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Sample records for 2nd generation vlt

  1. VLT interferometer upgrade for the 2nd generation of interferometric instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonté, Frederic; Woillez, Julien; Schuhler, Nicolas; Egner, Sebastian; Merand, Antoine; Abad, José Antonio; Abadie, Sergio; Abuter, Roberto; Acuña, Margarita; Allouche, Fatmé; Alonso, Jaime; Andolfalto, Luigi; Antonelli, Pierre; Avila, Gerardo; Barriga, Pablo José; Beltran, Juan; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bolados, Carlos; Bonnet, Henri; Bourget, Pierre; Brast, Roland; Bristow, Paul; Caniguante, Luis; Castillo, Roberto; Conzelmann, Ralf; Cortes, Angela; Delplancke, Françoise; Del Valle, Diego; Derie, Frederic; Diaz, Alvaro; Donoso, Reinaldo; Dorn, Reinhold; Duhoux, Philippe; Dupuy, Christophe; Eisenhauer, Frank; Elao, Christian; Fuenteseca, Eloy; Fernandez, Ruben; Gaytan, Daniel; Glindemann, Andreas; Gonzales, Jaime; Guieu, Sylvain; Guisard, Stephane; Haguenauer, Pierre; Haimerl, Andreas; Heinz, Volker; Henriquez, Juan Pablo; van der Heyden, P.; Hubin, Norbert; Huerta, Rodrigo; Jochum, Lieselotte; Leiva, Alfredo; Lévêque, Samuel; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Luco, Fernando; Mardones, Pedro; Mellado, Angel; Osorio, Juan; Ott, Jürgen; Pallanca, Laurent; Pavez, Marcus; Pasquini, Luca; Percheron, Isabelle; Pirard, Jean-Francois; Than Phan, Duc; Pineda, Juan Carlos; Pino, Andres; Poupar, Sebastien; Ramírez, Andres; Reinero, Claudio; Riquelme, Miguel; Romero, Juan; Rivinius, Thomas; Rojas, Chester; Rozas, Felix; Salgado, Fernando; Scheithauer, Silvia; Schmid, Christian; Schöller, Markus; Siclari, Waldo; Stephan, Christian; Tamblay, Richard; Tapia, Mario; Tristram, Konrad; Valdes, Guillermo; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Wright, Andrew; Zins, Gerard

    2016-08-01

    ESO is undertaking a large upgrade of the infrastructure on Cerro Paranal in order to integrate the 2nd generation of interferometric instruments Gravity and MATISSE, and increase its performance. This upgrade started mid 2014 with the construction of a service station for the Auxiliary Telescopes and will end with the implementation of the adaptive optics system for the Auxiliary telescope (NAOMI) in 2018. This upgrade has an impact on the infrastructure of the VLTI, as well as its sub-systems and scientific instruments.

  2. 2nd Generation ELT Performance Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimson, Chad M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Search And Rescue is supporting RTCA SC-229 with research and recommendations for performance specifications for the 2nd generation of emergency locator transmitters. Areas for improvement and methods for collecting data will be presented.

  3. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  4. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Definition Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert M.; Stucker, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Mid-Term Report summarizes the status of Kelly Space & Technology's activities during the first two and one half months of the program. This report was presented to the cognoscente Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) and selected Marshall Space Flight Center staff members on 26 September 2000. The report has been approved and is distributed on CD-ROM (as a PowerPoint file) in accordance with the terms of the subject contract, and contains information and data addressing the following: (1) Launch services demand and requirements; (2) Architecture, alternatives, and requirements; (3) Costs, pricing, and business cases analysis; (4) Commercial financing requirements, plans, and strategy; (5) System engineering processes and derived requirements; and (6) RLV system trade studies and design analysis.

  5. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle NASA Led Propulsion Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Design, development and test of a 2nd generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is presented. This current paper discusses the following: 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project, Overview of NASA Led Tasks in Propulsion, Gen2 Turbo Machinery Technology Demonstrator, and Combustion Devices Test Bed, GRCop-84 Sheet For Combustion Chambers, Nozzles and Large Actively Cooled Structures

  6. 2nd Generation RLV: Program Goals and Acquisition Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. Bart; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The risk to loss of life for Space Shuttle crewmembers is approximately one in 245 missions. U.S. launch service providers captured nearly 100%, of the commercial launch market revenues in the mid 1980s. Today, the U.S. captures less than 50% of that market. A launch system architecture is needed that will dramatically increase the safety of space flight while significantly reducing the cost. NASA's Space Launch Initiative, which is implemented by the 2nd Generation RLV Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center, seeks to develop technology and reusable launch vehicle concepts which satisfy the commercial launch market needs and the unique needs of NASA. Presented in this paper are the five primary elements of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan along with the highest level goals and the acquisition strategy of the 2nd Generation RLV Program. Approval of the Space Launch Initiative FY01 budget of $290M is seen as a major commitment by the Agency and the Nation to realize the commercial potential that space offers and to move forward in the exploration of space.

  7. Refraction data survey: 2nd generation correlation of myopia.

    PubMed

    Greene, Peter R; Medina, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    The objective herein is to provide refraction data, myopia progression rate, prevalence, and 1st and 2nd generation correlations, relevant to whether myopia is random or inherited. First- and second-generation ocular refraction data are assembled from N = 34 families, average of 2.8 children per family. From this group, data are available from N = 165 subjects. Inter-generation regressions are performed on all the data sets, including correlation coefficient r, and myopia prevalence [%]. Prevalence of myopia is [M] = 38.5 %. Prevalence of high myopes with |R| >6 D is [M-] = 20.5 %. Average refraction is  = -1.84 D ± 3.22 (N = 165). For the high myopes, |R| >6 D, prevalence for the parents is [M-] = 25 %, for the 2nd generation [M-] = 16.5 %. Average myopia level for the high myopes, both generations, is  = -7.52 D ± 1.31 D (N = 33). Regression parameters are calculated for all the data sets, yielding correlation coefficients in the range r = 0.48-0.72 for some groups of myopes and high myopes, fathers to daughters, and mothers to sons. Also of interest, some categories show essentially no correlation, -0.20 < r < 0.20, indicating that the refractive errors occur randomly. Time series results show myopia diopter rates = -0.50 D/year.

  8. The 2nd generation VLTI path to performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woillez, Julien; Alonso, Jaime; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bonnet, Henri; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Egner, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Gonté, Frédéric; Guieu, Sylvain; Haguenauer, Pierre; Mérand, Antoine; Pettazzi, Lorenzo; Poupar, Sébastien; Schöller, Markus; Schuhler, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The upgrade of the VLTI infrastructure for the 2nd generation instruments is now complete with the transformation of the laboratory, and installation of star separators on both the 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) and the 8-m Unit Telescopes (UTs). The Gravity fringe tracker has had a full semester of commissioning on the ATs, and a first look at the UTs. The CIAO infrared wavefront sensor is about to demonstrate its performance relative to the visible wavefront sensor MACAO. First astrometric measurements on the ATs and astrometric qualification of the UTs are on-going. Now is a good time to revisit the performance roadmap for VLTI that was initiated in 2014, which aimed at coherently driving the developments of the interferometer, and especially its performance, in support to the new generation of instruments: Gravity and MATISSE.

  9. Philips' 2nd generation Novallure LED candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Pei, Zhigang; Yuan, Chuan; Jiang, Tan; Lu, Zhengsong; Wang, Yuqian; Duan, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Yan; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Ye

    2010-08-01

    Finding an energy efficient replacement of incandescent candle lamp has been a technical challenge. Compact fluorescent lamps, for example, can be miniaturized to fit the form factor of a candle lamp but they fail to reproduce its "sparkle" effect. Empowered by solid state lighting technology along with original optical design, Philips has successfully developed LED-powered candle lamps "Novallure" with great energy savings (2W power consumption with lumen output of 55 lumen) and the "butterfly" radiation pattern that mimics the sparkle effect from an incandescent candle lamp. With new high performance LED packages, novel under-cut prismatic optics and state-of-the-art electronic driver solution and thermal solution, we have developed a 2nd generation Novallure with breakthrough performance: a dimmable 2700K 136 lumen LED candle lamp with CRI 90.

  10. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  11. Aging Studies of 2nd Generation BaBar RPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    The BaBar detector, operating at the PEPII B factory of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), installed over 200 2nd generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in 2002. The streamer rates produced by backgrounds and signals from normal BaBar running vary considerably (0.1- >20 Hz/cm2) depending on the layer and position of the chambers, thus providing a broad spectrum test of RPC performance and aging. The lowest rate chambers have performed very well with stable efficiencies averaging 95%. Other chambers had rate-dependant inefficiencies due to Bakelite drying which were reversed by the introduction of humidified gases. RPC inefficiencies in the highest rate regions of the higher rate chambers have been observed and also found to be rate dependant. The inefficient regions grow with time and have not yet been reduced by operation with humidified input gas. Three of these chambers were converted to avalanche mode operation and display significantly improved efficiencies. The rate of production of HF in the RPC exhaust gases was measured in avalanche and streamer mode RPCs and found to be comparable despite the lower current of the avalanche mode RPCs.

  12. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  13. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  14. Production and verification of a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jilun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Si, Fei; Jiang, Xiufeng; Liu, Haijin

    2016-01-01

    Clonal fishes are useful tools in biology and aquaculture studies due to their isogenicity. In Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), a group of homozygous clones was created by inducing meiogynogenesis in eggs from a mitogynogenetic homozygous diploid. As the clones reached sexual maturity, meiogynogenesis was again induced in order to produce a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder. After 3 months, there were 611 healthy, surviving individuals. Twenty-four microsatellite markers, that covered all the linkage groups of Japanese flounder, were used to identify the homozygosity of the 2nd generation clones; no heterozygous locus was detected. This indicates that the production of a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder was successful. Restriction-site DNA associated sequencing at the genomic level also confirmed the homozygosity and clonality of the 2nd generation clonal group. Furthermore, these 2nd generation clones had a small coefficient of variation for body shape indices at 210 days of age and showed a high degree of similarity in body characteristics among individuals. The successful production of 2nd generation clones has laid the foundation for the large-scale production of clonal Japanese flounder. PMID:27767055

  15. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Potential Commercial Development Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Rogacki, John R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The presentation will discuss potential commercial development scenarios for a Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle. The analysis of potential scenarios will include commercial rates of return, government return on investment, and market considerations. The presentation will include policy considerations in addition to analysis of Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle economics. The data discussed is being developed as a part of NASA's Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program, for consideration as potential scenarios for enabling a next generation system. Material will include potential scenarios not previously considered by NASA or presented at other conferences. Candidate paper has not been presented at a previous meeting, and conference attendance of the author has been approved by NASA.

  16. Support to 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    In this final report regarding support to the second generation RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) propulsion project office, a list of tasks accomplished is presented. During this period, Lee & Associates, LLC participated in numerous Systems Requirements Reviews (SRR) related to the Cobra development program.

  17. Characterization and calibration of 2nd generation slope measuring profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, Frank; Buchheim, Jana; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    High spectral resolution and nanometer sized foci of 3rd generation SR beamlines can only be achieved by means of ultra precise optical elements. The improved brilliance and the coherence of free electron lasers (FEL) even push the accuracy limits and make the development of a new generation of ultra precise reflective optical elements mandatory. Typical elements are wave front preserving plane mirrors (lengths of up to 1 m, residual slope errors ˜0.05 μrad (rms) and values of 0.1 nm (rms) for the micro-roughness) and curved optical elements like spheres, toroids or elliptical cylinder (residual slope error ˜0.25 μrad (rms) and better). These challenging specifications and the ongoing progress in finishing technology need to be matched by improved accuracy metrology instruments. We will discuss the results of recent developments in the field of metrology made in the BESSY-II-optics laboratory (BOL) at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB), by the use of vertical angle comparator (VAC) in use to calibrate the nanometer optical component measuring machine (NOM). The BESSY-NOM represents an ultra accurate type of slope measuring instruments characterized by an accuracy of 0.05 μrad (rms) for plane substrates and 0.2 μrad (rms) for significant curved surfaces.

  18. VLT/VLTI Second-Generation Instrumentation: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmozzi, R.; Pasquini, L.; Russell, A.

    2016-12-01

    The five second-generation instruments already delivered for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) represent worthy successors to the first generation of instrumentation development. Despite this success, it is still possible to learn many lessons for the future. A review, preceded by a workshop, on the lessons learned from the second-generation instrumentation for the VLT and VLT Interferometer took place in November 2015, following a previous review twelve years ago on lessons learned from the first-generation instruments. The aim of the workshop was to identify lessons in order to help define/refine good practice and make recommendations for the future. This article briefly reports on the workshop and summarises the findings of the review panel, their recommendations and some of the steps to implement them.

  19. Automated CFD Database Generation for a 2nd Generation Glide-Back-Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pandya, Shishir A.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Tejmil, Edward

    2003-01-01

    A new software tool, AeroDB, is used to compute thousands of Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions for a 2nd generation glide-back booster in one week. The solution process exploits a common job-submission grid environment using 13 computers located at 4 different geographical sites. Process automation and web-based access to the database greatly reduces the user workload, removing much of the tedium and tendency for user input errors. The database consists of forces, moments, and solution files obtained by varying the Mach number, angle of attack, and sideslip angle. The forces and moments compare well with experimental data. Stability derivatives are also computed using a monotone cubic spline procedure. Flow visualization and three-dimensional surface plots are used to interpret and characterize the nature of computed flow fields.

  20. NASA 2nd Generation RLV Program Introduction, Status and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan L.; Smith, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI), managed by the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2ndGen RLV) Program, was established to examine the possibility of revolutionizing space launch capabilities, define conceptual architectures, and concurrently identify the advanced technologies required to support a next-generation system. Initial Program funds have been allocated to design, evaluate, and formulate realistic plans leading to a 2nd Gen RLV full-scale development (FSD) decision by 2006. Program goals are to reduce both risk and cost for accessing the limitless opportunities afforded outside Earth's atmosphere fo civil, defense, and commercial enterprises. A 2nd Gen RLV architecture includes a reusable Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle, an on-orbit transport and return vehicle, ground and flight operations, mission planning, and both on-orbit and on-the-ground support infrastructures All segments of the architecture must advance in step with development of the RLV if a next-generation system is to be fully operational early next decade. However, experience shows that propulsion is the single largest contributor to unreliability during ascent, requires the largest expenditure of time for maintenance, and takes a long time to develop; therefore, propulsion is the key to meeting safety, reliability, and cost goals. For these reasons, propulsion is SLI's top technology investment area.

  1. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  2. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd-generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  3. Life Cycle Systems Engineering Approach to NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Safie, Fayssal; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd- generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1 -in- 10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. Given a candidate architecture that possesses credible physical processes and realistic technology assumptions, the next set of analyses address the system's functionality across the spread of operational scenarios characterized by the design reference missions. The safety/reliability and cost/economics associated with operating the system will also be modeled and analyzed to answer the questions "How safe is it?" and "How much will it cost to acquire and operate?" The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and

  4. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Control and Irradiated EPC 2nd Generation GaN FETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Results of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  5. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders.

  6. Enabling the 2nd Generation in Space: Building Blocks for Large Scale Space Endeavours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhardt, D.; Garretson, P.; Will, P.

    Today the world operates within a "first generation" space industrial enterprise, i.e. all industry is on Earth, all value from space is from bits (data essentially), and the focus is Earth-centric, with very limited parts of our population and industry participating in space. We are limited in access, manoeuvring, on-orbit servicing, in-space power, in-space manufacturing and assembly. The transition to a "Starship culture" requires the Earth to progress to a "second generation" space industrial base, which implies the need to expand the economic sphere of activity of mankind outside of an Earth-centric zone and into CIS-lunar space and beyond, with an equal ability to tap the indigenous resources in space (energy, location, materials) that will contribute to an expanding space economy. Right now, there is no comfortable place for space applications that are not discovery science, exploration, military, or established earth bound services. For the most part, space applications leave out -- or at least leave nebulous, unconsolidated, and without a critical mass -- programs and development efforts for infrastructure, industrialization, space resources (survey and process maturation), non-traditional and persistent security situational awareness, and global utilities -- all of which, to a far greater extent than a discovery and exploration program, may help determine the elements of a 2nd generation space capability. We propose a focus to seed the pre-competitive research that will enable global industry to develop the necessary competencies that we currently lack to build large scale space structures on-orbit, that in turn would lay the foundation for long duration spacecraft travel (i.e. key technologies in access, manoeuvrability, etc.). This paper will posit a vision-to-reality for a step wise approach to the types of activities the US and global space providers could embark upon to lay the foundation for the 2nd generation of Earth in space.

  7. The New 2nd-Generation SRF R&D Facility at Jefferson Lab: TEDF

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Reilly, Anthony V.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a near-complete renovation of the SRF-based accelerator research and development facilities at Jefferson Lab. The project to accomplish this, the Technical and Engineering Development Facility (TEDF) Project has completed the first of two phases. An entirely new 3,100 m{sup 2} purpose-built SRF technical work facility has been constructed and was occupied in summer of 2012. All SRF work processes with the exception of cryogenic testing have been relocated into the new building. All cavity fabrication, processing, thermal treatment, chemistry, cleaning, and assembly work is collected conveniently into a new LEED-certified building. An innovatively designed 800 m2 cleanroom/chemroom suite provides long-term flexibility for support of multiple R&D and construction projects as well as continued process evolution. The characteristics of this first 2nd-generation SRF facility are described.

  8. Characterization of γ and γ' phases in 2nd and 4th generation single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietara, Maciej; Neumeier, Steffen; Göken, Mathias; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    A Ni based single crystal superalloy from the 2nd generation, PWA 1484, and one from the 4th generation, PWA 1497, were comparatively studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and nanoindentation technique in an atomic force microscope (NI-AFM) after high temperature creep deformation. During primary creep of both generations of superalloys, γ' precipitates start to coalesce and grow directionally. Further creep deformation leads to the topological inversion and coarsening of the rafted microstructure. The NI-AFM technique was used for measurements of the hardness of the γ and γ' phases in as-received and creep deformed samples in various conditions. The g matrix of the PWA 1497 superalloy is on average 0.8 GPa harder than that of PWA 1484 that can be explained by higher content of Re and Ru, since they partition predominantly to the matrix phase.

  9. Report on the ''2017 ESO Calibration Workshop: The Second-Generation VLT Instruments and Friends''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smette, A.; Kerber, F.; Kaufer, A.

    2017-03-01

    The participants at the 2017 ESO Calibration Workshop shared their experiences and the challenges encountered in calibrating VLT second-generation instruments and the upgraded first-generation instruments, and discussed improvements in the characterisation of the atmosphere and data reduction. A small group of ESO participants held a follow-up retreat and identified possible game changers in the future operations of the La Silla Paranal Observatory: feedback on the proposals is encouraged.

  10. STARS 2.0: 2nd-generation open-source archiving and query software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winegar, Tom

    2008-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope is in process of developing an open-source alternative to the 1st-generation software and databases (STARS 1) used for archiving and query. For STARS 2, we have chosen PHP and Python for scripting and MySQL as the database software. We have collected feedback from staff and observers, and used this feedback to significantly improve the design and functionality of our future archiving and query software. Archiving - We identified two weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS archiving software: a complex and inflexible table structure and uncoordinated system administration for our business model: taking pictures from the summit and archiving them in both Hawaii and Japan. We adopted a simplified and normalized table structure with passive keyword collection, and we are designing an archive-to-archive file transfer system that automatically reports real-time status and error conditions and permits error recovery. Query - We identified several weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS query software: inflexible query tools, poor sharing of calibration data, and no automatic file transfer mechanisms to observers. We are developing improved query tools and sharing of calibration data, and multi-protocol unassisted file transfer mechanisms for observers. In the process, we have redefined a 'query': from an invisible search result that can only transfer once in-house right now, with little status and error reporting and no error recovery - to a stored search result that can be monitored, transferred to different locations with multiple protocols, reporting status and error conditions and permitting recovery from errors.

  11. A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

  12. Using 2nd generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in frontline management of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jayakar, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Choices in medicine come with responsibility. With several TKI's (Tyrosine kinase inhibitors) available for front-line management of CML (Chronic Myeloid Leukemia), an astute clinician has to personalise, rationalise and take a pragmatic approach towards selection of the best drug for the ‘patient in question’. Though it is hotly debated as to which TKI will triumph, the truth of this debate lies in individualising treatment rather than a general ‘all size fits all’ approach with imatinib. I personally believe that the second generation TKI's will suit most patient clinical profiles rather than prescribing imatinib to all and I have strived to make a strong case for them in front line treatment of CML. Though Imatinib may remain the first line choice for some patients, my efforts in this debate are mainly geared towards breaking the myth that imatinib is the sole ‘block buster’ on the CML landscape PMID:24665456

  13. RF SOI CMOS technology on 1st and 2nd generation trap-rich high resistivity SOI wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi Esfeh, B.; Makovejev, S.; Basso, Didier; Desbonnets, Eric; Kilchytska, V.; Flandre, D.; Raskin, J.-P.

    2017-02-01

    In this work three different types of UNIBOND™ Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafers including one standard HR-SOI and two types of trap-rich high resistivity HR-SOI substrates named enhanced signal integrity high resistivity silicon-on-insulator (eSI HR-SOI) provided by SOITEC are studied and compared. The DC and RF performances of these wafers are compared by means of passive and active devices such as coplanar waveguide (CPW) lines, crosstalk- and noise injection-structures as well as partially-depleted (PD) SOI MOSFETs. It is demonstrated that by employing enhanced signal integrity high resistivity silicon-on-insulator (eSI HR-SOI) compared to HR-SOI wafer, a reduction of 24 dB is measured on both generations of trap-rich HR-SOI for 2nd harmonics. Furthermore, it is shown that in eSI HR-SOI, digital substrate noise is effectively reduced compared with HR-SOI. Purely capacitive behavior of eSI HR-SOI is demonstrated by crosstalk structure. Reduction of self-heating effect in the trap-rich HR-SOI with thinner BOX is finally studied.

  14. Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report 2nd Generation Implementing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-09-14

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document.

  15. Efficient 2(nd) and 4(th) harmonic generation of a single-frequency, continuous-wave fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, Thomas; Imai, Yutaka; Masuda, Hisashi; Eguchi, Naoya; Saito, Masaki; Kubota, Shigeo

    2008-02-04

    We demonstrate efficient cavity-enhanced second and fourth harmonic generation of an air-cooled, continuous-wave (cw), single-frequency 1064 nm fiber-amplifier system. The second harmonic generator achieves up to 88% total external conversion efficiency, generating more than 20-W power at 532 nm wavelength in a diffraction-limited beam (M(2) < 1.05). The nonlinear medium is a critically phase-matched, 20-mm long, anti-reflection (AR) coated LBO crystal operated at 25 degrees C. The fourth harmonic generator is based on an AR-coated, Czochralski-grown beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal optimized for low loss and high damage threshold. Up to 12.2 W of 266-nm deep-UV (DUV) output is obtained using a 6-mm long critically phase-matched BBO operated at 40 degrees C. This power level is more than two times higher than previously reported for cw 266-nm generation. The total external conversion efficiency from the fundamental at 1064 nm to the fourth harmonic at 266 nm is >50%.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Electrochem's PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Michael C.; Hoberecht, Mark

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program is being developed to meet national needs for civil and commercial space access with goals of reducing the launch costs, increasing the reliability, and reducing the maintenance and operating costs. To this end, NASA is considering an all- electric capability for NGLT vehicles requiring advanced electrical power generation technology at a nominal 20 kW level with peak power capabilities six times the nominal power. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been identified as a viable candidate to supply this electrical power; however, several technology aspects need to be assessed. Electrochem, Inc., under contract to NASA, has developed a breadboard power generator to address these technical issues with the goal of maximizing the system reliability while minimizing the cost and system complexity. This breadboard generator operates with dry hydrogen and oxygen gas using eductors to recirculate the gases eliminating gas humidification and blowers from the system. Except for a coolant pump, the system design incorporates passive components allowing the fuel cell to readily follow a duty cycle profile and that may operate at high 6:1 peak power levels for 30 second durations. Performance data of the fuel cell stack along with system performance is presented to highlight the benefits of the fuel cell stack design and system design for NGLT vehicles.

  17. Research on the 2nd generation biofuel BIOXDIESEL in aspects of emission of toxic substances in exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struś, M. S.; Poprawski, W.; Rewolte, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents results of research of Diesel engines emission of toxic substances in exhaust gases fuelled with a second generation biofuel BIOXDIESEL, which is a blend of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters obtained from waste resources such waste vegetable and animal fats, bioethanol and standard Diesel fuel. Presented results are very promising, showing that the emission of toxic substances in exhaust gases are significantly reduced when fuelling with BIOXDIESEL fuel in comparison with standard Diesel fuel.

  18. An analytical benchmark and a Mathematica program for MD codes: Testing LAMMPS on the 2nd generation Brenner potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata, Antonino; Micheletti, Andrea; Ryu, Seunghwa; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-10-01

    An analytical benchmark and a simple consistent Mathematica program are proposed for graphene and carbon nanotubes, that may serve to test any molecular dynamics code implemented with REBO potentials. By exploiting the benchmark, we checked results produced by LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) when adopting the second generation Brenner potential, we made evident that this code in its current implementation produces results which are offset from those of the benchmark by a significant amount, and provide evidence of the reason.

  19. Autocommander: A Supervisory Controller for Integrated Guidance and Control for the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, J. E.; Lawrence, D. A.; Zhu, J. J.; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical architecture for integrated guidance and control that achieves risk and cost reduction for NASA's 2d generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Guidance, attitude control, and control allocation subsystems that heretofore operated independently will now work cooperatively under the coordination of a top-level autocommander. In addition to delivering improved performance from a flight mechanics perspective, the autocommander is intended to provide an autonomous supervisory control capability for traditional mission management under nominal conditions, G&C reconfiguration in response to effector saturation, and abort mode decision-making upon vehicle malfunction. This high-level functionality is to be implemented through the development of a relational database that is populated with the broad range of vehicle and mission specific data and translated into a discrete event system model for analysis, simulation, and onboard implementation. A Stateflow Autocoder software tool that translates the database into the Stateflow component of a Matlab/Simulink simulation is also presented.

  20. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    SciTech Connect

    Usov, Igor O; Arendt, Paul N; Stan, Liliana; Holesinger, Terry G; Foltyn, Steven R; Depaula, Raymond F

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  1. FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions: 2-year clinical results with 2nd or newer generation DES

    PubMed Central

    Arvydas, Baranauskas; Vilhelmas, Bajoras; Povilas, Budrys; Aleksandras, Laucevičius; Giedrius, Davidavičius

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite improvements in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology, treatment strategies for long coronary artery lesions remain a controversial issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term clinical results after FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions. Materials and methods. A total of 74 consecutive patients with significant (mean FFR 0.61 ± 0.11) coronary artery lesions ≥30 mm in length were included in the prospective study. All patients were treated with FFR guided PCI implanting newer generation Biolimus, Everolimus or Zotarolimus eluting stents. Clinical endpoints – target vessel revascularization (TVR) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) – were recorded at 1 and 2 years. Results. 100% angiographic procedure success was achieved, the mean post procedural FFR was 0.88 ± 0.06. At 2-year follow-up, 6 (8.1%) patients had ischemia driven TVR, all within the first 12 months. There were no target vessel related acute coronary syndromes and definite stent thromboses in the study group. At 2 years, the total MACE rate was 29.7%. There was a trend towards a higher TVR rate in patients with overlapping DES vs single DES implanted (9.6 vs 4.5%, p = 0.6). On regression analysis, the total stent length had no influence on the TVR rate. Conclusions. At 2 years after stenting long coronary lesions with newer generation DES the TVR rate was 8.1%, which is acceptable in the high cardiovascular risk population with diffuse coronary artery disease. The total stent length did not affect the long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:28356786

  2. New approaches for improving the production of the 1st and 2nd generation ethanol by yeast.

    PubMed

    Kurylenko, Olena; Semkiv, Marta; Ruchala, Justyna; Hryniv, Orest; Kshanovska, Barbara; Abbas, Charles; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Sibirny, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Increase in the production of 1st generation ethanol from glucose is possible by the reduction in the production of ethanol co-products, especially biomass. We have developed a method to reduce biomass accumulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the manipulation of the intracellular ATP level due to overexpression of genes of alkaline phosphatase, apyrase or enzymes involved in futile cycles. The strains constructed accumulated up to 10% more ethanol on a cornmeal hydrolysate medium. Similar increase in ethanol accumulation was observed in the mutants resistant to the toxic inhibitors of glycolysis like 3-bromopyruvate and others. Substantial increase in fuel ethanol production will be obtained by the development of new strains of yeasts that ferment sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic feedstocks, especially xylose, a pentose sugar. We have found that xylose can be fermented under elevated temperatures by the thermotolerant yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. We combined protein engineering of the gene coding for xylose reductase (XYL1) along with overexpression of the other two genes responsible for xylose metabolism in yeast (XYL2, XYL3) and the deletion of the global transcriptional activator CAT8, with the selection of mutants defective in utilizing ethanol as a carbon source using the anticancer drug, 3-bromopyruvate. Resulted strains accumulated 20-25 times more ethanol from xylose at the elevated temperature of 45°C with up to 12.5 g L(-1) produced. Increase in ethanol yield and productivity from xylose was also achieved by overexpression of genes coding for the peroxisomal enzymes: transketolase (DAS1) and transaldolase (TAL2), and deletion of the ATG13 gene.

  3. Direct and non-destructive proof of authenticity for the 2nd generation of Brazilian real banknotes via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Franco, Marcos Fernando; Regino, Karen Gomes; Lehmann, Eraldo Luiz; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Using a desorption/ionization technique, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (EASI-MS), documents related to the 2nd generation of Brazilian Real currency (R$) were screened in the positive ion mode for authenticity based on chemical profiles obtained directly from the banknote surface. Characteristic profiles were observed for authentic, seized suspect counterfeit and counterfeited homemade banknotes from inkjet and laserjet printers. The chemicals in the authentic banknotes' surface were detected via a few minor sets of ions, namely from the plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), most likely related to the official offset printing process, and other common quaternary ammonium cations, presenting a similar chemical profile to 1st-generation R$. The seized suspect counterfeit banknotes, however, displayed abundant diagnostic ions in the m/z 400-800 range due to the presence of oligomers. High-accuracy FT-ICR MS analysis enabled molecular formula assignment for each ion. The ions were separated by 44 m/z, which enabled their characterization as Surfynol® 4XX (S4XX, XX=40, 65, and 85), wherein increasing XX values indicate increasing amounts of ethoxylation on a backbone of 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (Surfynol® 104). Sodiated triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TBG) of m/z 229 (C10H22O4Na) was also identified in the seized counterfeit banknotes via EASI(+) FT-ICR MS. Surfynol® and TBG are constituents of inks used for inkjet printing.

  4. SPARTA for the VLT: status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez Valles, Marcos; Fedrigo, Enrico; Donaldson, Robert H.; Soenke, Christian; Zampieri, Stefano; Bourtembourg, Reynald; Tischer, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    SPARTA, the ESO Standard Platform for Adaptive optics Real Time Applications, is the high-performance, real-time computing platform serving three major 2nd generation instruments at the VLT (SPHERE, GALACSI and GRAAL) and possibly a fourth one (ERIS). SPARTA offers a very modular and fine-grained architecture, which is generic enough to serve a variety of AO systems. It includes the definitions of all the interfaces between those modules and provides libraries and tools for their implementation and testing, as well as a mapping to technologies capable of delivering the required performance. These comprise, amongst others, VXS communication, FPGA-aided wavefront processing, command time filtering and I/O, DSP-based wavefront reconstruction, DDS data distribution and multi-CPU number crunching, most of them innovative with respect to ESO standards in use. A scaled-down version of the platform, namely SPARTA-Light, will employ a subset of the SPARTA technologies to implement the AO modules for the VLT auxiliary telescopes (NAOMI) and is the baseline for a new VLTI instrument (GRAVITY). For the above instrument portfolio, SPARTA provides also a complete implementation of the AO application, with features customised to each instrument's needs and specific algorithms. In this paper we describe the architecture of SPARTA, its technology choices, functional units and test tools. End-to-end as well as individual module performance data is provided for the XAO system delivered to SPHERE. Initial performance results are presented for the GALACSI and GRAAL systems under development.

  5. Early onset hypercholesterolemia induced by the 2nd-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rea, Delphine; Mirault, Tristan; Cluzeau, Thomas; Gautier, Jean-François; Guilhot, François; Dombret, Hervé; Messas, Emmanuel

    2014-07-01

    Despite a well-recognized clinical benefit of the 2(nd)-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with imatinib-resistant/-intolerant or newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia, recent evidence suggests that nilotinib has a propensity to increase the risk of occlusive arterial events, especially in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors. Given the key role of lipids in cardiovascular diseases, we studied the plasma lipid profile and global cardiovascular risk prior to and during nilotinib therapy in a series of 27 patients in the setting of a prospective single center study. Data from a minimum 1-year follow up showed that nilotinib significantly increased total, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol within three months. Consequently, the proportion of patients with non-optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from 48.1% to 88.9% by 12 months, leading to cholesterol-lowering drug intervention in 22.2% of patients. The proportion of patients with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 40.7% to 7.4% by 12 months. In contrast, a significant decrease in triglycerides was observed. Global cardiovascular risk worsened in 11.1% of patients due to diabetes or occlusive arterial events. Whether hypercholesterolemia was the main driver of occlusive arterial events was uncertain: a longer follow up is necessary to ask whether nilotinib-induced hypercholesterolemia increases long-term risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Nevertheless, given key atherogenic properties of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we conclude that when prescribing nilotinib, commitment to detect lipid disorders at baseline and during follow up is mandatory given their frequency, requirement for changes in lifestyle or drug intervention, and potential for long-term cardiovascular complications.

  6. Development of the 2nd generation z(Redshift) and early universe spectrometer & the study of far-IR fine structure emission in high-z galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    The 2nd generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), is a long-slit echelle-grating spectrometer (R~1000) for observations at submillimeter wavelengths from 200 to 850 microm. Its design is optimized for the detection of redshifted far-infrared spectral lines from galaxies in the early universe. Combining exquisite sensitivity, broad wavelength coverage, and large (˜2.5%) instantaneous bandwidth, ZEUS-2 is uniquely suited for studying galaxies between z˜0.2 and 5---spanning the peaks in both the star formation rate and number of AGN in the universe. ZEUS-2 saw first light at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in the Spring of 2012 and was commissioned on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) in November 2012. Here we detail the design and performance of ZEUS-2, first however we discuss important science results that are examples of the science enabled by ZEUS-2. Using the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-1) we made the first high-z detections of the [NII] 122 microm and [OIII] 88 microm lines. We detect these lines from starburst galaxies between z ˜2.5 and 4 demonstrating the utility of these lines for characterizing the properties of early galaxies. Specifically we are able to determine the most massive star still on the main sequence, the number of those stars and a lower limit on the mass of ionized gas in the source. Next we present ZEUS-2's first science result. Using ZEUS-2 on APEX we have detected the [CII] 158 microm line from the z = 1.78 galaxy H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 +/- 0.42) ˜ 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-infrared luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [OI] 63 microm line we are able to conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high redshift analogue of a local ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, i.e. it is likely the site of a compact starburst due to a major merger. This detection, combined with the ZEUS-1 observations of the [NII

  7. The ESO-VLT X-SHOOTER instrument software in the VLT environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidali, Marzio; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Santin, Paolo; Vernet, Joel; Zacchei, Andrea

    2006-06-01

    X-Shooter is the first 2 nd generation instrument to be installed at Paranal early 2008. It is a single target spectrograph covering in a single exposure a wide spectral range from the UV to the K' band with maximum sensitivity. Another key feature of the instrument is its fast response, obtained by making it simple and easy to operate. Compared to other big VLT instruments X-Shooter has a relatively small number of moving functions, but nevertheless the requirements on the whole instrument software are quite demanding. In order to cover the wide spectral range with high efficiency, the instrument is split into three different arms, one being cryogenically cooled. The high level coordinating software architecture provides all the facilities for parallel operation with the maximum achievable level of synchronicity. Low level X-Shooter requirements are also quite stringent, since to compensate for slit misalignments among the three arms, an active piezoelectric actuator system is envisaged. The low-level architecture, besides the typical control of single devices (like motors, sensors and lamps), handles the required real-time operations. The software integration and test is also an issue, being X-Shooter a collaborative effort among several institutes spread around Europe. The whole instrument software architecture is presented here, entering in details into its main modules such as the instrument control software, the observation software and the observing templates structure and their integration in the VLT software environment.

  8. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  9. The AVES adaptive optics spectrograph for the VLT: status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Delabre, Bernard; Pasquini, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Santin, Paolo; Damiani, Francesco; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Spano, Paolo; Bonifacio, P.; Catalano, Santo; Molaro, Paolo P.; Randich, S.; Rodono, Marcello

    2003-03-01

    We report on the status of AVES, the Adaptive-optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph proposed for the secondary port of the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) recently installed at the VLT. AVES is an intermediate resolution (R ≍ 16,000) high-efficiency fixed- format echelle spectrograph which operates in the spectral band 500 - 1,000 nm. In addition to a high intrinsic efficiency, comparable to that of ESI at Keck II, it takes advantage of the adaptive optics correction provided by NAOS to reduce the sky and detector contribution in background-limited observations of weak sources, thus allowing a further magnitude gain with respect to comparable non-adaptive optics spectrographs. Simulations show that the instrument will be capable of reaching a magnitude V = 22.5 at S/N > 10 in two hours, two magnitudes weaker than GIRAFFE at the same resolution and 3 magnitudes weaker than the higher resolution UVES spectrograph. Imaging and coronographic functions have also been implemented in the design. We present the results of the final design study and we dicuss the technical and operational issues related to its implementation at the VLT as a visitor instrument. We also discuss the possibility of using a scaled-up non-adaptive optics version of the same design as an element of a double- or triple-arm intermediate-resolution spectrograph for the VLT. Such an option looks attractive in the context of a high-efficiency large-bandwidth (320 - 1,500 nm) spectrograph ("fast-shooter") being considered by ESO as a 2nd-generation VLT instrument.

  10. Happy Anniversary, VLT !

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    Telescopes (UTs) and will in due time also include four moving 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs), the first one of which successfully passed its first tests in January of this year (see ESO PR 01/04). With unprecedented optical resolution and unsurpassed surface area, the VLT produces extremely sharp images and can record light from the faintest and most remote objects in the Universe. It works at the limit of modern technology, regularly allowing the scientists to peer into new and unknown territories in the immense Universe. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. For this reason, the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes were positioned in a quasi-trapezoidal configuration. The light beams from these telescopes, at this moment two-by-two, can be combined in the VLT Interferometer (VLTI). It provides the European scientific community with a ground-based telescope array with collecting power significantly greater than any other facilities available at present or being planned, offering imaging and spectroscopy capabilities at visible and infrared wavelengths. Seven of the planned ten first-generation astronomical instruments are now in operation at the VLT. They cover all major observing modes required to tackle current "hot", front-line research topics: * the multi-mode instrument FORS1 (FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph) and its twin, FORS2, * the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) cryogenic infrared imager and spectrometer, * the UVES (Ultra-violet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph) high-dispersion spectrograph, * the NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics facility producing images as sharp as if taken in space [2], * the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) four-channel multiobject spectrograph and imager - allowing to obtain low-resolution spectra of up to 1000 galaxies at a time * the Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) that offers the unique capability to study

  11. MUSE alignment onto VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success

  12. ESPRESSO instrument control electronics: a PLC based distributed layout for a second generation instrument at ESO VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, V.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Mannetta, M.; Santin, P.; Mégevand, D.; Zerbi, F.

    2014-07-01

    ESPRESSO is an ultra-stable fiber-fed spectrograph designed to combine incoherently the light coming from up to 4 Unit Telescopes of the ESO VLT. From the Nasmyth focus of each telescope the light, through an optical path, is fed by the Coudé Train subsystems to the Front End Unit placed in the Combined Coudé Laboratory. The Front End is composed by one arm for each telescope and its task is to convey the incoming light, after a calibration process, into the spectrograph fibers. To perform these operations a large number of functions are foreseen, like motorized stages, lamps, digital and analog sensors that, coupled with dedicated Technical CCDs (two per arms), allow to stabilize the incoming beam up to the level needed to exploit the ESPRESSO scientific requirements. The Instrument Control Electronics goal is to properly control all the functions in the Combined Coudé Laboratory and the spectrograph itself. It is fully based on a distributed PLC architecture, abandoning in this way the VME-based technology previously adopted for the ESO VLT instruments. In this paper we will describe the ESPRESSO Instrument Control Electronics architecture, focusing on the distributed layout and its interfaces with the other ESPRESSO subsystems.

  13. Control system for the 2nd generation Berkeley AutoMounters (BAM2) at GM/CA CAT macromolecular crystallography beamlines.

    PubMed

    Makarov, O; Hilgart, M; Ogata, C; Pothineni, S; Cork, C

    2011-09-01

    GM/CA CAT at Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is an NIH funded facility for crystallographic structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray diffraction.A second generation Berkeley automounter is being integrated into the beamline control system at the 23-BM experimental station. This new device replaces the previous all-pneumatic gripper motions with a combination of pneumatics and XYZ motorized linear stages. The latter adds a higher degree of flexibility to the robot including auto-alignment capability, accommodation of a larger capacity sample Dewar of arbitrary shape, and support for advanced operations such as crystal washing, while preserving the overall simplicity and efficiency of the Berkeley automounter design.

  14. Population pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, and pharmacodynamics of 2nd generation dopamine transporter selective benztropine analogs developed as potential substitute therapeutics for treatment of cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Syed, Shariq A; Newman, Amy H; Othman, Ahmed A; Eddington, Natalie D

    2008-05-01

    A second generation of N-substituted 3alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)methoxy]-tropanes (GA 1-69, JHW 005 and JHW 013) binds with high affinity to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and are highly selective toward DAT compared to muscarinic receptor binding (M1). The objective of this study was to characterize brain distribution, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics [extracellular brain dopamine (DA) levels] of three novel N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogs in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BZT analogs displayed a higher distribution (Vd = 8.69-34.3 vs. 0.9 L/kg) along with longer elimination (t l/2: 4.1-5.4 vs. 0.5 h) than previously reported for cocaine. Brain-to-plasma partition coefficients were 1.3-2.5 vs. 2.1 for cocaine. The effect of the BZT analogs on extracellular brain (DA) levels ranged from minimal effects (GA 1-69) to several fold elevation (approximately 850% of basal DA for JHW 013) at the highest dose evaluated. PK/PD analysis of exposure-response data resulted in lower IC50 values for the BZT analogs compared to cocaine indicating their higher potency to inhibit DA reuptake (0.1-0.3 vs. 0.7 mg/L). These BZT analogs possess significantly different PK and PD profiles as compared to cocaine suggesting that further evaluation as cocaine abuse therapeutics is warranted.

  15. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the

  16. [Implications of TCGA Network Data on 2nd Generation Immunotherapy Concepts Based on PD-L1 and PD-1 Target Structures].

    PubMed

    Peters, I; Tezval, H; Kramer, M W; Wolters, M; Grünwald, V; Kuczyk, M A; Serth, J

    2015-11-01

    The era of cytokines, given to patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) as part of an unspecific immunomodulatory treatment concept, seems to have ended with the introduction of targeted therapies. However, preliminary data from studies on treatment with checkpoint inhibitors (e. g. anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1) may point the way to second-generation immunotherapy. The rationale of such immunomodulatory treatment is to stop or interrupt the tumour from "escaping" the body's immune defence. Thompson et al. report that increased protein expression of PD-L1 (CD274/ B7-H1) in tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating immune cells (TILs; lymphocytes and histiocytes) is associated with unfavourable clinical pathological parameters as well as poor survival. In small pilot groups of mRCC patients it was found that increased PD-L1 protein expression in tumours and TILs may be correlated with the objective response to anti-PD-1 treatment. Sometimes, however, a very wide variety of response rates was observed, which raises the question if this can be explained by individual expression levels of PD-L1 (CD 274) or PD-1 (PDCD1).Recently published data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) Network now provide a genome-wide data base that allows us to review or validate the molecular results obtained in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) to date.In this study, we analysed the TCGA KIRC mRNA expression data for PD-L1 and PD-1 for a possible association with clinical pathological parameters and the survival of 417 ccRCC patients.The mRNA expression of PD-L1 in primary nephrectomy specimens revealed no significant association with unfavourable clinical parameters. Interestingly, though, a positive correlation with patient survival was found (HR=0,59, p=0,006).These results, which partly contradict the concept applied to date, point out the necessity to ascertain the characteristics of PD-L1 and PD-1 expression at mRNA and protein

  17. 2nd Generation QUATARA Flight Computer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, Jay; Keys, Andrew; Fraticelli, Jose Molina; Capo-Iugo, Pedro; Peeples, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Single core flight computer boards have been designed, developed, and tested (DD&T) to be flown in small satellites for the last few years. In this project, a prototype flight computer will be designed as a distributed multi-core system containing four microprocessors running code in parallel. This flight computer will be capable of performing multiple computationally intensive tasks such as processing digital and/or analog data, controlling actuator systems, managing cameras, operating robotic manipulators and transmitting/receiving from/to a ground station. In addition, this flight computer will be designed to be fault tolerant by creating both a robust physical hardware connection and by using a software voting scheme to determine the processor's performance. This voting scheme will leverage on the work done for the Space Launch System (SLS) flight software. The prototype flight computer will be constructed with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components which are estimated to survive for two years in a low-Earth orbit.

  18. PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The "PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework, 2nd Edition" provides the foundation for the three international assessments planned as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016: PIRLS, PIRLS Literacy, and ePIRLS. PIRLS represents the…

  19. Medical museum, 2nd surgical hospital.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Alan J

    2013-12-01

    When his unit, the 2nd Surgical Hospital (MA), was established at An Khe in January 1966, MAJ Rich began collecting retrieved foreign bodies along with documentation of the wound. A museum displaying these objects was established at one end of the operating room Quonset hut. During Rich's tour of duty, there were 324 cases where the patient was wounded by a punji stick, representing 38% wounds because of hostile action.

  20. 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Martinez, Ed; Arcadi, Marla

    2005-01-01

    Included are presentations from the 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop. The purpose of the second workshop was to continue to unite the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers and mission designers and planners; whose expertise, experience and interests are in the areas of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics of planetary entry vehicles. Mars lander missions and the first probe mission to Titan made 2004 an exciting year for planetary exploration. The Workshop addressed entry probe science, engineering challenges, mission design and instruments, along with the challenges of reconstruction of the entry, descent and landing or the aerocapture phases. Topics addressed included methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed; techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder and Mars MER; upcoming missions such as the imminent entry of Huygens and future Mars entry probes; and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.

  1. ESO VLT laser guide star facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccini, Domenico; Hackenberg, Wolfgang K.; Cullum, Martin J.; Brunetto, Enzo; Ott, Thomas; Quattri, Marco; Allaert, Eric; Dimmler, Martin; Tarenghi, Massimo; Van Kersteren, A.; Di Chirico, C.; Buzzoni, Bernard; Gray, Peter; Tamai, R.; Tapia, M.

    2002-02-01

    We report in this paper on the design and progress of the ESO Laser Guide Star Facility. The project will create a user facility embedded in UT4, to produce in the Earth's Mesosphere Laser Guide Stars, which extend the sky coverage of Adaptive Optics systems on the VLT UT4 telescope. Embedded into the project are provisions for multiple LGS to cope with second generation MCAO instruments.

  2. The VLT Opening Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    Scientists Meet in Antofagasta to Discuss Front-Line Astrophysics To mark the beginning of the VLT era, the European Southern Observatory is organizing a VLT Opening Symposium which will take place in Antofagasta (Chile) on 1-4 March 1999, just before the start of regular observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope on April 1, 1999. The Symposium occupies four full days and is held on the campus of the Universidad Catolica del Norte. It consists of plenary sessions on "Science in the VLT Era and Beyond" and three parallel Workshops on "Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift" , "Star-way to the Universe" and "From Extrasolar Planets to Brown Dwarfs" . There will be many presentations of recent work at the major astronomical facilities in the world. The meeting provides a very useful forum to discuss the latest developments and, in this sense, contributes to the planning of future research with the VLT and other large telescopes. The symposium will be opened with a talk by the ESO Director General, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , on "Paranal - an observatory for the 21st century". It will be followed by reports about the first scientific results from the main astronomical instruments on VLT UT1, FORS1 and ISAAC. The Symposium participants will see the VLT in operation during special visits to the Paranal Observatory. Press conferences are being arranged each afternoon to inform about the highlights of the conference. After the Symposium, there will be an Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March Contributions from ESO ESO scientists will make several presentations at the Symposium. They include general reviews of various research fields as well as important new data and results from the VLT that show the great potential of this new astronomical facility. Some of the recent work is described in this Press Release, together with images and spectra of a large variety of objects. Note that all of these data will soon become publicly available via the VLT Archive

  3. VLT Data Flow System Begins Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    their proposed observations and provide accurate estimates of the amount of telescope time they will need to complete their particular scientific programme. Once the proposals have been reviewed by the OPC and telescope time is awarded by the ESO management according to the recommendation by this Committee, the successful astronomers begin to assemble detailed descriptions of their intended observations (e.g. position in the sky, time and duration of the observation, the instrument mode, etc.) in the form of computer files called Observation Blocks (OBs) . The software to make OBs is distributed by ESO and used by the astronomers at their home institutions to design their observing programs well before the observations are scheduled at the telescope. The OBs can then be directly executed by the VLT and result in an increased efficiency in the collection of raw data (images, spectra) from the science instruments on the VLT. The activation (execution) of OBs can be done by the astronomer at the telescope on a particular set of dates ( visitor mode operation) or it can be done by ESO science operations astronomers at times which are optimally suited for the particular scientific programme ( service mode operation). An enormous VLT Data Archive ESO PR Photo 25b/99 ESO PR Photo 25b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 465 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 929 pix - 568k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3483 pix - 5.5M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 25b/99 : The first of several DVD storage robot at the VLT Data Archive at the ESO headquarters include 1100 DVDs (with a total capacity of about 16 Terabytes) that may be rapidly accessed by the archive software system, ensuring fast availbility of the requested data. The raw data generated at the telescope are stored by an archive system that sends these data regularly back to ESO headquarters in Garching (Germany) in the form of CD and DVD ROM disks. While the well-known Compact Disks (CD ROMs) store about 600 Megabytes (600,000,000 bytes) each, the

  4. Elements of the Next Generation Science Standards' (NGSS) New Framework for K-12 Science Education aligned with STEM designed projects created by Kindergarten, 1st and 2nd grade students in a Reggio Emilio project approach setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, Nicole

    This paper examines how elements of the Next Generation Science Standards' (NGSS) New Framework for K-12 Science Education standards (National Research Council 2011)---specifically the cross-cutting concept "cause and effect" are aligned with early childhood students' creation of projects of their choice. The study took place in a Reggio Emilio-inspired, K-12 school, in a multi-aged kindergarten, first and second grade classroom with 14 students. Students worked on their projects independently with the assistance of their peers and teachers. The students' projects and the alignment with the Next Generation Science Standards' New Framework were analyzed by using pre and post assessments, student interviews, and discourse analysis. Results indicate that elements of the New Framework for K-12 Science Education emerged through students' project presentation, particularly regarding the notion of "cause and effect". More specifically, results show that initially students perceived the relationship between "cause and effect" to be negative.

  5. VLT Instruments Pipeline System Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Y.; Ballester, P.; Banse, K.; Hummel, W.; Izzo, C.; McKay, D. J.; Kiesgen, M.; Lundin, L. K.; Modigliani, A.; Palsa, R. M.; Sabet, C.

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the VLT operations in 1998, substantial effort has been put in the development of automatic data reduction tools for the VLT instruments. A VLT instrument pipeline is a complex system that has to be able to identify and classify each produced FITS file, optionally retrieve calibration files from a database, use an image processing software to reduce the data, compute and log quality control parameters, produce FITS images or tables with the correct headers, optionally display them in the control room and send them to the archive. Each instrument has its own dedicated pipeline, based on a common infrastructure and installed with the VLT Data Flow System (DFS). With the increase in the number and the complexity of supported instruments and in the rate of produced data, these pipelines are becoming vital for both the VLT operations and the users, and request more and more resources for development and maintenance. This paper describes the different pipeline tasks with some real examples. It also explains how the development process has been improved to both decrease its cost and increase the pipelines quality using the lessons learned from the first instruments pipelines development.

  6. 2ND FLOOR HALLWAY LOOKING EAST, NOTE PRESSED TIN CEILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2ND FLOOR HALLWAY LOOKING EAST, NOTE PRESSED TIN CEILING - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Building No. 29, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  7. Molecular motors and the 2nd law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhisong

    2014-03-01

    Molecular motors from biology and nanotechnology often operate on chemical energy of fuel molecules in an isothermal environment, unlike macroscopic heat engines that draw energy from a heat flow between two temperatures. Nevertheless, isothermal molecular motors are still subject to the 2nd law of thermodynamics in a fundamental way: their directional motion must cost a finite amount of energy other than the environmental heat even though no work is done; otherwise the 2nd law would be violated. Hence the 2nd law requires a finite energy price for pure direction of molecular motors. But what is the lowest price of direction allowed by the 2nd law? And how does the 2nd law-decreed price of direction limit performance of molecular motors? In the talk, I shall present our theoretical study of the 2nd law-molecular motor link on basis of the accumulated biomotor phenomenology, and also introduce our experimental effort to develop biomimetic DNA bipedal nanomotors following the mechanistic guidelines out of the theoretical study. [Main contents of this talk are from references:] This work is partially supported by FRC grants R-144-000-259-112, R-144-000-290-112 and R-144-000-320-112.

  8. What's Up With Mercury's 2nd-Degree Shape?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, E.; Phillips, R. J.; Zhong, S.

    2015-12-01

    The long-wavelength topography and geoid of a planet are basic observations fundamental to understanding the planet's thermal and dynamical history. Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft have significantly reduced the uncertainty in the spherical harmonic 2nd-degree (l2) topography and gravity coefficients. Similar to those of the Moon, the long wavelength shape and geoid of Mercury are significantly out of hydrostatic equilibrium [Perry et al., 2015]. The diversion from equilibrium of the Moon has been attributed to orbital evolution and the "freezing-in" of a fossil bulge. With respect to Mercury, the disequilibrium of the l2 shape and geoid is unlikely to be due to its orbital history [Matsuyama and Nimmo, 2009]. Non-hydrostatic models can explain the gravity and shape of Mercury. Buoyancy from thermal anomalies isostatically supporting the surface falls short of reproducing the observed l2 admittance and topography. We explore three scenarios that can generate high admittances at degree-2: flexural/membrane loading on the surface, buoyant structures within the mantle, or topography on the core-mantle boundary. We discuss both isostatic and dynamic models of compensation, and include variations of viscosity structure and elastic properties. However, typical sources of these mechanisms (e.g. large volcanic provinces that collectively have symmetry about the equator or mantle convection with a strong l2 component) are not obviously present on Mercury.

  9. Safety profile of bilastine: 2nd generation H1-antihistamines.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F

    2012-12-01

    Bilastine is a new H1 antagonist with no sedative side effects, no cardiotoxic effects, and no hepatic metabolism. In addition, bilastine has proved to be effective for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. Pharmacological studies have shown that bilastine is highly selective for the H1 receptor in both in vivo and in vitro studies, and with no apparent affinity for other receptors. The absorption of bilastine is fast, linear and dose-proportional; it appears to be safe and well tolerated at all doses levels in healthy population. Multiple administration of bilastine has confirmed the linearity of the kinetic parameters. The distribution in the brain is undetectable. The safety profile in terms of adverse effects is very similar to placebo in all Phase I, II and III clinical trials. Bilastine (20 mg), unlike cetirizine, does not increase alcohol effects on the CNS. Bilastine 20 mg does not increase the CNS depressant effect of lorazepam. Bilastine 20 mg is similar to placebo in the driving test. Therefore, it meets the current criteria for medication used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

  10. 2nd Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S.; Tanelli, S.; Haddad, Z.; Im, E.

    2012-01-01

    Dual-frequency operation with Ku-band (13.4 GHz) and Ka-band (35.6 GHz). Geometry and frequencies chosen to simulate GPM radar. Measures reflectivity at co- and cross-polarizations, and Doppler. Range resolution is approx. 60 m. Horizontal resolution at surface is approx. 1 km. Reflectivity calibration is within 1.5 dB, based on 10 deg sigmaO at Ku-band and Mie scattering calculations in light rain at Ka-band. LDR measurements are OK to near -20 dB; LDR lower than this is likely contaminated by system cross-polarization isolation. Velocity is motion-corrected total Doppler, including particle fall speed. Aliasing can be seen in some places; can usually be dealiased with an algorithm. .

  11. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2G RLV). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve; Sides, Steve; Kmiec, Tom; Arbogast, Tim; Mayers, Tom; Doehnert, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This is a revised final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  12. Engine design considerations for 2nd generation supersonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental and economic goals projected for advanced supersonic transports will require revolutionary improvements in propulsion systems. Variable cycle engine concepts that incorporate unique components and advanced technologies show promise in meeting these goals. Pratt & Whitney Aircraft is conducting conceptual design studies of variable cycle engine concepts under NASA sponsorship. This paper reviews some of the design considerations for these engine concepts. Emphasis is placed on jet noise abatement, reduction of emissions, performance improvements, installation considerations, hot-section characteristics and control system requirements. Two representative variable cycle engine concepts that incorporate these basic design considerations are described.

