scores. These findings suggest that as student exposure to allopathic techniques and procedures increases during the last year of medical school, their attitudes toward CAM decrease. Females were also significantly more likely to have stronger positive attitudes toward CAM than males, though both genders represented an overall positive attitude toward CAM. PMID:18799010

  14. The Hyphen as a Syllabification Cue in Reading Bisyllabic and Multisyllabic Words among Finnish 1st and 2nd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häikiö, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Finnish ABC books present words with hyphens inserted at syllable boundaries. Syllabification by hyphens is abandoned in the 2nd grade for bisyllabic words, but continues for words with three or more syllables. The current eye movement study investigated how and to what extent syllable hyphens in bisyllabic ("kah-vi" "cof-fee")…

  15. Give It a Shot! Toolkit for Nurses and Other Immunization Champions Working with Secondary Schools. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Chu, Lynda; Wooley, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent immunization saves lives--but promoting immunization takes time and thought, and today's nurses and other health advocates are faced with a host of ever-expanding responsibilities in a time of reduced budgets and staff. This toolkit is thus structured as an easy and reliable resource. This 2nd edition contains: (1) a 64-page manual;…

  16. International Conference on Hyperbolic Problems (2nd). Theory, Numerical Methods and Applications, 14-18 March 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    SOlution of’ th icai Ele quations. Proceedings of (lie 2nd European Conference on Multigrid 3. - --- AND B. KoRSN (1997). A Non-linear Afiultq,’rid...of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, India A new upwind scheme called Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS) method has been

  17. Perspectives on Art Therapy: The Proceedings of the Pittsburgh Conference on Art Therapy (2nd, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 20, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ellen A., Ed.; Rubin, Judith A., Ed.

    The proceedings of the 2nd annual Pittsburgh Conference on Art Therapy (with handicapped persons) consists of 44 items including full length papers, summaries of previously published papers, descriptions of workshops, and a limited number of abstracts (submitted by those who chose not to present a paper or workshop description). The papers are…

  18. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  19. Human Transportation System (HTS) study: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  20. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  1. Efficient Simulation of Wing Modal Response: Application of 2nd Order Shape Sensitivities and Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Liu, Youhua

    2000-01-01

    At the preliminary design stage of a wing structure, an efficient simulation, one needing little computation but yielding adequately accurate results for various response quantities, is essential in the search of optimal design in a vast design space. In the present paper, methods of using sensitivities up to 2nd order, and direct application of neural networks are explored. The example problem is how to decide the natural frequencies of a wing given the shape variables of the structure. It is shown that when sensitivities cannot be obtained analytically, the finite difference approach is usually more reliable than a semi-analytical approach provided an appropriate step size is used. The use of second order sensitivities is proved of being able to yield much better results than the case where only the first order sensitivities are used. When neural networks are trained to relate the wing natural frequencies to the shape variables, a negligible computation effort is needed to accurately determine the natural frequencies of a new design.

  2. Wind-US Results for the AIAA 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance III; Foster, Lancert; Mankbadi, Mina

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains Wind-US results presented at the 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The workshop was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Breathing Propulsion Systems Integration Technical Committee with the purpose of assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics for air breathing propulsion applications. Attendees included representatives from government, industry, academia, and commercial software companies. Participants were encouraged to explore and discuss all aspects of the simulation process including the effects of mesh type and refinement, solver numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. The first set of challenge cases involved computing the thrust and discharge coefficients for a 25deg conical nozzle for a range of nozzle pressure ratios between 1.4 and 7.0. Participants were also asked to simulate two cases in which the 25deg conical nozzle was bifurcated by a solid plate, resulting in vortex shedding (NPR=1.6) and shifted plume shock (NPR=4.0). A second set of nozzle cases involved computing the discharge and thrust coefficients for a convergent dual stream nozzle for a range of subsonic nozzle pressure ratios. The workshop committee also compared the plume mixing of these cases across various codes and models. The final test case was a serpentine inlet diffuser with an outlet to inlet area ratio of 1.52 and an offset of 1.34 times the inlet diameter. Boundary layer profiles, wall static pressure, and total pressure at downstream rake locations were examined.

  3. Minimal Clinically Important Difference on Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd Version

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Deli, Gabriella; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the estimates of minimal clinically important difference for Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) total score and dimensions. Methods. The subject population consisted of 413 PD patients. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and PDSS-2 were assessed. Nine months later the PDSS-2 was reevaluated with the Patient-Reported Global Impression Improvement Scale. Both anchor-based techniques (within patients' score change method and sensitivity- and specificity-based method by receiver operating characteristic analysis) and distribution-based approaches (effect size calculations) were utilized to determine the magnitude of minimal clinically important difference. Results. According to our results, any improvements larger than −3.44 points or worsening larger than 2.07 points can represent clinically important changes for the patients. These thresholds have the effect size of 0.21 and −0.21, respectively. Conclusions. Minimal clinically important differences are the smallest change of scores that are subjectively meaningful to patients. Studies using the PDSS-2 as outcome measure should utilize the threshold of −3.44 points for detecting improvement or the threshold of 2.07 points for observing worsening. PMID:26539303

  4. Evaluation of a hand washing program for 2nd-graders.

    PubMed

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program. The program consisted of interactive class discussions and activities using GlitterBug training devices and agar plate materials. A one-factor repeated measure analysis of variance indicated a statistically significant 34% decrease in the absenteeism rate for students in the intervention group. Chi-square analyses on agar plate data indicated that students had cleaner hands after washing. Qualitative data from parents and teachers indicated that a majority of the students were engaging in hand-washing behavior. These results indicate that integrating a learner-centered interactive program in a multiple-week structure can lead to improvement in hand hygiene behavior.

  5. Introduction of the 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollet, Stefan; Maxwell, Reed; Dages, Cecile; Mouche, Emmanuel; Mugler, Claude; Paniconi, Claudio; Park, Young-Jin; Putti, Mario; Shen, Chaopeng; Stisen, Simon; Sudicky, Edward; Sulis, Mauro; Ji, Xinye

    2015-04-01

    The 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project commenced in June 2013 with a workshop at Bonn University funded by the German Science Foundation and US National Science Foundation. Three test cases were defined and compared that are available online at www.hpsc-terrsys.de including a tilted v-catchment case; a case called superslab based on multiple slab-heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity along a hillslope; and the Borden site case, based on a published field experiment. The goal of this phase is to further interrogate the coupling of surface-subsurface flow implemented in various integrated hydrologic models; and to understand and quantify the impact of differences in the conceptual and technical implementations on the simulation results, which may constitute an additional source of uncertainty. The focus has been broadened considerably including e.g. saturated and unsaturated subsurface storages, saturated surface area, ponded surface storage in addition to discharge, and pressure/saturation profiles and cross-sections. Here, first results are presented and discussed demonstrating the conceptual and technical challenges in implementing essentially the same governing equations describing highly non-linear moisture redistribution processes and surface-groundwater interactions.

  6. Studies with Ferrous Sulfamate and Alternate Reductants for 2nd Uranium Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.L.

    2003-01-15

    A wide range of miniature mixer-settler tests were conducted to determine the source of iron and sulfur contamination in the uranium product stream (''1EU'') of H Canyon's 2nd Uranium Cycle. The problem was reproduced on the laboratory scale mixer-settlers by changing the feed location of ferrous sulfamate from stage D4 to stage D1. Other process variables effected no change. It was later determined that ferrous sulfamate (FS) solids had plugged the FS line to stage D4, causing FS to backup a ventline and enter the Canyon process at stage D1. Pluggage was almost certainly due to precipitation of FS solids during extended process downtime. During the search for the root cause, tests showed that FS solids were quite small (1-10 mm), and a portion of them could bypass the current Canyon prefilter (3-mm). Also, additional tests were done to find an alternate means of reducing and thereby removing plutonium and neptunium from the uranium product. These tests showed that FS was a more effective reductant than either ascorbic acid or a hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) / dilute FS combination.

  7. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes work completed under the Human Transportation System Study. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems (e.g., Shuttle, Titan, etc. ) as well as proposed systems (e.g., PLS, Single-Stage-to-Orbit, etc.) to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  8. Madeira Extreme Floods: 2009/2010 Winter. Case study - 2nd and 20th of February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, V.; Marques, J.; Silva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Floods are at world scale the natural disaster that affects a larger fraction of the population. It is a phenomenon that extends it's effects to the surrounding areas of the hydrographic network (basins, rivers, dams) and the coast line. Accordingly to USA FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) flood can be defined as:"A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties from: Overflow of inland or tidal waters; Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; Mudflow; Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined above." A flash flood is the result of intense and long duration of continuous precipitation and can result in dead casualties (i.e. floods in mainland Portugal in 1967, 1983 and 1997). The speed and strength of the floods either localized or over large areas, results in enormous social impacts either by the loss of human lives and or the devastating damage to the landscape and human infrastructures. The winter of 2009/2010 in Madeira Island was characterized by several episodes of very intense precipitation (specially in December 2009 and February 2010) adding to a new record of accumulated precipitation since there are records in the island. In February two days are especially rainy with absolute records for the month of February (daily records since 1949): 111mm and 97mm on the 2nd and 20th respectively. The accumulated precipitation ended up with the terrible floods on the 20th of February causing the lost of dozens of human lives and hundreds of millions of Euros of losses The large precipitation occurrences either more intense precipitation in a short period or less intense precipitation during a larger period are sometimes the precursor of

  9. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  10. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  11. Conference Report on the 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Mazzitelli, G.; Menard, J. E.; Mirnov, S. V.; Shimada, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Tabares, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    The 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices (ISLA-2011) was held on 27-29 April 2011 at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) with broad participation from the community working on aspects of lithium research for fusion energy development. This community is expanding rapidly in many areas including experiments in magnetic confinement devices and a variety of lithium test stands, theory and modeling and developing innovative approaches. Overall, 53 presentations were given representing 26 institutions from 10 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were given in 24 presentations, from NSTX (PPPL, USA), LTX (PPPL, USA), FT-U (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (TRINITY, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST (ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), and RFX (Padova, Italy). Sessions were devoted to: I. Lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), II. Lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), III. Special session on liquid lithium technology, IV. Lithium laboratory test stands, V. Lithium theory/modeling/comments, VI. Innovative lithium applications and VII. Panel discussion on lithium PFC viability in magnetic fusion reactors. There was notable participation from the fusion technology communities, including the IFE, IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchanges with the physics oriented magnetic confinement lithium research groups. It was agreed to continue future exchanges of ideas and data to help develop attractive liquid lithium solutions for very challenging magnetic fusion issues, such as development of a high heat flux steady-state divertor concept and acceptable plasma disruption mitigation techniques while improving plasma performance with lithium. The next workshop will be held at ENEA, Frascati, Italy in 2013.

  12. A convective divertor utilizing a 2nd-order magnetic field null

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognlien, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    New results motivate a detailed study of a magnetic divertor concept characterized by strong plasma convection near a poloidal magnetic field (Bp) null region. The configuration is that of a near-2nd-order Bp null (Bp ~ Δ r2) , as in a snowflake divertor. The concept has 2 key features: (A) Convection spreads the heat flux between multiple divertor legs and further broadens the heat-flux profile within each leg, thereby greatly reducing target-plate heat loads. (B) The heat flux is further reduced by line radiation in each leg in detachment-like ionization zones. Theory indicates that convective turbulence arises when the poloidal plasma beta, βp = 2μ0nT/B p 2 >> 1 . Measurements in TCV now more fully quantify earlier NSTX and TCV observations of plasma mixing, and related modeling of TCV indicates that strongly enhanced null-region transport is present. Convective mixing provides a stabilizing mechanism to prevent the ionization fronts (hydrogenic and impurity) from collapsing to a highly radiating core MARFE. Also, the radiating zone maps to a very small region at the midplane owing to the very weak Bp in the convective region, thus minimizing its impact on the core plasma. Detailed calculations are reported that combine features A and B noted above. The plasma mixing mechanisms are described together with the corresponding transport model implemented in the 2D UEDGE edge transport code. UEDGE calculations are presented that quantify the roles of mixing, impurity radiation, and detachment stability for a realistic snowflake configuration. Work in collaboration with D.D. Ryutov, S.I. Krasheninnikov, and M.V. Umansky. Performed for the U.S. DoE by LLNS, LLC, LLNL, under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  14. Evaluation of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test for Use in States' Child Outcomes Measurement Systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaum, Batya; Gattamorta, Karina A.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test (BDI-2 ST) for use in states' child outcomes accountability systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Complete Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-2), assessment data were obtained for 142 children, ages 2 to 62 months, who…

  15. THE UTILIZATION OF THE NTP-HTS DATA IN CHEMICAL TOXICITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of environmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project. To date, HTS results for a set of 1,408 compounds tested in 6 cell viability assays have...

  16. Thermal analysis of HTS air-core transformer used in voltage compensation type active SFCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, L.; Ren, L.

    2010-11-01

    The three-phase voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is composed of three HTS air-core transformers and a three-phase four-wire Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) converter. The primary winding of the each phase HTS air-core transformer is in series with the main system, and the second winding is connected with the PWM converter. The single-phase conduction-cooled HTS air-core transformer is consisting of four double-pancakes wound by the Bi2223/Ag tape. In this paper, according to the electromagnetic analysis on the single-phase HTS air-core transformer, its AC loss corresponding to different operation modes is calculated. Furthermore, the thermal behaviors are studied by the time-stepping numerical simulations. On the basis of the simulation results, the related problems with the HTS air-core transformer's thermal stability are discussed.

  17. Sub-Micron Long HTS Ho Electron Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harnack, 0.; Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Barner, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The hot-electron bolometer mixer made from a high-T, superconductor (HTS) was introduced recently as an alternative to a Schottky mixer at THz frequencies. The performance of the mixer depends on the total thermal conductance for heat removal from the phonon sub-system due to either length-dependent phonon diffusion or phonon escape to the substrate. We have measured both the length and temperature dependencies of the IF bandwidth of the mixers fabricated from 25-35 mn thick YBCO films on MgO and sapphire substrates. The films were grown by a laser deposition technique and electron-beam lithography was used to define bridge lengths down to 50 nm. Mixer measurements were done using signal frequencies in the range of 1-100 GHz. For 50 nm and 400 nm long devices on MgO, the 3-dB bandwidth was about 100 MHz. At temperatures below 60 K, the hot-electron plateau was clearly seen starting around 2-3 GHz. At temperatures above 70 K, the flux-flow effects begin to dominate and the IF bandwidth increases to 1-8 GHz, while the conversion efficiency drops by several dB. This temperature dependence of the IF bandwidth can account for previously reported unexpectedly high bandwidth of HTS mixers.

  18. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed.

  19. [Re-operations for 2nd primary lung cancer detected during follow-up after lung cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Masanori

    2013-07-01

    Re-operations for 2nd primary lung cancers are one of the most challenging modality for thoracic surgeons. Surgeons should have knowledge of indication of re-operations as well as surgical techniques and perioperative management of patients with 2nd primary lung cancers. When performing repeated pulmonary resection on the same side of the 1st surgery, following points are important for accomplishment of a safe re-operation:1.Wide thoracotomy with muscle dissections is recommended. 2.Throughout adhesion lysis between lung parenchyma and surrounding structures are required before manipulating pulmonary vessels. 3.The main pulmonary artery is encircled before dissection of the pulmonary artery. 4.Surgeons should be familiar with intrapericardial exposure of the main pulmonary artery. The techniques consist of division of the ligament of arteriosum, incision of the pericardium, and encircle of the origin of the mail pulmonary. Re-operations for metachronous lung cancers provided favorable survival in patients with adequate physiologic pulmonary reserve.

  20. Physical properties of double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ohoyama, Kenji

    2013-01-15

    The crystal, magnetic structures and physical properties of the double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are investigated through powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. The Rietveld analysis reveals that the Nd and Os ions are arranged with regularity over the six-coordinate B sites in a distorted perovskite ABO{sub 3} framework. The monoclinic crystal structure described by space group P2{sub 1}/n (tilt system a{sup -}a{sup -}c{sup +}) becomes more distorted with decreasing temperature from 300 K down to 2.5 K. This compound shows a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} below 65 K. An antiferromagnetic ordering of Nd{sup 3+} also occurs at lower temperatures ({approx}20 K). The magnetic structure is of Type I and the magnetic moments of Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. - Graphical Abstract: The Magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is of Type I, and the magnetic moments of the Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structures of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are determined to be monoclinic below 300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its electrical resistivity shows a Mott variable-range hopping behavior with localized carriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An antiferromagnetic ordering of the Os{sup 5+}moment occurs at 65 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is determined to be of Type I.

  1. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  2. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  3. PREFACE: 1st-2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome - Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YRMR Organizing Committee; Cannuccia, E.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2011-03-01

    Students in science, particularly in physics, face a fascinating and challenging future. Scientists have proposed very interesting theories, which describe the microscopic and macroscopic world fairly well, trying to match the quantum regime with cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena in all their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. More and more accurate and complex experiments have been devised and these are now going to test the paradigms of physics. Notable experiments include: the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is going to shed light on the physics of the Standard Model of Particles and its extensions; the Planck-Herschel satellites, which target a very precise measurement of the properties of our Universe; and the Free Electron Lasers facilities, which produce high-brilliance, ultrafast X-ray pulses, allowing the investigation of the fundamental processes of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. These projects are the result of huge collaborations spread across the world, involving scientists belonging to different and complementary research fields: physicists, chemists, biologists and others, keen to make the best of these extraordinary laboratories. Even though each branch of science is experiencing a process of growing specialization, it is very important to keep an eye on the global picture, remaining aware of the deep interconnections between inherent fields. This is even more crucial for students who are beginning their research careers. These considerations motivated PhD students and young post-docs connected to the Roman scientific research area to organize a conference, to establish the background and the network for interactions and collaborations. This resulted in the 1st and 2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome (http://ryrm.roma2.infn.it), one day conferences aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics in Italy

  4. Current distribution evaluation of dye-sensitized solar cell using HTS-SQUID-based magnetic measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kenji; Tanaka, Kohei; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukada, Keiji

    2016-11-01

    The current flowing inside a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was measured using a high-temperature superconductor superconducting quantum interference device (HTS-SQUID)-based magnetic measurement system. Further, a new evaluation method of the DSSC, which is difficult to measure using the conventional method, was investigated to improve the characteristics of the DSSC. The tangential components of the magnetic field generated from the DSSC were measured using two HTS-SQUIDs, and the intensity and direction related to the electrical current were obtained by the measured magnetic field. The DSSCs prepared with different dyes and catalytic substances showed different current-intensity mapping. The current direction was different for the DSSC with low performance. In addition, the current flowing in the ITO layer of the ITO glass substrate was also measured and the results confirmed that it had uniform distribution. These results show that the current mapping and the direction of the electrical current depend on the internal factors of the DSSC, and the detection of the magnetic field distribution generated from it is expected to lead to its new evaluation method.

  5. Accelerating the introduction of HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Russell

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, is successfully pursuing the development of electric power and industrial devices, incorporating significant high-temperature superconducting (HTS) components or subsystems, through its innovative Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI). The objective of the SPI is to accelerate the commercial introduction of the HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications. DOE's approach to accomplishing the SPI objective is to support cost shared projects carried out by industry led teams. DOE will fund projects to develop HTS devices that are either in (1) the research and development stage (Phase 1), (2) the pre-commercialization stage (Phase II), or (3) the commercial entry stage (Phase III). DOE's industry partners must contribute at least half a project's costs. These teams will include capabilities needed to develop the device as well as to develop the business plan for the commercial product introduction. DOE's partners consist of vertically integrated teams consisting of equipment manufacturers, HTS wire and coil suppliers, national laboratories, and end users, primarily utilities. These partners carry out the multi-year technology development efforts, consisting generally of design, construction, and testing of the HTS system. Finally, commercialization of HTS products will be discussed primarily in terms of benefits these products will have over competing products based upon conventional conductors and the critical need for affordable, practical HTS materials and conductors for these applications. .

  6. Fabrication and test of an axial-field HTS rotating machine with integrated magnetic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolisy, B.; Mezani, S.; Lubin, T.; Lévêque, J.

    2017-03-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) electrical machines have high torque density with a very high efficiency. Torque tubes are usually used to transmit the torque from the cold to the warm environment which results in thermal losses and mechanical problems. To overcome these difficulties, we propose to transmit the torque of the HTS machine through an integrated HTS magnetic coupling. A prototype has been constructed and tested showing the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The machine and the coupling share the same HTS rotor while the torque produced by the machine is transmitted to the load via a permanent magnets rotor. This solution allows the reduction of the thermal losses and a natural protection against overload during fault. The electromagnetic design is carried out using 3D finite elements (FE). The HTS material electrical behavior is described using a power law so it was possible to determine the operating current of the HTS coils of the device. Many test results such as U(I) curves of the HTS coils, static torque, back-EMF and on-load characteristics are presented and checked by the FE computations.

  7. Design Construction and Test Results of a HTS Solenoid For Energy Recovery Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Anerella, M; Ben-Zvi, I; Kayran, D; McIntyre, G; Muratore, J; Plate, S; Sampson, W; Cole, M; Holmes, D

    2011-03-28

    An innovative feature of the proposed Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The use of HTS allows solenoid to be placed in close proximity to the cavity and thus provides early focusing of the electron beam. In addition, cryogenic testing at {approx}77 K is simpler and cheaper than 4 K testing. This paper will present the design, construction and test results of this HTS solenoid. The HTS solenoid in the proposed ERL will be situated in the transition region between the superconducting cavity at {approx}4 K and the cryostat at the room temperature. Solenoid inside the cryogenic structure provides an early focusing and hence low emittance beam. The temperature in the transition region will be too high for a conventional low temperature superconductor and resistive heat load from copper coils will be too high on cryogenic system. HTS coils also allow much higher current density and significant reduction in size as compared to copper coils. Hence HTS solenoid provide a unique and technically superior solution. The use of a HTS solenoid with superconducting cavity offers a unique option as it can be placed in a cold to warm transition region to provide early focussing without using additional space. Construction and test results so far are very encouraging for its use in the ERL project.

  8. Analysis on heat loss characteristics of a 10 kV HTS power substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yuping; Dai, Shaotao; Song, Naihao; Zhang, Jingye; Gao, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Zhiqin; Zhou, Weiwei; Wei, Zhourong; Lin, Liangzhen; Xiao, Liye

    2014-09-01

    A 10 kV High Temperature Superconducting power substation (10 kV HTS substation), supported by Chinese State 863 projects, was developed and has been running to supply power for several factories for more than two years at an industrial park of Baiyin, Gansu province in Northwest China. The system of the 10 kV HTS substation compositions, including a HTS cable, a HTS transformer, a SFCL, and a SMES, are introduced. The SMES works at liquid helium temperature and the other three apparatus operates under liquid nitrogen condition. There are mainly four types of heat losses existing in each HTS apparatus of the 10 kV HTS substation, including AC loss, Joule heat loss, conductive heat, and leak-in heat from cryostat. A small quantity of AC loss still exists due to the harmonic component of the current when it carries DC for HTS apparatus. The principle and basis for analysis of the heat losses are introduced and the total heat loss of each apparatus are calculated or estimated, which agree well with the test result. The analysis and result presented are of importance for the design of the refrigeration system.

  9. Closed Form Formulas for Distributed Circuit Model of Discontinuities in HTS Microstrip Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadzadeh, S. Mohammad Hassan; Mamaghany, Zahra Mardy; Farzaneh, Forouhar; Fardmanesh, Mehdi

    A distributed circuit model for different kinds of discontinuities in high temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip transmission lines (TLs), is proposed. In each case, closed form formula for lumped element model is presented based on the configuration of the discontinuity and the characterizations of HTS microstrip TLs. These discontinuities consist of steps in width, open ends, gaps and 90-degree bends. In the case of normal conductor microstrip TLs there are a lot of numerical and analytical equations that can accurately model them, however those formulas are not efficient for HTS TLs. Thus modified relations are extracted utilizing the superconducting characterizations to obtain much more accurate formulas. Additionally temperature dependence of HTS TLs is considered in the relations. Moreover regarding the kinetic inductance in HTS TLs a closed form formula is proposed for characteristic impedance of HTS TLs. Furthermore correction factors based on fringe fields is used to optimize all formulas. Using these formulations can lead to modeling and analysis of some superconducting microwave devices such as resonators, microwave filters, couplers, etc. In contrast to EM analysis, using the distributed circuit model is much easier for analysis of HTS microwave devices. The accuracy of the proposed model is confirmed in comparison with some electromagnetic full-wave simulations. This full analytical approach shows great accuracy in this test case as well.

  10. Electrical machines with bulk HTS elements.. The achieved results and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.

    2001-09-01

    Novel types of electric HTS motors with the rotor containing bulk YBCO and Bi-Ag elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance “trapped field” and composed HTS motors are discussed. Two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in these types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of a theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in multi-domain and single-domain HTS ceramic samples. The test results of these HTS motors with output power 1-37 kW and current frequencies 50 and 400 Hz are given. The results show that in liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit is 4-5 times better then for conventional electric machines. The design of a new high power HTS motor operating in the liquid nitrogen with output power 200 kW (and more) is discussed. Future applications of new types of HTS motors for airspace and on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

  11. Torsion Strain Effects on Critical Currents of Hts Superconducting Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Minervini, Joseph V.; Bromberg, Leslie

    2010-04-01

    A torsional twist strain effect on the critical current of a thin HTS tape has been found to be well described by a longitudinal strain model taking into account the internal shortening compressive strains accompanied with the tensile longitudinal strains due to a torsional twist. The critical current of a twisted tape is given by the integration of the critical current densities corresponding to the strain distribution over the tape cross-section using axial strain data of the tape. The model is supported with experimental results of YBCO and BSCCO-2223 tapes. It has been also found that torsional twisting effects on the critical currents of a tape composing of the conventional lapped-tape cable and the twisted stacked-tape cable are described by the same equation as that of a twisted single tape.

  12. Thermal property of insulation material for HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yeon Suk; Kim, D. L.; Shin, D. W.; Hwang, S. D.

    2012-06-01

    The thermal property of insulation material is essential in developing a high temperature superconductor (HTS) power cable operating at around liquid nitrogen temperature. The accurate estimate of the heat flux is difficult in the nonmetallic materials because nonmetallic materials have a high thermal resistance and low temperature gradient along the specimen. The objective of the present work is to develop a precise instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of insulating materials over a temperature range of 30 K to approximately the room temperature by using a cryocooler. The thermal conductivity of Teflon is measured and the accuracy confirmation is carried out by comparing published data. In addition, the experimental results of apparent thermal conductivity of polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) are presented and the temperature dependency is also discussed

  13. Electrical and Mechanical Characterizations of Nanocomposite Insulation for HTS Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J K; Fabian, Paul E; Hooker, M W; Lizotte, M J; Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor

    2011-01-01

    As HTS wire technology continues to advance, a critical need has emerged for dielectric materials that can be used in superconducting components such as terminations, fault current limiters, transformers, and motors. To address this need, CTD is developing nanocomposite insulations based on epoxy and benzoxazine chemistries. Depending on part geometry, some processing methods are more efficient than others. For this reason, CTD is investigating both fiber-reinforced and filled resin systems for use in these applications. A thorough set of electrical testing including AC breakdown, breakdown as a function of thickness, and flashover shows promising performance characteristics. In addition, mechanical testing (short beam shear and compression) indicate that these new materials to have as good or better performance than G10.

  14. Proceedings of the Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium (2nd) Held in Cocoa Beach, Florida on December 2-4, 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    PROCEEDINGS 2ND BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 Cocoa Beach, Florida Sponsored by the Directorate of Research Defense Equal...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 298-102 USAPPC V1.00 PROCEEDINGS 2nd BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA...Proceedings Editor Published April 1998 Preface PROCEEDINGS 2nd BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA The EO/EEO

  15. Development of a 2nd Generation Decision Support Tool to Optimize Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2012, EPA’s Office of Research and Development released the MSW decision support tool (MSW-DST) to help identify strategies for more sustainable MSW management. Depending upon local infrastructure, energy grid mix, population density, and waste composition and quantity, the m...