  13. The adenovirus type 2-simian virus 40 hybrid virus Ad2+ND4 requires deletion variants to grow in monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, A M; Westphal, H

    1983-01-01

    The Ad2+ND4 virus is an adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) recombination. The Ad2 genome of this recombinant has a rearrangement within early region 3; Ad2 DNA sequences between map positions 81.3 and 85.5 have been deleted, and the SV40 DNA sequences between map positions 0.11 and 0.626 have been inserted into the deletion in an 81.3-0.626 orientation. Nonhybrid Ad2 is defective in monkey cells; however, the Ad2+ND4 virus can replicate in monkey cells due to the expression of the SV40-enhancing function encoded by the DNA insert. Stocks of the Ad2+ND4 hybrid were produced in primary monkey cells by using the progeny of a three-step plaque purification procedure and were considered to be homogeneous populations of Ad2+ND4 virions because they induced plaques in primary monkey cells by first-order kinetics. By studying the kinetics of plaque induction in continuous lines (BSC-1 and CV-1) of monkey cells, we have found that stocks (prepared with virions before and after plaque purification) of Ad2+ND4 are actually heterogeneous populations of Ad2+ND4 virions and Ad2+ND4 deletion variants that lack SV40 and frequently Ad2 DNA sequences at the left Ad2-SV40 junction. Due to the defectiveness of the Ad2+ND4 virus, the production of progeny in BSC-1 and CV-1 cells requires complementation between the Ad2+ND4 genome and the genome of an Ad2+ND4 deletion variant. Since the deletion variants that have been obtained from Ad2+ND4 stocks do not express the SV40-enhancing function in that they cannot produce progeny in monkey cells, we conclude that they are providing an Ad2 component that is essential for the production of Ad2+ND4 progeny. These data imply that the Ad2+ND4 virus is incapable of replicating in singly infected primary monkey cells without generating deletion variants that are missing various amounts of DNA around the left Ad2-SV40 junction in the hybrid genome. As the deletion variants that arise from the Ad2+ND4 virus are created by nonhomologous

  14. [Food intake regulation - 2nd part].

    PubMed

    Brunerová, Ludmila; Anděl, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The review article summarizes the principles of hedonic regulation of food intake which represents the food intake independent on the maintenance of homeostasis. The theory describing hedonic regulation, so called Incentive Salience Theory, comprises three major processes: liking (positive attribution to food stimulus), wanting (motivation to gain it) and learning (identification of these stimuli and distinguishing them from those connected with aversive reaction). Neuronal reward circuits are the anatomical and functional substrates of hedonic regulation. They react to gustatory and olfactory (or visual) stimuli associated with food intake. A food item is preferred in case its consumption is connected with a pleasant feeling thus promoting the behavioural reaction. The probability of this reaction after repetitive exposure to such a stimulus is increased (learned preference). On the contrary, learned aversion after repetitive exposure is connected with avoidance of a food item associated with a negative feeling. Main mediators of hedonic regulation are endocannabinoids, opioids and monoamines (dopamine, serotonin). Dopamine in dorsal striatum via D2 receptors generates food motivation as a key means of survival, however in ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) is responsible for motivation to food bringing pleasure. Serotonin via its receptors 5-HT1A a T-HT2C decreases intake of palatable food. It plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, particularly mental anorexia. There, a food restriction represents a kind of automedication to constitutionally pathologically increased serotonin levels. Detailed understanding of processes regulating food intake is a key to new pharmacological interventions in eating disorders.

  15. 2nd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet (ft3) generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Experimental Stochatics (2nd edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiberg, P.

    2004-05-01

    Otto Moeschlin and his co-authors have written a book about simulation of stochastic systems. The book comes with a CD-ROM that contains the experiments discussed in the book, and the text from the book is repeated on the CD-ROM. According to the authors, the aim of the book is to give a quick introduction to stochastic simulation for `all persons interested in experimental stochastics'. To please this diverse audience, the authors offer a book that has four parts. Part 1, called `Artificial Randomness', is the longest of the four parts. It gives an overview of the generation, testing and basic usage of pseudo random numbers in simulation. Although algorithms for generating sequences of random numbers are fundamental to simulation, it is a slightly unusual choice to give it such weight in comparison to other algorithmic topics. The remaining three parts consist of simulation case studies. Part 2, `Stochastic Models', treats four problems---Buffon's needle, a queuing system, and two problems related to the kinetic theory of gases. Part 3 is called `Stochastic Processes' and discusses the simulation of discrete time Markov chains, birth--death processes, Brownian motion and diffusions. The last section of Part 3 is about simulation as a tool to understand the traffic flow in a system controlled by stoplights, an area of research for the authors. Part4 is called `Evaluation of Statistical Procedures'. This section contains examples where simulation is used to test the performance of statistical methods. It covers four examples: the Neymann--Pearson lemma, the Wald sequential test, Bayesian point estimation and Hartigan procedures. The CD-ROM contains an easy-to-install software package that runs under Microsoft Windows. The software contains the text and simulations from the book. What I found most enjoyable about this book is the number of topics covered in the case studies. The highly individual selection of applications, which may serve as a source of inspiration

  17. [Health and environment: the 2nd public health revolution.].

    PubMed

    Cicolella, André

    2010-01-01

    As of the mid-19th century, most infectious disease epidemics have been fought and slowed down by taking action on the environment (water, housing, waste) and education. This constitutes the 1st public health revolution paradigm. As we face the current epidemic of chronic diseases and the failure of the dominant biomedical model to stop them, a 2nd public health revolution is needed. The vision for this 2nd public health revolution requires a new paradigm built upon an eco-systemic definition of health and the recognition of the legitimacy for citizen participation based on the precautionary principle.

  18. VLT instruments: industrial solutions for non-scientific detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhoux, P.; Knudstrup, J.; Lilley, P.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Mannetta, M.

    2014-07-01

    . ESPRESSO is a fiber-fed, cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph that will be located in the Combined-Coudé Laboratory of the VLT in the Paranal Observatory in Chile. It will be able to operate either using the light of any of the UT's or using the incoherently combined light of up to four UT's. The stabilization of the incoming beam is achieved by dedicated piezo systems controlled via active loops closed on 4 + 4 dedicated TCCD's for the stabilization of the pupil image and of the field with a frequency goal of 3 Hz on a 2nd to 3rd magnitude star. An additional 9th TCCD system shall be used as an exposure-meter. In this paper we will present the technical CCD solution for future VLT instruments.

  19. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  20. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  1. SrF2:Nd3+ laser fluoride ceramics.

    PubMed

    Basiev, T T; Doroshenko, M E; Konyushkin, V A; Osiko, V V

    2010-12-01

    SrF(2):Nd(3+) fluoride ceramics of high optical quality was prepared and its spectroscopic and laser properties investigated. Oscillations of different optical centers depending on the excitation wavelength were obtained with a slope efficiency of up to 19%.

  2. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…

  3. Evolution of the VLT instrument control system toward industry standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiekebusch, Mario J.; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Knudstrup, Jens; Popovic, Dan; Zins, Gerard

    2010-07-01

    The VLT control system is a large distributed system consisting of Linux Workstations providing the high level coordination and interfaces to the users, and VME-based Local Control Units (LCU's) running the VxWorks real-time operating system with commercial and proprietary boards acting as the interface to the instrument functions. After more than 10 years of VLT operations, some of the applied technologies used by the astronomical instruments are being discontinued making it difficult to find adequate hardware for future projects. In order to deal with this obsolescence, the VLT Instrumentation Framework is being extended to adopt well established Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components connected through industry standard fieldbuses. This ensures a flexible state of the art hardware configuration for the next generation VLT instruments allowing the access to instrument devices via more compact and simpler control units like PC-based Programmable Logical Controllers (PLC's). It also makes it possible to control devices directly from the Instrument Workstation through a normal Ethernet connection. This paper outlines the requirements that motivated this work, as well as the architecture and the design of the framework extension. In addition, it describes the preliminary results on a use case which is a VLTI visitor instrument used as a pilot project to validate the concepts and the suitability of some COTS products like a PC-based PLCs, EtherCAT8 and OPC UA6 as solutions for instrument control.

  4. With the VLT Interferometer towards Sharper Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    The Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre Opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) European science and technology will gain further strength when the new, front-line Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre (NEVEC) opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) this week. It is a joint venture of the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA) (itself a collaboration between the Universities of Amsterdam, Groningen, Leiden, and Utrecht) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It is concerned with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The Inauguration of the new Centre will take place on Friday, May 26, 2000, at the Gorlaeus Laboratory (Lecture Hall no. 1), Einsteinweg 55 2333 CC Leiden; the programme is available on the web. Media representatives who would like to participate in this event and who want further details should contact the Nova Information Centre (e-mail: jacques@astro.uva.nl; Tel: +31-20-5257480 or +31-6-246 525 46). The inaugural ceremony is preceded by a scientific workshop on ground and space-based optical interferometry. NEVEC: A Technology Centre of Excellence As a joint project of NOVA and ESO, NEVEC will develop in the coming years the expertise to exploit the unique interferometric possibilities of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) - now being built on Paranal mountain in Chile. Its primary goals are the * development of instrument modeling, data reduction and calibration techniques for the VLTI; * accumulation of expertise relevant for second-generation VLTI instruments; and * education in the use of the VLTI and related matters. NEVEC will develop optical equipment, simulations and software to enable interferometry with VLT [1]. The new Center provides a strong impulse to Dutch participation in the VLTI. With direct involvement in this R&D work, the scientists at NOVA will be in the front row to do observations with this unique research facility, bound to produce top-level research and many exciting new discoveries. The ESO VLTI at Paranal ESO PR Photo 14a/00

  5. VLT laser guide star facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccini, Domenico; Allaert, Eric; Araujo, Constanza; Brunetto, Enzo; Buzzoni, Bernard; Comin, Mauro; Cullum, Martin J.; Davies, Richard I.; Dichirico, Canio; Dierickx, Philippe; Dimmler, Martin; Duchateau, Michel; Egedal, Carsten; Hackenberg, Wolfgang K. P.; Hippler, Stefan; Kellner, Stefan; van Kesteren, Arno; Koch, Franz; Neumann, Udo; Ott, Thomas; Quattri, Marco; Quentin, Jutta; Rabien, Sebastian; Tamai, Roberto; Tapia, Mario; Tarenghi, Massimo

    2003-02-01

    We report on the ongoing VLT Laser Guide Star Facility project, which will allow the ESO UT4 telescope to produce an artificial reference star for the Adaptive Optics systems NAOS-CONICA and SINFONI. A custom developed dye laser producing >10W CW at 589nm is installed on-board of the UT4 telescope, then relayed by means of a single mode optical fiber behind the secondary mirror, where a 500mm diameter lightweight, f/1 launch telescope is projecting the laser beam at 90 km altitude. We described the design tradeoffs and provide some details of the chosen subsystems. This paper is an update including subsystems results, to be read together with our previous paper on LGSF design description.

  6. VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Mair, C.; Pescoller, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Mantegazza, M.; Gallieni, D.; Vernet, E.; Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Duhoux, P.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Manetti, M.; Morandini, M.

    2012-07-01

    The VLT Deformable secondary is planned to be installed on the VLT UT#4 as part of the telescope conversion into the Adaptive Optics test Facility (AOF). The adaptive unit is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the forthcoming ELT-generation adaptive correctors, like the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been recently assembled after the completion of the manufacturing and modular test phases. In this paper, we present the most relevant aspects of the system integration and report the preliminary results of the electromechanical tests performed on the unit. This test campaign is a typical major step foreseen in all similar systems built so far: thanks to the metrology embedded in the system, that allows generating time-dependent stimuli and recording in real time the position of the controlled mirror on all actuators, typical dynamic response quality parameters like modal settling time, overshoot and following error can be acquired without employing optical measurements. In this way the system dynamic and some aspect of its thermal and long term stability can be fully characterized before starting the optical tests and calibrations.

  7. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers - 2nd Pass Correction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers—2nd Pass Correction by John E. Penn ARL-TN-0580 September 2013...September 2013 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers—2nd Pass Correction John E. Penn Sensors and Electron...COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers–2nd Pass Correction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  8. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, E.; Smith, M.

    2012-07-26

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  9. The design of ERIS for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amico, P.; Marchetti, E.; Pedichini, F.; Baruffolo, A.; Delabre, B.; Duchateau, M.; Ekinci, M.; Fantinel, D.; Fedrigo, E.; Finger, G.; Frank, C.; Hofmann, R.; Jolley, P.; Lizon, J. L.; Le Louarn, M.; Madec, P.-Y.; Soenke, C.; Weisz, H.

    2012-09-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation instrument planned for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF)1. It is an AO assisted instrument that will make use of the Deformable Secondary Mirror and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF), and it is designed for the Cassegrain focus of the telescope UT4. The project just concluded its conceptual design phase and is awaiting formal approval to continue to the next phase. ERIS will offer 1-5 μm imaging and 1-2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with high Strehl performance. As such it will replace, with much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important and popular observing capabilities currently offered by NACO2 (diffraction limited imaging in JM band, Sparse Aperture Masking and APP coronagraphy) and by SINFONI3, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be re-used in ERIS. The Cassegrain location and the performance requirements impose challenging demands on the project, from opto-mechanical design to cryogenics to the operational concept. In this paper we describe the baseline design proposed for ERIS and discuss these technical challenges, with particular emphasis on the trade-offs and the novel solutions proposed for building ERIS.

  10. VLT Images the Horsehead Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Summary A new, high-resolution colour image of one of the most photographed celestial objects, the famous "Horsehead Nebula" (IC 434) in Orion, has been produced from data stored in the VLT Science Archive. The original CCD frames were obtained in February 2000 with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope on Paranal (Chile). The comparatively large field-of-view of the FORS2 camera is optimally suited to show this extended object and its immediate surroundings in impressive detail. PR Photo 02a/02 : View of the full field around the Horsehead Nebula. PR Photo 02b/02 : Enlargement of a smaller area around the Horse's "mouth" A spectacular object ESO PR Photo 02a/02 ESO PR Photo 02a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 485 pix - 63k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 970 pix - 896k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1951 x 2366 pix - 4.7M] ESO PR Photo 02b/02 ESO PR Photo 02b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 501 pix - 91k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1002 pix - 888k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1139 x 1427 pix - 1.9M] Caption : PR Photo 02a/02 is a reproduction of a composite colour image of the Horsehead Nebula and its immediate surroundings. It is based on three exposures in the visual part of the spectrum with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m KUEYEN telescope at Paranal. PR Photo 02b/02 is an enlargement of a smaller area. Technical information about these photos is available below. PR Photo 02a/02 shows the famous "Horsehead Nebula" , which is situated in the Orion molecular cloud complex. Its official name is Barnard 33 and it is a dust protrusion in the southern region of the dense dust cloud Lynds 1630 , on the edge of the HII region IC 434 . The distance to the region is about 1400 light-years (430 pc). This beautiful colour image was produced from three images obtained with the multi-mode FORS2 instrument at the second VLT Unit Telescope ( KUEYEN ), some months after it had "First Light", cf. PR 17/99. The image files were extracted from the VLT Science Archive Facility and the

  11. Multiple Eyes for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    First System of Deployable Multi-Integral Field Units Ready Summary The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory is being equipped with many state-of-the-art astronomical instruments that will allow observations in a large number of different modes and wavebands. Soon to come is the Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) , a project co-ordinated by ESO. It incorporates several complex components, now being constructed at various research institutions in Europe and Australia. One of these, a true technological feat, is a unique system of 15 deployable fibre bundles, the so-called Integral Field Units (IFUs) . They can be accurately positioned within a sky field-of-view measuring no less that 25 arcmin in diameter, i.e., almost as large as the full Moon . Each of the IFUs looks like an insect's eye and images a small sky area (3 x 2 arcsec 2 ) with a multiple microlens. From each IFU, 20 narrow light beams are sent via optical fibres to an advanced spectrograph. All 300 spectra are recorded simultaneously by a sensitive digital camera. A major advantage of this technique is that, contrary usual spectroscopic observations in which spectral information is obtained along a (one-dimensional) line on the sky, it now allows (two-dimensional) area spectroscopy . This will permit extremely efficient spectral observations of many celestial objects, including faint galaxies, providing detailed information about their internal structure and motions. Such studies will have an important impact on our understanding, e.g., of the early evolution of galaxies , the main building blocks in the Universe. The IFUs have been developed by a team of astronomers and engineers [2] at the Observatoire de Paris-Meudon. All IFU components are now at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) where they are being checked and integrated into the instrument [3]. PR Photo 03a/02 : The GIRAFFE spectrograph in the ESO Assembly Hall (Garching, Germany) . PR Photo 03b/02

  12. System safety approach in the VLT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansorge, Wolfgang

    1997-03-01

    Safety, like quality and reliability, has to be designed into a product and respected during all project phases from the concept definition to the operation and maintenance phases. The VLT approach towards occupational safety and health and equipment safety starts with the definition of realistic safety requirements and applicability of ECC directives and national laws of the ESO Member States. The approach continues with preliminary safety analyses during the early project phases, with hazard analysis and safety verifications during the developmental phases, the training for safe operation, maintenance, and later material disposal. System safety is an integral part of the VLT project.

  13. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. H. Kim, T. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source.

  14. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Maria L.; Dolganova, Irina N.; Gevorgyan, Narine; Guzman, Angela; Papoyan, Aram; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The ICTP smr2633: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications" (OPTICS-2014) http://indico.ictp.it/event/a13253/ was held in Yerevan and Ashtarak, Armenia, on 1-5 September 2014. The Symposium was organized by the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) with the collaboration of the SPIE Armenian Student Chapter, the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-Pyrkal, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the BMSTU SPIE & OSA student chapters. The International Symposium OPTICS-2014 was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics. This symposium "Optics and its Applications" was the First Official ICTP Scientific Event in Armenia. The presentations at OPTICS-2014 were centered on these topics: optical properties of nanostructures; quantum optics & information; singular optics and its applications; laser spectroscopy; strong field optics; nonlinear & ultrafast optics; photonics & fiber optics; optics of liquid crystals; and mathematical methods in optics.

  15. [Microsurgical 2nd toe transfer for catastrophic hand reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Placer, A; Lozano, Ja

    2007-01-01

    The correct reconstruction of the catastrophic hand requires complex surgical techniques. The microsurgical transference of a toe is indicated when all other reconstructive options are shown to be useless for the reconstruction of the required clamp function. In this clinical note we set out the case of a 32 year old man, who came to our accident and emergency department after suffering a traffic accident. After exploration the diagnosis was that of catastrophic left hand, among other policontusions. Urgent surgery was carried out, saving the maximum possible viable structures. The immediate result of this surgery was a hand with 1st, 4th and 5th functional fingers. As the essential clamp function between the 1st and 4th or 5th fingers was not totally satisfactory, we decided to reconstruct the 3rd finger of his hand with his ipsilateral 2nd toe. All pertinent studies to determine vascularisation of the flap were carried out in planning the surgery, and the microsurgical transfer was then realized, which was successful. Today, after a suitable rehabilitation, the patient has recovered a satisfactory function of heavy and fine clamp in the operated hand. Toe to hand transfer is a good option for finger reconstruction and its function. Rehabilitation is the key to functional recovery.

  16. PREFACE: 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO 2008'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, P.; Kolodziej, J. J.; Konior, J.; Szymonski, M.

    2009-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers presented at the 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO2008', that was held in Kraków, Poland, 25-28 June 2008. It was organized jointly by the Polish Chemical Society, Polish Physical Society, Polish Vacuum Society, and the Centre for Nanometer-scale Science and Advanced Materials (NANOSAM) of the Jagiellonian University. The meeting presentations were categorized into the following topics: 1. Nanomechanics and nanotribology 2. Characterization and manipulation in nanoscale 3. Quantum effects in nanostructures 4. Nanostructures on surfaces 5. Applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine 6. Nanotechnology in education 7. Industrial applications of nanotechnology, presentations of the companies 8. Nanoengineering and nanomaterials (international sessions shared with the fellows of Maria-Curie Host Fellowships within the 6th FP of the European Community Project 'Nano-Engineering for Expertise and Development, NEED') 9. Nanopowders 10. Carbon nanostructures and nanosystems 11. Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics 12. Nanomaterials in catalysis 13. Nanospintronics 14. Ethical, social, and environmental aspects of nanotechnology The Conference was attended by 334 participants. The presentations were delivered as 7 invited plenary lectures, 25 invited topical lectures, 78 oral and 108 poster contributions. Only 1/6 of the contributions presented during the Conference were submitted for publication in this Proceedings volume. From the submitted material, this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains 37 articles that were positively evaluated by independent referees. The Organizing Committee gratefully acknowledges all these contributions. We also thank all the referees of the papers submitted for the Proceedings for their timely and thorough work. We would like to thank all members of the National Program Committee for their work in the selection process of

  17. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Doughty, Christine; Gasperikova, Erika; Peterson, John; Conrad, Mark; Cook, Paul; Tiemi, Onishi

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  18. Highlights of the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamen; Fatima, Vayani; Fatima, Nazeefa; Das, Sayoni; Rahman, Farzana; Hassan, Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    Following the success of the 1 st Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK, a 2 nd Student Symposium took place on 7 th October 2015 at The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich, UK. This short report summarizes the main highlights from the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium. PMID:27239284

  19. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Baer-Keeley, Melanie; Fortheringham, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development Conference was held in association with Earth Day 1997, five years after the first Interface Conference. Rapid population growth in California has intensified the inevitable conflict between land development and preservation of natural ecosystems. Sustainable development requires wise use of diminishing natural resources and, where possible, restoration of damaged landscapes. These Earth Week Celebrations brought together resource managers, scientists, politicians, environmental consultants, and concerned citizens in an effort to improve the communication necessary to maintain our natural biodiversity, ecosystem processes and general quality of life. As discussed by our keynote speaker, Michael Soule, the best predictor of habitat loss is population growth and nowhere is this better illustrated than in California. As urban perimeters expand, the interface between wildlands and urban areas increases. Few problems are more vexing than how to manage the fire prone ecosystems indigenous to California at this urban interface. Today resource managers face increasing challenges of dealing with this problem and the lead-off section of the proceedings considers both the theoretical basis for making decisions related to prescribed burning and the practical application. Habitat fragmentation is an inevitable consequence of development patterns with significant impacts on animal and plant populations. Managers must be increasingly resourceful in dealing with problems of fragmentation and the often inevitable consequences, including susceptibility to invasive oganisms. One approach to dealing with fragmentation problems is through careful landplanning. California is the national leader in the integration of conservation and economics. On Earth Day 1991, Governor Pete Wilson presented an environmental agenda that promised to create between land owners and environmentalists, agreements that would guarantee the protection of

  20. Image quality and high contrast improvements on VLT/NACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Julien H. V.; O'Neal, Jared; Mawet, Dimitri; Kasper, Markus; Zins, Gérard; Neichel, Benoît; Kolb, Johann; Christiaens, Valentin; Tourneboeuf, Martin

    2012-07-01

    NACO is the famous and versatile diffraction limited NIR imager and spectrograph at the VLT with which ESO celebrated 10 years of Adaptive Optics. Since two years a substantial effort has been put in understanding and fixing issues that directly affect the image quality and the high contrast performances of the instrument. Experiments to compensate the non-common-path aberrations and recover the highest possible Strehl ratios have been carried out successfully and a plan is hereafter described to perform such measurements regularly. The drift associated to pupil tracking since 2007 was fixed in october 2011. NACO is therefore even more suited for high contrast imaging and can be used with coronagraphic masks in the image plane. Some contrast measurements are shown and discussed. The work accomplished on NACO will serve as reference for the next generation instruments on the VLT, especially the ones working at the diffraction limit and making use of angular differential imaging (i.e. SPHERE, VISIR, and possibly ERIS).

  1. Progress on the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Paufique, J.; Ströbele, S.; Pirard, J.-F.; Vernet, É.; Hackenberg, W.; Hubin, N.; Jochum, L.; Kuntschner, H.; Glindemann, A.; Amico, P.; Lelouarn, M.; Kolb, J.; Tordo, S.; Donaldson, R.; Sã¶Nke, C.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Conzelmann, R.; Delabre, B.; Kiekebusch, M.; Duhoux, P.; Guidolin, I.; Quattri, M.; Guzman, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Comin, M.; Dupuy, C.; Quentin, J.; Lizon, J.-L.; Silber, A.; Jolly, P.; Manescau, A.; Hammersley, P.; Reyes, J.; Jost, A.; Duchateau, M.; Heinz, V.; Bechet, C.; Stuik, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) Adaptive Optics Facility is a project that will transform one of the VLT's Unit Telescopes into an adaptive telescope that includes a deformable mirror in its optical train. For this purpose the secondary mirror is to be replaced by a thin shell deformable mirror; it will be possible to launch four laser guide stars from the centrepiece and two adaptive optics modules are being developed to feed the instruments HAWK-I and MUSE. These modules implement innovative correction modes for seeing improvement through ground layer adaptive optics and, for high Strehl ratio performance, laser tomography adaptive correction. The performance of these modes will be tested in Europe with a custom test bench called ASSIST. The project has completed its final design phase and concluded an intense phase of procurement; the year 2011 will see the beginning of assembly, integration and tests.

  2. "First Light" Approaches for VLT MELIPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    The year 1999 was a very busy one at ESO's Paranal Observatory , the site of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Soon after the official Inauguration on March 5, 1999, regular observations started with the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope ANTU . During the first nine months of operation (April - December 1999), about 79,000 exposures were made with the FORS1 and ISAAC astronomical instruments at this telescope. Altogether, more than 68 Gigabytes of unique data were gathered during this period for about 200 individual research programmes and stored in the VLT Data Archive. "First Light" was successfully achieved early in the year for the second 8.2-m VLT Unit telescope, KUEYEN . It has since been equipped with two powerful instruments, UVES and FORS2. Science observations with this telescope will start on April 1, 2000. Already in early December 1999, ahead of the schedule, the third 8.2-m Zerodur mirror in its cell was attached to the third 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, MELIPAL , cf. ESO PR Photos 42a-ad/99. The moment of "First Light" is approaching for this telescope. Originally planned for mid-February 2000, this significant event is now expected to take place about two weeks ahead of schedule, in late January 2000. From then on, the VLT will possess nearly 160 square metres of extremely accurate, highly reflecting mirror surface. While the observations for "First Light" and the subsequent commissioning period will be carried out with the VLT Test Camera, MELIPAL will receive its first special astronomical instrument, the VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph (VIMOS) towards the middle of the year. It is optimized for large field imaging and spectroscopic surveys and will become a real workhorse of the VLT for this type of research projects, together with the Near InfraRed MultiObject Spectrograph (NIRMOS) , to be installed later at the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN . YEPUN will have "First Light" later this year and the work on this telescope also progresses well. The "M

  3. 1st- and 2nd-order motion and texture resolution in central and peripheral vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Sperling, G.

    1995-01-01

    STIMULI. The 1st-order stimuli are moving sine gratings. The 2nd-order stimuli are fields of static visual texture, whose contrasts are modulated by moving sine gratings. Neither the spatial slant (orientation) nor the direction of motion of these 2nd-order (microbalanced) stimuli can be detected by a Fourier analysis; they are invisible to Reichardt and motion-energy detectors. METHOD. For these dynamic stimuli, when presented both centrally and in an annular window extending from 8 to 10 deg in eccentricity, we measured the highest spatial frequency for which discrimination between +/- 45 deg texture slants and discrimination between opposite directions of motion were each possible. RESULTS. For sufficiently low spatial frequencies, slant and direction can be discriminated in both central and peripheral vision, for both 1st- and for 2nd-order stimuli. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, at both retinal locations, slant discrimination is possible at higher spatial frequencies than direction discrimination. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, motion resolution decreases 2-3 times more rapidly with eccentricity than does texture resolution. CONCLUSIONS. (1) 1st- and 2nd-order motion scale similarly with eccentricity. (2) 1st- and 2nd-order texture scale similarly with eccentricity. (3) The central/peripheral resolution fall-off is 2-3 times greater for motion than for texture.

  4. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  5. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  6. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  7. 42. OVERALL OF 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM OFF MILL NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. OVERALL OF 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM OFF MILL NO. 2. NOTE TRUSSWORK. SPACE TO RIGHT OF COLUMNS IS PART OF 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADDITION. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  8. 22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING MACHINE. LIGHT TABLE USED TO CHECK FOR CLOTH DEFECTS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  9. VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT CASCADES TOWARDS FILTRATION PLANT AND LOS ANGELES RESERVOIR - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Cascades Structures, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 27. INTERIOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 2ND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER SPACE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 2ND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER SPACE, LOOKING UP AT CIRCULAR MOTIF AND BANDS IN THE CEILING ABOVE THE ACOUSTICAL TILES - Ford Motor Company Plant, 700 South Union Street, Alexandria, Independent City, VA

  11. Motion control solution for new PLC-based standard development platform for VLT instrument control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, D.; Brast, R.; Di Lieto, N.; Kiekebusch, M.; Knudstrup, J.; Lucuix, C.

    2014-07-01

    More than a decade ago, due to obsolescence issues, ESO initiated the design and implementation of a custom-made CANbus based motion controller (CAN-RMC) to provide, together with a tailor-made software library (motor library), the motion control capabilities for the VME platform needed for the second generation VLT/VLTI instruments. The CAN-RMC controller has been successfully used in a number of VLT instruments but it has high production costs compared to the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) industrial solutions available on the market today. In the scope of the selection of a new PLC-based platform for the VLT instrument control systems, ESO has evaluated motion control solutions from the company Beckhoff. This paper presents the investigation, implementation and testing of the PLC/TwinCAT/EtherCAT motion controllers for DC and stepper motors and their adaptation and integration into the VLT instrumentation framework. It reports functional and performance test results for the most typical use cases of astronomical instruments like initialization sequences, tracking, switch position detections, backslash compensation, brake handling, etc. In addition, it gives an overview of the main features of TwinCAT NC/PTP, PLCopen MC, EtherCAT motion control terminals and the engineering tools like TwinCAT Scope that are integrated into the development environment and simplify software development, testing and commissioning of motorized instrument functions.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 1(st)-2(nd) century CE southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Stephanie; Prowse, Tracy L; Herring, D Ann; Klunk, Jennifer; Kuch, Melanie; Duggan, Ana T; Bondioli, Luca; Holmes, Edward C; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-12-05

    The historical record attests to the devastation malaria exacted on ancient civilizations, particularly the Roman Empire [1]. However, evidence for the presence of malaria during the Imperial period in Italy (1st-5th century CE) is based on indirect sources, such as historical, epigraphic, or skeletal evidence. Although these sources are crucial for revealing the context of this disease, they cannot establish the causative species of Plasmodium. Importantly, definitive evidence for the presence of malaria is now possible through the implementation of ancient DNA technology. As malaria is presumed to have been at its zenith during the Imperial period [1], we selected first or second molars from 58 adults from three cemeteries from this time: Isola Sacra (associated with Portus Romae, 1st-3rd century CE), Velia (1st-2nd century CE), and Vagnari (1st-4th century CE). We performed hybridization capture using baits designed from the mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes of Plasmodium spp. on a prioritized subset of 11 adults (informed by metagenomic sequencing). The mtDNA sequences generated provided compelling phylogenetic evidence for the presence of P. falciparum in two individuals. This is the first genomic data directly implicating P. falciparum in Imperial period southern Italy in adults.

  13. Beam combination modes of the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Fritz

    The optical configuration of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is based on a linear array of 4 independently mounted 8-m telescopes. This concept allows a flexible and versatile use of the telescopes. They can be operated either independently or in various combination schemes. In the latter case, the light collected with the unit telescopes is fed via beam combination optics to the combined focus. The incoherent combination with a combined coude focus offers the light collecting power approximately equivalent to a 16-m single dish telescope. The efficiency of the combined foci operation is only given if the losses in the combining train are minimized.

  14. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, A.

    1990-12-01

    This report is a manual for the valiant little terminal. Information covered in this report is as follow: an introduction to VLT; installation; starting up; text screen menus; graphics screen menus; introduction to VLT's scripting facility; quick reference section; and troubleshooting.

  15. Obsolescence of electronics at the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüdepohl, Gerhard; Haddad, Juan-Pablo; Lucuix, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Observatory (VLT) at Cerro Paranal in Chile had its first light in 1998. Most of the telescopes' electronics components were chosen and designed in the mid 1990s and are now around 20 years old. As a consequence we are confronted with increasing failure rates due to aging and lack of spare parts, since many of the components are no longer available on the market. The lifetime of large telescopes is generally much beyond 25 years. Therefore the obsolescence of electronics components and modules becomes an issue sooner or later and forces the operations teams to upgrade the systems to new technology in order to avoid that the telescope becomes inoperable. Technology upgrade is a time and money consuming process, which in many cases is not straightforward and has various types of complications. This paper shows the strategy, analysis, approach, timeline, complications and progress in obsolescence driven electronics upgrades at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory.

  16. Automated observation scheduling for the VLT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that, in order to optimize the observing efficiency of large telescopes, some changes will be required in the way observations are planned and executed. Not all observing programs require the presence of the astronomer at the telescope: for those programs which permit service observing it is possible to better match planned observations to conditions at the telescope. This concept of flexible scheduling has been proposed for the VLT: based on current and predicted environmental and instrumental observations which make the most efficient possible use of valuable time. A similar kind of observation scheduling is already necessary for some space observatories, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Space Telescope Science Institute is presently developing scheduling tools for HST, based on the use of artificial intelligence software development techniques. These tools could be readily adapted for ground-based telescope scheduling since they address many of the same issues. The concept are described on which the HST tools are based, their implementation, and what would be required to adapt them for use with the VLT and other ground-based observatories.

  17. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  18. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  19. CFHT and VLT Identify Extremely Remote Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Top Telescopes Peer into the Distant Past Summary With improved telescopes and instruments, observations of extremely remote and faint galaxies have become possible that were until recently astronomers' dreams. One such object was found by a team of astronomers [2] with a wide-field camera installed at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope at Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA) during a search for extremely distant galaxies. Designated "z6VDF J022803-041618" , it was detected because of its unusual colour , being visible only on images obtained through a special optical filter isolating light in a narrow near-infrared band. A follow-up spectrum of this object with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) confirmed that it is a very distant galaxy (the redshift is 6.17 [3]). It is seen as it was when the Universe was only about 900 million years old . z6VDF J022803-041618 is one of the most distant galaxies for which spectra have been obtained so far. Interestingly, it was discovered because of the light emitted by its massive stars and not, as originally expected, from emission by hydrogen gas. PR Photo 13a/03 : Emission from the Earth's atmosphere. PR Photo 13b/03 : CHFT images of the very remote galaxy z6VDF J022803-041618. PR Photo 13c/03 : VLT spectrum of very remote galaxy z6VDF J022803-041618. PR Photo 13d/03 : Cleaned tracing of the VLT spectrum. A brief history of the early Universe Most scientists agree that the Universe emanated from a hot and extremely dense initial state in a Big Bang . The latest observations indicate that this crucial event took place about 13,700 million years ago . During the first few minutes, enormous quantities of hydrogen and helium nuclei with protons and neutrons were produced. There were also lots of free electrons and during the following epoch, the numerous photons were scattered from these and the atomic nuclei. At this stage, the Universe was completely opaque. After some 100,000 years, the Universe had

  20. Overview of the 2nd Gen 3.7m HIAD Static Load Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. T.; Kazemba, C. D.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Cassell, A. M.; Anderson, P.; Lowery, A.

    2015-01-01

    To support NASAs long term goal of landing humans on Mars, technologies which enable the landing of heavy payloads are being developed. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for human class payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current launch vehicle fairing limitations. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being explored to provide a mass and volume efficient solution to atmospheric entry, including Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). In October of 2014, a 3.7m HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection sys-tem (F-TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify the designs structural performance. The 3.7m HIAD structure was constructed in a 70 deg sphere-cone stacked-toroid configuration using eight inflatable tori, which were joined together using adhesives and high strength textile webbing to help distribute the loads throughout the inflatable structure. The inflatable structure was fabricated using 2nd generation structural materials that permit an increase in use temperature to 400 C+ as compared to the 250 C limitation of the 1st generation materials. In addition to the temperature benefit, these materials also offer a 40 reduction in structure mass. The 3.7m F-TPS was fabricated using high performance materials to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen during atmospheric entry. The F-TPS was constructed of 2nd generation TPS materials increasing its heating capability from 35W sq cm to over 100W sq cm. This test article is the first stacked-torus HIAD to be fabricated and tested with a 70 deg sphere-cone. All previous stacked-torus HIADs have employed a 60o sphere-cone. To perform the static load test series, a custom test fixture was constructed. The fixture consisted of a structural tub rim with enough height to allow for dis-placement of the inflatable structure as loads were applied. The tub rim was attached to the

  1. DOE performance indicators for 2nd quarter CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a Department-wide Performance Indicator (PI) Program for trending and analysis of operational data as directed by DOE Order 5480.26. The PI Program was established to provide a means for monitoring the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) performance of the DOE at the Secretary and other management levels. This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports generated for the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) by EG&G Idaho, Inc. to meet the requirements of the PI Program as directed by the DOE Standard (DOE-STD-1048-92). The information in this tenth quarterly report, while contributing to a historical database for supporting future trending analysis, does not at this time provide a sound basis for developing trend-related conclusions. In the future, it is expected that trending and analysis of operational data will enhance the safety culture in both DOE and contractor organizations by providing an early warning of deteriorating environment, safety, and health conditions. DOE-STD-1048-92 identifies four general areas of PIs. They are: Personnel Safety, Operational Incidents, Environment, and Management. These four areas have been subdivided into 26 performance indicators. Approximately 115 performance indicator control and distribution charts comprise the body of this report. A brief summary of PIs contained in each of these general areas is provided. The four EG&G facilities whose performance is charted herein are as follows: (1) The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), (2) The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), (3) The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), and (4) The Test Reactor Area (TRA) Hot Cells.

  2. First Images from VLT Science Verification Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    Two Weeks of Intensive Observations Successfully Concluded After a period of technical commissioning tests, the first 8.2-m telescope of the ESO VLT (UT1) has successfully performed an extensive series of "real science" observations , yielding nearly 100 hours of precious data. They concern all possible types of astronomical objects, from distant galaxies and quasars to pulsars, star clusters and solar system objects. This intensive Science Verification (SV) Programme took place as planned from August 17 to September 1, 1998, and was conducted by the ESO SV Team at the VLT Observatory on Paranal (Chile) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). The new giant telescope lived fully up to the high expectations and worked with spectacular efficiency and performance through the entire period. All data will be released by September 30 via the VLT archive and the web (with some access restrictions - see below). The Science Verification period Just before the beginning of the SV period, the 8.2-m primary mirror in its cell was temporarily removed in order to install the "M3 tower" with the tertiary mirror [1]. The reassembly began on August 15 and included re-installation at the Cassegrain focus of the VLT Test Camera that was also used for the "First Light" images in May 1998. After careful optical alignment and various system tests, the UT1 was handed over to the SV Team on August 17 at midnight local time. The first SV observations began immediately thereafter and the SV Team was active 24 hours a day throughout the two-week period. Video-conferences between Garching and Paranal took place every day at about noon Garching time (6 o'clock in the morning on Paranal). Then, while the Paranal observers were sleeping, data from the previous night were inspected and reduced in Garching, with feedback on what was best to do during the following night being emailed to Paranal several hours in advance of the beginning of the observations. The campaign ended in the

  3. When VLT Meets HST: The HUGS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Paris, D.; Targett, T.; Boutsia, K.; Castellano, M.; Galametz, A.; Grazian, A.; McLure, R.; Merlin, E.; Pentericci, L.; Wuyts, S.; Almaini, O.; Caputi, K.; Chary, R.-R.; Cirasuolo, M.; Conselice, C.; Cooray, A.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Faber, S. M.; Fazio, G.; Ferguson, H.; Giallongo, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Grogin, N.; Hathi, N.; Koekemoer, A.; Koo, D. C.; Lucas, R.; Nonino, M.; Rix, H.-W.; Renzini, A.; Rosario, D.; Santini, P.; Scarlata, C.; Sommariva, V.; Stark, D. P.; van der Wel, A.; Vanzella, E.; Wild, V.; Yan, H.; Zibetti, S.

    2014-03-01

    A new ultra-deep near-infrared imaging survey has been completed using the HAWK-I imager at the VLT. It is named HUGS (HAWK-I Ultra Deep Survey and GOODS Survey) and delivers the deepest, highest quality images ever collected in the K-band. HUGS complements the data delivered by the HST CANDELS survey over two well-studied extragalactic fields, and promises to open up exciting new opportunities to explore the highest redshift Universe. The survey is outlined and faint galaxy number counts and the search for passive galaxies in the early Universe are highlighted. The HUGS data have been completely analysed and are being made public to the worldwide community.

  4. 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of China (ESC) and Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME) hosted the 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases in Beijing, China, May 23-27, 2011. The theme of the Forum was “Impact of global climate ch...

  5. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This NERL-Cincinnati publication, “Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition” was prepared as the continuation of an initiative to gather together under a single cover a compendium of standardized laborato...

  6. Stem cells and cancer immunotherapy: Arrowhead’s 2nd annual cancer immunotherapy conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from academia and industry gathered on April 4 and 5, 2013, in Washington DC at the Arrowhead’s 2nd Annual Cancer Immunotherapy Conference. Two complementary concepts were discussed: cancer “stem cells” as targets and therapeutic platforms based on stem cells.

  7. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Maxfield, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  8. Evaluation of a Hand Washing Program for 2nd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program.…

  9. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  10. The Effect of Using Computer Edutainment on Developing 2nd Primary Graders' Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Abdel Raheem, Azza Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempted to examine the effect of using computer edutainment on developing 2nd graders' writing skills. The study comprised thirty-second year primary stage enrolled in Bani Hamad primary governmental school, Minia governorate. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one…

  11. "First Light" for the VLT Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    Excellent Fringes From Bright Stars Prove VLTI Concept Summary Following the "First Light" for the fourth of the 8.2-m telescopes of the VLT Observatory on Paranal in September 2000, ESO scientists and engineers have just successfully accomplished the next major step of this large project. On March 17, 2001, "First Fringes" were obtained with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) - this important event corresponds to the "First Light" for an astronomical telescope. At the VLTI, it occurred when the infrared light from the bright star Sirius was captured by two small telescopes and the two beams were successfully combined in the subterranean Interferometric Laboratory to form the typical pattern of dark and bright lines known as " interferometric fringes ". This proves the success of the robust VLTI concept, in particular of the "Delay Line". On the next night, the VLTI was used to perform a scientific measurement of the angular diameter of another comparatively bright star, Alpha Hydrae ( Alphard ); it was found to be 0.00929±0.00017 arcsec . This corresponds to the angular distance between the two headlights of a car as seen from a distance of approx. 35,000 kilometres. The excellent result was obtained during a series of observations, each lasting 2 minutes, and fully confirming the impressive predicted abilities of the VLTI . This first observation with the VLTI is a monumental technological achievement, especially in terms of accuracy and stability . It crucially depends on the proper combination and functioning of a large number of individual opto-mechnical and electronic elements. This includes the test telescopes that capture the starlight, continuous and extremely precise adjustment of the various mirrors that deflect the light beams as well as the automatic positioning and motion of the Delay Line carriages and, not least, the optimal tuning of the VLT INterferometer Commissionning Instrument (VINCI). These initial observations prove the overall concept for the

  12. Utilisation of 2nd Generation Web Technologies in Master Level Vocational Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tóth, Péter

    2009-01-01

    The Masters level Opportunities and Technological Innovation in Vocational Teacher Education project (project site: http://motivate.tmpk.bmf.hu/) aims to develop the use and management of virtual learning environments in the area of vocational teacher training, drawing on a well established international partnership of institutions providing both…

  13. Performance of 2nd Generation BaBar Resistive Plate Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Anulli, F.; Baldini, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Cheng, C.H.; Lange, D.J.; Wright, D.M.; Messner, R.; Wisniewski, William J.; Pappagallo, M.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Capra, R.; /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Oregon U. /UC, Riverside /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-07-12

    The BaBar detector has operated nearly 200 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), constructed as part of an upgrade of the forward endcap muon detector, for the past two years. The RPCs experience widely different background and luminosity-driven singles rates (0.01-10 Hz/cm{sup 2}) depending on position within the endcap. Some regions have integrated over 0.3 C/cm{sup 2}. RPC efficiency measured with cosmic rays is high and stable. The average efficiency measured with beam is also high. However, a few of the highest rate RPCs have suffered efficiency losses of 5-15%. Although constructed with improved techniques and minimal use of linseed oil, many of the RPCs, which are operated in streamer mode, have shown increased dark currents and noise rates that are correlated with the direction of the gas flow and the integrated current. Studies of the above aging effects are presented and correlated with detector operating conditions.

  14. Reed canary grass as a feedstock for 2nd generation bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Uusitalo, Jaana; Pahkala, Katri; Kontturi, Markku; Viikari, Liisa; Weymarn, Niklas von; Siika-Aho, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of reed canary grass, harvested in the spring or autumn, and barley straw were studied. Steam pretreated materials were efficiently hydrolysed by commercial enzymes with a dosage of 10-20FPU/g d.m. Reed canary grass harvested in the spring was hydrolysed more efficiently than the autumn-harvested reed canary grass. Additional β-glucosidase improved the release of glucose and xylose during the hydrolysis reaction. The hydrolysis rate and level of reed canary grass with a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase could be improved by supplementation of purified enzymes. The addition of CBH II improved the hydrolysis level by 10% in 48hours' hydrolysis. Efficient mixing was shown to be important for hydrolysis already at 10% dry matter consistency. The highest ethanol concentration (20g/l) and yield (82%) was obtained with reed canary grass at 10% d.m. consistency.

  15. Screening for an Allergic Response to 2nd Generation Biofuel Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for March 2014 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting The use of cellulosic biofuels crops can potentially reduce our carbon footprint. However, they may have unintended ecological and health effects such as increased competitiveness and allergenicity...

  16. Main Engine Prototype Development for 2nd Generation RLV RS-83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilja, John; Fisher, Mark; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation reports on the NASA project to develop a prototype for RS-83 engine designed for use on reusable launch vehicles (RLV). Topics covered include: program objectives, overview schedule, organizational chart, integrated systems engineering processes, requirement analysis, catastrophic engine loss, maintainability analysis tools, and prototype design analysis.

  17. Sharpest Ever VLT Images at NAOS-CONICA "First Light"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    diffraction-limited imaging with NAOS-CONICA at a wavelength of 1.257 µm allows to view the individual components of a close double star, here the binary star GJ 263 for which the angular distance between the two stars is only 0.030 arcsec (i.e., the angle subtended by a 1 Euro coin at a distance of 160 km). Spatially resolved observations of binary stars like this one will allow the determination of orbital parameters, and ultimately of the masses of the individual binary star components. After few days of optimisation and calibration, NAOS-CONICA was able to "close the loop" on a reference star as faint as visual magnitude 17 and to provide a fine diffraction-limited K-band image with Strehl ratio 19% under 0.6 arcsec seeing. PR Photo 33i/01 provides a view of this image, as seen in the recorder frame and as a 3D-profile. The exposure time was 200 seconds. The ability to use reference stars as faint as this is an enormous asset for NAOS-CONICA - it will be first to offer this capability to non-specialist users with an instrument on an 8-10 m class telescope . This permits to access many sky fields and already get significant AO corrections, without having to wait for the artificial laser guide star now being constructed for the VLT, see below. 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC - a satellite of our Galaxy) is the most luminous, giant HII region in the Local Group of Galaxies. It is powered by a massive star cluster with more than 100 ultra-luminous stars (of the "Wolf-Rayet"-type and O-stars). The NAOS CONICA K-band image PR Photo 33x/01 resolves the dense stellar core of high-mass stars at the centre of the cluster, revealing thousands of lower mass cluster members. Due to the lack of a sufficiently bright, isolated and single reference star in this sky field, the observers used instead the bright central star complex (R136a) to generate the corrective signals to the flexible mirror, needed to compensate for the atmospheric turbulence. However, R136a is not a

  18. Giant Eyes for the VLT Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    First Scientific Results with Combined Light Beams from Two 8.2-m Unit Telescopes Summary It started as a preparatory technical experiment and it soon developed into a spectacular success. Those astronomers and engineers who were present in the control room that night now think of it as the scientific dawn of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) . On October 29, 2001, ANTU and MELIPAL , two of the four VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes at the ESO Paranal Observatory, were linked for the first time. Light from the southern star Achernar (Alpha Eridani) was captured by the two telescopes and sent to a common focus in the observatory's Interferometric Laboratory. Following careful adjustments of the optical paths, interferometric fringes were soon recorded there, proving that the beams from the two telescopes had been successfully combined "in phase" . From an analysis of the observed pattern (the "fringe contrast"), the angular diameter of Achernar was determined to be 1.9 milli-arcsec. At the star's distance (145 light-years), this corresponds to a size of 13 million km. The observation is equivalent to measuring the size of a 4-metre long car on the surface of the Moon. This result marks the exciting starting point for operations with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) and it was immediately followed up by other scientific observations. Among these were the first measurements of the diameters of three red dwarf stars ("Kapteyn's star" - HD 33793, HD 217987 and HD 36395), a precise determination of the variable diameters of the pulsating Cepheid stars Beta Doradus and Zeta Geminorum (of great importance for the calibration of the universal distance scale), as well as a first interferometric measurement of the core of Eta Carinae , an intriguing, massive southern object that may possibly become the next supernova in our galaxy. This milestone is another important step towards the ultimate goal of the VLT project - to combine all four 8.2-m telescopes

  19. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.4: Vortex Transport by Uniform Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d. The CESE method is a time accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist, the 2nd-order accurate version was used. In regards to the ez4d code, it is an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available. As part of its architecture, ez4d has the capability to utilize multi-thread and Messaging Passage Interface (MPI) for parallel runs.

  20. A Communications Guide for Sustainable Development: How Interested Parties Become Partners, 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Hund, Gretchen; Engel-Cox, Jill A.

    2016-03-06

    The 2nd edition is an updated version plus an e-book. This book was developed to assist organizations in designing and managing their communication and stakeholder involvement programs. The guidebook describes a step-by-step approach, provides case studies, and presents tools to consider. The book uses a scenario approach to outline changes an organization may confront, and provides a menu of communication and engagement activities that support organizational decision making.

  1. Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Prague 2004

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P; Johnston, K; Meeuwisse, W; Aubry, M; Cantu, R; Dvorak, J; Graf-Baumann, T; Kelly, J; Lovell, M; Schamasch, P

    2005-01-01

    In November 2001, the 1st International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was held in Vienna, Austria to provide recommendations for the improvement of safety and health of athletes who suffer concussive injuries in ice hockey, football (soccer), and other sports. The 2nd International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was organised by the same group and held in Prague, Czech Republic in November 2004. It resulted in a revision and update of the Vienna consensus recommendations, which are presented here.

  2. Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Prague 2004

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P; Johnston, K; Meeuwisse, W; Aubry, M; Cantu, R; Dvorak, J; Graf-Baumann, T; Kelly, J; Lovell, M; Schamasch, P

    2005-01-01

    In November 2001, the 1st International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was held in Vienna, Austria to provide recommendations for the improvement of safety and health of athletes who suffer concussive injuries in ice hockey, football (soccer), and other sports. The 2nd International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was organised by the same group and held in Prague, Czech Republic in November 2004. It resulted in a revision and update of the Vienna consensus recommendations, which are presented here. PMID:15793085

  3. Graphical shapes of the 2nd type singularities of a 3-RR̠R planar mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buium, F.; Duca, C.; Doroftei, I.; Leohchi, D.

    2016-08-01

    This paper intends to discuss about singularity curves of 2nd type inside the workspace of a 3R̠RR planar parallel mechanism used as robot structure. In order to attain this goal we will use certain variation of the links dimensional parameters. This characterization of the mechanism singularities located inside mechanism workspace depends on the dimensional parameters and can be useful in mechanism designing accorded to some functional particularities in the sense that it can help in avoiding singular configurations.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  5. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  6. Development of fetal intestinal length during 2nd-trimester in normal and pathologic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Marnerides, Andreas; Ghazi, Sam; Sundberg, Anders; Papadogiannakis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Linear growth of the human fetal gastrointestinal tract is not often discussed in the literature, and little is known about the effects of chromosomal abnormalities and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on intestinal length, especially during the 2nd trimester. Accurate evaluation of intestinal length and knowledge of normal and reference values are of clinical importance. For example, intestinal resection may be necessary in preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis or mid-gut volvulus, and the surgeon should use data to be judicious in the amount removed. Linear measurements are essential in evaluating fetal development ultrasonographically and are an integral part of the postmortem examination. The intestinal lengths of 203 2nd-trimester fetuses and premature infants were measured. Small intestine length (SIL), colon length (CL), total bowel length (TBL; TBL  =  SIL + CL), and the length of the appendix (AL) increased with gestational age. No differences between the genders were observed. Colon length increased secondary to maceration, but no such effects were shown on SIL, TBL, or AL. No differences were shown in relation to IUGR. Small intestine length, CL, and TBL, but not AL, were shorter in fetuses with trisomy 21. Appendix length was not affected by any of the studied factors. We propose that the measurement of the length of the appendix may be used as an additional parameter for the postmortem evaluation of gestational age. Furthermore, its assessment may have potential as an ultrasonographic indicator of gestational age, particularly for the 2nd trimester.

  7. Healing of rat mouth mucosa after irradiation with CO2, Nd:YAG, and CO2-Nd:YAG combination lasers.

    PubMed

    Luomanen, M; Rauhamaa-Mäkinen, R; Meurman, J H; Kosloff, T; Tiitta, O

    1994-08-01

    The healing process of wounds made by a combination laser was studied in 90 rats. The laser system enabled both separate and combined use of CO2 and Nd:YAG laser irradiations. The laser wounds and the control excision wounds made by alligator forceps appeared on both sides of the tongue. Specimens from the wound sites were taken immediately, 6 h, and 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 21, 28, and 42 days after surgery. The wound-healing process was studied by macroscopic evaluation before preparing the specimens for light microscopy. Some differences were noted in the wound-healing process among the three groups into which the experimental animals were divided. Tissue coagulation damage was most extensive in the Nd:YAG laser sites, where it was observed in its full extent 4 days after surgery. Epithelial cells were seen to begin to proliferate in all the wounds 6 h after surgery. Re-epithelialization was completed by between 7 (CO2) and 21 days (Nd:YAG) at all the wound sites. The inflammatory cell infiltration was more prominent in the Nd:YAG and the CO2-Nd:YAG combination laser wounds than in the CO2 and excision wounds during healing. Tissue regeneration occurred faster with less contraction in the combination CO2-Nd:YAG wounds than in Nd:YAG wounds. The best macroscopic healing result was seen in the CO2 wound sites. The combination laser was effective both at cutting and at coagulating tissue. Combining the CO2 and Nd:YAG laser irradiation into one beam resulted in a greater incision depth than what could have been expected from using the two lasers separately.

  8. VIMOS - a Cosmology Machine for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Successful Test Observations With Powerful New Instrument at Paranal [1] Summary One of the most fundamental tasks of modern astrophysics is the study of the evolution of the Universe . This is a daunting undertaking that requires extensive observations of large samples of objects in order to produce reasonably detailed maps of the distribution of galaxies in the Universe and to perform statistical analysis. Much effort is now being put into mapping the relatively nearby space and thereby to learn how the Universe looks today . But to study its evolution, we must compare this with how it looked when it still was young . This is possible, because astronomers can "look back in time" by studying remote objects - the larger their distance, the longer the light we now observe has been underway to us, and the longer is thus the corresponding "look-back time". This may sound easy, but it is not. Very distant objects are very dim and can only be observed with large telescopes. Looking at one object at a time would make such a study extremely time-consuming and, in practical terms, impossible. To do it anyhow, we need the largest possible telescope with a highly specialised, exceedingly sensitive instrument that is able to observe a very large number of (faint) objects in the remote universe simultaneously . The VLT VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) is such an instrument. It can obtain many hundreds of spectra of individual galaxies in the shortest possible time; in fact, in one special observing mode, up to 6400 spectra of the galaxies in a remote cluster during a single exposure, augmenting the data gathering power of the telescope by the same proportion. This marvellous science machine has just been installed at the 8.2-m MELIPAL telescope, the third unit of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory. A main task will be to carry out 3-dimensional mapping of the distant Universe from which we can learn its large-scale structure . "First light

  9. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, A.

    1992-08-01

    VLT came to be used at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), because SLAC wanted to assess the Amiga's usefulness as a color graphics terminal and T{sub E}X workstation. Before the project could really begin, the people at SLAC needed a terminal emulator which could successfully talk to the IBM 3081 (now the IBM ES9000-580) and all the VAXes on the site. Moreover, it had to compete in quality with the Ann Arbor Ambassador GXL terminals which were already in use at the laboratory. Unfortunately, at the time there was no commercial program which fit the bill. Luckily, Willy Langeveld had been independently hacking up a public domain VT100 emulator written by Dave Wecker et al. and the result, VLT, suited SLAC's purpose. Over the years, as the program was debugged and rewritten, the original code disappeared, so that now, in the present version of VLT, none of the original VT100 code remains.

  10. Installation and first results of FLAMES, the VLT multifibre facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Luca; Alonso, Jaime; Avila, Gerardo; Barriga, Pablo; Biereichel, Peter; Buzzoni, Bernard; Cavadore, Cyril; Cumani, Claudio; Dekker, Hans; Delabre, Bernard; Kaufer, Andreas; Kotzlowski, Heinz; Hill, Vanessa; Lizon, Jean-Luis; Nees, Walter; Santin, Paolo; Schmutzer, Ricardo; Kesteren, A. V.; Zoccali, Manuela

    2003-03-01

    FLAMES is the VLT Fibre Facility, installed and being commissioned at the Nasmyth A of UT2 (Kueyen Telescope). FLAMES has been built and assembled at the VLT telescope in about 4 years through an international collaboration between 10 institutes in 6 countries and 3 continents. It had first light with the fibre link to the red arm of UVES on April 1, and with the GIRAFFE spectrograph on July 3. We have not yet enough data to compare the observed vs. expected astronomical performances, although these first data are encouraging in many respects. We aim at proceeding soon with the remaining tests

  11. Carbon dioxide emissions and the overshoot ratio change resulting from the implementation of 2nd Energy Master Plan in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The direction of the energy policies of the country is important in the projection of environmental impacts of the country. The greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of the energy sector in South Korea is very huge, about 600 MtCO2e in 2011. Also the carbon footprint due to the energy consumption contributes to the ecological footprint is also large, more than 60%. Based on the official plans (the national greenhouse gases emission reduction target for 2030 (GHG target for 2030) and the 2nd Energy Master Plan (2nd EMP)), several scenarios were proposed and the sensitivity of the GHG emission amount and 'overshoot ratio' which is the ratio of ecological footprint to biocapacity were estimated. It was found that to meet the GHG target for 2030 the ratio of non-emission energy for power generation should be over 71% which would be very difficult. We also found that the overshoot ratio would increase from 5.9 in 2009 to 7.6 in 2035. Thus, additional efforts are required to reduce the environmental burdens in addition to optimize the power mix configuration. One example is the conversion efficiency in power generation. If the conversion efficiency in power generation rises up 50% from the current level, 40%, the energy demand and resultant carbon dioxide emissions would decrease about 10%. Also the influence on the environment through changes in consumption behavior, for example, the diet choice is expected to be meaningful.

  12. Mars Curriculum for K-12 Science Education, 2nd Edition, Making Tracks on Mars Teacher Resource and Activity Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubele, J. C.; Stanley, J.; Grochowski, A.; Jones, K.; Aragon, J.

    2012-03-01

    A Mars K-12 curriculum, created by the New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, is now in 2nd edition DVD, approved by NASA educational review, 508 compliant to ensure accessibility for people with disabilities, and applicable to MSL.

  13. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  14. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  15. 2ND EF Conference in Turbulent Heat Transfer, Manchester, UK 1998. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    1WB.7C 1W1UC •v*ataj «vnlMlai i-V 1 iBriMHI MWBlaj fprriatfa ■ HSV Of»U» Ia»fUC T-4UC : BBIW OIJIHIIM 1 *>IMC T»«MC (g) (h) Figure 7 Local...t’ k THE UNIVERSITY y MANCHESTER UMIST 2nd EF Conference in TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER Manchester, UK 1 998 Approved /or public vil...QXTALTTY INSPECTED 1 CONTENTS VOLUME I Session 1 : Heat Transfer Under Simple Shearing (Chairmen: B. E. Launder and T. J. Hanratty) Y. Na, D. V

  16. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively.

  17. Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of a Coarse-Grained Mg-2Zn-2Nd Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Jonas, John J.; Yue, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Compression tests were performed on samples of Mg-2Zn-2Nd at 673 K (400 °C) and at three different strain rates. At 0.1/s, three mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) were observed to operate: discontinuous DRX (DDRX), twinning DRX (TDRX), and continuous DRX (CDRX). At 0.01/s, DDRX took place as a result of grain boundary bulging, followed by CDRX on further straining. At 0.001/s, only CDRX was observed. At a strain of 0.3, the activation of multiple DRX mechanisms in the 0.1/s samples produced the weakest deformation textures.

  18. Secular Motion in a 2nd Degree and Order-Gravity Field with no Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Hu, W.

    2001-03-01

    The motion of a particle about a non-rotating 2nd degree and order-gravity field is investigated. Averaging conditions are applied to the particle motion and a qualitative analysis which reveals the general character of motion in this system is given. It is shown that the orbit plane will either be stationary or precess about the body's axis of minimum or maximum moment of inertia. It is also shown that the secular equations for this system can be integrated in terms of trigonometric, hyperbolic or elliptic functions. The explicit solutions are derived in all cases of interest.

  19. Deploying the testbed for the VLT adaptive optics facility: ASSIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuik, Remko; La Penna, Paolo; Dupuy, Christophe; de Haan, Menno; Arsenault, Robin; Boland, Wilfried; Elswijk, Eddy; ter Horst, Rik; Hubin, Norbert; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Molster, Frank; Wiegers, Emiel

    2012-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Facility (VLT-AOF) will transform the VLT Unit Telescope 4 to an Adaptive Telescope. In absence of an intermediate focus before the Adaptive Secondary in this Ritchey-Chrétien type telescope and in order to reduce the testing and calibration of the system on-sky, ASSIST, The Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator, was developed. It provides an off-sky testing facility for the ESO AOF and will provide a full testing environment for three elements of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility: the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the AO modules for MUSE and HAWK-I (GALACSI and GRAAL). ASSIST was delivered to ESO Garching, where it was assembled and tested. Currently ASSIST is being integrated with the Deformable Secondary Mirror, the first step in the full system testing of the two AO systems for the VLT AOF on ASSIST. This paper briefly reviews the design and properties of ASSIST and reports on the first results of ASSIST in stand-alone mode.

  20. Roles of doping ions in afterglow properties of blue CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wako, A. H.; Dejene, B. F.; Swart, H. C.

    2014-04-01

    Eu2+ doped and Nd3+ co-doped calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+) phosphor was prepared by a urea-nitrate solution combustion method at furnace temperatures as low as 500 °C. The produced CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ powder was investigated in terms of phase composition, morphology and luminescence by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Photoluminescence (PL) techniques respectively. XRD analysis depicts a dominant monoclinic phase that indicates no change in the crystalline structure of the phosphor with varying concentration of Eu2+ and Nd3+. SEM results show agglomerates with non-uniform shapes and sizes with a number of irregular network structures having lots of voids and pores. The Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and (FTIR) spectra confirm the expected chemical components of the phosphor. PL measurements indicated one broadband excitation spectra from 200 to 300 nm centered around 240 nm corresponding to the crystal field splitting of the Eu2+ d-orbital and an emission spectrum in the blue region with a maximum on 440 nm. This is a strong indication that there was dominantly one luminescence center, Eu2+ which represents emission from transitions between the 4f7 ground state and the 4f6-5d1 excited state configuration. High concentrations of Eu2+ and Nd3+ generally reduce both intensity and lifetime of the phosphor powders. The optimized content of Eu2+ is 1 mol% and for Nd3+ is 1 mol% for the obtained phosphors with excellent optical properties. The phosphor also emits visible light at around 587 and 616 nm. Such emissions can be ascribed to the 5D0-7F1 and 5D0-7F2 intrinsic transition of Eu3+ respectively. The decay characteristics exhibit a significant rise in initial intensity with increasing Eu2+ doping concentration while the decay time increased with Nd3+ co-doping. The observed afterglow can be ascribed to the generation of suitable traps due to the presence of the Nd3

  1. VLT Smashes the Record of the Farthest Known Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    formed which could illuminate the vast space. The Universe was a cold and opaque place. This sombre era is therefore quite reasonably dubbed the "Dark Ages". A few hundred million years later, the first generation of stars and, later still, the first galaxies and quasars, produced intense ultraviolet radiation, gradually lifting the fog over the Universe. This was the end of the Dark Ages and, with a term again taken over from human history, is sometimes referred to as the "Cosmic Renaissance". Astronomers are trying to pin down when - and how - exactly the Dark Ages finished. This requires looking for the remotest objects, a challenge that only the largest telescopes, combined with a very careful observing strategy, can take up. Using a Gravitational Telescope With the advent of 8-10 meter class telescopes spectacular progress has been achieved during the last decade. Indeed it has since become possible to observe with some detail several thousand galaxies and quasars out to distances of nearly 12 billion light-years (i.e. up to a redshift of 3 [3]). In other words astronomers are now able to study individual galaxies, their formation, evolution, and other properties over typically 85 % of the past history of the Universe. Further in the past, however, observations of galaxies and quasars become scarce. Currently, only a handful of very faint galaxies are seen approximately 1,200 to 750 million years after the Big Bang (redshift 5-7). Beyond that, the faintness of these sources and the fact their light is shifted from the optical to the near infrared has so far severely limited the studies. An important breakthrough in this quest for the earliest formed galaxy has now been achieved by a team of French and Swiss astronomers [2] using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) equipped with the near-infrared sensitive instrument ISAAC. To accomplish this, they had to combine the light amplification effect of a cluster of galaxies - a Gravitational Telescope - with the light

  2. [How to read and understand Registries for Evaluating Patient Outcomes: A User's Guide (2nd Edition)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2013-09-01

    Registry studies (RS) get more and more attention in recent years because it can reflect the health care situations of the real world. There are a number of large scale RS for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). RS are observational studies that can complement randomized controlled trials (RCT). RS have an irreplaceable position in real word study (RWS), especially for small probability events. There are some different characters and qualities in RS. Registries for Evaluating Patient Outcomes: A User's Guide (2nd Edition) was published by the agency for healthcare research and quality (AHRQ) in 2010. It described the details of how to establish, maintain, and evaluate RS, and using 38 RS samples to illustrate the possible problems in undertaking such research. The User's Guide (2nd Edition) provides a reliable reference document for RS. TCM injections post-marketing safety surveillance RS is a national program involving multiple centers in China. This program can further improve RS quality their application in China and is a good illustration of how to follow this guide accurately.

  3. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence.

  4. A novel 2nd-order bandpass MFSS filter with miniaturized structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, C. Y.; Gao, J. S.; Feng, X. G.

    2015-08-01

    In order to effectively obtain a miniaturized structure and good filtering properties, we propose a novel 2nd-order bandpass metamaterial frequency selective surface (MFSS) filter which contains two capacitive layers and one inductive layer, where there are multi-loop metallic patches as shunt capacitor C and planar wire grids as series inductor L respectively. Unlike the traditional operation way—the tuned elements used in resonant surface approximately equal to one wavelength in circumference and the structure thickness with a spacing of a quarter wavelength apart, by changing the value of L and C and matching multilayer dielectric to adjust the LC coupling resonance and the resonance impedance respectively, the proposed MFSS filter can achieves a miniatured structure with ideal bandpass properties. Measurement results of the fabricated prototype of the bandpass filter (BPF) indicate that the dimension of the tuned element on resonant surface is approximately 0.025 wavelength, i.e., 0.025λ. At the same time, the filter has the stable center frequency of f0 = 1.53GHz and the transmittance of T ⩾ 96.3% and high Q-value for the TE/TM wave polarization at various incidence angles. The novel 2nd-order bandpass MFSS filter with miniaturized structure not only can decrease structure dimension, but also has a wide range of applications to microwave and infrared band.

  5. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  6. MOONS: A New Powerful Multi-Object Spectrograph for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirasuolo, M.; MOONS Consortium

    2016-10-01

    MOONS (the Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph) is a third-generation instrument for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The large collecting area offered by the VLT (8.2 m diameter), combined with the large multiplex and wavelength coverage (optical to near-IR: 0.64 μm - 1.8 μm) of MOONS will provide the European astronomical community with a powerful, unique instrument able to pioneer a wide range of Galactic, Extragalactic and Cosmological studies, and the crucial follow-up for major facilities such as Gaia, VISTA, Euclid and LSST. MOONS has the observational power needed to unveil galaxy formation and evolution over the entire history of the Universe, from stars in our Milky Way, through the redshift desert, and up to the epoch of the very first galaxies and reionization of the Universe at redshifts of z > 8-9, just a few million years after the Big Bang. From five years of observations MOONS will provide high-quality spectra for >3 M stars in our Galaxy and the Local Group, and for 1-2 M galaxies at z >1 (for an SDSS-like survey), promising to revolutionize our understanding of the Universe. The baseline design consists of 1024 fibers, deployable over a field-of-view of ˜500 sq. arcmin, the largest patrol field offered by the Nasmyth focus at the VLT. The total wavelength coverage is 0.64 μm - 1.8 μm with two spectral resolving power settings: in the medium-resolution mode (R˜4,000-6,000) the entire wavelength range is observed simultaneously, while the high-resolution mode will cover simultaneously selected sub-regions: one region with R˜9,000 near the Ca II triplet to measure stellar radial velocities, and part of the H-band at R˜20,000 for precision measurements of chemical abundances.

  7. Characterization of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands of NADPH oxidase 5 by fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Superoxide generated by non-phagocytic NADPH oxidases (NOXs) is of growing importance for physiology and pathobiology. The calcium binding domain (CaBD) of NOX5 contains four EF-hands, each binding one calcium ion. To better understand the metal binding properties of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands, we characterized the N-terminal half of CaBD (NCaBD) and its calcium-binding knockout mutants. Results The isothermal titration calorimetry measurement for NCaBD reveals that the calcium binding of two EF-hands are loosely associated with each other and can be treated as independent binding events. However, the Ca2+ binding studies on NCaBD(E31Q) and NCaBD(E63Q) showed their binding constants to be 6.5 × 105 and 5.0 × 102 M-1 with ΔHs of -14 and -4 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that intrinsic calcium binding for the 1st non-canonical EF-hand is largely enhanced by the binding of Ca2+ to the 2nd canonical EF-hand. The fluorescence quenching and CD spectra support a conformational change upon Ca2+ binding, which changes Trp residues toward a more non-polar and exposed environment and also increases its α-helix secondary structure content. All measurements exclude Mg2+-binding in NCaBD. Conclusions We demonstrated that the 1st non-canonical EF-hand of NOX5 has very weak Ca2+ binding affinity compared with the 2nd canonical EF-hand. Both EF-hands interact with each other in a cooperative manner to enhance their Ca2+ binding affinity. Our characterization reveals that the two EF-hands in the N-terminal NOX5 are Ca2+ specific. Graphical abstract PMID:22490336

  8. Very low Ti /VLT/ basalts - A new mare rock type from the Apollo 17 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Phaneritic fragments, vitrophyres, and glass beads of a new very low Ti (VLT) mare basalt are found in the Apollo 17 drill core. VLT lithic fragments are characterized by TiO2 content of approximately 0.5%, Mg/(Mg + Fe) of approximately 0.52, CaO/Al2O3 of approximately 0.9, and low alkali content. Although mineral systematics and modal composition of VLT basalt are similar to Apollo 12 and 15 low Ti basalts, VLT basalts cannot be related to these mare basalts by crystal fractionation. Since VLT basalt is isochemical with some of the less mafic green glasses, fractionation of VLT magma from a liquid of green-glass composition is a possibility. Spectral reflectance studies suggest that VLT-type basalts may be relatively common in mare basins.

  9. VLT Captures First Direct Spectrum of an Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    eclipse", and then the spectrum could be extracted by comparing the light of the star before and after. However, this method can only be applied if the orientation of the exoplanet's orbit is exactly right, which is true for only a small fraction of all exoplanetary systems. The present spectrum, on the other hand, was obtained from the ground, using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), in direct observations that do not depend on the orbit's orientation. As the host star is several thousand times brighter than the planet, this is a remarkable achievement. "It's like trying to see what a candle is made of, by observing it from a distance of two kilometres when it's next to a blindingly bright 300 Watt lamp," says Janson. The discovery was made possible by the infrared instrument NACO, mounted on the VLT, and relied heavily on the extraordinary capabilities of the instrument's adaptive optics system [3]. Even more precise images and spectra of giant exoplanets are expected both from the next generation instrument SPHERE, to be installed on the VLT in 2011, and from the European Extremely Large Telescope. The newly collected data show that the atmosphere enclosing the planet is still poorly understood. "The features observed in the spectrum are not compatible with current theoretical models," explains co-author Wolfgang Brandner. "We need to take into account a more detailed description of the atmospheric dust clouds, or accept that the atmosphere has a different chemical composition from that previously assumed." The astronomers hope to soon get their hands on the fingerprints of the other two giant planets so they can compare, for the first time, the spectra of three planets belonging to the same system. "This will surely shed new light on the processes that lead to the formation of planetary systems like our own," concludes Janson. Notes [1] As every rainbow demonstrates, white light can be split up into different colours. Astronomers artificially split up the light they

  10. AOF upgrade for VLT UT4: an 8m class HST from ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Agapito, G.; Bonaglia, M.; Busoni, L.; Fusco, T.; Neichel, B.; Spano, P.; Bono, G.; Vernet, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present numerical simulations and an initial design for a visible MCAO system for the VLT-UT4 telescope. The proposed concept takes great advantage of the existing HW developed for the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the VLT-UT4, in particular the 4x20W Toptica lasers and the adaptive secondary mirror with 1170 actuators. The mentioned units makes the VLT-AOF a unique facility to develop a second generation AO system aiming to provide corrected FoV at short wavelength. In particular the flux provided by the four lasers steerable on sky and the high density of actuators (20cm equivalent on M1) provides the temporal bandwidth and the spatial sampling to push the correction down to the visible wavelengths. In addition to this the request of a reasonable size corrected FoV with uniform performance calls for an MCAO system. For such reason here we propose to complement the AOF with post-focal DMs that together with the VLT DSM can provide a corrected FoV of roughly 20/30 arcsec diameter size. An additional challenge for the system is the provided a large sky coverage. Such condition comes from the efficiency of LO wavefront sensors that use field NGS. The presented simulations give some first results for (a) the achieved performance at visible wavelength 0.4-0.9 um as a function of DMs and tip tilt NGSs characteristics (b) the achieved system sky coverage after. Pushing performance toward visible wavelengths calls for embedded and efficient post-processing methods. Being able to capture short-exposure science images (with the trade-off on noise and overheads), would allow retrieving the ultimate performance by compensating the residual turbulence aberrations left over by the AO system. Considerations about advanced analysis tools that may potentially relax the system constraints are discussed. Finally the paper presents a conceptual arrangement for the opto-mechanics of the considered AO module including the additional DMs and wavefront sensors.

  11. Establishment of the World Health Organization 2(nd) International Standard for Factor XI, Plasma, Human.

    PubMed

    Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The 1(st) International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1(st) IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2(nd) IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2(nd) IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1(st) IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2(nd) IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp.

  12. Establishment of the World Health Organization 2nd International Standard for Factor XI, Plasma, Human

    PubMed Central

    Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The 1st International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1st IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2nd IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2nd IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1st IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2nd IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp. PMID:28373973

  13. Simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge Implantation and 2nd Stage Auricular Reconstruction for Microtia with Aural Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Lynne Hsueh Yee; Xiang, Ling; del Prado, Jocelynne; Ee Chin, Ling; Beltrame, Millo Achille

    2011-01-01

    Aural atresia and severe microtia are associated malformations that result in problems with hearing and cosmesis, associated speech and language difficulties and diminished self-esteem. In cases where middle ear ossiculoplasty and aural atresia canalplasty are expected to give poor hearing outcomes that would eventually require the use of hearing aids, bone anchored hearing aids or active middle ear implants may be better options. This case report describes a simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge implantation and 2nd stage auricular reconstruction with rib graft cartilage for an 11-year-old boy with grade III microtia and aural atresia 8 months after the 1st stage reconstruction. Audiometric results of the Vibrant Soundbridge aided ear were comparable to that of the contralateral hearing aid aided ear. PMID:26557321

  14. A Perpendicular Biased 2nd Harmonic Cavity for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C. Y.; Dey, J.; Madrak, R. L.; Pellico, W.; Romanov, G.; Sun, D.; Terechkine, I.

    2015-07-13

    A perpendicular biased 2nd harmonic cavity is currently being designed for the Fermilab Booster. Its purpose cavity is to flatten the bucket at injection and thus change the longitudinal beam distribution so that space charge effects are decreased. It can also with transition crossing. The reason for the choice of perpendicular biasing over parallel biasing is that the Q of the cavity is much higher and thus allows the accelerating voltage to be a factor of two higher than a similar parallel biased cavity. This cavity will also provide a higher accelerating voltage per meter than the present folded transmission line cavity. However, this type of cavity presents technical challenges that need to be addressed. The two major issues are cooling of the garnet material from the effects of the RF and the cavity itself from eddy current heating because of the 15 Hz bias field ramp. This paper will address the technical challenge of preventing the garnet from overheating.

  15. Preliminary GPS orbit combination results of the IGS 2nd reprocessing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    International GNSS Service (IGS) has contributed to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame by reprocessing historic GPS network data and submitting Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions and Earth Rotation Parameters. For the 2nd reprocessing campaign, Analysis Centers (ACs) used up to 21 years of GPS observation data with daily integrations. IERS2010 conventions are applied to model the physical effects of the Earth. Total eight ACs have participated (7 Global solutions, and 2 Tide Gauge solutions) by reprocessing entire time series in a consistent way using the latest models and methodology. IGS combined daily SINEX TRF and EOP combinations have already been submitted to the IERS for ITRF2013. This presentation mainly focuses on the preliminary quality assessment of the reprocessed AC orbits. Quality of the orbit products are examined by examining the repeatability between daily AC satellite ephemeris. Power spectral analysis shows the background noise characteristics of each AC products, and its periodic behaviors.

  16. Computation of equivalent poles placement for class of 2nd order discrete bilinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadek, Lukasz; Koszalka, Leszek; Burnham, Keith

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces an adaptation of the classical linear control theory representation of zeros, poles and gain into a bilinear approach. The placement of poles at the complex plane is a complete description of plants dynamics; hence it is a convenient form from which calculation of various properties, e.g. rise time, settling time, is plausible. Such technique can be adjusted into the bilinear structure if poles of a quasi-linear representation (linear with respect to input) are concerned. The research outcomes with conclusion on the equivalent poles displacement and generalized rules for a 2nd order bilinear system equivalent poles input dependent loci. The proposed approach seems to be promising, as simplification of design and identification of a bilinear system increases transparency during modelling and control in practical applications and hence it may be followed by applicability of such structure in common industrial problems.

  17. Simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge Implantation and 2nd Stage Auricular Reconstruction for Microtia with Aural Atresia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lynne Hsueh Yee; Xiang, Ling; Del Prado, Jocelynne; Ee Chin, Ling; Beltrame, Millo Achille

    2011-07-01

    Aural atresia and severe microtia are associated malformations that result in problems with hearing and cosmesis, associated speech and language difficulties and diminished self-esteem. In cases where middle ear ossiculoplasty and aural atresia canalplasty are expected to give poor hearing outcomes that would eventually require the use of hearing aids, bone anchored hearing aids or active middle ear implants may be better options. This case report describes a simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge implantation and 2(nd) stage auricular reconstruction with rib graft cartilage for an 11-year-old boy with grade III microtia and aural atresia 8 months after the 1(st) stage reconstruction. Audiometric results of the Vibrant Soundbridge aided ear were comparable to that of the contralateral hearing aid aided ear.

  18. RADIAL VELOCITIES FROM VLT-KMOS SPECTRA OF GIANT STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6388

    SciTech Connect

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Valenti, E.; Cirasuolo, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present new radial velocity measurements for 82 stars, members of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 6388, obtained from ESO-VLT K-band Multi Object Spectrograph (KMOS) spectra acquired during the instrument Science Verification. The accuracy of the wavelength calibration is discussed and a number of tests of the KMOS response are presented. The cluster systemic velocity obtained (81.3 ± 1.5 km s{sup –1}) is in very good agreement with previous determinations. While a hint of ordered rotation is found between 9'' and 20'' from the cluster center, where the distribution of radial velocities is clearly bimodal, more data are needed before drawing any firm conclusions. The acquired sample of radial velocities has also been used to determine the cluster velocity dispersion (VD) profile between ∼9'' and 70'', supplementing previous measurements at r < 2'' and r > 60'' obtained with ESO-SINFONI and ESO-FLAMES spectroscopy, respectively. The new portion of the VD profile nicely matches the previous ones, better defining the knee of the distribution. The present work clearly shows the effectiveness of a deployable integral field unit in measuring the radial velocities of individual stars for determining the VD profile of Galactic GCs. It represents the pilot project for an ongoing large program with KMOS and FLAMES at the ESO-VLT, aimed at determining the next generation of VD and rotation profiles for a representative sample of GCs.

  19. Next VLT Instrument Ready for the Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    FORS2 Commissioning Period Successfully Terminated The commissioning of the FORS2 multi-mode astronomical instrument at KUEYEN , the second FOcal Reducer/low dispersion Spectrograph at the ESO Very Large Telescope, was successfully finished today. This important work - that may be likened with the test driving of a new car model - took place during two periods, from October 22 to November 21, 1999, and January 22 to February 8, 2000. The overall goal was to thoroughly test the functioning of the new instrument, its conformity to specifications and to optimize its operation at the telescope. FORS2 is now ready to be handed over to the astronomers on April 1, 2000. Observing time for a six-month period until October 1 has already been allocated to a large number of research programmes. Two of the images that were obtained with FORS2 during the commissioning period are shown here. An early report about this instrument is available as ESO PR 17/99. The many modes of FORS2 The FORS Commissioning Team carried out a comprehensive test programme for all observing modes. These tests were done with "observation blocks (OBs)" that describe the set-up of the instrument and telescope for each exposure in all details, e.g., position in the sky of the object to be observed, filters, exposure time, etc.. Whenever an OB is "activated" from the control console, the corresponding observation is automatically performed. Additional information about the VLT Data Flow System is available in ESO PR 10/99. The FORS2 observing modes include direct imaging, long-slit and multi-object spectroscopy, exactly as in its twin, FORS1 at ANTU . In addition, FORS2 contains the "Mask Exchange Unit" , a motorized magazine that holds 10 masks made of thin metal plates into which the slits are cut by means of a laser. The advantage of this particular observing method is that more spectra (of more objects) can be taken with a single exposure (up to approximately 80) and that the shape of the slits can be

  20. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS < 0), where the entropy is a degree of uniformity. What is the entropy? Loosely speaking, sand on the beach is more uniform at a higher entropy value than the rocks composing a mountain - the internal binding energy tells the paleontologists the existence of information. To a politician, landside voting results has only the winning information but more entropy, while a non-uniform voting distribution record has more information. For the human's effortless brain at constant temperature, we can solve the minimum of Helmholtz free energy (H = E - TS) by computing BSS, and then their pairwise-entropy source correlation function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (

  1. ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-12-01

    As the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) rapidly takes on shape, Europe has just come one step closer to the realisation of its 556 million DEM astronomical showcase project. Last week, the ESO Council held its semi-annual meeting in Milan (Italy) [1]. During a break in the long agenda list, Council members had the opportunity to visit the Ansaldo factory in the outskirts of this city and to see for the first time the assembled mechanical structure of one of the four 8.2-metre VLT Unit telescopes. This Press Release is accompanied by a photo that shows the ESO Council delegates in front of the giant telescope. After a long climb up the steep staircase to the large Nasmyth platform at the side of the telescope where the astronomical instruments will later be placed, Dr. Peter Creola (Switzerland) , President of the ESO Council and a mechanics expert, grabbed the handrail and surveyed the structure with a professional eye: `I knew it was going to be big, but not that enormous!', he said. Other delegates experienced similar feelings, especially when they watched the 430 tonnes of steel in the 24-metre tall and squat structure turn smoothly and silently around the vertical axis. The Chairman of the ESO Scientific Technical Committee (STC), Dr. Johannes Andersen (Denmark) , summarized his first, close encounter with the VLT by `This is great fun!' and several of his colleague astronomers were soon seen in various corners of the vast structure, engaged in elated discussions about the first scientific investigations to be done with the VLT in two years' time. The VLT Main Structures The visit by Council took place at the invitation of Ansaldo Energia S.p.A. (Genova), EIE-European Industrial Engineering S.r.I. (Venice) and SOIMI-Societa Impianti Industriale S.p.A. (Milan), the three Italian enterprises responsible for the construction of the main structures of the VLT 8.2-metre Unit telescopes. Short speeches were given on this occasion by Drs. Ferruccio Bressani (Ansaldo

  2. Conference Proceedings: 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International; Disability in the Family. (Brighton, England, September 18-21, 1978)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Association for Disability and Rehabilitation, London (England).

    The conference proceedings of the 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International (1978) on the theme disability in the family contains the agenda and approximately 80 papers. National presentations consider the theme in papers by representatives of Finland, Hungary, Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal, Hong Kong, India, The German…

  3. Curriculum on the Edge of Survival: How Schools Fail to Prepare Students for Membership in a Democracy. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Typically, school curriculum has been viewed through the lens of preparation for the workplace or higher education, both worthy objectives. However, this is not the only lens, and perhaps not even the most powerful one to use, if the goal is to optimize the educational system. "Curriculum on the Edge of Survival, 2nd Edition," attempts to define…

  4. Comparative analysis of 1st, 2nd, and 4th year MD students' attitudes toward Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    PubMed Central

    Riccard, Christopher P; Skelton, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Background To identify and report the attitudes and beliefs of 1st, 2nd, and 4th year medical students toward complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Methods The previously validated and reliability tested CHBQ was administered to medical students attending the University of South Florida School of Medicine. Results Significant changes were found between both 1st (46.0 ± 7.7) and 4th (37.8 ± 15.7) year students and 2nd (48.3 ± 7.8) and 4th (37.8 ± 15.7) year students. No significant difference was found between 1st (46.0 ± 7.7) and 2nd (48.3 ± 7.8) year students. When comparing scores based on gender, a significant difference was present between males (41.2 ± 12.2) and females (46.1 ± 11.0). Conclusion CHBQ scores were significantly more positive in both 1st and 2nd year medical students in comparison with 4th year student's scores. These findings suggest that as student exposure to allopathic techniques and procedures increases during the last year of medical school, their attitudes toward CAM decrease. Females were also significantly more likely to have stronger positive attitudes toward CAM than males, though both genders represented an overall positive attitude toward CAM. PMID:18799010

  5. The Hyphen as a Syllabification Cue in Reading Bisyllabic and Multisyllabic Words among Finnish 1st and 2nd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häikiö, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Finnish ABC books present words with hyphens inserted at syllable boundaries. Syllabification by hyphens is abandoned in the 2nd grade for bisyllabic words, but continues for words with three or more syllables. The current eye movement study investigated how and to what extent syllable hyphens in bisyllabic ("kah-vi" "cof-fee")…

  6. Give It a Shot! Toolkit for Nurses and Other Immunization Champions Working with Secondary Schools. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Chu, Lynda; Wooley, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent immunization saves lives--but promoting immunization takes time and thought, and today's nurses and other health advocates are faced with a host of ever-expanding responsibilities in a time of reduced budgets and staff. This toolkit is thus structured as an easy and reliable resource. This 2nd edition contains: (1) a 64-page manual;…

  7. International Conference on Hyperbolic Problems (2nd). Theory, Numerical Methods and Applications, 14-18 March 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    SOlution of’ th icai Ele quations. Proceedings of (lie 2nd European Conference on Multigrid 3. - --- AND B. KoRSN (1997). A Non-linear Afiultq,’rid...of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, India A new upwind scheme called Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS) method has been

  8. Perspectives on Art Therapy: The Proceedings of the Pittsburgh Conference on Art Therapy (2nd, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 20, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ellen A., Ed.; Rubin, Judith A., Ed.

    The proceedings of the 2nd annual Pittsburgh Conference on Art Therapy (with handicapped persons) consists of 44 items including full length papers, summaries of previously published papers, descriptions of workshops, and a limited number of abstracts (submitted by those who chose not to present a paper or workshop description). The papers are…

  9. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  10. Efficient Simulation of Wing Modal Response: Application of 2nd Order Shape Sensitivities and Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Liu, Youhua

    2000-01-01

    At the preliminary design stage of a wing structure, an efficient simulation, one needing little computation but yielding adequately accurate results for various response quantities, is essential in the search of optimal design in a vast design space. In the present paper, methods of using sensitivities up to 2nd order, and direct application of neural networks are explored. The example problem is how to decide the natural frequencies of a wing given the shape variables of the structure. It is shown that when sensitivities cannot be obtained analytically, the finite difference approach is usually more reliable than a semi-analytical approach provided an appropriate step size is used. The use of second order sensitivities is proved of being able to yield much better results than the case where only the first order sensitivities are used. When neural networks are trained to relate the wing natural frequencies to the shape variables, a negligible computation effort is needed to accurately determine the natural frequencies of a new design.

  11. Wind-US Results for the AIAA 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance III; Foster, Lancert; Mankbadi, Mina

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains Wind-US results presented at the 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The workshop was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Breathing Propulsion Systems Integration Technical Committee with the purpose of assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics for air breathing propulsion applications. Attendees included representatives from government, industry, academia, and commercial software companies. Participants were encouraged to explore and discuss all aspects of the simulation process including the effects of mesh type and refinement, solver numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. The first set of challenge cases involved computing the thrust and discharge coefficients for a 25deg conical nozzle for a range of nozzle pressure ratios between 1.4 and 7.0. Participants were also asked to simulate two cases in which the 25deg conical nozzle was bifurcated by a solid plate, resulting in vortex shedding (NPR=1.6) and shifted plume shock (NPR=4.0). A second set of nozzle cases involved computing the discharge and thrust coefficients for a convergent dual stream nozzle for a range of subsonic nozzle pressure ratios. The workshop committee also compared the plume mixing of these cases across various codes and models. The final test case was a serpentine inlet diffuser with an outlet to inlet area ratio of 1.52 and an offset of 1.34 times the inlet diameter. Boundary layer profiles, wall static pressure, and total pressure at downstream rake locations were examined.

  12. Minimal Clinically Important Difference on Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd Version

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Deli, Gabriella; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the estimates of minimal clinically important difference for Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) total score and dimensions. Methods. The subject population consisted of 413 PD patients. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and PDSS-2 were assessed. Nine months later the PDSS-2 was reevaluated with the Patient-Reported Global Impression Improvement Scale. Both anchor-based techniques (within patients' score change method and sensitivity- and specificity-based method by receiver operating characteristic analysis) and distribution-based approaches (effect size calculations) were utilized to determine the magnitude of minimal clinically important difference. Results. According to our results, any improvements larger than −3.44 points or worsening larger than 2.07 points can represent clinically important changes for the patients. These thresholds have the effect size of 0.21 and −0.21, respectively. Conclusions. Minimal clinically important differences are the smallest change of scores that are subjectively meaningful to patients. Studies using the PDSS-2 as outcome measure should utilize the threshold of −3.44 points for detecting improvement or the threshold of 2.07 points for observing worsening. PMID:26539303

  13. Evaluation of a hand washing program for 2nd-graders.

    PubMed

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program. The program consisted of interactive class discussions and activities using GlitterBug training devices and agar plate materials. A one-factor repeated measure analysis of variance indicated a statistically significant 34% decrease in the absenteeism rate for students in the intervention group. Chi-square analyses on agar plate data indicated that students had cleaner hands after washing. Qualitative data from parents and teachers indicated that a majority of the students were engaging in hand-washing behavior. These results indicate that integrating a learner-centered interactive program in a multiple-week structure can lead to improvement in hand hygiene behavior.

  14. Introduction of the 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollet, Stefan; Maxwell, Reed; Dages, Cecile; Mouche, Emmanuel; Mugler, Claude; Paniconi, Claudio; Park, Young-Jin; Putti, Mario; Shen, Chaopeng; Stisen, Simon; Sudicky, Edward; Sulis, Mauro; Ji, Xinye

    2015-04-01

    The 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project commenced in June 2013 with a workshop at Bonn University funded by the German Science Foundation and US National Science Foundation. Three test cases were defined and compared that are available online at www.hpsc-terrsys.de including a tilted v-catchment case; a case called superslab based on multiple slab-heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity along a hillslope; and the Borden site case, based on a published field experiment. The goal of this phase is to further interrogate the coupling of surface-subsurface flow implemented in various integrated hydrologic models; and to understand and quantify the impact of differences in the conceptual and technical implementations on the simulation results, which may constitute an additional source of uncertainty. The focus has been broadened considerably including e.g. saturated and unsaturated subsurface storages, saturated surface area, ponded surface storage in addition to discharge, and pressure/saturation profiles and cross-sections. Here, first results are presented and discussed demonstrating the conceptual and technical challenges in implementing essentially the same governing equations describing highly non-linear moisture redistribution processes and surface-groundwater interactions.

  15. Studies with Ferrous Sulfamate and Alternate Reductants for 2nd Uranium Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.L.

    2003-01-15

    A wide range of miniature mixer-settler tests were conducted to determine the source of iron and sulfur contamination in the uranium product stream (''1EU'') of H Canyon's 2nd Uranium Cycle. The problem was reproduced on the laboratory scale mixer-settlers by changing the feed location of ferrous sulfamate from stage D4 to stage D1. Other process variables effected no change. It was later determined that ferrous sulfamate (FS) solids had plugged the FS line to stage D4, causing FS to backup a ventline and enter the Canyon process at stage D1. Pluggage was almost certainly due to precipitation of FS solids during extended process downtime. During the search for the root cause, tests showed that FS solids were quite small (1-10 mm), and a portion of them could bypass the current Canyon prefilter (3-mm). Also, additional tests were done to find an alternate means of reducing and thereby removing plutonium and neptunium from the uranium product. These tests showed that FS was a more effective reductant than either ascorbic acid or a hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) / dilute FS combination.

  16. NIX, the imager for ERIS: the AO instrument for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, David; Taylor, William; Davies, Ric; MacIntosh, Mike; Henry, David; Lunney, David; Waring, Chris; Gao, Xiaofeng; Lightfoot, John; Glauser, Adrian M.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Schmid, Hans Martin; March, Stephen; Bachmann, Walter; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; George, Elizabeth; Sturm, Eckhard; Biller, Beth; Hinckley, Sasha; Kenworthy, Matthew; Amico, Paola; Glindemann, Andreas; Kasper, Marcus; Kuntschner, Harald; Dorn, Reinhold; Egner, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    ERIS will be the next-generation AO facility on the VLT, combining the heritage of NACO imaging, with the spectroscopic capabilities of an upgraded SINFONI. Here we report on the all-new NIX imager that will deliver diffraction-limited imaging from the J to M band. The instrument will be equipped with both Apodizing Phase Plates and Sparse Aperture Masks to provide high-angular resolution imagery, especially suited for exoplanet imaging and characterization. This paper provides detail on the instrument's design and how it is suited to address a broad range of science cases, from detailed studies of the galactic centre at the highest resolutions, to studying detailed resolved stellar populations.

  17. ESPRESSO: the ultimate rocky exoplanets hunter for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mégevand, Denis; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Cabral, Alexandre; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Amate, Manuel; Pepe, Francesco; Cristiani, Stefano; Rebolo, Rafael; Santos, Nuno C.; Dekker, Hans; Abreu, Manuel; Affolter, Michael; Avila, Gerardo; Baldini, Veronica; Bristow, Paul; Broeg, Christopher; Carvas, Pedro; Cirami, Roberto; Coelho, João.; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Coretti, Igor; Cupani, Guido; D'Odorico, Valentina; De Caprio, Vincenzo; Delabre, Bernard; Figueira, Pedro; Fleury, Michel; Fragoso, Ana; Genolet, Ludovic; Gomes, Ricardo; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay; Hughes, Ian; Iwert, Olaf; Kerber, Florian; Landoni, Marco; Lima, Jorge; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Lovis, Christophe; Maire, Charles; Mannetta, Marco; Martins, Carlos; Moitinho, André; Molaro, Paolo; Monteiro, Manuel; Rasilla, José Luis; Riva, Marco; Santana Tschudi, Samuel; Santin, Paolo; Sosnowska, Danuta; Sousa, Sergio; Spanò, Paolo; Tenegi, Fabio; Toso, Giorgio; Vanzella, Eros; Viel, Matteo; Zapatero Osorio, Maria Rosa

    2012-09-01

    ESPRESSO, the VLT rocky exoplanets hunter, will combine the efficiency of modern echelle spectrograph with extreme radial-velocity precision. It will be installed at Paranal on ESO's VLT in order to achieve a gain of two magnitudes with respect to its predecessor HARPS, and the instrumental radial-velocity precision will be improved to reach 10 cm/s level. We have constituted a Consortium of astronomical research institutes to fund, design and build ESPRESSO on behalf of and in collaboration with ESO, the European Southern Observatory. The project has passed the preliminary design review in November 2011. The spectrograph will be installed at the so-called "Combined Coudé Laboratory" of the VLT, it will be linked to the four 8.2 meters Unit Telescopes (UT) through four optical "Coudé trains" and will be operated either with a single telescope or with up to four UTs. In exchange of the major financial and human effort the building Consortium will be awarded with guaranteed observing time (GTO), which will be invested in a common scientific program. Thanks to its characteristics and the ability of combining incoherently the light of 4 large telescopes, ESPRESSO will offer new possibilities in many fields of astronomy. Our main scientific objectives are, however, the search and characterization of rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone of quiet, near-by G to M-dwarfs, and the analysis of the variability of fundamental physical constants. In this paper, we present the ambitious scientific objectives, the capabilities of ESPRESSO, the technical solutions for the system and its subsystems, enlightening the main differences between ESPRESSO and its predecessors. The project aspects of this facility are also described, from the consortium and partnership structure to the planning phases and milestones.

  18. The tracking control system of the VLT Survey Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, P; Arcidiacono, C; Argomedo, J; Dall'Ora, M; D'Orsi, S; Farinato, J; Magrin, D; Marty, L; Ragazzoni, R; Umbriaco, G

    2012-09-01

    The VLT survey telescope is the latest telescope installed at European Southern Observatory's Paranal observatory that is considered one of the best sites for optical astronomy for the excellent seeing conditions. The exceptional quality of the site imposes tight requirements for the telescope tracking system that shall perform very well to fully exploit the extreme sharpness of the Chilean sky. We describe the specific solutions adopted for pointing, servo and guiding systems and the results obtained during the commissioning of the telescope. The hardware implementation relies on industry components and the control solutions privilege both the performance and the future maintainability of the system.

  19. Active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; Noethe, Lothar; Magrin, Demetrio; Kuijken, Konrad; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Argomedo, Javier; Capaccioli, Massimo; Dall'Ora, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Farinato, Jacopo; Fierro, Davide; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Savarese, Salvatore; Rakich, Andrew; Umbriaco, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope, the 2.6-m survey telescope designed for visible wavelengths of the European Southern Observatory at Cerro Paranal, in the Atacama desert. The telescope is characterized by a wide field of view (1.42 deg diameter), leading to tighter active optics than in conventional telescopes, in particular for the alignment requirements. We discuss the effects of typical error sources on the image quality and present the specific solutions adopted for wavefront sensing and correction of the aberrations, which are based on the shaping of a monolithic primary mirror and the positioning of the secondary in five degrees of freedom.

  20. VLT instrumentation control: the collaboration of OATs with ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, P.

    The collaboration of the Astrophysics Technology Group (ATG) of the Astronomical Observatory of Trieste with ESO will be presented. It may be considered as an example of a good practice in the collaboration of a peripheral Institute with ESO. Started in 1985, it spans almost all the time since Italy joined ESO in 1982. The Trieste Astrophysics Technology Group (ATG) participated in many technological enterprise of ESO, from Remote Observing to VLT instrumentation and to ALMA ACS, and is now looking for the challenging E-ELT.

  1. ESO Council Decides to Continue VLT Project at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    The Council [1] of the European Southern Observatory has met in extraordinary session at the ESO Headquarters in Garching near Munich on August 8 and 9, 1994. The main agenda items were concerned with the recent developments around ESO's relations with the host state, the Republic of Chile, as well as the status of the organisation's main project, the 16-metre equivalent Very Large Telescope (VLT) which will become the world's largest optical telescope. Council had decided to hold this special meeting [2] because of various uncertainties that have arisen in connection with the implementation of the VLT Project at Cerro Paranal, approx. 130 kilometres south of Antofagasta, capital of the II Region in Chile. Following continued consultations at different levels within the ESO member states and after careful consideration of all aspects of the current situation - including various supportive actions by the Chilean Government as well as the incessive attacks against this international organisation from certain sides reported in the media in that country - Council took the important decision to continue the construction of the VLT Observatory at Paranal, while at the same time requesting the ESO Management to pursue the ongoing studies of alternative solutions. THE COUNCIL DECISIONS In particular, the ESO Council took note of recent positive developments which have occurred since the May 1994 round of discussions with the Chilean authorities in Santiago. The confirmation of ESO's immunities as an International Organization in Chile, contained in a number of important statements and documents, is considered a significant step by the Chilean Government to insure to ESO the unhindered erection and later operation of the VLT on Paranal. Under these circumstances and in order to maintain progress on the VLT project, the ESO Council authorized the ESO Management to continue the on-site work at Paranal. Council also took note of the desire expressed by the Chilean Government

  2. MOONS: the Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirasuolo, M.; Afonso, J.; Carollo, M.; Flores, H.; Maiolino, R.; Oliva, E.; Paltani, S.; Vanzi, Leonardo; Evans, Christopher; Abreu, M.; Atkinson, David; Babusiaux, C.; Beard, Steven; Bauer, F.; Bellazzini, M.; Bender, Ralf; Best, P.; Bezawada, N.; Bonifacio, P.; Bragaglia, A.; Bryson, I.; Busher, D.; Cabral, A.; Caputi, K.; Centrone, M.; Chemla, F.; Cimatti, A.; Cioni, M.-R.; Clementini, G.; Coelho, J.; Crnojevic, D.; Daddi, E.; Dunlop, J.; Eales, S.; Feltzing, S.; Ferguson, A.; Fisher, M.; Fontana, A.; Fynbo, J.; Garilli, B.; Gilmore, G.; Glauser, A.; Guinouard, I.; Hammer, F.; Hastings, P.; Hess, A.; Ivison, R.; Jagourel, P.; Jarvis, M.; Kaper, L.; Kauffman, G.; Kitching, A. T.; Lawrence, A.; Lee, D.; Lemasle, B.; Licausi, G.; Lilly, S.; Lorenzetti, D.; Lunney, D.; Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; McLure, R.; Minniti, D.; Montgomery, D.; Muschielok, B.; Nandra, K.; Navarro, R.; Norberg, P.; Oliver, S.; Origlia, L.; Padilla, N.; Peacock, J.; Pedichini, F.; Peng, J.; Pentericci, L.; Pragt, J.; Puech, M.; Randich, S.; Rees, P.; Renzini, A.; Ryde, N.; Rodrigues, M.; Roseboom, I.; Royer, F.; Saglia, R.; Sanchez, A.; Schiavon, R.; Schnetler, H.; Sobral, D.; Speziali, R.; Sun, D.; Stuik, R.; Taylor, A.; Taylor, W.; Todd, S.; Tolstoy, E.; Torres, M.; Tosi, M.; Vanzella, E.; Venema, L.; Vitali, F.; Wegner, M.; Wells, M.; Wild, V.; Wright, G.; Zamorani, G.; Zoccali, M.

    2014-07-01

    MOONS is a new Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph selected by ESO as a third generation instrument for the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The grasp of the large collecting area offered by the VLT (8.2m diameter), combined with the large multiplex and wavelength coverage (optical to near-IR: 0.8μm - 1.8μm) of MOONS will provide the European astronomical community with a powerful, unique instrument able to pioneer a wide range of Galactic, Extragalactic and Cosmological studies and provide crucial follow-up for major facilities such as Gaia, VISTA, Euclid and LSST. MOONS has the observational power needed to unveil galaxy formation and evolution over the entire history of the Universe, from stars in our Milky Way, through the redshift desert, and up to the epoch of very first galaxies and re-ionization of the Universe at redshift z>8-9, just few million years after the Big Bang. On a timescale of 5 years of observations, MOONS will provide high quality spectra for >3M stars in our Galaxy and the local group, and for 1-2M galaxies at z>1 (SDSS-like survey), promising to revolutionise our understanding of the Universe. The baseline design consists of ~1000 fibers deployable over a field of view of ~500 square arcmin, the largest patrol field offered by the Nasmyth focus at the VLT. The total wavelength coverage is 0.8μm-1.8μm and two resolution modes: medium resolution and high resolution. In the medium resolution mode (R~4,000-6,000) the entire wavelength range 0.8μm-1.8μm is observed simultaneously, while the high resolution mode covers simultaneously three selected spectral regions: one around the CaII triplet (at R~8,000) to measure radial velocities, and two regions at R~20,000 one in the J-band and one in the H-band, for detailed measurements of chemical abundances.

  3. Madeira Extreme Floods: 2009/2010 Winter. Case study - 2nd and 20th of February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, V.; Marques, J.; Silva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Floods are at world scale the natural disaster that affects a larger fraction of the population. It is a phenomenon that extends it's effects to the surrounding areas of the hydrographic network (basins, rivers, dams) and the coast line. Accordingly to USA FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) flood can be defined as:"A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties from: Overflow of inland or tidal waters; Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; Mudflow; Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined above." A flash flood is the result of intense and long duration of continuous precipitation and can result in dead casualties (i.e. floods in mainland Portugal in 1967, 1983 and 1997). The speed and strength of the floods either localized or over large areas, results in enormous social impacts either by the loss of human lives and or the devastating damage to the landscape and human infrastructures. The winter of 2009/2010 in Madeira Island was characterized by several episodes of very intense precipitation (specially in December 2009 and February 2010) adding to a new record of accumulated precipitation since there are records in the island. In February two days are especially rainy with absolute records for the month of February (daily records since 1949): 111mm and 97mm on the 2nd and 20th respectively. The accumulated precipitation ended up with the terrible floods on the 20th of February causing the lost of dozens of human lives and hundreds of millions of Euros of losses The large precipitation occurrences either more intense precipitation in a short period or less intense precipitation during a larger period are sometimes the precursor of

  4. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  5. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  6. Conference Report on the 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Mazzitelli, G.; Menard, J. E.; Mirnov, S. V.; Shimada, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Tabares, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    The 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices (ISLA-2011) was held on 27-29 April 2011 at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) with broad participation from the community working on aspects of lithium research for fusion energy development. This community is expanding rapidly in many areas including experiments in magnetic confinement devices and a variety of lithium test stands, theory and modeling and developing innovative approaches. Overall, 53 presentations were given representing 26 institutions from 10 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were given in 24 presentations, from NSTX (PPPL, USA), LTX (PPPL, USA), FT-U (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (TRINITY, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST (ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), and RFX (Padova, Italy). Sessions were devoted to: I. Lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), II. Lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), III. Special session on liquid lithium technology, IV. Lithium laboratory test stands, V. Lithium theory/modeling/comments, VI. Innovative lithium applications and VII. Panel discussion on lithium PFC viability in magnetic fusion reactors. There was notable participation from the fusion technology communities, including the IFE, IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchanges with the physics oriented magnetic confinement lithium research groups. It was agreed to continue future exchanges of ideas and data to help develop attractive liquid lithium solutions for very challenging magnetic fusion issues, such as development of a high heat flux steady-state divertor concept and acceptable plasma disruption mitigation techniques while improving plasma performance with lithium. The next workshop will be held at ENEA, Frascati, Italy in 2013.

  7. A convective divertor utilizing a 2nd-order magnetic field null

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognlien, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    New results motivate a detailed study of a magnetic divertor concept characterized by strong plasma convection near a poloidal magnetic field (Bp) null region. The configuration is that of a near-2nd-order Bp null (Bp ~ Δ r2) , as in a snowflake divertor. The concept has 2 key features: (A) Convection spreads the heat flux between multiple divertor legs and further broadens the heat-flux profile within each leg, thereby greatly reducing target-plate heat loads. (B) The heat flux is further reduced by line radiation in each leg in detachment-like ionization zones. Theory indicates that convective turbulence arises when the poloidal plasma beta, βp = 2μ0nT/B p 2 >> 1 . Measurements in TCV now more fully quantify earlier NSTX and TCV observations of plasma mixing, and related modeling of TCV indicates that strongly enhanced null-region transport is present. Convective mixing provides a stabilizing mechanism to prevent the ionization fronts (hydrogenic and impurity) from collapsing to a highly radiating core MARFE. Also, the radiating zone maps to a very small region at the midplane owing to the very weak Bp in the convective region, thus minimizing its impact on the core plasma. Detailed calculations are reported that combine features A and B noted above. The plasma mixing mechanisms are described together with the corresponding transport model implemented in the 2D UEDGE edge transport code. UEDGE calculations are presented that quantify the roles of mixing, impurity radiation, and detachment stability for a realistic snowflake configuration. Work in collaboration with D.D. Ryutov, S.I. Krasheninnikov, and M.V. Umansky. Performed for the U.S. DoE by LLNS, LLC, LLNL, under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  9. Evaluation of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test for Use in States' Child Outcomes Measurement Systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaum, Batya; Gattamorta, Karina A.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test (BDI-2 ST) for use in states' child outcomes accountability systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Complete Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-2), assessment data were obtained for 142 children, ages 2 to 62 months, who…

  10. AVES: an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Luca; Delabre, Bernard; Avila, Gerardo; Bonaccini, Domenico

    1998-07-01

    We present the preliminary study of a low cost, high performance spectrograph for the VLT, for observations in the V, R and I bands. This spectrograph is meant for intermediate (R equals 16,000) resolution spectroscopy of faint (sky and/or detector limited) sources, with particular emphasis on the study of solar-type (F-G) stars belonging to the nearest galaxies and to distant (or highly reddened) galactic clusters. The spectrograph is designed to use the adaptive optics (AO) systems at the VLT Telescope. Even if these AO systems will not provide diffraction limited images in the V, R and I bands, the photon concentration will still be above approximately 60% of the flux in an 0.3 arcsecond aperture for typical Paranal conditions. This makes the construction of a compact, cheap and efficient echelle spectrograph possible. AVES will outperform comparable non adaptive optic instruments by more than one magnitude for sky- and/or detector-limited observations, and it will be very suitable for observations in crowded fields.

  11. The VLT Weighs the Invisible Matter in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    Shapes and Orientations of 76,000 Distant Galaxies Summary An international team of astronomers [1] has succeeded in mapping the "dark" (invisible) matter in the Universe, as seen in 50 different directions from the Earth. They find that, within the uncertainty, it is unlikely that mass alone would stop the current expansion of the Universe . This fundamental result is based on the powerful, but challenging method of "cosmic shear" . It depends on very accurate measurements of the apparent, weak distortion and preferential orientation of images of distant galaxies . This effect is caused by deflection of the light from those galaxies by the large mass concentrations in the Universe it encounters on its way to us. The larger these masses are, the larger are the apparent image distortions and the more pronounced are the alignments of neigbouring galaxy images. The new analysis was made possible by means of unique observational data, obtained under excellent conditions with the the ESO 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope and the multi-mode FORS1 instrument at the Paranal Observatory . PR Photo 32/00 : Sky field with images of distant galaxies observed with the VLT for this research programme, and compared with a reconstructed map of the distribution of mass in this direction. The VLT Observations ESO PR Photo 32/00 ESO PR Photo 32/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 252 pix - 35k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 504 pix - 232k] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 1890 pix - 2.0Mb] Caption : PR Photo 32/00 shows an example of the mapping of the dark mass distribution in one of the 50 sky fields observed with the VLT and FORS1. To the left is the original image, a 36-min exposure in a near-infrared wavelength band. To the right is the reconstructed map of the mass (a "mass photo") in this direction, based on an analysis of the weak shear effect seen in the field; that is, on the measured elongations and directions of the axes of the galaxy images in this field. The brighter areas indicate the directions in which

  12. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed.

  13. [Re-operations for 2nd primary lung cancer detected during follow-up after lung cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Masanori

    2013-07-01

    Re-operations for 2nd primary lung cancers are one of the most challenging modality for thoracic surgeons. Surgeons should have knowledge of indication of re-operations as well as surgical techniques and perioperative management of patients with 2nd primary lung cancers. When performing repeated pulmonary resection on the same side of the 1st surgery, following points are important for accomplishment of a safe re-operation:1.Wide thoracotomy with muscle dissections is recommended. 2.Throughout adhesion lysis between lung parenchyma and surrounding structures are required before manipulating pulmonary vessels. 3.The main pulmonary artery is encircled before dissection of the pulmonary artery. 4.Surgeons should be familiar with intrapericardial exposure of the main pulmonary artery. The techniques consist of division of the ligament of arteriosum, incision of the pericardium, and encircle of the origin of the mail pulmonary. Re-operations for metachronous lung cancers provided favorable survival in patients with adequate physiologic pulmonary reserve.

  14. Physical properties of double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ohoyama, Kenji

    2013-01-15

    The crystal, magnetic structures and physical properties of the double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are investigated through powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. The Rietveld analysis reveals that the Nd and Os ions are arranged with regularity over the six-coordinate B sites in a distorted perovskite ABO{sub 3} framework. The monoclinic crystal structure described by space group P2{sub 1}/n (tilt system a{sup -}a{sup -}c{sup +}) becomes more distorted with decreasing temperature from 300 K down to 2.5 K. This compound shows a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} below 65 K. An antiferromagnetic ordering of Nd{sup 3+} also occurs at lower temperatures ({approx}20 K). The magnetic structure is of Type I and the magnetic moments of Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. - Graphical Abstract: The Magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is of Type I, and the magnetic moments of the Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structures of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are determined to be monoclinic below 300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its electrical resistivity shows a Mott variable-range hopping behavior with localized carriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An antiferromagnetic ordering of the Os{sup 5+}moment occurs at 65 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is determined to be of Type I.