  16. Explaining the Success of High-Achieving 2nd-Generation Latino Students at Elite Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Latinos represent the largest minority population in the US, yet are one of the most underserved groups in the educational system. As such, they have been the focus of much attention by educational researchers. However, there is little work enabling researchers to understand how many factors might interactively support achievement. Moreover, the…

  17. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Definition Program: Pratt & Whitney Propulsion Risk Reduction Requirements Program (TA-3 & TA-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  18. Research at the CEA in the field of safety in 2nd and 3rd generation light water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billot, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The research programs at the CEA in the field of safety in nuclear reactors are carried out in a framework of international partnerships. Their purpose is to develop studies on: The methods allowing for the determination of earthquake hazards and their consequences; The behaviour of fuel in an accident situation; The comprehension of deflagration and detonation phenomena of hydrogen and the search for effective prevention methods involving an explosion risk; The cooling of corium in order to stop its progression in and outside the vessel thereby reducing the risk of perforating the basemat; The behaviour of the different fission product families according to their volatility for the UO2 and MOX fuels.

  19. Evaluation of 2nd generation flue gas conditioning for hot-side and cold-side ESPs

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Martin, C.E.; Jackson, D.W.; Lindsey, C.V.; Millar, T.J.

    1999-07-01

    New and emerging regulations such as PM2.5 and restrictions on emission of air toxics have created a demand for new technologies to reduce the emissions of fine particles from large industrial sources. ADA Environmental Solutions, LLC (ADA-ES) has commercialized a family of proprietary, flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. The phosphate-based flue gas conditioning additives decrease particle resistivity and improve the performance of ESPs with resistivity related performance problems. In addition, the new additives are effective on a wide range of coal-ash chemistries, which allows the utility flexibility to select the most economical coal. Finally, this technology is effective in applications where conventional SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning does not work such as hot-side ESPs and cold-side ESPs that operate above 375 degrees F. Based upon performance and economic criteria, ADA-ES expects to fill the following niches for improving performance of ESPs: (1) All hot-side ESPs and warm-side ({gt}350 degrees F) ESPs; (2) Cold-side ESPs with difficult to collect ash, such as those collecting ash from PRB coal; (3) Older units with limited operating life remaining; (4) ESP's that annually only need conditioning on an intermittent basis; and (5) Units that burn several coals with only a few that cause problems. This paper provides a summary of the relevant experience gained from the use of the ADA-ES conditioning technology at several different sites. Laboratory tests are presented which help explain the performance observed at some sites. In addition, a description of the development and the latest results from full-scale trials with an improved version of the product, ADA-34, are presented.

  20. Analytical Study of Stress State in HTS Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, E.; Terzini, E.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    A main challenge for high field solenoids made of in High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is the large stress developed in the conductor. This is especially constraining for BSCCO, a brittle and strain sensitive ceramic material. To find parametric correlations useful in magnet design, analytical models can be used. A simple model is herein proposed to obtain the radial, azimuthal and axial stresses in a solenoid as a function of size, i.e. self-field, and of the engineering current density for a number of different constraint hypotheses. The analytical model was verified against finite element modeling (FEM) using the same hypotheses of infinite rigidity of the constraints and room temperature properties. FEM was used to separately evaluate the effect of thermal contractions at 4.2 K for BSCCO and YBCO coils. Even though the analytical model allows for a finite stiffness of the constraints, it was run using infinite stiffness. For this reason, FEM was again used to determine how much stresses change when considering an outer stainless steel skin with finite rigidity for both BSCCO and YBCO coils. For a better understanding of the actual loads that high field solenoids made of HTS will be subject to, we have started some analytical studies of stress state in solenoids for a number of constraint hypotheses. This will hopefully show what can be achieved with the present conductor in terms of self-field. The magnetic field (B) exerts a force F = B x J per unit volume. In superconducting magnets, where the field and current density (J) are both high, this force can be very large, and it is therefore important to calculate the stresses in the coil.

  1. 2nd Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    It was an honor and a great pleasure for all those involved in its organization to welcome the participants to the ''Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean'' (RADIO 2014) international conference that was held from 7th to 10th April 2014 at the Sugar Beach Resort, Wolmar, Flic-en-Flac, Mauritius. RADIO 2014 is the second of a series of conferences organized in the Indian Ocean region. The aim of the conference is to discuss recent developments, theories and practical applications covering the whole scope of radio-frequency engineering, including radio waves, antennas, propagation, and electromagnetic compatibility. The RADIO international conference emerged following discussions with engineers and scientists from the countries of the Indian Ocean as well as from other parts of the world and a need was felt for the organization of such an event in this region. Following numerous requests, the Island of Mauritius, worldwide known for its white sandy beaches and pleasant tropical atmosphere, was again chosen for the organization of the 2nd RADIO international conference. The conference was organized by the Radio Society, Mauritius and the Local Organizing Committee consisted of scientists from SUPELEC, France, the University of Mauritius, and the University of Technology, Mauritius. We would like to take the opportunity to thank all people, institutions and companies that made the event such a success. We are grateful to our gold sponsors CST and FEKO as well as URSI for their generous support which enabled us to partially support one PhD student and two scientists to attend the conference. We would also like to thank IEEE-APS and URSI for providing technical co-sponsorship. More than hundred and thirty abstracts were submitted to the conference. They were peer-reviewed by an international scientific committee and, based on the reviews, either accepted, eventually after revision, or rejected. RADIO 2014 brought together participants from twenty countries spanning

  2. 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (IC-RMM2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of materials and their rheological behaviors during their manufacturing processes and in their applications in many cases can help to increase the efficiency and competitiveness not only of the finished goods and products but the organizations and societies also. The more scientific supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive products with better thermal, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (ic-rmm2) and the parallel organized symposiums of the 1st International Symposium on Powder Injection Molding (is-pim1) and the 1st International Symposium on Rheology and Fracture of Solids (is-rfs1) are the followings: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of modeling and measurements of rheological properties and behavior of materials under processing and applications; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different disciplines, different nations, countries and continents. The international conference ic-rmm2 and symposiums of is-pim1 and is-rfs1 provide a platform among the leading international scientists, researchers, PhD students and engineers for discussing recent achievements in measurement, modeling and application of rheology in materials technology and materials science of liquids, melts, solids, crystals and amorphous structures. Among thr major fields of interest are the influence of materials structures, mechanical stresses, temperatures, deformation speeds and shear rates on rheological and physical properties, phase transformation of foams, foods, polymers, plastics and other competitive materials like ceramics

  3. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones -- Phase I, 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Black, Bill; Biraud, Sebastien

    2009-03-31

    This is the year-end report of the 2nd year of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix 3. Literature survey of published information on the relationship between geologic and hydrologic characteristics of faults was conducted. The survey concluded that it may be possible to classify faults by indicators based on various geometric and geologic attributes that may indirectly relate to the hydrologic property of faults. Analysis of existing information on the Wildcat Fault and its surrounding geology was performed. The Wildcat Fault is thought to be a strike-slip fault with a thrust component that runs along the eastern boundary of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is believed to be part of the Hayward Fault system but is considered inactive. Three trenches were excavated at carefully selected locations mainly based on the information from the past investigative work inside the LBNL property. At least one fault was encountered in all three trenches. Detailed trench mapping was conducted by CRIEPI (Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industries) and LBNL scientists. Some intriguing and puzzling discoveries were made that may contradict with the published work in the past. Predictions are made regarding the hydrologic property of the Wildcat Fault based on the analysis of fault structure. Preliminary conceptual models of the Wildcat Fault were proposed. The Wildcat Fault appears to have multiple splays and some low angled faults may be part of the flower structure. In parallel, surface geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity survey and seismic reflection profiling along three lines on the north and south of the LBNL site. Because of the steep terrain, it was difficult to find optimum locations for survey lines as it is desirable for them to be as

  4. Simulation and measurement of a Ka-band HTS MMIC Josephson junction mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Pegrum, Colin; Du, Jia; Guo, Yingjie Jay

    2017-01-01

    We report modeling and simulation results for a Ka band high-temperature superconducting (HTS) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) Josephson junction mixer. A Verilog-A model of a Josephson junction is established and imported into the system simulator to realize a full HTS MMIC circuit simulation containing the HTS passive circuit models. Impedance matching optimization between the junction and passive devices is investigated. Junction DC I-V characteristics, current and local oscillator bias conditions and mixing performance are simulated and compared with the experimental results. Good agreement is obtained between the simulation and measurement results.

  5. Long Term Operation of Cooling System for the Kepco Hts Power Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Hwang, S. D.

    2010-04-01

    HTS power cable systems of to several hundred meters in length are presently being developed and evaluated for practical use in real power grids. Since 2006, a cooling system for the 3-phase, 100-m HTS power cable with 22.9 kV/1.25 kA has been installed and tested at the KEPCO's Gochang power-testing center. Performance reliability through several demonstration tests of over 9,000 hours was demonstrated. This paper mainly describes the cooling performance test results of the HTS power cable system obtained during the long-term performance tests.

  6. Static and dynamic stability of the guidance force in a side-suspended HTS maglev system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dajin; Cui, Chenyu; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xiqing; Zhao, Yong

    2017-02-01

    The static and dynamic stability of the guidance force in a side-suspended HTS-PMG (permanent magnetic guideway) system were studied theoretically and experimentally. It is found that there are two types of guidance force that exist in the HTS-PMG system, which are sensitive to the levitation gap and the arrangement of YBCO bulks around the central axis of the PMG. An optimized YBCO array was used to stabilize the system, which enabled a side-suspended HTS-PMG maglev vehicle to run stably at 102 km h-1 on a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter.

  7. The electrical characteristics of solid insulators for 154 kV class HTS transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, H. G.; Choi, J. H.; Pang, M. S.; Kim, W. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2011-11-01

    HTS transformer, without any loss of insulation lifetime due to the reduction in terms of size and weight, can increase the overload capacity, and have some benefits such as the improvement in efficiency, minimization of environmental pollution, and convenient spatial arrangement, which contribute a lot to electric power system operation. However, for practical insulation design of the HTS transformer, it is necessary to establish the research on electrical properties LN2 as well as solid insulators. These solid insulators have been used as main insulations for HTS transformer. In this paper, we discussed breakdown and V-t characteristics of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) and pressboard in LN2.

  8. Electrical Properties and Superconductivity of MSr2Nd2-xCexCu2O10-δ (M=Ta, Nb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Qian, Yitai; Li, Rukang; Wang, Shiwei; Chen, Zuyao; Chen, Zhaojia; Wang, Nanling; Zhou, Guien

    1992-09-01

    A new series of layered cuprate compounds MSr2Nd2-xCexCu2O10-δ (M=Ta, Nb) have been synthesized. The structure of the compounds is similar to that of T1-1222. A peak in the R-T curve for the sample of TaSr2Nd1.3Ce0.7Cu2O10-δ has been observed at about 50 K. For the sample of NbSr2Nd1.45Ce0.55Cu2O10-δ, metal-like conductivity behaviour has been observed. We have found superconductivity at about 13.2 K in the samples of NbSr2Nd2-xCexCu2O10-δ (x=0.49, 0.50, 0.51, 0.52).

  9. [In search of the ideal surgical treatment for lymphedema. Report of 2nd European Conference on supermicrosurgery (Barcelona - March 2012)].

    PubMed

    Rausky, J; Robert, N; Binder, J-P; Revol, M

    2012-12-01

    Since more than 50 years, many surgeons all around the world try to find the perfect surgical technique to treat limb lymphedemas. Decongestive physiotherapy associated with the use of a compressive garment has been the primary choice for lymphedema treatment. Many different surgical techniques have been developed, however, to date, there is no consensus on surgical procedure. Most surgical experts of lymphedema met in the second European Conference on supermicrosurgery, organized on March 1st and 2nd 2012, in San Pau Hospital, Barcelona. Together they tried to clarify these different options and ideally a strategy for using these techniques.

  10. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/ Austria | November 28th - 29th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation. PMID:25713602

  11. Comparison of the large scale structure of the ISM in the 2nd and 3rd Galactic Quadrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; Kiss, Cs.

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we are questing the large scale structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) using IRAS/ISSA 60 and 100 mum maps in the 3rd Galactic Quadrant (GQ). Here we identified 41 loop-like intensity enhancements and analysed their far-infrared (FIR) properties. We found major differences in the distribution and characteristics of these features when comparing the results of the 2nd and the 3rd GQs. This discrepancy can be satisfactorily explained by basic differences of the structure of the ISM in these two Galactic Quadrants.

  12. THE 2nd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 10–14 APRIL 2010, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Baharnoori, Moogeh; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Boucher, Aurelie A.; Buchy, Lisa; Chaddock, Christopher; Chiliza, Bonga; Föcking, Melanie; Fornito, Alex; Gallego, Juan A.; Hori, Hiroaki; Huf, Gisele; Jabbar, Gul A.; Kang, Shi Hyun; El Kissi, Yousri; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Modinos, Gemma; Abdel-Fadeel, Nashaat A.M.; Neubeck, Anna-Karin; Ng, Hsiao Piau; Novak, Gabriela; Owolabi, Olasunmbo.O.; Prata, Diana P.; Rao, Naren P.; Riecansky, Igor; Smith, Darryl C.; Souza, Renan P.; Thienel, Renate; Trotman, Hanan D.; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Woodberry, Kristen A.; O'Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, was held in Florence, Italy, April 10–15, 2010. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs of each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged from each session and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these reviews. It is hoped that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:20934307

  13. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/Austria|November 28th-29th, 2013.

    PubMed

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation.

  14. Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

    2013-11-01

    The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system.

  15. Design, development and calibration of HTS wire based LOX level sensor probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, S.; Nadig, D. S.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Gour, A. S.; Gowthaman, M.; Deekshith, P.; Shrivastava, V.

    2014-01-01

    For space applications, the weight of the liquid level sensors are of major concern as they affect the payload fraction and hence the cost. An attempt is made to design and test a light weight High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) wire based liquid level sensor for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank used in the cryostage of the spacecraft. The total resistance value measured of the HTS wire is inversely proportional to the liquid level. A HTS wire (SF12100) of 12mm width and 2.76m length without copper stabilizer has been used in the level sensor. The developed HTS wire based LOX level sensor is calibrated against a discrete diode array type level sensor. Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) and LOX has been used as cryogenic fluid for the calibration purpose. The automatic data logging for the system has been done using LabVIEW11. The net weight of the developed sensor is less than 1 kg.

  16. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  17. Mechanism of thickness dependence of critical current density in HTS YBCO film and its elimination using nano-engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang

    The most promising characteristic of a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is its ability to carry larger electrical current at liquid nitrogen boiling temperature and strong applied magnetic field with minimal dissipation. Numerous large scale applications such as HTS transmission cables, HTS magnets and HTS motors have been developed using HTS materials. The major limitation that prevents its wide commercialization is its high cost-to-performance ratio. However, the effort to further improve HTS current carrying capability is jeopardized by a mysterious thickness dependence of the critical current density (Jc) --- Jc monotonically decreases with increasing thickness (t) at 77 K and self-field (SF). This poses a great challenge for both HTS applications and the understanding of vortex dynamics. What further complicates this issue is the complex defect structure in HTS films as well as the creep nature of magnetic vortices at a finite temperature. After a systematic study of the temperature and magnetic field effects on Jc--t, we conclude that Jc--t is most likely the result of a collective pinning effect dictated by a random pinning potential. Besides that, thermal fluctuations also alter Jc--t in a predictable way. Therefore, by either modifying the vortex structure or pinning structure, J c--t can be eliminated. Indeed, a thin film J c has been restored in a HTS/insulator/HTS trilayer while the magnetic coupling is weakened. Moreover, Jc--t has been removed when the random distributed point pins are overpowered by strong linear defects.

  18. High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment (HTSSE). Hybrid HTS/Dielectric Resonator Bandpass Filter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-02

    enlarged ( limited by waveguide moding) or the metal walls replaced by HTS material . HTS walls are particularly attractive since they can be placed...an order of magnitude the resistive losses of filters, waveguide feeds, and transmission lines. Significant reduction in size and weight of these...suspending a dielectric resonator inside a waveguide cavity below cutoff. One of the basic advantages of a dielectric resonator as compared to a

  19. Development of (RE)BCO cables for HTS power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, S.; Yagi, M.; Masuda, T.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Aoki, Y.; Yoshizumi, M.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2009-10-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables transmit bulk power with lower loss than conventional cables. Moreover, HTS cables are expected to be constructed as a new underground cable in urban areas at lower cost compared to a high voltage XLPE cable. To put promising HTS cables to practical use, we need (RE)BCO tapes with long length, high critical current, and low cost. Recently many organizations have improved the performance of the (RE)BCO tapes, such as YBCO tapes, or other coated conductor tapes that are made with a variety of different processes. We have fabricated the conductors for the HTS power cable that was constructed of different kinds of (RE)BCO tapes and measured the I c and AC losses. We achieved significantly low AC loss of 0.1 W/m at 1 kA in the HTS conductor using narrow slit tapes that were cut by laser. Moreover, a 20 m long HTS power cable model and a cable intermediate joint were developed. Short circuit current tests were conducted on the cable system that consisted of two 10 m cables, a cable joint, and two terminations. The cables and the joint withstood the short circuit current of 31.5 kA for 2 s without damage.

  20. [Medical support of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Leonik, S I; Lemeshkin, R N

    2015-02-01

    Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front. An activity of the medical An activity of the medical service of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front is a typical example of the medical support of troops during the final stages of World War II. Forms and methods of medical support management, which were developed during the war, haven't lost their importance in modern conditions. These methods include the establishment of specialized surgical and therapeutic field hospital, establishment of medical institutions in the Army, which worked on the evacuation directions and reserve of mobile hospitals and transport, timely extension of the first echelons of the hospital base front to change institutions hospital deployed the army base. A research of experience in organizing medical support of the offensive operations performed during the last year of World War II provides the material for the development of the theory of modern medical support operations and ability to provide on this basis, the continuity of the hospitals, the continuity of qualified and specialized medical care, improve the performance of diagnostic and treatment work.

  1. Influence of Nd dopant amount on microstructure and photoluminescence of TiO2:Nd thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcieszak, Damian; Mazur, Michal; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Morgiel, Jerzy; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Misiewicz, Jan

    2015-10-01

    TiO2 and TiO2:Nd thin films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering process from mosaic Ti-Nd targets with various Nd concentration. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopic techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) in the near infrared obtained upon 514.5 nm excitation was also examined. The relationship between the Nd concentration, structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of prepared thin films was investigated and discussed. XRD and TEM measurements showed that an increase in the Nd concentration in the thin films hinders the crystal growth in the deposited coatings. Depending on the Nd amount in the thin films, TiO2 with the rutile, mixed rutile-amorphous or amorphous phase was obtained. Transmittance measurements revealed that addition of Nd dopant to titania matrix did not deteriorate optical transparency of the coatings, however it influenced on the position of the fundamental absorption edge and therefore on the width of optical band gap energy. All TiO2:Nd thin films exhibited PL emission that occurred at ca. 0.91, 1.09 and 1.38 μm. Finally, results obtained for deposited coatings showed that titania with the rutile structure and 1.0 at.% of Nd was the most efficient in VIS to NIR photon conversion.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  3. Density functional theory calculations on the active site of biotin synthase: mechanism of S transfer from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster and the role of 1st and 2nd sphere residues.

    PubMed

    Rana, Atanu; Dey, Subal; Agrawal, Amita; Dey, Abhishek

    2015-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed on the active site of biotin synthase (BS) to investigate the sulfur transfer from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster to dethiobiotin (DTB). The active site is modeled to include both the 1st and 2nd sphere residues. Molecular orbital theory considerations and calculation on smaller models indicate that only an S atom (not S²⁻) transfer from an oxidized Fe(2)S(2) cluster leads to the formation of biotin from the DTB using two adenosyl radicals generated from S-adenosyl-L-methionine. The calculations on larger protein active site model indicate that a 9-monothiobiotin bound reduced cluster should be an intermediate during the S atom insertion from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster consistent with experimental data. The Arg260 bound to Fe1, being a weaker donor than cysteine bound to Fe(2), determines the geometry and the electronic structure of this intermediate. The formation of this intermediate containing the C9-S bond is estimated to have a ΔG(≠) of 17.1 kcal/mol while its decay by the formation of the 2nd C6-S bond is calculated to have a ΔG(≠) of 29.8 kcal/mol, i.e. the 2nd C-S bond formation is calculated to be the rate determining step in the cycle and it leads to the decay of the Fe(2)S(2) cluster. Significant configuration interaction (CI), present in these transition states, helps lower the barrier of these reactions by ~30-25 kcal/mol relative to a hypothetical outer-sphere reaction. The conserved Phe285 residue near the Fe(2)S(2) active site determines the stereo selectivity at the C6 center of this radical coupling reaction. Reaction mechanism of BS investigated using DFT calculations. Strong CI and the Phe285 residue control the kinetic rate and stereochemistry of the product.

  4. XUV spectra of 2nd transition row elements: identification of 3d-4p and 3d-4f transition arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokasani, Ragava; Long, Elaine; Maguire, Oisin; Sheridan, Paul; Hayden, Patrick; O'Reilly, Fergal; Dunne, Padraig; Sokell, Emma; Endo, Akira; Limpouch, Jiri; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-12-01

    The use of laser produced plasmas (LPPs) in extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray lithography and metrology at 13.5 nm has been widely reported and recent research efforts have focused on developing next generation sources for lithography, surface morphology, patterning and microscopy at shorter wavelengths. In this paper, the spectra emitted from LPPs of the 2nd transition row elements from yttrium (Z = 39) to palladium (Z = 46), with the exception of zirconium (Z = 40) and technetium (Z = 43), produced by two Nd:YAG lasers which delivered up to 600 mJ in 7 ns and 230 mJ in 170 ps, respectively, are reported. Intense emission was observed in the 2-8 nm spectral region resulting from unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) due to 3d-4p, 3d-4f and 3p-3d transitions. These transitions in a number of ion stages of yttrium, niobium, ruthenium and rhodium were identified by comparison with results from Cowan code calculations and previous studies. The theoretical data were parameterized using the UTA formalism and the mean wavelength and widths were calculated and compared with experimental results.

  5. Large Coaxial Coldfinger Ptc for Process Liquefaction and Hts Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoor, P. S.; Corey, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    Large (>100 W cooling capacity at 80 K) `pulse-tube' coolers are ideal candidates for emerging applications such as HTS transmission lines, transformers, and motor windings, meso-scale oxygen liquefaction on-demand, cryopumping, and cryogen boiloff recovery. A number of successful large `in-line' pulse-tube coolers have been built, but these require embedded shell-and-tube process heat exchangers, hence transport of the process fluid/gas to and from the coldhead, and often a high degree of process fluid purity, to avoid clogging in the narrow inlets and outlets of these heat exchangers. It is far preferable in most circumstances to have a coldfinger design that presents a salient cold tip, with the coldhead at the end of a flexible transfer line, as is done with Gifford-McMahon or Joule-Thomson coolers. This paper presents some design details and data from the development of our first high-capacity coldfinger, as well as the results of its application to a 55 gallon/day oxygen liquefier for the Navy.

  6. Neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator for HTS power machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hirokazu; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We developed a prototype turbo-Brayton refrigerator whose working fluid is neon gas. The refrigerator is designed for a HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power transformer and its cooling power is more than 2 kW at 65 K. The refrigerator has a turboexpander and a turbo-compressor, which utilize magnetic bearings. These rotational machines have no rubbing parts and no oil-components. Those make a long maintenance interval of the refrigerator. The refrigerator is very compact because our newly developed turbo-compressor is volumetrically smaller than a displacement type compressor in same operating specification. Another feature of the refrigerator is a wide range operation capability for various heat-loads. Cooling power is controlled by the input-power of the turbo-compressor instead of the conventional method of using an electric heater. The rotational speed of the compressor motor is adjusted by an inverter. This system is expected to be more efficient. We show design details, specification and cooling test results of the new refrigerator in this paper.

  7. "The Program Evaluation Standards": How to Assess Evaluations of Educational Programs, 2nd Edition [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Deborah M.

    1994-01-01

    The "Program Evaluation Standards" supplies a useful framework for generating questions to raise about any evaluation plan or evaluation report to assess its pros and cons. It is a valuable "how-to" for graduate students and professionals. This second edition incorporates changes in the field in the last decade. (SLD)

  8. Evaluation of joint interface of friction stir welding between dissimilar metals using HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashiko, Y.; Hatsukade, Y.; Yasui, T.; Takenaka, H.; Todaka, Y.; Fukumoto, M.; Tanaka, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated conductive properties of joint interfaces of friction stir welding (FSW) between dissimilar metals, stainless steel SUS304 and aluminum A6063, using a SQUID nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system. With current injection method, the current maps above the FSW specimens jointed under various conditions were measured by a HTS-SQUID gradiometer. The conductivities of the joint interfaces, which were estimated from the current maps, differed between the joint conditions. By destructive tests using optical microscope, large voids were observed on the joint interfaces with low welding speed that generated excess heating. In case of one specimen, which was welded with welding speed of 500 and 200 mm/min, the conductivity of the former was higher than that of the latter, although the inside voids in the respective regions were not much different. From these results, it is suggested that the current maps were influenced not only by the conductivity of the joint interface but also by inside voids. By hardness test on the SUS boards near the interfaces, only the SUS jointed with 200 mm/min was about half softer than its matrix.

  9. Transient thermal analysis of a tri-axial HTS cable on fault current condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, N.; Cao, K.; Wang, D.; Song, M.; Miyagi, D.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2013-11-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) tri-axial cable, which consists of three concentric phases, was developed as a potential commercial solution for next generation distribution power network. In our previous research, we simulate the transient thermal behavior of the cable by solving the heat equation using one-dimension difference method. The result shows that it takes time to recover the cable temperature to the steady-state operation level due to a low thermal conductivity of the insulation layer after a fault. However for a long cable system, when middle phase in concentric structure is rated under an over current, accumulated heat from middle phase might continually warm up the liquid nitrogen (LN2) flow by heat transfer even the over current has been stopped. In this research, we improve the numerically calculation which includes the consideration of flowing liquid nitrogen and the heat transfer in both radius and longitudinal directions. A long tri-axial cable system thermal stability is discussed based on the calculation results.

  10. Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator with slit-type heat exchangers for HTS superconducting motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Taekyung; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2011-06-01

    A cryogenic refrigeration system is one of the indispensable components for cooling superconducting motor or generator. Among various configurations of cryogenic refrigeration system, the on-board refrigeration system is considered to be attractive for compactness and small heat leak. In order to turn this concept into reality, we focus on two essential points; development of the specific structure for on-board refrigeration and optimal design of the refrigerator. Since the on-board refrigeration system should not create unbalanced vibration, the inline Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator is considered as a good candidate and more concrete and efficient structure is developed under the design constraints. The dynamic absorber is used to maintain the dynamic stability of the single acting linear compressor. To increase thermal Carnot efficiency with the on-board Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator, slit-type heat exchangers are implemented and flow straighteners are carefully designed by the three-dimensional CFD simulation. The overall configuration of the Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator is designed and fabricated by the optimal process. The present on-board refrigerator has the cooling capacity of 7 W at 59.5 K with the Carnot efficiency of 10.9%. According to these experimental results, the pulse tube refrigerator as the on-board refrigeration system possesses a sufficient thermal efficiency despite the restricted design configuration. The on-board refrigeration is considered as a useful method for cooling HTS superconducting motor.

  11. Test results from Siemens low-speed, high-torque HTS machine and description of further steps towards commercialisation of HTS machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nick, Wolfgang; Grundmann, Joern; Frauenhofer, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    With extensive testing of the 4 MW 120 rpm HTS machine connected to a standard Siemens converter this first development stage for a basically new technology is concluded. The most innovative part of the machine, the HTS excited rotor, outperformed our expectations and demonstrated our capability to design, develop and build successfully such a technically challenging component. This could only be achieved on the base of a thorough understanding of the innovative material and its behaviour including practical handling experience, the ability to simulate 3D electromagnetics including transients, and finally transfer of the scientists' knowledge to a qualified manufacturing process. Equally important are the improved capabilities of critical component suppliers, e.g. for superconducting tapes and compact cryo-refrigerators. However, the transition of a technology into highly reliable industrial products does require more than technical mastering of the machine. Based on outstanding technical test results as presented above, the next step in future can be addressed: product development. Some thoughts will be presented regarding the needs of application fields and market oriented development, as the market is not "waiting for HTS". If HTS technology is seen as one key technology for a sustainable, material saving and energy efficient future, it certainly needs more effort, even at the 100th anniversary of superconductivity.

  12. Conceptual design and optimization of a 1-1/2 generation PFBC plant task 14. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubow, L.N.; Horazak, D.A.; White, J.S.

    1994-12-01

    The economics and performance of advanced pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) cycles developed for utility applications during the last 10 years (especially the 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle) are projected to be favorable compared to conventional pulverized coal power plants. However, the improved economics of 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles are accompanied by the perception of increased technological risk related to the pressurized carbonizer and its associated gas cleanup systems. A PFBC cycle that removed the uncertainties of the carbonizer while retaining the high efficiency and low cost of a 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle could improve the prospects for early commercialization and pave the way for the introduction of the complete 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle at some later date. One such arrangement is a PFBC cycle with natural gas topping combustion, referred to as the 1.5-Generation PFBC cycle. This cycle combines the advantages of the 2nd-Generation PFBC plant with the reduced risk associated with a gas turbine burning natural gas, and can potentially be part of a phased approach leading to the commercialization of utility 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles. The 1.5-Generation PFBC may also introduce other advantages over the more complicated 2nd-Generation PFBC system. This report describes the technical and economic evaluation of 1.5-Generation PFBC cycles for utility or industrial power generation.

  13. Specimen Examinations for Merchant Marine Engineer Licenses (2nd and 3rd Assistant).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    valves being not fully seated. D. moisture entrained in the steam . 5. Double helically cut gears are used for main reduction and pinion gears to A...A faulty coil in the solenoid valve -21- EXAMINATION SPECIFICATIONS SECOND ASSISTANT ENGINEER SUBJECT STEAM MOTOR I. Boilers, Fuel Oil & Combustion...engine back pressure. C. increase engine cycle efficiency. D. increase turbocharger efficiency. 2. A common method of varying the steam generating rate

  14. Post-flight BET products for the 2nd discovery entry, STS-19 (51-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, G. M.; Mcconnell, J. G.; Heck, M. L.; Troutman, P. A.; Waters, L. A.; Findlay, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    The post-flight products for the second Discovery flight, STS-19 (51-A), are summarized. The inertial best estimate trajectory (BET), BT19D19/UN=169750N, was developed using spacecraft dynamic measurements from Inertial Measurement Unit 2 (IMU2) in conjunction with the best tracking coverage available for any of the earlier Shuttle entries. As a consequence of the latter, an anchor epoch was selected which conforms to an initial altitude of greater than a million feet. The Extended BET, ST19BET/UN=274885C, incorporated the previously mentioned inertial reconstructed state information and the Langley Atmospheric Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) atmosphere, ST19MET/UN=712662N, with some minor exceptions. Primary and back-up AEROBET reels are NK0165 and NK0201, respectively. This product was only developed over the lowermost 360 kft altitude range due to atmosphere problems but this relates to altitudes well above meaningful signal in the IMUs. Summary results generated from the AEROBET for this flight are presented with meaningful configuration and statistical comparisons from the previous thirteen flights. Modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) files were generated based on IMU2 and the Rate Gyro Assembly/Accelerometer Assembly (RGA/AA), respectively. Appendices attached define spacecraft and physical constants utilized, show plots of the final tracking data residuals from the post-flight fit, list relevant parameters from the BET at a two second spacing, and retain for archival purpose all relevant input and output tapes and files generated.

  15. The Effect of Magnetic Field on HTS Leads What Happens when thePower Fails at RAL?

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2007-02-14

    The key to being able to operate the MICE superconducting solenoids on small coolers is the use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) leads between the first stage of the cooler and the magnet, which operates at around 4.2 K. Because MICE magnets are not shielded, all of the MICE magnets have a stray magnetic field in the region where the coolers and the HTS leads are located. The behavior of the HTS leads in a magnetic field depends strongly on the HTS material used for the leads and the temperature of the cooler first stage temperature. The HTS leads can be specified to operate at the maximum current for the magnet. This report shows how the HTS leads can be specified for use the MICE magnets. MICE magnets take from 1.3 hours (the tracker solenoids) to 3.7 hours (the coupling magnet) to charge to the highest projected operating currents. If the power fails, the cooler and the upper ends of the HTS leads warm up. The question is how one can discharge the magnet to protect the HTS leads without quenching the MICE magnets. This report describes a method that one can use to protect the HTS leads in the event of a power failure at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL).

  16. Numerical Simulation of the Francis Turbine and CAD used to Optimized the Runner Design (2nd).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutikno, Priyono

    2010-06-01

    Hydro Power is the most important renewable energy source on earth. The water is free of charge and with the generation of electric energy in a Hydroelectric Power station the production of green house gases (mainly CO2) is negligible. Hydro Power Generation Stations are long term installations and can be used for 50 years and more, care must be taken to guarantee a smooth and safe operation over the years. Maintenance is necessary and critical parts of the machines have to be replaced if necessary. Within modern engineering the numerical flow simulation plays an important role in order to optimize the hydraulic turbine in conjunction with connected components of the plant. Especially for rehabilitation and upgrading existing Power Plants important point of concern are to predict the power output of turbine, to achieve maximum hydraulic efficiency, to avoid or to minimize cavitations, to avoid or to minimized vibrations in whole range operation. Flow simulation can help to solve operational problems and to optimize the turbo machinery for hydro electric generating stations or their component through, intuitive optimization, mathematical optimization, parametric design, the reduction of cavitations through design, prediction of draft tube vortex, trouble shooting by using the simulation. The classic design through graphic-analytical method is cumbersome and can't give in evidence the positive or negative aspects of the designing options. So it was obvious to have imposed as necessity the classical design methods to an adequate design method using the CAD software. There are many option chose during design calculus in a specific step of designing may be verified in ensemble and detail form a point of view. The final graphic post processing would be realized only for the optimal solution, through a 3 D representation of the runner as a whole for the final approval geometric shape. In this article it was investigated the redesign of the hydraulic turbine's runner

  17. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  18. Effect of the nanocrystalline structure type on the optical properties of TiO2:Nd (1 at.%) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Michal; Wojcieszak, Damian; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Misiewicz, Jan; Morgiel, Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films, each doped with the same amount of neodymium (1 at.%) were deposited by Low Pressure Hot Target Reactive Sputtering and High Energy Reactive Magnetron Sputtering processes in order to obtain anatase and rutile thin film structures respectively. The microstructure and phase composition were analyzed using the transmission electron microscopy method including high resolution electron microscopy imaging. The measurements of the optical properties showed, that both prepared thin films were transparent in the visible light range and had a low extinction coefficient of ca. 3 ṡ 10-3. The thin film with the anatase structure had a lower cut-off wavelength and refractive index and a higher value of optical energy band gap as-compared to the TiO2:Nd coating with the rutile structure. Simultaneously, more efficient photoluminescence emission was observed for the rutile thin films.

  19. 2nd ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer: locally advanced stage III non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, W E E; De Ruysscher, D; Weder, W; Le Péchoux, C; De Leyn, P; Hoffmann, H; Westeel, V; Stahel, R; Felip, E; Peters, S

    2015-08-01

    To complement the existing treatment guidelines for all tumour types, ESMO organises consensus conferences to focus on specific issues in each type of tumour. The 2nd ESMO Consensus Conference on Lung Cancer was held on 11-12 May 2013 in Lugano. A total of 35 experts met to address several questions on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in each of four areas: pathology and molecular biomarkers, first-line/second and further lines of treatment in advanced disease, early-stage disease and locally advanced disease. For each question, recommendations were made including reference to the grade of recommendation and level of evidence. This consensus paper focuses on locally advanced disease.

  20. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories.

  1. The 2nd Order Focusing by Energy for TOF Sector Field Mass Analyzer with an Orthogonal Acceleration: Theory, Modeling, Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poteshin, S. S.; Chernyshev, D. M.; Sysoev, Alexey A.; Sysoev, Alexander A.

    Currently axially symmetric type of analyzer with an electrostatic sector fields (AESF) is rarely used to construct time-of-flight mass spectrometers. The main drawback, hindering the wider use of the analyzers of this type, is the lack of chromatic second-order focusing by energy. However, the configuration of AESF in combination with orthogonal accelerator (OA) allows to achieved it through compensation of energy aberrations of the analyzer in the system of orthogonal input of the ion beam. In the presented work the results of theoretical calculation, simulation and experimentally obtained data are compared. Characteristics of the analyzer with OA in a large extent depend on the parameters of the incoming ion beam. Data of modeling the 2nd stage of gas-dynamic interface, which have the greatest influence on the parameters of the ion beam, is provided.

  2. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically better than open hepatectomy: preparing for the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Go; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Han, Ho-Seong; Kaneko, Hironori; Buell, Joseph F

    2014-10-01

    Six years have passed since the first International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection was held. This comparatively new surgical technique has evolved since then and is rapidly being adopted worldwide. We compared the theoretical differences between open and laparoscopic liver resection, using right hepatectomy as an example. We also searched the Cochrane Library using the keyword "laparoscopic liver resection." The papers retrieved through the search were reviewed, categorized, and applied to the clinical questions that will be discussed at the 2nd Consensus Conference. The laparoscopic hepatectomy procedure is more difficult to master than the open hepatectomy procedure because of the movement restrictions imposed upon us when we operate from outside the body cavity. However, good visibility of the operative field around the liver, which is located beneath the costal arch, and the magnifying provide for neat transection of the hepatic parenchyma. Another theoretical advantage is that pneumoperitoneum pressure reduces hemorrhage from the hepatic vein. The literature search turned up 67 papers, 23 of which we excluded, leaving only 44. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are underway, but their results are yet to be published. Most of the studies (n = 15) concerned short-term results, with some addressing long-term results (n = 7), cost (n = 6), energy devices (n = 4), and so on. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically superior to open hepatectomy in terms of good visibility of the operative field due to the magnifying effect and reduced hemorrhage from the hepatic vein due to pneumoperitoneum pressure. However, there is as yet no evidence from previous studies to back this up in terms of short-term and long-term results. The 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection will arrive at a consensus on the basis of the best available evidence, with video presentations focusing on surgical techniques and the publication

  3. CO2 dynamics in nested catchments: a longitudinal perspective from soil to 1st and 2nd order streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Lehmann, J.; Riha, S. J.; Couto, E. G.

    2005-12-01

    Fluxes of CO2 from terrestrial to aquatic environments were investigated in a nested catchment study in the seasonally-dry southern Amazon. Dissolved CO2 concentrations in groundwater springs, four 1st order streams and one 2nd order stream were determined via routine sampling and in-situ monitoring. CO2 concentrations were monitored in the soil atmosphere to 8m. Belowground, the seasonal trend in soil CO2 concentrations at depth lagged that of seasonal water table dynamics, with peak concentrations (8.7% CO2 vol/vol at 4m) occurring one month after maximum water table height, indicating a shift in root respiration and plant water uptake to deeper soil layers during the dry season. Peak dissolved CO2 concentrations in springs and streams lagged the soil CO2 maximum by an additional month. During storm events, streamflow CO2 concentrations were found to decrease initially, reflecting the initial contribution of low-CO2 direct precipitation and surface runoff. Streamwater CO2 then increased as the contribution of pre-event water to storm flow increased. Dissolved CO2 in springs was also found to increase during storm events. Diurnal fluctuations in dissolved CO2 of springs were also observed, indicating the connectivity of the biosphere, pedosphere and hydrosphere for headwater catchments. The dissolved CO2 concentration within 1st order streams decreases rapidly downstream from stream sources, with spring CO2 concentration 3.3 times that at headwater catchment outlets. This initial outgassing of CO2 within 1st order streams was found to be accompanied by a corresponding increase in the pH of stream water. However, dissolved CO2 concentrations were not found to be significantly different between 1st and 2nd order streams. This suggests a discontinuity between some processes at the terrestrial-aquatic interface in headwater catchments and those of larger-order watersheds.

  4. Race-track coils for a 3 MW HTS ship motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, E.; Kato, T.; Hayashi, K.

    2014-09-01

    Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS), Sumitomo Electric has been developing silver-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wire and products. Ship propulsion motors are one of the most promising applications of HTS. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) has recently manufactured 24 large racetrack coils, using 70 km long DI-BSCCO wires, for use in a 3 MW HTS motor developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI). The 3 MW HTS motor, using our newly developed racetrack coils, has successfully passed the loading test. It is particularly important that the HTS field coils used in ship propulsion motors can withstand the expansive forces repeatedly applied to them. As racetrack type coils have straight sections, the support mechanism they require to withstand expansive forces is very different from that of circular coils. Therefore, we ran tests and obtained the basic data to evaluate the 20-year durability of racetrack coils against the repeatedly applied expansive forces expected in domestic ship propulsion motors.

  5. Design considerations and experimental results for MRI systems using HTS magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Ben

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems using high temperature superconductors (HTS) magnets have been designed and constructed, with detailed results of their performance now available. Features of REBCO and BSCCO conductors are described as they pertain to use in high homogeneity magnets, with emphasis placed on the practical use of these conductors in magnets. Methods of coil winding are discussed, in particular the differences between pancake and layer winding techniques. Design considerations for HTS magnets are presented in light of the difficulties presented by quench in these magnets, but also in terms of the features of HTS magnets afforded by their high operating temperatures, namely robust cryogen free operation and the potential to use unshielded gradient coils. Drawing on two example MRI systems, namely a 3 T BSCCO brain imaging magnet developed in Japan and a 1.5 T REBCO orthopaedic imaging system developed in New Zealand, the report details real-world stability and homogeneity of HTS-MRI systems, in particular with regards to the screening current effects observed in these systems. It is concluded that, apart from conductor cost, there are currently no technical obstacles to use of HTS-MRI systems.

  6. Use of in Vitro HTS-Derived Concentration-Response Data as ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: Quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) assays are increasingly being employed to inform chemical hazard identification. Hundreds of chemicals have been tested in dozens of cell lines across extensive concentration ranges by the National Toxicology Program in collaboration with the NIH Chemical Genomics Center. Objectives: To test a hypothesis that dose-response data points of the qHTS assays can serve as biological descriptors of assayed chemicals and, when combined with conventional chemical descriptors, may improve the accuracy of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models applied to prediction of in vivo toxicity endpoints. Methods and Results: The cell viability qHTS concentration-response data for 1,408 substances assayed in 13 cell lines were obtained from PubChem; for a subset of these compounds rodent acute toxicity LD50 data were also available. The classification k Nearest Neighbor and Random Forest QSAR methods were employed for modeling LD50 data using either chemical descriptors alone (conventional models) or in combination with biological descriptors derived from the concentration-response qHTS data (hybrid models). Critical to our approach was the use of a novel noise-filtering algorithm to treat qHTS data. We show that both the external classification accuracy and coverage (i.e., fraction of compounds in the external set that fall within the applicability domain) of the hybrid QSAR models was superior to convent

  7. Strengthening future electricity grid of the Netherlands by integration of HTS transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuijderduin, Roy; Chevtchenko, Oleg; Smit, Johan; Aanhaanen, Gert; Ross, Rob

    2014-05-01

    The electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. There is a call of society to use more underground cables, less overhead lines (OHL) and to reduce magnetic emissions. At the same time, parts of the future transmission grid need strengthening depending on the electricity demand in the coming decades [1]. Novel high temperature superconductor (HTS) AC transmission cables can play a role in strengthening the grid. The advantages as compared to alternatives, are: economic, underground, higher power capacity, lower losses, reduced magnetic field emissions in (existing) OHL, compact: less occupation of land and less permits needed, a possibility to keep 380 kV voltage level in the grid for as long as needed. The main obstacles are: the relatively high price of HTS tapes and insufficient maturity of the HTS cable technology. In the paper we focus on a 34 km long connection in the transmission grid (to be strengthened in three of the four of TenneT scenarios [1]), present the network study results, derive the requirements for corresponding HTS transmission cable system and compare HTS system to the alternatives (OHLs and XLPE cables).

  8. Directional fidelity of nanoscale motors and particles is limited by the 2nd law of thermodynamics--via a universal equality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhisong; Hou, Ruizheng; Efremov, Artem

    2013-07-21

    Directional motion of nanoscale motors and driven particles in an isothermal environment costs a finite amount of energy despite zero work as decreed by the 2nd law, but quantifying this general limit remains difficult. Here we derive a universal equality linking directional fidelity of an arbitrary nanoscale object to the least possible energy driving it. The fidelity-energy equality depends on the environmental temperature alone; any lower energy would violate the 2nd law in a thought experiment. Real experimental proof for the equality comes from force-induced motion of biological nanomotors by three independent groups - for translational as well as rotational motion. Interestingly, the natural self-propelled motion of a biological nanomotor (F1-ATPase) known to have nearly 100% energy efficiency evidently pays the 2nd law decreed least energy cost for direction production.

  9. Rocketdyne - J-2 Saturn V 2nd and 3rd Stage Engine. Chapter 2, Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The J-2 engine was unique in many respects. Technology was not nearly as well-developed in oxygen/hydrogen engines at the start of the J-2 project. As a result, it experienced a number of "teething" problems. It was used in two stages on the Saturn V vehicle in the Apollo Program, as well as on the later Skylab and Apollo/Soyuz programs. In the Apollo Program, it was used on the S-II stage, which was the second stage of the Saturn V vehicle. There were five J-2 engines at the back end of the S-II Stage. In the S-IV-B stage, it was a single engine, but that single engine had to restart. The Apollo mission called for the entire vehicle to reach orbital velocity in low Earth orbit after the first firing of the Saturn-IV-B stage and, subsequently, to fire a second time to go on to the moon. The engine had to be man-rated (worthy of transporting humans). It had to have a high thrust rate and performance associated with oxygen/hydrogen engines, although there were some compromises there. It had to gimbal for thrust vector control. It was an open-cycle gas generator engine delivering up to 230,000 pounds of thrust.

  10. Detection of 1st- and 2nd-order temporal-envelope cues in a patient with left superior cortical damage.

    PubMed

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Maillet, Didier; Moroni, Christine; Belin, Catherine; Lorenzi, Christian

    2004-06-01

    This psychophysical study explores the extent to which the auditory cortex is necessary for various aspects of temporal-envelope perception, that is, perception of the slow temporal modulations in amplitude known to be crucial for sound identification. The ability to detect 1st- and 2nd-order sinusoidal amplitude modulation (AM) is evaluated in a single patient showing left-hemisphere damage encroaching the primary and secondary auditory cortices. Here, 1st- and 2nd-order AM refer to (1) sinusoidal variation in the amplitude of a 2 kHz pure tone, and (2) sinusoidal variation in the depth of a 64 Hz AM applied to the 2 kHz pure tone, respectively. The results replicate previous findings by showing that damage to the left auditory cortex results in a selective deficit in auditory sensitivity to the lowest 1St-order AM (i.e., 1st-order AM frequencies < 16 Hz). Moreover, a dissociation is apparent between the ability to detect 1st- and 2nd-order temporal-envelope cues. The patient shows poorer than normal ability to detect 2nd-order AM at low frequencies ranging from 4-23 Hz, but normal ability to detect the high (64 Hz) 1st-order AM carrying these 2nd-order modulations. This result indicates that damage to the left primary and secondary auditory cortices affects the ability to detect temporal variations in the local properties of sounds(such as AM depth). It is also consistent with the idea that, as in vision, central nonlinear mechanisms are involved in the computation of such local (or 2nd-order) temporal properties.

  11. Functional cell-based uHTS in chemical genomic drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Croston, Glenn E

    2002-03-01

    The availability of genomic information significantly increases the number of potential targets available for drug discovery, although the function of many targets and their relationship to disease is unknown. In a chemical genomic research approach, ultra-high throughput screening (uHTS) of genomic targets takes place early in the drug discovery process, before target validation. Target-selective modulators then provide drug leads and pharmacological research tools to validate target function. Effective implementation of a chemical genomic strategy requires assays that can perform uHTS for large numbers of genomic targets. Cell-based functional assays are capable of the uHTS throughput required for chemical genomic research, and their functional nature provides distinct advantages over ligand-binding assays in the identification of target-selective modulators.

  12. The Role of HTS in Drug Discovery at the University of Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martha J.; Larsen, Scott D.; Fribley, Andrew; Grembecka, Jolanta; Homan, Kristoff; Mapp, Anna; Haak, Andrew; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) is an integral part of a highly collaborative approach to drug discovery at the University of Michigan. The HTS lab is one of four core centers that provide services to identify, produce, screen and follow-up on biomedical targets for faculty. Key features of this system are: protein cloning and purification, protein crystallography, small molecule and siRNA HTS, medicinal chemistry and pharmacokinetics. Therapeutic areas that have been targeted include anti-bacterial, metabolic, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, anti-cancer and anti-viral. The centers work in a coordinated, interactive environment to affordably provide academic investigators with the technology, informatics and expertise necessary for successful drug discovery. This review provides an overview of these centers at the University of Michigan, along with case examples of successful collaborations with faculty. PMID:24409957

  13. Cycle Design of Reverse Brayton Cryocooler for HTS Cable Cooling Using Exergy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sudeep Kumar; Ghosh, Parthasarathi

    2017-02-01

    The reliability and price of cryogenic refrigeration play an important role in the successful commercialization of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. For cooling HTS cable, sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN2) circulation system is used. One of the options to maintain LN2 in its sub-cooled state is by providing refrigeration with the help of Reverse Brayton Cryo-cooler (RBC). The refrigeration requirement is 10 kW for continuously sub-cooling LN2 from 72 K to 65 K for cooling 1 km length of HTS cable [1]. In this paper, a parametric evaluation of RBC for sub-cooling LN2 has been performed using helium as a process fluid. Exergy approach has been adopted for this analysis. A commercial process simulator, Aspen HYSYS® V8.6 has been used for this purpose. The critical components have been identified and their exergy destruction and exergy efficiency have been obtained for a given heat load condition.

  14. The Dynamic Characteristics on the Wall Traveling of the HTS Bulk Superconducting Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawae, M.; Kim, S. B.; Ozasa, S.; Nakano, H.; Kobayashi, H.

    The electric device applications of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk having stable levitation and suspension properties due to their strong flux pinning force have been proposed and developed. We have been investigating the three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator using HTS bulk to develop the transportation device with non-contact and moves in free space. It is expected that our proposed 3-D superconducting actuator to be useful as a transporter used in clean room which manufactures the silicon wafer where dislikes mechanical contact and dust. Proposed the actuator consists of a field-cooled HTS bulk for mover and two-dimensional arranged multiple electromagnets as a stator. In our previous study, the dynamic characteristics on the floor traveling of the HTS bulk mover had been studied. Therefore in this study, a system for the wall traveling was proposed to use the limited space effectively. It is expected that the wall traveling system is very useful to apply the transporter used in the tunnels which flammable gas may be produced. In this paper, the optimal angle between electromagnets located at floor and wall for moving to the wall traveling from the floor traveling was investigated experimentally. The position displacement on the rotating of the HTS bulk during the wall traveling was measured. As a result, the bulk with initial gap of 2 mm could move to the wall traveling from the floor traveling. Also, the position displacement on the height direction during the rotating of the HTS bulk was 18 mm from the initial position because of its gravity,but it was possible to rotate by changing the pattern NSNS of the trapped magnetic field in near the initial position.

  15. Performance of the BG1Luc ER TA method in a qHTS format.

    PubMed

    Ceger, Patricia; Allen, David; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Casey, Warren

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the BG1Luc4E2 estrogen receptor (ER) transactivation (TA) method (BG1Luc ER TA) was accepted by U.S. regulatory agencies and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to detect substances with ER agonist activity. The method is now part of the Tier 1 testing battery in the Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. The BG1Luc ER TA method uses the BG1 ovarian cell line that endogenously expresses full-length ER (α and β) and is stably transfected with a plasmid containing four estrogen responsive elements upstream of a luciferase reporter gene. To allow increased throughput and testing efficiency, the BG1Luc ER TA ("BG1 manual") method was adapted for quantitative high-throughput screening (BG1 qHTS) in the U.S. Tox21 testing program. The BG1 qHTS test method was used to test approximately 10,000 chemicals three times each, and concentration-response data (n=15) were analyzed to evaluate test method performance. The balanced accuracy of the BG1 qHTS test method (97% [32/33]) was determined by comparing results to ER TA performance standards for the BG1 manual method. Concordance between the BG1 manual and qHTS methods was 92% (57/62) when calculated for a larger set of non-reference chemicals tested in both methods. These data demonstrate that the performance of the BG1 qHTS is similar to the currently accepted BG1 manual method, thereby establishing the utility of the BG1 qHTS method for identifying ER active environmental chemicals.

  16. Highlights from AGU's 2nd virtual session: New magnetic field satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convenors, S.; Olsen, N.; Luehr, H.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past 150 years, the axial dipole component of the Earth's magnetic field has decayed by nearly 10%. This is ten times faster than if the dynamo that generates the field were switched off completely. The current decay rate is characteristic of magnetic reversals, which paleomagnetic data sets have shown occur on average about once every half million years. Three new geomagnetic field satellites have recently been placed in low-earth orbits and are investigating questions such as this rapid decay. Geographically, this decay is largely due to changes in the field in the South Atlantic region, where the expanding and deepening South Atlantic anomaly has serious implications for low-Earth orbit satellite operations. The magnetic field measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of contributions from a variety of sources: the fluid core,the magnetization of rocks in the Earth's crust, electric currents flowing in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, currents induced in the Earth by the time variations of the field, and electric currents induced by the oceanic circulation. The scientific challenge is the sophisticated separation of these various sources and the accurate determination of the spatial and temporal structure of them all. Multi-point measurements from high-precision satellites are a pre-requisite for such characterizations. With the launch of Oersted (1999), CHAMP and the Oersted-2 experiment onboard SAC-C (2000), there are now three satellites in near-Earth orbit measuring the scalar and vector magnetic fields at the nT accuracy level. In order to improve the utilization of these unique data sets, representatives of these projects publicly released simultaneous observations of data from all three satellites at www.dsri.dk/multimagsatellites. The data selection spanned a variety of viewing geometries, local times, and magnetic disturbance levels. Descriptive models and indices were also included. Presentations described the utility

  17. Numerical investigations on applicability of permanent magnet method to crack detection in HTS film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitani, A.; Takayama, T.; Saitoh, A.

    2014-09-01

    The scanning permanent-magnet (PM) method was originally developed for determining the spatial distribution of the critical current density in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) film. In the present study, its applicability to the crack detection in an HTS film is investigated numerically. To this end, a defect parameter is defined for characterizing a crack position and it is calculated along various scanning lines. The results of computations show that, only when the scanning position is near a crack, the defect parameter shows a violent change. On the basis of the behavior of the defect parameter, the method for roughly identifying a crack is also proposed.