  15. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  16. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  17. PREFACE: 1st-2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome - Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YRMR Organizing Committee; Cannuccia, E.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2011-03-01

    Students in science, particularly in physics, face a fascinating and challenging future. Scientists have proposed very interesting theories, which describe the microscopic and macroscopic world fairly well, trying to match the quantum regime with cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena in all their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. More and more accurate and complex experiments have been devised and these are now going to test the paradigms of physics. Notable experiments include: the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is going to shed light on the physics of the Standard Model of Particles and its extensions; the Planck-Herschel satellites, which target a very precise measurement of the properties of our Universe; and the Free Electron Lasers facilities, which produce high-brilliance, ultrafast X-ray pulses, allowing the investigation of the fundamental processes of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. These projects are the result of huge collaborations spread across the world, involving scientists belonging to different and complementary research fields: physicists, chemists, biologists and others, keen to make the best of these extraordinary laboratories. Even though each branch of science is experiencing a process of growing specialization, it is very important to keep an eye on the global picture, remaining aware of the deep interconnections between inherent fields. This is even more crucial for students who are beginning their research careers. These considerations motivated PhD students and young post-docs connected to the Roman scientific research area to organize a conference, to establish the background and the network for interactions and collaborations. This resulted in the 1st and 2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome (http://ryrm.roma2.infn.it), one day conferences aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics in Italy

  18. ESO Council Resolves to Continue VLT Project at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    The ESO Council has just met at the ESO Headquarters in Garching during two days of intensive consultations. Among the important items on the agenda were the recent developments around the Very Large Telescope Project at Paranal, and also the possible membership of other countries. RELATIONS WITH CHILE The ESO Council appreciated the continued efforts by the Government of the Republic of Chile to bring to a successful conclusion the various pending matters concerning the relations between the Republic of Chile and this Organisation. It noted the solution of serious problems which have interfered with ESO's operations in its host country, and now awaits formal confirmation from the Chilean Government that also the legal proceedings around the land dispute around the Paranal site are cleared. Council expects that the ratification of the "Intermediate, Supplementary and Amending Agreement" will occur without undue delay and it reiterates its intention to approve this Agreement at the same time as the Chilean Parliament. Meanwhile, Council expressed its pleasure to welcome those Chilean scientists now nominated by the Chilean Government as observers to the ESO committees. Council instructed the ESO Management to continue work at Paranal. Although the delegates were increasingly optimistic that the VLT project can ultimately remain at Paranal, they nevertheless also requested the Management to pursue, until further notice, the ongoing comparative study of first-class astronomical sites in the world. In connection with the pending issues in the relationship with Chile, Council remained preoccupied about the recognition of ESO's immunities by the Chilean judiciary and it requested from the Management that the assessment of the financial and other implications of the recent events which have interfered with the VLT construction work at Paranal be completed. Finally, in order to provide additional avenues for frequent contacts, the ESO Council invited the Chilean Government

  19. Optical design of the ESPRESSO spectrograph at VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, P.; Mégevand, D.; Herreros, J. M.; Zerbi, F. M.; Cabral, A.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Lovis, C.; Cristiani, S.; Rebolo, R.; Santos, N.; Pepe, F.

    2010-07-01

    ESPRESSO, a very high-resolution, high-efficiency, ultra-high stability, fiber-fed, cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph located in the Combined-Coudé focus of the VLT, has been designed to detect exo-planets with unprecedented radial velocity accuracies of 10 cm/sec over 20 years period. To increase spectral resolution, an innovative pupil slicing technique has been adopted, based onto free-form optics. Anamorphism has been added to increase resolution while keeping the physical size of the echelle grating within reasonable limits. Anamorphic VPH grisms will help to decrease detector size, while maximizing efficiency and inter-order separation. Here we present a summary of the optical design of the spectrograph and of expected performances.

  20. First Giant Mirror for the ESO VLT Ready at REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    The REOSC Contract In 1989, the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the European Organisation for Astronomy, awarded to REOSC, a subsidiary of the SFIM Group and located in Saint Pierre du Perray (France), a comprehensive contract for the polishing of four 8.2-metre diameter mirrors for the unit telescopes of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) project. These mirrors are the largest ever manufactured and polished. This contract comprises not only the polishing and high-precision optical testing of each giant mirror, but also the safe condition of transportation of the blanks which were manufactured by Schott Glaswerke in Mainz (Germany). In order to fulfill the contract, REOSC conceived, built and equipped a novel, high-tech workshop which would allow to polish and test the mirrors, each of which has a surface area of more than 50 square metres. First 8.2-Metre Mirror is Ready and within Specifications The REOSC polishing facility for giant mirrors was built in Saint Pierre du Perray, just south of Paris. It is equipped with two machines: one for grinding and the other for polishing the mirrors, and both with 150-actuator systems that support the thin and flexible mirrors. All equipment is computer controlled. State-of-the-art interferometers probe the accuracy of the mirror surface as the polishing proceeds; they are installed at the top level of the facility in a 30-metre high tower, at the centre of the mirror's radius of curvature. The success of the work at REOSC is now evident by the fact that careful measurements of the first mirror earlier this month have shown that the final optical surface is correct to within 0.00005 millimetres. For illustration, this corresponds to an accuracy of only 1 millimetre deviation over a surface with a diameter of 165 kilometres (equivalent to the entire Paris area)! ESO Receives the First VLT Mirror After having been carefully placed in a special transport box designed by REOSC, the first mirror blank, weighing 23.5 tons and

  1. Proceedings of the Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium (2nd) Held in Cocoa Beach, Florida on December 2-4, 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    PROCEEDINGS 2ND BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 Cocoa Beach, Florida Sponsored by the Directorate of Research Defense Equal...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 298-102 USAPPC V1.00 PROCEEDINGS 2nd BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA...Proceedings Editor Published April 1998 Preface PROCEEDINGS 2nd BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA The EO/EEO

  2. Development of a 2nd Generation Decision Support Tool to Optimize Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2012, EPA’s Office of Research and Development released the MSW decision support tool (MSW-DST) to help identify strategies for more sustainable MSW management. Depending upon local infrastructure, energy grid mix, population density, and waste composition and quantity, the m...

  3. Explaining the Success of High-Achieving 2nd-Generation Latino Students at Elite Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Latinos represent the largest minority population in the US, yet are one of the most underserved groups in the educational system. As such, they have been the focus of much attention by educational researchers. However, there is little work enabling researchers to understand how many factors might interactively support achievement. Moreover, the…

  4. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Definition Program: Pratt & Whitney Propulsion Risk Reduction Requirements Program (TA-3 & TA-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  5. Research at the CEA in the field of safety in 2nd and 3rd generation light water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billot, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The research programs at the CEA in the field of safety in nuclear reactors are carried out in a framework of international partnerships. Their purpose is to develop studies on: The methods allowing for the determination of earthquake hazards and their consequences; The behaviour of fuel in an accident situation; The comprehension of deflagration and detonation phenomena of hydrogen and the search for effective prevention methods involving an explosion risk; The cooling of corium in order to stop its progression in and outside the vessel thereby reducing the risk of perforating the basemat; The behaviour of the different fission product families according to their volatility for the UO2 and MOX fuels.

  6. Evaluation of 2nd generation flue gas conditioning for hot-side and cold-side ESPs

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Martin, C.E.; Jackson, D.W.; Lindsey, C.V.; Millar, T.J.

    1999-07-01

    New and emerging regulations such as PM2.5 and restrictions on emission of air toxics have created a demand for new technologies to reduce the emissions of fine particles from large industrial sources. ADA Environmental Solutions, LLC (ADA-ES) has commercialized a family of proprietary, flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. The phosphate-based flue gas conditioning additives decrease particle resistivity and improve the performance of ESPs with resistivity related performance problems. In addition, the new additives are effective on a wide range of coal-ash chemistries, which allows the utility flexibility to select the most economical coal. Finally, this technology is effective in applications where conventional SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning does not work such as hot-side ESPs and cold-side ESPs that operate above 375 degrees F. Based upon performance and economic criteria, ADA-ES expects to fill the following niches for improving performance of ESPs: (1) All hot-side ESPs and warm-side ({gt}350 degrees F) ESPs; (2) Cold-side ESPs with difficult to collect ash, such as those collecting ash from PRB coal; (3) Older units with limited operating life remaining; (4) ESP's that annually only need conditioning on an intermittent basis; and (5) Units that burn several coals with only a few that cause problems. This paper provides a summary of the relevant experience gained from the use of the ADA-ES conditioning technology at several different sites. Laboratory tests are presented which help explain the performance observed at some sites. In addition, a description of the development and the latest results from full-scale trials with an improved version of the product, ADA-34, are presented.

  7. 2nd Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    It was an honor and a great pleasure for all those involved in its organization to welcome the participants to the ''Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean'' (RADIO 2014) international conference that was held from 7th to 10th April 2014 at the Sugar Beach Resort, Wolmar, Flic-en-Flac, Mauritius. RADIO 2014 is the second of a series of conferences organized in the Indian Ocean region. The aim of the conference is to discuss recent developments, theories and practical applications covering the whole scope of radio-frequency engineering, including radio waves, antennas, propagation, and electromagnetic compatibility. The RADIO international conference emerged following discussions with engineers and scientists from the countries of the Indian Ocean as well as from other parts of the world and a need was felt for the organization of such an event in this region. Following numerous requests, the Island of Mauritius, worldwide known for its white sandy beaches and pleasant tropical atmosphere, was again chosen for the organization of the 2nd RADIO international conference. The conference was organized by the Radio Society, Mauritius and the Local Organizing Committee consisted of scientists from SUPELEC, France, the University of Mauritius, and the University of Technology, Mauritius. We would like to take the opportunity to thank all people, institutions and companies that made the event such a success. We are grateful to our gold sponsors CST and FEKO as well as URSI for their generous support which enabled us to partially support one PhD student and two scientists to attend the conference. We would also like to thank IEEE-APS and URSI for providing technical co-sponsorship. More than hundred and thirty abstracts were submitted to the conference. They were peer-reviewed by an international scientific committee and, based on the reviews, either accepted, eventually after revision, or rejected. RADIO 2014 brought together participants from twenty countries spanning

  8. 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (IC-RMM2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of materials and their rheological behaviors during their manufacturing processes and in their applications in many cases can help to increase the efficiency and competitiveness not only of the finished goods and products but the organizations and societies also. The more scientific supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive products with better thermal, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (ic-rmm2) and the parallel organized symposiums of the 1st International Symposium on Powder Injection Molding (is-pim1) and the 1st International Symposium on Rheology and Fracture of Solids (is-rfs1) are the followings: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of modeling and measurements of rheological properties and behavior of materials under processing and applications; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different disciplines, different nations, countries and continents. The international conference ic-rmm2 and symposiums of is-pim1 and is-rfs1 provide a platform among the leading international scientists, researchers, PhD students and engineers for discussing recent achievements in measurement, modeling and application of rheology in materials technology and materials science of liquids, melts, solids, crystals and amorphous structures. Among thr major fields of interest are the influence of materials structures, mechanical stresses, temperatures, deformation speeds and shear rates on rheological and physical properties, phase transformation of foams, foods, polymers, plastics and other competitive materials like ceramics

  9. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones -- Phase I, 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Black, Bill; Biraud, Sebastien

    2009-03-31

    This is the year-end report of the 2nd year of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix 3. Literature survey of published information on the relationship between geologic and hydrologic characteristics of faults was conducted. The survey concluded that it may be possible to classify faults by indicators based on various geometric and geologic attributes that may indirectly relate to the hydrologic property of faults. Analysis of existing information on the Wildcat Fault and its surrounding geology was performed. The Wildcat Fault is thought to be a strike-slip fault with a thrust component that runs along the eastern boundary of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is believed to be part of the Hayward Fault system but is considered inactive. Three trenches were excavated at carefully selected locations mainly based on the information from the past investigative work inside the LBNL property. At least one fault was encountered in all three trenches. Detailed trench mapping was conducted by CRIEPI (Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industries) and LBNL scientists. Some intriguing and puzzling discoveries were made that may contradict with the published work in the past. Predictions are made regarding the hydrologic property of the Wildcat Fault based on the analysis of fault structure. Preliminary conceptual models of the Wildcat Fault were proposed. The Wildcat Fault appears to have multiple splays and some low angled faults may be part of the flower structure. In parallel, surface geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity survey and seismic reflection profiling along three lines on the north and south of the LBNL site. Because of the steep terrain, it was difficult to find optimum locations for survey lines as it is desirable for them to be as

  10. Electrical Properties and Superconductivity of MSr2Nd2-xCexCu2O10-δ (M=Ta, Nb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Qian, Yitai; Li, Rukang; Wang, Shiwei; Chen, Zuyao; Chen, Zhaojia; Wang, Nanling; Zhou, Guien

    1992-09-01

    A new series of layered cuprate compounds MSr2Nd2-xCexCu2O10-δ (M=Ta, Nb) have been synthesized. The structure of the compounds is similar to that of T1-1222. A peak in the R-T curve for the sample of TaSr2Nd1.3Ce0.7Cu2O10-δ has been observed at about 50 K. For the sample of NbSr2Nd1.45Ce0.55Cu2O10-δ, metal-like conductivity behaviour has been observed. We have found superconductivity at about 13.2 K in the samples of NbSr2Nd2-xCexCu2O10-δ (x=0.49, 0.50, 0.51, 0.52).

  11. Calibration strategy of the pyramid wavefront sensor module of ERIS with the VLT deformable secondary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, A.; Briguglio, R.; Pinna, E.; Agapito, G.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.

    2012-07-01

    ERIS is a new Adaptive Optics Instrument for the Adaptive Optics Facility of the VLT that foresees, in its design phase, a Pyramid Wavefront Sensor Module (PWM) to be used with the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror (VLT-DSM) as corrector. As opposite to the concave secondary mirrors currently in use (e.g. at LBT), VLT-DSM is convex and calibration of the interaction matrix (IM) between the PWM and the DSM is not foreseen on-telescope during day-time. In this paper different options of calibration are evaluated and compared with particular attention on the synthetic evaluation and on-sky calibration of the IM. A trade-off of the calibration options, the optimization techniques and the related validation with numerical simulations are also provided.

  12. [In search of the ideal surgical treatment for lymphedema. Report of 2nd European Conference on supermicrosurgery (Barcelona - March 2012)].

    PubMed

    Rausky, J; Robert, N; Binder, J-P; Revol, M

    2012-12-01

    Since more than 50 years, many surgeons all around the world try to find the perfect surgical technique to treat limb lymphedemas. Decongestive physiotherapy associated with the use of a compressive garment has been the primary choice for lymphedema treatment. Many different surgical techniques have been developed, however, to date, there is no consensus on surgical procedure. Most surgical experts of lymphedema met in the second European Conference on supermicrosurgery, organized on March 1st and 2nd 2012, in San Pau Hospital, Barcelona. Together they tried to clarify these different options and ideally a strategy for using these techniques.

  13. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/ Austria | November 28th - 29th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation. PMID:25713602

  14. Comparison of the large scale structure of the ISM in the 2nd and 3rd Galactic Quadrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; Kiss, Cs.

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we are questing the large scale structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) using IRAS/ISSA 60 and 100 mum maps in the 3rd Galactic Quadrant (GQ). Here we identified 41 loop-like intensity enhancements and analysed their far-infrared (FIR) properties. We found major differences in the distribution and characteristics of these features when comparing the results of the 2nd and the 3rd GQs. This discrepancy can be satisfactorily explained by basic differences of the structure of the ISM in these two Galactic Quadrants.

  15. THE 2nd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 10–14 APRIL 2010, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Baharnoori, Moogeh; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Boucher, Aurelie A.; Buchy, Lisa; Chaddock, Christopher; Chiliza, Bonga; Föcking, Melanie; Fornito, Alex; Gallego, Juan A.; Hori, Hiroaki; Huf, Gisele; Jabbar, Gul A.; Kang, Shi Hyun; El Kissi, Yousri; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Modinos, Gemma; Abdel-Fadeel, Nashaat A.M.; Neubeck, Anna-Karin; Ng, Hsiao Piau; Novak, Gabriela; Owolabi, Olasunmbo.O.; Prata, Diana P.; Rao, Naren P.; Riecansky, Igor; Smith, Darryl C.; Souza, Renan P.; Thienel, Renate; Trotman, Hanan D.; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Woodberry, Kristen A.; O'Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, was held in Florence, Italy, April 10–15, 2010. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs of each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged from each session and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these reviews. It is hoped that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:20934307

  16. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/Austria|November 28th-29th, 2013.

    PubMed

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation.

  17. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  18. Trace element identification of three chemically distinct very low titanium (VLT) basalt glasses from Apollo 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, David J.; McKay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.

    1994-02-01

    Small VLT samples from Apollo 17 soils were analyzed for trace elements using newly developed high sensitivity INAA techniques. Three distinct groups of VLT compositions are identified. Cobalt contents clearly delineate the HICo, MECo, and LOCo groups, which are also clearly identifiable by their major and minor element compositions. The results allow conclusions to be drawn concerning the sequence of events that produced the regolith at the Apollo 17 landing site.

  19. New VLT Observations Address the Age of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    First Detailed Spectra of White Dwarf Stars in a Globular Cluster Recent observations with the FORS1 instrument at the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (ANTU) by an international group of astronomers [1] have resulted in crucial new information about some small and faint stars within an old star cluster in the Milky Way. Thanks to the enormous light gathering power and, not least, the excellent optical quality of ANTU , it was possible for the first time to obtain detailed spectra of several very faint stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397 . Earlier images with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) hinted that they might be White Dwarf Stars (WDs) , i.e. Earth-size, hot and extremely dense stars that represent the end products of the evolution of stars like the Sun. The VLT spectra confirmed this classification and, even more important, have also permitted a first determination of the stellar spectral type, temperature and surface gravity, as well as the mass of four WDs in NGC 6397 . In particular, the astronomers learned that the brightest of the four observed WDs has a mass of about 0.35 solar masses, much lower than the mean mass of 0.55 - 0.65 solar masses that is typical for local white dwarfs. Distance and age determinations This means that the precise distance determination to a globular cluster, from a comparison of its WD stars to more nearby WDs with well-known masses and distances, will now be possible, provided the individual properties of the cluster WDs are well determined from such spectroscopic observations [2]. The mass strongly influences the brightness of a WD and comparing a low-mass globular cluster WD to a more massive local WD would underestimate the distance to the globular cluster. As these stars are very faint, the spectroscopic observations required for their analysis are very difficult and can only be done with large telescopes like the VLT. Accurate distances to the globular clusters allow to determine their age accurately. Milky Way

  20. "First Light" Approaches for Fourth VLT Unit Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-08-01

    These days, the ESO staff at Paranal is having a strong feeling of "déja-vu". Only seven months after the third 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, MELIPAL , achieved "First Light", this crucial moment is now rapidly approaching for YEPUN , the fourth and last of the giants at the ESO observatory. Following successful coating with a thin layer of aluminium in early June 2000, the 8.2-m primary Zerodur mirror (M1) was placed in its supporting cell and safely attached to the mechanical structure of YEPUN on July 31. On August 26, the 1.1-m M2 Beryllium Mirror for YEPUN was coated. Again, this delicate operation went very well and the measured reflectivity was excellent, about 91%. The M2 mirror and its support were then assembled and successfully installed at the telescope on Sunday, August 27. Before the optical mirrors were installed, and with dummies in their place, careful tests were made of most telescope functions. In particular, this included accurate balancing of the 450-tonnes telescope frame on its hydrostatic oil bearings, as well as precise adjustment of all motions. It now remains for the ESO engineers to do the final performance optimization of the entire telescope. The work on the fourth telescope has been particularly noticeable because a large proportion of the assembly, integration, tuning and testing was organised and executed by ESOs young group of capable engineers and technicians. As the engineering staff at Paranal has grown and during the earlier work on the first three telescopes, they have been acquiring the necessary expertise to autonomously integrate and maintain the 8.2-m telescopes. During the coming "First Light" observations, light from the selected celestial objects will be registered by the VLT Test Camera at the Cassegrain Focus. This comparatively simple instrument was also used for the consecutive "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). It is mounted on the telescope's optical axis

  1. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  2. New Vistas Open with MIDI at the VLT Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    "First Fringes" in Mid-Infrared Spectral Region with Two Giant Telescopes Summary Following several weeks of around-the-clock work, a team of astronomers and engineers from Germany, the Netherlands, France and ESO [2] has successfully performed the first observations with the MID-Infrared interferometric instrument (MIDI), a new, extremely powerful instrument just installed in the underground laboratory of the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). In the early morning of December 15, 2002, two of the 8.2 m VLT unit telescopes (ANTU and MELIPAL) were pointed towards the southern star eta Carinae and the two light beams were directed via the complex intervening optics system towards MIDI. After a few hours of tuning and optimization, strong and stable interferometric fringes were obtained, indicating that all VLTI components - from telescopes to the new instrument - were working together perfectly. Two more stars were observed before sunrise, further proving the stability of the entire system. The first observations with MIDI mark one more important step towards full and regular operation of the VLT Interferometer [3] . They are a result of five years of determined efforts within a concerted technology project, based on a close collaboration between ESO and several European research institutes (see below). Now opening great research vistas, they also represent several "firsts" in observational astrophysics, together amounting to a real breakthrough in the field of astronomical interferometry . New views at mid-infrared wavelengths : MIDI is sensitive to light of a wavelength near 10 µm, i.e., in the mid-infrared spectral region ("thermal infrared"). This provides rich opportunities to study a wide range of otherwise inaccessible, crucial astrophysical phenomena, e.g., the formation of planets in dusty disks around newborn stars and the innermost regions around black holes. However, it is a great technical challenge to perform mid

  3. [Medical support of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Leonik, S I; Lemeshkin, R N

    2015-02-01

    Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front. An activity of the medical An activity of the medical service of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front is a typical example of the medical support of troops during the final stages of World War II. Forms and methods of medical support management, which were developed during the war, haven't lost their importance in modern conditions. These methods include the establishment of specialized surgical and therapeutic field hospital, establishment of medical institutions in the Army, which worked on the evacuation directions and reserve of mobile hospitals and transport, timely extension of the first echelons of the hospital base front to change institutions hospital deployed the army base. A research of experience in organizing medical support of the offensive operations performed during the last year of World War II provides the material for the development of the theory of modern medical support operations and ability to provide on this basis, the continuity of the hospitals, the continuity of qualified and specialized medical care, improve the performance of diagnostic and treatment work.

  4. Influence of Nd dopant amount on microstructure and photoluminescence of TiO2:Nd thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcieszak, Damian; Mazur, Michal; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Morgiel, Jerzy; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Misiewicz, Jan

    2015-10-01

    TiO2 and TiO2:Nd thin films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering process from mosaic Ti-Nd targets with various Nd concentration. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopic techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) in the near infrared obtained upon 514.5 nm excitation was also examined. The relationship between the Nd concentration, structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of prepared thin films was investigated and discussed. XRD and TEM measurements showed that an increase in the Nd concentration in the thin films hinders the crystal growth in the deposited coatings. Depending on the Nd amount in the thin films, TiO2 with the rutile, mixed rutile-amorphous or amorphous phase was obtained. Transmittance measurements revealed that addition of Nd dopant to titania matrix did not deteriorate optical transparency of the coatings, however it influenced on the position of the fundamental absorption edge and therefore on the width of optical band gap energy. All TiO2:Nd thin films exhibited PL emission that occurred at ca. 0.91, 1.09 and 1.38 μm. Finally, results obtained for deposited coatings showed that titania with the rutile structure and 1.0 at.% of Nd was the most efficient in VIS to NIR photon conversion.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  6. Density functional theory calculations on the active site of biotin synthase: mechanism of S transfer from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster and the role of 1st and 2nd sphere residues.

    PubMed

    Rana, Atanu; Dey, Subal; Agrawal, Amita; Dey, Abhishek

    2015-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed on the active site of biotin synthase (BS) to investigate the sulfur transfer from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster to dethiobiotin (DTB). The active site is modeled to include both the 1st and 2nd sphere residues. Molecular orbital theory considerations and calculation on smaller models indicate that only an S atom (not S²⁻) transfer from an oxidized Fe(2)S(2) cluster leads to the formation of biotin from the DTB using two adenosyl radicals generated from S-adenosyl-L-methionine. The calculations on larger protein active site model indicate that a 9-monothiobiotin bound reduced cluster should be an intermediate during the S atom insertion from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster consistent with experimental data. The Arg260 bound to Fe1, being a weaker donor than cysteine bound to Fe(2), determines the geometry and the electronic structure of this intermediate. The formation of this intermediate containing the C9-S bond is estimated to have a ΔG(≠) of 17.1 kcal/mol while its decay by the formation of the 2nd C6-S bond is calculated to have a ΔG(≠) of 29.8 kcal/mol, i.e. the 2nd C-S bond formation is calculated to be the rate determining step in the cycle and it leads to the decay of the Fe(2)S(2) cluster. Significant configuration interaction (CI), present in these transition states, helps lower the barrier of these reactions by ~30-25 kcal/mol relative to a hypothetical outer-sphere reaction. The conserved Phe285 residue near the Fe(2)S(2) active site determines the stereo selectivity at the C6 center of this radical coupling reaction. Reaction mechanism of BS investigated using DFT calculations. Strong CI and the Phe285 residue control the kinetic rate and stereochemistry of the product.

  7. XUV spectra of 2nd transition row elements: identification of 3d-4p and 3d-4f transition arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokasani, Ragava; Long, Elaine; Maguire, Oisin; Sheridan, Paul; Hayden, Patrick; O'Reilly, Fergal; Dunne, Padraig; Sokell, Emma; Endo, Akira; Limpouch, Jiri; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-12-01

    The use of laser produced plasmas (LPPs) in extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray lithography and metrology at 13.5 nm has been widely reported and recent research efforts have focused on developing next generation sources for lithography, surface morphology, patterning and microscopy at shorter wavelengths. In this paper, the spectra emitted from LPPs of the 2nd transition row elements from yttrium (Z = 39) to palladium (Z = 46), with the exception of zirconium (Z = 40) and technetium (Z = 43), produced by two Nd:YAG lasers which delivered up to 600 mJ in 7 ns and 230 mJ in 170 ps, respectively, are reported. Intense emission was observed in the 2-8 nm spectral region resulting from unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) due to 3d-4p, 3d-4f and 3p-3d transitions. These transitions in a number of ion stages of yttrium, niobium, ruthenium and rhodium were identified by comparison with results from Cowan code calculations and previous studies. The theoretical data were parameterized using the UTA formalism and the mean wavelength and widths were calculated and compared with experimental results.

  8. The Vimos VLT deep survey: compact structures in the CDFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, C.; Mazure, A.; Ilbert, O.; Cappi, A.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Covone, G.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Iovino, A.; Lauger, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Gregorini, L.; Mathez, G.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-12-01

    We used the Vimos VLT Deep Survey in combination with other spectroscopic, photometric, and X-ray surveys from the literature to detect several galaxy structures in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). Both a friend-of-friend-based algorithm applied to the spectroscopic redshift catalog and an adaptative kernel galaxy density and color maps correlated with photometric redshift estimates were used. We mainly detected a chain-like structure at z=0.66 and two massive groups at z=0.735 and 1.098 showing signs of ongoing collapse. We also detected two galaxy walls at z=0.66 and at z=0.735 (extremely compact in redshift space). The first one contains the chain-like structure and the last one contains one of the two massive groups in its center. Finally, other galaxy structures that are probably loose low mass groups were detected. We compared the group galaxy population with simulations in order to assess the richness of these structures and studied their galaxy morphological contents. The higher redshift structures appear to probably have lower velocity dispersion than the nearby ones. The number of moderately massive structures we detected is consistent with what is expected for an LCDM model, but a larger sample is required to put significant cosmological constraints.

  9. Tests of the PSF reconstruction algorithm for NACO/VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clénet, Yann; Lidman, Christopher; Gendron, Eric; Rousset, Gérard; Fusco, Thierry; Kornweibel, Nick; Kasper, Markus; Ageorges, Nancy

    2008-07-01

    We have developed an PSF reconstruction algorithm for the NAOS adaptive optics system that is coupled with CONICA at ESO/VLT. We have modified the algorithm of Véran et al. (1997), originally written for PUEO at CFHT, to make use of the specific real-time wavefront-related data that observers with NACO receive together with their scientific images. In addition, we use the Vii algorithm introduced by Clénet et al. (2006) and Gendron et al. (2006) instead of the Uij algorithm originally used by Véran et al. (1997). Until now, tests on NAOS has been undertaken during technical time thanks to the NACO team at Paranal. A first test has been successfully performed to calibrate the orientation of reconstructed PSFs with respect to NACO images. We have also obtained two sets of PSF reconstruction test data with NACO in November 2006 and September 2007 to reconstruct PSFs. Discrepancies exist between the observed and reconstructed PSFs: their Strehl ratios are ~31% and ~39% respectively in Nov. 2006, ~31% and ~19% respectively in Sept. 2007. These differences may be at least partly explained by reconstructions that either did not account for the aliasing contribution or poorly estimated the noise contribution with the available noise information at that time. We have additionally just started to test our algorithm using the AO bench Sésame, at LESIA. Results are promising but need to be extended to a larger set of atmospheric conditions or AO correction qualities.

  10. VLT Spectroscopy of the Sgr A* Stellar Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckart, A.; Ott, T.; Genzel, R.

    1999-12-01

    We have obtained new near-infrared observations of the central stellar cluster of our Galaxy carried out with the infrared spectrometer ISAAC at the ESO VLT and the MPE speckle camera SHARP at the ESO NTT. With ISAAC we used a spectral resolution of lambda/Delta lambda ~ 3500 on the 2.058 micron He I, 2.165 micron Br-gamma emission lines, and 2.29 micron CO bandhead absorption line. The data demonstrate clearly that there is no strong CO bandhead absorption originating in the northern part (S1/S2 area) of the central stellar cluster at the position of Sgr A*. This makes it likely that the K ~ 14.5 fast moving objects are O9 - B0.5 stars with masses of 15 to 20 Msun. Weak CO bandhead absorption in the southern part of the cluster (S10/S11 area) could be due to contributions from neighbouring stars. We have also detected Br-gamma and He I line emission at the position of the central stellar cluster which could be associated with the 'mini-spiral' rather than with the Sgr A* cluster itself. At the NTT we obtained another epoch to measure the proper motion structure and variability of sources in the central stellar cluster (see Ott, Eckart, Genzel 1999). The changes of source positions are consistent with the proper motion velocities derived from earlier epochs.

  11. The VIMOS VLT deep survey. Computing the two point correlation statistics and associated uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollo, A.; Meneux, B.; Guzzo, L.; Le Fèvre, O.; Blaizot, J.; Cappi, A.; Iovino, A.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Ilbert, O.; Marano, B.; Mathez, G.; Mazure, A.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Gregorini, L.; Lamareille, F.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-09-01

    We present a detailed description of the methods used to compute the three-dimensional two-point galaxy correlation function in the VIMOS-VLT deep survey (VVDS). We investigate how instrumental selection effects and observational biases affect the measurements and identify the methods to correct for them. We quantify the accuracy of our corrections using an ensemble of 50 mock galaxy surveys generated with the GalICS semi-analytic model of galaxy formation which incorporate the selection biases and tiling strategy of the real data. We demonstrate that we are able to recover the real-space two-point correlation function ξ(s) and the projected correlation function w_p(r_p) to an accuracy better than 10% on scales larger than 1 h-1 Mpc with the sampling strategy used for the first epoch VVDS data. The large number of simulated surveys allows us to provide a reliable estimate of the cosmic variance on the measurements of the correlation length r0 at z ˜ 1, of about 15-20% for the first epoch VVDS observation while any residual systematic effect in the measurements of r0 is always below 5%. The error estimation and measurement techniques outlined in this paper are being used in several parallel studies which investigate in detail the clustering properties of galaxies in the VVDS.

  12. "The Program Evaluation Standards": How to Assess Evaluations of Educational Programs, 2nd Edition [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Deborah M.

    1994-01-01

    The "Program Evaluation Standards" supplies a useful framework for generating questions to raise about any evaluation plan or evaluation report to assess its pros and cons. It is a valuable "how-to" for graduate students and professionals. This second edition incorporates changes in the field in the last decade. (SLD)

  13. Conceptual design and optimization of a 1-1/2 generation PFBC plant task 14. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubow, L.N.; Horazak, D.A.; White, J.S.

    1994-12-01

    The economics and performance of advanced pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) cycles developed for utility applications during the last 10 years (especially the 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle) are projected to be favorable compared to conventional pulverized coal power plants. However, the improved economics of 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles are accompanied by the perception of increased technological risk related to the pressurized carbonizer and its associated gas cleanup systems. A PFBC cycle that removed the uncertainties of the carbonizer while retaining the high efficiency and low cost of a 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle could improve the prospects for early commercialization and pave the way for the introduction of the complete 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle at some later date. One such arrangement is a PFBC cycle with natural gas topping combustion, referred to as the 1.5-Generation PFBC cycle. This cycle combines the advantages of the 2nd-Generation PFBC plant with the reduced risk associated with a gas turbine burning natural gas, and can potentially be part of a phased approach leading to the commercialization of utility 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles. The 1.5-Generation PFBC may also introduce other advantages over the more complicated 2nd-Generation PFBC system. This report describes the technical and economic evaluation of 1.5-Generation PFBC cycles for utility or industrial power generation.

  14. Specimen Examinations for Merchant Marine Engineer Licenses (2nd and 3rd Assistant).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    valves being not fully seated. D. moisture entrained in the steam . 5. Double helically cut gears are used for main reduction and pinion gears to A...A faulty coil in the solenoid valve -21- EXAMINATION SPECIFICATIONS SECOND ASSISTANT ENGINEER SUBJECT STEAM MOTOR I. Boilers, Fuel Oil & Combustion...engine back pressure. C. increase engine cycle efficiency. D. increase turbocharger efficiency. 2. A common method of varying the steam generating rate

  15. Post-flight BET products for the 2nd discovery entry, STS-19 (51-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, G. M.; Mcconnell, J. G.; Heck, M. L.; Troutman, P. A.; Waters, L. A.; Findlay, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    The post-flight products for the second Discovery flight, STS-19 (51-A), are summarized. The inertial best estimate trajectory (BET), BT19D19/UN=169750N, was developed using spacecraft dynamic measurements from Inertial Measurement Unit 2 (IMU2) in conjunction with the best tracking coverage available for any of the earlier Shuttle entries. As a consequence of the latter, an anchor epoch was selected which conforms to an initial altitude of greater than a million feet. The Extended BET, ST19BET/UN=274885C, incorporated the previously mentioned inertial reconstructed state information and the Langley Atmospheric Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) atmosphere, ST19MET/UN=712662N, with some minor exceptions. Primary and back-up AEROBET reels are NK0165 and NK0201, respectively. This product was only developed over the lowermost 360 kft altitude range due to atmosphere problems but this relates to altitudes well above meaningful signal in the IMUs. Summary results generated from the AEROBET for this flight are presented with meaningful configuration and statistical comparisons from the previous thirteen flights. Modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) files were generated based on IMU2 and the Rate Gyro Assembly/Accelerometer Assembly (RGA/AA), respectively. Appendices attached define spacecraft and physical constants utilized, show plots of the final tracking data residuals from the post-flight fit, list relevant parameters from the BET at a two second spacing, and retain for archival purpose all relevant input and output tapes and files generated.

  16. Constraints on Chariklo's rings from HST and VLT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicardy, Bruno; Buie, Marc W.; Benedetti-Rossi, Gustavo; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; Bueno de Camargo, Julio I.; Duffard, Rene; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Gratadour, Damien; Dumas, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    In June 2013, a stellar occultation revealed for the first time ever the presence of two dense and narrow rings around a small object of the solar system, the Centaur (10199) Chariklo (Braga-Ribas et al., Nature 508, 72, 2014). This body follows an eccentric orbit between Saturn and Uranus, with perihelion and aphelion distances of 13.1 and 18.5 AU. Due to Uranus perturbations, its orbit is unstable on the very short time scale of ~10 Myr (Horner at al. MNRAS 354, 798, 2004). The two rings (C1R and C2R, respectively) have orbital radii aC1R= 390.6±3.3 km and aC2R= 404.8±3.3 km, and typical widths WC1R ~6.5 km and WC2R ~2 km, optical depths τC1R ~ 0.4 and τC1R ~ 0.06, with a gap of ~9 km between the two. Chariklo's radius, RC~ 120 km (Duffard et al. AA 568, A79, 2014 Fornasier et al. AA 518, L11, 2014), implies that the ring system lies at 3.3-3.4 RC, farther away than the classical Roche limit of 2.4 RC that would be obtained for spherical ring particles with the same density as Chariklo.To better understand Chariklo's surroundings, and thus the origin of the rings, direct imaging of Chariklo has been performed using HST and VLT, with respectively 3 visits and 2 runs performed between April and August 2015. The HST images were obtained with the WFC3/UVIS camera with filters F300X (250-350 nm), F475X (400-650 nm) and F350LP (300-1000 nm), and typical PSF size of 30 milli-arcsec (mas), corresponding to about 300~km at Chariklo. Conversely, the SPHERE high contrast instrument at ESO VLT provided images in the near IR (Y, J and H bands), with typical expected PSF sizes of 30-40 mas (300-400~km at Chariklo). The main goals of those observations were: (1) obtain direct images of the rings, confirming their geometry and their orientation, (2) derive multi-wavelength photometry, thus constraining their composition (concerning in particular the presence of water ice), (3) perform a deep search of small satellites (down to a few km in diameter), (4) faint dusty rings

  17. Numerical Simulation of the Francis Turbine and CAD used to Optimized the Runner Design (2nd).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutikno, Priyono

    2010-06-01

    Hydro Power is the most important renewable energy source on earth. The water is free of charge and with the generation of electric energy in a Hydroelectric Power station the production of green house gases (mainly CO2) is negligible. Hydro Power Generation Stations are long term installations and can be used for 50 years and more, care must be taken to guarantee a smooth and safe operation over the years. Maintenance is necessary and critical parts of the machines have to be replaced if necessary. Within modern engineering the numerical flow simulation plays an important role in order to optimize the hydraulic turbine in conjunction with connected components of the plant. Especially for rehabilitation and upgrading existing Power Plants important point of concern are to predict the power output of turbine, to achieve maximum hydraulic efficiency, to avoid or to minimize cavitations, to avoid or to minimized vibrations in whole range operation. Flow simulation can help to solve operational problems and to optimize the turbo machinery for hydro electric generating stations or their component through, intuitive optimization, mathematical optimization, parametric design, the reduction of cavitations through design, prediction of draft tube vortex, trouble shooting by using the simulation. The classic design through graphic-analytical method is cumbersome and can't give in evidence the positive or negative aspects of the designing options. So it was obvious to have imposed as necessity the classical design methods to an adequate design method using the CAD software. There are many option chose during design calculus in a specific step of designing may be verified in ensemble and detail form a point of view. The final graphic post processing would be realized only for the optimal solution, through a 3 D representation of the runner as a whole for the final approval geometric shape. In this article it was investigated the redesign of the hydraulic turbine's runner

  18. Wavelength Calibration of the VLT-UVES Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Jonathan B.; Murphy, Michael T.; Griest, Kim

    2010-11-01

    We attempt to measure possible miscalibration of the wavelength scale of the VLT-UVES spectrograph. We take spectra of QSO HE0515-4414 through the UVES iodine cell which contains thousands of well-calibrated iodine lines and compare these lines to the wavelength scale from the standard thorium-argon pipeline calibration. Analyzing three exposures of this z = 1.71 QSO, we find two distinct types of calibration shifts needed to correct the Th/Ar wavelength scale. First, there is an overall average velocity shift of between 100 m s-1 and 500 m s-1 depending upon the exposure. Second, within a given exposure, we find intra-order velocity distortions of 100 m s-1 up to more than 200 m s-1. These calibration errors are similar to, but smaller than, those found earlier in the Keck HIRES spectrometer. We discuss the possible origins of these two types of miscalibration. We also explore the implications of these calibration errors on the systematic error in measurements of Δ α \\over α, the change in the fine-structure constant derived from measurement of the relative redshifts of absorption lines in QSO absorption systems. The overall average, exposure-dependent shifts should be less relevant for fine-structure work, but the intra-order shifts have the potential to affect these results. Using either our measured calibration offsets or a Gaussian model with sigma of around 90 m s-1, Monte Carlo mock experiments find errors in Δ α \\over α of between 1 × 10-6 N -1/2 sys and 3 × 10-6 N -1/2 sys, where N sys is the number of systems used and the range is due to dependence on how many metallic absorption lines in each system are compared.

  19. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  20. Effect of the nanocrystalline structure type on the optical properties of TiO2:Nd (1 at.%) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Michal; Wojcieszak, Damian; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Misiewicz, Jan; Morgiel, Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films, each doped with the same amount of neodymium (1 at.%) were deposited by Low Pressure Hot Target Reactive Sputtering and High Energy Reactive Magnetron Sputtering processes in order to obtain anatase and rutile thin film structures respectively. The microstructure and phase composition were analyzed using the transmission electron microscopy method including high resolution electron microscopy imaging. The measurements of the optical properties showed, that both prepared thin films were transparent in the visible light range and had a low extinction coefficient of ca. 3 ṡ 10-3. The thin film with the anatase structure had a lower cut-off wavelength and refractive index and a higher value of optical energy band gap as-compared to the TiO2:Nd coating with the rutile structure. Simultaneously, more efficient photoluminescence emission was observed for the rutile thin films.

  1. 2nd ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer: locally advanced stage III non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, W E E; De Ruysscher, D; Weder, W; Le Péchoux, C; De Leyn, P; Hoffmann, H; Westeel, V; Stahel, R; Felip, E; Peters, S

    2015-08-01

    To complement the existing treatment guidelines for all tumour types, ESMO organises consensus conferences to focus on specific issues in each type of tumour. The 2nd ESMO Consensus Conference on Lung Cancer was held on 11-12 May 2013 in Lugano. A total of 35 experts met to address several questions on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in each of four areas: pathology and molecular biomarkers, first-line/second and further lines of treatment in advanced disease, early-stage disease and locally advanced disease. For each question, recommendations were made including reference to the grade of recommendation and level of evidence. This consensus paper focuses on locally advanced disease.

  2. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories.

  3. The 2nd Order Focusing by Energy for TOF Sector Field Mass Analyzer with an Orthogonal Acceleration: Theory, Modeling, Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poteshin, S. S.; Chernyshev, D. M.; Sysoev, Alexey A.; Sysoev, Alexander A.

    Currently axially symmetric type of analyzer with an electrostatic sector fields (AESF) is rarely used to construct time-of-flight mass spectrometers. The main drawback, hindering the wider use of the analyzers of this type, is the lack of chromatic second-order focusing by energy. However, the configuration of AESF in combination with orthogonal accelerator (OA) allows to achieved it through compensation of energy aberrations of the analyzer in the system of orthogonal input of the ion beam. In the presented work the results of theoretical calculation, simulation and experimentally obtained data are compared. Characteristics of the analyzer with OA in a large extent depend on the parameters of the incoming ion beam. Data of modeling the 2nd stage of gas-dynamic interface, which have the greatest influence on the parameters of the ion beam, is provided.

  4. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically better than open hepatectomy: preparing for the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Go; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Han, Ho-Seong; Kaneko, Hironori; Buell, Joseph F

    2014-10-01

    Six years have passed since the first International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection was held. This comparatively new surgical technique has evolved since then and is rapidly being adopted worldwide. We compared the theoretical differences between open and laparoscopic liver resection, using right hepatectomy as an example. We also searched the Cochrane Library using the keyword "laparoscopic liver resection." The papers retrieved through the search were reviewed, categorized, and applied to the clinical questions that will be discussed at the 2nd Consensus Conference. The laparoscopic hepatectomy procedure is more difficult to master than the open hepatectomy procedure because of the movement restrictions imposed upon us when we operate from outside the body cavity. However, good visibility of the operative field around the liver, which is located beneath the costal arch, and the magnifying provide for neat transection of the hepatic parenchyma. Another theoretical advantage is that pneumoperitoneum pressure reduces hemorrhage from the hepatic vein. The literature search turned up 67 papers, 23 of which we excluded, leaving only 44. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are underway, but their results are yet to be published. Most of the studies (n = 15) concerned short-term results, with some addressing long-term results (n = 7), cost (n = 6), energy devices (n = 4), and so on. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically superior to open hepatectomy in terms of good visibility of the operative field due to the magnifying effect and reduced hemorrhage from the hepatic vein due to pneumoperitoneum pressure. However, there is as yet no evidence from previous studies to back this up in terms of short-term and long-term results. The 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection will arrive at a consensus on the basis of the best available evidence, with video presentations focusing on surgical techniques and the publication

  5. CO2 dynamics in nested catchments: a longitudinal perspective from soil to 1st and 2nd order streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Lehmann, J.; Riha, S. J.; Couto, E. G.

    2005-12-01

    Fluxes of CO2 from terrestrial to aquatic environments were investigated in a nested catchment study in the seasonally-dry southern Amazon. Dissolved CO2 concentrations in groundwater springs, four 1st order streams and one 2nd order stream were determined via routine sampling and in-situ monitoring. CO2 concentrations were monitored in the soil atmosphere to 8m. Belowground, the seasonal trend in soil CO2 concentrations at depth lagged that of seasonal water table dynamics, with peak concentrations (8.7% CO2 vol/vol at 4m) occurring one month after maximum water table height, indicating a shift in root respiration and plant water uptake to deeper soil layers during the dry season. Peak dissolved CO2 concentrations in springs and streams lagged the soil CO2 maximum by an additional month. During storm events, streamflow CO2 concentrations were found to decrease initially, reflecting the initial contribution of low-CO2 direct precipitation and surface runoff. Streamwater CO2 then increased as the contribution of pre-event water to storm flow increased. Dissolved CO2 in springs was also found to increase during storm events. Diurnal fluctuations in dissolved CO2 of springs were also observed, indicating the connectivity of the biosphere, pedosphere and hydrosphere for headwater catchments. The dissolved CO2 concentration within 1st order streams decreases rapidly downstream from stream sources, with spring CO2 concentration 3.3 times that at headwater catchment outlets. This initial outgassing of CO2 within 1st order streams was found to be accompanied by a corresponding increase in the pH of stream water. However, dissolved CO2 concentrations were not found to be significantly different between 1st and 2nd order streams. This suggests a discontinuity between some processes at the terrestrial-aquatic interface in headwater catchments and those of larger-order watersheds.

  6. The VLT Unravels the Nature of the Fastest Binary Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Two Hot White Dwarfs Perform a Tight Dance Summary Observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile and the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) on the Canary Islands during the past two years have enabled an international group of astronomers [1] to unravel the true nature of an exceptional binary stellar system. This system, designated RX J0806.3+1527 , was first discovered as an X-ray source of variable brightness - once every five minutes, it "switches off" for a short moment. The new observations have shown beyond doubt that this period reflects the orbital motion of two "white dwarf" stars that revolve around each other at a distance of only 80,000 km . Each of the stars is about as large as the Earth and this is the shortest orbital period known for any binary stellar system. The VLT spectrum displays lines of ionized helium, indicating that the presence of an exceedingly hot area on one of the stars - a "hot spot" with a temperature of approx. 250,000 degrees. The system is currently in a rarely seen, transitory evolutionary state . PR Photo 10a/02 : U- and R-band images of RX J0806.3+1527. PR Photo 10b/02 : Spectrum of RX J0806.3+1527 An amazing stellar binary system ESO PR Photo 10a/02 ESO PR Photo 10a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 400 pix - 440k] [Normal - JPEG: 1600 x 800 pix - 1.1M] Caption : PR Photo 10a/02 shows U and R filter images of the sky field around RX J0806.3+1527 (at centre of circle), obtained with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument on VLT KUEYEN. The object is brightest at the shorter wavelength (U-band) - reflecting its very high temperature. Technical information about the photo is available below. One year is the time it takes the Earth to move once around the Sun, our central star. This may seem quite fast when measured on the scale of the Universe, but this is a snail's motion compared to the the speed of two recently discovered stars. They revolve around each other 100,000 times faster; one full revolution takes only 321

  7. Directional fidelity of nanoscale motors and particles is limited by the 2nd law of thermodynamics--via a universal equality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhisong; Hou, Ruizheng; Efremov, Artem

    2013-07-21

    Directional motion of nanoscale motors and driven particles in an isothermal environment costs a finite amount of energy despite zero work as decreed by the 2nd law, but quantifying this general limit remains difficult. Here we derive a universal equality linking directional fidelity of an arbitrary nanoscale object to the least possible energy driving it. The fidelity-energy equality depends on the environmental temperature alone; any lower energy would violate the 2nd law in a thought experiment. Real experimental proof for the equality comes from force-induced motion of biological nanomotors by three independent groups - for translational as well as rotational motion. Interestingly, the natural self-propelled motion of a biological nanomotor (F1-ATPase) known to have nearly 100% energy efficiency evidently pays the 2nd law decreed least energy cost for direction production.

  8. A 52 hours VLT/FORS2 spectrum of a bright z ~ 7 HUDF galaxy: no Ly-α emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzella, E.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Castellano, M.; Grazian, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Nonino, M.; Cristiani, S.; Zamorani, G.; Vignali, C.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: We aim to determine the redshift of GDS_1408, the most solid z ~ 7 galaxy candidate lying in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Methods: We have used all the VLT spectra for GDS_1408 that has been collected by two other groups with FORS2 at VLT and by us in the last five years for a total integration time of 52 h. The combined spectrum is the deepest ever obtained of a galaxy in the reionization epoch. Results: We do not detect any emission line or continuum up to 10 100 Å. Based on an accurate set of simulations, we are able to put a stringent upper limit of f(Lyα) <3 × 10-18 erg/s/cm2 at 3-9 sigma in the explored wavelength range, which corresponds to a rest-frame equivalent width EW< 9 Å. Combining this limit with the spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling, we refine the redshift to be z = 6.82 ± 0.1 (1-sigma). The same SED fitting indicates that GDS_1408 is relatively extinct (A1600 ≃ 1) with a dust corrected star-formation rate of ≃20 M⊙ yr-1. The comparison between the un-attenuated equivalent width predicted by the case-B recombination theory and the observed upper limit provides a limit on the effective Lyα escape fraction of fesceff(Lyα) < 8%. Even though we cannot rule out a major contribution of the inter/circum galactic medium in damping the line, a plausible interpretation is that G2_1408 is moderately evolved and contains sufficient gas and dust to attenuate the Lyα emission before it reaches the intergalactic medium. Conclusions: The redshift confirmation of even the best z ≃ 7 candidates is very hard to achieve (unless the Lyα or unusually strong rest-UV nebular emission lines are present) with the current generation of 8-10 m class telescopes. We show that both JWST and E-ELT are necessary to make decisive progresses. Currently, the increased redshift accuracy obtained with this kind of analysis makes ALMA an interesting option for the redshift confirmation. This work is based on data collected at ESO VLT (prog.ID 084.A-0951(A

  9. Rocketdyne - J-2 Saturn V 2nd and 3rd Stage Engine. Chapter 2, Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The J-2 engine was unique in many respects. Technology was not nearly as well-developed in oxygen/hydrogen engines at the start of the J-2 project. As a result, it experienced a number of "teething" problems. It was used in two stages on the Saturn V vehicle in the Apollo Program, as well as on the later Skylab and Apollo/Soyuz programs. In the Apollo Program, it was used on the S-II stage, which was the second stage of the Saturn V vehicle. There were five J-2 engines at the back end of the S-II Stage. In the S-IV-B stage, it was a single engine, but that single engine had to restart. The Apollo mission called for the entire vehicle to reach orbital velocity in low Earth orbit after the first firing of the Saturn-IV-B stage and, subsequently, to fire a second time to go on to the moon. The engine had to be man-rated (worthy of transporting humans). It had to have a high thrust rate and performance associated with oxygen/hydrogen engines, although there were some compromises there. It had to gimbal for thrust vector control. It was an open-cycle gas generator engine delivering up to 230,000 pounds of thrust.

  10. Detection of 1st- and 2nd-order temporal-envelope cues in a patient with left superior cortical damage.

    PubMed

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Maillet, Didier; Moroni, Christine; Belin, Catherine; Lorenzi, Christian

    2004-06-01

    This psychophysical study explores the extent to which the auditory cortex is necessary for various aspects of temporal-envelope perception, that is, perception of the slow temporal modulations in amplitude known to be crucial for sound identification. The ability to detect 1st- and 2nd-order sinusoidal amplitude modulation (AM) is evaluated in a single patient showing left-hemisphere damage encroaching the primary and secondary auditory cortices. Here, 1st- and 2nd-order AM refer to (1) sinusoidal variation in the amplitude of a 2 kHz pure tone, and (2) sinusoidal variation in the depth of a 64 Hz AM applied to the 2 kHz pure tone, respectively. The results replicate previous findings by showing that damage to the left auditory cortex results in a selective deficit in auditory sensitivity to the lowest 1St-order AM (i.e., 1st-order AM frequencies < 16 Hz). Moreover, a dissociation is apparent between the ability to detect 1st- and 2nd-order temporal-envelope cues. The patient shows poorer than normal ability to detect 2nd-order AM at low frequencies ranging from 4-23 Hz, but normal ability to detect the high (64 Hz) 1st-order AM carrying these 2nd-order modulations. This result indicates that damage to the left primary and secondary auditory cortices affects the ability to detect temporal variations in the local properties of sounds(such as AM depth). It is also consistent with the idea that, as in vision, central nonlinear mechanisms are involved in the computation of such local (or 2nd-order) temporal properties.

  11. The VIMOS-VLT deep survey: the group catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucciati, O.; Marinoni, C.; Iovino, A.; Bardelli, S.; Adami, C.; Mazure, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Maccagni, D.; Temporin, S.; Zucca, E.; De Lucia, G.; Blaizot, J.; Garilli, B.; Meneux, B.; Zamorani, G.; Le Fèvre, O.; Cappi, A.; Guzzo, L.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Ilbert, O.; Lamareille, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Vergani, D.; Pérez-Montero, E.