  18. The Development and Demonstration of a 360m/10 kA HTS DC Power Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liye

    With the quick development of renewable energy, it is expected that the electric power from renewable energy would be the dominant one for the future power grid. Due to the specialty of the renewable energy, the HVDC power transmission would be very useful for the transmission of electric power from renewable energy. DC power cable made of High Tc Superconductor (HTS) would be a possible alternative for the construction of HVDC power transmission system. In this chapter, we report the development and demonstration of a 360 m/10 kA HTS DC power cable and the test results.

  19. A Study on the Body Insulators for the Bushing for HTS Devices at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Shin, H. S.; Kim, S. H.

    A bushing for high temperature superconducting devices (HTS bushing) is important because of applying high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. It is cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2) and is insulated with various insulators. For the development of the HTS bushing, it is necessary to know the fundamental characteristics of various insulators at cryogenic temperature. The electrical characteristics of the breakdown were studied under AC and impulse voltages. Also, the mechanical characteristics such as tensile strength in air and LN2 were studied. It was confirmed that GFRP is excellent not only electrical characteristics but also mechanical characteristics in LN2.

  20. Improved Characteristics of Integrated HTS rf SQUID on Bicrystal SrTiO3 Substrate Resonator Covered with HTS Thin Films in Flip-Chip Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Yoshimi; Takemoto, Makoto; Kurosawa, Ryuichi; Uchida, Yousuke; Tanaka, Saburo

    Integrated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) radio-frequency (rf) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) based on a bicrystal SrTiO3 substrate was investigated for application to magnetic contaminant detection. By covering a wide superconducting weak link and/or a slit of the YBa2Cu3O7-x SQUID with HTS thin films in flip-chip geometry, characteristics such as effective area and 1/f noise profile of the SQUID were successfully improved. By installing the covered SQUID in a magnetic contaminant detection system, it was demonstrated that the system can detect a tungsten ball of 15μm in diameter with a signal to noise ratio of about 2.

  1. Development and Test of a Prototype 100MVA Superconducting Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Fogarty, James M.; Bray, James W.

    2007-05-25

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: • Identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator. • Develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology. • Perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE’s proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept. • Design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables.

  2. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  3. Experimental observations on the response of 1(st) and 2(nd) order fibre optic long period grating coupling bands to the deposition of nanostructured coatings.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen W; Cheung, C S; Tatam, Ralph P

    2007-10-01

    The sensitivity of attenuation bands corresponding to the 2(nd) order coupling to cladding modes by a fibre optic long period grating (LPG) to the deposition of nanostructured coatings is investigated and compared with that of the 1(st) order coupling. The experimental observations support previously reported theoretical descriptions of LPGs with nanoscale coatings.

  4. Research and Prediction of the Application of Multimedia Teaching Aid in Teaching Technical Education on the 2nd Level of Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebila, Ján

    2011-01-01

    The purpose and the main aim of the pedagogic experiment were to practically verify the success of Multimedia Teaching Aid (MTA) in conditions of primary schools. We assumed that the use of our multimedia teaching aid in teaching technical education on the 2nd level of primary schools would significantly affect the level of knowledge of pupils…

  5. 2nd dimensional GC-MS analysis of sweat volatile organic compounds prepared by solid phase micro-extraction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Oh, Chang-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of an individual's odor from sweat, breath and skin provide important information for criminal tracking in field of forensic science. Solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) was used to determine human sweat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles. The mass spectrometric analysis (with electron impact mode) followed by 2nd dimensional separation with two different GC columns (one polar and one relatively nonpolar) connected in parallel were used to identify the 574 compounds from sweat samples. The components included alcohols, aldehydes, aliphatics/aromatics, carboxylic acids, esters, ketones, and other organic compounds (amides/amines, thio/thioesters, oxide, sulfides, nitro compounds). Of these compounds, 1-tridecanol, 1,3-bis(1,1-dimethyl ethyl)-benzene, 4,4'-(1-methylethylidene) bis-phenol and 7-acetyl-6-ethyl-1,1,4,4,-tetramethyl-tetraline were common components in all donor's sweat volatile samples. Age-related specific compounds were also detected. The results suggest that characteristic volatile profiles of human sweat emanations could provide the valuable information to forensic scientists.

  6. Explicit formulas for 2nd-order driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C-X. )

    2012-04-25

    Optimization of nonlinear driving terms have become a useful tool for designing storage rings, especially modern light sources where the strong nonlinearity is dominated by the large chromatic effects of quadrupoles and strong sextupoles for chromaticity control. The Lie algebraic method is well known for computing such driving terms. However, it appears that there was a lack of explicit formulas in the public domain for such computation, resulting in uncertainty and/or inconsistency in widely used codes. This note presents explicit formulas for driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles, which can be considered as thin elements. The computation is accurate to the 4th-order Hamiltonian and 2nd-order in terms of magnet parameters. The results given here are the same as the APS internal note AOP-TN-2009-020. This internal nte has been revised and published here as a Light Source Note in order to get this information into the public domain, since both ELEGANT and OPA are using these formulas.

  7. 1st and 2nd order Raman scattering from n-Graphene Layer (nGL) Films on Silicon Substrates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Awnish; Chen, Gugang; Eklund, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Results of room temperature Raman scattering experiments on graphene and n-graphene layer films (nGLs) will be presented [1]. We find that the G band at ˜ 1582 cm-1 exhibits an interesting upshift in frequency with 1/n which we tentatively assign to a surface strain phenomenon connected with surface roughness of the substrate and compensated by the increase in stiffness of the nGL with increasing n. Interesting n-specific bands are observed in the ˜1350 cm-1 (or D-band) region which may correlate with deviations from planarity of the nGL. The second order scattering is very interesting and for small n (n<4) the (2D' or G') band intensity at ˜ 2700 cm-1 is actually higher than the first-order G-band scattering. The shape of this band is sensitive to n and thus can be used to identify n without an AFM measurement. Whereas, the 2D' band is sensitive to n, the 2nd order 2G band ˜ 3248 cm-1 is independent of n. These observations will be discussed in terms of the phonon and electronic dispersion of nGLs. 1 A. Gupta, G. Chen, P. Joshi, S. Tadigadapa and P.C. Eklund, `` Raman Scattering from High-Frequency Phonons in Supported n-Graphene Layer Films'' NanoLett (in Press).

  8. Increasing the water temperature of a 2nd order stream reach: Hydraulic aspects of a whole-stream manipulative experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.; Canhoto, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    What will happen when water temperatures of streams increases, due to climate changes or in connection with rapidly changing human systems? Trying to answer to this question a whole-stream manipulative experiment was undertaken, where an increase in water temperature was artificially induced on a 2nd order stream reach. The main objective of this poster is to describe this experiment focusing on the design of the hydraulic system. The system maintained a steady flow while allowing natural variation in abiotic factors and was successfully used to evaluate the effects of warming on a stream ecosystem at several levels of biological organization. A constant flow of stream water was controlled by a hydraulic setup (~22m long; ~1.5m width) subdivided into two independent channels. One channel of the study reach received heated water (~3°C above the other), while the other received water at stream ambient temperature. The warming system maintained a steady gravity controlled flow making use of weirs and valves.

  9. Fabrication of 30 mm long baseline single-layer 2nd-order high- Tc SQUID gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soon-Gul; Oh, Soo-Ho; Kang, Chan Seok; Kim, In-Seon

    2007-09-01

    We have designed and fabricated a 30 mm long baseline 2nd-order SQUID gradiometer from a single-layer YBa 2Cu 3O 7 film. The design rule was the same as that of our previous study on short baseline gradiometers. Three linearly aligned 10.2 mm × 10.2 mm pickup loops were coupled directly to a dc SQUID to measure ∂ 2Bz/∂ x2. The device had an overall size of 70.2 mm × 10.6 mm and was patterned from a single layer of YBa 2Cu 3O 7 film on a sapphire substrate by argon ion milling with a photoresist mask. The Josephson element of the SQUID was YBa 2Cu 3O 7 nanobridges formed by focused ion beam writing technique. Balancing of the device was achieved by optimizing the inductance of the center loop. Estimated sensitivity of the gradiometer was ∼1.8 × 10 -10 T/m 2/Hz 1/2, which is equivalent to a field noise of 160 fT/Hz 1/2, for an intrinsic SQUID flux noise of 10 -5 ϕ0/Hz 1/2.

  10. Horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus amongst British 2nd World War soldiers in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Gill, G V; Bell, D R; Vandervelde, E M

    1991-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is much more common in tropical than in temperate countries. Visitors to the tropics are thus at risk from HBV, though the degree of risk, and the routes of infection involved are uncertain. We report serological markers of HBV in two groups of 2nd World War soldiers, who served in the Thai/Burma jungles. The groups comprised 100 ex-prisoners of the Japanese (POW), and 100 Burma Campaign Veterans (BCV). Surface antigen to HBV (HbsAg) was positive in 0% of POW and 2% of BCV (P = not significant). Surface antibody (anti-HBs) and core antibody (anti-HBc) were both positive in 40% POW and 13% BCV (P less than 0.001). Quoted UK prevalence rates for these markers are 0.1% for HBsAg, 1.5% for anti-HBs and 0.7% for anti-HBc. Both groups thus show very high rates of past HBV infection. For the POW there were many possible reasons, including contaminated surgical instruments and needles, blood transfusions, and multiple beatings with common weapons. None of these factors operated significantly for BCV. Malarial transmission was, however, intense in both groups, though more so in POW. The data thus again raise the possibility of horizontal transmission of HBV by biting insects in tropical countries.

  11. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine.

  12. Universe (2nd edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, W.J. III

    1988-01-01

    A general text on astronomy is presented. The foundations of the science are reviewed, including descriptions of naked-eye observatons of eclipses and planetary motions and such basic tools as Kepler's laws, the fundamental properties of light, and the optics of telescopes. The formation of the solar system is addressed, and the planets and their satellites are discussed individually. Solar science is treated in detail. Stellar evolution is described chronologically from birth to death. Molecular clouds, star clusters, nebulae, neutron stars, black holes, and various other phenomena that occur in the life of a star are examined in the sequence in which they naturally occur. A survey of the Milky Way introduces galactic astronomy. Quasars and cosmology are addressed, including the most recent developments in research. 156 references.

  13. Long-term operating characteristics of Japan's first in-grid HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tetsutaro; Maruyama, Osamu; Honjo, Shoichi; Watanabe, Michihiko; Masuda, Takato; Hirose, Masayuki; Shimoda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Naoko; Yaguchi, Hiroharu; Machida, Akito

    2015-11-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Company, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd and Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd have jointly conducted the first in-grid demonstration test of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable in Japan, from FY2007 to FY2013. The objective of this project is to evaluate the reliability, stability and other characteristics of the system. The cable structure used in this project is the type of three-in-one cable. As a coolant, sub-cooled liquid nitrogen flows through the gap between the corrugated cryostat and the three cable cores. This structure can realize compactness and reduce heat invasion compared with three single-core HTS cables housed in separate cryostats. The cooling system consists of six refrigerators, two circulation pumps and a reservoir tank. Each refrigerator has a cooling power of 1.0 kW at 77 K, 0.8 kW at 67 K. The number of operating refrigerators is controlled so that the coolant temperature at the cable inlet is kept to preset value. The HTS cable was connected to the live electricity grid from October 29, 2012 to December 25, 2013. In-grid operation continued for more than one year without any accidental interruption of operation or other operating issues. During this time, we studied the operating performance of the HTS cable in dependence on the sub-cooled LN2 temperature.

  14. Pathway Profiling and Tissue Modeling Using ToxCast HTS Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput screening (HTS) and high-content screening (HCS) assays are providing data-rich studies to probe and profile the direct cellular effects of thousands of chemical compounds in commerce or potentially entering the environment. In vitro profiling may compare unknown ...

  15. Partial Discharge Characteristics in Composite Insulation Systems with PPLP for HTS Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Tatamidani, K.; Masuda, T.

    2014-05-01

    The electrical insulation system of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable consists of liquid nitrogen (N2(l)) and polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). Partial discharge (PD) may occur in butt gaps of the insulation layers and its characteristics imply the insulation performance of HTS cables. N2(l) cooling system is installed in the power system and N2(l) will flow through the cables during the system operation. Filling the HTS cable with N2(l) in order to perform pre-shipment inspection is time-consuming and costly for cable manufacturers. Therefore, they are trying to find a cost effective method for pre-shipment inspections. One alternative is to use high pressure gaseous nitrogen (N2(g)) instead of N2(l). This article investigates PD characteristics such as PD inception electric field (PDIE) and PD extinction electric field (PDEE) in butt gaps of HTS cables in 0.1 to 0.3 MPa and 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa N2(g) environments. For assessing the surface/volume effects, PD characteristics are measured with changing the size of butt gaps. It turns out that PDIE and PDEE in N2(g) are linearly correlated with those in N2(l) at any gas pressure in our testing, and PDIE in 1.0 MPa N2(g) is almost 30% of that in 0.2 MPa It suggests that PD characteristics in N2(l) can be extrapolated from those in N2(g).

  16. Reduction of flux-creep in magnetized bulk HTS by use of permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, D.; Weinstein, R.; Davey, K.; Sawh, R.-P.; Carpenter, K.

    2017-01-01

    We report the effect of permanent magnet (PM) collars on the flux-creep rate of magnetized bulk HTS. The creep rates of single-grain, cylindrical samples are measured with attached collars activated to various fields, B PM, in the range 0 ≤ B PM ≤ B PM,max, where B PM,max is the fully saturated field of the PM. As B PM varies, the creep rate of the HTS is found to maintain its well-known form—a constant fractional loss λ, of original residual field, per decade of time. However, the magnitude of λ decreases as B PM increases. The decrease in λ is found to be linearly dependent on increasing B PM. The collar field for which flux-creep extrapolates to zero is found to be comparable to the maximum trappable field of the HTS bulk, B T,max. The properties of the dependence of λ on the HTS peak field, B T,max, the PM field, B PM, and the creep rate λ 0 with B PM = 0 permit the reduced creep rate in these experiments to be predicted by a universal equation.

  17. Operational experience in the use of 18 kA HTS current leads for Edipo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, S.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2013, the Edipo facility of CRPP was commissioned. The dipole is powered via two 18 kA HTS current leads, designed and manufactured at CRPP. As part of the Edipo commissioning framework, the operational parameters of the leads were implemented in the control system. The in-situ tests were found to be in good agreement with the tests performed without a background field in 2011. The leads consist of a conduction cooled HTS module, made of AgMgAu/Bi-2223 stacks, and a wire bundle heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is cooled by forced flow helium gas, the inlet temperature of which was measured to vary between 65 K and 85 K. During operation with field, the mass flow rate is a function of current (2.05 g/s per lead at full field, 12.35 T, 17.2 kA). Reduced cooling investigations showed that 0.31 g/s per lead is suitable for overnight standby and 0.2 g/s per lead for longer periods. For detection of and protection against quench in the HTS module, a threshold of 10 mV was found to be appropriate. The heat exchanger has a voltage protection threshold of 120 mV. The temperatures of the heat exchanger, the HTS, and the helium inlet temperature were monitored in order to provide a further layer of protection.

  18. Predictive Signatures of Developmental Toxicity Modeled with HTS Data from ToxCast™ Bioactivity Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA ToxCast™ research program uses a high-throughput screening (HTS) approach for predicting the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals. Phase-I contains 309 well-characterized chemicals which are mostly pesticides tested in over 600 assays of different molecular targets, cel...

  19. Nanomaterial (NM) bioactivity profiling by ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapidly increasing numbers of new NMs and their uses demand efficient tests of NM bioactivity for safety assessment. The EPA’s ToxCast program uses HTS assays to prioritize for targeted testing, identify biological pathways affected, and aid in linking NM properties and potential...

  20. Thermal Insulation Performance of Flexible Piping for Use in HTS Power Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables that typically operate at temperatures below 80 K are being developed for power transmission. The practical application of HTS power cables will require the use of flexible piping to contain the cable and the liquid nitrogen coolant. A study of thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) was conducted in geometries representing both rigid and flexible piping. This experimental study performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center provides a framework for the development of cost-effective, efficient thermal insulation systems that will support these long-distance flexible lines containing HTS power cables. The overall thermal performance of the insulation system for a rigid configuration and for a flexible configuration, simulating a flexible HTS power cable, was determined by the steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff method under the full range of vacuum levels. Two different cylindrically rolled material systems were tested: a standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI). Comparisons of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping are presented.

  1. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  2. Development of Coated Conductors in Japanese National Project "Development of Fundamental Technologies for HTS Coils"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, Masateru; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    RE1Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO, RE=rare earth) coated conductors have attracted the attention of many scientists due to the high superconducting properties, etc. Due to the great progress of R&D on coated conductors, the activities have shifted to specific applications. The new Japanese national project, named as "Development of Fundamental Technologies for HTS Coils", started last year aiming for the applications of MRI and medical accelerators. To meet the requirements of those applications, the R&D of REBCO coated conductors (CCs) are being performed with that of coiling technology in parallel. The theme has two sub-themes of "development of long CCs with high in-field performance" and "development of CCs with extremely low heat generation" in this national project. The ambitious goals of these themes are set as intermediate ones due 2016 Mar; the theme of in-field: 100m-500A/cm-w@65K, 3T -850A/cm-w@35K, 10T, the theme of low heat generation: 100m-500 μm of filament width w/ Icfilament inhomogeneity of distribution within 10% and joint resistance below 5nΩ. The final goals of these themes due 2018 Mar. were set as follows; the theme of in-field: 200m-600A/cm-w@65K, 3T -1000A/cm-w@35K, 10T, the theme of low heat generation: 200m-500 μm of filament width w/ Icfilament distribution within 5% and joint resistance below 3nΩ. The objectives, goals and progress of this project will be reviewed in this article. As for the progress, for example, the combination of EuBCO+BHO was found to be effective to improve the in-field performance of PLD derived coated conductors. A 94 m long wire with Icmin of 108A/cm-w@77K, 3T (corresponding to 472A/cm-w @65K, 3T) was successfully fabricated. It is as twice Icmin of the long tape as the highest one in the previous project.

  3. An active homopolar magnetic bearing with high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils and ferromagnetic cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. V.; Dirusso, E.; Provenza, A. J.

    1995-08-01

    A proof-of-feasibility demonstration showed that high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils can be used in a high-load, active magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen. A homopolar radial bearing with commercially wound HTS (Bi 2223) bias and control coils produced over 200 lb (890 N) radial load capacity (measured non-rotating) and supported a shaft to 14000 rpm. The goal was to show that HTS coils can operate stably with ferromagnetic cores in a feedback controlled system at a current density similar to that in Cu in liquid nitrogen. Design compromises permitted use of circular coils with rectangular cross section. Conductor improvements will eventually permit coil shape optimization, higher current density and higher bearing load capacity. The bias coil, wound with non-twisted, multifilament HTS conductor, required negligible power to carry its direct current. The control coils were wound with monofilament HTS sheathed in Ag. These dissipated negligible power for direct current (i.e. for steady radial load components). When an alternating current (AC) was added, the AC component dissipated power which increased rapidly with frequency and quadratically with AC amplitude. In fact at frequencies above about 2 hz, the effective resistance of the control coil conductor actually exceeds that of the silver which is in electrical parallel with the oxide superconductor. This is at least qualitatively understandable in the context of a Bean-type model of flux and current penetration into a Type II superconductor. Fortunately the dynamic currents required for bearing stability are of small amplitude. These results show that while twisted multifilament conductor is not needed for stable levitation, twisted multifilaments will be required to reduce control power for sizable dynamic loads, such as those due to unbalance.

  4. Multi-channel Data Acquisition System for a 500 m DC HTS Power Cable in Ishikari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yury V.; Chikumoto, Noriko; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Takano, Hirohisa; Inoue, Noriyuki; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    Reduction of heat penetrating into the cryogenic region is the important method of optimization of superconducting devices. In the cases of short-range power transmission lines and compact HTS devices like magnets, the heat leakage through current leads is relatively large. In order to decrease this contribution, current leads equipped with Peltier elements can be used. The mentioned technology is being actively developed in the Chubu University. Commercial samples of Peltier current leads are installed at the terminals of 500-meter DC HTS cable in Ishikari (Hokkaido). This cable is designed for 5 kA. The inner conducting layer consists of 37 DI-BSCCO HTS tapes from Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. with a critical current of 180 A; and the outer one consists of 35 tapes of the same type. Each end of the cable's tape is connected to the individual Peltier current lead. Accordingly, each of the two terminals is equipped with 72 Peltier current leads, 144 pieces in total. In order to examine behavior of the current leads in detail, each piece is supplied with two thermocouples; there are also voltage taps on feedthrough and on HTS tape end. In addition, current through Peltier current lead can be measured by means of individual current transformer. The hardware part of the data acquisition system includes four Keithley 3706A multimeters equipped with 60-channel model 3724 FET multiplexer cards. Therefore, 144 data blocks are formed. Furthermore, there are 72 measurements of a voltage drop across HTS tape. Sampling period is set to be 3 s. The program part of the data acquisition system was written using LabVIEW software solution (National Instruments Corp.).

  5. A miniaturized HTS microwave receiver front-end subsystem for radar and communication applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yongbo; Guo, Jin; Gao, Changzheng; Li, Chunguang; Li, Hong; Wang, Jia; Cui, Bin; He, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Li, Na; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xueqiang; Meng, Jibao; He, Yusheng

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a miniaturized high performance high temperature superconducting (HTS) microwave receiver front-end subsystem, which uses a mini stirling cryocooler to cool a high selective HTS filter and a low noise amplifier (LNA). The HTS filter was miniaturized by using specially designed compact resonators and fabricating with double-sided YBCO films on LAO substrate which has a relatively high permittivity. The LNA was specially designed to work at cryogenic temperature with noise figure of 0.27 dB at 71 K. The mini cryocooler, which is widely used in infrared detectors, has a smaller size (60 mm × 80 mm × 100 mm) and a lighter weight (340 g) than the stirling cryocoolers commonly used in other HTS filter subsystem. The whole front-end subsystem, including a HTS filter, a LNA, a cryocooler and the vacuum chamber, has a size of only φ120 mm × 175 mm and a weight of only 3.3 kg. The microwave devices inside the subsystem are working at 71.8 K with a consumed cooling power of 0.325 W. The center frequency of this subsystem is 925.2 MHz and the bandwidth is 2.7 MHz (which is a fractional bandwidth of 0.2%), with the gain of 19.75 dB at center frequency and the return loss better than -18.11 dB in the pass band. The stop band rejection is more than 60 dB and the skirt slope is exceeding 120 dB MHz -1. The noise figure of this subsystem is less than 0.8 dB. This front-end subsystem can be used in radars and communication systems conveniently due to it’s compact size and light weight.

  6. An active homopolar magnetic bearing with high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils and ferromagnetic cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Dirusso, E.; Provenza, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    A proof-of-feasibility demonstration showed that high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils can be used in a high-load, active magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen. A homopolar radial bearing with commercially wound HTS (Bi 2223) bias and control coils produced over 200 lb (890 N) radial load capacity (measured non-rotating) and supported a shaft to 14000 rpm. The goal was to show that HTS coils can operate stably with ferromagnetic cores in a feedback controlled system at a current density similar to that in Cu in liquid nitrogen. Design compromises permitted use of circular coils with rectangular cross section. Conductor improvements will eventually permit coil shape optimization, higher current density and higher bearing load capacity. The bias coil, wound with non-twisted, multifilament HTS conductor, required negligible power to carry its direct current. The control coils were wound with monofilament HTS sheathed in Ag. These dissipated negligible power for direct current (i.e. for steady radial load components). When an alternating current (AC) was added, the AC component dissipated power which increased rapidly with frequency and quadratically with AC amplitude. In fact at frequencies above about 2 hz, the effective resistance of the control coil conductor actually exceeds that of the silver which is in electrical parallel with the oxide superconductor. This is at least qualitatively understandable in the context of a Bean-type model of flux and current penetration into a Type II superconductor. Fortunately the dynamic currents required for bearing stability are of small amplitude. These results show that while twisted multifilament conductor is not needed for stable levitation, twisted multifilaments will be required to reduce control power for sizable dynamic loads, such as those due to unbalance.

  7. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  8. High levels of virological failure with major genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected children after 5 years of care according to WHO-recommended 1st-line and 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens in the Central African Republic: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamant; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Mbitikon, Olivia; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Robin, Leman; Matta, Mathieu; Zeitouni, Kamal; Longo, Jean De Dieu; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Grésenguet, Gérard; Touré Kane, Ndèye Coumba; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    A large cohort of 220 HIV-1-infected children (median [range] age: 12 [4-17] years) was cared and followed up in the Central African Republic, including 198 in 1st-line and 22 in 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens. Patients were monitored clinically and biologically for HIV-1 RNA load and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) genotyping. A total of 87 (40%) study children were virological responders and 133 (60%) nonresponders. In children with detectable viral load, the majority (129; 97%) represented a virological failure. In children receiving 1st-line regimens in virological failure for whom genotypic resistance test was available, 45% displayed viruses harboring at least 1 DRM to NNRTI or NRTI, and 26% showed at least 1 major DRM to NNRTI or NRTI; more than half of children in 1st-line regimens were resistant to 1st-generation NNRTI and 24% of the children in 1st-line regimens had a major DRMs to PI. Virological failure and selection of DRMs were both associated with poor adherence. These observations demonstrate high rate of virological failure after 3 to 5 years of 1st-line or 2nd-line antiretroviral treatment, which is generally associated with DRMs and therapeutic failure. Overall, more than half (55%) of children receiving 1st-line antiretroviral treatment for a median of 3.4 years showed virological failure and antiretroviral-resistance and thus eligible to 2nd-line treatment. Furthermore, two-third (64%) of children under 2nd-line therapy were eligible to 3rd-line regimen. Taken together, these observations point the necessity to monitor antiretroviral-treated children by plasma HIV-1 RNA load to diagnose as early as possible the therapeutic failure and operate switch to a new therapeutic line.

  9. High levels of virological failure with major genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected children after 5 years of care according to WHO-recommended 1st-line and 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens in the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamant; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Mbitikon, Olivia; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Robin, Leman; Matta, Mathieu; Zeitouni, Kamal; Longo, Jean De Dieu; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Grésenguet, Gérard; Touré Kane, Ndèye Coumba; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A large cohort of 220 HIV-1-infected children (median [range] age: 12 [4–17] years) was cared and followed up in the Central African Republic, including 198 in 1st-line and 22 in 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens. Patients were monitored clinically and biologically for HIV-1 RNA load and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) genotyping. A total of 87 (40%) study children were virological responders and 133 (60%) nonresponders. In children with detectable viral load, the majority (129; 97%) represented a virological failure. In children receiving 1st-line regimens in virological failure for whom genotypic resistance test was available, 45% displayed viruses harboring at least 1 DRM to NNRTI or NRTI, and 26% showed at least 1 major DRM to NNRTI or NRTI; more than half of children in 1st-line regimens were resistant to 1st-generation NNRTI and 24% of the children in 1st-line regimens had a major DRMs to PI. Virological failure and selection of DRMs were both associated with poor adherence. These observations demonstrate high rate of virological failure after 3 to 5 years of 1st-line or 2nd-line antiretroviral treatment, which is generally associated with DRMs and therapeutic failure. Overall, more than half (55%) of children receiving 1st-line antiretroviral treatment for a median of 3.4 years showed virological failure and antiretroviral-resistance and thus eligible to 2nd-line treatment. Furthermore, two-third (64%) of children under 2nd-line therapy were eligible to 3rd-line regimen. Taken together, these observations point the necessity to monitor antiretroviral-treated children by plasma HIV-1 RNA load to diagnose as early as possible the therapeutic failure and operate switch to a new therapeutic line. PMID:28272247

  10. Use of prelecture assignment to enhance learning in pharmacology lectures for the 2nd year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Marya; Mallick, Ayaz Khurram

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Majority of teaching hours allotted by the Medical Council of India in pharmacology are utilized in the form of didactic lecture. Although these lectures are an excellent tool to deliver the information to a large group of students, it usually ends up as a one-sided teaching session with most students being the passive listeners. To make these lectures interesting and effective, we introduced the students to prelecture assignment (PLA) in the form of clinical case before the delivery of the lecture. Methods: This prospective educational trial was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology with undergraduate medical students in their 2nd year of their professional course. They were divided into two groups of 75 each. Group A was provided the PLA before the lecture. Group B students directly attended the lecture, sans the PLA. Multiple-choice questions-based test was conducted 2 days after the lecture. Students who failed to complete the assignment and were absent from the lecture and test were excluded from the study. Feedback from the students was obtained after the lecture. The scores in the test and responses were compiled and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results were expressed in percentages and as mean ± standard deviation as applicable. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty-six students from Group A and 42 from Group B appeared for the test. The students who were given PLA scored better. They felt more confident in answering and understood the topic better than the students of other group. Conclusion: PLA is a useful teaching-learning tool. The pharmacology lectures are interactive, interesting, and easy to understand with this tool. PMID:28031612

  11. Differences in risk factors for 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    in 't Woud, Sander Groen; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; van Gelder, Marleen M.H.J.; Olney, Richard S.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. Methods A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. Results In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Conclusions Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. PMID:25181604

  12. ENABLE -- A systolic 2nd level trigger processor for track finding and e/[pi] discrimination for ATLAS/LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Klefenz, F.; Noffz, K.H.; Zoz, R. . Lehrstuhl fuer Informatik V); Maenner, R. . Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen)

    1994-08-01

    The Enable Machine is a systolic 2nd level trigger processor for the transition radiation detector (TRD) of ATLAS/LHC. It is developed within the EAST/RD-11 collaboration at CERN. The task of the processor is to find electron tracks and to reject pion tracks according to the EAST benchmark algorithm in less than 10[mu]s. Track are identified by template matching in a ([psi],z) region of interest (RoI) selected by a 1st level trigger. In the ([psi],z) plane tracks of constant curvature are straight lines. The relevant lines form mask templates. Track identification is done by histogramming the coincidences of the templates and the RoI data for each possible track. The Enable Machine is an array processor that handles tracks of the same slope in parallel, and tracks of different slope in a pipeline. It is composed of two units, the Enable histogrammer unit and the Enable z/[psi]-board. The interface daughter board is equipped with a HIPPI-interface developed at JINR/-Dubna, and Xilinx 'corner turning' data converter chips. Enable uses programmable gate arrays (XILINX) for histogramming and synchronous SRAMs for pattern storage. With a clock rate of 40 MHz the trigger decision time is 6.5 [mu]s and the latency 7.0 [mu]s. The Enable machine is scalable in the RoI size as well as in the number of tracks processed. It can be adapted to different recognition tasks and detector setups. The prototype of the Enable Machine has been tested in a beam time of the RD6 collaboration at CERN in October 1993.

  13. Interaction between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Fipronil on 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei; Wei, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.) and LC50 of fipronil, the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and fipronil on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that pretreatment of the tested insects at 30 °C for 2, 4 and 8h could somewhat decrease the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations. The LC50 values of fipronil increased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were below zero. These results indicated that real mortalities were less than theoretical ones and antagonism was found in the treatments of fipronil at 0.39 and 0.78 mg/L after heat pretreatment at 30 °C at 2, 4 and 8 h. However, pretreatment at 30 °C for 12h could increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations, the LC50 of fipronil decreased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were above zero, which indicated real mortalities were higher than theoretical ones. Pretreatment of the tested insects at 35 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 12h was found to increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations which resulted in the decrease of LC50 values of fipronil and c.f. above zero in all treatments with only one exception. Most interactions were assessed as synergism. The results indicated that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:20877489

  14. Observation of Magnetic Signals from Earthquake Faulting Using High-resolution HTS-SQUID Magnetometer: Feasibility of Super-early Warning of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Y.; Okubo, K.; Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Tanabe, K.; Onishi, N.; Furukawa, H.; Isogami, S.; Takeuchi, N.

    2015-12-01

    Electromagnetic changes associated with earthquakes have been investigated previously. Our research group has also employed the magnetometers for seismomagnetic observations since March 2004. Our observation site happened to be situated at an epicentral distance of 26 km from the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake ofM7.2, NE Japan. In this earthquake, we have reported successful observation of "co-faulting" Earth's magnetic field changes (Okubo et al., 2011 EPSL). Magnetic fields began to change almost simultaneously with the onset of the earthquake rupture and grew before the first P wave arrival. Such magnetic signals are most probably generated by the changing stress field due to earthquake rupturing, i.e. the piezomagnetic effect. On the other hand, this observation result suggested that the geomagnetic variation signal accompanying fault movement, whose sources are the piezomagnetic effects, is very small. The observed change of geomagnetic field might be approximately less than several hundred pico-tesla. Therefore, to obtain more observation data of "co-faulting" magnetic field change, development of a higher-sensitive magnetometer system is very important. Then, our research group tried to develop the HTS-SQUID (high-temperature-superconductor based superconducting-quantum-interference-device) magnetometer systems for high-resolution observation of Earth's magnetic field. Since March 2012 we have introduced long-term precise geomagnetic observations using the HTS-SQUID magnetometer system Unit No.1 (mark I) at Iwaki observation site (IWK) in Fukushima, Japan. Additionally, since October 2014, we have also introduced the new HTS- SQUID magnetometer system Unit No.2 (mark II). The sampling interval of the magnetometers is 0.02 sec (50Hz). The system clock has been synchronized by use of GPS signals. A high-resolution accelerometer is also installed at observation point. In this study, we show the observation results of geomagnetic field changes associated

  15. An HTS flux pump operated by directly driving a superconductor into flux flow region in the E- J curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jianzhao; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-09-01

    High-T c superconducting (HTS) flux pumps are capable of compensating the persistent current decay in HTS magnets without electrical contact. In this paper, following work on a low-T c superconducting self-switching flux pump, we propose a new HTS flux pump by directly driving a high-T c superconductor into the flux flow region in the E- J curve. The flux pump consists of a transformer which has a superconducting secondary winding shorted by an YBCO-coated conductor bridge. A high alternating current with a much higher positive peak value than the negative peak value is induced in the secondary winding. The current always drives the bridge superconductor into the flux flow region only at around its positive peak value, thus resulting in flux pumping. The proposed flux pump is much simpler than existing HTS flux pumps.

  16. Biological Damage Threshold Induced by Ultrashort Fundamental, 2nd, and 4th Harmonic Light Pulses from a Mode-Locked Nd: Glass Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    BY ULTRASHORT FUNDAMENTAL, 2ND, AND 4TH HARMONIC LIGHT PULSES 00 , FROM A MODE-LOCKED Nd:GLASS LASER C Adam P. Bruckner, Ph.D. J. Michael Schurr, Ph.D...Medicine, Aerospace Medical Division, AFSC, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. Dr. Taboada (USAFSAM/RZL) was the Laboratory Project Scientist-in-Charge. When... TABOADA , Ph.D. /AONN E. PICKERING, M.S. Project Scientist Chief, Radiation Sciences Division ROY L. DEHART Colonel, USAF, MC Commander UNCLASSIFIED S

  17. All-optical 1st- and 2nd-order differential equation solvers with large tuning ranges using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaisheng; Hou, Jie; Huang, Zhuyang; Cao, Tong; Zhang, Jihua; Yu, Yuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-02-09

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal computation scheme for solving 1st- and 2nd-order linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with tunable constant coefficients by using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers (FP-SOAs). By changing the injection currents of FP-SOAs, the constant coefficients of the differential equations are practically tuned. A quite large constant coefficient tunable range from 0.0026/ps to 0.085/ps is achieved for the 1st-order differential equation. Moreover, the constant coefficient p of the 2nd-order ODE solver can be continuously tuned from 0.0216/ps to 0.158/ps, correspondingly with the constant coefficient q varying from 0.0000494/ps(2) to 0.006205/ps(2). Additionally, a theoretical model that combining the carrier density rate equation of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with the transfer function of the Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is exploited to analyze the solving processes. For both 1st- and 2nd-order solvers, excellent agreements between the numerical simulations and the experimental results are obtained. The FP-SOAs based all-optical differential-equation solvers can be easily integrated with other optical components based on InP/InGaAsP materials, such as laser, modulator, photodetector and waveguide, which can motivate the realization of the complicated optical computing on a single integrated chip.

  18. Hybrid distributed Raman amplification combining random fiber laser based 2nd-order and low-noise LD based 1st-order pumping.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin-Hong; Rao, Yun-Jiang; Yuan, Cheng-Xu; Li, Jin; Yan, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zi-Nan; Zhang, Wei-Li; Wu, Han; Zhu, Ye-Yu; Peng, Fei

    2013-10-21

    A configuration of hybrid distributed Raman amplification (H-DRA), that is formed by incorporating a random fiber laser (RFL) based 2nd-order pump and a low-noise laser-diode (LD) based 1st-order pump, is proposed in this paper. In comparison to conventional bi-directional 1st-order DRA, the effective noise figure (ENF) is found to be lower by amount of 0 to 4 dB due to the RFL-based 2nd-order pump, depending on the on-off gain, while the low-noise 1st-order Raman pump is used for compensating the worsened signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the vicinity towards the far end of the fiber and avoiding the potential nonlinear impact induced by excess injection of pump power and suppressing the pump-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer. As a result, the gain distribution can be optimized along ultra-long fiber link, due to combination of the 2nd-order RFL and low-noise 1st-order pumping, making the transmission distance be extended significantly. We utilized such a configuration to achieve ultra-long-distance distributed sensing based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). A repeater-less sensing distance record of up to 154.4 km with 5 m spatial resolution and ~ ± 1.4 °C temperature uncertainty is successfully demonstrated.

  19. Cloud Occurrence Measurements Over Sea during the 2nd 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) Field Campaign in Palawan Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antioquia, C. T.; Uy, S. N.; Caballa, K.; Lagrosas, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ground based sky imaging cameras have been used to measure cloud cover over an area to aid in radiation budget models. During daytime, certain clouds tend to help decrease atmospheric temperature by obstructing sunrays in the atmosphere. Thus, the detection of clouds plays an important role in the formulation of radiation budget in the atmosphere. In this study, a wide angled sky imager (GoPro Hero 2) was brought on board M/Y Vasco to detect and quantity cloud occurrence over sea during the 2nd 7SEAS field campaign. The camera is just a part of a number of scientific instruments used to measure weather, aerosol chemistry and solar radiation among others. The data collection started during the departure from Manila Bay on 05 September 2012 and went on until the end of the cruise (29 September 2012). The camera was placed in a weather-proof box that is then affixed on a steel mast where other instruments are also attached during the cruise. The data has a temporal resolution of 1 minute, and each image is 500x666 pixels in size. Fig. 1a shows the track of the ship during the cruise. The red, blue, hue, saturation, and value of the pixels are analysed for cloud occurrence. A pixel is considered to "contain" thick cloud if it passes all four threshold parameters (R-B, R/B, R-B/R+B, HSV; R is the red pixel color value, blue is the blue pixel color value, and HSV is the hue saturation value of the pixel) and considered thin cloud if it passes two or three parameters. Fig. 1b shows the daily analysis of cloud occurrence. Cloud occurrence here is quantified as the ratio of the pixels with cloud to the total number of pixels in the data image. The average cloud cover for the days included in this dataset is 87%. These measurements show a big contrast when compared to cloud cover over land (Manila Observatory) which is usually around 67%. During the duration of the cruise, only one day (September 6) has an average cloud occurrence below 50%; the rest of the days have

  20. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  1. Measurements of AC Loss In Second-Generation HTS Tapes in a DC Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osofsky, M. S.; Soulen, R. J.; Gubser, D. U.; Datta, T.

    2008-03-01

    The successful application of superconductivity to motors and other power system components depends on the characterization and subsequent minimization of the ac loss in the superconductor used for fabrication of the component. The superconductive component, excited by an ac power source, may be exposed to large dc magnetic fields and/or ac fields. To further complicate the situation, the transport properties of the tapes are strongly dependent on the angle between the applied field and the YBCO c-axis (normal to the tape surface). We report on measurements of the transport ac loss of a YBaCuO tape at 65 K, at several frequencies, in applied dc fields of 1-3 T with the field parallel and perpendicular to the tape normal.

  2. Stability test of conduction-cooled LTS/HTS composite coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ying Min; Wang, Yin Shun; Lv, Gang; Pi, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A small LTS/HTS composite coil made of NbTi/Cu and YBCO, with an inner diameter of 80 mm, an outer diameter of 88mm, a height of 50 mm, and an inductance of 5.5 μH, was designed to test its heat disturbance performance in a GM cryocooler. For comparison, a conventional LTS coil of a similar size made of NbTi/Cu wire was also tested. Transport current was applied from 50 A to 700 A at 8 K and 8.5 K, respectively. The two coils’ heat disturbance, minimum quench energy and quench propagation velocity performance were investigated and simulated. The results indicate that the LTS/HTS composite coil shows better thermal stability and is more fit for operation in conductive cryocooler systems compared to LTS coils.

  3. A method to enhance the curve negotiation performance of HTS Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, T.; Gou, Y. F.; Deng, Z. G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, B. T.; Chen, P.

    2015-09-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev has attracted more and more attention due to its special self-stable characteristic, and much work has been done to achieve its actual application, but the research about the curve negotiation is not systematic and comprehensive. In this paper, we focused on the change of the lateral displacements of the Maglev vehicle when going through curves under different velocities, and studied the change of the electromagnetic forces through experimental methods. Experimental results show that setting an appropriate initial eccentric distance (ED), which is the distance between the center of the bulk unit and the center of the permanent magnet guideway (PMG), when cooling the bulks is favorable for the Maglev system’s curve negotiation. This work will provide some available suggestions for improving the curve negotiation performance of the HTS Maglev system.

  4. A Test of HTS Power Cable in a Sweeping Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Blowers, J.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-29

    Short sample HTS power cable composed of multiple 344C-2G strands and designed to energize a fast-cycling dipole magnet was exposed to a sweeping magnetic field in the (2-20) T/s ramping rate. The B-field orientation toward the HTS strands wide surface was varied from 0{sup 0} to 10{sup 0}, in steps of 1{sup 0}. The test arrangement allowed measurement of the combined hysteresis and eddy current power losses. For the validity of these measurements, the power losses of a short sample cable composed of multiple LTS wire strands were also performed to compare with the known data. The test arrangement of the power cable is described, and the test results are compared with the projections for the eddy and hysteresis power losses using the fine details of the test cable structures.

  5. Design and testing of the HTS bearing for a 10 kWh flywheel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, A. C.; Strasik, M.; McCrary, K. E.; Johnson, P. E.; Gabrys, J. W.; Schindler, J. R.; Hawkins, R. A.; Carlson, D. L.; Higgins, M. D.; Hull, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    Flywheels are of interest for a wide range of energy storage applications, from support of renewable resources to distributed power applications and uninterruptible power systems (UPS) (Day et al 2000 Proc. EESAT 2000 (Orlando, FL, Sept. 2000)). The use of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearings for such systems has significant advantages for applications requiring large amounts of energy to be stored with low parasitic losses and with minimal system maintenance. As flywheel systems increase in size, it becomes a significant challenge to provide adequate stiffness in these bearings without exceeding the strength limits of rotating magnet assemblies. The Boeing Company is designing and building a prototype flywheel of 10 kWh total stored energy and has focused much effort on the HTS bearing system. This paper will describe the general structure of the bearing and the steps taken to optimize its magnetic and structural performance and show recent test results.

  6. Performance of HTS SQUID coupled to cooled-Cu/superconductor pickup coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enpuku, K.; Tsuji, Y.; Hirakawa, S.; Matsuo, M.; Yoshida, T.

    2010-11-01

    We studied the performance of a magnetometer composed of a high Tc SQUID and a large pickup coil. For the pickup coil, we consider the coil made of a cooled Cu wire or an HTS superconductor tape. A magnetometer was designed for geophysical measurement using transient electromagnetic method. The theoretical field noise of the magnetometer was 0.2-1 pT/Hz1/2 at f = 10 Hz, and 55 fT/Hz1/2 for f > 200 Hz when the pickup coil of 100 mm in diameter and of N = 50 turns was used. Preliminary experimental results using the pickup coil made of the HTS Bi-tape reasonably agreed with the theoretical prediction.

  7. Design, fabrication and testing of a dipole magnet made with 2G HTS wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, I. V.; Kozub, S. S.; Sytnik, V. V.; Terskiy, I. S.; Tkachenko, L. M.; Trusov, O. V.; Shirshov, L. S.; Smirnov, V. M.; Shuvalov, V. I.; Shcherbakov, P. A.; Molodyk, A. A.; Lee, S. R.; Samoilenkov, S. V.

    2016-10-01

    An HTS dipole magnet with a 1 T (at 77 K) central magnetic field in a 40 × 80 mm2 aperture has been designed, fabricated and tested. The magnet coils were wound with SuperOx 2G HTS wire. The paper describes the magnet design, properties of the magnet materials, and results of calculations and measurements. The central field in the dipole reached 1.12 T at 77 K and 1.66 T at 65 K. In a liquid helium bath the maximum input current of 847 A was limited by the capacity of the power supply, and in that case the central field was 3.03 T. The measurement data were in good agreement with the calculation results.

  8. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between

  9. Parameter identification of the complete-moving-hysteresis model for HTS steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, G.R.; Della Torre, E.; Vajda, F. . Inst. for Magnetics Research)

    1994-11-01

    This paper discusses an extension to soft magnetic materials of the identification method of the CMH model which was originally introduced for medium hard magnetic materials. The proposed Preisach function for HTS steel, a soft magnetic material, is normal in the interaction field and is assumed to be lognormal in the critical field. Although the Preisach function is not symmetrical, the logarithm of the operative Preisach function is. However, the moving parameter, [alpha], can not be obtained by finding the value that removes this asymmetry because of the presence of apparent reversible magnetization and the lognormal nature of the Preisach function. All the Preisach parameters can be obtained using the major curve and the virgin curve only. For HTS steel, the squareness is 0.004, indicating a small irreversible magnetization component. The coercivity is 8.6 Oe; whereas the remanence coercivity is an order of magnitude larger, namely 123.5 Oe.

  10. Feasibility of a short-period superconducting undulator using 2G HTS tapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. H.; Doose, C. L.; Jaski, M. S.; Kasa, M. T. )

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a design concept of a planar-type superconducting undulator (SCU) using YBCO high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes. The SCU has a period length of 15 mm, and the tape conductor has dimensions of 4-mm width and 0.1-mm thickness. It has been shown that the conductor transition from one coil groove to the one in the next period is possible by making a semi-circular concave loop of the tape for continuous winding in the same direction. Non-uniform current distribution in the tape may cause field quality degradation. Assuming a uniform current density in the tape, the engineering critical-current density of the HTS in the coil for the design and the corresponding achievable on-axis peak field at 4.2 K were calculated.

  11. Observation of the thermosiphon effect in the circulation of liquid nitrogen in HTS cable cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yury; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hamabe, Makoto; Kawahara, Toshio; Sun, Jian; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    It is traditionally considered that superconducting technology is just the way that will help to overcome the energy crisis and improve the environmental safety of the electricity production. However, real achievements in this field still insufficient to build commercial long power transmission lines. In particular, cooling systems constructed using expensive coolant circulation pumps have to be improved. Our previous calculations show that the use of a thermosiphon effect may reduce both the heat load and the required coolant circulation pump power and, ideally, would completely abandon the forced circulation. Direct experimental verification of this approach has been carried out at the new 200-meter HTS DC experimental facility of the Chubu University. The thermosiphon effect was clearly observed in satisfactory agreement with theory, although the change in elevation of the cryopipe was small. Our results will be used to design an effective HTS cable cooling system based on natural circulation of the coolant.

  12. The method of measuring the temperature dependence of the critical current of the HTS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashkin, D. S.; Krasnoperov, E. P.; Brazhnik, P. A.; Kruglov, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    A new method of measurement of Ic(T) dependence for the HTS-2 tape is realized. In this method, the metal substrate of the tape is used as both a heater and a thermometer. Index n(T) was calculated from the measured current-voltage characteristics (CVC). For the tape manufactured by SuperPower Inc. the data of n-index temperature dependence in the range from 77 K up to 90 K are presented.

  13. Experimental Study of Local Micro-forming for Bi-HTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Pan; Lu Yongjin; Lei Liping; Qu Timing; Fang Gang

    2010-06-15

    The Bi-HTS (BSCCO high temperature superconductor) tape now has become the product in an industrial way, which has been available to apply in electric and electron fields. The main way to manufacture Bi-HTS tape is to use the technique of oxide powder in silver tube (OPIT), which involves the multi-step drawing and rolling with plastic deformation, which obviously belongs to a type of the micro-forming in macro-scale processing. There are two main characteristics founded: (a) contact and friction between silver and BSCCO surfaces, (b) interface between two materials. A series of micro-tensile experiments of silver foil with thicknesses of 0.03, 0.06 and 0.1 mm are designed to investigate the behaviors of silver with various scale of sizes. And the surface topography measurements have been carried out to analyze the changes in surface topography. Based upon experiments, some topics are researched which are referred to inhomogeneous, local effect, size effect, grain and micro-structure affecting, surface roughness, long-distance sausage phenomenon. Further the local breakdown of silver by Bi-HTS powder during process is analyzed through failure criterion. The results of this work will bring out an important exploration value to the theory and computation of micro-forming.

  14. HTS-FCL EMTDC model considering nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae-Young; Lee, Seung-Ryul

    2010-06-01

    One of the most serious problems of the KEPCO system is a higher fault current than the CB(Circuit breaker's SCC (Short Circuit Capacity). There are so many alternatives to reduce the higher fault current, such as the isolation of bus ties, enhancement of the CB's SCC, and the application of HVDC-BTB (Back to Back) or FCL (fault current limiter). However, these alternatives have drawbacks from the viewpoint of system stability and cost. As superconductivity technology has been developed, the resistive type (R-type) HTS-FCL (High Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiter) offers one of the important alternatives in terms of power loss and cost reduction in solving the fault current problem. To evaluate the accurate transient performance of R-type HTS-FCL, it is necessary for the dynamic simulation model to consider transient characteristics during the quenching and the recovery state. Against this background, this paper presents the new HTS-FCL EMTDC (Electro-Magnetic Transients including Direct Current) model considering the nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature.

  15. Design and development of 500 m long HTS cable system in the KEPCO power grid, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yang, B. M.; Lee, S. K.; Jang, H. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Kim, H. R.; Yim, S. W.; Won, Y. J.; Hwang, S. D.

    2010-11-01

    In Korea, two long-term field demonstrations for high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable have been carried out for several years; Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) and LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) independently. Encouraged at the result of the projects performed in parallel, a new project targeting the real grid operation was launched in the fourth quarter of 2008 with the Korean government's financial support. KEPCO and LSC are jointly collaborating in the selection of substation, determination of cable specification, design of cryogenic system, and the scheme of protection coordination. A three phase 500 m long HTS cable at a distribution level voltage of 22.9 kV is to be built at 154/22.9 kV Icheon substation located in near Seoul. A hybrid cryogenic system reflecting the contingency plan is being designed including cryocoolers. The HTS cable system will be installed in the second quarter of 2010, being commissioned by the fall of 2010. This paper describes the objectives of the project and design issues of the cable and cryogenic system in detail.

  16. Results of KEPCO HTS cable system tests and design of hybrid cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J. H.; Sohn, S. H.; Yang, H. S.; Hwang, S. D.; Kim, D. L.; Ryoo, H. S.; Choi, H. O.

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigate the compatibility as a power utility facility, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) had installed a 22.9 kV, 1250 A, 100 m long high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable system. Using the HTS cable, various tests have been performed to investigate electrical and thermo-mechanical properties. Since 2005, a series of thermal cycle tests between liquid nitrogen (LN2) and ambient temperatures have been conducted using a vacuum-pump driven open-loop cryogenic system with a capacity of 3 kW. In the tests, although the open-loop cryogenic system was reliable to operate the HTS cable system, it was not effective in economic view point because LN2 consumption was larger than expected. In order to secure against unexpected emergencies and solve the problem of LN2 consumption, a hybrid cryogenic system was designed and installed. A stirling cryocooler was employed and combined with the open-loop cryogenic system. Considering the average heat load at rated condition, the cooling capacity of the cryocooler was determined to 4 kW at 77 K. In this paper, results of performance tests and the design of the hybrid cooling system are presented.

  17. [Treating anisometric amblyopia with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software--preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Avram, Elena; Stănilă, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia or "lazy eye" represents a disorder of the visual system characterized by poor vision in an eye that is otherwise physically normal. Anisometropia, the condition in which the two eyes have an unequal refractive error, is considered the second most common cause of amblyopia. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of HTS Amblyopia iNet Software by studying the progress of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis vision in anisometropic amblyopic children. 5 patients (age: 5-13 years), treated with HTS Amblyopia iNet Software at OftaTotal Clinic from Sibiu, between 2010-2013, participated in this clinical trial. Initially, visual acuity ranged from 0.25 to 0.8, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.65 Log. Unit. and 1 patient presented stereoscopic vision. After treatment, visual acuity ranged from 0.8 to 1, contrast sensitivity from 1.35 to 1.95 Log. Unit., also all patients presented stereoscopic vision. HTS Amblyopia iNet Software represents an effective modern approach in the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia.

  18. An overview of flywheel energy systems with HTS bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolsky, A. M.

    2002-05-01

    Passive magnetic bearings incorporating permanent magnets and ReBaCuO, together with carbon fibre, offer the possibility of increasing the stored, volumetric energy density of FES and unprecedentedly low idling loss of FES. Its stored energy need only satisfy customers' needs for the time it takes to bring on conventional 'back-up'. The FES itself must come up to power quickly enough to avoid any disruption in the customer's operation (e.g., continuous industrial processes involving fragile materials, for example paper forming). Such customers do not care about the price of electricity nearly as much as they care about not ruining their product, damaging their machines or having 'clean ups' that stop or slow output. Firms that engage in electronic commerce and/or telecommunications also value uninterruptible power. Another set of potential customers (construction, electric railroads) may wish to avoid fluctuations in their electrical supply or they may wish to avoid causing harm to others who may hold them liable for poor power quality. Finally, real time prices (e.g., every 15 s) and real time commands, disseminated via internet, and distributed storage might enable reduced system generation costs. Generators and FES makers would have to cooperate to make this feasible. Now, the central techno-economic challenge is to build a high-power, low-loss motor generator that reaches full power in a very short time.

  19. Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

  20. The Mechanical Design Optimization of a High Field HTS Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Lalitha, SL; Gupta, RC

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design optimization of a large aperture, high field (24 T at 4 K) solenoid for a 1.7 MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage device. The magnet is designed to be built entirely of second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor tape with excellent electrical and mechanical properties at the cryogenic temperatures. The critical parameters that govern the magnet performance are examined in detail through a multiphysics approach using ANSYS software. The analysis results formed the basis for the performance specification as well as the construction of the magnet.