    2010-09-01

    Aims: We present a homogeneous and complete catalogue of optical galaxy groups identified in the purely flux-limited (17.5 ≤ IAB ≤ 24.0) VIMOS-VLT deep redshift Survey (VVDS). Methods: We use mock catalogues extracted from the Millennium Simulation, to correct for potential systematics that might affect the overall distribution as well as the individual properties of the identified systems. Simulated samples allow us to forecast the number and properties of groups that can be potentially found in a survey with VVDS-like selection functions. We use them to correct for the expected incompleteness and, to asses in addition, how well galaxy redshifts trace the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of the underlying mass overdensity. In particular, on these mock catalogues we train the adopted group-finding technique i.e., the Voronoi-Delaunay Method (VDM). The goal is to fine-tune its free parameters, recover in a robust and unbiased way the redshift and velocity dispersion distributions of groups (n(z) and n(σ), respectively), and maximize, at the same time, the level of completeness and purity of the group catalogue. Results: We identify 318 VVDS groups with at least 2 members in the range 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 1.0, among which 144 (/30) with at least 3 (/5) members. The sample has an overall completeness of ~60% and a purity of ~50%. Nearly 45% of the groups with at least 3 members are still recovered if we run the algorithm with a particular parameter set that maximizes the purity (~75%) of the resulting catalogue. We use the group sample to explore the redshift evolution of the fraction fb of blue galaxies (U-B ≤ 1) in the redshift range 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 1. We find that the fraction of blue galaxies is significantly lower in groups than in the global population (i.e. in the whole ensemble of galaxies irrespective of their environment). Both of these quantities increase with redshift, the fraction of blue galaxies in groups exhibiting a marginally significant steeper

  12. VLT imaging of the β Pictoris gas disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, R.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Fathi, K.; Thébault, Ph.; Liseau, R.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Circumstellar debris disks older than a few Myr should be largely devoid of primordial gas remaining from the protoplanetary disk phase. Tracing the origin of observed atomic gas in Keplerian rotation in the edge-on debris disk surrounding the ~12 Myr old star β Pictoris requires more detailed information about its spatial distribution than has previously been acquired by limited slit spectroscopy. Especially indications of asymmetries and presence of Ca ii gas at high disk latitudes call for additional investigation to exclude or confirm its connection to observed dust structures or suggested cometary bodies on inclined eccentric orbits. Aims: We set out to recover a complete image of the Fe i and Ca ii gas emission around β Pic by spatially resolved, high-resolution spectroscopic observations to better understand the morphology and origin of the gaseous disk component. Methods: The multiple fiber facility FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), with the large integral-field-unit ARGUS, was used to obtain spatially resolved optical spectra (from 385.9 to 404.8 nm) in four regions covering the northeast and southwest side of the disk. Emission lines from Fe i (at 386.0 nm) and Ca ii (at 393.4 and 396.8 nm) were mapped and could be used to fit a parametric function for the disk gas distribution, using a gas-ionisation code for gas-poor debris disks. Results: Both Fe i and Ca ii emission are clearly detected, with the former dominating along the disk midplane, and the latter revealing vertically more extended gas. The surface intensity of the Fe i emission is lower but more extended in the northeast (reaching the 210 AU limit of our observations) than in the southwest, while Ca ii shows the opposite asymmetry. The modelled Fe gas disk profile shows a linear increase in scale height with radius, and a vertical profile that suggests dynamical interaction with the dust. We also qualitatively demonstrate that the Ca ii emission profile can be

  13. Saturn's Doppler velocimetry wind measurements with VLT/UVES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Miguel; Mota Machado, Pedro; Luz, David; Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo; Peralta, Javier

    2016-10-01

    We present Doppler wind velocity results of Saturn's zonal flow at ~0.4 mbar pressure level. Our aim is help to constrain the characterization of the equatorial jet at the referred altitude and the latitudinal variation of the zonal winds, to contribute to monitor the spatial and temporal variability in order to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of Saturn's zonal winds, which Sánchez-Lavega et al. (2003, Nature, 423, 623) have found to have strongly changed in recent years, as the planet approached southern summer solstice.The UVES/VLT instrument has been used, which simultaneously achieves high spectral resolving power and high spatial resolution. The field has been derotated in order to have the aperture aligned perpendicularly to Saturn's rotation axis. In this configuration, spatial information in the East-West direction is preserved in a set of spectra in the direction perpendicular to dispersion.The technique of absolute accelerometry (AA, Connes, 1985, ApSS 110, 211) has been applied to the backscattered solar spectrum in order to determine the Doppler shift associated with the zonal circulation. Our measurements have been made in the wavelength range of 480-680 nm. Previously we successfully adapted this Doppler velocimetry technique for measuring winds at Venus cloud tops (Machado et al. 2012).The observations consisted of 4 blocks of 15 exposures of 90 sec, plus two shorter blocks of 9 exposures, totalling 7.3 hours of telescope time. In order to cover the whole disk the aperture has been offset by 1 arcsec in the North-South direction between consecutive exposures. Most of the northern hemisphere was covered by the rings. Saturn's diameter was 17.4 arcsec, and the slit aperture was 0.3x25 arcsec. The aperture offset between consecutive exposures was 1 arcsec. Two observations blocks of 9 exposures only covered the central part of the disk, and four others covered the whole disk. The sub-terrestrial point was at -26.1 degrees South. The

  14. Highlights from AGU's 2nd virtual session: New magnetic field satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convenors, S.; Olsen, N.; Luehr, H.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past 150 years, the axial dipole component of the Earth's magnetic field has decayed by nearly 10%. This is ten times faster than if the dynamo that generates the field were switched off completely. The current decay rate is characteristic of magnetic reversals, which paleomagnetic data sets have shown occur on average about once every half million years. Three new geomagnetic field satellites have recently been placed in low-earth orbits and are investigating questions such as this rapid decay. Geographically, this decay is largely due to changes in the field in the South Atlantic region, where the expanding and deepening South Atlantic anomaly has serious implications for low-Earth orbit satellite operations. The magnetic field measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of contributions from a variety of sources: the fluid core,the magnetization of rocks in the Earth's crust, electric currents flowing in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, currents induced in the Earth by the time variations of the field, and electric currents induced by the oceanic circulation. The scientific challenge is the sophisticated separation of these various sources and the accurate determination of the spatial and temporal structure of them all. Multi-point measurements from high-precision satellites are a pre-requisite for such characterizations. With the launch of Oersted (1999), CHAMP and the Oersted-2 experiment onboard SAC-C (2000), there are now three satellites in near-Earth orbit measuring the scalar and vector magnetic fields at the nT accuracy level. In order to improve the utilization of these unique data sets, representatives of these projects publicly released simultaneous observations of data from all three satellites at www.dsri.dk/multimagsatellites. The data selection spanned a variety of viewing geometries, local times, and magnetic disturbance levels. Descriptive models and indices were also included. Presentations described the utility

  15. VLT Observations Confirm that the Universe Was Hotter in the Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    . However, slight temperature variations in different directions have been measured, most recently by means of detailed observations from a balloon above Antarctica (the Boomerang experiment). Since the universe is expanding, it must have been denser in the past. A particular prediction of the Big Bang theory is also that the temperature of the CMBR must have been higher at earlier times. However, although quite a few attempts have been made, no clear observational confirmation of this has been possible so far. In fact, the best observations until now have only been able to establish upper limits to the cosmic temperature at earlier epochs. But proof is now available from new observations carried out with the Ultra-violet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope on Paranal . Very demanding observations The further we look out into the Universe, the further we look back in time. It was actually suggested more than 30 years ago that the predicted increase of temperature with distance (redshift) could be tested by observing specific absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars. The idea is simply that at earlier epochs, the CMBR was hot enough to excite certain atomic levels, and thus to give rise to particular absorption lines in the spectrum of a celestial object. Some faint absorption lines of neutral carbon atoms were found to be especially promising, in the sense that they were predicted to be very sensitive to the surrounding temperature. However, previous generations of (smaller) astronomical telescopes were unable to achieve spectra of sufficient quality of these faint absorption lines in faint and remote objects in the distant (i.e., early) Universe. The need to isolate the CMBR effects The advent of 8-m class telescopes has now changed this situation. A few years ago, the 10-m Keck telescope (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA) obtained a spectrum of a quasar that was sufficiently detailed to determine an upper limit to the temperature of

  16. Successful "First Light" for VLT High-Resolution Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    Great Research Prospects with UVES at KUEYEN A major new astronomical instrument for the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile), the UVES high-resolution spectrograph, has just made its first observations of astronomical objects. The astronomers are delighted with the quality of the spectra obtained at this moment of "First Light". Although much fine-tuning still has to be done, this early success promises well for new and exciting science projects with this large European research facility. Astronomical instruments at VLT KUEYEN The second VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope, KUEYEN ("The Moon" in the Mapuche language), is in the process of being tuned to perfection before it will be "handed" over to the astronomers on April 1, 2000. The testing of the new giant telescope has been successfully completed. The latest pointing tests were very positive and, from real performance measurements covering the entire operating range of the telescope, the overall accuracy on the sky was found to be 0.85 arcsec (the RMS-value). This is an excellent result for any telescope and implies that KUEYEN (as is already the case for ANTU) will be able to acquire its future target objects securely and efficiently, thus saving precious observing time. This work has paved the way for the installation of large astronomical instruments at its three focal positions, all prototype facilities that are capable of catching the light from even very faint and distant celestial objects. The three instruments at KUEYEN are referred to by their acronyms UVES , FORS2 and FLAMES. They are all dedicated to the investigation of the spectroscopic properties of faint stars and galaxies in the Universe. The UVES instrument The first to be installed is the Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) that was built by ESO, with the collaboration of the Trieste Observatory (Italy) for the control software. Complete tests of its optical and mechanical components, as well as of its CCD detectors and of the complex

  17. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  18. Experimental observations on the response of 1(st) and 2(nd) order fibre optic long period grating coupling bands to the deposition of nanostructured coatings.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen W; Cheung, C S; Tatam, Ralph P

    2007-10-01

    The sensitivity of attenuation bands corresponding to the 2(nd) order coupling to cladding modes by a fibre optic long period grating (LPG) to the deposition of nanostructured coatings is investigated and compared with that of the 1(st) order coupling. The experimental observations support previously reported theoretical descriptions of LPGs with nanoscale coatings.

  19. Research and Prediction of the Application of Multimedia Teaching Aid in Teaching Technical Education on the 2nd Level of Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebila, Ján

    2011-01-01

    The purpose and the main aim of the pedagogic experiment were to practically verify the success of Multimedia Teaching Aid (MTA) in conditions of primary schools. We assumed that the use of our multimedia teaching aid in teaching technical education on the 2nd level of primary schools would significantly affect the level of knowledge of pupils…

  20. 2nd dimensional GC-MS analysis of sweat volatile organic compounds prepared by solid phase micro-extraction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Oh, Chang-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of an individual's odor from sweat, breath and skin provide important information for criminal tracking in field of forensic science. Solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) was used to determine human sweat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles. The mass spectrometric analysis (with electron impact mode) followed by 2nd dimensional separation with two different GC columns (one polar and one relatively nonpolar) connected in parallel were used to identify the 574 compounds from sweat samples. The components included alcohols, aldehydes, aliphatics/aromatics, carboxylic acids, esters, ketones, and other organic compounds (amides/amines, thio/thioesters, oxide, sulfides, nitro compounds). Of these compounds, 1-tridecanol, 1,3-bis(1,1-dimethyl ethyl)-benzene, 4,4'-(1-methylethylidene) bis-phenol and 7-acetyl-6-ethyl-1,1,4,4,-tetramethyl-tetraline were common components in all donor's sweat volatile samples. Age-related specific compounds were also detected. The results suggest that characteristic volatile profiles of human sweat emanations could provide the valuable information to forensic scientists.

  1. Explicit formulas for 2nd-order driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C-X. )

    2012-04-25

    Optimization of nonlinear driving terms have become a useful tool for designing storage rings, especially modern light sources where the strong nonlinearity is dominated by the large chromatic effects of quadrupoles and strong sextupoles for chromaticity control. The Lie algebraic method is well known for computing such driving terms. However, it appears that there was a lack of explicit formulas in the public domain for such computation, resulting in uncertainty and/or inconsistency in widely used codes. This note presents explicit formulas for driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles, which can be considered as thin elements. The computation is accurate to the 4th-order Hamiltonian and 2nd-order in terms of magnet parameters. The results given here are the same as the APS internal note AOP-TN-2009-020. This internal nte has been revised and published here as a Light Source Note in order to get this information into the public domain, since both ELEGANT and OPA are using these formulas.

  2. 1st and 2nd order Raman scattering from n-Graphene Layer (nGL) Films on Silicon Substrates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Awnish; Chen, Gugang; Eklund, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Results of room temperature Raman scattering experiments on graphene and n-graphene layer films (nGLs) will be presented [1]. We find that the G band at ˜ 1582 cm-1 exhibits an interesting upshift in frequency with 1/n which we tentatively assign to a surface strain phenomenon connected with surface roughness of the substrate and compensated by the increase in stiffness of the nGL with increasing n. Interesting n-specific bands are observed in the ˜1350 cm-1 (or D-band) region which may correlate with deviations from planarity of the nGL. The second order scattering is very interesting and for small n (n<4) the (2D' or G') band intensity at ˜ 2700 cm-1 is actually higher than the first-order G-band scattering. The shape of this band is sensitive to n and thus can be used to identify n without an AFM measurement. Whereas, the 2D' band is sensitive to n, the 2nd order 2G band ˜ 3248 cm-1 is independent of n. These observations will be discussed in terms of the phonon and electronic dispersion of nGLs. 1 A. Gupta, G. Chen, P. Joshi, S. Tadigadapa and P.C. Eklund, `` Raman Scattering from High-Frequency Phonons in Supported n-Graphene Layer Films'' NanoLett (in Press).

  3. Increasing the water temperature of a 2nd order stream reach: Hydraulic aspects of a whole-stream manipulative experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.; Canhoto, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    What will happen when water temperatures of streams increases, due to climate changes or in connection with rapidly changing human systems? Trying to answer to this question a whole-stream manipulative experiment was undertaken, where an increase in water temperature was artificially induced on a 2nd order stream reach. The main objective of this poster is to describe this experiment focusing on the design of the hydraulic system. The system maintained a steady flow while allowing natural variation in abiotic factors and was successfully used to evaluate the effects of warming on a stream ecosystem at several levels of biological organization. A constant flow of stream water was controlled by a hydraulic setup (~22m long; ~1.5m width) subdivided into two independent channels. One channel of the study reach received heated water (~3°C above the other), while the other received water at stream ambient temperature. The warming system maintained a steady gravity controlled flow making use of weirs and valves.

  4. Fabrication of 30 mm long baseline single-layer 2nd-order high- Tc SQUID gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soon-Gul; Oh, Soo-Ho; Kang, Chan Seok; Kim, In-Seon

    2007-09-01

    We have designed and fabricated a 30 mm long baseline 2nd-order SQUID gradiometer from a single-layer YBa 2Cu 3O 7 film. The design rule was the same as that of our previous study on short baseline gradiometers. Three linearly aligned 10.2 mm × 10.2 mm pickup loops were coupled directly to a dc SQUID to measure ∂ 2Bz/∂ x2. The device had an overall size of 70.2 mm × 10.6 mm and was patterned from a single layer of YBa 2Cu 3O 7 film on a sapphire substrate by argon ion milling with a photoresist mask. The Josephson element of the SQUID was YBa 2Cu 3O 7 nanobridges formed by focused ion beam writing technique. Balancing of the device was achieved by optimizing the inductance of the center loop. Estimated sensitivity of the gradiometer was ∼1.8 × 10 -10 T/m 2/Hz 1/2, which is equivalent to a field noise of 160 fT/Hz 1/2, for an intrinsic SQUID flux noise of 10 -5 ϕ0/Hz 1/2.

  5. Horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus amongst British 2nd World War soldiers in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Gill, G V; Bell, D R; Vandervelde, E M

    1991-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is much more common in tropical than in temperate countries. Visitors to the tropics are thus at risk from HBV, though the degree of risk, and the routes of infection involved are uncertain. We report serological markers of HBV in two groups of 2nd World War soldiers, who served in the Thai/Burma jungles. The groups comprised 100 ex-prisoners of the Japanese (POW), and 100 Burma Campaign Veterans (BCV). Surface antigen to HBV (HbsAg) was positive in 0% of POW and 2% of BCV (P = not significant). Surface antibody (anti-HBs) and core antibody (anti-HBc) were both positive in 40% POW and 13% BCV (P less than 0.001). Quoted UK prevalence rates for these markers are 0.1% for HBsAg, 1.5% for anti-HBs and 0.7% for anti-HBc. Both groups thus show very high rates of past HBV infection. For the POW there were many possible reasons, including contaminated surgical instruments and needles, blood transfusions, and multiple beatings with common weapons. None of these factors operated significantly for BCV. Malarial transmission was, however, intense in both groups, though more so in POW. The data thus again raise the possibility of horizontal transmission of HBV by biting insects in tropical countries.

  6. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (Evans+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. J.; Taylor, W. D.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Carraro, G.; Bagnoli, T.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Bressert, E.; Brott, I.; Campbell, M. A.; Cantiello, M.; Clark, J. S.; Costa, E.; Crowther, P. A.; de Mink, S. E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P. L.; Dunstall, P. R.; Friedrich, K.; Garcia, M.; Gieles, M.; Graefener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I. D.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Ramirez, O. H.; Sabin-Sanjulian, C.; Smartt, S. J.; Stroud, V. E.; van Loon, J. T.; Vink, J. S.; Walborn, N. R.

    2011-09-01

    The Tarantula Survey employs three modes of the Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) instrument on the VLT: Medusa-Giraffe, ARGUS-Giraffe and UVES. Most of the Medusa observations were obtained over the period 2008 October to 2009 February. (2 data files).

  8. Classification of DES16C3dmp as a SLSN-I by VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, M.; Smith, M.; Prajs, S.; D'Andrea, C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Lidman, C.; Carollo, D.; Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Lewis, G. F.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES16C3dmp as a type I super-luminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectra (380-950nm) were obtained using the X-SHOOTER instrument on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO).

  9. Immersion grating development for the VLT high-resolution IR echelle spectrometer: status report.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, G.

    Infrared immersion gratings are a possible way to realize the very high-resolution option in the planned VLT IR echelle spectrograph. In addition, immersion gratings and particular aspects of their fabrication are of interest to other applications. This paper summarizes the present status of the development program.

  10. Universe (2nd edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, W.J. III

    1988-01-01

    A general text on astronomy is presented. The foundations of the science are reviewed, including descriptions of naked-eye observatons of eclipses and planetary motions and such basic tools as Kepler's laws, the fundamental properties of light, and the optics of telescopes. The formation of the solar system is addressed, and the planets and their satellites are discussed individually. Solar science is treated in detail. Stellar evolution is described chronologically from birth to death. Molecular clouds, star clusters, nebulae, neutron stars, black holes, and various other phenomena that occur in the life of a star are examined in the sequence in which they naturally occur. A survey of the Milky Way introduces galactic astronomy. Quasars and cosmology are addressed, including the most recent developments in research. 156 references.

  11. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  12. High levels of virological failure with major genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected children after 5 years of care according to WHO-recommended 1st-line and 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens in the Central African Republic: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamant; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Mbitikon, Olivia; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Robin, Leman; Matta, Mathieu; Zeitouni, Kamal; Longo, Jean De Dieu; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Grésenguet, Gérard; Touré Kane, Ndèye Coumba; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    A large cohort of 220 HIV-1-infected children (median [range] age: 12 [4-17] years) was cared and followed up in the Central African Republic, including 198 in 1st-line and 22 in 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens. Patients were monitored clinically and biologically for HIV-1 RNA load and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) genotyping. A total of 87 (40%) study children were virological responders and 133 (60%) nonresponders. In children with detectable viral load, the majority (129; 97%) represented a virological failure. In children receiving 1st-line regimens in virological failure for whom genotypic resistance test was available, 45% displayed viruses harboring at least 1 DRM to NNRTI or NRTI, and 26% showed at least 1 major DRM to NNRTI or NRTI; more than half of children in 1st-line regimens were resistant to 1st-generation NNRTI and 24% of the children in 1st-line regimens had a major DRMs to PI. Virological failure and selection of DRMs were both associated with poor adherence. These observations demonstrate high rate of virological failure after 3 to 5 years of 1st-line or 2nd-line antiretroviral treatment, which is generally associated with DRMs and therapeutic failure. Overall, more than half (55%) of children receiving 1st-line antiretroviral treatment for a median of 3.4 years showed virological failure and antiretroviral-resistance and thus eligible to 2nd-line treatment. Furthermore, two-third (64%) of children under 2nd-line therapy were eligible to 3rd-line regimen. Taken together, these observations point the necessity to monitor antiretroviral-treated children by plasma HIV-1 RNA load to diagnose as early as possible the therapeutic failure and operate switch to a new therapeutic line.

  13. High levels of virological failure with major genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected children after 5 years of care according to WHO-recommended 1st-line and 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens in the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamant; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Mbitikon, Olivia; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Robin, Leman; Matta, Mathieu; Zeitouni, Kamal; Longo, Jean De Dieu; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Grésenguet, Gérard; Touré Kane, Ndèye Coumba; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A large cohort of 220 HIV-1-infected children (median [range] age: 12 [4–17] years) was cared and followed up in the Central African Republic, including 198 in 1st-line and 22 in 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens. Patients were monitored clinically and biologically for HIV-1 RNA load and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) genotyping. A total of 87 (40%) study children were virological responders and 133 (60%) nonresponders. In children with detectable viral load, the majority (129; 97%) represented a virological failure. In children receiving 1st-line regimens in virological failure for whom genotypic resistance test was available, 45% displayed viruses harboring at least 1 DRM to NNRTI or NRTI, and 26% showed at least 1 major DRM to NNRTI or NRTI; more than half of children in 1st-line regimens were resistant to 1st-generation NNRTI and 24% of the children in 1st-line regimens had a major DRMs to PI. Virological failure and selection of DRMs were both associated with poor adherence. These observations demonstrate high rate of virological failure after 3 to 5 years of 1st-line or 2nd-line antiretroviral treatment, which is generally associated with DRMs and therapeutic failure. Overall, more than half (55%) of children receiving 1st-line antiretroviral treatment for a median of 3.4 years showed virological failure and antiretroviral-resistance and thus eligible to 2nd-line treatment. Furthermore, two-third (64%) of children under 2nd-line therapy were eligible to 3rd-line regimen. Taken together, these observations point the necessity to monitor antiretroviral-treated children by plasma HIV-1 RNA load to diagnose as early as possible the therapeutic failure and operate switch to a new therapeutic line. PMID:28272247

  14. Use of prelecture assignment to enhance learning in pharmacology lectures for the 2nd year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Marya; Mallick, Ayaz Khurram

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Majority of teaching hours allotted by the Medical Council of India in pharmacology are utilized in the form of didactic lecture. Although these lectures are an excellent tool to deliver the information to a large group of students, it usually ends up as a one-sided teaching session with most students being the passive listeners. To make these lectures interesting and effective, we introduced the students to prelecture assignment (PLA) in the form of clinical case before the delivery of the lecture. Methods: This prospective educational trial was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology with undergraduate medical students in their 2nd year of their professional course. They were divided into two groups of 75 each. Group A was provided the PLA before the lecture. Group B students directly attended the lecture, sans the PLA. Multiple-choice questions-based test was conducted 2 days after the lecture. Students who failed to complete the assignment and were absent from the lecture and test were excluded from the study. Feedback from the students was obtained after the lecture. The scores in the test and responses were compiled and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results were expressed in percentages and as mean ± standard deviation as applicable. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty-six students from Group A and 42 from Group B appeared for the test. The students who were given PLA scored better. They felt more confident in answering and understood the topic better than the students of other group. Conclusion: PLA is a useful teaching-learning tool. The pharmacology lectures are interactive, interesting, and easy to understand with this tool. PMID:28031612

  15. Differences in risk factors for 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    in 't Woud, Sander Groen; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; van Gelder, Marleen M.H.J.; Olney, Richard S.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. Methods A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. Results In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Conclusions Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. PMID:25181604

  16. ENABLE -- A systolic 2nd level trigger processor for track finding and e/[pi] discrimination for ATLAS/LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Klefenz, F.; Noffz, K.H.; Zoz, R. . Lehrstuhl fuer Informatik V); Maenner, R. . Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen)

    1994-08-01

    The Enable Machine is a systolic 2nd level trigger processor for the transition radiation detector (TRD) of ATLAS/LHC. It is developed within the EAST/RD-11 collaboration at CERN. The task of the processor is to find electron tracks and to reject pion tracks according to the EAST benchmark algorithm in less than 10[mu]s. Track are identified by template matching in a ([psi],z) region of interest (RoI) selected by a 1st level trigger. In the ([psi],z) plane tracks of constant curvature are straight lines. The relevant lines form mask templates. Track identification is done by histogramming the coincidences of the templates and the RoI data for each possible track. The Enable Machine is an array processor that handles tracks of the same slope in parallel, and tracks of different slope in a pipeline. It is composed of two units, the Enable histogrammer unit and the Enable z/[psi]-board. The interface daughter board is equipped with a HIPPI-interface developed at JINR/-Dubna, and Xilinx 'corner turning' data converter chips. Enable uses programmable gate arrays (XILINX) for histogramming and synchronous SRAMs for pattern storage. With a clock rate of 40 MHz the trigger decision time is 6.5 [mu]s and the latency 7.0 [mu]s. The Enable machine is scalable in the RoI size as well as in the number of tracks processed. It can be adapted to different recognition tasks and detector setups. The prototype of the Enable Machine has been tested in a beam time of the RD6 collaboration at CERN in October 1993.

  17. Interaction between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Fipronil on 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei; Wei, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.) and LC50 of fipronil, the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and fipronil on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that pretreatment of the tested insects at 30 °C for 2, 4 and 8h could somewhat decrease the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations. The LC50 values of fipronil increased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were below zero. These results indicated that real mortalities were less than theoretical ones and antagonism was found in the treatments of fipronil at 0.39 and 0.78 mg/L after heat pretreatment at 30 °C at 2, 4 and 8 h. However, pretreatment at 30 °C for 12h could increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations, the LC50 of fipronil decreased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were above zero, which indicated real mortalities were higher than theoretical ones. Pretreatment of the tested insects at 35 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 12h was found to increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations which resulted in the decrease of LC50 values of fipronil and c.f. above zero in all treatments with only one exception. Most interactions were assessed as synergism. The results indicated that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:20877489

  18. Spectroscopy of quasar host galaxies at the VLT: stellar populations and dynamics down to the central kiloparsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courbin, F.; Letawe, G.; Magain, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Jablonka, P.; Alloin, D.; Jahnke, K.; Kuhlbrodt, B.; Meylan, G.; Minniti, D.

    2002-03-01

    1. Scientific Context 2. VLT Spectroscopic Observations 3. Spectra Decomposition and Stellar Population 4. Dynamics of the Host 5. Towards 2D Spectroscopy and High Spatial Resolution: GIRAFFE, SINFONI and FALCON

  19. Biological Damage Threshold Induced by Ultrashort Fundamental, 2nd, and 4th Harmonic Light Pulses from a Mode-Locked Nd: Glass Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    BY ULTRASHORT FUNDAMENTAL, 2ND, AND 4TH HARMONIC LIGHT PULSES 00 , FROM A MODE-LOCKED Nd:GLASS LASER C Adam P. Bruckner, Ph.D. J. Michael Schurr, Ph.D...Medicine, Aerospace Medical Division, AFSC, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. Dr. Taboada (USAFSAM/RZL) was the Laboratory Project Scientist-in-Charge. When... TABOADA , Ph.D. /AONN E. PICKERING, M.S. Project Scientist Chief, Radiation Sciences Division ROY L. DEHART Colonel, USAF, MC Commander UNCLASSIFIED S

  20. All-optical 1st- and 2nd-order differential equation solvers with large tuning ranges using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaisheng; Hou, Jie; Huang, Zhuyang; Cao, Tong; Zhang, Jihua; Yu, Yuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-02-09

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal computation scheme for solving 1st- and 2nd-order linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with tunable constant coefficients by using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers (FP-SOAs). By changing the injection currents of FP-SOAs, the constant coefficients of the differential equations are practically tuned. A quite large constant coefficient tunable range from 0.0026/ps to 0.085/ps is achieved for the 1st-order differential equation. Moreover, the constant coefficient p of the 2nd-order ODE solver can be continuously tuned from 0.0216/ps to 0.158/ps, correspondingly with the constant coefficient q varying from 0.0000494/ps(2) to 0.006205/ps(2). Additionally, a theoretical model that combining the carrier density rate equation of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with the transfer function of the Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is exploited to analyze the solving processes. For both 1st- and 2nd-order solvers, excellent agreements between the numerical simulations and the experimental results are obtained. The FP-SOAs based all-optical differential-equation solvers can be easily integrated with other optical components based on InP/InGaAsP materials, such as laser, modulator, photodetector and waveguide, which can motivate the realization of the complicated optical computing on a single integrated chip.

  1. Hybrid distributed Raman amplification combining random fiber laser based 2nd-order and low-noise LD based 1st-order pumping.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin-Hong; Rao, Yun-Jiang; Yuan, Cheng-Xu; Li, Jin; Yan, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zi-Nan; Zhang, Wei-Li; Wu, Han; Zhu, Ye-Yu; Peng, Fei

    2013-10-21

    A configuration of hybrid distributed Raman amplification (H-DRA), that is formed by incorporating a random fiber laser (RFL) based 2nd-order pump and a low-noise laser-diode (LD) based 1st-order pump, is proposed in this paper. In comparison to conventional bi-directional 1st-order DRA, the effective noise figure (ENF) is found to be lower by amount of 0 to 4 dB due to the RFL-based 2nd-order pump, depending on the on-off gain, while the low-noise 1st-order Raman pump is used for compensating the worsened signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the vicinity towards the far end of the fiber and avoiding the potential nonlinear impact induced by excess injection of pump power and suppressing the pump-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer. As a result, the gain distribution can be optimized along ultra-long fiber link, due to combination of the 2nd-order RFL and low-noise 1st-order pumping, making the transmission distance be extended significantly. We utilized such a configuration to achieve ultra-long-distance distributed sensing based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). A repeater-less sensing distance record of up to 154.4 km with 5 m spatial resolution and ~ ± 1.4 °C temperature uncertainty is successfully demonstrated.

  2. Cloud Occurrence Measurements Over Sea during the 2nd 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) Field Campaign in Palawan Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antioquia, C. T.; Uy, S. N.; Caballa, K.; Lagrosas, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ground based sky imaging cameras have been used to measure cloud cover over an area to aid in radiation budget models. During daytime, certain clouds tend to help decrease atmospheric temperature by obstructing sunrays in the atmosphere. Thus, the detection of clouds plays an important role in the formulation of radiation budget in the atmosphere. In this study, a wide angled sky imager (GoPro Hero 2) was brought on board M/Y Vasco to detect and quantity cloud occurrence over sea during the 2nd 7SEAS field campaign. The camera is just a part of a number of scientific instruments used to measure weather, aerosol chemistry and solar radiation among others. The data collection started during the departure from Manila Bay on 05 September 2012 and went on until the end of the cruise (29 September 2012). The camera was placed in a weather-proof box that is then affixed on a steel mast where other instruments are also attached during the cruise. The data has a temporal resolution of 1 minute, and each image is 500x666 pixels in size. Fig. 1a shows the track of the ship during the cruise. The red, blue, hue, saturation, and value of the pixels are analysed for cloud occurrence. A pixel is considered to "contain" thick cloud if it passes all four threshold parameters (R-B, R/B, R-B/R+B, HSV; R is the red pixel color value, blue is the blue pixel color value, and HSV is the hue saturation value of the pixel) and considered thin cloud if it passes two or three parameters. Fig. 1b shows the daily analysis of cloud occurrence. Cloud occurrence here is quantified as the ratio of the pixels with cloud to the total number of pixels in the data image. The average cloud cover for the days included in this dataset is 87%. These measurements show a big contrast when compared to cloud cover over land (Manila Observatory) which is usually around 67%. During the duration of the cruise, only one day (September 6) has an average cloud occurrence below 50%; the rest of the days have

  3. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  4. New design approaches for a very high resolution spectrograph for the combined focus of the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, Paolo; Delabre, Bernard; Dekker, Hans; Avila, Gerardo

    2008-07-01

    To achieve very-high spectral resolutions (R>100,000) with large telescopes (D>8m) new optical solutions have been investigated in the context of the ESPRESSO project for the VLT, starting from the initial design of CODEX for the E-ELT. ESPRESSO is a high-efficiency, high-stability, high-resolution visible spectrograph for the combined Coude focus of the VLT. Among these new solutions, we can mention: free-form optics, used to design an all-mirror anamorphic pupil slicer, large mosaic echelle grating, slanted VPH gratings, super-corrected atmospheric dispersion corrector. All these solutions have been usefully applied to design the spectrograph for ESPRESSO, and its Coude relay system.

  5. Estimating phase errors from pupil discontinuities from simulated on sky data: examples with VLT and Keck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Masen; Correia, Carlos; Sauvage, Jean-François; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Andersen, David; Vigan, Arthur; Wizinowich, Peter; van Dam, Marcos; Mugnier, Laurent; Bond, Charlotte

    2016-07-01

    We propose and apply two methods for estimating phase discontinuities for two realistic scenarios on VLT and Keck. The methods use both phase diversity and a form of image sharpening. For the case of VLT, we simulate the `low wind effect' (LWE) which is responsible for focal plane errors in low wind and good seeing conditions. We successfully estimate the LWE using both methods, and show that using both methods both independently and together yields promising results. We also show the use of single image phase diversity in the LWE estimation, and show that it too yields promising results. Finally, we simulate segmented piston effects on Keck/NIRC2 images and successfully recover the induced phase errors using single image phase diversity. We also show that on Keck we can estimate both the segmented piston errors and any Zernike modes affiliated with the non-common path.

  6. The new VLT-DSM M2 unit: construction and electromechanical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallieni, Daniele; Biasi, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    We present the design, construction and validation of the new M2 unit of the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror. In the framework of the Adaptive Optics Facility program, ADS and Microgate designed a new secondary unit which replaces the current Dornier one. The M2 is composed by the mechanical structure, a new hexapod positioner and the Deformable Secondary Mirror unit.The DSM is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been fully integrated and, before starting the optical calibration, has completed the electromechanical characterization, focused on the dynamic performance. With respect to the previous units we introduced several improvements, both in hardware and control architecture that allowed achieving a significant enhancement of the system dynamics and reduction of power consumption.

  7. Effects of a Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) Banner on Gambling: A Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Timothy; Nicki, Richard; Otteson, Amy; Elliott, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a warning banner, informing patrons of the randomness of Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) outcomes, on gambling behaviour and beliefs were tested in a field setting using a mixed-model 2 x 3 design over a six-week period with 27 problem and 27 non-problem gamblers recruited from bars in a Canadian city with a population of 85,000.…

  8. Telescope birefringence and phase errors in the Gravity instrument at the VLT interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazareff, B.; Blind, N.; Jocou, L.; Eisenhauer, F.; Perraut, K.; Lacour, S.; Delplancke, F.; Schoeller, M.; Amorim, A.; Brandner, W.; Perrin, G.; Straubmeier, C.

    2014-07-01

    We use a numerical model of the birefringence in the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the Gravity instrument to study the astrometric phase errors that arise when two conditions are simultaneously present: differential birefringence between two VLTI arms, and different polarizations of the science and fringe tracker sources. We present measurements of the VLTI birefringence, that are used to validate our model. We show how a suitable alignment of the eigenvectors of the optical train eliminates the phase error.

  9. MOONS: a multi-object optical and near-infrared spectrograph for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirasuolo, M.; Afonso, J.; Bender, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Evans, C.; Kaper, L.; Oliva, Ernesto; Vanzi, Leonardo; Abreu, Manuel; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Babusiaux, Carine; Bauer, Franz E.; Best, Philip; Bezawada, Naidu; Bryson, Ian R.; Cabral, Alexandre; Caputi, Karina; Centrone, Mauro; Chemla, Fanny; Cimatti, Andrea; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; Clementini, Gisella; Coelho, João.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dunlop, James S.; Feltzing, Sofia; Ferguson, Annette; Flores, Hector; Fontana, Adriano; Fynbo, Johan; Garilli, Bianca; Glauser, Adrian M.; Guinouard, Isabelle; Hammer, Jean-François; Hastings, Peter R.; Hess, Hans-Joachim; Ivison, Rob J.; Jagourel, Pascal; Jarvis, Matt; Kauffman, G.; Lawrence, A.; Lee, D.; Li Causi, G.; Lilly, S.; Lorenzetti, D.; Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; McLure, R.; Minniti, D.; Montgomery, D.; Muschielok, B.; Nandra, K.; Navarro, R.; Norberg, P.; Origlia, L.; Padilla, N.; Peacock, J.; Pedicini, F.; Pentericci, L.; Pragt, J.; Puech, M.; Randich, S.; Renzini, A.; Ryde, N.; Rodrigues, M.; Royer, F.; Saglia, R.; Sánchez, A.; Schnetler, H.; Sobral, D.; Speziali, R.; Todd, S.; Tolstoy, E.; Torres, M.; Venema, L.; Vitali, F.; Wegner, M.; Wells, M.; Wild, V.; Wright, G.

    2012-09-01

    MOONS is a new conceptual design for a Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph for the Very Large Telescope (VLT), selected by ESO for a Phase A study. The baseline design consists of ~1000 fibers deployable over a field of view of ~500 square arcmin, the largest patrol field offered by the Nasmyth focus at the VLT. The total wavelength coverage is 0.8μm-1.8μm and two resolution modes: medium resolution and high resolution. In the medium resolution mode (R~4,000-6,000) the entire wavelength range 0.8μm-1.8μm is observed simultaneously, while the high resolution mode covers simultaneously three selected spectral regions: one around the CaII triplet (at R~8,000) to measure radial velocities, and two regions at R~20,000 one in the J-band and one in the H-band, for detailed measurements of chemical abundances. The grasp of the 8.2m Very Large Telescope (VLT) combined with the large multiplex and wavelength coverage of MOONS - extending into the near-IR - will provide the observational power necessary to study galaxy formation and evolution over the entire history of the Universe, from our Milky Way, through the redshift desert and up to the epoch of re-ionization at z<8-9. At the same time, the high spectral resolution mode will allow astronomers to study chemical abundances of stars in our Galaxy, in particular in the highly obscured regions of the Bulge, and provide the necessary follow-up of the Gaia mission. Such characteristics and versatility make MOONS the long-awaited workhorse near-IR MOS for the VLT, which will perfectly complement optical spectroscopy performed by FLAMES and VIMOS.

  10. Adoption of new software and hardware solutions at the VLT: the ESPRESSO control architecture case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirami, R.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Coretti, I.; Santin, P.; Mannetta, M.; Baldini, V.; Cristiani, S.; Abreu, M.; Cabral, A.; Monteiro, M.; Mégevand, D.; Zerbi, F.

    2012-09-01

    ESPRESSO is a fiber-fed cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph which can be operated with one or up to 4 UT (Unit Telescope) of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will be located in the Combined-Coudé Laboratory (CCL) of the VLT and it will be the first permanent instrument using a 16-m equivalent telescope. The ESPRESSO control software and electronics are in charge of the control of all instrument subsystems: the four Coudé Trains (one for each UT), the front-end and the fiber-fed spectrograph itself contained within a vacuum vessel. The spectrograph is installed inside a series of thermal enclosures following an onion-shell principle with increasing temperature stability from outside to inside. The proposed electronics architecture will use the OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) as a standard layer to communicate with PLCs (Programmable Logical Controller), replacing the old Instrument Local Control Units (LCUs) for ESO instruments based on VME technology. The instrument control software will be based on the VLT Control Software package and will use the IC0 Field Bus extension for the control of the instrument hardware. In this paper we present the ESPRESSO software architectural design proposed at the Preliminary Design Review as well as the control electronics architecture.

  11. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user`s manual. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, A.

    1992-08-01

    VLT came to be used at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), because SLAC wanted to assess the Amiga`s usefulness as a color graphics terminal and T{sub E}X workstation. Before the project could really begin, the people at SLAC needed a terminal emulator which could successfully talk to the IBM 3081 (now the IBM ES9000-580) and all the VAXes on the site. Moreover, it had to compete in quality with the Ann Arbor Ambassador GXL terminals which were already in use at the laboratory. Unfortunately, at the time there was no commercial program which fit the bill. Luckily, Willy Langeveld had been independently hacking up a public domain VT100 emulator written by Dave Wecker et al. and the result, VLT, suited SLAC`s purpose. Over the years, as the program was debugged and rewritten, the original code disappeared, so that now, in the present version of VLT, none of the original VT100 code remains.

  12. Data Reduction Software for the VLT Integral Field Spectrometer SPIFFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, J.; Thatte, N.; Eisenhauer, F.; Tecza, M.; Abuter, R.; Horrobin, M.

    2004-07-01

    A data reduction software package is developed to reduce data of the near-IR integral field spectrometer SPIFFI built at MPE. The basic data reduction routines are coded in ANSI C. The high level scripting language Python is used to connect the C-routines allowing fast prototyping. Several Python scripts are written to produce the needed calibration data and to generate the final result, a wavelength calibrated data cube with the instrumental signatures removed.

  13. Validation through simulations of a C_n^2 profiler for the ESO/VLT Adaptive Optics Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Guesalaga, A.; Kolb, J.; Le Louarn, M.; Madec, P.-Y.; Neichel, B.

    2015-04-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) project envisages transforming one of the VLT units into an adaptive telescope and providing its ESO (European Southern Observatory) second generation instruments with turbulence-corrected wavefronts. For MUSE and HAWK-I this correction will be achieved through the GALACSI and GRAAL AO modules working in conjunction with a 1170 actuators deformable secondary mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). Multiple wavefront sensors will enable GLAO (ground layer adaptive optics) and LTAO (laser tomography adaptive optics) capabilities, whose performance can greatly benefit from a knowledge about the stratification of the turbulence in the atmosphere. This work, totally based on end-to-end simulations, describes the validation tests conducted on a C_n^2 profiler adapted for the AOF specifications. Because an absolute profile calibration is strongly dependent on a reliable knowledge of turbulence parameters r0 and L0, the tests presented here refer only to normalized output profiles. Uncertainties in the input parameters inherent to the code are tested as well as the profiler response to different turbulence distributions. It adopts a correction for the unseen turbulence, critical for the GRAAL mode, and highlights the effects of masking out parts of the corrected wavefront on the results. Simulations of data with typical turbulence profiles from Paranal were input to the profiler, showing that it is possible to identify reliably the input features for all the AOF modes.

  14. A VLT/FLAMES STUDY OF THE PECULIAR INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 1846. I. KINEMATICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, A. D.; Da Costa, G. S.; Yong, D.; Ferguson, A. M. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present high-resolution VLT/FLAMES observations of red giant stars in the massive intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 1846, which, on the basis of its extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO), possesses an internal age spread of Almost-Equal-To 300 Myr. We describe in detail our target selection and data reduction procedures, and construct a sample of 21 stars possessing radial velocities indicating their membership of NGC 1846 at high confidence. We consider high-resolution spectra of the planetary nebula Mo-17, and conclude that this object is also a member of the cluster. Our measured radial velocities allow us to conduct a detailed investigation of the internal kinematics of NGC 1846, the first time this has been done for an EMSTO system. The key result of this work is that the cluster exhibits a significant degree of systemic rotation, of a magnitude comparable to the mean velocity dispersion. Using an extensive suite of Monte Carlo models we demonstrate that, despite our relatively small sample size and the substantial fraction of unresolved binary stars in the cluster, the rotation signal we detect is very likely to be genuine. Our observations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of simulations modeling the formation of multiple populations of stars in globular clusters, where a dynamically cold, rapidly rotating second generation is a common feature. NGC 1846 is less than one relaxation time old, so any dynamical signatures encoded during its formation ought to remain present.

  15. The current status of research into Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on ADHD: From Childhood to Adult Disease.

    PubMed

    Thome, Johannes; Reddy, Duvvoor Prathap

    2009-12-01

    Despite being a devastating psychiatric condition with high prevalence, ADHD has traditionally been widely under-researched, specifically in adult patients. Therefore, the recent surge in scientific projects focusing on ADHD is impressive. By reviewing selected research findings presented at the 2nd International Congress on ADHD, this paper gives an overview about current state-of-the art research in such different areas as diagnosis, classification, epidemiology, differential diagnosis and comorbidity, neurobiology (including molecular genetics, proteomics, neuroimaging and electrophysiology), environmental factors, modelling of ADHD, treatment (pharmacological and non-pharmacological), as well as forensic and social aspects.

  16. Second-order adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology (2nd-ASAM) for computing exactly and efficiently first- and second-order sensitivities in large-scale linear systems: I. Computational methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacuci, Dan G.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the second-order forward and adjoint sensitivity analysis methodologies (2nd-FSAM and 2nd-ASAM) for computing exactly and efficiently the second-order functional derivatives of physical (engineering, biological, etc.) system responses (i.e., "system performance parameters") to the system's model parameters. The definition of "system parameters" used in this work includes all computational input data, correlations, initial and/or boundary conditions, etc. For a physical system comprising Nα parameters and Nr responses, we note that the 2nd-FSAM requires a total of (Nα2/2 + 3Nα / 2) large-scale computations for obtaining all of the first- and second-order sensitivities, for all Nr system responses. On the other hand, for one functional-type system response, the 2nd-ASAM requires one large-scale computation using the first-level adjoint sensitivity system for obtaining all of the first-order sensitivities, followed by at most Nα large-scale computations using the second-level adjoint sensitivity systems for obtaining exactly all of the second-order sensitivities. Therefore, the 2nd-FSAM should be used when Nr ≫Nα, while the 2nd-ASAM should be used when Nα ≫Nr. The original 2nd-ASAM presented in this work should enable the hitherto very difficult, if not intractable, exact computation of all of the second-order response sensitivities (i.e., functional Gateaux-derivatives) for large-systems involving many parameters, as usually encountered in practice. Very importantly, the implementation of the 2nd-ASAM requires very little additional effort beyond the construction of the adjoint sensitivity system needed for computing the first-order sensitivities.

  17. The VLT LBG Redshift Survey - I. Clustering and dynamics of ≈1000 galaxies at z≈ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielby, R. M.; Shanks, T.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Infante, L.; Crighton, N. H. M.; Bornancini, C.; Bouché, N.; Héraudeau, P.; Lambas, D. G.; Lowenthal, J.; Minniti, D.; Padilla, N.; Petitjean, P.; Theuns, T.

    2011-06-01

    We present the initial imaging and spectroscopic data acquired as part of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) VIMOS Lyman-break galaxy Survey. UBR (or UBVI) imaging covers five ≈36 × 36 arcmin2 fields centred on bright z > 3 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), allowing ≈21 000 2 < z < 3.5 galaxy candidates to be selected using the Lyman-break technique. We performed spectroscopic follow-up using VLT VIMOS, measuring redshifts for 1020 z > 2 Lyman-break galaxies and 10 z > 2 QSOs from a total of 19 VIMOS pointings. From the galaxy spectra, we observe a 625 ± 510 km s-1 velocity offset between the interstellar absorption and Lyman α emission-line redshifts, consistent with previous results. Using the photometric and spectroscopic catalogues, we have analysed the galaxy clustering at z≈ 3. The angular correlation function, w(θ), is well fitted by a double power law with clustering scalelength, r0= 3.19+0.32-0.54 h-1 Mpc and slope γ= 2.45 for r < 1 h-1 Mpc and r0= 4.37+0.43-0.55 h-1 Mpc with γ= 1.61 ± 0.15 at larger scales. Using the redshift sample we estimate the semiprojected correlation function, wp(σ), and, for a γ= 1.8 power law, find r0= 3.67+0.23-0.24 h-1 Mpc for the VLT sample and r0= 3.98+0.14-0.15 h-1 Mpc for a combined VLT+Keck sample. From ξ(s) and ξ(σ, π), and assuming the above ξ(r) models, we find that the combined VLT and Keck surveys require a galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion of ≈700 km s-1, higher than ≈400 km s-1 assumed by previous authors. We also measure a value for the gravitational growth rate parameter of β(z= 3) = 0.48 ± 0.17, again higher than that previously found and implying a low value for the bias of b= 2.06+1.1-0.5. This value is consistent with the galaxy clustering amplitude which gives b= 2.22 ± 0.16, assuming the standard cosmology, implying that the evolution of the gravitational growth rate is also consistent with Einstein gravity. Finally, we have compared our Lyman-break galaxy clustering amplitudes with

  18. PC based PLCs and ethernet based fieldbus: the new standard platform for future VLT instrument control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiekebusch, Mario J.; Lucuix, Christian; Erm, Toomas M.; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Zamparelli, Michele; Kern, Lothar; Brast, Roland; Pirani, Werther; Reiss, Roland; Popovic, Dan; Knudstrup, Jens; Duchateau, Michel; Sandrock, Stefan; Di Lieto, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    ESO is currently in the final phase of the standardization process for PC-based Programmable Logical Controllers (PLCs) as the new platform for the development of control systems for future VLT/VLTI instruments. The standard solution used until now consists of a Local Control Unit (LCU), a VME-based system having a CPU and commercial and proprietary boards. This system includes several layers of software and many thousands of lines of code developed and maintained in house. LCUs have been used for several years as the interface to control instrument functions but now are being replaced by commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems based on BECKHOFF Embedded PCs and the EtherCAT fieldbus. ESO is working on the completion of the software framework that enables a seamless integration into the VLT control system in order to be ready to support upcoming instruments like ESPRESSO and ERIS, that will be the first fully VLT compliant instruments using the new standard. The technology evaluation and standardization process has been a long and combined effort of various engineering disciplines like electronics, control and software, working together to define a solution that meets the requirements and minimizes the impact on the observatory operations and maintenance. This paper presents the challenges of the standardization process and the steps involved in such a change. It provides a technical overview of how industrial standards like EtherCAT, OPC-UA, PLCOpen MC and TwinCAT can be used to replace LCU features in various areas like software engineering and programming languages, motion control, time synchronization and astronomical tracking.

  19. VLT FORS2 comparative transmission spectral survey of clear and cloudy exoplanet atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sing, David; Gibson, Neale; Evans, Thomas; Barstow, Joanna Katy; Kataria, Tiffany; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-10-01

    Transmission spectroscopy is a key to unlocking the secrets of close-in exoplanet atmospheres. Observations have started to unveil a vast diversity of irradiated giant planet atmospheres with clouds and hazes playing a definitive role across the entire mass and temperature regime. We have initiated a ground-based, multi-object transmission spectroscopy of a hand full of hot Jupiters, covering the wavelength range 360-850nm using the recently upgraded FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS2) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). These targets were selected for comparative follow-up as their transmission spectra showed evidence for alkali metal absorption, based on the results of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. This talk will discuss the first results from the programme, demonstrating excellent agreement between the transmission spectra measured from VLT and HST and further reinforce the findings of clear, cloudy and hazy atmospheres. More details will be discussed on the narrow alkali features obtained with FORS2 at higher resolution, revealing its high potential in securing optical transmission spectra. These FORS2 observations are the first ground-based detections of clear, cloudy and hazy hot-Jupiter atmosphere with a simultaneous detections of Na, K, and H2 Rayleigh scattering. Our program demonstrates the large potential of the instrument for optical transmission spectroscopy, capable of obtaining HST-quality light curves from the ground. Compared to HST, the larger aperture of VLT will allow for fainter targets to be observed and higher spectral resolution, which can greatly aid comparative exoplanet studies. This is important for further exploring the diversity of exoplanet atmospheres and is particularly complementary to the near- and mid-IR regime, to be covered by the upcoming James-Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and is readily applicable to less massive planets down to super-Earths.

  20. Ti-bearing oxide minerals in lunar meteorite Y793169 with the VLT affinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Arai, Tomoko; Saiki, Kazuto

    1993-01-01

    Lunar meteorite, Yamato 793169 previously classified as a VLT mare basalt contains considerable amounts of Ti-bearing oxides in the mesostasis area (2 vol. percent). Mineralogical study of these oxides revealed that they are isolated grains of ilmenite, ulvospinel and chromite, which are formed at the last stage of crystallization. Ti/(Ti+Al+Cr) and Cr/(Cr+Al) versus Fe/(Mg+Fe) variations of these phases are not in the same trends as in the low Ti pigeonite basalts of Apollo 12 and 15 in spite of its higher TiO2 contents. Among four lunar meteorites proposed to be samples of mare regions of the Moon, EET87521 and Y793274 are breccias rich in lunar mare components, but Y793169 and A881757 are crystalline rocks composed of Fe-rich pigeonite and plagioclase with affinity to the VLT basalts, despite their higher bulk TiO2 contents than the limit for VLT. Polished think sections (PTS) Y793169,51-3 and A881757,51-4 (Asuka-31) supplied by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) were investigated. Both samples were allocated as parts of two consortium studies. Mineral chemistries and textures were examined by an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), JEOL 840A with X-ray chemical map analysis (CMA) utilities. Modal abundances of minerals in Y793169 were obtained from colored backscattered electron (BSE) image of SEM for a particular mineral by a computer and by point analysis for minerals with a similar BSE intensity.

  1. The ZZ Ceti instability strip as seen by VLT-ULTRACAM.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvotti, R.; Pavlov, M.; Fontaine, G.; Marsh, T.; Dhillon, V.

    In this paper we present some preliminary results of a recent VLT/ULTRACAM run on a few DA white dwarfs located near the blue edge of the ZZ Ceti instability strip. The DA white dwarf GD 133 (T_{eff}≃12300K, log g≃8.0), that was believed to be a stable star, shows short period oscillations at about 2 min with an amplitude of about 4 mma in the g band. Based on data obtained at the ESO Paranal Observatory (programme 075.D-0371)

  2. Trends and developments in VLT data papers as seen through telbib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordelon, Dominic; Grothkopf, Uta; Meakins, Silvia; Sterzik, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The ESO Telescope Bibliography (telbib; http://telbib.eso.org) is a database of refereed papers published by the ESO users community. It links data in the ESO Science Archive with the published literature, and vice versa. Developed and maintained by the ESO library, telbib also provides insights into the organization's research output and impact as measured through bibliometric studies. Numerous reports, statistics, and visualizatons derived from telbib help to understand the way in which the user community uses ESO/VLT data in publications. Based on selected use cases, we will showcase recent trends and developments.

  3. Management of osteoporosis in central and eastern Europe (CEE): conclusions of the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE", 21-22 November 2008, Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Roman S; Resch, Heinrich

    2009-12-01

    In November 2008, the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)" was held in Warsaw, Poland. Discussions at this meeting focused on the identification and discussion of diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic measures used in CEE. Evaluated information was used to identify issues regarding diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis in these countries to facilitate the subsequent setup of appropriate support and development strategies. The main debate was structured according to the following five subjects: (1) present status and future perspectives for implementation of FRAX(R) into local (CEE) diagnostic algorithms, (2) principles of drug selection in osteoporosis treatment in CEE countries, (3) nonpharmacological interventions in osteoporosis treatment and prophylaxis in CEE countries, (4) treatment benefit evaluation, and (5) cost-effectiveness and evaluation of reimbursement policies in CEE countries. The most important and substantial comments of the delegates are summarized in the present article. The multinational panel of experts with representatives from many CEE countries as well as Austria and Switzerland made the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE" a perfect platform to identify issues and needs regarding diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis as well as the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis management in CEE countries. The information gained will serve as a basis for the development of strategies to resolve the identified issues at the "3rd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE" in November 2009.

  4. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Isotopic Studies of Meteorite Kalahari 009: An Old VLT Mare Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Bischoff, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Kalahari 009 is a fragmental basaltic breccia contain ing various very-low-Ti (VLT) mare basalt clasts embedded in a fine-g rained matrix of similar composition. This meteorite and lunar meteorite Kalahari 008, an anorthositic breccia, were suggested to be paired mainly due to the presence of similar fayalitic olivines in fragment s found in both meteorites. Thus, Kalahari 009 probably represents a VLT basalt that came from a locality near a mare-highland boundary r egion of the Moon, as compared to the typical VLT mare basalt samples collected at Mare Crisium during the Luna-24 mission. The concordant Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar ages of such a VLT basalt (24170) suggest that the extrusion of VLT basalts at Mare Crisium occurred 3.30 +/- 0.05 Ga ag o. Previous age results for Kalahari 009 range from approximately 4.2 Ga by its Lu-Hf isochron age to 1.70?0.04 Ga of its Ar-Ar plateau ag e. However, recent in-situ U-Pb dating of phosphates in Kalahari 009 defined an old crystallization age of 4.35+/- 0.15 Ga. The authors su ggested that Kalahari 009 represents a cryptomaria basalt. In this r eport, we present Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic results for Kalahari 009, discuss the relationship of its age and isotopic characteristics to t hose of other L-24 VLT mare basalts and other probable cryptomaria ba salts represented by Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts, and discuss it s petrogenesis.

  5. Design and manufacture of a D-shape coil-based toroid-type HTS DC reactor using 2nd generation HTS wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Sangjin; Jin, Yoon-Su; Oh, Yunsang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the design specifications and performance of a real toroid-type high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The target inductance of the HTS DC reactor was 400 mH. The expected operating temperature was under 20 K. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. Performances of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor were analyzed through experiments conducted under the steady-state and charge conditions. The fundamental design specifications and the data obtained from this research will be applied to the design of a commercial-type HTS DC reactor.

  6. PF-06463922, an ALK/ROS1 inhibitor, overcomes resistance to 1st and 2nd generation ALK inhibitors in pre-clinical models

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Helen Y.; Friboulet, Luc; Kodack, David P.; Engstrom, Lars D.; Li, Qiuhua; West, Melissa; Tang, Ruth W.; Wang, Hui; Tsaparikos, Konstantinos; Wang, Jinwei; Timofeevski, Sergei; Katayama, Ryohei; Dinh, Dac M.; Lam, Hieu; Lam, Justine L.; Yamazaki, Shinji; Hu, Wenyue; Patel, Bhushankumar; Bezwada, Divya; Frias, Rosa L.; Lifshits, Eugene; Mahmood, Sidra; Gainor, Justin F.; Affolter, Timothy; Lappin, Patrick B.; Gukasyan, Hovhannes; Lee, Nathan; Deng, Shibing; Jain, Rakesh K; Johnson, Ted W.; Shaw, Alice T.; Fantin, Valeria R.; Smeal, Tod

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY We report the preclinical evaluation of PF-06463922, a potent and brain penetrant ALK/ROS1 inhibitor. Compared to other clinically available ALK inhibitors, PF-06463922 displayed superior potency against all known clinically acquired ALK mutations, including the highly resistant G1202R mutant. Furthermore, PF-06463922 treatment led to regression of EML4-ALK driven brain metastases, leading to prolonged mouse survival, in a superior manner. Finally, PF-06463922 demonstrated high selectivity and safety margins in a variety of preclinical studies. These results suggest that PF-06463922 will be highly effective for the treatment of patients with ALK-driven lung cancers, including those who relapsed on clinically available ALK inhibitors due to secondary ALK kinase domain mutations and/or due to the failed control of brain metastases. PMID:26144315

  7. 1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Implementations of an eLearning Design: Re-Use from Postgraduate Law to Block/Online Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Sarah; Brewer, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of postgraduate students who were time poor and unable to regularly attend face-to-face classes, one lecturer in the Faculty Law at the University of Wollongong (UOW) sought the assistance of a Learning Designer to redesign the Postgraduate Practical Legal Training (PLT) program into a flexible blended learning format,…

  8. SHARK (System for coronagraphy with High order Adaptive optics from R to K band): a proposal for the LBT 2nd generation instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinato, Jacopo; Pedichini, Fernando; Pinna, Enrico; Baciotti, Francesca; Baffa, Carlo; Baruffolo, Andrea; Bergomi, Maria; Bruno, Pietro; Cappellaro, Enrico; Carbonaro, Luca; Carlotti, Alexis; Centrone, Mauro; Close, Laird; Codona, Johanan; Desidera, Silvano; Dima, Marco; Esposito, Simone; Fantinel, Daniela; Farisato, Giancarlo; Fontana, Adriano; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Giallongo, Emanuele; Gratton, Raffaele; Greggio, Davide; Guerra, Juan Carlos; Guyon, Olivier; Hinz, Philip; Leone, Francesco; Lisi, Franco; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Puglisi, Alfio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Salasnich, Bernardo; Sani, Eleonora; Scuderi, Salvo; Stangalini, Marco; Testa, Vincenzo; Verinaud, Christophe; Viotto, Valentina

    2014-08-01

    This article presents a proposal aimed at investigating the technical feasibility and the scientific capabilities of high contrast cameras to be implemented at LBT. Such an instrument will fully exploit the unique LBT capabilities in Adaptive Optics (AO) as demonstrated by the First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system, which is obtaining excellent results in terms of performance and reliability. The aim of this proposal is to show the scientific interest of such a project, together with a conceptual opto-mechanical study which shows its technical feasibility, taking advantage of the already existing AO systems, which are delivering the highest Strehl experienced in nowadays existing telescopes. Two channels are foreseen for SHARK, a near infrared channel (2.5-0.9 um) and a visible one (0.9 - 0.6 um), both providing imaging and coronagraphic modes. The visible channel is equipped with a very fast and low noise detector running at 1.0 kfps and an IFU spectroscopic port to provide low and medium resolution spectra of 1.5 x 1.5 arcsec fields. The search of extra solar giant planets is the main science case and the driver for the technical choices of SHARK, but leaving room for several other interesting scientific topics, which will be briefly depicted here.

  9. VLT: a sustainable solution to urban mobility, in João Pessoa-PB.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Uiara Wasconcelos; Silva, Glaucia Wasconcelos

    2012-01-01

    The changes happen quickly in today's world, simultaneously interacting with technological advances in the sciences and new paradigms socio-political and economic, in search of a sustainable future and a present with emergency strategies for the preservation of humanity and the planet "Earth ". Currently, the mobility of people in the intra-urban space is being threatened by congestion, pollution resulting from the appreciation of the culture of personal transport and the precariousness of public transportation. In the city of João Pessoa (PB), the subject of this finding for these disorders. Workers suffer the consequences of daily stress takes to access home-work, difficulty in arriving at the right time to the workplace and adverse reactions caused by pollution. The VLT (Light Rail Vehicle) has been presented as a viable solution to the problems of public transport, with several experiments that can be seen as positive in the world. This work involves the implementation of a public transport system based on VLT Corridor along the Avenue Dom Pedro II, in João Pessoa (PB), aiming to acquire a good transport network for use of the population, reduce the number of vehicles on process, minimize pollution and optimize urban mobility.

  10. FUEGOS: multifiber area spectrograph for one Nasmyth focus of the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felenbok, Paul; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Lemonnier, Jean-Pierre; Baudrand, Jacques; Casse, Martin; Andre, Michel; Czarny, Jean; Daban, J. B.; Marteaud, M.; Vola, P.

    1994-06-01

    'FUEGOS' (Fibre Unit for European General Optical Spectroscopy) is one of the foreseen focal instruments for the future ESO VLT (very large telescope). The goal is to provide the european community with first class equipment allowing high and low resolution spectroscopy for stellar and extragalactic observations in a large field. This large field of view, 30 arcmin provided by the VLT, is quite unique on 8 m class telescopes. The instrument is made of two parts: a fibre positioner attached to the Nasmyth rotator and a spectrograph sitting on the Nasmyth platform. The two assemblies are linked together with optical fibres. The instrument will include two different modes: the MEDUSA mode for the multi-object spectroscopy and the ARGUS mode for the 2D spectroscopy for extended objects. The multi-object positioner is of the robot type, based on a design using two gripper heads travelling simultaneously on a X-Y carriage. It locks magnetically 80 independent optical fibre bundles at object coordinates on a metallic focal surface. 2D spectroscopy is provided through a fibre anamorphoser in three different fields and spatial samplings. The spectrograph is of the 'white pupil' type, based on a catadioptric design with spherical optics throughout. It gives access to spectral resolutions ranging from 1500 to 30000. The detector is a 2048 x 2048 CCD located inside the camera optics.

  11. Comparing ALMA, VLT, and HST data for Massive, Young Clusters in Grand-Design Spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosboel, Preben; Dottori, Horacio

    2015-08-01

    A population of young, massive stellar cluster complexes with near-infrared (NIR) colors indicating high extinction (i.e. Av ~ 7mag) was identified on HAWK-I/VLT images of several nearby, grand-design spiral galaxies (Grosboel & Dottori 2012, A&A 542, A39). Models suggest that they are very young cluster complexes still embedded in a dust/gas envelope which will be expelled after the first supernovae explosions (Grosboel & Dottori 2013, A&A 551, L13). Optical studies of nearby disk galaxies using HST data (see e.g. Larsen & Richtler 1999 A&A 345, 49, and Bastian et al. 2012, MNRAS 419, 2606) do not find a similar population of clusters. This may be due to several reasons such as a) lower spatial resolution of the NIR data (Bastian et al. 2014, MNRAS 444, 3829), b) high attenuation by dust limiting detection at optical wavelengths, or c) such populations only exist in grand-design spirals due to the strong perturbations in their arm regions. The current paper presents a detailed comparison of HST and HAWK-I images to better understand the discrepancy between the optical and NIR detection of stellar clusters in nearby galaxies. Further, the ALMA CO-map of NGC 4321 is compared with the VLT NIR images to analyze the possible correlation between giant molecular clouds and formation of massive clusters.

  12. Final binary star results from the ESO VLT Lunar occultations program

    SciTech Connect

    Richichi, A.; Fors, O.; Cusano, F.; Ivanov, V. D.

    2014-03-01

    We report on 13 subarcsecond binaries, detected by means of lunar occultations in the near-infrared at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). They are all first-time detections except for the visual binary HD 158122, which we resolved for the first time in the near-infrared. The primaries have magnitudes in the range K = 4.5-10.0, and companions in the range K = 6.8-11.1. The magnitude differences have a median value of 2.4, with the largest being 4.6. The projected separations are in the range of 4-168 mas, with a median of 13 mas. We discuss and compare our results with the available literature. With this paper, we conclude the mining for binary star detections in the 1226 occultations recorded at the VLT with the ISAAC instrument. We expect that the majority of these binaries may be unresolvable by adaptive optics on current telescopes, and they might be challenging for long-baseline interferometry. However, they constitute an interesting sample for future larger telescopes and for astrometric missions such as GAIA.

  13. VLT FORS2 comparative transmission spectral survey of clear and cloudy exoplanet atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sing, David K.; Gibson, Neale; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Evans, Tom M.; Barstow, Joanna; Kataria, Tiffany; Wilson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Thousands of transiting exoplanets are known today but not many have been studied in transmission. While observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have started to reveal a diversity of atmosphere types, drawing robust conclusions about the underlying population is hampered by the small sample size. This can be greatly aided by ground-based telescopes, equipped with multi-object spectrographs by their unprecedented access to the abundance of fainter systems that HST cannot observe. We have initiated a ground-based, multi-object transmission spectroscopy of a handful of hot gas-giants, covering the wavelength range 360-850nm, using the recently upgraded FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS2) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). These exoplanets were selected for a comparative follow-up as their transmission spectra showed evidence for alkali metal absorption, based on the results of HST observations. Here we will discuss first results from the program, demonstrating an excellent agreement between the transmission spectra measured from VLT and HST and detections of Na and K absorption and scattering by clouds/hazes in the atmospheres of several exoplanets. More details will be discussed on the narrow alkali features obtained with FORS2 at higher resolution, revealing its high potential in obtaining optical transmission spectra, which can greatly aid comparative exoplanet studies.

  14. Structure-borne sound: Structural vibrations and sound radiation at audio frequencies /2nd revised and enlarged edition/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Lothar; Heckl, Manfred

    The fundamental principles of sound production and propagation in and from structures are examined analytically in an introductory textbook, and their design implications are considered. Chapters are devoted to the definition, measurement, and generation of structure-borne sound; wave types and characteristics; damping; impedances; attenuation; and sound radiation from structures. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  16. Development, validity, and normative data study for the 12-word Philadelphia Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12] among older and very old Czech adults.

    PubMed

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Libon, David J; Stepankova, Hana; Panenkova, Erika; Lukavsky, Jiri; Garrett, Kelly Davis; Lamar, Melissa; Price, Catherine C; Kopecek, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of a 12-word Czech version of the Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12]. The construction of the czP(r)VLT-12 was modeled after the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and the nine-word Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [P(r)VLT]. The czP(r)VLT-12 was constructed from a large corpus of old (60-74) and very old (75-96) Czech adults (n = 540). Participants met strict inclusion criteria for the absence of any active or past neurodegenerative disorders and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlations between czP(r)VLT-12 factor structure and other memory tests were conducted. The czP(r)VLT-12 produced a four-factor solution, accounting for 70.90% of variance, with factors related to: (1) recall, (2) extra-list intrusion errors/recognition foils, (3) interference, and (4) acquisition rate; a solution similar to the CVLT and P(r)VLT. Increasing age resulted in a decline in most czP(r)VLT-12 indices, women outperformed men, and higher education led to higher scores. Memory performance in normal aging did not correlate with instrumental activities of daily living. Low, but significant, correlations were seen with other tests of cognitive performance (divergent validity). Appendices are available that provide normed percentile estimates of individual czP(r)VLT-12 performance stratified by age, education, and gender. In accordance with previous studies, these results demonstrate the usefulness of czP(r)VLT-12 in assessing declarative memory in older adults.

  17. Lyman-α emitters in the context of hierarchical galaxy formation: predictions for VLT/MUSE surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, T.; Guiderdoni, B.; Blaizot, J.

    2016-02-01

    The VLT/Multi Unit Spectrograph Explorer (MUSE) integral-field spectrograph can detect Lyα emitters (LAE) in the redshift range 2.8 ≲ z ≲ 6.7 in a homogeneous way. Ongoing MUSE surveys will notably probe faint Lyα sources that are usually missed by current narrow-band surveys. We provide quantitative predictions for a typical wedding-cake observing strategy with MUSE based on mock catalogues generated with a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation coupled to numerical Lyα radiation transfer models in gas outflows. We expect ≈1500 bright LAEs (FLyα ≳ 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2) in a typical shallow field (SF) survey carried over ≈100 arcmin2 , and ≈2000 sources as faint as 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 in a medium-deep field (MDF) survey over 10 arcmin2 . In a typical deep field (DF) survey of 1 arcmin2 , we predict that ≈500 extremely faint LAEs (FLyα ≳ 4 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2) will be found. Our results suggest that faint Lyα sources contribute significantly to the cosmic Lyα luminosity and SFR budget. While the host haloes of bright LAEs at z ≈ 3 and 6 have descendants with median masses of 2 × 1012 and 5 × 1013 M⊙, respectively, the faintest sources detectable by MUSE at these redshifts are predicted to reside in haloes which evolve into typical sub-L* and L* galaxy haloes at z = 0. We expect typical DF and MDF surveys to uncover the building blocks of Milky Way-like objects, even probing the bulk of the stellar mass content of LAEs located in their progenitor haloes at z ≈ 3.

  18. PREFACE: 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium on the Fundamental and Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices and Technologies (RJUS TeraTech - 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Valeriy; Ryzhii, Viktor; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) Bauman Moscow State Technical University Moscow, Russia, 3-6 June, 2013 The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) was held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University on 3-6 June 2013 and was devoted to modern problems of terahertz optical technologies. RJUS TeraTech 2013 was organized by Bauman Moscow State Technical University in cooperation with Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) and University of Buffalo (The State University of New York, USA). The Symposium was supported by Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Moscow, Russia) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant number 13-08-06100-g). RJUS TeraTech - 2013 became a foundation for sharing and discussing modern and promising achievements in fundamental and applied problems of terahertz optical technologies, devices based on grapheme and grapheme strictures, condensed matter of different nature. Among participants of RJUS TeraTech - 2013, there were more than 100 researchers and students from different countries. This volume contains proceedings of the 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies'. Valeriy Karasik, Viktor Ryzhii and Stanislav Yurchenko Bauman Moscow State Technical University Symposium chair Anatoliy A Aleksandrov, Rector of BMSTU Symposium co-chair Valeriy E Karasik, Head of the Research and Educational Center 'PHOTONICS AND INFRARED TECHNOLOGY' (Russia) Invited Speakers Taiichi Otsuji, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Akira Satou, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Michael Shur, Electrical, Computer and System Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, USA Natasha

  19. Simulating a measurement of the 2nd knee in the cosmic ray spectrum with an atmospheric fluorescence telescope tower array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiali; Yang, Qunyu; Bai, Yunxiang; Cao, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    A fluorescence telescope tower array has been designed to measure cosmic rays in the energy range of 10(17)-10(18) eV. A full Monte Carlo simulation, including air shower production, light generation and propagation, detector response, electronics, and trigger system, has been developed for that purpose. Using such a simulation tool, the detector configuration, which includes one main tower array and two side-trigger arrays, 24 telescopes in total, has been optimized. The aperture and the event rate have been estimated. Furthermore, the performance of the X max technique in measuring composition has also been studied.

  20. Simulating a Measurement of the 2nd Knee in the Cosmic Ray Spectrum with an Atmospheric Fluorescence Telescope Tower Array

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiali; Yang, Qunyu; Bai, Yunxiang; Cao, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    A fluorescence telescope tower array has been designed to measure cosmic rays in the energy range of 1017–1018 eV. A full Monte Carlo simulation, including air shower production, light generation and propagation, detector response, electronics, and trigger system, has been developed for that purpose. Using such a simulation tool, the detector configuration, which includes one main tower array and two side-trigger arrays, 24 telescopes in total, has been optimized. The aperture and the event rate have been estimated. Furthermore, the performance of the Xmax⁡ technique in measuring composition has also been studied. PMID:24737964

  1. Second Annual Systems Engineering Lessons Learned Conference (2nd) Held in Seaside, California on September 20-21, 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Hybrid Architecture: Series – Primary Power Source: Diesel Engine – Secondary Power Source: Flywheel – Traction Motors : Permanent Magnet Motors 27...Renewable Fraction (%) Generator Electricity Production (kW) Solar Electricity Production (kW) Wind Electricity Production (kW) Battery...0.21 0.02 0.55 -0.20 -0.18 -0.20 -0.18 Gen Production -0.82 -0.19 0.35 -0.27 -0.11 -0.82 0.97 -0.82 -0.36 0.47 1.00 0.97 0.99 0.97 Tot. Electrical

  2. Report from the 2nd Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit of the Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease (D&CVD) EASD Study Group.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Oliver; Standl, Eberhard; Catrinoiu, Doina; Genovese, Stefano; Lalic, Nebojsa; Skra, Jan; Valensi, Paul; Rahelic, Dario; Ceriello, Antonio

    2017-03-11

    The 2nd Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit of the Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease (D&CVD) EASD Study Group was held on the 20th-21st October 2016 in Munich. This second Summit was organized in light of recently published CVOTs on diabetes, with the aim of serving as a reference meeting for discussion on this topic. Along with presentations on the results of the most recently published CVOTs, panel discussions on trial implications for reimbursement and the perspective of cardiologists and/or nephrologists, as well as on CVOTs weaknesses and potentials constituted the heart of the program. Future activities of the D&CVD EASD Study Group in 2017 include an annual meeting in Milano and the 3rd CVOT Summit on Diabetes of the D&CVD EASD Study Group, in Munich ( http://www.dcvd.org ).

  3. Phase transition in tungsten-bronze Li2Pb2Nd2W2Ti4Nb4O30 ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, B. N.; Das, Piyush R.; Padhee, R.; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2013-08-01

    The polycrystalline sample of Li2Pb2Nd2W2Ti4Nb4O30 was prepared by a solid-state reaction technique. Room temperature X-ray structural analysis confirms the formation of a single-phase compound. The morphology of the sintered sample recorded by scanning electron microscope exhibits a uniform grain distribution. Detailed studies of the nature of variation of dielectric constant, tangent loss, and polarization with temperature and frequency confirmed the existence of ferroelectricity in the material at room temperature. The temperature and frequency dependence of impedance parameters (impedance, modulus, etc.) of the material exhibits a strong correlation of its microstructure (i.e., bulk, grain boundary, etc.). Furthermore, the temperature dependence of DC conductivity shows a typical Arrhenius behavior of the material. The nature of variation of pyroelectric coefficient and current with temperature suggests that material has good pyroelectric properties useful for pyroelectric detector.

  4. Crystal structure of nonsuperconducting Pb 2(Sr 0.94Nd 0.06) 2(Nd 0.76Sr 0.24)Cu 3O 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayri, Eric A.; Kvick, Åke

    1990-01-01

    The crystal structure of Pb 2(Sr 0.94Nd 0.06) 2(Nd 0.76Sr 0.24)Cu 3O 8 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound was found to be orthorhombic ( Cmmm) with a = 5.437(3), b = 5.472(2), c = 15.797(7)Å and Z = 2. In the structure double layers of CuO square pyramids are separated by (Nd, Sr) oxygen deficient layers which are stacked between (PbO)Cu(PbO) slabs. The oxygen in the Pb planes is shifted toward a pair of Pb atoms resulting in an orthorhombic distortion of the tetragonal unit cell. The possibilities for modulations and superlattices are discussed as is the role of the PbO planes in superconductivity.

  5. Wound healing and soft tissue effects of CO2, contact Nd: YAG and combined CO2-Nd: YAG laser beams on rabbit trachea.

    PubMed

    Laranne, J; Lagerstedt, A; Pukander, J; Rantala, I

    1997-11-01

    Rabbit trachea was used as an experimental model to study tissue effects and healing of full-thickness tracheal lesions produced by CO2, contact Nd: YAG and combined, coaxial CO2-Nd: YAG (Combo) laser beams. Two power settings (10 W and 16 W) were used with CO2 and contact Nd: YAG lasers. Three different CO2/Nd:YAG power ratios (1:1, 1:2 and 1:4) and power settings (12 W 15 W and 16 W) were used with the Combolaser. Histological specimens for light and transmission electron microscopy were prepared immediately and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days postoperatively. The wound with the most precise and fastest healing was produced by contact Nd: YAG laser. CO2 laser produced a moderate amount of charring and the largest amount of coagulated tissue with a slightly prolonged healing period. In the acute phase, tissue defects produced by the Combolaser with power ratios 1:1 and 1:2 resembled the CO2 laser lesions but with slightly less charring. The power ratio 1:4 diminished the cutting properties of the beam considerably. During the healing period the Combolaser produced the most intensive inflammation and granulation tissue formation resulting in delayed regeneration of the lesion. In transmission electron micrographs the most severe damage to chondrocytes was seen after using the Combolaser. These findings indicate that the Combolaser produces deeper tissue damage than CO2 or contact Nd:YAG laser. However, the Combolaser appears to be suitable for tracheobronchial operations, owing to its good simultaneous cutting and haemostatic properties.

  6. The influence of Nd3+ in CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor fabricated by combustion synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiping; Yang, Yong; Li, Xingmin; Li, Xu; Liu, Chong; Feng, Jianwei

    2005-01-01

    Eu2+, Nd3+ co-doped calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4) phosphor with high brightness and long afterglow were fabricated by urea-nitrate solution combustion synthesis at 600°C. The phosphor powder of combustion synthesis were generally more homogeneous and had fewer impurity than phosphor fabricated by conventional solid-state methods, the character could conduce to obtain more exact data. The excitation and emission spectrum indicated that there waxs only one luminescence center Eu2+, both of the characteristic spectrums of Eu3+ and Nd3+ weren't discovered. As a secondary activator, Nd3+ could make remarkable influence on the afterglow of phosphor. From altering the moral ratio of Eu2+ and Nd3+, the lasting time of afterglow and thermoluminescence were studied respectively, when Nd3+ wasn't appended, the intensity of initial brightness could compared with other materials which had different ratio of Eu2+ and Nd3+, however the brightness of afterglow decayed rapidly, the lasting time and brightness of afterglow were improved with reduce the radio of Eu2+ and Nd3+, while the ratio achieved some value, the lasting time of afterglow become shorten with the reduce of ratio of Eu2+ and Nd3+. Moreover the depth of trap was calculated from the parameter of thermoluminescence. However, the emission spectrum and XRD patterns didn't change obviously with the altering ratio of Eu2+ and Nd3+. It showed that the little amount of doped rear earth ions (Eu2+ and Nd3+) had almost no effect on the CaAl2O4 phase composition. Based on these conclusions, the model of the luminescence process of CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Nd3+ was built.

  7. Direct exoplanet detection and characterization using the ANDROMEDA method: Performance on VLT/NaCo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantalloube, F.; Mouillet, D.; Mugnier, L. M.; Milli, J.; Absil, O.; Gomez Gonzalez, C. A.; Chauvin, G.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Cornia, A.

    2015-10-01

    Context. The direct detection of exoplanets with high-contrast imaging requires advanced data processing methods to disentangle potential planetary signals from bright quasi-static speckles. Among them, angular differential imaging (ADI) permits potential planetary signals with a known rotation rate to be separated from instrumental speckles that are either statics or slowly variable. The method presented in this paper, called ANDROMEDA for ANgular Differential OptiMal Exoplanet Detection Algorithm, is based on a maximum likelihood approach to ADI and is used to estimate the position and the flux of any point source present in the field of view. Aims: In order to optimize and experimentally validate this previously proposed method, we applied ANDROMEDA to real VLT/NaCo data. In addition to its pure detection capability, we investigated the possibility of defining simple and efficient criteria for automatic point source extraction able to support the processing of large surveys. Methods: To assess the performance of the method, we applied ANDROMEDA on VLT/NaCo data of TYC-8979-1683-1 which is surrounded by numerous bright stars and on which we added synthetic planets of known position and flux in the field. In order to accommodate the real data properties, it was necessary to develop additional pre-processing and post-processing steps to the initially proposed algorithm. We then investigated its skill in the challenging case of a well-known target, β Pictoris, whose companion is close to the detection limit and we compared our results to those obtained by another method based on principal component analysis (PCA). Results: Application on VLT/NaCo data demonstrates the ability of ANDROMEDA to automatically detect and characterize point sources present in the image field. We end up with a robust method bringing consistent results with a sensitivity similar to the recently published algorithms, with only two parameters to be fine tuned. Moreover, the companion flux

  8. Computer-Generated Geometry Instruction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Helen W.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    This study hypothesized that increased intensity of graphic information, presented in computer-generated instruction, could be differentially beneficial for students with hyperactivity and inattention by improving their ability to sustain attention and hold information in-mind. To this purpose, 18 2nd-4th grade students, recruited from general…

  9. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: A new window on the distant universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fèvre, O.; Vettolani, G.; Garilli, B.; Tresse, L.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J.-P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mathez, G.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pelló, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-12-01

    The First Epoch VIMOS VLT Deep Survey is now completed. More than 11000 redshifts of galaxies with 17.5 ≤ IAB ≤ 24 have been measured with the VIMOS spectrograph build for ESO by our consortium of French and Italian Institutes. The magnitude selection of this survey is unique and allows an unprecedented census of the high redshift universe to trace the evolution of galaxies and AGNs from 12 billion years ago to the present. We present here the main results from this first epoch survey. A first public data release offers access to the deep imaging and to 1599 galaxies with redshifts in the Chandra Deep Field South. The VVDS continues beyond the first epoch, a total of more than 45000 spectra have been obtained and processing is on-going.

  10. The VIRMOS-VLT Deep Survey: the Last 10 Billion Years of Evolution of Galaxy Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollo, A.; Guzzo, L.; Le Fèvre, O.; Meneux, B.; Cappi, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Iovino, A.; Marinoni, C.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V. L.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Ilbert, O.; Marano, B.; Mazure, A.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brinchmann, J.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Lamareille, F.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Temporin, S.; Vergani, D.; Walcher, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    We discuss the evolution of clustering of galaxies in the Universe from the present epoch back to z ˜ 2, using the first-epoch data from the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). We present the evolution of the projected two-point correlation function of galaxies for the global galaxy population, as well as its dependence on galaxy intrinsic luminosities and spectral types. While we do not find strong variations of the correlation function parameters with redshift for the global galaxy population, the clustering of objects with different intrinsic luminosities evolved significantly during last 8-10 billion years. Our findings indicate that bright galaxies in the past traced higher density peaks than they do now and that the shape of the correlation function of most luminous galaxies is different from observed for their local counterparts, which is a supporting evidence of a non-trivial evolution of the galaxy vs. dark matter bias.

  11. ESPRESSO: A High Resolution Spectrograph for the Combined Coudé Focus of the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Luca; Manescau, A.; Avila, G.; Delabre, B.; Dekker, H.; Liske, J.; D'Odorico, S.; Pepe, F.; Dessauges, M.; Lovis, C.; Megevand, D.; Queloz, D.; Udry, S.; Cristiani, S.; Bonifacio, P.; Dimarcantonio, P.; D'Odorico, V.; Molaro, P.; Vanzella, E.; Viel, M.; Haehnelt, M.; Carswell, B.; Murphy, M.; Garcia-Lopez, R.; Herreros, J. M.; Perez, J.; Zapatero, M. R.; Rebolo, R.; Israelian, G.; Martin, E.; Zerbi, F.; Spanò, P.; Levshakov, S.; Santos, N.; Zucker, S.

    In the frame of the call for proposal for the E-ELT instrumentation studies, the CODEX team carried out the feasibility study for a spectrograph for extremely stable Doppler measurements. The CODEX project and its scientific goals are described in [L. Pasquini, S. Cristiani et al. in Messenger 122, 10 (2005)]. During the development of this study, the CODEX team recognized that a CODEX-like instrument would be of high scientific interest also on the VLT. The ESPRESSO concept was born. The contribution by J. Liske in this volume highlights the direct links between the two instruments (see also [J. Liske, A. Grazian, E. Vanzella et al. in 2008MNRAS.tmp..460L, in press]).

  12. VLT/SPHERE- and ALMA-based shape reconstruction of asteroid (3) Juno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikinkoski, M.; Kaasalainen, M.; Ďurech, J.; Carry, B.; Marsset, M.; Fusco, T.; Dumas, C.; Merline, W. J.; Yang, B.; Berthier, J.; Kervella, P.; Vernazza, P.

    2015-09-01

    We use the recently released Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and VLT/SPHERE science verification data, together with earlier adaptive-optics images, stellar occultation, and lightcurve data to model the 3D shape and spin of the large asteroid (3) Juno with the all-data asteroid modelling (ADAM) procedure. These data set limits on the plausible range of shape models, yielding reconstructions suggesting that, despite its large size, Juno has sizable unrounded features moulded by non-gravitational processes such as impacts. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (prog. ID: 60.A-9379, 086.C-0785), and at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  13. Particle accelerators in the hot spots of radio galaxy 3C 445, imaged with the VLT.

    PubMed

    Prieto, M Almudena; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Mack, Karl-Heinz

    2002-10-04

    Hot spots (HSs) are regions of enhanced radio emission produced by supersonic jets at the tip of the radio lobes of powerful radio sources. Obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT), images of the HSs in the radio galaxy 3C 445 show bright knots embedded in diffuse optical emission distributed along the post-shock region created by the impact of the jet into the intergalactic medium. The observations reported here confirm that relativistic electrons are accelerated by Fermi-I acceleration processes in HSs. Furthermore, both the diffuse emission tracing the rims of the front shock and the multiple knots demonstrate the presence of additional continuous re-acceleration processes of electrons (Fermi-II).

  14. Microgravimetric and magnetometric three-dimensional analysis in the 2nd section of the Bosque de Chapultepec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo-Zenil, D.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, J.; García-Serrano, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Bosque de Chapultepec is the most important recreational area in Mexico City. In the early 20th century construction material in this region was exploited illegally generating a clandestine system of mines without any registration or census. Later in the early 50's it was planned the creation of a park in the area, nonetheless many mines were blocked by debris or vegetation and only a few mines were filled to build the infrastructure of the park. In June 2006, the collapse of the foundation slab of the Lago Mayor emptied 5000 cubic meters of water, which made clear the need of near surface geophysics studies to locate instabilities due to underground cavities. This work describes the progress of microgravimetry and magnetometry studies located in a forest region where the collapse of a mine entrance occurred. This mine has 4 known branches, but the full extent or if these branches are connected to the entrance of another filled mine located approximately to 100 meters is unknown. The results of this work, in correlation with the geological model and preliminary results of seismic and electrical methods, show lateral variations that may be associated with cavities and possible structural faults, which represent hazards to the Bosque de Chapultepec.

  15. Extraction-Separation Performance and Dynamic Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with Adams Simulation: 2nd Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Anderson, Keith; Varela, Jose G.; Bernatovich, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project has advanced into the third generation of its parachute test campaign and requires technically comprehensive modeling capabilities to simulate multi-body dynamics (MBD) of test articles released from a C-17. Safely extracting a 30,000 lbm mated test article from a C-17 and performing stable mid-air separation maneuvers requires an understanding of the interaction between elements in the test configuration and how they are influenced by extraction parachute performance, aircraft dynamics, aerodynamics, separation dynamics, and kinetic energy experienced by the system. During the real-time extraction and deployment sequences, these influences can be highly unsteady and difficult to bound. An avionics logic window based on time, pitch, and pitch rate is used to account for these effects and target a favorable separation state in real time. The Adams simulation has been employed to fine-tune this window, as well as predict and reconstruct the coupled dynamics of the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV) and Cradle Platform Separation System (CPSS) from aircraft extraction through the mid-air separation event. The test-technique for the extraction of CPAS test articles has evolved with increased complexity and requires new modeling concepts to ensure the test article is delivered to a stable test condition for the programmer phase. Prompted by unexpected dynamics and hardware malfunctions in drop tests, these modeling improvements provide a more accurate loads prediction by incorporating a spring-damper line-model derived from the material properties. The qualification phase of CPAS testing is on the horizon and modeling increasingly complex test-techniques with Adams is vital to successfully qualify the Orion parachute system for human spaceflight.

  16. An overview of second generation biofuel technologies.

    PubMed

    Sims, Ralph E H; Mabee, Warren; Saddler, Jack N; Taylor, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The recently identified limitations of 1st-generation biofuels produced from food crops (with perhaps the exception of sugarcane ethanol) have caused greater emphasis to be placed on 2nd-generation biofuels produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstocks. Although significant progress continues to be made to overcome the technical and economic challenges, 2nd-generation biofuels production will continue to face major constraints to full commercial deployment. The logistics of providing a competitive, all-year-round, supply of biomass feedstock to a commercial-scale plant is challenging, as is improving the performance of the conversion process to reduce costs. The biochemical route, being less mature, probably has a greater cost reduction potential than the thermo-chemical route, but here a wider range of synthetic fuels can be produced to better suit heavy truck, aviation and marine applications. Continued investment in research and demonstration by both public and private sectors, coupled with appropriate policy support mechanisms, are essential if full commercialisation is to be achieved within the next decade. After that, the biofuel industry will grow only at a steady rate and encompass both 1st- and 2nd-generation technologies that meet agreed environmental, sustainability and economic policy goals.

  17. The Safety of Artemisinin Derivatives for the Treatment of Malaria in the 2nd or 3rd Trimester of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, Anna Maria; Sevene, Esperanca; Dellicour, Stephanie; Weiss, Noel S.; Emerson, Scott; Steketee, Richard; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Stergachis, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Given the high morbidity for mother and fetus associated with malaria in pregnancy, safe and efficacious drugs are needed for treatment. Artemisinin derivatives are the most effective antimalarials, but are associated with teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in animal models when used in early pregnancy. However, several organ systems are still under development later in pregnancy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women treated with artemisinins monotherapy or as artemisinin-based combination therapy during the 2nd or 3rd trimesters relative to pregnant women who received non-artemisinin antimalarials or none at all. Pooled odds ratio (POR) were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model with a 0.5 continuity correction for zero events. Eligible studies were identified through Medline, Embase, and the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium Library. Twenty studies (11 cohort studies and 9 randomized controlled trials) contributed to the analysis, with 3,707 women receiving an artemisinin, 1,951 a non-artemisinin antimalarial, and 13,714 no antimalarial. The PORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for stillbirth, fetal loss, and congenital anomalies when comparing artemisinin versus quinine were 0.49 (95% CI 0.24–0.97, I2 = 0%, 3 studies); 0.58 (95% CI 0.31–1.16, I2 = 0%, 6 studies); and 1.00 (95% CI 0.27–3.75, I2 = 0%, 3 studies), respectively. The PORs comparing artemisinin users to pregnant women who received no antimalarial were 1.13 (95% CI 0.77–1.66, I2 = 86.7%, 3 studies); 1.10 (95% CI 0.79–1.54, I2 = 0%, 4 studies); and 0.79 (95% CI 0.37–1.67, I2 = 0%, 3 studies) for miscarriage, stillbirth and congenital anomalies respectively. Treatment with artemisinin in 2nd and 3rd trimester was not associated with increased risks of congenital malformations or miscarriage and may be was associated with a reduced risk of stillbirths compared to quinine. This study updates the reviews

  18. Hubble and ESO's VLT provide unique 3D views of remote galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    Astronomers have obtained exceptional 3D views of distant galaxies, seen when the Universe was half its current age, by combining the twin strengths of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope's acute eye, and the capacity of ESO's Very Large Telescope to probe the motions of gas in tiny objects. By looking at this unique "history book" of our Universe, at an epoch when the Sun and the Earth did not yet exist, scientists hope to solve the puzzle of how galaxies formed in the remote past. ESO PR Photo 10a/09 A 3D view of remote galaxies ESO PR Photo 10b/09 Measuring motions in 3 distant galaxies ESO PR Video 10a/09 Galaxies in collision For decades, distant galaxies that emitted their light six billion years ago were no more than small specks of light on the sky. With the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope in the early 1990s, astronomers were able to scrutinise the structure of distant galaxies in some detail for the first time. Under the superb skies of Paranal, the VLT's FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph (ESO 13/02) -- which obtains simultaneous spectra from small areas of extended objects -- can now also resolve the motions of the gas in these distant galaxies (ESO 10/06). "This unique combination of Hubble and the VLT allows us to model distant galaxies almost as nicely as we can close ones," says François Hammer, who led the team. "In effect, FLAMES/GIRAFFE now allows us to measure the velocity of the gas at various locations in these objects. This means that we can see how the gas is moving, which provides us with a three-dimensional view of galaxies halfway across the Universe." The team has undertaken the Herculean task of reconstituting the history of about one hundred remote galaxies that have been observed with both Hubble and GIRAFFE on the VLT. The first results are coming in and have already provided useful insights for three galaxies. In one galaxy, GIRAFFE revealed a region full of ionised gas, that is, hot gas composed of atoms that have been stripped of

  19. The Futures of Adult Educator(s): Agency, Identity and Ethos. Joint Conference Proceedings of the 2nd ESREA/ReNAdET Meeting and the 4th TQF Seminar (Tallinn, Estonia, November 9-11, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Jogi, Larissa, Ed.; Jutte, Wolfgang, Ed.; Zarifis, Georgios K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume contains the papers presented in the 2nd ESREA|ReNAdet meeting that was jointly organised with the VET & CULTURE Network in the University of Tallinn (Estonia), 9-11 November 2011. The papers that appear in the volume discuss the future (or the futures) of adult educators in respect to issues of developing their identities…

  20. A VLT-ULTRACAM study of the fast optical quasi-periodic oscillations in the polar V834 Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchet, M.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Van Box Som, L.; Falize, E.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Breytenbach, H.; Ashley, R. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of a few seconds have been detected in some polars, the synchronised subclass of cataclysmic systems containing a strongly magnetised white dwarf which accretes matter from a red dwarf companion. The QPOs are thought to be related to instabilities of a shock formed in the accretion column, close to the white dwarf photosphere above the impact region. We present optical observations of the polar V834 Centauri performed with the fast ULTRACAM camera mounted on the ESO-VLT simultaneously in three filters (u', He ii λ4686, r') to study these oscillations and characterise their properties along the orbit when the column is seen at different viewing angles. Fast Fourier transforms and wavelet analysis have been performed and the mean frequency, rms amplitude, and coherence of the QPOs are derived; a detailed inspection of individual pulses has also been performed. The observations confirm the probable ubiquity of the QPOs for this source at all epochs when the source is in a high state, with observed mean amplitude of 2.1% (r'), 1.5% (He ii), and 0.6% (u'). The QPOs are present in the r' filter at all phases of the orbital cycle, with a higher relative amplitude around the maximum of the light curve. They are also detected in the He ii and u' filters but at a lower level. Trains of oscillations are clearly observed in the r' light curve and can be mimicked by a superposition of damped sinusoids with various parameters. The QPO energy distribution is comparable to that of the cyclotron flux, consistent for the r' and He ii filters but requiring a significant dilution in the u' filter. New 1D hydrodynamical simulations of shock instabilities, adapted to the physical parameters of V834 Cen, can account for the optical QPO amplitude and X-ray upper limit assuming a cross section of the accretion column in the range (4 - 5) × 1014 cm2. However, the predicted frequency is larger than the observed one by an order of magnitude. This

  1. Stable isotope and trace element studies on gladiators and contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD)--mplications for differences in diet.

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts.

  2. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  3. Bone fractures as indicators of intentional violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique to the late medieval period (2nd-16th century AD).

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Novak, Mario; Bedić, Zeljka; Strinović, Davor

    2012-09-01

    To test the historically documented hypothesis of a general increase in deliberate violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique (AN; 2nd-6th c.) through the early medieval (EM; 7th-11th c.) to the late-medieval period (LM; 12th-16th c.), an analysis of the frequency and patterning of bone trauma was conducted in three skeletal series from these time periods. A total of 1,125 adult skeletons-346 from the AN, 313 from the EM, and 466 from the LM series-were analyzed. To differentiate between intentional violence and accidental injuries, data for trauma frequencies were collected for the complete skeleton, individual long bones, and the craniofacial region as well as by type of injury (perimortem vs. antemortem). The results of our analyses show a significant temporal increase in total fracture frequencies when calculated by skeleton as well as of individuals exhibiting one skeletal indicator of deliberate violence (sharp force lesions, craniofacial injuries, "parry" fractures, or perimortem trauma). No significant temporal increases were, however, noted in the frequencies of craniofacial trauma, "parry" fractures, perimortem injuries, or of individuals exhibiting multiple skeletal indicators of intentional violence. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the temporal increase in total fracture frequencies recorded in the eastern Adriatic was caused by a combination of factors that included not only an increase of intentional violence but also a significant change in lifestyle that accompanied the transition from a relatively affluent AN urban lifestyle to a more primitive rural medieval way of life.

  4. Development and Validation of Big Four Personality Scales for the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2nd Edition (SNAP-2)

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, William R.; Rudick, Monica M.; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently, integrative, hierarchical models of personality and personality disorder (PD)—such as the Big Three, Big Four and Big Five trait models—have gained support as a unifying dimensional framework for describing PD. However, no measures to date can simultaneously represent each of these potentially interesting levels of the personality hierarchy. To unify these measurement models psychometrically, we sought to develop Big Five trait scales within the Schedule for Adaptive and Nonadaptive Personality–2nd Edition (SNAP-2). Through structural and content analyses, we examined relations between the SNAP-2, Big Five Inventory (BFI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) ratings in a large data set (N = 8,690), including clinical, military, college, and community participants. Results yielded scales consistent with the Big Four model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Introversion, and Antagonism) and not the Big Five as there were insufficient items related to Openness. Resulting scale scores demonstrated strong internal consistency and temporal stability. Structural and external validity was supported by strong convergent and discriminant validity patterns between Big Four scale scores and other personality trait scores and expectable patterns of self-peer agreement. Descriptive statistics and community-based norms are provided. The SNAP-2 Big Four Scales enable researchers and clinicians to assess personality at multiple levels of the trait hierarchy and facilitate comparisons among competing “Big Trait” models. PMID:22250598

  5. The photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of novel green long-lasting phosphorescence materials Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+,Nd3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Q.; Ding, W.; Su, Q.

    2007-04-01

    The novel green long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) material Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2:Eu2+,Nd3+ was systematically investigated by means of photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission, a thermal quenching process, long-lasting phosphorescent emission, decay curves, chromaticity and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra. It is clearly observed that there exist two distinguishable Eu sites, EuI for 426-nm and EuII for 504-nm emissions, but only the green LLP appears at the EuII site. The emissions for both PL and LLP are due to the 5d→4f transitions. The green phosphorescence with the chromaticity coordination x=0.196, y=0.506 can still be observed in the dark for no less than 5 h by the naked eye. The results of TL show that Nd3+ ions induce the predominating band at 335 K, associated with the charge-trapping centers that are responsible for the appearance of intense green phosphorescence.

  6. A low-pass differentiation filter based on the 2nd-order B-spline wavelet for calculating augmentation index.

    PubMed

    He, Zijun; Zhang, Yongliang; Ma, Zuchang; Hu, Fusong; Sun, Yining

    2014-06-01

    The key point to calculate augmentation index (AIx) related to cardiovascular diseases is the precise identification of the shoulder point. The commonly used method for extracting the shoulder point is to calculate the fourth derivative of the pulse waveform by numerical differentiation. However, this method has a poor anti-noise capability and is computationally intensive. The aims of this study were to develop a new method based on the 2nd-order B-spline wavelet for calculating AIx, and to compare it with numerical differentiation and Savitzky-Golay digital differentiator (SGDD). All the three methods were applied to pulse waveforms derived from 60 healthy subjects. There was a significantly high correlation between the proposed method and numerical differentiation (r=0.998 for carotid pulses, and r=0.997 for radial pulses), as well as between the proposed method and the SGDD (r=0.995 for carotid pulses, and r=0.993 for radial pulses). In addition, the anti-noise capability of the proposed method was evaluated by adding simulated noise (>10Hz) on pulse waveforms. The results showed that the proposed method was advantageous in noise tolerance than the other two methods. These findings indicate that the proposed method can quickly and accurately calculate AIx with a good anti-noise capability.

  7. Report on 2nd Royan Institute International Summer School on developmental biology and stem cells Tehran, Iran, 17-22nd July 2011.

    PubMed

    Newgreen, Donald; Grounds, Miranda; Jesuthasan, Suresh; Rashidi, Hassan; Familari, Mary

    2012-03-01

    The 2nd Royan Institute International Summer School was built around the topic of stem cells and grounding in the discipline of developmental biology. The meeting provided not only direct transfer of technical and intellectual information, the normal process in scientific meetings, but was also a forum for the exchange of personal ideas of science as a creative pursuit. This summer school introduced aspiring young Iranian scientists to international researchers and exposed the latter to a rich culture that highly values learning and education, attested by the confident, intelligent young men and women who asked probing questions and who were eager to participate in the workshops. Hossein Baharvand's dedication and passion for science have led to an impressive record of national and international peer-reviewed publications and an increasing number of students who pursue science in Iran, and shows how the right people can create an environment where good science, good science education and motivation will flourish. This report summarizes some of the activities of the workshop in the Royan Institute and the impressions of the visiting scientists in the wider context of the scientific and cultural heritage of Iran.

  8. Report on the 2nd International Consortium on Hallucination Research: Evolving Directions and Top-10 “Hot Spots” in Hallucination Research

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a report on the 2nd meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research, held on September 12th and 13th 2013 at Durham University, UK. Twelve working groups involving specialists in each area presented their findings and sought to summarize the available knowledge, inconsistencies in the field, and ways to progress. The 12 working groups reported on the following domains of investigation: cortical organisation of hallucinations, nonclinical hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to phenomenology, culture and hallucinations, subtypes of auditory verbal hallucinations, a Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale multisite study, visual hallucinations in the psychosis spectrum, hallucinations in children and adolescents, Research Domain Criteria behavioral constructs and hallucinations, new methods of assessment, psychological therapies, and the Hearing Voices Movement approach to understanding and working with voices. This report presents a summary of this meeting and outlines 10 hot spots for hallucination research, which include the in-depth examination of (1) the social determinants of hallucinations, (2) translation of basic neuroscience into targeted therapies, (3) different modalities of hallucination, (4) domain convergence in cross-diagnostic studies, (5) improved methods for assessing hallucinations in nonclinical samples, (6) using humanities and social science methodologies to recontextualize hallucinatory experiences, (7) developmental approaches to better understand hallucinations, (8) changing the memory or meaning of past trauma to help recovery, (9) hallucinations in the context of sleep and sleep disorders, and (10) subtypes of hallucinations in a therapeutic context. PMID:24282321

  9. Results of on-line tests of the ENABLE prototype, a 2nd level trigger processor for the TRT of ATLAS/LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Noffz, K.H.; Kugel, A.; Klefenz, F.; Zoz, R.; Maenner, R.

    1994-12-31

    The Enable Machine is a systolic 2nd level trigger processor for the transition radiation tracker (TRT) of ATLAS/LHC. The task of the processor is to find the best candidate for a lepton track in a high background of pions according to the EAST benchmark algorithm in less than 10 {mu}s. As described earlier, this is done in three steps. First all interesting tracks are histogrammed by accumulating for each track the coincidences between the track mask and the region-of-interest (RoI). Next the best defined track is identified. Eventually this track is classified as e or {pi}. A prototype has been developed and tested within the EAST/RD-11 collaboration at CERN. It operates at 50 MHz and finds up to 400 tracks in less than 10 {mu}s. It is assembled of an interface board and one or more histogrammer boards. The modular design makes the Enable Machine easily scalable. The histogrammer units are systolic arrays consisting of a matrix of 36 field programmable gate arrays. Through this it is possible to optimize the trigger algorithm, to adapt it to a changed detector setup, and even to implement completely new algorithms. For the beam tests in autumn 1993 at CERN the overall functionality within the detector environment could be shown. The authors were able to link successfully the Enable prototype to the detector raw data stream as well as to the data acquisition.

  10. The effect of magnetic field annealing on the texture of 2nd recrystallization for a deformed Fe-3.2% Si steel sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byung Geol; Part, Su Dong; Kim, Shang Shu

    2004-12-01

    The effects of deformation on 2nd recrystallization behavior with or without magnetic field for a 1st recrystallized electrical steel sheet have been investigated. Annealing temperatures (800, 1000 °C) and cold-rolling rates (50, 70 %) were experimental parameters. A magnetic field of 5 T using a superconducting magnet at a heating rate of 15 °C/min was applied in a direction parallel to the rolling direction. The intensity of α-fiber was increased due to the deformation and, in particular, the formation of {100}<110> component was tremendous. Considerable formation of {001}<100> component was also found. At 800 °C, α-fiber was developed rapidly due to deformation, and η-fiber was also formed in the components {100}<100> and {110}<100> The effect of magnetic field annealing was more significant at 800 °C, while the effect at 1000 °C was negligible. These results are discussed in a phenomenological context considering the atomic fluctuation and magnetic induction depending on annealing temperature and magnetic field.

  11. Stable isotopic evidence for diet at the Imperial Roman coastal site of Velia (1st and 2nd centuries AD) in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Biazzo, Marco; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Garnsey, Peter; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Lelli, Roberta; Salvadei, Loretana; Tartaglia, Gianna; Nava, Alessia; Renò, Lorena; Fiammenghi, Antonella; Rickards, Olga; Bondioli, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Here we report on a stable isotope palaeodietary study of a Imperial Roman population interred near the port of Velia in Southern Italy during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on collagen extracted from 117 adult humans as well as a range of fauna to reconstruct individual dietary histories. For the majority of individuals, we found that stable isotope data were consistent with a diet high in cereals, with relatively modest contributions of meat and only minor contributions of marine fish. However, substantial isotopic variation was found within the population, indicating that diets were not uniform. We suggest that a number of individuals, mainly but not exclusively males, had greater access to marine resources, especially high trophic level fish. However, the observed dietary variation did not correlate with burial type, number of grave goods, nor age at death. Also, individuals buried at the necropolis at Velia ate much less fish overall compared with the contemporaneous population from the necropolis of Portus at Isola Sacra, located on the coast close to Rome. Marine and riverine transport and commerce dominated the economy of Portus, and its people were in a position to supplement their own stocks of fish with imported goods in transit to Rome, whereas at Velia marine exploitation existed side-by-side with land-based economic activities.

  12. Intracluster light properties in the CLASH-VLT cluster MACS J1206.2-0847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Nonino, M.; Mercurio, A.; Grillo, C.; Rosati, P.; Biviano, A.; Annunziatella, M.; Balestra, I.; Cui, W.; Sartoris, B.; Lemze, D.; Ascaso, B.; Moustakas, J.; Ford, H.; Fritz, A.; Czoske, O.; Ettori, S.; Kuchner, U.; Lombardi, M.; Maier, C.; Medezinski, E.; Molino, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Strazzullo, V.; Tozzi, P.; Ziegler, B.; Bartelmann, M.; Benitez, N.; Bradley, L.; Brescia, M.; Broadhurst, T.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Gobat, R.; Graves, G.; Kelson, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Melchior, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Merten, J.; Moustakas, L. A.; Munari, E.; Postman, M.; Regős, E.; Seitz, S.; Umetsu, K.; Zheng, W.; Zitrin, A.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: We aim constrain the assembly history of clusters by studying the intracluster light (ICL) properties, estimating its contribution to the fraction of baryons in stars, f∗, and understanding possible systematics or bias using different ICL detection techniques. Methods: We developed an automated method, GALtoICL, based on the software GALAPAGOS, to obtain a refined version of typical BCG+ICL maps. We applied this method to our test case MACS J1206.2-0847, a massive cluster located at z ~ 0.44, which is part of the CLASH sample. Using deep multiband Subaru images, we extracted the surface brightness (SB) profile of the BCG+ICL and studied the ICL morphology, color, and contribution to f∗ out to R500. We repeated the same analysis using a different definition of the ICL, SBlimit method, i.e., a SB cut-off level, to compare the results. Results: The most peculiar feature of the ICL in MACS1206 is its asymmetric radial distribution, with an excess in the SE direction and extending toward the second brightest cluster galaxy, which is a post starburst galaxy. This suggests an interaction between the BCG and this galaxy that dates back to τ ≤ 1.5 Gyr. The BCG+ICL stellar content is ~8% of M∗,500, and the (de-) projected baryon fraction in stars is f∗ = 0.0177(0.0116), in excellent agreement with recent results. The SBlimit method provides systematically higher ICL fractions and this effect is stronger at lower SB limits. This is due to the light from the outer envelopes of member galaxies that contaminate the ICL. Though more time consuming, the GALtoICL method provides safer ICL detections that are almost free of this contamination. This is one of the few ICL study at redshift z > 0.3. At completion, the CLASH/VLT program will allow us to extend this analysis to a statistically significant cluster sample spanning a wide redshift range: 0.2 ≲ z ≲ 0.6. Based on data collected at the NASJ Subaru telescope, at the ESO VLT (prog.ID 186.A-0798), and the

  13. VLT/NACO near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of N88A in the SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testor, G.; Lemaire, J. L.; Heydari-Malayeri, M.; Kristensen, L. E.; Diana, S.; Field, D.

    2010-02-01

    Aims: We present near-infrared imaging and spectroscopic high spatial resolution observations of the SMC region N88 containing the bright, excited, extincted and compact H II region N88A of the size of about 1 pc. Methods: To investigate its stellar content and reddening, N88 was observed using spectroscopy and imagery in the JHKs- and L'-band at a spatial resolution of ~0.1-0.3", using the VLT UT4 equipped with the NAOS adaptive optics system. In an attempt to establish if the origin of the infra-red (IR) excess is due to bright nebulosity, circumstellar material and/or local dust, we used Ks vs. J-K color-magnitude (CM) and JHK color-color (CC) diagrams, as well as L' imagery. Results: Our IR-data reveal in the N88 area an IR-excess fraction of ≥30 per cent of the detected stars as well as an unprecedently detailed morphology of N88A. It consists of an embedded cluster of ~3.5" (~1 pc) in diameter of at least thirteen resolved stars superposed with an unusual bright continuum centered on a very bright star. The four brightest stars in this cluster lie red-ward of H-K ≥ 0.45 mag and could be classified as young stellar object (YSO) candidates. Four other probable YSO candidates are also detected in N88 along a north-south bow-shaped thin H2 filament at ~7" east of the young central bright star. This star, which we assume to be the main exciting source, could also be complex. At 0.2" east of this star, a heavily embedded core is detected in the L'-band. This core with L' ~ 14 mag and L'-K ≥ 4.5 mag could be a massive class I protostar candidate. The 2.12 μm H2 image of N88A resembles a shell of a diameter of ~3" (~0.9 pc) centered on the bright star. This shell consists of three bright components, of which the brightest one superposes the ionization front. The line ratios of H2 2-1 S(1) and 1-0 S(0) relative to 1-0 S(1), as well as the presence of high v lines, are indicative of photodissociation regions, rather than shocks. Based on observations obtained at

  14. General Physics, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternheim, Morton M.; Kane, Joseph W.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces physics to science students with a wide range of interests. Unlike many other physics texts, the coverage and emphasis here is influenced by the specific needs of science majors, including those in the life sciences, and thus treats topics such as geometric optics, mechanics of fluids and acoustics. The derivative is introduced in Chapter One and integrals are used sparingly until electricity and magnetism are covered. Entire chapters are devoted to applications of physics covering subjects such as nerve conduction, ionizing radiation and nuclear magnetic resonance, demonstrating the widespread utility of physics and the unity of science. To aid in comprehension, calculations involving calculus are carried out with a good deal of detail and discussion. Each chapter features a checklist of terms to define or explain as well as problems and exercises. Additional problems and exercises are located in the Supplementary Topics section.

  15. Contaminant Hydrogeology, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James E.

    Groundwater is a valuable resource that has received much attention over the last couple of decades. Extremely large sums of money have been and will be spent on groundwater contamination problems and the public has become increasingly sensitive to groundwater issues. Groundwater contamination has even become the subject of a major Hollywood movie with the recent release of A Civil Action starring John Travolta. The high profile of groundwater contaminant problems, the associated relatively strong job market over the last 20 years, and the general shift toward an environmental emphasis in science and engineering have resulted in a sustained high demand for senior undergraduate courses and graduate programs in hydrogeology Many voice the opinion that we have seen the peak demand for hydrogeologists pass, but the placement of graduates from hydrogeology programs into career-oriented positions has remained very high.

  16. Sedimentary petrology. 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, H.

    1992-01-01

    The second edition of Sedimentary Petrology is extensively revised and updated; much effort has been expended to strengthen the weaknesses of the earlier edition, and much of this effort has been successful. It consists of sixteen chapters. Following two introductory chapters (occurrence of sedimentary rocks; weathering and soils), eleven chapters cover the various sedimentary rock types. Coverage is allocated in proportion to their relative abundance and relative ease of study -- three chapters on conglomerates and sandstones (textures and structures, composition, and diagenesis); one on mud rocks; three on carbonates (limestone textures, structures, and environments; limestone mineralogy and diagenesis; and dolostones); and one each on evaporites, cherts, iron-rich rocks, and phosphorites. A novel and useful chapter on paleogeothermometry rounds out the discussion of rocks, followed by chapters on The Development of a Research Project'' and common laboratory methods.

  17. Aquatic pollution, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book systematically covers all aspects of water pollution in marine and freshwater systems. Didactic style, frequent use of case studies and an extensive bibliography facilitate understanding of fundamental concepts. Offers basic, relevant ecological and toxicological information. Straightforward presentation of the scientific aspects of environmental issues. Information updated, particularly the discussion of toxicology and the case studies of water pollution. Three new chapters on acid rain, groundwater pollution and plastics are added.

  18. Longwall mining. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2006-10-15

    The book covers US longwall mining technology that was developed and practiced in the US for the past 30 years. It covers all phases of longwall technology in 14 chapters. Each chapter is devoted to a subsystem of equipment or engineering technology. Each chapter begins with a brief introduction on the historical trends of development of the subsystem equipment or engineering technology, followed by a detailed description of the subsystem and engineering technology as they are practiced in the US today.

  19. Electromagnetic Fields, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangsness, Roald K.

    1986-07-01

    This revised edition provides patient guidance in its clear and organized presentation of problems. It is rich in variety, large in number and provides very careful treatment of relativity. One outstanding feature is the inclusion of simple, standard examples demonstrated in different methods that will allow students to enhance and understand their calculating abilities. There are over 145 worked examples; virtually all of the standard problems are included.

  20. Modern Physics, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Kenneth S.

    1995-08-01

    Bring Modern Physics to Life with a Realistic Software Simulation! Enhance the thorough coverage of Krane's Modern Physics 2e with hands-on, real-world experience! Modern Physics Simulations, developed by the Consortium for Upper-Level Physics Software (CUPS), offers complex, realistic calculations of models of various physical systems. Like all of the CUPS simulations, it is remarkably easy to use, yet sophisticated enough for explorations of new ideas. Important Features Include: * Powerful simulations covering Historic Experiments in Electron Diffraction, Laser Cavities & Dynamics, Classical Scattering, Nuclear Properties & Decays, Special Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, and the Hydrogen Atom & the H2+ Molecule. * Pascal source code for all programs and a number of exercises suggesting specific ways the programs can be modified. * Graphical (often animated) displays in most simulations. The entire CUPS simulation series consists of nine books/software simulations which cover Astrophysics, Electricity and Magnetism, Classical Mechanics, Modern Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Solid State Physics, Thermal and Statistical Physics, and Waves and Optics.

  1. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: Clustering and the Role of Environment in Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fèvre, O.; Cucciati, O.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Marinoni, C.; Meneux, B.; Paltani, S.; Pollo, A.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Mazure, A.; Merighi, R.; Pellò, R.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; de La Torre, S.; Gregorini, L.; Lamareille, F.; Mathez, G.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2007-12-01

    We present results from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey on the influence of large scale structures on the evolution of galaxies. The large volume and 11564 galaxies with measured spectroscopic redshifts in the ``First Epoch'' survey enables to study galaxy evolution as a function of local galaxy density and galaxy luminosity or type. We find that the clustering of galaxies is strongly dependent on galaxy types at all redshifts probed, with early spectral type galaxies always more clustered than late-type or irregular galaxies up to z≃1.5. The more luminous galaxies with M_B ≥ -20 are also more strongly clustered than fainter galaxies at all epochs probed up to z≃1.5. From the 3D galaxy density field computed using spectroscopic redshifts, we find a strong evolution of the color-density relation which flattens out with increasing redshifts, with red and blue galaxies becoming equally likely to be found in high density regions probed by the VVDS. At high redshifts 3 ≤ z ≤ 4, we find that the progenitors of the most massive galaxies are more numerous and concentrating more luminosity density than galaxies previously measured at these epochs.