  1. ARQiv-HTS, a versatile whole-organism screening platform enabling in vivo drug discovery at high-throughput rates.

    PubMed

    White, David T; Eroglu, Arife Unal; Wang, Guohua; Zhang, Liyun; Sengupta, Sumitra; Ding, Ding; Rajpurohit, Surendra K; Walker, Steven L; Ji, Hongkai; Qian, Jiang; Mumm, Jeff S

    2016-12-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model for whole-organism small-molecule screening. However, most zebrafish-based chemical screens have achieved only mid-throughput rates. Here we describe a versatile whole-organism drug discovery platform that can achieve true high-throughput screening (HTS) capacities. This system combines our automated reporter quantification in vivo (ARQiv) system with customized robotics, and is termed 'ARQiv-HTS'. We detail the process of establishing and implementing ARQiv-HTS: (i) assay design and optimization, (ii) calculation of sample size and hit criteria, (iii) large-scale egg production, (iv) automated compound titration, (v) dispensing of embryos into microtiter plates, and (vi) reporter quantification. We also outline what we see as best practice strategies for leveraging the power of ARQiv-HTS for zebrafish-based drug discovery, and address technical challenges of applying zebrafish to large-scale chemical screens. Finally, we provide a detailed protocol for a recently completed inaugural ARQiv-HTS effort, which involved the identification of compounds that elevate insulin reporter activity. Compounds that increased the number of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells represent potential new therapeutics for diabetic patients. For this effort, individual screening sessions took 1 week to conclude, and sessions were performed iteratively approximately every other day to increase throughput. At the conclusion of the screen, more than a half million drug-treated larvae had been evaluated. Beyond this initial example, however, the ARQiv-HTS platform is adaptable to almost any reporter-based assay designed to evaluate the effects of chemical compounds in living small-animal models. ARQiv-HTS thus enables large-scale whole-organism drug discovery for a variety of model species and from numerous disease-oriented perspectives.

  2. The current status of research into Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on ADHD: From Childhood to Adult Disease.

    PubMed

    Thome, Johannes; Reddy, Duvvoor Prathap

    2009-12-01

    Despite being a devastating psychiatric condition with high prevalence, ADHD has traditionally been widely under-researched, specifically in adult patients. Therefore, the recent surge in scientific projects focusing on ADHD is impressive. By reviewing selected research findings presented at the 2nd International Congress on ADHD, this paper gives an overview about current state-of-the art research in such different areas as diagnosis, classification, epidemiology, differential diagnosis and comorbidity, neurobiology (including molecular genetics, proteomics, neuroimaging and electrophysiology), environmental factors, modelling of ADHD, treatment (pharmacological and non-pharmacological), as well as forensic and social aspects.

  3. Second-order adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology (2nd-ASAM) for computing exactly and efficiently first- and second-order sensitivities in large-scale linear systems: I. Computational methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacuci, Dan G.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the second-order forward and adjoint sensitivity analysis methodologies (2nd-FSAM and 2nd-ASAM) for computing exactly and efficiently the second-order functional derivatives of physical (engineering, biological, etc.) system responses (i.e., "system performance parameters") to the system's model parameters. The definition of "system parameters" used in this work includes all computational input data, correlations, initial and/or boundary conditions, etc. For a physical system comprising Nα parameters and Nr responses, we note that the 2nd-FSAM requires a total of (Nα2/2 + 3Nα / 2) large-scale computations for obtaining all of the first- and second-order sensitivities, for all Nr system responses. On the other hand, for one functional-type system response, the 2nd-ASAM requires one large-scale computation using the first-level adjoint sensitivity system for obtaining all of the first-order sensitivities, followed by at most Nα large-scale computations using the second-level adjoint sensitivity systems for obtaining exactly all of the second-order sensitivities. Therefore, the 2nd-FSAM should be used when Nr ≫Nα, while the 2nd-ASAM should be used when Nα ≫Nr. The original 2nd-ASAM presented in this work should enable the hitherto very difficult, if not intractable, exact computation of all of the second-order response sensitivities (i.e., functional Gateaux-derivatives) for large-systems involving many parameters, as usually encountered in practice. Very importantly, the implementation of the 2nd-ASAM requires very little additional effort beyond the construction of the adjoint sensitivity system needed for computing the first-order sensitivities.

  4. Cryogenic experiences during W7-X HTS-current lead tests

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Thomas; Lietzow, Ralph

    2014-01-29

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) was responsible for design, production and test of the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL) for the stellerator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). 16 current leads were delivered. Detailed prototype tests as well as the final acceptance tests were performed at KIT, using a dedicated test cryostat assembled beside and connected to the main vacuum vessel of the TOSKA facility. A unique feature is the upside down orientation of the current leads due to the location of the power supplies in the basement of the experimental area of W7-X. The HTS-CL consists of three main parts: the cold end for the connection to the bus bar at 4.5 K, the HTS part operating in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 65 K and a copper heat exchanger (HEX) in the temperature range from 65 K to room temperature, which is cooled with 50 K helium. Therefore in TOSKA it is possible to cool test specimens simultaneously with helium at two different temperature levels. The current lead tests included different scenarios with currents up to 18.2 kA. In total, 10 cryogenic test campaigns with a total time of about 24 weeks were performed till beginning of 2013. The test facility as well as the 2 kW cryogenic plant of ITEP showed a very good reliability. However, during such a long and complex experimental campaign, one has to deal with failures, technical difficulties and incidents. The paper gives a summary of the test performance comprising the test preparation and operation. This includes the performance and reliability of the refrigerator and the test facility with reference to the process measuring and control system, the data acquisition system, as well as the building infrastructure.

  5. Design of Conduction-cooled HTS Coils for a Rotating Gantry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Shigeki; Koyanagi, Kei; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Tasaki, Kenji; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Ishii, Yusuke; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Ogitsu, Toru; Noda, Koji

    Carbon ion cancer therapy is becoming more widespread due to its high curative effects and low burden on patients. Carbon ions are delivered to patients through electromagnets on a rotating gantry.A rotating gantry is attractive because it allows carbon ions to irradiate a tumor from any direction without changing the posture of the patient. On the other hand, because of the high magnetic rigidity of carbon ions, the weight of a rotating gantry for carbon cancer therapy is about three times higher than one for proton cancer therapy, according to our estimation. The use of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets has been considered for reducing the size of the rotating gantry for carbon cancer therapy. The target weight is 200 t or less,which is equivalent to the weight of a typical rotating gantry for proton cancer therapy.In this study, the magnet layout of the rotating gantry and the superconducting magnets were designed from the viewpoint of beam optics.When applying high-temperature superconductors to accelerator magnets, there are some issues that should be considered, for example, the influence of tape magnetization and manufacturing accuracy on the field quality, the thermal stability of the conduction-cooled HTS coils under an alternating magnetic field, and methods to protect the coils from thermal runaway caused by an anomalous thermal input such as that due to beam loss. First, the thermal stability of the conduction-cooled HTS coils was simulated numerically, and the thermal runaway current was calculated in a static situation.

  6. Cryogenic experiences during W7-X HTS-current lead tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Thomas; Lietzow, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) was responsible for design, production and test of the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL) for the stellerator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). 16 current leads were delivered. Detailed prototype tests as well as the final acceptance tests were performed at KIT, using a dedicated test cryostat assembled beside and connected to the main vacuum vessel of the TOSKA facility. A unique feature is the upside down orientation of the current leads due to the location of the power supplies in the basement of the experimental area of W7-X. The HTS-CL consists of three main parts: the cold end for the connection to the bus bar at 4.5 K, the HTS part operating in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 65 K and a copper heat exchanger (HEX) in the temperature range from 65 K to room temperature, which is cooled with 50 K helium. Therefore in TOSKA it is possible to cool test specimens simultaneously with helium at two different temperature levels. The current lead tests included different scenarios with currents up to 18.2 kA. In total, 10 cryogenic test campaigns with a total time of about 24 weeks were performed till beginning of 2013. The test facility as well as the 2 kW cryogenic plant of ITEP showed a very good reliability. However, during such a long and complex experimental campaign, one has to deal with failures, technical difficulties and incidents. The paper gives a summary of the test performance comprising the test preparation and operation. This includes the performance and reliability of the refrigerator and the test facility with reference to the process measuring and control system, the data acquisition system, as well as the building infrastructure.

  7. Modeling AC ripple currents in HTS coated conductors by integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Francesco; Xu, Zhihan

    2016-12-01

    In several HTS applications, the superconducting tapes experience the simultaneous presence of DC and AC excitations. For example in high-current DC cables, where the transport current is not perfectly constant, but it exhibits some ripples at different frequencies introduced by the rectification process (AC-DC conversion). These ripples give rise to dissipation, whose magnitude and possible influence on the device's cooling requirements need to be evaluated. Here we report a study of the AC losses in a HTS coated conductor subjected to DC currents and AC ripples simultaneously. The modeling approach is based on an integral equation method for thin superconductors: the superconducting tape is modeled as a 1-D object with a non-linear resistivity, which includes the dependence of the critical current density Jc on the magnetic field. The model, implemented in a commercial finite-element program, runs very fast (the simulation of one AC cycle typically takes a few seconds on standard desktop workstation): this allows simulating a large number of cycles and estimating when the AC ripple losses stabilize to a constant value. The model is used to study the influence of the flux creep power index n on the stabilization speed and on the AC loss values, as well as the effect of using a field-dependent Jc instead of a constant one. The simulations confirm that the dissipation level should not be a practical concern in HTS DC cables. At the same time, however, they reveal a strong dependence of the results upon the power index n and the form of Jc , which spurs the question whether the power-law is the most suitable description of the superconductor's electrical behavior for this kind of analysis.

  8. The status and prospects for flywheels and SMES that incorporate HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolsky, A. M.

    2002-08-01

    With one firm offering to provide SMES with HTS current leads and several other entities developing flywheels with bearings that incorporate bulk ReBaCuO, the progress made toward meeting their technical goals appears promising. Another question needs attention from the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) community: “Will technical success yield equipment that will sell?” Here, we recall what is being done and review issues touching on the specifications for equipment that customers might want. These specifications pose technical challenges that have received little attention from the community.

  9. Characterization of Hybrid Ferroelectric/HTS Thin Films for Tunable Microwave Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, M. D.; Mueller, C. H.; Bhasin, K. B.; Miranda, F. A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the discovery of High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) in 1986, a diversity of HTS-based microwave components has been demonstrated. Because of their low conductor losses, HTS-based components are very attractive for integration into microwave circuits for space communication systems. Recent advancements have made deposition of ferroelectric thin films onto HTS thin films possible. Due to the sensitivity of the ferroelectric's dielectric constant (epsilon(sub r)) to an externally applied electric field (E), ferroelectric/superconducting structures could be used in the fabrication of low loss, tunable microwave components. In this paper, we report on our study of Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)TiO3/YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) and Ba(0.08)Sr(0.92)TiO3/YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) ferroelectric/superconducting thin films on lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) substrates. For the (Ba:Sr, 0.50:0.50) epitaxial sample, a epsilon(sub r) of 425 and a loss tangent (tan delta) of 0.040 were measured at 298 K, 1.0 MHz, and zero applied E. For the same sample, a epsilon(sub r) of 360 and tan delta of 0.036 were obtained at 77 K, 1.0 MHz, and zero applied E. Variations in epsilon(sub r) from 180 to 360 were observed over an applied E range of 0V/cm less than or equal to E less than or equal to 5.62 x 10(exp 4) V/cm with little change in tan delta. However, the range of epsilon(sub r) variation for the polycrystalline (Ba:Sr, 0.08:0.92) sample over 0V/cm less than or equal to E less than or equal to 4.00 x 10(exp 4) V/cm was only 3.6 percent while tan delta increased markedly. These results indicate that a lack of epitaxy between the ferroelectric and superconducting layers decreases tuning and increases microwave losses.

  10. Development of a Flat-plate Cryogenic Oscillating Heat Pipe for Improving HTS Magnet Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsume, K.; Mito, T.; Yanagi, N.; Tamura, H.

    A new method of including cryogenic oscillating heat pipes (OHPs) in the HTS coil windings as a thermal transport device has been studied. In this work, two type of OHPs are tested in low temperature. Employed working fluids are H2, Ne, N2. We have attained high performance thermal property using a bent-pipe cryogenic OHP as a prototype. Obtained effective conductivities have reached to 46000 W/m K. Then a flat-plate cryogenic OHP has been developed, that is suitable for imbedding in magnet windings. Preliminary experiments have been conducted and the result has been promising.

  11. Improvement of sensitivity of multisample biological immunoassay system using HTS SQUID and magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, A.; Saitoh, K.; Sugita, N.; Kuma, H.; Sugiura, Y.; Hamaoka, S.; Hamasaki, N.; Enpuku, K.

    2006-10-01

    Recently, we have developed a prototype magnetic immunoassay system using a high temperature superconductor (HTS) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to investigate the performance and usability of the magnetic immunoassay. In this study, we improved the immunoassay system to heighten the sensitivity of the immunoassay measurement. To reduce the SQUID-to-sample distance, we introduced a structure to compensate for thermal shrinkage in the cryostat and reduce the warpage of the window. The shape of pickup coil was also optimized to improve the field sensitivity. After these improvements, the magnetic signal intensity from Fe3O4 nanoparticles became about two times stronger than that achieved by our original system.

  12. Two Methods for a First Order Hardware Gradiometer Using Two HTS SQUID's

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, M.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H., Jr.; Matlachov, A.

    1998-09-15

    Two different systems for noise cancellation (first order gradiometers) have been developed using two similar high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUIDs. ''Analog'' gradiometry is accomplished in hardware by either (1) subtracting the signals from the sensor and background SQUIDs at a summing amplifier (parallel technique) or (2) converting the inverted background SQUID signal to a magnetic field at the sensor SQUID (series technique). Balance levels achieved are 2000 and 1000 at 20 Hz for the parallel and series methods respectively. The balance level as a function of frequency is also presented. The effect which time delays in the two sets of SQUID electronics have on this balance level is presented and discussed.

  13. Two methods for a first order hardware gradiometer using two HTS SQUIDs

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, M.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Matlachov, A.

    1998-12-31

    Two different systems for noise cancellation (first order gradiometers) have been developed using two similar high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUIDs. Analog gradiometry is accomplished in hardware by either (1) subtracting the signals from the sensor and background SQUIDs at a summing amplifier (parallel technique) or (2) converting the inverted background SQUID signal to a magnetic field at the sensor SQUID (series technique). Balance levels achieved are 2000 and 1000 at 20 Hz for the parallel and series methods respectively. The balance level as a function of frequency is also presented. The effect which time delays in the two sets of SQUID electronics have on this balance level is presented and discussed.

  14. Management of osteoporosis in central and eastern Europe (CEE): conclusions of the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE", 21-22 November 2008, Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Roman S; Resch, Heinrich

    2009-12-01

    In November 2008, the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)" was held in Warsaw, Poland. Discussions at this meeting focused on the identification and discussion of diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic measures used in CEE. Evaluated information was used to identify issues regarding diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis in these countries to facilitate the subsequent setup of appropriate support and development strategies. The main debate was structured according to the following five subjects: (1) present status and future perspectives for implementation of FRAX(R) into local (CEE) diagnostic algorithms, (2) principles of drug selection in osteoporosis treatment in CEE countries, (3) nonpharmacological interventions in osteoporosis treatment and prophylaxis in CEE countries, (4) treatment benefit evaluation, and (5) cost-effectiveness and evaluation of reimbursement policies in CEE countries. The most important and substantial comments of the delegates are summarized in the present article. The multinational panel of experts with representatives from many CEE countries as well as Austria and Switzerland made the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE" a perfect platform to identify issues and needs regarding diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis as well as the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis management in CEE countries. The information gained will serve as a basis for the development of strategies to resolve the identified issues at the "3rd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE" in November 2009.

  15. Numerical calculation of primary slot leakage inductance of a Single-sided HTS linear induction motor used for linear metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Wen, Yinghong; Li, Weili; Fang, Jin; Cao, Junci; Zhang, Xiaochen; Lv, Gang

    2017-03-01

    In the paper, the numerical method calculating asymmetric primary slot leakage inductances of Single-sided High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Linear Induction Motor (HTS LIM) is presented. The mathematical and geometric models of three-dimensional nonlinear transient electromagnetic field are established and the boundary conditions are also given. The established model is solved by time-stepping Finite Element Method (FEM). Then, the three-phase asymmetric primary slot leakage inductances under different operation conditions are calculated by using the obtained electromagnetic field distribution. The influences of the special effects such as longitudinal end effects, transversal edge effects, etc. on the primary slot leakage inductance are investigated. The presented numerical method is validated by experiments carried out on a 3.5 kW prototype with copper wires which has the same structures with the HTS LIM.

  16. Development of Non-destructive Evaluation System Using an HTS-SQUID Gradiometer with an External Pickup Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, J.; Kawauchi, S.; Ishikawa, F.; Tanabe, K.

    We are developing a new eddy-current non-destructive evaluation (NDE) system using a high-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with the aim of applying it to power plants. Electric power facilities such as ducts and vessels are generally untransportable because of their size, and thus it is difficult to apply a conventional SQUID NDE system. The new NDE system employs an external Cu pickup coil which is supposed to be driven flexibly by a robot arm at room temperature and an HTS-SQUID chip which is placed in a magnetically shielded vessel. In the present research, we investigated the performance of an HTS-SQUID sensor connected with external pickup coils before mounting them to a robot arm. By varying the Cu coil conditions such as their sizes, the number of turns, and the diameter of wire, we qualitatively evaluated the frequency dependence of the effective area and the cutoff frequency.

  17. PF-06463922, an ALK/ROS1 inhibitor, overcomes resistance to 1st and 2nd generation ALK inhibitors in pre-clinical models

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Helen Y.; Friboulet, Luc; Kodack, David P.; Engstrom, Lars D.; Li, Qiuhua; West, Melissa; Tang, Ruth W.; Wang, Hui; Tsaparikos, Konstantinos; Wang, Jinwei; Timofeevski, Sergei; Katayama, Ryohei; Dinh, Dac M.; Lam, Hieu; Lam, Justine L.; Yamazaki, Shinji; Hu, Wenyue; Patel, Bhushankumar; Bezwada, Divya; Frias, Rosa L.; Lifshits, Eugene; Mahmood, Sidra; Gainor, Justin F.; Affolter, Timothy; Lappin, Patrick B.; Gukasyan, Hovhannes; Lee, Nathan; Deng, Shibing; Jain, Rakesh K; Johnson, Ted W.; Shaw, Alice T.; Fantin, Valeria R.; Smeal, Tod

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY We report the preclinical evaluation of PF-06463922, a potent and brain penetrant ALK/ROS1 inhibitor. Compared to other clinically available ALK inhibitors, PF-06463922 displayed superior potency against all known clinically acquired ALK mutations, including the highly resistant G1202R mutant. Furthermore, PF-06463922 treatment led to regression of EML4-ALK driven brain metastases, leading to prolonged mouse survival, in a superior manner. Finally, PF-06463922 demonstrated high selectivity and safety margins in a variety of preclinical studies. These results suggest that PF-06463922 will be highly effective for the treatment of patients with ALK-driven lung cancers, including those who relapsed on clinically available ALK inhibitors due to secondary ALK kinase domain mutations and/or due to the failed control of brain metastases. PMID:26144315

  18. 1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Implementations of an eLearning Design: Re-Use from Postgraduate Law to Block/Online Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Sarah; Brewer, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of postgraduate students who were time poor and unable to regularly attend face-to-face classes, one lecturer in the Faculty Law at the University of Wollongong (UOW) sought the assistance of a Learning Designer to redesign the Postgraduate Practical Legal Training (PLT) program into a flexible blended learning format,…

  19. SHARK (System for coronagraphy with High order Adaptive optics from R to K band): a proposal for the LBT 2nd generation instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinato, Jacopo; Pedichini, Fernando; Pinna, Enrico; Baciotti, Francesca; Baffa, Carlo; Baruffolo, Andrea; Bergomi, Maria; Bruno, Pietro; Cappellaro, Enrico; Carbonaro, Luca; Carlotti, Alexis; Centrone, Mauro; Close, Laird; Codona, Johanan; Desidera, Silvano; Dima, Marco; Esposito, Simone; Fantinel, Daniela; Farisato, Giancarlo; Fontana, Adriano; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Giallongo, Emanuele; Gratton, Raffaele; Greggio, Davide; Guerra, Juan Carlos; Guyon, Olivier; Hinz, Philip; Leone, Francesco; Lisi, Franco; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Puglisi, Alfio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Salasnich, Bernardo; Sani, Eleonora; Scuderi, Salvo; Stangalini, Marco; Testa, Vincenzo; Verinaud, Christophe; Viotto, Valentina

    2014-08-01

    This article presents a proposal aimed at investigating the technical feasibility and the scientific capabilities of high contrast cameras to be implemented at LBT. Such an instrument will fully exploit the unique LBT capabilities in Adaptive Optics (AO) as demonstrated by the First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system, which is obtaining excellent results in terms of performance and reliability. The aim of this proposal is to show the scientific interest of such a project, together with a conceptual opto-mechanical study which shows its technical feasibility, taking advantage of the already existing AO systems, which are delivering the highest Strehl experienced in nowadays existing telescopes. Two channels are foreseen for SHARK, a near infrared channel (2.5-0.9 um) and a visible one (0.9 - 0.6 um), both providing imaging and coronagraphic modes. The visible channel is equipped with a very fast and low noise detector running at 1.0 kfps and an IFU spectroscopic port to provide low and medium resolution spectra of 1.5 x 1.5 arcsec fields. The search of extra solar giant planets is the main science case and the driver for the technical choices of SHARK, but leaving room for several other interesting scientific topics, which will be briefly depicted here.

  20. An introduction to the design and fabrication progress of a megawatt class 2G HTS motor for the ship propulsion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Heejong; Kim, Yeong-Chun; Park, Heui-Joo; Yu, In-Keun; Park, Minwon

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the design and fabrication progress of a megawatt class 2G high temperature superconductor (HTS) motor for the ship propulsion application at Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction. The purpose of this 2G HTS propulsion motor is to launch the business area for marine applications such as surface ship, submarine, merchant ship etc. The principles and interpretation of the magnetic field for 2G HTS motor and permanent magnet type motors are similar on the basis of 3D design and production. The most important component of an HTS motor is the rotor, which is composed of HTS coil, non-ferrous metal, torque disk, damper, and hollow shaft. A HTS rotor using hastelloy-based 2G HTS coils was designed and built. Open-circuit and short-circuit characteristics of the superconducting motor were investigated and compared with the analysis results at reduced excitation to verify the design. Preliminary testing of a 2G HTS motor has been conducted at a few hundred kilowatts as per the design. Through these results, we anticipate that most of the design criteria can be satisfied. However, we have faced several issues during the testing of the motor and these issues need to be resolved in order to take the design further.

  1. Operating characteristic analysis of a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor in connection with a laboratory scale LCC type HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Lee, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) devices are being developed due to their advantages. Most line commutated converter based high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems for long-distance transmission require large inductance of DC reactor; however, generally, copper-based reactors cause a lot of electrical losses during the system operation. This is driving researchers to develop a new type of DC reactor using HTS wire. The authors have developed a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor and a laboratory scale test-bed for line-commutated converter type HVDC system and applied the HTS DC reactor to the HVDC system to investigate their operating characteristics. The 400 mH class HTS DC reactor is designed using a toroid type magnet. The HVDC system is designed in the form of a mono-pole system with thyristor-based 12-pulse power converters. In this paper, the investigation results of the HTS DC reactor in connection with the HVDC system are described. The operating characteristics of the HTS DC reactor are analyzed under various operating conditions of the system. Through the results, applicability of an HTS DC reactor in an HVDC system is discussed in detail.

  2. Probe molecules (PrM) approach in adverse outcome pathway (AOP) based high throughput screening (HTS): in vivo discovery for developing in vitro target methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficient and accurate adverse outcome pathway (AOP) based high-throughput screening (HTS) methods use a systems biology based approach to computationally model in vitro cellular and molecular data for rapid chemical prioritization; however, not all HTS assays are grounded by rel...

  3. Structure-borne sound: Structural vibrations and sound radiation at audio frequencies /2nd revised and enlarged edition/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Lothar; Heckl, Manfred

    The fundamental principles of sound production and propagation in and from structures are examined analytically in an introductory textbook, and their design implications are considered. Chapters are devoted to the definition, measurement, and generation of structure-borne sound; wave types and characteristics; damping; impedances; attenuation; and sound radiation from structures. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  5. Identification of compounds that modulate retinol signaling using a cell-based qHTS assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanling; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Huang, Ruili; Reese, David H; Xia, Menghang

    2016-04-01

    In vertebrates, the retinol (vitamin A) signaling pathway (RSP) controls the biosynthesis and catabolism of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), which regulates transcription of genes essential for embryonic development. Chemicals that interfere with the RSP to cause abnormal intracellular levels of atRA are potential developmental toxicants. To assess chemicals for the ability to interfere with retinol signaling, we have developed a cell-based RARE (Retinoic Acid Response Element) reporter gene assay to identify RSP disruptors. To validate this assay in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) platform, we screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) in both agonist and antagonist modes. The screens detected known RSP agonists, demonstrating assay reliability, and also identified novel RSP agonists including kenpaullone, niclosamide, PD98059 and SU4312, and RSP antagonists including Bay 11-7085, LY294002, 3,4-Methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene, and topoisomerase inhibitors (camptothecin, topotecan, amsacrine hydrochloride, and idarubicin). When evaluated in the P19 pluripotent cell, these compounds were found to affect the expression of the Hoxa1 gene that is essential for embryo body patterning. These results show that the RARE assay is an effective qHTS approach for screening large compound libraries to identify chemicals that have the potential to adversely affect embryonic development through interference with retinol signaling.

  6. Impact of flux gap upon dynamic resistance of a rotating HTS flux pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenan; Bumby, Chris W.; Badcock, Rodney A.; Sung, Hae-Jin; Long, Nicholas J.; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2015-11-01

    HTS flux pumps enable superconducting currents to be directly injected into a magnet coil without the requirement for thermally inefficient current leads. Here, we present results from an experimental mechanically rotating HTS flux pump employing a coated-conductor stator and operated at 77 K. We show the effect of varying the size of the flux gap between the rotor magnets and coated conductor stator from 1 to 7.5 mm. This leads to a corresponding change in the peak applied perpendicular magnetic field at the stator from approximately 350 to 50 mT. We observe that our experimental device ceases to maintain a measurable output at flux gaps above 7.5 mm, which we attribute to the presence of screening currents in the stator wire. We show that our mechanically rotating flux pump is well described by a simple circuit model which enables the output performance to be described using two simple parameters, the open-circuit voltage V oc and the internal resistance, R d. Both of these parameters are found to be directly proportional to magnet-crossing frequency and decrease with increasing flux gap. We show that the trend in R d can be understood by considering the dynamic resistance experienced at the stator due to the oscillating amplitude of the applied rotor field. We adopt a literature model for the dynamic resistance within our coated-conductor stator and show that this gives good agreement with the experimentally measured internal resistance of our flux pump.

  7. Statistical Evaluation of HTS Assays for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of β-Keto Esters

    PubMed Central

    Dold, S. -M.; Zimmermann, S.; Hamacher, K.; Schmitz, K.; Rudat, J.

    2016-01-01

    β-keto esters are used as precursors for the synthesis of β-amino acids, which are building blocks for some classes of pharmaceuticals. Here we describe the comparison of screening procedures for hydrolases to be used for the hydrolysis of β-keto esters, the first step in the preparation of β-amino acids. Two of the tested high throughput screening (HTS) assays depend on coupled enzymatic reactions which detect the alcohol released during ester hydrolysis by luminescence or absorption. The third assay detects the pH shift due to acid formation using an indicator dye. To choose the most efficient approach for screening, we assessed these assays with different statistical methods—namely, the classical Z’-factor, standardized mean difference (SSMD), the Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test, and t-statistics. This revealed that all three assays are suitable for HTS, the pH assay performing best. Based on our data we discuss the explanatory power of different statistical measures. Finally, we successfully employed the pH assay to identify a very fast hydrolase in an enzyme-substrate screening. PMID:26730596

  8. A new method of reconstructing current paths in HTS tapes with defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlivaev, Alexey; Rudnev, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new method for calculating current paths in high-temperature superconductive (HTS) tapes with various defects including cracks, non-superconducting inclusions, and superconducting inclusions with lower local critical current density. The calculation method is based on a model of critical state which takes into account the dependence of the critical current on the magnetic field. The method allows us to calculate the spatial distribution of currents flowing through the defective HTS tape for both currents induced by the external magnetic field and transport currents from an external source. For both cases, we performed simulations of the current distributions in these tapes with different types of defects and have shown that the combination of the action of the magnetic field and transport current leads to a more detailed identification of the boundaries and shape of the defects. The proposed method is adapted for calculating modern superconductors in real superconducting devices and may be more useful as compared to the conventional magnetometric diagnostic studies, when the tape is affected by the magnetic field only.