  2. The Vimos-VLT Deep Survey: Results from the First-Epoch Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltani, S.; Ilbert, O.; Le Fèvre, O.; Marinoni, C.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J.-P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Ciliegi, P.; Gregorini, L.; Mathez, G.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-06-01

    The Vimos-VLT Deep Survey is a spectroscopic survey aiming at collecting more than 50000 spectra down to a limiting magnitude IAB=24, and 100000 down to IAB=22.5, on a total of about 16 deg2 without any color or morphology preselection. We present the N(z) distribution up to z˜ 5, obtained from a purely magnitude-limited sample down to IAB=24, which is an important input to weak-lensing studies. We discuss the evolution of the galaxy luminosity function up to z˜ 2, which exhibits a very strong increase in the typical galaxy luminosity Δ M*≃ -2.5 in the U band compared to the local value. Surveys like the VVDS also allow to study the galaxy bias as a function of redshift without assumption about its linearity, an assumption that we find to be violated in some cases. A low bias is found, and the linear bias is shown to increase with redshift.

  3. VLT/NACO Imaging of the Nearest AGB Star, L2 Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montargès, M.; Kervella, P.; Ridgway, S. T.; Perrin, G.; Chesneau, O.

    2015-08-01

    AGB stars are the most important contributors to the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy. During their later evolutionary stages they experience intense pulsations and eject most of their layers as they become planetary nebulae (PNe). The process leading to the formation of bipolar PNe remains poorly understood. It is assumed that the circumstellar disk of an AGB star could collimate the stellar wind to form a bipolar PN, yet very few of these disks have been observed. Using the adaptive-optics system of the VLT/NACO instrument at the Paranal Observatory and a "lucky imaging" technique, our team obtained near-infrared diffraction-limited images of the nearest AGB star, L2 Puppis. The deconvolved images reveal a dark structure in front of the star whose morphology and photometry match a dusty edge-on disk of olivine and pyroxene modeled with a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. The L band images also show a loop structure, possibly the signature of an interacting hidden companion.

  4. Comparing ALMA, VLT, and HST data for Massive, Young Clusters in Grand-Design Spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosbøl, Preben; Dottori, Horacio

    2017-03-01

    A population of young, massive stellar cluster complexes with near-infrared (NIR) colors indicating high extinction (i.e. Av ~ 7m) was identified on HAWK-I/VLT images of several nearby, grand-design spiral galaxies. Models suggest that they are very young cluster complexes still embedded in a dust/gas envelope which will be expelled after 5-7 Myr. This type of very young, embedded clusters are not seen in optical studies using HST data. A detailed comparison of HST and HAWK-I images was done to better understand the discrepancy between the optical and NIR detection of stellar clusters in nearby galaxies. More than 70% of the NIR clusters are located close to dust lanes which would make an optical detection difficult. A comparison of the ALMA CO(1-0)-map of NGC 4321 and the young, massive clusters shows that 60% of them have CO emission within 2`` indicating a correlation between giant molecular clouds and formation of massive clusters.

  5. Upper limits for mass and radius of objects around Proxima Cen from SPHERE/VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, D.; Zurlo, A.; Milli, J.; Gratton, R.; Desidera, S.; Langlois, M.; Vigan, A.; Bonavita, M.; Antichi, J.; Avenhaus, H.; Baruffolo, A.; Biller, B.; Boccaletti, A.; Bruno, P.; Cascone, E.; Chauvin, G.; Claudi, R. U.; De Caprio, V.; Fantinel, D.; Farisato, G.; Girard, J.; Giro, E.; Hagelberg, J.; Incorvaia, S.; Janson, M.; Kral, Q.; Lagadec, E.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lessio, L.; Meyer, M.; Peretti, S.; Perrot, C.; Salasnich, B.; Schlieder, J.; Schmid, H.-M.; Scuderi, S.; Sissa, E.; Thalmann, C.; Turatto, M.

    2017-03-01

    The recent discovery of an earth-like planet around Proxima Centauri has drawn much attention to this star and its environment. We performed a series of observations of Proxima Centauri using Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE), the planet-finder instrument installed at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) UT3, using its near-infrared modules, InfraRed Dual-band Imager and Spectrograph (IRDIS) and IFS. No planet was detected directly, but we set upper limits on the mass up to 7 au by exploiting the AMES-COND models. Our IFS observations reveal that no planet more massive than ∼6-7 MJup can be present within 1 au. The dual-band imaging camera IRDIS also enables us to probe larger separations than other techniques such as radial velocity or astrometry. We obtained mass limits of the order of 4 MJup at separations of 2 au or larger, representing the most stringent mass limits at separations larger than 5 au available at the moment. We also made an attempt to estimate the radius of possible planets around Proxima using the reflected light. Since the residual noise for the observations is dominated by photon noise and thermal background, longer exposures in good observing conditions could improve the achievable contrast limit further.

  6. A VLT/FORS2 spectroscopic survey of individual stars in a transforming dwarf galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, G.; Kacharov, N.; Rejkuba, M.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the properties of dwarf galaxies is important not only to put them in their proper cosmological context, but also to understand the formation and evolution of the most common type of galaxies. Dwarf galaxies are divided into two main classes, dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) and dwarf spheroidals (dSphs), which differ from each other mainly because the former are gas-rich objects currently forming stars, while the latter are gas-deficient with no on-going star formation. Transition types (dT) are thought to represent dIs in the process of losing their gas, and can therefore shed light into the possible process of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) becoming gas-deficient, passively evolving galaxies. Here we present preliminary results from our wide-area VLT/FORS2 MXU spectroscopic survey of the Phoenix dT, from which we obtained line-of-sight velocities and metallicities from the nIR Ca II triplet lines for a large sample of individual Red Giant Branch stars.

  7. VLT/ISAAC Spectroscopy of the (ex?)-Candidate Protoplanet TMR-1C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petr, Monika G.; Sterzik, Michael F.; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    We present near-infrared low-resolution spectra (R=3D450) of TMR-1C, a faint object located approximately 10 arcseconds south-east of the class I protobinary TMR-1. The striking location of TMR-1C at the tip of a narrow filament emanating from the nebulosity surrounding TMR-1 suggested a physical association. With the assumption of an association, and from the analysis of their photometric measurements, Terebey et al. (1998) reported that TMR-1C may be a protoplanet of several Jupiter masses, which was ejected from the protobinary system TMR-1. Our observations were carried out with the ISAAC instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), with the slit positioned on TMR-1C, covering also a large part of the filament. The spectrum of the filament shows strong molecular line emission, as well as a continuum component most likely originating from scattered stellar light. The spectrum of TMR-1C itself is featureless (at the given S/N of the data), and rejects the possibility of it being a very cold, low-mass object. An interpretation of our spectrum of TMR-1C in terms of a field background object is possible, but not unambigious. This is consistent with very recently published results from lower resolution near-infrared spectra taken with the Keck telescope (Terebey et al. 2000).

  8. VLT-CRIRES: ``Good Vibrations'' Rotational-vibrational molecular spectroscopy in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käufl, H. U.

    2010-05-01

    Near-Infrared high spectral and spatial resolution spectroscopy offers new and innovative observing opportunities for astronomy. The ``traditional'' benefits of IR-astronomy - strongly reduced extinction and availability of adaptive optics - more than offset for many applications the compared to CCD-based astronomy strongly reduced sensitivity. Especially in high resolution spectroscopy interferences by telluric lines can be minimized. Moreover for abundance studies many important atomic lines can be accessed in the NIR. A novel spectral feature available for quantitative spectroscopy are the molecular rotational-vibrational transitions which allow for fundamentally new studies of condensed objects and atmospheres. This is also an important complement to radio-astronomy, especially with ALMA, where molecules are generally only observed in the vibrational ground state. Rot-vib transitions also allow high precision abundance measurements - including isotopic ratios - fundamental to understand the thermo-nuclear processes in stars beyond the main sequence. Quantitative modeling of atmospheres has progressed such that the unambiguous interpretation of IR-spectra is now well established. In combination with adaptive optics spectro-astrometry is even more powerful and with VLT-CRIRES a spatial resolution of better than one milli-arcsecond has been demonstrated. Some highlights and recent results will be presented: our solar system, extrasolar planets, star- and planet formation, stellar evolution and the formation of galactic bulges.

  9. HST and VLT investigations of the fragments of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR).

    PubMed

    Weaver, H A; Sekanina, Z; Toth, I; Delahodde, C E; Hainaut, O R; Lamy, P L; Bauer, J M; A'Hearn, M F; Arpigny, C; Combi, M R; Davies, J K; Feldman, P D; Festou, M C; Hook, R; Jorda, L; Keesey, M S; Lisse, C M; Marsden, B G; Meech, K J; Tozzi, G P; West, R

    2001-05-18

    At least 16 fragments were detected in images of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) taken on 5 August 2000 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and on 6 August with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Photometric analysis of the fragments indicates that the largest ones have effective spherical diameters of about 100 meters, which implies that the total mass in the observed fragments was about 2 x 10(9) kilograms. The comet's dust tail, which was the most prominent optical feature in August, was produced during a major fragmentation event, whose activity peaked on UT 22.8 +/- 0.2 July 2000. The mass of small particles (diameters less than about 230 micrometers) in the tail was about 4 x 10(8) kilograms, which is comparable to the mass contained in a large fragment and to the total mass lost from water sublimation after 21 July 2000 (about 3 x 10(8) kilograms). HST spectroscopic observations during 5 and 6 July 2000 demonstrate that the nucleus contained little carbon monoxide ice (ratio of carbon monoxide to water is less than or equal to 0.4%), which suggests that this volatile species did not play a role in the fragmentation of C/1999 S4 (LINEAR).

  10. A "Fast and Furious'" solution to the low-wind effect for SPHERE at the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, M. J.; Keller, C. U.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Fusco, T.; Mouillet, D.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Dohlen, K.

    2016-07-01

    We present a potential non-invasive solution to sensing the so-called low-wind effect (LWE) seen in the SPHERE instrument at the VLT, based on the "Fast and Furious (F&F) sequential phase diversity wavefront reconstruction algorithm. This uses non-coronagraphic focal-plane images available from the near-infra-red Differential Tip-Tilt Sensor (DTTS), with the closed-loop correction cycle itself providing the necessary phase diversity between frames required to reconstruct the full wavefront phase. Crucially, this means F&F does not need to apply large artificial phase probes as required by standard phase diversity algorithms, allowing it to operate in a real-time ( 10 Hz) correction mode without impacting science observations. In this paper we present the results of realistic closed-loop AO simulations designed to emulate SPHERE/DTTS observations of the LWE. With this we demonstrate that the F&F algorithm is capable of effective removal of the characteristic point-spread function (PSF) aberrations of strongly LWE-affected images within a few closed-loop iterations, with the final wavefront quality limited only by the corrective order of the deformable mirror. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide an independent, real-time and focal-plane wavefront sensor for SPHERE which is capable of detecting and directly compensating the LWE as it arises, thus improving coronagraph performance under the best 15-20 % of observing conditions where the effect is most pronounced.

  11. Design, fabrication, integration and commissioning of an upgraded guiding probe for the VLT unit telescope 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Christoph; Hammersley, Peter; Buzzoni, Bernard; Manescau, Antonio; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Birkmann, Martin; Mueller, Michael; Salgado, Fernando; Guisard, Stephane; Kroedel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    As part of the preparation for the arrival of the MUSE instrument to the VLT, it was required to adapt the hosting telescope (UT4) guide probe, to increase its back focal length. This is to allow enough space for the later deployment of the MUSE Adaptive Optics module GALACSI, in-between the telescope adapter rotator and the instrument itself. The UT guide probe is a critical component for the successful operation of the telescope, so its modification to increase the telescope's back focal length, while maintaining full compatibility with the existing operation model and other hardware, was rather demanding. The design, manufacture, assembly and test for the new supporting arm in the UT guiding probe is presented. It mixes the use of novel materials (HB-CESIC® for the mirrors substrates) and state of the art manufacturing techniques (3D printing mould production and rapid casting for the support structure), which allow producing easily a high performance subsystem. Characterization of the system prior delivery to the telescope, its integration in the UT and results after commissioning is presented. Its successful implementation has validated new manufacturing techniques that may prove very useful for future instruments development.

  12. Sub-arcsecond dusty environment of Eta Carinae with MIDI/VLTI and NACO/VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, O.; Min, M.; Herbst, T.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2004-12-01

    The core of the nebula surrounding Eta Carinae has been observed with the VLT Adaptive Optics system NACO and with the interferometer VLTI/MIDI. Narrow-band images at 3.74 and 4.05 micron reveal the butterfly shaped dusty environment with an unprecedented spatial resolution. A void region around the central source was discovered, whose radius corresponds to the expected dust sublimation radius. Fringes have been obtained in the Mid-IR which reveal a correlated flux of about 100 Jy situated 0.3" south-east from the photocenter of the nebula at 8.7 which corresponds with the location of the star as seen in other wavelengths. This correlated flux is partly attributed to the central object and these observations provide an upper limit for the SED of the central source from 2.2 micron to 13.5 micron. Moreover, we have been able to spectrally disperse the signal from the nebula itself at PA=318 degree, i.e. in the direction of the bipolar nebula (310 °) within the MIDI field of view of 3". A large amount of corundum (Al2O3) is discovered, peaking to the south-east from the star, whereas the dust content of the Weigelt blobs is more dominated by silicates.

  13. The truncated Newton using 1st and 2nd order adjoint-state method: a new approach for traveltime tomography without rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretaudeau, F.; Metivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Virieux, J.

    2013-12-01

    named as the truncated Newton (TCN) (Métivier et al. 2012) with a more accurate estimation of the impact of the Hessian. We propose an efficient implementation for first-arrival traveltime tomography. In TCN, the model update Δm is obtained through the iterative resolution of the Newton linear system H Δm = - g. Based on a matrix-free conjugate gradient resolution, the iterative solver requires only the computation of the gradient and of Hessian-vector products. We propose a generalization of the computation of the gradient using the adjoint-state method that allows to consider receivers located anywhere. Then the Hessian-vector products are computed using an original formulation based on a 2nd-order adjoint-state method, at the cost of an additional forward modeling. The TCN algorithm is composed of two nested loops: an internal loop to compute Δm, and an external loop where a line search is performed to update the subsurface parameters. TCN thus considers locally the inversion of the traveltime data using an estimation of the full Hessian (both 1st and 2nd order terms) at an acceptable cost. Tomography with TCN is an improvement over the simple gradient-based adjoint-state tomography due to its good convergence property, to the better consideration of illumination, and is a promising tool for multi-parameter inversion as rescaling is given by the Hessian.

  14. The 1st and the 2nd Italian Consensus Conferences on low-density lipoprotein-apheresis. A practical synopsis and update

    PubMed Central

    Stefanutti, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The clinical indications and guidelines for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis set by the 1st Italian Consensus Conference held in Ostuni in 1990 and completed in 1992, but never published, are reported schematically. In 1994, within the Project “Prevention and control of the factors of the disease (FATMA)” by the Italian National Research Council, subproject 8 “Control of cardiovascular disease”, a “Hearing on therapeutic apheresis: need for a target-oriented project” was organised. The meeting was the last scientific initiative on LDL-apheresis supported by public funds in Italy. After roughly two decades of use of LDL-apheresis, new guidelines were required based on the latest scientific evidence. In 2006, the Italian multicentre study on LDL-apheresis Working Group (IMSLDLa-WP), a scientific initiative at national level, was developed. It initially gathered together 19 Italian centres qualified for the application of lipid apheresis and LDL-apheresis (2007–2008), then 23 in 2010, located in the north, south, centre of Italy and in Sicily and Sardinia. The multicentre study aimed to validate the protocol for selecting patients and to create a network between the Italian centres. A secondary objective was the creation of a database of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia and other severe forms of dyslipidaemia undergoing treatment with LDL-apheresis using the available techniques. Since LDL-apheresis has multidisciplinary treatment indications, the agreement on the new guidelines was reached through a panel of experts, of different medical and surgical specialties, with scientific and medical interest in the treatment indications, application and development of LDL-apheresis. The initiatives of the IMSLDLa-WP led to the 2nd Italian Consensus Conference on LDL-apheresis held in Rome in 2009. The previous and most recent guidelines are reported here synoptically. PMID:27416576

  15. 2nd International Symposium on Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering (REES-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavadyan, Levon, Prof; Sachkov, Viktor, Prof; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr.; Bogdan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd International Symposium «Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering» (REES2015) was jointly organized by Tomsk State University (Russia), National Academy of Science (Armenia), Shenyang Polytechnic University (China), Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering (Russia), Siberian Physical-technical Institute (Russia), and Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) in September, 7-15, 2015, Belokuriha, Russia. The Symposium provided a high quality of presentations and gathered engineers, scientists, academicians, and young researchers working in the field of rare and rare earth elements mining, modification, separation, elaboration and application, in order to facilitate aggregation and sharing interests and results for a better collaboration and activity visibility. The goal of the REES2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on rare and rare earth elements technologies. The Symposium was aimed at presenting new trends in rare and rare earth elements mining, research and separation and recent achievements in advanced materials elaboration and developments for different purposes, as well as strengthening the already existing contacts between manufactures, highly-qualified specialists and young scientists. The topics of the REES2015 were: (1) Problems of extraction and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (2) Methods and approaches to the separation and isolation of rare and rare earth elements with ultra-high purity; (3) Industrial technologies of production and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (4) Economic aspects in technology of rare and rare earth elements; and (5) Rare and rare earth based materials (application in metallurgy, catalysis, medicine, optoelectronics, etc.). We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the Universities and Sponsors supporting the Symposium, and everyone who contributed to the organization of the event and to

  16. PREFACE: 2nd International School and Conference Saint-Petersburg OPEN on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures (SPbOPEN2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International School and Conference ''Saint Petersburg OPEN 2015'' on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures was held on April 6 - 8, 2015 at St. Petersburg Academic University. The School and Conference included a series of invited talks given by leading professors with the aim to introduce young scientists with actual problems and major advances in physics and technology. The keynote speakers were Mikhail V. Maximov (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia) Vladimir G. Dubrovskii (St. Petersburg Academic University and St. Petersburg State University, Russia) Anton Yu. Egorov (JSC Connector Optics, Russia) Victor V. Luchinin (St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, Russia) Vladislav E. Bugrov (St. Petersburg University of Internet Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Russia) Vitali A. Schukin (VI Systems, Germany) Yuri P. Svirko (University of Eastern Finland, Finland) During the poster session all undergraduate and graduate students attending the conference presented their works. A sufficiently large number of participants, with more than 170 student attendees from all over the world, allowed the Conference to provide a fertile ground for fruitful discussions between the young scientists as well as to become a perfect platform for valuable discussions between student authors and highly experienced scientists. The best student papers, which were selected by the Program Committee and by the invited speakers basing on the theses and their poster presentation, were awarded with diplomas of the conference - see the photos. This year ''Saint Petersburg OPEN 2015'' is organized by St. Petersburg Academic University in cooperation with Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. The School and Conference is supported by Russian Science Foundation, SPIE (The International Society for Optics and Photonics), OSA (The Optical Society) and by Skolkovo Foundation. It is a continuation of the annual schools and seminars for

  17. Early and comprehensive management of atrial fibrillation: executive summary of the proceedings from the 2nd AFNET-EHRA consensus conference 'research perspectives in AF'.

    PubMed

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Bax, Jeroen; Blomstrom-Lundquist, Carina; Calkins, Hugh; Camm, A John; Cappato, Ricardo; Cosio, Francisco; Crijns, Harry; Diener, Hans-Christian; Goette, Andreas; Israel, Carsten W; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lip, Gregory Y H; Nattel, Stanley; Page, Richard L; Ravens, Ursula; Schotten, Ulrich; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Vardas, Panos; Waldo, Albert; Wegscheider, Karl; Willems, Stephan; Breithardt, Günter

    2009-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes important mortality and morbidity on a population-level. So far, we do not have the means to prevent AF or AF-related complications adequately. Therefore, over 70 experts on atrial fibrillation convened for the 2nd AFNET/EHRA consensus conference to suggest directions for research to improve management of AF patients (Appendix 1). The group defined three main areas in need for research in AF: 1. better understanding of the mechanisms of AF; 2. Improving rhythm control monitoring and management; and 3. comprehensive cardiovascular risk management in AF patients. The group put forward the hypothesis that successful therapy of AF and its associated complications will require comprehensive therapy. This applies e.g. to the "old" debate of "rate versus rhythm control", since rhythm control is generally added to underlying (continued) rate control therapy, but also to the emerging debate of "antiarrhythmic drugs versus catheter ablation", of which both may be needed in most patients to maintain sinus rhythm, but also to therapy of conditions that predispose to AF and contribute to cardiovascular complications such as stroke, cognitive decline, heart failure, and acute coronary syndromes. We call for research initiatives aiming at a better understanding of the different causes of AF and its complications, and at development and validation of mechanism-based therapies. The future of AF therapy may require a combination of management of underlying and concomitant conditions, early and comprehensive rhythm control therapy, adequate control of ventricular rate and cardiac function, and continuous therapy to prevent AF-associated complications (e.g. antithrombotic therapy). The reasons for these suggestions are detailed in this paper.

  18. VLT Spectra "Resolve" a Stellar Disk at 25,000 Light-Years Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    Unique Observations of a Microlensing Event Summary Like our Sun, stars are large gaseous spheres. However, while we are able to perceive the Sun's disk, all other stars are so far away that they normally appear as points of light . Only specialized observing techniques, like interferometry [1], are able to "resolve" the images of nearby stars and to show them as extended balls of fire. But opportunities may sometimes arise that allow amazing observational feats in this field . Indeed, an international team of astronomers [2] has just "resolved" a single, normal star some 25,000 light years away , or about 1.6 billion times more distant than the Sun [3], by taking advantage of a multiple microlensing event . During such a rare event, the light from the remote star is amplified by the gravity of a faint object that passes in front of it, as seen from the Earth . In fact, this gravitational lens acts as a magnifying glass that focusses different parts of the star's image at different times. Using the FORS1 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope on Paranal during a microlensing event, the team was able to obtain detailed spectra of the different parts of the remote star. In doing so, they managed to probe its gaseous atmosphere at different depths. This is the first time that it has been possible to obtain detailed, spatially resolved spectra across the full face of a normal star other than the Sun [4]. PR Photo 16a/01 : The light-curve of Microlensing Event EROS-BLG-2000-5 . PR Photo 16b/01 : The sky area of EROS-BLG-2000-5. PR Photo 16c/01 : A VLT spectrum of EROS-BLG-2000-5. PR Photo 16d/01 : The observed change of the H-alpha line strength of EROS-BLG-2000-5. A many-faceted success story The following story is about a most unusual astronomical observation and also shows how modern astrophysics works . It combines the study of stellar atmospheres with the intricate optical effects produced by the gravitational field of a binary star in the Milky Way

  19. Anticipating and blocking HIV-1 escape by second generation antiviral shRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionary conserved gene silencing mechanism that mediates the sequence-specific breakdown of target mRNAs. RNAi can be used to inhibit HIV-1 replication by targeting the viral RNA genome. However, the error-prone replication machinery of HIV-1 can generate RNAi-resistant variants with specific mutations in the target sequence. For durable inhibition of HIV-1 replication the emergence of such escape viruses must be controlled. Here we present a strategy that anticipates HIV-1 escape by designing 2nd generation short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) that form a complete match with the viral escape sequences. Results To block the two favorite viral escape routes observed when the HIV-1 integrase gene sequence is targeted, the original shRNA inhibitor was combined with two 2nd generation shRNAs in a single lentiviral expression vector. We demonstrate in long-term viral challenge experiments that the two dominant viral escape routes were effectively blocked. Eventually, virus breakthrough did however occur, but HIV-1 evolution was skewed and forced to use new escape routes. Conclusion These results demonstrate the power of the 2nd generation RNAi concept. Popular viral escape routes are blocked by the 2nd generation RNAi strategy. As a consequence viral evolution was skewed leading to new escape routes. These results are of importance for a deeper understanding of HIV-1 evolution under RNAi pressure. PMID:20529316

  20. VLT/FORS2 observations of the optical counterpart of the isolated neutron star RBS 1774

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, R. P.; Zane, S.; Turolla, R.; Haberl, F.; Cropper, M.; Motch, C.; Treves, A.; Zampieri, L.

    2011-06-01

    Context. The X-ray observations performed with the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT) have led to the discovery of a group (seven to date) of X-ray dim and radio-silent, middle-aged isolated neutron stars (a.k.a. XDINSs), which are characterised by pure blackbody spectra (kT ≈ 40-100 eV) and long X-ray pulsations (P = 3-12 s), and appear to be endowed with relatively high magnetic fields, (B ≈ 1013-1014 G). Optical observations of XDINSs are important, together with the X-ray ones, for studying the cooling of the neutron star surface and for investigating the relation between XDINSs and other isolated neutron star classes. RBS 1774 is one of the few XDINSs with a candidate optical counterpart, which we discovered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Aims: We aim at constraining the optical spectrum of RBS 1774, for which only two B-band flux measurements are available, and to determine whether its optical emission has either a thermal or a non-thermal origin. Methods: We performed deep observations of RBS 1774 in the R band with the VLT to disentangle a non-thermal power-law spectrum from a Rayleigh-Jeans, whose contributions are expected to be very different in the red part of the spectrum. Results: We did not detect the RBS 1774 candidate counterpart down to a 3σ limiting magnitude of R ~ 27. The constraint on its colour, (B - R) ≲ 0.6, rules out its being a background object, positionally coincident with the X-ray source. Our R-band upper limit is consistent with the extrapolation of the B-band flux (assuming a 3σ uncertainty) for a set of power laws Fν ∝ ν-α with spectral indices α ≤ 0.07. If the optical spectrum of RBS 1774 were non-thermal, its power-law slope would be very much unlike those of all isolated neutron stars with non-thermal optical emission, suggesting that it is most likely thermal. For instance, a Rayleigh-Jeans with temperature TO = 11 eV, for an optically emitting radius rO = 15 km and a source distance d = 150 pc, would be

  1. Wind measurements in Saturn's atmosphere with UVES/VLT ground-based Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Pedro; Silva, Miguel; Peralta, Javier; Luz, David; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    We will present preliminary Doppler wind velocity results of Saturn's zonal flow at cloud level. Our aim is help to constrain the characterization of the equatorial jet at cloud level and the latitudinal variation of the zonal winds, to measure its spatial and temporal variability, to contribute to monitor the variability in order to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of Saturn's zonal winds, whose equatorial jet has a complex vertical structure and temporal variability (Sanchez-Lavega et al., Nature, 423, 623, 3003; Garcia-Melendo et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L22204. 2010). Finally, the complementarity with Cassini, providing an independent set of observations. The UVES/VLT instrument has been used, which simultaneously achieves high spectral resolving power and high spatial resolution. The field has been derotated in order to have the aperture aligned perpendicularly to Saturn's rotation axis. In this configuration, spatial information in the East-West direction is preserved in a set of spectra in the direction perpendicular to dispersion. The technique of absolute accelerometry (AA, Connes, 1985, ApSS 110, 211) has been applied to the backscattered solar spectrum in order to determine the Doppler shift associated with the zonal circulation. Our measurements have been made in the wavelength range of 480-680 nm. Previously we successfully adapted this Doppler velocimetry technique for measuring winds at Venus cloud tops (Machado et al. 2012). In the present study we will show the adaptation of this method for Saturn's case. Since the AA technique only allows to compare spectra where the line shifts are within the line width, in fast rotating atmospheres (as is the case of Saturn) the spectra must be compared by pairs from adjacent areas of the disk (adjacent pixels in the slit). We will use coordinated observations from the Cassini's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), in order to compare with the Doppler winds obtained from the UVES/VLT

  2. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: the faint type-1 AGN sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavignaud, I.; Bongiorno, A.; Paltani, S.; Mathez, G.; Zamorani, G.; Møller, P.; Picat, J. P.; Le Brun, V.; Marano, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Busarello, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Gregorini, L.; Lamareille, F.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.; Vergani, D.

    2006-10-01

    We present the type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) sample extracted from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey's first observations of 21 000 spectra in 1.75 deg^2. This sample, which is purely magnitude-limited and free of morphological or color-selection biases, contains 130 broad-line AGN (BLAGN) spectra with redshift up to 5. Our data are divided into a wide (I_AB ≤ 22.5) and a deep (I_AB ≤ 24) subsample containing 56 and 74 objects, respectively. Because of its depth and selection criteria, this sample is uniquely suited for studying the population of faint type-1 AGN. Our measured surface density (~472 ± 48 BLAGN per square degree with I_AB ≤ 24) is significantly higher than that of any other optically selected sample of BLAGN with spectroscopic confirmation. By applying a morphological and color analysis to our AGN sample, we find that (1) ~23 % of the AGN brighter than I_AB=22.5 are classified as extended, and this percentage increases to ~42% for those with z < 1.6; (2) a non-negligible fraction of our BLAGN are lying close to the color-space area occupied by stars in the u^*-g' versus g'-r' color-color diagram. This leads us to the conclusion that the classical optical-ultraviolet preselection technique, if employed at such deep magnitudes (I_AB=22.5) in conjuction with a preselection of point-like sources, can miss up to ~35% of the AGN population. Finally, we present a composite spectrum of our sample of objects. While the continuum shape is very similar to that of the SDSS composite at short wavelengths, it is much redder than that of the SDSS composite at λ ≥ 3000 Å. We interpret this as due to significant contamination from emission of the host galaxies, as expected from the faint absolute magnitudes sampled by our survey.

  3. Performance of the VLT Planet Finder SPHERE. II. Data analysis and results for IFS in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Zurlo, A.; Vigan, A.; Claudi, R. U.; Alberi, M.; Antichi, J.; Baruffolo, A.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Bonnefoy, M.; Costille, A.; Desidera, S.; Dohlen, K.; Fantinel, D.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Giro, E.; Henning, T.; Kasper, M.; Langlois, M.; Maire, A.-L.; Martinez, P.; Moeller-Nilsson, O.; Mouillet, D.; Moutou, C.; Pavlov, A.; Puget, P.; Salasnich, B.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Sissa, E.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Vakili, F.; Waters, R.; Wildi, F.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We present the performance of the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) of SPHERE, the high-contrast imager for the ESO VLT telescope designed to perform imaging and spectroscopy of extrasolar planets, obtained from tests performed at the Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble facility during the integration phase of the instrument. Methods: The tests were performed using the instrument software purposely prepared for SPHERE. The output data were reduced applying the SPHERE data reduction and handling software, adding an improved spectral deconvolution procedure. To this aim, we prepared an alternative procedure for the spectral subtraction exploiting the principal component analysis algorithm. Moreover, a simulated angular differential imaging procedure was also implemented to estimate how the instrument performed once this procedure was applied at telescope. The capability of the IFS to faithfully retrieve the spectra of the detected faint companions was also considered. Results: We found that the application of the updated version of the spectral deconvolution procedure alone, when the algorithm throughput is properly taken into account, gives us a 5σ limiting contrast of the order of 5 × 10-6 or slightly better. The further application of the angular differential imaging procedure on these data should allow us to improve the contrast by one order of magnitude down to around 7 × 10-7 at a separation of 0.3 arcsec. The application of a principal component analysis procedure that simultaneously uses spectral and angular data gives comparable results. Finally, we found that the reproducibility of the spectra of the detected faint companions is greatly improved when angular differential imaging is applied in addition to the spectral deconvolution.

  4. Spectral mapping of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with VLT/MUSE and SINFONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie; Besse, Sebastien; Snodgrass, Colin; Yang, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Comets are supposedly the most primitive objects in the solar system, preserving the earliest record of material from the nebula out of which our Sun and planets were formed, and thus holding crucial clues on the early phases of the solar system formation and evolution. For most small bodies in the solar system we can only access the surface properties, whereas active comet nuclei lose material from their subsurface, so that understanding cometary activity represents an unique opportunity to assess their internal composition, and by extension the composition, the temperature and pressure conditions of the protoplanetary disk at their place of formation.The ESA/Rosetta mission is performing the most thorough investigation of a comet ever made. Rosetta is measuring properties of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at distances between 5 and hundreds of km from the nucleus. However, it is unable to make any measurement over the thousands of km of the rest of the coma. Fortunately, the outer coma is accessible from the ground. In addition, we currently lack an understanding of how the very detailed information gathered from space-based observations can be extrapolated to the many ground-based observations that we can potentially perform. Combining parallel in situ observations with observations from the ground therefore gives us a great opportunity, not only to understand the behavior of 67P, but also to other comets observed exclusively from Earth. As part of the many observations taken from the ground, we have performed a spectral mapping of 67's coma using two IFU instruments mounted on the VLT: MUSE in the visible, and SINFONI in the near-infrared. The observations, carried out in March 2016, will be presented and discussed.

  5. NIR spectral constraints of Europa's surface with ESO/VLT/ SINFONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Poulet, François; Carter, John; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Europa is a major exobiological target with its possible sub-surface briny ocean buried under a water-ice dominated crust of several km-thick. The upcoming ESA L-class mission JUICE to the Jupiter system and its payload will partly address this question, in particular through compositional remote sensing in the near-infrared (using the MAJIS imaging hyperspectral spectrometer) and visible (using MAJIS and the camera JANUS) wavelength range. A global compositional mapping campaign was performed between October 2011 and January 2012 with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile for increasing our knowledge acquired with the NIMS instrument onboard the Galileo spacecraft and previous telescopic observations. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) is suitable to detect any narrow signature in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. The spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s (~35 by 70 km on Europa's surface). Depending on the hemisphere, our spectra are globally (1) dominated by crystalline water-ice distorted and asymmetric absorption features, or (2) dominated by sulfuric acid hydrate (Carlson et al. 1999b) coming from Iogenic sulfur ion bombardment. However, some well-identified geological structures such as crater (Pwyll) and some chaos regions (Tara Regio, Powys Regio) look spectrally different. Although hydrated magnesium sulfates as epsomite (MgSO4.7H2O) and chlorine hydrated salts were proposed to be present on the surface (Brown et al. 2013, Hanley et al. 2014), our preliminary fits from linear spectral modeling (using cryogenic laboratory spectra of these materials) cannot reproduce this result. Finally, no narrow signature, which could indicate the presence of material of exobiological interest, has been so far detected in this complex data set.

  6. VLT/SPHERE deep insight of NGC 3603's core: Segregation or confusion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorrami, Z.; Lanz, T.; Vakili, F.; Lagadec, E.; Langlois, M.; Brandner, W.; Chesneau, O.; Meyer, M. R.; Carbillet, M.; Abe, L.; Mouillet, D.; Beuzit, J. L.; Boccaletti, A.; Perrot, C.; Thalmann, C.; Schmid, H.-M.; Pavlov, A.; Costille, A.; Dohlen, K.; Le Mignant, D.; Petit, C.; Sauvage, J. F.

    2016-04-01

    We present new near-infrared photometric measurements of the core of the young massive cluster NGC 3603 obtained with extreme adaptive optics. The data were obtained with the SPHERE instrument mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cover three fields in the core of this cluster. We applied a correction for the effect of extinction to our data obtained in the J and K broadband filters and estimated the mass of detected sources inside the field of view of SPHERE/IRDIS, which is 13.5''×13.5''. We derived the mass function (MF) slope for each spectral band and field. The MF slope in the core is unusual compared to previous results based on HST and VLT observations. The average slope in the core is estimated as -1.06 ± 0.26 for the main sequence stars with 3.5 M⊙ < M < 120M⊙. Thanks to the SPHERE extreme adaptive optics, 814 low-mass stars were detected to estimate the MF slope for the pre-main sequence stars with 0.6 M⊙ < M < 3.5M⊙, Γ = -0.54 ± 0.11 in the K-band images in two fields in the core of the cluster. For the first time, we derive the MF of the very core of the NGC 3603 young cluster for masses in the range 0.6-120 M⊙. Previous studies were either limited by crowding, lack of dynamic range, or a combination of both. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (guaranteed time observation 095.D-0309(A) and 095.D-0309(E))

  7. The Lyman break analogue Haro 11: spatially resolved chemodynamics with VLT FLAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.; Barlow, M. J.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    Using VLT/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) optical integral field unit observations, we present the first spatially resolved spectroscopic study of the well-known blue compact galaxy Haro 11, thought to be a local analogue to high-redshift Lyman break galaxies. Haro 11 displays complex emission line profiles, consisting of narrow (full width at half-maximum, FWHM ≲ 200 km s-1) and broad (FWHM ˜ 200-300 km s-1) components. We identify three distinct emission knots kinematically connected to one another. A chemodynamical analysis is presented, revealing that spatially resolved ionic and elemental abundances do not agree with those derived from integrated spectra across the galaxy. We conclude that this is almost certainly due to the surface brightness weighting of electron temperature in integrated spectra, leading to higher derived abundances. We find that the eastern knot has a low gas density, but a higher temperature (by ˜4000 K) and consequently an oxygen abundance ˜0.4 dex lower than the neighbouring regions. A region of enhanced N/O is found specifically in Knot C, confirming previous studies that found anomalously high N/O ratios in this system. Maps of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) feature at 4686 Å reveal large WR populations (˜900-1500 stars) in Knots A and B. The lack of WR stars in Knot C combined with an age of ˜7.4 Myr suggests that a recently completed WR phase may be responsible for the observed N/O excess. Conversely, the absence of N-enriched gas and strong WR emission in Knots A and B suggests that we are observing these regions at an epoch where stellar ejecta has yet to cool and mix with the interstellar medium.

  8. Geochemistry of HASP, VLT, and other glasses from double drive tube 79001/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Wentworth, S. J.; Martinez, R. R.; Mckay, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 double drive tube 79001/2 (station 9, Van Serg Crater) is distinctive because of its extreme maturity, abundance, and variety of glass clasts. It contains mare glasses of both high Ti and very low Ti (VLT) compositions, and highland glasses of all compositions common in lunar regolith samples: highland basalt (feldspathic; Al2O3 greater than 23 wt percent), KREEP (Al2O3 less than 23 wt percent, K2O greater than 0.25 wt percent), and low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM; Al2O3 less than 23 wt percent, K2O less than 0.25 wt percent). It also contains rare specimens of high-alumina, silica-poor (HASP), and ultra Mg glasses. HASP glasses contain insufficient SiO2 to permit the calculation of a standard norm, and are thought to be the product of volatilization during impact melting. They have been studied by electron microprobe major-element analysis techniques but have not previously been analyzed for trace elements. The samples analyzed for this study were polished grain mounts of the 90-160 micron fraction of four sieved samples from the 79001/2 core (depth range 2.3-11.5 cm). A total of 80 glasses were analyzed by SEM/EDS and electron microprobe, and a subset of 33 of the glasses, representing a wide range of compositional types, was chosen for high-sensitivity INAA. A microdrilling device removed disks (mostly 50-100 micron diameter, weighing approx. 0.1-0.5 micro-g) for INAA. Preliminary data reported here are based only on short counts done within two weeks of irradiation.

  9. A VLT/X-Shooter study of accretion and photoevaporation in Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, Carlo Felice; Testi, Leonardo; Natta, Antonella; Ricci, Luca; Benisty, Myriam; Rosotti, Giovanni; Ercolano, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Transitional Disks (TDs) are considered to be a late evolutionary stage of optically thick massive disks whose inner regions are being evacuated, leaving behind large holes that can be detected both by modeling the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) or, in some cases, by mm-interferometry. These holes could be produced by processes of photoevaporation, grain growth, or planet formation. Still, none of these processes alone has been shown to be sufficient to explain all observations. In this context, the combination of inner hole size, mass accretion rate and wind properties is a powerful observational diagnostic of disk evolution models, but the current measurements of mass accretion rates for TDs are mostly based on secondary indicators (such as the 10% Ha width), and very few data on the wind properties for these objects are available. Here we present a detailed study of the accretion and wind properties of TDs carried out with the VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph. Combining new and archival X-Shooter observations, we collected a sample of more than 20 TDs from different nearby star-forming regions. Our sample includes objects with both small (<5-15 AU) and large (>20-30 AU) known inner hole size from the literature (either from mm-observations or infrared SED fitting). We check their stellar parameters (Teff, Lstar, Av, Mstar) and derive their accretion properties (Lacc, Macc) in a self-consistent way, which makes use of the wide wavelength coverage of X-Shooter, and study their wind properties by mean of different forbidden emission lines analysis. Here we present some preliminary results.

  10. Understanding the Relations between QSOs and Their Host Galaxies from Combined HST Imaging and VLT Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letawe, Y.; Magain, P.; Letawe, G.; Courbin, F.; Hutsemékers, D.

    2008-06-01

    The host galaxies of six nearby QSOs are studied on the basis of high-resolution HST optical images and spatially resolved VLT slit spectra. The gas ionization and velocity are mapped as a function of the distance to the central QSO. In the majority of the cases, the QSO significantly contributes to the gas ionization in its whole host galaxy, and sometimes even outside. Reflection or scattering of the QSO Hα line from remote regions of the galaxy is detected in several instances. The line shifts show that, in all cases, the matter responsible for the light reflection moves away from the QSO, likely accelerated by its radiation pressure. The two faintest QSOs reside in spirals, with some signs of a past gravitational perturbation. One of the intermediate-luminosity QSOs resides in a massive elliptical containing gas ionized (and probably pushed away) by the QSO radiation. The other medium-power object is found in a spiral galaxy displaying complex velocity structure, with the central QSO moving with respect to the bulge, probably as a result of a galactic collision. The two most powerful objects are involved in violent gravitational interactions, and one of them has no detected host. These results suggest that (1) large-scale phenomena, such as galactic collisions, are closely related to the triggering and the feeding of the QSO and (2) once ignited, the QSO has significant influence on its large-scale neighborhood (often the whole host and sometimes further away). Based on observations made with the Nasa/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (Cycle 13 proposal 10238), and with ANTU/UT1 at ESO-Paranal observatory in Chile [programs 65.P-0361(A) and 66.B-0139(A)].

  11. Eta Carinae: What We have learned recently with HST/STIS, VLT/UVES and VLTI: What We Might Learn with VLT/VLTI across the 2008/9 Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.

    2005-01-01

    Eta Carinae, the LBV that we have learned to love and hate, has revealed many clues of its character over the past seven years by studies with HST and VLT. Based upon X-Ray, optical and IR observations, Eta Carinae is convincingly a massive binary system that uniquely has major nebular ejecta that are connected with historical outbursts. We have successhlly followed the stellar and nebular changes over the 5.5 year cycle, especially with STIS and RXTE, and across the spectroscopic minimum in 2003.5 with STIS, CHANDRA, RXTE, FUSE, and VLT/UVES. The HST/STIS high spatial resolution, combined with appropriate spectral resolving powers from 1150 to 10300 A, has revealed much about the Central Source and especially the spatially resolved extended stellar atmosphere and the ejecta, known as the Homunculus. Indeed the neutral, dusty outer Homunculus, ejected in the 1840s, envelops the newly discovered ionized Little Homunculus, ejected in the 1890s. In line of sight, multiple hot clumps, both ionized and neutral, are seen in absorption and provide much information on the physical conditions of these massive ejecta. Against the nebular-scattered starlight, wind and nebular absorptions provide views at different angles from line of sight. The VLT/UVES studies from 2002 through 2004 provided very important time-sampled spectra of both the star as seen directly and as seen by the SE lobe viewing the polar region of the star. The VLTI 2.2 micron measures of the central source are consistent with a prolate spheroid with its axis extending along the axis of the Homunculus. This is consistent with the noticeably larger wind mass and higher terminal velocity along the axis of the Homunculus compared to that measured in line of sight at about 45 degrees from the polar axes. We understand the system to be a massive primary with an O or WR companion in a very highly elliptical orbit. The spectroscopic minimum occurs during periastron, when the greatly extended primary atmosphere and

  12. Performance of the Roche second generation hemoglobin A1c immunoassay in the presence of HB-S or HB-C traits.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Jude M; Koelsch, Angela A

    2008-01-01

    Blood HbA1c determination is a powerful tool for the evaluation and management of patients with diabetes mellitus. Many HbA1c analytical methods demonstrate bias in samples from patients with hemoglobinopathies. This study evaluated the analytical performance of Roche Diagnostics' 1st and 2nd generation HbA1c assays in patients with or without hemoglobinopathies whose HbA1c levels were elevated or normal, respectively. Boronate-affinity high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) served as the reference method. Whole blood samples were collected from 80 patients with HbS or HbC whose group mean HbA1c value was elevated and also from 80 patients without hemoglobinopathy whose HbA1c values were in the well-controlled range. Each sample was assayed for HbA1c by the Primus boronate-affinity HPLC technique and by Roche's 1st and 2nd generation immunoassays using a Cobas Integra 800 analytical system. Results by the HPLC technique were compared with the results of both Roche assays by linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. The 1st and 2nd generation assays yielded regression lines and correlation values vs HPLC assay of y = 1.43x - 1.59; R(2) = 0.83, and y = 0.94x + 0.10; R(2) = 0.92, respectively, in the 80 patients with hemoglobinopathies. The mean difference and the +/-2SD range were greater in the 1st than in the 2nd generation assay (2.68, +/-2.07 vs -0.54, +/-0.86, respectively). The 2nd generation assay also showed better performance than the 1st generation assay in samples from the 80 patients without hemoglobinopathy. In conclusion, this study validates the accuracy of Roche's 2nd generation assay, which is substantially improved over Roche's 1st generation HbA1c assay.

  13. Implementing Task-Oriented Content-Based Instruction for First- and Second-Generation Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana-Williamson, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how the ESL program at an ethnically/linguistically diverse community college (between San Diego and the Mexican border) moved from a general, grammar-based ESL curriculum to a content-based instruction (CBI) curriculum. The move was designed to better prepare 1st- and 2nd-generation immigrant students for freshman…

  14. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2nr as a SLSN-I by VLT and AAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Tucker, B.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Davis, T. M.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.

    2015-09-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2nr as a type I super-luminous supernova (SLSN-I), discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. We obtained spectra using the X-SHOOTER instrument (wavelength range 380-950nm) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389; wavelength range 370-885nm) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  15. Second-order adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology (2nd-ASAM) for computing exactly and efficiently first- and second-order sensitivities in large-scale linear systems: II. Illustrative application to a paradigm particle diffusion problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacuci, Dan G.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents an illustrative application of the second-order adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology (2nd-ASAM) to a paradigm neutron diffusion problem, which is sufficiently simple to admit an exact solution, thereby making transparent the underlying mathematical derivations. The general theory underlying 2nd-ASAM indicates that, for a physical system comprising Nα parameters, the computation of all of the first- and second-order response sensitivities requires (per response) at most (2Nα + 1) "large-scale" computations using the first-level and, respectively, second-level adjoint sensitivity systems (1st-LASS and 2nd-LASS). Very importantly, however, the illustrative application presented in this work shows that the actual number of adjoint computations needed for computing all of the first- and second-order response sensitivities may be significantly less than (2Nα + 1) per response. For this illustrative problem, four "large-scale" adjoint computations sufficed for the complete and exact computations of all 4 first- and 10 distinct second-order derivatives. Furthermore, the construction and solution of the 2nd-LASS requires very little additional effort beyond the construction of the adjoint sensitivity system needed for computing the first-order sensitivities. Very significantly, only the sources on the right-sides of the diffusion (differential) operator needed to be modified; the left-side of the differential equations (and hence the "solver" in large-scale practical applications) remained unchanged. All of the first-order relative response sensitivities to the model parameters have significantly large values, of order unity. Also importantly, most of the second-order relative sensitivities are just as large, and some even up to twice as large as the first-order sensitivities. In the illustrative example presented in this work, the second-order sensitivities contribute little to the response variances and covariances. However, they have the

  16. The VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey: evolution in the halo occupation number since z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, U.; de la Torre, S.; Le Fèvre, O.; Guzzo, L.; Marinoni, C.; Meneux, B.; Pollo, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Lamareille, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Mazure, A.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brinchmann, J.; Cucciati, O.; de Ravel, L.; Gregorini, L.; Perez-Montero, E.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.

    2010-08-01

    We model the evolution of the mean galaxy occupation of dark matter haloes over the range 0.1 < z < 1.3, using the data from the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey. The galaxy projected correlation function wp(rp) was computed for a set of luminosity-limited subsamples and fits to its shape were obtained using two variants of halo occupation distribution (HOD) models. These provide us with a set of best-fitting parameters, from which we obtain the average mass of a halo and average number of galaxies per halo. We find that after accounting for the evolution in luminosity and assuming that we are largely following the same population, the underlying dark matter halo shows a growth in mass with decreasing redshift as expected in a hierarchical structure formation scenario. Using two different HOD models, we see that the halo mass grows by 90 per cent over the redshift interval z = [0.5, 1.0]. This is the first time the evolution in halo mass at high redshifts has been obtained from a single data survey and it follows the simple form seen in N-body simulations with M(z) = M0 e-βz, and β = 1.3 +/- 0.30. This provides evidence for a rapid accretion phase of massive haloes having a present-day mass M0 ~ 1013.5 h-1 Msolar, with a m > 0.1 M0 merger event occurring between redshifts of 0.5 and 1.0. Furthermore, we find that more luminous galaxies are found to occupy more massive haloes irrespective of the redshift. Finally, the average number of galaxies per halo shows little increase from redshift z ~ 1.0 to ~0.5, with a sharp increase by a factor of ~3 from z ~ 0.5 to ~0.1, likely due to the dynamical friction of subhaloes within their host haloes. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, program 070.A-9007(A), and on data obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the CNRS of France, CNRC in Canada and the University of Hawaii. E-mail: abbas@oato.inaf.it

  17. The VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey. Luminosity dependence of clustering at z ≃ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollo, A.; Guzzo, L.; Le Fèvre, O.; Meneux, B.; Cappi, A.; Franzetti, P.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Marinoni, C.; Zamorani, G.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Gavignaud, I.; Ilbert, O.; Marano, B.; Mazure, A.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Cucciati, O.; Gregorini, L.; Lamareille, F.; Mathez, G.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the dependence of galaxy clustering on the galaxy intrinsic luminosity at high redshift, using the data from the First Epoch VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). The size (6530 galaxies) and depth (IAB<24) of the survey allows us to measure the projected two-point correlation function of galaxies, w_p(r_p), for a set of volume-limited samples up to an effective redshift =0.9 and median absolute magnitude -19.6< MB < -21.3. Fitting w_p(r_p) with a single power-law model for the real-space correlation function ξ(r)=(r/r_0)-γ, we measure the relationship of the correlation length r0 and the slope γ with the sample median luminosity for the first time at such high redshift. Values from our lower-redshift samples (0.1=-19.6) have a correlation length r_0=2.7+0.3-0.3 h-1 Mpc, compared to r_0=5.0+1.5-1.6 h-1 Mpc at =-21.3. The slope of the correlation function is observed to correspondingly steepen significantly from γ=1.6+0.1-0.1 to γ=2.4+0.4-0.2. This is not observed either by large local surveys or in our lower-redshift samples and seems to imply a significant change in the way luminous galaxies trace dark-matter halos at z˜ 1 with respect to z˜ 0. At our effective median redshift z ≃ 0.9 this corresponds to a strong difference of the relative bias, from b/b* < 0.7 for galaxies with L < L* to b/b* ≃ 1.4 for galaxies with L > L*.

  18. Accurate photometric redshifts for the CFHT legacy survey calibrated using the VIMOS VLT deep survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilbert, O.; Arnouts, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bertin, E.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mellier, Y.; Zamorani, G.; Pellò, R.; Iovino, A.; Tresse, L.; Le Brun, V.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Bardelli, S.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Cucciati, O.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; de La Torre, S.; Gregorini, L.; Lamareille, F.; Mathez, G.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.; Vergani, D.

    2006-10-01

    Aims. We present and release photometric redshifts for a uniquely large and deep sample of 522286 objects with i'_AB≤ 25 in the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) "Deep Survey" fields D1, D2, D3, and D4, which cover a total effective area of 3.2 °^2. Methods: . We use 3241 spectroscopic redshifts with 0 ≤ z ≤ 5 from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) as a calibration and training set to derive these photometric redshifts. Using the "Le Phare" photometric redshift code, we developed a robust calibration method based on an iterative zero-point refinement combined with a template optimisation procedure and the application of a Bayesian approach. This method removes systematic trends in the photometric redshifts and significantly reduces the fraction of catastrophic errors (by a factor of 2), a significant improvement over traditional methods. We use our unique spectroscopic sample to present a detailed assessment of the robustness of the photometric redshift sample. Results: . For a sample selected at i'_AB≤ 24, we reach a redshift accuracy of σΔ z/(1+z)=0.029 with η=3.8% of catastrophic errors (η is defined strictly as those objects with |Δ z|/(1+z) > 0.15). The reliability of our photometric redshifts decreases for faint objects: we find σΔ z/(1+z)=0.025, 0.034 and η=1.9%, 5.5% for samples selected at i'_AB=17.5-22.5 and 22.5-24 respectively. We find that the photometric redshifts of starburst galaxies are less reliable: although these galaxies represent only 22% of the spectroscopic sample, they are responsible for 50% of the catastrophic errors. An analysis as a function of redshift demonstrates that our photometric redshifts work best in the redshift range 0.2≤ z ≤ 1.5. We find an excellent agreement between the photometric and the VVDS spectroscopic redshift distributions at i'_AB≤ 24. Finally, we compare the redshift distributions of i' selected galaxies on the four CFHTLS deep fields, showing that cosmic variance is

  19. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: the build-up of the colour-density relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Marinoni, C.; Ilbert, O.; Bardelli, S.; Franzetti, P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Pollo, A.; Zamorani, G.; Cappi, A.; Guzzo, L.; McCracken, H. J.; Meneux, B.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Zucca, E.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Gavignaud, I.; Marano, B.; Mazure, A.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; de la Torre, S.; Gregorini, L.; Lamareille, F.; Mathez, G.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.; Temporin, S.; Vergani, D.