  9. Preparation of novel HTS films and tunnel junctions for advanced C3I sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Benjamin J.; Emery, Teresa H.; Berggren, Susan A. E.; Leese de Escobar, Anna M.; Jeon, Inho; Maple, M. B.

    2015-05-01

    Research into the development of advanced RF electronics and devices having high-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) circuitry is being carried out in the Cryogenic Exploitation of RF (CERF) laboratory at SPAWAR Systems Center (SSC) - Pacific. Recently, we have developed a novel annealing process wherein a film of YBa2Cu3Ox is produced having a gradient of oxygen composition along a given direction which we refer to as YBa2Cu3O∇x. Such samples are intended for rapid experimental investigation of the evolution of electronic properties within the compound and in combination with structurally compatible functional oxide materials as integrated sensor devices. We present here an investigation as to the extent to which local oxygen content affects the ion milling process in the formation of Josephson junctions in the HTS compound YBa2Cu3O∇x. We find an abrupt transition in the profile and depth of ion milled trenches at oxygen concentrations at and below the well ordered oxygen level, O6.72. The method described here shows good potential for use in the fabrication of large numbers of uniform Josephson junctions in films of YBa2Cu3Ox, as either a complementary processing tool for grain boundary, step edge, or ion damaged formed JJs, or as a stand alone method for producing nano-bridge JJ's.

  10. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kimura, Y.; Izumi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Numano, M.; Okumura, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Gocho, Y.; Kosuge, E.

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO2, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research & development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  11. Electrical transport anisotropy of uniaxial polycrystalline samples and the effective medium approximation: An application to HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-García, A.; Muné, P.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we have applied the effective medium approximation (EMA) to a polycrystalline sample made up of uniaxial crystallites with similar behavior to the high critical temperature superconductors (HTS) at the normal state (σab ≫ σc). As a result the dependence of the anisotropy parameter at the level of the sample, μ =σx /σz , on orientation probability of the grains' a-axes along a certain preferential direction, γxa is obtained. The intrinsic and shape anisotropy parameters of the crystallites constitute input data. In addition, the dependence of the orientation factor, f, which has been introduced in current models on the transport properties of HTS, is calculated as a function of γxa. These results offer a tool to interpret electrical transport measurements at normal state in granular uniaxial superconducting materials with certain texture degree, by means of the correlation between microstructure and electrical transport properties. Moreover, the comparison between the model and some experimental data suggests the presence of intragranular planar defects in the polycrystalline superconductors. They may affect the measurement of paracoherent resistivity and consequently the determination of f mainly in Bi based samples.

  12. Structural Design and Analysis of a 150 kJ HTS SMES Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Peng; Wu, Yu; Liu, Huajun; Li, Laifeng; Yang, Huihui

    A 150 kJ high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) system is under manufacturing in China. This paper focuses on the structural design and analysis of the SMES cryogenic system. The cryogenic system is designed and fabricated to maintain the working temperature. The system includes a vacuum vessel, its thermal radiation shield, its supporting devices, conduction plates, and current leads. Two G-M cryocoolers are used for the system cooling, the main one is connected to the HTS coils and the other is connected to the thermal shield and the lower ends of the current leads. In this study, the 3D models of the SMES cryogenic system were created with CATIA, a 3D model design software, and the analysis of the SMES cryogenic system was done by ANSYS. The mechanical analysis results on the vacuum vessel, suspension devices and supporting devices are presented, particularly the analyses on suspenders and shelf supports are of vital importance since the finished SMES system should meet vehicle-mounted requirements in long time transport. The heat load and the temperature distribution of the thermal shield were analyzed. A cooling experiment of the cryogenic system was made and the thermal shield was cooled down to about 50 K.

  13. Dynamic Characteristics of Pressure Build Up Tank for HTS Power Cable Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongmin; Park, Heecheol; Kim, Seokho; Jang, Hyunman; Kim, Yanghun

    HTS power cables are cooled by the forced circulation of sub-cooled liquid nitrogen to remove heat loss and maintain a cryogenic temperature. The refrigeration systems used consist of cryocoolers, a pressure build-up tank, heat exchangers, and circulation pumps. Liquid nitrogen expands or shrinks according to the temperature variation inside the fixed volume of the refrigeration system and the cable cryostat. The system pressure also changes depending on the volume change of the liquid nitrogen. The pressure of the liquid nitrogen should be kept above a certain level to ensure its dielectric strength. In addition, the pressure should be kept below the allowable pressure level considering the mechanical strength of the refrigeration system. To enhance the pressure controllability, external heating and cooling should be possible in the pressure build-up tank. For the precise modeling of the pressure build-up tank, thermal stratification and axial thermal conduction are considered. An analysis of such a refrigeration system is performed using the commercial code 'Sinda/fluint', a comprehensive finite-difference, one-dimensional, lumped parameter tool. This paper presents the transient thermo-hydraulic characteristics and the design directions of an HTS cable refrigeration system according to a variable heat load including pressure build-up tank.

  14. AC loss measurements in HTS coil assemblies with hybrid coil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenan; Long, Nicholas J.; Staines, Mike; Badcock, Rodney A.; Bumby, Chris W.; Buckley, Robert G.; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2016-09-01

    Both AC loss and wire cost in coil windings are critical factors for high temperature superconductor (HTS) AC machinery applications. We present AC loss measurement results in three HTS coil assemblies at 77 K and 65 K which have a hybrid coil structure comprising one central winding (CW) and two end windings (EWs) wound with ReBCO and BSCCO wires with different self-field I c values at 77 K. All AC loss results in the coil assemblies are hysteretic and the normalized AC losses in the coil assemblies at different temperatures can be scaled with the I c value of the coil assemblies. The normalised results show that AC loss in a coil assembly with BSCCO CW can be reduced by using EWs wound with high I c ReBCO wires, whilst further AC loss reduction can be achieved by replacing the BSCCO CW with ReBCO CW. The results imply that a flexible hybrid coil structure is possible which considers both AC loss and wire cost in coil assemblies.

  15. Recovery time analysis in a tri-axial HTS cable after an over-current fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, N.; Toda, M.; Watanabe, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2011-11-01

    A tri-axial HTS cable with the advantage of compact structure, low heat loss, and low cost is a perfect solution for future distribution power network demand. In our previous research, a typical single line to ground (SLG) fault simulation was carried out in an adiabatic condition. A stabilizer layer thickness design of the tri-axial HTS cable based on a calculation of maximum temperature rise in the worst condition was proposed. However, in practical application, after the quenched cable is removed from the network by a breaker, a recovery time is also a very important parameter to decide if the cable is allowed to reconnect to the power network. In this paper, a one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is carried out to simulate the transient thermal behavior of the cable. The result shows that it takes time to recover the cable temperature to the steady-state operation level due to a low thermal conductivity of the insulation layer. Since the cable is cooled by forced liquid nitrogen (LN2) flow, there is a temperature gradient along the cable. The temperature of LN2 gradually rises after the fault until the warmed coolant runs out of the cable.

  16. Development of HTS-SQUID magnetometer system with high slew rate for exploration of mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Oshikubo, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Sugisaki, M.; Arai, E.; Tanabe, K.

    2013-11-01

    For the transient electromagnetic (TEM) method using a high-temperature superconducting interference device (HTS-SQUID), we have developed a magnetometer system with a wide dynamic range, a high slew rate, and superior transportability. To achieve high tolerance to a higher excitation magnetic field, we utilized a SQUID magnetometer containing ramp-edge junctions with La0.1Er0.95Ba1.95Cu3Oy and SmBa2Cu3Oy electrode layers, which was fabricated by using an HTS multi-layer fabrication technique. To operate the magnetometer stably in a rapidly changing magnetic field, we chose the proper materials for the RF shield of liquid nitrogen (LN2) glass Dewar and cables. The white noise level and the slew rate of the system were measured to be 30 fT Hz-1/2 and 10.5 mT s-1, respectively. The resultant signal-to-noise ratio was higher than that of the previous system and improved the exploration depth, which was successfully demonstrated in field tests. The weight of the Dewar, which retains the LN2 for 17 h, is 2.5 kg. The total weight of our system including the LN2 Dewar, a probe with a flux-locked loop (FLL) circuit, a battery, a receiver, and a 30 m-long cable between the FLL and the receiver is as low as 25.6 kg.

  17. Identification of compounds that modulate retinol signaling using a cell-based qHTS assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanling; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Huang, Ruili; Reese, David H.; Xia, Menghang

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, the retinol (vitamin A) signaling pathway (RSP) controls the biosynthesis and catabolism of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), which regulates transcription of genes essential for embryonic development. Chemicals that interfere with the RSP to cause abnormal intracellular levels of atRA are potential developmental toxicants. To assess chemicals for the ability to interfere with retinol signaling, we have developed a cell-based RARE (Retinoic Acid Response Element) reporter gene assay to identify RSP disruptors. To validate this assay in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) platform, we screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) in both agonist and antagonist modes. The screens detected known RSP agonists, demonstrating assay reliability, and also identified novel RSP agonists including kenpaullone, niclosamide, PD98059 and SU4312, and RSP antagonists including Bay 11-7085, LY294002, 3,4-Methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene, and topoisomerase inhibitors (camptothecin, topotecan, amsacrine hydrochloride, and idarubicin). When evaluated in the P19 pluripotent cell, these compounds were found to affect the expression of the Hoxa1 gene that is essential for embryo body patterning. These results show that the RARE assay is an effective qHTS approach for screening large compound libraries to identify chemicals that have the potential to adversely affect embryonic development through interference with retinol signaling. PMID:26820057

  18. Consideration of sub-cooled LN2 circulation system for HTS power machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hirai, Hirokazu; Nara, N.; Nagasaka, T.; Hirokawa, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We consider a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The planned circulation system consists of a sub-cool heat exchanger (subcooler) and a circulation pump. The sub-cooler will be connected to a neon turbo- Brayton cycle refrigerator with a cooling power of 2 kW at 65 K. Sub-cooled LN will be delivered into the sub-cooler by the pump and cooled within it. Sub-cooled LN is adequate fluid for cooling HTS power equipment, because its dielectric strength is high and it supports a large critical current. However, a possibility of LN solidification in the sub-cooler is a considerable issue. The refrigerator will produce cold neon gas of about 60 K, which is lower than the nitrogen freezing temperature of 63 K. Therefore, we designed two-stage heat exchangers which are based on a plate-fin type and a tube-intube type. Process simulations of those heat exchangers indicate that sub-cooled LN is not frozen in either sub-cooler. The plate-fin type sub-cooler is consequently adopted for its reliability and compactness. Furthermore, we found that a cooling system with a Brayton refrigerator has the same total cooling efficiency as a cooling system with a Stirling refrigerator.

  19. Analysis of transient state in HTS tapes under ripple DC load current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepien, M.; Grzesik, B.

    2014-05-01

    The paper concerns the analysis of transient state (quench transition) in HTS tapes loaded with the current having DC component together with a ripple component. Two shapes of the ripple were taken into account: sinusoidal and triangular. Very often HTS tape connected to a power electronic current supply (i.e. superconducting coil for SMES) that delivers DC current with ripples and it needs to be examined under such conditions. Additionally, measurements of electrical (and thermal) parameters under such ripple excitation is useful to tape characterization in broad range of load currents. The results presented in the paper were obtained using test bench which contains programmable DC supply and National Instruments data acquisition system. Voltage drops and load currents were measured vs. time. Analysis of measured parameters as a function of the current was used to tape description with quench dynamics taken into account. Results of measurements were also used to comparison with the results of numerical modelling based on FEM. Presented provisional results show possibility to use results of measurements in transient state to prepare inverse models of superconductors and their detailed numerical modelling.

  20. Applied Hts Bulks and Wires to Rotating Machines for Marine Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Kimura, Y.; Tsuzuki, K.; Taguchi, R.; Shiliang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.

    2010-04-01

    High-temperature superconductors allow a compact and efficient way to provide high-torque density to rotating machines with excellent operation. A field pole, providing flux density of more than 1.5 T around the armature, was initially designed for an axial-gap type with the flux parallel to the rotor axis. Melt-growth Gd-123 bulks as well as Bi-2223 wire windings have been successfully assembled on the rotor disk. No iron core was used, though being an auxiliary flux control found in most HTS motors. Both bulk and wire types have realized a practical motor operation within a limited output range. For bulks, a 15 kW, 720 rpm, synchronous motor was designed and tested in the group of TUMSAT, Kitano Seiki and University of Fukui. A bulk field pole was cooled down by liquid nitrogen and was magnetized in the motor. To enhance the output power to more than 30 kW, we developed a thermosyphon system using condensed neon. Another field pole with HTS wire for large-scale marine propulsion is also discussed on a 100 kW, 230 rpm tested machine. A closed-cycle condensed neon associated with thermal insulation is also reported.

  1. Test of a 2 MVA medium voltage HTS fault current limiter module made of YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, H.-P.; Schmidt, W.; Wohlfart, M.; Neumueller, H.-W.; Otto, A.; Verebelyi, D.; Schoop, U.; Malozemoff, A. P.

    2008-02-01

    A fault current limiter module for medium voltage applications has been built and tested successfully. The module corresponds to one phase of a 3-phase limiter for the 13 kV-class distribution voltage level. The resistive type limiter consists of 15 bifilar coils wound from a total of 15 × 50 m of AMSC's 344S superconductors, a commercially available second generation YBCO tape stabilized by stainless steel laminates. The module has a rated current of 300 Arms and a rated voltage of 7.5 kV corresponding to a nominal apparent power of 2.25 MVA. The cryostat is equipped with commercial current feed-throughs and the module is operated in liquid nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. For long term operation as a closed system a commercial cryogenic refrigerator coldhead is installed. Power tests and dielectric tests of the module have been performed at the IPH Berlin (Institut "Prüffeld für elektrische Hochleistungstechnik") up to prospective currents of 28 kA. In standard power tests at voltages up to 7.8 kV and fault hold times of about 50 ms an excellent limiting performance was observed both at various prospective fault currents and at different fault starting phase angles. Within a second experimental series, an appropriate shunt reactor was connected in parallel to the limiter. The benefit of this method is that the limited current can be adjusted to the customers needs and the required amount of HTS-wire can be also appreciably reduced. The setup of the module and the test results are reported.

  2. PREFACE: 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium on the Fundamental and Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices and Technologies (RJUS TeraTech - 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Valeriy; Ryzhii, Viktor; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) Bauman Moscow State Technical University Moscow, Russia, 3-6 June, 2013 The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) was held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University on 3-6 June 2013 and was devoted to modern problems of terahertz optical technologies. RJUS TeraTech 2013 was organized by Bauman Moscow State Technical University in cooperation with Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) and University of Buffalo (The State University of New York, USA). The Symposium was supported by Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Moscow, Russia) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant number 13-08-06100-g). RJUS TeraTech - 2013 became a foundation for sharing and discussing modern and promising achievements in fundamental and applied problems of terahertz optical technologies, devices based on grapheme and grapheme strictures, condensed matter of different nature. Among participants of RJUS TeraTech - 2013, there were more than 100 researchers and students from different countries. This volume contains proceedings of the 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies'. Valeriy Karasik, Viktor Ryzhii and Stanislav Yurchenko Bauman Moscow State Technical University Symposium chair Anatoliy A Aleksandrov, Rector of BMSTU Symposium co-chair Valeriy E Karasik, Head of the Research and Educational Center 'PHOTONICS AND INFRARED TECHNOLOGY' (Russia) Invited Speakers Taiichi Otsuji, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Akira Satou, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Michael Shur, Electrical, Computer and System Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, USA Natasha

  3. Simulating a measurement of the 2nd knee in the cosmic ray spectrum with an atmospheric fluorescence telescope tower array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiali; Yang, Qunyu; Bai, Yunxiang; Cao, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    A fluorescence telescope tower array has been designed to measure cosmic rays in the energy range of 10(17)-10(18) eV. A full Monte Carlo simulation, including air shower production, light generation and propagation, detector response, electronics, and trigger system, has been developed for that purpose. Using such a simulation tool, the detector configuration, which includes one main tower array and two side-trigger arrays, 24 telescopes in total, has been optimized. The aperture and the event rate have been estimated. Furthermore, the performance of the X max technique in measuring composition has also been studied.

  4. Simulating a Measurement of the 2nd Knee in the Cosmic Ray Spectrum with an Atmospheric Fluorescence Telescope Tower Array

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiali; Yang, Qunyu; Bai, Yunxiang; Cao, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    A fluorescence telescope tower array has been designed to measure cosmic rays in the energy range of 1017–1018 eV. A full Monte Carlo simulation, including air shower production, light generation and propagation, detector response, electronics, and trigger system, has been developed for that purpose. Using such a simulation tool, the detector configuration, which includes one main tower array and two side-trigger arrays, 24 telescopes in total, has been optimized. The aperture and the event rate have been estimated. Furthermore, the performance of the Xmax⁡ technique in measuring composition has also been studied. PMID:24737964

  5. Second Annual Systems Engineering Lessons Learned Conference (2nd) Held in Seaside, California on September 20-21, 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Hybrid Architecture: Series – Primary Power Source: Diesel Engine – Secondary Power Source: Flywheel – Traction Motors : Permanent Magnet Motors 27...Renewable Fraction (%) Generator Electricity Production (kW) Solar Electricity Production (kW) Wind Electricity Production (kW) Battery...0.21 0.02 0.55 -0.20 -0.18 -0.20 -0.18 Gen Production -0.82 -0.19 0.35 -0.27 -0.11 -0.82 0.97 -0.82 -0.36 0.47 1.00 0.97 0.99 0.97 Tot. Electrical

  6. Report from the 2nd Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit of the Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease (D&CVD) EASD Study Group.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Oliver; Standl, Eberhard; Catrinoiu, Doina; Genovese, Stefano; Lalic, Nebojsa; Skra, Jan; Valensi, Paul; Rahelic, Dario; Ceriello, Antonio

    2017-03-11

    The 2nd Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit of the Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease (D&CVD) EASD Study Group was held on the 20th-21st October 2016 in Munich. This second Summit was organized in light of recently published CVOTs on diabetes, with the aim of serving as a reference meeting for discussion on this topic. Along with presentations on the results of the most recently published CVOTs, panel discussions on trial implications for reimbursement and the perspective of cardiologists and/or nephrologists, as well as on CVOTs weaknesses and potentials constituted the heart of the program. Future activities of the D&CVD EASD Study Group in 2017 include an annual meeting in Milano and the 3rd CVOT Summit on Diabetes of the D&CVD EASD Study Group, in Munich ( http://www.dcvd.org ).

  7. Phase transition in tungsten-bronze Li2Pb2Nd2W2Ti4Nb4O30 ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, B. N.; Das, Piyush R.; Padhee, R.; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2013-08-01

    The polycrystalline sample of Li2Pb2Nd2W2Ti4Nb4O30 was prepared by a solid-state reaction technique. Room temperature X-ray structural analysis confirms the formation of a single-phase compound. The morphology of the sintered sample recorded by scanning electron microscope exhibits a uniform grain distribution. Detailed studies of the nature of variation of dielectric constant, tangent loss, and polarization with temperature and frequency confirmed the existence of ferroelectricity in the material at room temperature. The temperature and frequency dependence of impedance parameters (impedance, modulus, etc.) of the material exhibits a strong correlation of its microstructure (i.e., bulk, grain boundary, etc.). Furthermore, the temperature dependence of DC conductivity shows a typical Arrhenius behavior of the material. The nature of variation of pyroelectric coefficient and current with temperature suggests that material has good pyroelectric properties useful for pyroelectric detector.

  8. Crystal structure of nonsuperconducting Pb 2(Sr 0.94Nd 0.06) 2(Nd 0.76Sr 0.24)Cu 3O 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayri, Eric A.; Kvick, Åke

    1990-01-01

    The crystal structure of Pb 2(Sr 0.94Nd 0.06) 2(Nd 0.76Sr 0.24)Cu 3O 8 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound was found to be orthorhombic ( Cmmm) with a = 5.437(3), b = 5.472(2), c = 15.797(7)Å and Z = 2. In the structure double layers of CuO square pyramids are separated by (Nd, Sr) oxygen deficient layers which are stacked between (PbO)Cu(PbO) slabs. The oxygen in the Pb planes is shifted toward a pair of Pb atoms resulting in an orthorhombic distortion of the tetragonal unit cell. The possibilities for modulations and superlattices are discussed as is the role of the PbO planes in superconductivity.

  9. Wound healing and soft tissue effects of CO2, contact Nd: YAG and combined CO2-Nd: YAG laser beams on rabbit trachea.

    PubMed

    Laranne, J; Lagerstedt, A; Pukander, J; Rantala, I

    1997-11-01

    Rabbit trachea was used as an experimental model to study tissue effects and healing of full-thickness tracheal lesions produced by CO2, contact Nd: YAG and combined, coaxial CO2-Nd: YAG (Combo) laser beams. Two power settings (10 W and 16 W) were used with CO2 and contact Nd: YAG lasers. Three different CO2/Nd:YAG power ratios (1:1, 1:2 and 1:4) and power settings (12 W 15 W and 16 W) were used with the Combolaser. Histological specimens for light and transmission electron microscopy were prepared immediately and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days postoperatively. The wound with the most precise and fastest healing was produced by contact Nd: YAG laser. CO2 laser produced a moderate amount of charring and the largest amount of coagulated tissue with a slightly prolonged healing period. In the acute phase, tissue defects produced by the Combolaser with power ratios 1:1 and 1:2 resembled the CO2 laser lesions but with slightly less charring. The power ratio 1:4 diminished the cutting properties of the beam considerably. During the healing period the Combolaser produced the most intensive inflammation and granulation tissue formation resulting in delayed regeneration of the lesion. In transmission electron micrographs the most severe damage to chondrocytes was seen after using the Combolaser. These findings indicate that the Combolaser produces deeper tissue damage than CO2 or contact Nd:YAG laser. However, the Combolaser appears to be suitable for tracheobronchial operations, owing to its good simultaneous cutting and haemostatic properties.

  10. The influence of Nd3+ in CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor fabricated by combustion synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiping; Yang, Yong; Li, Xingmin; Li, Xu; Liu, Chong; Feng, Jianwei

    2005-01-01

    Eu2+, Nd3+ co-doped calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4) phosphor with high brightness and long afterglow were fabricated by urea-nitrate solution combustion synthesis at 600°C. The phosphor powder of combustion synthesis were generally more homogeneous and had fewer impurity than phosphor fabricated by conventional solid-state methods, the character could conduce to obtain more exact data. The excitation and emission spectrum indicated that there waxs only one luminescence center Eu2+, both of the characteristic spectrums of Eu3+ and Nd3+ weren't discovered. As a secondary activator, Nd3+ could make remarkable influence on the afterglow of phosphor. From altering the moral ratio of Eu2+ and Nd3+, the lasting time of afterglow and thermoluminescence were studied respectively, when Nd3+ wasn't appended, the intensity of initial brightness could compared with other materials which had different ratio of Eu2+ and Nd3+, however the brightness of afterglow decayed rapidly, the lasting time and brightness of afterglow were improved with reduce the radio of Eu2+ and Nd3+, while the ratio achieved some value, the lasting time of afterglow become shorten with the reduce of ratio of Eu2+ and Nd3+. Moreover the depth of trap was calculated from the parameter of thermoluminescence. However, the emission spectrum and XRD patterns didn't change obviously with the altering ratio of Eu2+ and Nd3+. It showed that the little amount of doped rear earth ions (Eu2+ and Nd3+) had almost no effect on the CaAl2O4 phase composition. Based on these conclusions, the model of the luminescence process of CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Nd3+ was built.

  11. Analysis and experimental study of wireless power transfer with HTS coil and copper coil as the intermediate resonators system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiufang; Nie, Xinyi; Liang, Yilang; Lu, Falong; Yan, Zhongming; Wang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate resonator (repeater) between transmitter and receiver can significantly increase the distance of wireless power transfer (WPT) and the efficiency of wireless power transfer. The wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances with an high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil and copper coil as intermediate resonators was presented in this paper. The electromagnetic experiment system under different conditions with different repeating coils were simulated by finite element software. The spatial distribution patterns of magnetic induction intensity at different distances were plotted. In this paper, we examined transfer characteristics with HTS repeating coil and copper repeating coil at 77 K and 300 K, respectively. Simulation and experimental results show that HTS and copper repeating coil can effectively enhance the space magnetic induction intensity, which has significant effect on improving the transmission efficiency and lengthening transmission distance. We found that the efficiency and the distance of wireless power transfer system with an HTS coil as repeater is much higher by using of copper coil as repeater.

  12. Predictive 1-D thermal-hydraulic analysis of the prototype HTS current leads for the ITER correction coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, R.; Bauer, P.; Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.; Zappatore, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present an analysis of the prototype high-temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads (CLs) for the ITER correction coils, which will operate at 10 kA. A copper heat exchanger (HX) of the meander-flow type is included in the CL design and covers the temperature range between room temperature and 65 K, whereas the HTS module, where Bi-2223 stacked tapes are positioned on the outer surface of a stainless steel hollow cylindrical support, covers the temperature range between 65 K and 4.5 K. The HX is cooled by gaseous helium entering at 50 K, whereas the HTS module is cooled by conduction from the cold end of the CL. We use the CURLEAD code, developed some years ago and now supplemented by a new set of correlations for the helium friction factor and heat transfer coefficient in the HX, recently derived using Computational Fluid Dynamics. Our analysis is aimed first of all at a "blind" design-like prediction of the CL performance, for both steady state and pulsed operation. In particular, the helium mass flow rate needed to guarantee the target temperature at the HX-HTS interface, the temperature profile, and the pressure drop across the HX will be computed. The predictive capabilities of the CURLEAD model are then assessed by comparison of the simulation results with experimental data obtained in the test of the prototype correction coil CLs at ASIPP, whose results were considered only after the simulations were performed.

  13. Profiling Environmental Chemicals in the Antioxidant Response Element Pathway using Quantitative High Throughput Screening (qHTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway plays an important role in the amelioration of oxidative stress, which can contribute to a number of diseases, including cancer. We screened 1408 NTP-provided substances in 1536-well qHTS format at concentrations ranging fr...

  14. Computer-Generated Geometry Instruction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Helen W.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    This study hypothesized that increased intensity of graphic information, presented in computer-generated instruction, could be differentially beneficial for students with hyperactivity and inattention by improving their ability to sustain attention and hold information in-mind. To this purpose, 18 2nd-4th grade students, recruited from general…

  15. Evaluation of High-resolution Geomagnetic Field Observation System Using HTS-SQUID Magnetometer and its Application.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Y.; Okubo, K.; Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Tanabe, K.; Onishi, N.; Furukawa; Isogami, S.; Takeuchi, N.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic field changes associated with earthquakes have been investigated previously (1964 Stacey, 1994 Johnston et al.). Our research group also reported successful observation of "co-faulting" Earth's magnetic field changes due to piezomagnetic effects caused by earthquake rupturing in 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake of M7.2 (2011 Okubo et al.) using optoelectronic observation system with flux-gate magnetometers. This is an important finding; the electromagnetic fields originating from such sources satisfy the Maxwell equations and hence they propagate from the sources to the observation site at a speed of light in the crustal materials. Further efforts could lead us to a new system for super-early warning of destructive earthquakes with the magnetic measurements. On the other hand, the observed result in 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake was suggested that the geomagnetic variation signal accompanying fault movement, whose sources are the piezomagnetic effects, is very small; therefore development of a high-sensitive magnetometer system is very important. To solve this problem, we introduce long-term precise geomagnetic observations using high-temperature-superconductor based superconducting-quantum-interference-device (HTS-SQUID) magnetometer system. That is, our research group developed the HTS-SQUID magnetometer system for high-resolution observation of Earth's magnetic field. Since March 2012, we have observed the geomagnetic field using a HTS-SQUID magnetometer at Iwaki observation site (IWK) in Fukushima, Japan. The sampling interval of the magnetometer is 0.04 sec. The observation clock has been synchronized by use of GPS signals. An accelerometer is also installed at observation point. Additionally, in the next stage, we develop the HTS- SQUID magnetometer system Unit No.2 (mark II). In the present study, we show the results observed by our HTS-SQUID magnetometer system and make an evaluation of our geomagnetic field observation system.

  16. The HTS barcode checker pipeline, a tool for automated detection of illegally traded species from high-throughput sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mixtures of internationally traded organic substances can contain parts of species protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). These mixtures often raise the suspicion of border control and customs offices, which can lead to confiscation, for example in the case of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). High-throughput sequencing of DNA barcoding markers obtained from such samples provides insight into species constituents of mixtures, but manual cross-referencing of results against the CITES appendices is labor intensive. Matching DNA barcodes against NCBI GenBank using BLAST may yield misleading results both as false positives, due to incorrectly annotated sequences, and false negatives, due to spurious taxonomic re-assignment. Incongruence between the taxonomies of CITES and NCBI GenBank can result in erroneous estimates of illegal trade. Results The HTS barcode checker pipeline is an application for automated processing of sets of 'next generation’ barcode sequences to determine whether these contain DNA barcodes obtained from species listed on the CITES appendices. This analytical pipeline builds upon and extends existing open-source applications for BLAST matching against the NCBI GenBank reference database and for taxonomic name reconciliation. In a single operation, reads are converted into taxonomic identifications matched with names on the CITES appendices. By inclusion of a blacklist and additional names databases, the HTS barcode checker pipeline prevents false positives and resolves taxonomic heterogeneity. Conclusions The HTS barcode checker pipeline can detect and correctly identify DNA barcodes of CITES-protected species from reads obtained from TCM samples in just a few minutes. The pipeline facilitates and improves molecular monitoring of trade in endangered species, and can aid in safeguarding these species from extinction in the wild. The HTS barcode checker pipeline is

  17. Design and preliminary tests of a twin coil HTS SMES for pulse power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badel, Arnaud; Tixador, Pascal; Berger, Kevin; Deleglise, Marc

    2011-05-01

    The design of a twin coil 2 × 200 kJ-1 MW pulse power high temperature superconductor (HTS) superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) demonstrator is presented. Its aim is to test at small scale various possibilities of electromagnetic launcher powering. The foreseen operation modes include high voltage discharge in power capacitors, sequential discharges of identical energies from two coupled coils, and XRAM current multiplication. Special attention was paid to the arrangement of the coils for the energies discharged to be equal. The coils are cooled by conduction from three cryocoolers; the thermal design was optimized in order to maintain the coils around 15 K in spite of the high number of current leads required for XRAM operation (eight). Preliminary tests of the demonstrator are also presented, showing that the thermal and electrical characteristics are in very good agreement with the design objectives.

  18. DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shingo; Kasuya, Syohei; Mawardi Saari, Mohd; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Tanabe, Keiichi; Tsukada, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    Solar panels are expected to play a major role as a source of sustainable energy. In order to evaluate solar panels, non-destructive tests, such as defect inspections and response property evaluations, are necessary. We developed a DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a High Critical Temperature Superconductor Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with ramp edge type Josephson junctions. Two independent components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the panel surface (∂Bz/∂x, ∂Bz/∂y) were detected. The direct current of the solar panel is visualized by calculating the composition of the two signal components, the phase angle, and mapping the DC current vector. The developed system can evaluate the uniformity of DC current distributions precisely and may be applicable for defect detection of solar panels.

  19. Study on nondestructive inspection using HTS-SQUID for friction stir welding between dissimilar metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Yasui, T.; Tsubaki, M.; Fukumono, M.; Tanaka, S.

    2007-10-01

    We have developed an SQUID-NDI technique for evaluation of friction stir welding (FSW) between aluminum alloy A6063 and stainless steel SUS304 from the electric conductivities in board specimens bonded by FSW. A SQUID-NDI system employing an HTS-SQUID gradiometer was constructed to measure current distribution in the FSW specimens by applying voltage to the specimen. By measuring field gradients dBz/dy and dBz/dx above the FSW specimens made with various FSW conditions and then converting them to current vector Jx and Jy, conductivities of FSW areas were estimated. Due to the difference in the FSW conditions, the conductivity distributions varied dramatically. From these results, it was suggested that the conductivities in FSW areas should be varied due to the temperature heated by the friction between the milling tool and the materials.

  20. Bisubstrate fluorescent probes and biosensors in binding assays for HTS of protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uri, Asko; Lust, Marje; Vaasa, Angela; Lavogina, Darja; Viht, Kaido; Enkvist, Erki

    2010-03-01

    Conjugates of adenosine mimics and d-arginine-rich peptides (ARCs) are potent inhibitors of protein kinases (PKs) from the AGC group. Labeling ARCs with fluorescent dyes or immobilizing on chip surfaces gives fluorescent probes (ARC-Photo) and biosensors that can be used for high-throughput screening (HTS) of inhibitors of protein kinases. The bisubstrate character (simultaneous association with both binding sites of the kinase) and high affinity of ARCs allow ARC-based probes and sensors to be used for characterization of inhibitors targeted to either binding site of the kinase with affinities in whole nanomolar to micromolar range. The ability to penetrate cell plasma membrane and bind to the target kinase fused with a fluorescent protein leads to the possibility to use ARC-Photo probes for high content screening (HCS) of inhibitors in cellular milieu with detection of intensity of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two fluorophores.

  1. Current Bypassing Properties by Thermal Switch for PCS Application on NMR/MRI HTS Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Takahashi, M.; Saito, R.; Park, Y. J.; Lee, M. W.; Oh, Y. K.; Ann, H. S.

    We develop the compact NMR/MRI device using high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with the persistent current mode operating. So, the joint techniques between 2G wires are very important issue and many studies have been carried out. Recently, the Kbigdot JOINS, Inc. has developed successfully the high performance superconducting joints between 2G wires by partial melting diffusion and oxygenation annealing process [1]. In this study, the current bypassing properties in a loop-shaped 2G wire are measured experimentally to develop the permanent current switch (PSC). The current bypassing properties of loop-shaped test coil wound with 2G wire (GdBCO) are evaluated by measured the self-magnetic field due to bypassed current by Hall sensors. The strain gauge was used as heater for persistent current switch, and thermal properties against various thermal inputs were investigated experimentally.

  2. Influence of current ramp rate on voltage current measurement of a conduction-cooled HTS magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, I.; Korpela, A.; Lehtonen, J.; Mikkonen, R.

    2008-06-01

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS) have notably different voltage current characteristic compared to the low-temperature superconductors (LTS). Due to the anisotropy and slanted electric field - current density characteristics the loss of stability in a Bi-2223/Ag magnet is viewed as a global temperature increase inside the coil rather than a local normal zone. Therefore, the quench current depends strongly on the cooling conditions. In this paper a finite element method based analysis method is presented and example runs are carried out in order to explain in detail the influence of the current ramp rate and cooling on the voltage current characteristics of a conduction-cooled Bi-2223/Ag coil at 20 and 45 K. The results show that in certain operation conditions the coil critical current has a maximum value with respect to the ramp rate used in the measurements.

  3. Microgravimetric and magnetometric three-dimensional analysis in the 2nd section of the Bosque de Chapultepec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo-Zenil, D.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, J.; García-Serrano, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Bosque de Chapultepec is the most important recreational area in Mexico City. In the early 20th century construction material in this region was exploited illegally generating a clandestine system of mines without any registration or census. Later in the early 50's it was planned the creation of a park in the area, nonetheless many mines were blocked by debris or vegetation and only a few mines were filled to build the infrastructure of the park. In June 2006, the collapse of the foundation slab of the Lago Mayor emptied 5000 cubic meters of water, which made clear the need of near surface geophysics studies to locate instabilities due to underground cavities. This work describes the progress of microgravimetry and magnetometry studies located in a forest region where the collapse of a mine entrance occurred. This mine has 4 known branches, but the full extent or if these branches are connected to the entrance of another filled mine located approximately to 100 meters is unknown. The results of this work, in correlation with the geological model and preliminary results of seismic and electrical methods, show lateral variations that may be associated with cavities and possible structural faults, which represent hazards to the Bosque de Chapultepec.

  4. Development and testing of a 2.5 kW synchronous generator with a high temperature superconducting stator and permanent magnet rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Timing; Song, Peng; Yu, Xiaoyu; Gu, Chen; Li, Longnian; Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Dewen; Hu, Boping; Chen, Duxing; Zeng, Pan; Han, Zhenghe

    2014-04-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) armature windings have the potential for increasing the electric loading of a synchronous generator due to their high current transport capacity, which could increase the power density of an HTS rotating machine. In this work, a novel synchronous generator prototype with an HTS stator and permanent magnet rotor has been developed. It has a basic structure of four poles and six slots. The armature winding was constructed from six double-pancake race-track coils with 44 turns each. It was designed to deliver 2.5 kW at 300 rpm. A concentrated winding configuration was proposed, to prevent interference at the ends of adjacent HTS coils. The HTS stator was pressure mounted into a hollow Dewar cooled with liquid nitrogen. The whole stator could be cooled down to around 82 K by conduction cooling. In the preliminary testing, the machine worked properly and could deliver 1.8 kW power when the armature current was 14.4 A. Ic for the HTS coils was found to be suppressed due to the influence of the temperature and the leakage field.

  5. Development of an HTS assay for Na+, K+-ATPase using nonradioactive rubidium ion uptake.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sikander; Gill, Rajwant; Wicks, David; Despotovski, Sasko; Liang, Dong

    2004-10-01

    A high-throughput screening (HTS) assay was developed for the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase channel in order to study rubidium uptake as a measure of the functional activity and modulation of this exchanger. The assay uses elemental rubidium as a tracer for K(+) ions. Three cell lines were used to study the exchanger, and the assay was performed in a 96-well microtiter plate format. Rb(+) uptake was carried by the CHO-K1 cells at 37 degrees C; the maximum ion influx was at 80 min of incubation of the cell line in the medium containing 5.4 mM RbCl. The cells were incubated in Rb(+) uptake buffer (5.4 mM) and with the pump blocker ouabain for 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively. A complete block of the Rb(+) uptake was observed with a 5 mM concentration of ouabain for all the three time intervals. The ouabain 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value for CHO-K1 cell line ATPase was observed to be 298 microM after 3 h of incubation. In addition, IC(50) values of 94 and 89 microM were observed at 30 min of incubation, indicating that the protocol shows reproducible results. A Z' factor higher than 0.7 was observed in the assays. These studies extend the profile of Na(+),K(+)-ATPases and demonstrate the feasibility of this HTS assay system to screen for compounds that pharmacologically modulate the function of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase.

  6. Extraction-Separation Performance and Dynamic Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with Adams Simulation: 2nd Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Anderson, Keith; Varela, Jose G.; Bernatovich, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project has advanced into the third generation of its parachute test campaign and requires technically comprehensive modeling capabilities to simulate multi-body dynamics (MBD) of test articles released from a C-17. Safely extracting a 30,000 lbm mated test article from a C-17 and performing stable mid-air separation maneuvers requires an understanding of the interaction between elements in the test configuration and how they are influenced by extraction parachute performance, aircraft dynamics, aerodynamics, separation dynamics, and kinetic energy experienced by the system. During the real-time extraction and deployment sequences, these influences can be highly unsteady and difficult to bound. An avionics logic window based on time, pitch, and pitch rate is used to account for these effects and target a favorable separation state in real time. The Adams simulation has been employed to fine-tune this window, as well as predict and reconstruct the coupled dynamics of the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV) and Cradle Platform Separation System (CPSS) from aircraft extraction through the mid-air separation event. The test-technique for the extraction of CPAS test articles has evolved with increased complexity and requires new modeling concepts to ensure the test article is delivered to a stable test condition for the programmer phase. Prompted by unexpected dynamics and hardware malfunctions in drop tests, these modeling improvements provide a more accurate loads prediction by incorporating a spring-damper line-model derived from the material properties. The qualification phase of CPAS testing is on the horizon and modeling increasingly complex test-techniques with Adams is vital to successfully qualify the Orion parachute system for human spaceflight.

  7. An overview of second generation biofuel technologies.

    PubMed

    Sims, Ralph E H; Mabee, Warren; Saddler, Jack N; Taylor, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The recently identified limitations of 1st-generation biofuels produced from food crops (with perhaps the exception of sugarcane ethanol) have caused greater emphasis to be placed on 2nd-generation biofuels produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks. Although significant progress continues to be made to overcome the technical and economic challenges, 2nd-generation biofuels production will continue to face major constraints to full commercial deployment. The logistics of providing a competitive, all-year-round, supply of biomass feedstock to a commercial-scale plant is challenging, as is improving the performance of the conversion process to reduce costs. The biochemical route, being less mature, probably has a greater cost reduction potential than the thermo-chemical route, but here a wider range of synthetic fuels can be produced to better suit heavy truck, aviation and marine applications. Continued investment in research and demonstration by both public and private sectors, coupled with appropriate policy support mechanisms, are essential if full commercialisation is to be achieved within the next decade. After that, the biofuel industry will grow only at a steady rate and encompass both 1st- and 2nd-generation technologies that meet agreed environmental, sustainability and economic policy goals.

  8. The Safety of Artemisinin Derivatives for the Treatment of Malaria in the 2nd or 3rd Trimester of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, Anna Maria; Sevene, Esperanca; Dellicour, Stephanie; Weiss, Noel S.; Emerson, Scott; Steketee, Richard; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Stergachis, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Given the high morbidity for mother and fetus associated with malaria in pregnancy, safe and efficacious drugs are needed for treatment. Artemisinin derivatives are the most effective antimalarials, but are associated with teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in animal models when used in early pregnancy. However, several organ systems are still under development later in pregnancy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women treated with artemisinins monotherapy or as artemisinin-based combination therapy during the 2nd or 3rd trimesters relative to pregnant women who received non-artemisinin antimalarials or none at all. Pooled odds ratio (POR) were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model with a 0.5 continuity correction for zero events. Eligible studies were identified through Medline, Embase, and the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium Library. Twenty studies (11 cohort studies and 9 randomized controlled trials) contributed to the analysis, with 3,707 women receiving an artemisinin, 1,951 a non-artemisinin antimalarial, and 13,714 no antimalarial. The PORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for stillbirth, fetal loss, and congenital anomalies when comparing artemisinin versus quinine were 0.49 (95% CI 0.24–0.97, I2 = 0%, 3 studies); 0.58 (95% CI 0.31–1.16, I2 = 0%, 6 studies); and 1.00 (95% CI 0.27–3.75, I2 = 0%, 3 studies), respectively. The PORs comparing artemisinin users to pregnant women who received no antimalarial were 1.13 (95% CI 0.77–1.66, I2 = 86.7%, 3 studies); 1.10 (95% CI 0.79–1.54, I2 = 0%, 4 studies); and 0.79 (95% CI 0.37–1.67, I2 = 0%, 3 studies) for miscarriage, stillbirth and congenital anomalies respectively. Treatment with artemisinin in 2nd and 3rd trimester was not associated with increased risks of congenital malformations or miscarriage and may be was associated with a reduced risk of stillbirths compared to quinine. This study updates the reviews

  9. The Futures of Adult Educator(s): Agency, Identity and Ethos. Joint Conference Proceedings of the 2nd ESREA/ReNAdET Meeting and the 4th TQF Seminar (Tallinn, Estonia, November 9-11, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Jogi, Larissa, Ed.; Jutte, Wolfgang, Ed.; Zarifis, Georgios K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume contains the papers presented in the 2nd ESREA|ReNAdet meeting that was jointly organised with the VET & CULTURE Network in the University of Tallinn (Estonia), 9-11 November 2011. The papers that appear in the volume discuss the future (or the futures) of adult educators in respect to issues of developing their identities…

  10. Hts1 Encodes Both the Cytoplasmic and Mitochondrial Histidyl-Trna Synthetase of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: Mutations Alter the Specificity of Compartmentation

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, M. I.; Mason, T. L.; Fink, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical evidence shows that a single nuclear gene HTS1 encodes both the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic histidyl-tRNA synthetases (Hts). The gene specifies two messages, one with two in-frame ATGs (-60 and +1) and another with only the downstream ATG (+1). We have made a new set of mutations that enables us to express only the mitochondrial or the cytoplasmic form and compared the subcellular distribution of the Hts1 protein in these mutants and wild type, using an antibody that interacts with both the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic Hts1 as well as Hts1::LacZ fusions. Mutations in the upstream ATG (-60) or frameshift mutations in the presequence affect only the mitochondrial enzyme and not the cytoplasmic enzyme. Mutations in the downstream ATG (+1 ATG to ATC) destroy the function of the cytosolic enzyme, but do not affect the function of the mitochondrial enzyme. Overexpression of this construct restores cytoplasmic function. Cells expressing a truncated form of Hts containing a deletion of the first 20 amino-terminal residues (Htsc) produce a functional cytoplasmic enzyme, which does not provide mitochondrial function. Overexpression of this truncated cytoplasmic protein provides mitochondrial function and produces detectable levels of the synthetase in the mitochondrion. These experiments suggest that Hts1 contains two domains that together allow efficient localization of Htsm to the mitochondrion: an amino-terminal presequence in the mitochondrial precursor that is likely cleaved upon delivery to the mitochondrion and a second amino-terminal sequence (residues 21-53) present in both the precursor and the cytoplasmic form. Neither one by itself is sufficient to act as an efficient mitochondrial targeting signal. Using our antibody we have been able to detect a protein of increased molecular mass that corresponds to that of the predicted precursor. Taken together these studies show that the specificity of compartmentation of the Hts protein depends

  11. Stable isotope and trace element studies on gladiators and contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD)--mplications for differences in diet.

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts.

  12. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  13. Bone fractures as indicators of intentional violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique to the late medieval period (2nd-16th century AD).

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Novak, Mario; Bedić, Zeljka; Strinović, Davor

    2012-09-01

    To test the historically documented hypothesis of a general increase in deliberate violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique (AN; 2nd-6th c.) through the early medieval (EM; 7th-11th c.) to the late-medieval period (LM; 12th-16th c.), an analysis of the frequency and patterning of bone trauma was conducted in three skeletal series from these time periods. A total of 1,125 adult skeletons-346 from the AN, 313 from the EM, and 466 from the LM series-were analyzed. To differentiate between intentional violence and accidental injuries, data for trauma frequencies were collected for the complete skeleton, individual long bones, and the craniofacial region as well as by type of injury (perimortem vs. antemortem). The results of our analyses show a significant temporal increase in total fracture frequencies when calculated by skeleton as well as of individuals exhibiting one skeletal indicator of deliberate violence (sharp force lesions, craniofacial injuries, "parry" fractures, or perimortem trauma). No significant temporal increases were, however, noted in the frequencies of craniofacial trauma, "parry" fractures, perimortem injuries, or of individuals exhibiting multiple skeletal indicators of intentional violence. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the temporal increase in total fracture frequencies recorded in the eastern Adriatic was caused by a combination of factors that included not only an increase of intentional violence but also a significant change in lifestyle that accompanied the transition from a relatively affluent AN urban lifestyle to a more primitive rural medieval way of life.

  14. Development and Validation of Big Four Personality Scales for the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2nd Edition (SNAP-2)

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, William R.; Rudick, Monica M.; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently, integrative, hierarchical models of personality and personality disorder (PD)—such as the Big Three, Big Four and Big Five trait models—have gained support as a unifying dimensional framework for describing PD. However, no measures to date can simultaneously represent each of these potentially interesting levels of the personality hierarchy. To unify these measurement models psychometrically, we sought to develop Big Five trait scales within the Schedule for Adaptive and Nonadaptive Personality–2nd Edition (SNAP-2). Through structural and content analyses, we examined relations between the SNAP-2, Big Five Inventory (BFI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) ratings in a large data set (N = 8,690), including clinical, military, college, and community participants. Results yielded scales consistent with the Big Four model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Introversion, and Antagonism) and not the Big Five as there were insufficient items related to Openness. Resulting scale scores demonstrated strong internal consistency and temporal stability. Structural and external validity was supported by strong convergent and discriminant validity patterns between Big Four scale scores and other personality trait scores and expectable patterns of self-peer agreement. Descriptive statistics and community-based norms are provided. The SNAP-2 Big Four Scales enable researchers and clinicians to assess personality at multiple levels of the trait hierarchy and facilitate comparisons among competing “Big Trait” models. PMID:22250598

  15. The photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of novel green long-lasting phosphorescence materials Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+,Nd3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Q.; Ding, W.; Su, Q.

    2007-04-01

    The novel green long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) material Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+,Nd3+ was systematically investigated by means of photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission, a thermal quenching process, long-lasting phosphorescent emission, decay curves, chromaticity and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra. It is clearly observed that there exist two distinguishable Eu sites, EuI for 426-nm and EuII for 504-nm emissions, but only the green LLP appears at the EuII site. The emissions for both PL and LLP are due to the 5d→4f transitions. The green phosphorescence with the chromaticity coordination x=0.196, y=0.506 can still be observed in the dark for no less than 5 h by the naked eye. The results of TL show that Nd3+ ions induce the predominating band at 335 K, associated with the charge-trapping centers that are responsible for the appearance of intense green phosphorescence.

  16. A low-pass differentiation filter based on the 2nd-order B-spline wavelet for calculating augmentation index.

    PubMed

    He, Zijun; Zhang, Yongliang; Ma, Zuchang; Hu, Fusong; Sun, Yining

    2014-06-01

    The key point to calculate augmentation index (AIx) related to cardiovascular diseases is the precise identification of the shoulder point. The commonly used method for extracting the shoulder point is to calculate the fourth derivative of the pulse waveform by numerical differentiation. However, this method has a poor anti-noise capability and is computationally intensive. The aims of this study were to develop a new method based on the 2nd-order B-spline wavelet for calculating AIx, and to compare it with numerical differentiation and Savitzky-Golay digital differentiator (SGDD). All the three methods were applied to pulse waveforms derived from 60 healthy subjects. There was a significantly high correlation between the proposed method and numerical differentiation (r=0.998 for carotid pulses, and r=0.997 for radial pulses), as well as between the proposed method and the SGDD (r=0.995 for carotid pulses, and r=0.993 for radial pulses). In addition, the anti-noise capability of the proposed method was evaluated by adding simulated noise (>10Hz) on pulse waveforms. The results showed that the proposed method was advantageous in noise tolerance than the other two methods. These findings indicate that the proposed method can quickly and accurately calculate AIx with a good anti-noise capability.

  17. Report on 2nd Royan Institute International Summer School on developmental biology and stem cells Tehran, Iran, 17-22nd July 2011.

    PubMed

    Newgreen, Donald; Grounds, Miranda; Jesuthasan, Suresh; Rashidi, Hassan; Familari, Mary

    2012-03-01

    The 2nd Royan Institute International Summer School was built around the topic of stem cells and grounding in the discipline of developmental biology. The meeting provided not only direct transfer of technical and intellectual information, the normal process in scientific meetings, but was also a forum for the exchange of personal ideas of science as a creative pursuit. This summer school introduced aspiring young Iranian scientists to international researchers and exposed the latter to a rich culture that highly values learning and education, attested by the confident, intelligent young men and women who asked probing questions and who were eager to participate in the workshops. Hossein Baharvand's dedication and passion for science have led to an impressive record of national and international peer-reviewed publications and an increasing number of students who pursue science in Iran, and shows how the right people can create an environment where good science, good science education and motivation will flourish. This report summarizes some of the activities of the workshop in the Royan Institute and the impressions of the visiting scientists in the wider context of the scientific and cultural heritage of Iran.

  18. Report on the 2nd International Consortium on Hallucination Research: Evolving Directions and Top-10 “Hot Spots” in Hallucination Research

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a report on the 2nd meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research, held on September 12th and 13th 2013 at Durham University, UK. Twelve working groups involving specialists in each area presented their findings and sought to summarize the available knowledge, inconsistencies in the field, and ways to progress. The 12 working groups reported on the following domains of investigation: cortical organisation of hallucinations, nonclinical hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to phenomenology, culture and hallucinations, subtypes of auditory verbal hallucinations, a Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale multisite study, visual hallucinations in the psychosis spectrum, hallucinations in children and adolescents, Research Domain Criteria behavioral constructs and hallucinations, new methods of assessment, psychological therapies, and the Hearing Voices Movement approach to understanding and working with voices. This report presents a summary of this meeting and outlines 10 hot spots for hallucination research, which include the in-depth examination of (1) the social determinants of hallucinations, (2) translation of basic neuroscience into targeted therapies, (3) different modalities of hallucination, (4) domain convergence in cross-diagnostic studies, (5) improved methods for assessing hallucinations in nonclinical samples, (6) using humanities and social science methodologies to recontextualize hallucinatory experiences, (7) developmental approaches to better understand hallucinations, (8) changing the memory or meaning of past trauma to help recovery, (9) hallucinations in the context of sleep and sleep disorders, and (10) subtypes of hallucinations in a therapeutic context. PMID:24282321

  19. Results of on-line tests of the ENABLE prototype, a 2nd level trigger processor for the TRT of ATLAS/LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Noffz, K.H.; Kugel, A.; Klefenz, F.; Zoz, R.; Maenner, R.

    1994-12-31

    The Enable Machine is a systolic 2nd level trigger processor for the transition radiation tracker (TRT) of ATLAS/LHC. The task of the processor is to find the best candidate for a lepton track in a high background of pions according to the EAST benchmark algorithm in less than 10 {mu}s. As described earlier, this is done in three steps. First all interesting tracks are histogrammed by accumulating for each track the coincidences between the track mask and the region-of-interest (RoI). Next the best defined track is identified. Eventually this track is classified as e or {pi}. A prototype has been developed and tested within the EAST/RD-11 collaboration at CERN. It operates at 50 MHz and finds up to 400 tracks in less than 10 {mu}s. It is assembled of an interface board and one or more histogrammer boards. The modular design makes the Enable Machine easily scalable. The histogrammer units are systolic arrays consisting of a matrix of 36 field programmable gate arrays. Through this it is possible to optimize the trigger algorithm, to adapt it to a changed detector setup, and even to implement completely new algorithms. For the beam tests in autumn 1993 at CERN the overall functionality within the detector environment could be shown. The authors were able to link successfully the Enable prototype to the detector raw data stream as well as to the data acquisition.

  20. The effect of magnetic field annealing on the texture of 2nd recrystallization for a deformed Fe-3.2% Si steel sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byung Geol; Part, Su Dong; Kim, Shang Shu

    2004-12-01

    The effects of deformation on 2nd recrystallization behavior with or without magnetic field for a 1st recrystallized electrical steel sheet have been investigated. Annealing temperatures (800, 1000 °C) and cold-rolling rates (50, 70 %) were experimental parameters. A magnetic field of 5 T using a superconducting magnet at a heating rate of 15 °C/min was applied in a direction parallel to the rolling direction. The intensity of α-fiber was increased due to the deformation and, in particular, the formation of {100}<110> component was tremendous. Considerable formation of {001}<100> component was also found. At 800 °C, α-fiber was developed rapidly due to deformation, and η-fiber was also formed in the components {100}<100> and {110}<100> The effect of magnetic field annealing was more significant at 800 °C, while the effect at 1000 °C was negligible. These results are discussed in a phenomenological context considering the atomic fluctuation and magnetic induction depending on annealing temperature and magnetic field.