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the redshift and luminosity evolution of the galaxy colour-density relation using the data from the First Epoch VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). The size (6582 galaxies with good quality redshifts), depth (IAB≤ 24) and redshift sampling rate (20% on the mean) of the survey enable us to reconstruct the 3D galaxy environment on relatively local scales (R=5 h-1 Mpc) up to redshift z ˜ 1.5. Particular attention has been devoted to calibrate a density reconstruction scheme, which factors out survey selection effects and reproduces in an unbiased way the underlying "real" galaxy environment. We find that the colour-density relation shows a dramatic change as a function of cosmic time. While at lower redshift we confirm the existence of a steep colour-density relation, with the fraction of the reddest(/bluest) galaxies of the same luminosity increasing(/decreasing) as a function of density, this trend progressively disappears in the highest redshift bins investigated. Our results suggest the existence of an epoch (more remote for brighter galaxies) characterized by the absence of the colour-density relation on the R=5 h-1 Mpc scales investigated. The rest frame u*-g' colour-magnitude diagram shows a bimodal pattern in both low and high density environments up to redshift z˜ 1.5. We find that the bimodal distribution is not universal but strongly depends upon environment: at lower redshifts the colour-magnitude diagrams in low and high density regions are significantly different while the progressive weakening of the colour-density relation causes the two bimodal distributions to nearly mirror each other in the highest redshift bin investigated. Both the colour-density and the colour-magnitude-density relations, on the R=5 h-1 Mpc scales, appear to be a transient, cumulative product of genetic and environmental factors that have been operating over at least a period of 9 Gyr. These findings support an evolutionary scenario in which star formation

  20. Linear spectral modeling of ground-based observations of Europa (ESO/VLT/SINFONI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Poulet, François; Carter, John; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2015-11-01

    Jupiter’s moon Europa may harbor a global salty subsurface liquid water ocean (Kivelson et al. 2000), and its surface should contain important clues about its composition. However, debate still persists about the nature of the surface chemistry and the relative roles of exogenous versus endogenous processing. Recently, Roth et al. (2014) reported the presence of activity by the detection of plumes reinforcing Europa as a major target of interests of upcoming space missions such as the ESA L-class mission JUICE.To continue the investigation of the composition of the surface of Europa, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed between October 2011 and January 2012 with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) is suitable to detect any narrow signature in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. The spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s (~35 by 70 km on Europa’s surface).We perform linear spectral modeling using 4 types of species : water-ice (both crystalline and amorphous), sulfuric acid hydrate, sulfate salts and Cl-rich salts. At first order, spectra on the leading side are, as expected, dominated by water-ice distorted and asymmetric absorption features, whereas sulfuric acid hydrate thought to originate from Iogenic sulfur ion bombardment is clearly predominant on the trailing side (Carlson et al. 2005).Salts are also required to fit any SINFONI spectrum with the following notable result: when Na/K-bearing chlorines instead of Mg-sulfates are used, the fits are improved whatever the region. The feature centered at ~2.07 µm previously associated to the magnesium sulfates (Brown et al. 2013) is also observed in the SINFONI spectra and can be reproduced by some chlorine salts. Global abundance maps will be presented, regional variations of abundances will be

  1. High spatial and spectral resolution near-infrared mapping of Europa with ESO/VLT/ SINFONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Carter, John; Poulet, François; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2014-11-01

    Europa is a major exobiological target of interest owing to the possibility of a sub-surface briny ocean deeply buried under a water ice dominated crust several km thick (Dalton et al., 2010). The upcoming ESA L-class mission JUICE to the Jupiter system and its ambitious payload will address this question, in particular through compositional remote sensing in the near-infrared (MAJIS) and visible (MAJIS and JANUS) wavelength range.In order to improve our knowledge mainly acquired by the instrument NIMS on the Galileo spacecraft, we have started a compositional mapping campaign of the icy moons using adaptive optics on ground-based observations from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. Thanks to five nights of observation on the integral field spectrograph SINFONI, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of nearly the entire surface of Europa, with a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm in the wavelength range 1.48-2.42 μm for a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s, equivalent to 35 by 70 km on Europa’s surface.In this wavelength range, the spectra are generally dominated by crystalline and amorphous water-ice absorption features, but the distorted and asymmetric aspect of the 2.0 μm water-ice band on Europa’s leading side confirms the presence of non-ice minerals such as sulfuric acid hydrate (Carlson et al., 2005) and magnesium sulfates such as epsomite (MgSO4 - 7H2O) (Brown et al., 2013).Our first analysis reveals that the maps of the ice-water bands at 1.65 μm and 2.0 μm are, as expected, dominated by the leading/trailing effect, but also well correlated to well-identified geological structures as Pwyll Crater and Tara Regio. Global maps of relevant spectral parameters will be presented so as to showcase the spectral inhomogeneity of the surface of Europa for both major and minor signatures. No narrow signature, which could indicate the presence of material of exobiological interest, has been so far detected in this complex data set. By the time of the

  2. Spectral analysis of Uranus' 2014 bright storm with VLT/SINFONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, P. G. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Read, P. L.; Tice, D.; de Pater, I.; Orton, G. S.; Teanby, N. A.; Davis, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    An extremely bright storm system observed in Uranus' atmosphere by amateur observers in September 2014 triggered an international campaign to observe this feature with many telescopes across the world. Observations of the storm system in the near infrared were acquired in October and November 2014 with SINFONI on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. SINFONI is an Integral Field Unit spectrometer returning 64 × 64 pixel images with 2048 wavelengths and uses adaptive optics. Image cubes in the H-band (1.43-1.87 μm) were obtained at spatial resolutions of ∼ 0.1″ per pixel. The observations show that the centre of the storm feature shifts markedly with increasing altitude, moving in the retrograde direction and slightly poleward with increasing altitude. We also see a faint 'tail' of more reflective material to the immediate south of the storm, which again trails in the retrograde direction. The observed spectra were analysed with the radiative transfer and retrieval code, NEMESIS (Irwin et al. [2008]. J. Quant. Spec. Radiat. Transfer, 109, 1136-1150). We find that the storm is well-modelled using either two main cloud layers of a 5-layer aerosol model based on Sromovsky et al. (Sromovsky et al. [2011]. Icarus, 215, 292-312) or by the simpler two-cloud-layer model of Tice et al. (Tice et al. [2013]. Icarus, 223, 684-698). The deep component appears to be due to a brightening (i.e. an increase in reflectivity) and increase in altitude of the main tropospheric cloud deck at 2-3 bars for both models, while the upper component of the feature was modelled as being due to either a thickening of the tropospheric haze of the 2-layer model or a vertical extension of the upper tropospheric cloud of the 5-layer model, assumed to be composed of methane ice and based at the methane condensation level of our assumed vertical temperature and abundance profile at 1.23 bar. We also found this methane ice cloud to be responsible for the faint 'tail' seen to the feature

  3. High-dispersion infrared spectroscopic observations of comet 8P/Tuttle with VLT/CRIRES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Kawakita, H.; Dello Russo, N.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Smette, A.; Hutsemékers, D.; Stüwe, J.; Weiler, M.; Arpigny, C.; Biver, N.; Cochran, A.; Crovisier, J.; Magain, P.; Sana, H.; Schulz, R.; Vervack, R. J.; Weaver, H.; Zucconi, J.-M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the composition of the Halley-family comet (HFC) 8P/Tuttle investigated with high-dispersion near-infrared spectroscopic observations. The observations were carried out at the ESO VLT (Very Large Telescope) with the CRIRES instrument as part of a multi-wavelength observation campaign of 8P/Tuttle performed in late January and early February 2008. Radar observations suggested that 8P/Tuttle is a contact binary, and it was proposed that these components might be heterogeneous in chemistry. We determined mixing ratios of organic volatiles with respect to H2O and found that mixing ratios were consistent with previous near infrared spectroscopic observations obtained in late December 2007 and in late January 2008. It has been suggested that because 8P/Tuttle is a contact binary, it might be chemically heterogeneous. However, we find no evidence for chemical heterogeneity within the nucleus of 8P/Tuttle. We also compared the mixing ratios of organic molecules in 8P/Tuttle with those of both other HFCs and long period comets (LPCs) and found that HCN, C2H2, and C2H6 are depleted whereas CH4 and CH3OH have normal abundances. This may indicate that 8P/Tuttle was formed in a different region of the early solar nebula than other HFCs and LPCs. We estimated the conversion efficiency from C2H2 to C2H6 by hydrogen addition reactions on cold grains by employing the C2H6/(C2H6+C2H2) ratio. The C2H6/(C2H6+C2H2) ratio in 8P/Tuttle is consistent with the ratios found in other HFCs and LPCs within the error bars. We also discuss the source of C2 and CN based on our observations and conclude that the abundances of C2H2 and C2H6 are insufficient to explain the C2 abundances in comet 8P/Tuttle and that the abundance of HCN is insufficient to explain the CN abundances in the comet, so at least one additional parent is needed for each species, as pointed out in previous study. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Prog. 080.C

  4. VLT/MUSE discovers a jet from the evolved B[e] star MWC 137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, A.; de Wit, W. J.; Groh, J. H.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Baade, D.; Rivinius, T.; Selman, F.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Martayan, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Not all stars exhibiting the optical spectral characteristics of B[e] stars are in the same evolutionary stage. The Galactic B[e] star MWC 137 is a prime example of an object with uncertain classification, where previous work has suggested either a pre- or a post-main sequence classification. Our goal is to settle this debate and provide a reliable evolutionary classification. Methods: Integral field spectrograph observations with the Very Large Telescope Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT MUSE) of the cluster SH 2-266 are used to analyze the nature of MWC 137. Results: A collimated outflow is discovered that is geometrically centered on MWC 137. The central position of MWC 137 in the cluster SH 2-266 within the larger nebula suggests strongly that it is a member of this cluster and that it is the origin of both the nebula and the newly discovered jet. Comparison of the color-magnitude diagram of the brightest cluster stars with stellar evolutionary models results in a distance of about 5.2 ± 1.4 kpc. We estimate that the cluster is at least 3 Myr old. The jet emanates from MWC 137 at a position angle of 18-20°. The jet extends over 66'' (1.7 pc) projected on the plane of the sky, shows several knots, and has electron densities of about 103 cm-1 and projected velocities of up to ± 450 km s-1. From the Balmer emission line decrement of the diffuse intracluster nebulosity, we determine E(B-V) = 1.4 mag for the inner 1' cluster region. The spectral energy distribution of the brightest cluster stars yields a slightly lower extinction of E(B-V) ~ 1.2 mag for the inner region and E(B-V) ~ 0.4-0.8 mag for the outer region. The extinction toward MWC 137 is estimated to be E(B-V) ~ 1.8 mag (AV ~ 5.6 mag). Conclusions: Our analysis of the optical and near-infrared color-magnitude and color-color diagrams suggests a post-main sequence stage for MWC 137. The existence of a jet in this object implies the presence of an accretion disk. Several possibilities for MWC

  5. CLASH-VLT: testing the nature of gravity with galaxy cluster mass profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S.; Amendola, L.; Umetsu, K.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Caminha, G. B.; Frye, B.; Koekemoer, A.; Grillo, C.; Lombardi, M.; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.

    2016-04-01

    We use high-precision kinematic and lensing measurements of the total mass profile of the dynamically relaxed galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at z=0.44 to estimate the value of the ratio η=Ψ/Φ between the two scalar potentials in the linear perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric. An accurate measurement of this ratio, called anisotropic stress, could show possible, interesting deviations from the predictions of the theory of General Relativity, according to which Ψ should be equal to Φ. Complementary kinematic and lensing mass profiles were derived from exhaustive analyses using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (CLASH-VLT). Whereas the kinematic mass profile tracks only the time-time part of the perturbed metric (i.e. only Φ), the lensing mass profile reflects the contribution of both time-time and space-space components (i.e. the sum Φ+Ψ). We thus express η as a function of the mass profiles and perform our analysis over the radial range 0.5 Mpc<= r<= r200=1.96 Mpc. Using a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile, which well fits the data, we obtain η(r200)=1.01 -0.28+0.31 at the 68% C.L. We discuss the effect of assuming different functional forms for mass profiles and of the orbit anisotropy in the kinematic reconstruction. Interpreting this result within the well-studied f(R) modified gravity model, the constraint on η translates into an upper bound to the interaction length (inverse of the scalaron mass) smaller than 2 Mpc. This tight constraint on the f(R) interaction range is however substantially relaxed when systematic uncertainties in the analysis are considered. Our analysis highlights the potential of this method to detect deviations from general relativity, while calling for the need of further high-quality data on the total mass distribution of clusters and improved control on systematic effects.

  6. CLASH-VLT: testing the nature of gravity with galaxy cluster mass profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S.; Girardi, M.; Amendola, L.; Umetsu, K.; Biviano, A.; Balestra, I.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Caminha, G.B.; Frye, B.; Grillo, C.; Lombardi, M.; Mercurio, A. E-mail: barbara.sartoris@gmail.com E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uniheidelberg.de

    2016-04-01

    We use high-precision kinematic and lensing measurements of the total mass profile of the dynamically relaxed galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at z=0.44 to estimate the value of the ratio η=Ψ/Φ between the two scalar potentials in the linear perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric. An accurate measurement of this ratio, called anisotropic stress, could show possible, interesting deviations from the predictions of the theory of General Relativity, according to which Ψ should be equal to Φ. Complementary kinematic and lensing mass profiles were derived from exhaustive analyses using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (CLASH-VLT). Whereas the kinematic mass profile tracks only the time-time part of the perturbed metric (i.e. only Φ), the lensing mass profile reflects the contribution of both time-time and space-space components (i.e. the sum Φ+Ψ). We thus express η as a function of the mass profiles and perform our analysis over the radial range 0.5 Mpc≤ r≤ r{sub 200}=1.96 Mpc. Using a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile, which well fits the data, we obtain η(r{sub 200})=1.01 {sub −0.28}{sup +0.31} at the 68% C.L. We discuss the effect of assuming different functional forms for mass profiles and of the orbit anisotropy in the kinematic reconstruction. Interpreting this result within the well-studied f(R) modified gravity model, the constraint on η translates into an upper bound to the interaction length (inverse of the scalaron mass) smaller than 2 Mpc. This tight constraint on the f(R) interaction range is however substantially relaxed when systematic uncertainties in the analysis are considered. Our analysis highlights the potential of this method to detect deviations from general relativity, while calling for the need of further high-quality data on the total mass distribution of clusters and improved control on systematic

  7. Spectral analysis of Uranus’ 2014 bright storm with VLT/SINFONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Read, Peter L.; Tice, Dane; de Pater, Imke; Orton, Glenn S.; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Davis, Gary R.

    2015-11-01

    Observations by amateur observers of an extremely bright storm system in Uranus’ atmosphere in September 2014 triggered an international campaign to view this feature with many telescopes across the world. Near infrared observations of the storm system were acquired in October/November 2014 with SINFONI on ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. SINFONI is an Integral Field Unit spectrometer, recording 64 × 64 pixel images with 2048 wavelengths/pixel using adaptive optics. H-band (1.43 - 1.87 µm) image 'cubes' were obtained at spatial resolutions of ˜ 0.1″ per pixel. The observations show that the centre of the storm feature shifts markedly with increasing altitude, moving in the retrograde direction and slightly poleward with increasing altitude. A faint 'tail' of more reflective material was also seen to the immediate south of the storm, which again trails in the retrograde direction. The observed spectra were analysed with the radiative transfer and retrieval code, NEMESIS (Irwin et al., 2008). We find that the storm is well-modelled using either two main cloud layers of a 5-layer aerosol model based on Sromovsky et al. (2011) or employing the simpler two-cloud-layer model of Tice et al. (2013). The deep component appears to be caused by a brightening (i.e. an increase in reflectivity) and increase in altitude of the main tropospheric cloud deck at 2 - 3 bars for both models, while the upper component of the feature appears to be due to either a thickening of the tropospheric haze of the 2-layer model or a vertical extension of the upper tropospheric cloud of the 5-layer model, assumed to be composed of methane ice and based at the assumed methane condensation level at 1.23 bar. For the 5-layer model we also found this methane ice cloud to be responsible for the faint ‘tail’ seen to the feature’s south and the brighter polar ‘hood’ seen in all observations polewards of ˜ 45°N.During the twelve days between our sets of observations the

  8. Upgrade of VISIR the mid-infrared instrument at the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, F.; Kaeufl, H. U.; van den Ancker, M.; Baksai, P.; Dubreuil, D.; Durand, G.; Dobrzycka, D.; Finger, G.; Hummel, Ch.; Ives, D.; Jakob, G.; Lagadec, E.; Lundin, L.; Marconi, G.; Moerchen, M.; Momany, Y.; Nuernberger, D.; Pantin, E.; Riquelme, M.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Smette, A.; Venema, L.; Weilenmann, U.; Yegorova, I.

    2010-07-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is preparing to upgrade VISIR, the mid-IR imager and spectrograph at the VLT. The project team is comprised of ESO staff and members of the original consortium that built VISIR: CEA Saclay and ASTRON. The goal is to enhance the scientific performance of VISIR and to facilitate its use by the ESO community. In order to capture the needs of the user community, we collected input from the users by means of a webbased questionnaire. In line with the results of the internal study and the input from the user community, the upgrade plan calls for a combination measures: installation of improved hardware, optimization of instrument operations and software support. The limitations of the current detector (sensitivity, cosmetics, artifacts) have been known for some time and a new 1k x 1k Si:As Aquarius array (Raytheon) will be the cornerstone of the VISIR upgrade project. A modified spectroscopic mode will allow covering the N-band in a single observation. Several new scientific modes (e.g., polarimetry, coronagraphy) will be implemented on a best effort basis. In addition, the VISIR operational scheme will be enhanced to ensure that optimal use of the observing conditions will be made. Specifically, we plan to provide a means to monitor precipitable water vapour (PWV) and enable the user to specify it as a constraint set for service mode observations. In some regions of the mid-IR domain, the amount of PWV has a fundamental effect on the quality of a given night for mid-IR astronomy. The plan also calls for full support by ESO pipelines that will deliver science-ready data products. Hence the resulting files will provide physical units and error information and all instrumental signatures will have been removed. An upgraded VISIR will be a powerful instrument providing diffraction-limited performance at an 8-m telescope. Its improved performance and efficiency as well as new science capabilities will serve the needs of the ESO

  9. The GALEX VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey Measurement of the Evolution of the 1500 Å Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnouts, S.; Schiminovich, D.; Ilbert, O.; Tresse, L.; Milliard, B.; Treyer, M.; Bardelli, S.; Budavari, T.; Wyder, T. K.; Zucca, E.; Le Fèvre, O.; Martin, D. C.; Vettolani, G.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Barlow, T.; Bianchi, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Byun, Y.-I.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Donas, J.; Forster, K.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Friedman, P. G.; Garilli, B.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Heckman, T. M.; Hoopes, C.; Iovino, A.; Jelinsky, P.; Le Brun, V.; Lee, Y.-W.; Maccagni, D.; Madore, B. F.; Malina, R.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Morrissey, P.; Neff, S.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Picat, J. P.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Rich, R. M.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Seibert, M.; Siegmund, O.; Small, T.; Szalay, A. S.; Welsh, B.; Xu, C. K.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first measurement of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) at 1500 Å in the range 0.2<=z<=1.2 based on Galaxy Evolution Explorer VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey observations (~1000 spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies with NUV<=24.5) and at higher z using existing data sets. Our main results are summarized as follows: (1) Luminosity evolution is observed with ΔM*~-2.0 mag between z=0 and z=1 and ΔM*~-1.0 mag between z=1 and z=3. This confirms that the star formation activity was significantly higher in the past. (2) The LF slopes vary in the range -1.2>=α>=-1.65, with a marginally significant hint of increase at higher z. (3) We split the sample in three rest-frame (B-I) intervals, providing an approximate spectral type classification: Sb-Sd, Sd-Irr, and unobscured starbursts. We find that the bluest class evolves less strongly in luminosity than the two other classes. On the other hand, their number density increases sharply with z (~15% in the local universe to ~55% at z~1), while that of the reddest classes decreases. The VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey observations have been obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile.

  10. Is Fear to Intervene with Problem Gamblers Related to Interveners' Gender and Status? A Study with VLT Operators.

    PubMed

    Tomei, Alexander; Zumwald, Coralie

    2017-03-01

    We assess how video lottery terminal (VLT) operators' self-perceive their ability to recognize a problem gambler, to what extent they are approached by problem gamblers seeking for assistance, how many detections and interventions they report, and the reasons they give for not intervening with clients who show signs of problem gambling. We also examine how these variables are related to the operators' gender and status in the establishment. 177 VLT operators anonymously completed a structured questionnaire at the beginning of a responsible gambling training class held in different French-speaking Swiss towns. The operators felt confident in their ability to detect problem gambling behaviors, were rarely approached by problem gamblers seeking assistance, and reported fewer interventions compared to the number of detections. This reluctance to intervene was mainly attributed to the fear of potential negative reactions from the client. Female staff were the most reluctant to intervene and the most fearful of potential negative reactions from the client. Responsible gambling training programs should include coping strategies for dealing with potential negative reactions from clients. Our findings suggest that staff gender and status are two individual characteristics that should be taken into account when planning responsible gambling trainings.

  11. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXI. Stellar spin rates of O-type spectroscopic binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Sana, H.; de Mink, S. E.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; de Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Tramper, F.; Gräfener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Vink, J. S.; Dufton, P. L.; Taylor, W. D.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The initial distribution of spin rates of massive stars is a fingerprint of their elusive formation process. It also sets a key initial condition for stellar evolution and is thus an important ingredient in stellar population synthesis. So far, most studies have focused on single stars. Most O stars are, however, found in multiple systems. Aims: By establishing the spin-rate distribution of a sizeable sample of O-type spectroscopic binaries and by comparing the distributions of binary subpopulations with one another and with that of presumed-single stars in the same region, we aim to constrain the initial spin distribution of O stars in binaries, and to identify signatures of the physical mechanisms that affect the evolution of the spin rates of massive stars. Methods: We use ground-based optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) to establish the projected equatorial rotational velocities (νesini) for components of 114 spectroscopic binaries in 30 Doradus. The νesini values are derived from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a set of spectral lines, using a FWHM vs. νesini calibration that we derive based on previous line analysis methods applied to single O-type stars in the VFTS sample. Results: The overall νesini distribution of the primary stars resembles that of single O-type stars in the VFTS, featuring a low-velocity peak (at νesini< 200 kms-1) and a shoulder at intermediate velocities (200 < νesini< 300 kms-1). The distributions of binaries and single stars, however, differ in two ways. First, the main peak at νesini ~ 100kms-1 is broader and slightly shifted towards higher spin rates in the binary distribution than that of the presumed-single stars. This shift is mostly due to short-period binaries (Porb~< 10 d). Second, the νesini distribution of primaries lacks a significant population of stars spinning faster than 300 kms-1, while such a population is clearly present in the single

  12. A nearby GRB host galaxy: VLT/X-shooter observations of HG 031203

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, N. G.; Izotov, Y. I.; Fricke, K. J.; Henkel, C.

    2011-10-01

    Context. Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), which release enormous amounts of energy into the interstellar medium, occur in galaxies of generally low metallicity. For a better understanding of this phenomenon, detailed observations of the specific properties of the host galaxies (HG) and the environment near the LGRBs are mandatory. Aims: We aim at a spectroscopic analysis of HG 031203, the host galaxy of a LRGB burst, to obtain its properties. Our results will be compared with those of previous studies and the properties of a sample of luminous compact emission-line galaxies (LCGs) selected from SDSS DR7. Methods: Based on VLT/X-shooter spectroscopic observations taken from commissioning mode in the wavelength range ~λλ3200-24 000 Å, we use standard direct methods to evaluate physical conditions and element abundances. The resolving power of the instrument also allowed us to trace the kinematics of the ionised gas. Furthermore, we use X-shooter data together with Spitzer observations in the mid-infrared range for testing hidden star formation. Results: We derive an interstellar oxygen abundance of 12 + log O/H = 8.20 ± 0.03 for HG 031203. The observed fluxes of hydrogen lines correspond to the theoretical recombination values after correction for extinction with a single value C(Hβ) = 1.67. We produce the CLOUDY photoionisation H ii region model that reproduces observed emission-line fluxes of different ions in the optical range. This model also predicts emission-line fluxes in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) ranges that agree well with the observed ones. This implies that the star-forming region observed in the optical range is the only source of ionisation and there is no additional source of ionisation seen in the NIR and MIR ranges that is hidden in the optical range. We find the composite kinematic structure from profiles of the strong emission lines by decomposing them into two Gaussian narrow and broad components. These components

  13. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XII. Rotational velocities of the single O-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Sabín-Sanjulían, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Gräfener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, also known as the Tarantula nebula, is the nearest starburst region. It contains the richest population of massive stars in the Local Group, and it is thus the best possible laboratory to investigate open questions on the formation and evolution of massive stars. Aims: Using ground-based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to establish the (projected) rotational velocity distribution for a sample of 216 presumably single O-type stars in 30 Dor. The sample is large enough to obtain statistically significant information and to search for variations among subpopulations - in terms of spectral type, luminosity class, and spatial location - in the field of view. Methods: We measured projected rotational velocities, νesini, by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied to a set of isolated spectral lines. We also used an iterative deconvolution procedure to infer the probability density, P(νe), of the equatorial rotational velocity, νe. Results: The distribution of νesini shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 kms-1 and a high-velocity tail extending up to ~600 kms-1. This structure is also present in the inferred distribution P(νe) with around 80% of the sample having 0 < νe ≤ 300 kms-1 and the other 20% distributed in the high-velocity region. The presence of the low-velocity peak is consistent with what has been found in other studies for late O- and early B-type stars. Conclusions: Most of the stars in our sample rotate with a rate less than 20% of their break-up velocity. For the bulk of the sample, mass loss in a stellar wind and/or envelope expansion is not efficient enough to significantly spin down these stars within the first few Myr of evolution. If massive-star formation results in stars rotating at birth with a large portion of their break-up velocities, an

  14. CLASH-VLT: Substructure in the galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 from kinematics of galaxy populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, M.; Mercurio, A.; Balestra, I.; Nonino, M.; Biviano, A.; Grillo, C.; Rosati, P.; Annunziatella, M.; Demarco, R.; Fritz, A.; Gobat, R.; Lemze, D.; Presotto, V.; Scodeggio, M.; Tozzi, P.; Bartosch Caminha, G.; Brescia, M.; Coe, D.; Kelson, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Lombardi, M.; Medezinski, E.; Postman, M.; Sartoris, B.; Umetsu, K.; Zitrin, A.; Boschin, W.; Czoske, O.; De Lucia, G.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Meneghetti, M.; Monaco, P.; Monna, A.; Munari, E.; Seitz, S.; Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: In the effort to understand the link between the structure of galaxy clusters and their galaxy populations, we focus on MACS J1206.2-0847 at z ~ 0.44 and probe its substructure in the projected phase space through the spectrophotometric properties of a large number of galaxies from the CLASH-VLT survey. Methods: Our analysis is mainly based on an extensive spectroscopic dataset of 445 member galaxies, mostly acquired with VIMOS at VLT as part of our ESO Large Programme, sampling the cluster out to a radius ~2R200 (4 h70-1 Mpc). We classify 412 galaxies as passive, with strong Hδ absorption (red and blue galaxies), and with emission lines from weak to very strong. A number of tests for substructure detection are applied to analyze the galaxy distribution in the velocity space, in 2D space, and in 3D projected phase-space. Results: Studied in its entirety, the cluster appears as a large-scale relaxed system with a few secondary, minor overdensities in 2D distribution. We detect no velocity gradients or evidence of deviations in local mean velocities. The main feature is the WNW-ESE elongation. The analysis of galaxy populations per spectral class highlights a more complex scenario. The passive galaxies and red strong Hδ galaxies trace the cluster center and the WNW-ESE elongated structure. The red strong Hδ galaxies also mark a secondary, dense peak ~2 h70-1 Mpcat ESE. The emission line galaxies cluster in several loose structures, mostly outside R200. Two of these structures are also detected through our 3D analysis. The observational scenario agrees with MACS J1206.2-0847 having WNW-ESE as the direction of the main cluster accretion, traced by passive galaxies and red strong Hδ galaxies. The red strong Hδ galaxies, interpreted as poststarburst galaxies, date a likely important event 1-2 Gyr before the epoch of observation. The emission line galaxies trace a secondary, ongoing infall where groups are accreted along several directions. Based in large part

  15. A Prospective Three Generational Study of Fathers' Constructive Parenting: Influences from Family of Origin, Adolescent Adjustment, and Offspring Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee D.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, intergenerational study considered multiple influences on 102 fathers' constructive parenting of 181 children. Fathers in the 2nd generation (G2) were recruited as boys on the basis of neighborhood risk for delinquency and assessed through early adulthood. The fathers' parents (G1) and the G2 mothers of G3 also participated. A…

  16. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

  17. Generation, Language, Body Mass Index, and Activity Patterns in Hispanic Children

    PubMed Central

    Taverno, Sharon E.; Rollins, Brandi Y.; Francis, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The acculturation hypothesis proposes an overall disadvantage in health outcomes for Hispanic immigrants with more time spent living in the U.S., but little is known about how generational status and language may influence Hispanic children’s relative weight and activity patterns. Purpose The association between generation and language was investigated with relative weight (BMI z-scores), physical activity, screen time, and participation in extracurricular activities (e.g., sports, clubs) in a U.S.-based, nationally representative sample of Hispanic children. Methods Participants included 2,012 Hispanic children aged 6–11 years from the cross-sectional, 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. Children were grouped according to generational status (1st, 2nd or 3rd), and the primary language spoken in the home (English vs non-English). Primary analyses included adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationships among variables; all analyses were conducted between 2008 and 2009. Results Compared to 3rd generation, English speakers, 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were over two times more likely to be obese. Moreover, 1st generation, non-English speakers were half as likely to engage in regular physical activity and sports. Both 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were less likely to participate in clubs compared to 2nd and 3rd generation, English speakers. Overall, all non–English speaking groups reported less screen time compared to 3rd generation, English speakers. Conclusions The hypothesis that Hispanics lose their health protection with more time spent in the U.S. was not supported in this sample of Hispanic children. PMID:20117570

  18. New spectrographs for the VLT and E-ELT suited for the measurement of fundamental constants variability .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, Paolo

    An ideal instrument to probe fundamental constants such as the fine structure constant and the electron-to-proton mass ratio by means of absorption lines in QSOs spectra is a spectrograph which combine high throughput, high resolution and high stability and is compulsorily attached to a telescope with a large photon collecting area. Both the ESPRESSO proposal for the incoherent combined VLT focus and CODEX for the E-ELT keep these recipes and, although they are not optimized for this purpose, they hold the promise to improve the present limits by about two orders of magnitude. Thus either these physical constants are varying within this range or they would likely escape astronomical detection.

  19. A Project to Study Stellar and Gas Kinematics in 30 Dor with the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Evans, Christopher J.; Taylor, William D.; Gieles, Mark; VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Consortium

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey offers a unique opportunity to study the stellar and gas kinematics of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Using the nebular emission lines in the fibre spectra of ˜1000 stars, we can map the radial velocity structure of ionized gas across the 30 Doradus region, enabling us to study the environment of massive stars. Multi-epoch ARGUS-IFU observations and MEDUSA/UVES fibre spectroscopy in the young massive cluster R136, at the core of 30 Dor, will allow us to quantify the effect of binaries on the velocity dispersion of the cluster. The true velocity dispersion will be measured from the radial velocities of the identified single stars, providing an essential ingredient to estimate the dynamical mass and probe the dynamical state of R136.

  20. Studying Atmospheres Of Exoplanets With The VLT: Near IR Eclipses Of WASP-17b And WASP-18b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebb, Leslie; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Gillon, M.

    2011-09-01

    Secondary eclipse measurements of a transiting planet obtained when the planet is occulted by its host star provide important information about the thermal emission of the planet itself. Studies of the planet's atmosphere is possible when such eclipse observations are made over a range of wavelengths. In addition, the eclipse timing is useful for determining the orbital eccentricity of the system which is a key parameter in understanding the tidal history and internal energy budget of the planet. Here, we present new H and K-band observations of the secondary eclipses of two unique transiting planets, WASP-17b and WASP-18b. These data were obtained with the HAWK-1 instrument on the VLT and are part of a larger program to obtain ground based, near IR eclipses of a large number of transiting planets.

  1. Toward the final optical design MOONS, the Multi-Object Optical and Near infrared Spectrometer for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, E.; Delabre, B.; Tozzi, A.; Ferruzzi, D.; Lee, D.; Parry, I.; Rees, P.

    2016-08-01

    MOONS (Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph for the VLT) is entering into the final design phase. This paper presents and discusses the latest proposed version of the optical design of the cryogenic spectrograph. The main developments and modifications were aimed at minimizing the overall size and mass of the cryogenic spectrograph. The most remarkable new feature is the design of an extremely fast (F/0.95), light and compact (40 kg in less than 80 dm3) camera with superb image quality over a very large field of view (9 degrees on a collimated beam of 265 mm). The camera consists of only three optical elements: two lenses and one mirror. All elements are made of fused-silica. The optical performances are independent on the temperature, i.e. the camera can be fully characterized at room temperatures.

  2. The "+" for CRIRES: enabling better science at infrared wavelength and high spectral resolution at the ESO VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Reinhold J.; Follert, Roman; Bristow, Paul; Cumani, Claudio; Eschbaumer, Siegfried; Grunhut, Jason; Haimerl, Andreas; Hatzes, Artie; Heiter, Ulrike; Hinterschuster, Renate; Ives, Derek J.; Jung, Yves; Kerber, Florian; Klein, Barbara; Lavaila, Alexis; Lizon, Jean Louis; Löwinger, Tom; Molina-Conde, Ignacio; Nicholson, Belinda; Marquart, Thomas; Oliva, Ernesto; Origlia, Livia; Pasquini, Luca; Paufique, Jérôme; Piskunov, Nikolai; Reiners, Ansgar; Seemann, Ulf; Stegmeier, Jörg; Stempels, Eric; Tordo, Sebastien

    2016-08-01

    The adaptive optics (AO) assisted CRIRES instrument is an IR (0.92 - 5.2 μm) high-resolution spectrograph was in operation from 2006 to 2014 at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) observatory. CRIRES was a unique instrument, accessing a parameter space (wavelength range and spectral resolution) up to now largely uncharted. It consisted of a single-order spectrograph providing long-slit (40 arcsecond) spectroscopy with a resolving power up to R=100 000. However the setup was limited to a narrow, single-shot, spectral range of about 1/70 of the central wavelength, resulting in low observing efficiency for many scientific programmes requiring a broad spectral coverage. The CRIRES upgrade project, CRIRES+, transforms this VLT instrument into a cross-dispersed spectrograph to increase the simultaneously covered wavelength range by a factor of ten. A new and larger detector focal plane array of three Hawaii 2RG detectors with 5.3 μm cut-off wavelength will replace the existing detectors. For advanced wavelength calibration, custom-made absorption gas cells and an etalon system will be added. A spectro-polarimetric unit will allow the recording of circular and linear polarized spectra. This upgrade will be supported by dedicated data reduction software allowing the community to take full advantage of the new capabilities offered by CRIRES+. CRIRES+ has now entered its assembly and integration phase and will return with all new capabilities by the beginning of 2018 to the Very Large Telescope in Chile. This article will provide the reader with an update of the current status of the instrument as well as the remaining steps until final installation at the Paranal Observatory.

  3. GRB host galaxies with VLT/X-Shooter: properties at 0.8 < z < 1.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piranomonte, S.; Japelj, J.; Vergani, S. D.; Savaglio, S.; Palazzi, E.; Covino, S.; Flores, H.; Goldoni, P.; Cupani, G.; Krühler, T.; Mannucci, F.; Onori, F.; Rossi, A.; D'Elia, V.; Pian, E.; D'Avanzo, P.; Gomboc, A.; Hammer, F.; Randich, S.; Fiore, F.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2015-10-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are associated with the death of massive stars. Their host galaxies therefore represent a unique class of objects tracing star formation across the observable Universe. Indeed, recently accumulated evidence shows that GRB hosts do not differ substantially from general population of galaxies at high (z > 2) redshifts. However, it has been long recognized that the properties of z < 1.5 hosts, compared to general star-forming population, are unusual. To better understand the reasons for the supposed difference in LGRB hosts properties at z < 1.5, we obtained Very Large Telescope (VLT)/X-Shooter spectra of six hosts lying in the redshift range of 0.8 < z < 1.3. Some of these hosts have been observed before, yet we still lack well-constrained information on their characteristics such as metallicity, dust extinction and star formation rate (SFR). We search for emission lines in the VLT/X-Shooter spectra of the hosts and measure their fluxes. We perform a detailed analysis, estimating host average extinction, SFRs, metallicities and electron densities where possible. Measured quantities of our hosts are compared to a larger sample of previously observed GRB hosts at z < 2. SFRs and metallicities are measured for all the hosts analysed in this paper and metallicities are well determined for four hosts. The mass-metallicity relation, the fundamental metallicity relation and SFRs derived from our hosts occupy similar parameter space as other host galaxies investigated so far at the same redshift. We therefore conclude that GRB hosts in our sample support the found discrepancy between the properties of low-redshift GRB hosts and the general population of star-forming galaxies.

  4. VLT adaptive optics search for luminous substructures in the lens galaxy towards SDSS J0924+0219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, C.; Sluse, D.; Cantale, N.; Tewes, M.; Courbin, F.; Durrer, P.; Meylan, G.

    2011-12-01

    The anomalous flux ratios between quasar images are suspected of being caused by substructures in lens galaxies. We present new deep and high-resolution H and Ks imaging of the strongly lensed quasar SDSS J0924+0219 obtained using the ESO VLT with adaptive optics and the laser guide star system. SDSS J0924+0219 is particularly interesting because the observed flux ratio between the quasar images vastly disagree with the predictions from smooth mass models. With our adaptive optics observations we find a luminous object, Object L, located ~0.3'' to the north of the lens galaxy, but we show that it cannot be responsible for the anomalous flux ratios. Object L as well as a luminous extension of the lens galaxy to the south are seen in the archival HST/ACS image in the F814W filter. This suggests that Object L is part of a bar in the lens galaxy, as also supported by the presence of a significant disk component in the light profile of the lens galaxy. Finally, we find no evidence of any other luminous substructure that may explain the quasar images flux ratios. However, owing to the persistence of the flux ratio anomaly over time (~7 years), a combination of microlensing and millilensing is the favorite explanation for the observations. Based on observations obtained with the ESO VLT at Paranal observatory (Prog ID 084.A-0762(A); PI: Meylan). Also based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with the CASTLES (Cfa-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey) survey (ID: 9744, PI: C. S. Kochanek).

  5. Ground-based astrometry with wide field imagers. V. Application to near-infrared detectors: HAWK-I@VLT/ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libralato, M.; Bellini, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Platais, I.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Milone, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    High-precision astrometry requires accurate point-spread function modeling and accurate geometric-distortion corrections. This paper demonstrates that it is possible to achieve both requirements with data collected at the high acuity wide-field K-band imager (HAWK-I), a wide-field imager installed at the Nasmyth focus of UT4/VLT ESO 8 m telescope. Our final astrometric precision reaches ~3 mas per coordinate for a well-exposed star in a single image with a systematic error less than 0.1 mas. We constructed calibrated astro-photometric catalogs and atlases of seven fields: the Baade's window, NGC 6656, NGC 6121, NGC 6822, NGC 6388, NGC 104, and the James Webb Space Telescope calibration field (in the Large Magellanic Cloud). We make these catalogs and images electronically available to the community. Furthermore, as a demonstration of the efficacy of our approach, we combined archival material taken with the optical wide-field imager at the MPI/ESO 2.2 m with HAWK-I observations. We showed that we are able to achieve an excellent separation between cluster members and field objects for NGC 6656 and NGC 6121 with a time base-line of about 8 years. Using both HST and HAWK-I data, we also study the radial distribution of the SGB populations in NGC 6656 and conclude that the radial trend is flat within our uncertainty. We also provide membership probabilities for most of the stars in NGC 6656 and NGC 6121 catalogs and estimate membership for the published variable stars in these two fields. Catalogs, fortran code, and distortion maps are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A80Based on observations with the 8 m VLT ESO telescope.

  6. Stop-less Lyot coronagraph for exoplanet characterization: first on-sky validation in VLT/SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigan, A.; N'Diaye, M.; Dohlen, K.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Costille, A.; Caillat, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Blanchard, P.; Carle, M.; Ferrari, M.; Fusco, T.; Gluck, L.; Hugot, E.; Jaquet, M.; Langlois, M.; Le Mignant, D.; Llored, M.; Madec, F.; Mouillet, D.; Origné, A.; Puget, P.; Salasnich, B.; Sauvage, J.-F.

    2016-07-01

    The VLT/SPHERE instrument includes a unique long-slit spectroscopy (LSS) mode coupled with Lyot coronagraphy dedicated to the spectral characterization of directly imaged giant exoplanets. The performance of this mode is limited by its non-optimal coronagraph, but in a previous work we demonstrated that it could be significantly improved at small inner-working angles using the stop-less Lyot coronagraph (SLLC). A prototype of the SLLC was installed in VLT/SPHERE in 2014 during the reintegration of the instrument in Paranal, and it was extensively tested in 2015 to characterize its performance. The performance is tested in both imaging and spectroscopy using data acquired on the internal source of SPHERE. In imaging, we obtain a raw contrast gain of a factor 10 at 0.3" with the SLLC. We also demonstrate that no Lyot stop is required to reach the full performance, which validates the SLLC concept. Comparison with a realistic simulation model shows that we are currently limited by the internal phase aberrations of SPHERE. In spectroscopy, we obtain a gain of 1 mag in a limited range of angular separations. Simulations show that although the main limitation comes from phase errors, the performance in the non-SLLC case is very close to the ultimate limit of the LSS mode. We present the very first on-sky data with the SLLC, which appear extremely promising for the future scientific exploitation of an apodized LSS mode in SPHERE. Finally, we explore a new possibility for the speckle subtraction in the LSS mode that could significantly improve the data analysis with respect to methods based on spectral differences.

  7. Generation and Diagnostics of Microwave Discharge Expanding Nitrogen Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Tomohiko; Yoshida, Kazuyuki; Nezu, Atsushi; Matsuura, Haruaki; Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    We examine a microwave discharge expanding nitrogen plasma on its vibrational and rotational temperatures (Tv, Tr) by using optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and on its electron density and temperature by using a double probe. In the present study, we generated microwave discharge plasma in a cylindrical quartz tube (26 mm i.d.) and the plasma flowed and expanded rapidly into a rarefied gas wind tunnel with its pressure 2.6x10-3 torr. The microwave output power was set at 300 W. The gas flow rate was set at 300 ml/min. In OES measurement, we measured the band spectra of 1stPS and 2ndPS. We compare the experimentally measured spectrum with the calculate one to determine Tv and Tr of the generated plasma. Electron temperature did not reduce monotonically, which is due to complicated energy relaxation process contributed by metastables or vibrational levels. Intensity of 2ndPS decreased more rapidly than that of 1stPS, which is considered to be mainly due to the lowering of Te. We found different way of variation in Tv of 1stPS and that of 2ndPS.

  8. Thin films sputtered from Ba{sub 2}NdFeNb{sub 4}O{sub 15} multiferroic targets on BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} coated substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Bodeux, Romain; Michau, Dominique; Maglione, Mario; Josse, Michaël

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of Ba{sub 2}NdFeNb{sub 4}O{sub 15}/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BaM) heterostructures by RF magnetron sputtering. • Growth of TTB layer were retained regardless of the underlayer (Pt bottom electrode or BaM). • Dielectric and magnetic properties were obtained from the Pt/TTB/BaM/Pt stacks. - Abstract: Ba{sub 2}NdFeNb{sub 4}O{sub 15} tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB)/BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BaM) hexaferrite bilayers have been grown by RF magnetron sputtering on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si (PtS) substrates. The BaM layer is textured along (0 0 1) while the TTB layer is multioriented regardless of the PtS or BaM/PtS substrate. Dielectric properties of TTB films are similar to those of bulk, i.e., ε ∼ 150 and a magnetic hysteresis loop is obtained from TTB/BaM bilayers, thanks to the BaM component. This demonstrates the possibility of transferring to 2 dimensional structures the composite multiferroic system TTB/BaM previously identified in 3 dimensional bulk ceramics.

  9. Reconnaissance of the β Pictoris system down to 1.75 AU with the L' - b and vector vortex coronagraph on VLT/NACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milli, J.; Absil, O.; Mawet, D.; Lagrange, A.-M.

    2013-09-01

    High contrast imaging has thoroughly combed through the limited parameter space accessible with first-generation ground-based adaptive optics instruments and the HST. Only a few objects were discovered, and many non-detections reported and statistically interpreted. The field is now in need of a technological breakthrough. We aim at opening a new parameter space with first-generation systems such as NACO at the Very Large Telescope, by providing ground-breaking inner working angle (IWA) capabilities in the L' band. This mid-infrared wavelength range is a sweet spot for high contrast coronagraphy since the planets-to-star brightness ratio is favorable, while Strehl ratio is naturally higher. An annular groove phase mask (AGPM) vector vortex coronagraph optimized for the L' band, made out of diamond subwavelength gratings has been manufactured and qualified in the lab. The AGPM enables high contrast imaging at very small IWA (here 0".09), potentially being the key to a new parameter space. Here we present the results of the installation and successful commissioning of an L'- band AGPM on VLT/NACO. During a recent science verification run, we imaged the inner regions of Beta Pictoris down to the previously unexplored projected radius of 1.75 AU with unprecedented point source sensitivity. The disk was also clearly resolved down to its inner truncation . The new NACO mode is an opportunity to introduce a more rigorous framework for deriving detection limits at very small angles, which is also relevant for SPHERE and GPI and every high contrast imaging instrument with small IWA ambitions. Indeed, classical tools assuming Gaussian statistics, perfectly valid at large separations, loose significance close to the center simply because the sample size decreases dramatically (fewer resolution elements at a given radius). Moreover, the probability density function (PDF) of speckle noise and associated confidence level for detection depend on radius. ADI was shown to transform

  10. Character Education Connections for School, Home and Community: A Guide for Integrating Character Education. Grades Pre-K through 12. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Diane

    This character education guide, for grades Pre-K through 12, presents field-generated, field-tested ideas for integrating character education with daily learning. The ideas are varied in design, scope, and developmental levels and range from half-hour lessons to school-wide events to year-long courses. Each unit (50 in all) is built on particular…

  11. Annual Staunton Hill Conference on China’s People Liberation Army (PLA) (2nd) Held in Staunton Hill, Virginia on September 6 - 8, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    translation. inauthrites n, nd rioitis wre anuere ou in FB1S-CHI-90-240. 37. terms Of Programs and responsibilities. The 14 Hu Changfa . "Uphold Correct...in FBIS-CHI-91-O55. 25-26; Guo about seven percent in the military budget. From 1980 to 1989. Xiangxing and Zhu Bin, "First Generation Ship-Based

  12. A comparative study of two generation partial light intensity imager based on liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yuanhe; Yang, Xusan; Gao, Haiyang; Wu, Yong; Wang, Shuiwei; Cao, Xiangang; Jia, Wanli

    2013-06-01

    Two generations of prototype partial light intensity imager (PLII) based on liquid crystal (LC) are designed and implemented to achieve imaging of objects with strong light illuminations. They can both realize object imaging by controlling each pixel of the LC for a strong light intensity of larger than 2.2×105lx. There are two ways to control the LC's transmission. One way is to adjust the applied voltage to the LC selected (Sony LCX029AMT) that realizes an adjutable light transmission of 1.28-25.60%. Another way is to change the angle of polarization of either the polarizer or analyzer and obtain a range of the light transmission of 3.35-17.73%. The 1st generation of PLII uses a closed feedback loop to control the imaging system with one CCD which requires two frames of image to realize the image gating function. The 2nd generation is an upgraded version that employs two CCDs to improve the real-time imaging performance. While the 1st generation has a lower cost and smaller volume than the 2nd generation does, the 2nd generation has a capability to more easily realize image gating at a video frequency which only requires one single image frame because of the use of two CCDs. The modulate transfer function (MTF) of the two PLII systems using the two transmission control methods is 0.586 and 0.480 respectively.

  13. Meeting on the Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits (2nd). Held in Villefanche-sur-Mer, France on 15-19 April 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-19

    shallow-water layer models such as streamtube models . How well do they reproduce the physics of hydraulically driven turbulent flows with continuous...usually turbulent . Thus, while the flow types derived from simple Flow of a homogeneous fluid along a curved models are useful in interpretating...philosophy in the numerical modeling was to .7:° use the turbulent diffusivity as an independent free M parameter - generated by an unspecified source

  14. Conference on Standards for the Interoperability of Defense Simulations (2nd) Held in Orlando, Florida on 15-17 January 1990. Volume 3. Position Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    network collision environment where the time to transfer a packet is indeterminate. We believe there are definite advantages to sending a matrix to...near constant delay is impossible to attain in a non collision free network environment, since wait periods are pseudo randomly generated after a... collision . This will be a problem fr high fidelity simulations such as aircraft dog fighting. We believe a protocol change might be needed to allow for a

  15. Interagency Symposium on University Research in Transportation Noise (2nd) Held at North Carolina State University, Raleigh on June 5-7, 1974. Book of Proceedings, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    L. "Model Study of Aircraft Noise Reverberation in a City Street", Interim Report DOT-TSC-93, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts...leave many questions unanswered concerning the mechanics of tire noise generation. For example, frequency components occur in sound and accel- eration...contributors. SUMMARY These preliminary results of coherence analysis in the diagnosis of tire noise mechanisms are encouraging. Future work will

  16. VLT near- to mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy of the M 17 UC1 - IRS5 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nürnberger, Dieter E. A.; Chini, Rolf; Jiang, Zhibo; Fang, Min

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the surroundings of the hypercompact H ii region M 17 UC1 to probe the physical properties of the associated young stellar objects and the environment of massive star formation. Methods: We use diffraction-limited near-IR (VLT/NACO) and mid-IR (VLT/VISIR) images to reveal the different morphologies at various wavelengths. Likewise, we investigate the stellar and nebular content of the region with VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy with a resolution R ˜ 1500 at H + K bands. Results: Five of the seven point sources in this region show L-band excess emission. A geometric match is found between the H2 emission and near-IR polarized light in the vicinity of IRS5A, and between the diffuse mid-IR emission and near-IR polarization north of UC1. The H2 emission is typical for dense photodissociation regions (PDRs), which are initially far-ultraviolet pumped and repopulated by collisional de-excitation. The spectral types of IRS5A and B273A are B3-B7 V/III and G4-G5 III, respectively. The observed infrared luminosity LIR in the range 1-20 μm is derived for three objects; we obtain 2.0 × 103 L⊙ for IRS5A, 13 L⊙ for IRS5C, and 10 L⊙ for B273A. Conclusions: IRS5 might be a young quadruple system. Its primary star IRS5A is confirmed to be a high-mass protostellar object (˜9 M⊙, ˜1 × 105 yrs); it might have terminated accretion due to the feedback from stellar activities (radiation pressure, outflow) and the expanding H ii region of M 17. The object UC1 might also have terminated accretion because of the expanding hypercompact H ii region, which it ionizes. The disk clearing process of the low-mass young stellar objects in this region might be accelerated by the expanding H ii region. The outflows driven by UC1 are running south-north with its northeastern side suppressed by the expanding ionization front of M 17; the blue-shifted outflow lobe of IRS5A is seen in two types of tracers along the same line of sight in the form of H2 emission

  17. Tracing The Origin Of Methane And Water On Mars: Mapping Regions Of Active Release At Ultra-high Spatial Resolution Using Keck And VLT Under AO Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, G. L.; Campbell, R.; Lyke, J.; Conrad, A.; Encrenaz, T.; Hartogh, P.; Kauefl, U.; Novak, R. E.; Tokunaga, A.

    2009-09-01

    Strong release of methane from active regions on Mars has been reported in northern summer (1) and southern spring (2). The spatial resolution of these measurements was about 500 km, sufficient to reveal discrete active regions. Regions of methane release appear mainly over ancient terrain (Noachian/Hesperian) known to have a rich hydration history, and often marked by fossae or other scarps. However, higher resolution is needed to test whether methane release is confined to a small number of narrowly defined vents or is widely distributed over the 500 km footprint. If narrowly confined, the plume should have correspondingly higher local density, enhancing spectral searches for water, methane, their isotopologues, and other trace gases that could reveal aspects of methane generation and depth of release. Ground-based telescopes equipped with both adaptive optics (AO) and high dispersion infrared spectrometers have delivered much higher spatial resolution on planetary bodies, but until now have not been applied to Mars. We acquired images and spectra of Mars under AO control at infrared wavelengths, using Keck-2 and ESO-VLT. In June 2009, we acquired test images with NIRC2/Keck-2 using AO in the natural guide star mode and achieved 0.12” FWHM resolution at 3.0 µm wavelength (Mars diameter was 4.7"). Diffraction-limited performance (0.06” at 3 µm) is expected during follow-up observations in September 2009. We observed Mars with UT1 under AO control (MACAO) in August and September 2009, and acquired spectra with CRIRES. We expect to achieve spatial resolution approaching 40 km in November-December 2009, representing a reduction in area by nearly a factor of 100 compared with earlier non-AO searches. Preliminary results will be presented. This work was funded by NASA grants 08-PAST08-0034 (Planetary Astronomy) and 08-PATM080-0031 (Planetary Atmospheres). 1. Mumma, Villanueva, Novak et al., Science 323, 1041 (2009) 2. Villanueva, Mumma, Novak, (in prep) 2009.

  18. RFA-based 589-nm guide star lasers for ESO VLT: a paradigm shift in performance, operational simplicity, reliability, and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedenauer, Axel; Karpov, Vladimir; Wei, Daoping; Hager, Manfred; Ernstberger, Bernhard; Clements, Wallace R. L.; Kaenders, Wilhelm G.

    2012-07-01

    Large telescopes equipped with adaptive optics require 20-25W CW 589-nm sources with emission linewidths of ~5 MHz. These Guide Star (GS) lasers should also be highly reliable and simple to operate and maintain for many years at the top of a mountain facility. Under contract from ESO, industrial partners TOPTICA and MPBC are nearing completion of the development of GS lasers for the ESO VLT, with delivery of the first of four units scheduled for December 2012. We report on the design and performance of the fully-engineered Pre-Production Unit (PPU), including system reliability/availability analysis, the successfully-concluded qualification testing, long-term component and system level tests and long-term maintenance and support planning. The chosen approach is based on ESO's patented narrow-band Raman Fiber Amplifier (EFRA) technology. A master oscillator signal from a linearly-polarized TOPTICA 20-mW, 1178-nm CW diode laser, with stabilized emission frequency and controllable linewidth up to a few MHz, is amplified in an MPBC polarization-maintaining (PM) RFA pumped by a high-power 1120-nm PM fiber laser. With efficient stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression, an unprecedented 40W of narrow-band RFA output has been obtained. This is then mode-matched into a resonant-cavity doubler with a free-spectral-range matching the sodium D2a to D2b separation, allowing simultaneous generation of an additional frequency component (D2b line) to re-pump the sodium atom electronic population. With this technique, the return flux can be increased without having to resort to electro-optical modulators and without the risk of introducing optical wave front distortions. The demonstrated output powers with doubling efficiencies >80% at 589 nm easily exceed the 20W design goal and require less than 700 W of electrical power. In summary, the fiber-based guide star lasers provide excellent beam quality and are modular, turn-key, maintenance-free, reliable, efficient, and ruggedized

  19. Scientific Objectives and Design Study of an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) for the NAOS Visitor Focus at the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Zerbi, Filippo; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Bonanno, Giovanni; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Delabre, Bernard; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Marcantonio, Paolo Di; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Molaro, Paolo; Pasquini, Luca; Santin, Paolo

    We present the scientific case for an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) that we propose as a visitor instrument for the secondary port of NAOS at the VLT. We show that such an instrument would be ideal for intermediate resolution (R=16,000) spectroscopy of faint sky-limited objects down to a magnitude of V=24.0 and will complement very effectively the near-IR imaging capabilities of CONICA. We present examples of science programmes that could be carried out with such an instrument and which cannot be addressed with existing VLT instruments. We also report on the result of a two-year design study of the instrument, with specific reference to its use as parallel instrument of NAOS.

  20. VLT-style observing with the Wide Field Imager at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, C.; Paz, T.; Robledo, E.; Gutierrez, F.; Baade, D.; Selman, F.; Sanchez, F.; Brewer, J.; Scodeggio, M.

    2001-06-01

    The Wide Field Imager instrument of the MPG/ESO 2.2-m Telescope has been operating with the VLT-style Observing Software (OS) since the beginning of the year. Users can now prepare Observation Blocks in the same manner as for the VLT and other La Silla instruments. This uniformity of the user interface will make the system even more easy to use than before. This work is the result of the efforts of a large number of people: the sequencer scripts were written with extensive help from Paul Lesaux of the NTT team, and Emilio Barrios of the 3.6 team at La Silla. Figure 1 shows the control room with the new system in place.

  1. Phase equilibria and crystal chemistry of the CaO–1/2 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CoO{sub z} system at 885 °C in air

    SciTech Connect

    Wong-Ng, W.; Laws, W.; Talley, K.R.; Huang, Q.; Yan, Y.; Martin, J.; Kaduk, J.A.

    2014-07-01

    The phase diagram of the CaO–1/2 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CoO{sub z} system at 885 °C in air has been determined. The system consists of two calcium cobaltate compounds that have promising thermoelectric properties, namely, the 2D thermoelectric oxide solid solution, (Ca{sub 3−x}Nd{sub x})Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−z} (0≤x≤0.5), which has a misfit layered structure, and Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 6} which consists of 1D chains of alternating CoO{sub 6} trigonal prisms and CoO{sub 6} octahedra. Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 6} was found to be a point compound without the substitution of Nd on the Ca site. The reported Nd{sub 2}CoO{sub 4} phase was not observed at 885 °C. A ternary (Ca{sub 1−x}Nd{sub 1+x})CoO{sub 4−z} (x=0) phase, or (CaNdCo)O{sub 4−z}, was found to be stable at this temperature. A solid solution region of distorted perovskite (Nd{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x})CoO{sub 3−z} (0≤x≤0.25, space group Pnma) was established. In the peripheral binary systems, while a solid solution region was identified for (Nd{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3−z} (0≤x≤0.2), Nd was not found to substitute in the Ca site of CaO. Six solid solution tie-line regions and six three-phase regions were determined in the CaO–Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CoO{sub z} system in air. - Graphical abstract: Phase diagram of the 1/2 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CaO–CoO{sub x} system at 885 °C, showing the limits of various solid solutions, and the tie-line relationships of various phases. - Highlights: • Phase diagram of the CaO–1/2 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CoO{sub z} system constructed. • System consists of thermoelectric oxide (Ca{sub 3−x}Nd{sub x})Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−z} (0≤x≤0.5). • Structures of (Nd{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x})CoO{sub 3−z} and (CaNdCo)O{sub 4−z} determined.

  2. A variable field neutron study of the negative magnetoresistive ruthenocuprate RuSr 2Nd 0.9Y 0.2Ce 0.9Cu 2O 10-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclaughlin, A. C.; Attfield, J. P.

    2007-03-01

    A variable field neutron diffraction study of the ruthenocuprate RuSr 2Nd 0.9Y 0.2Ce 0.9Cu 2O 10-δ, which exhibits large negative magnetoresistance, has been performed in order to determine the variation of the magnetic structure with magnetic field. Upon application of a magnetic field the ({1}/{2} {1}/{2} {1}/{2}) and ({1}/{2} {1}/{2} l) magnetic peaks reduce in intensity as the spins in the RuO 2 and CuO 2 layer cant into a ferromagnetic alignment in the ab-plane. This results in increased spin polarised transport in the CuO 2 plane and hence large negative magnetoresistance.

  3. Crystal structure of nonsuperconducting Pb sub 2 (Sr sub 0. 94 Nd sub 0. 06 ) sub 2 (Nd sub 0. 76 Sr sub 0. 24 )Cu sub 3 O sub 8

    SciTech Connect

    Hayri, E.A.; Kvick, A. )

    1990-01-01

    The crystal structure of Pb{sub 2}(Sr{sub 0.94}Nd{sub 0.06}){sub 2}(Nd{sub 0.76}Sr{sub 0.24})Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The compound was found to be orthorhombic (Cmmm) with a = 5.437(3), b = 5.472(2), c = 15.797(7) {angstrom} and Z = 2. In the structure double layers of CuO square pyramids are separated by (Nd, Sr) oxygen deficient layers which are stacked between (PbO)-Cu-(PbO) slabs. The oxygen in the Pb planes is shifted toward a pair of Pb atoms resulting in an orthorhombic distortion of the tetragonal unit cell. The possibilities for modulations and superlattices are discussed as is the role of the PbO planes in superconductivity.

  4. Line-by-line analysis of Neptune's near-IR spectrum observed with Gemini/NIFS and VLT/CRIRES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, P. G. J.; Lellouch, E.; de Bergh, C.; Courtin, R.; Bézard, B.; Fletcher, L. N.; Orton, G. S.; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S. B.; Tice, D.; Hurley, J.; Davis, G. R.

    2014-01-01

    New line data describing the absorption of CH4 and CH3D from 1.26 to 1.71 μm (WKMC-80K, Campargue, A., Wang, L., Mondelain, D., Kassi, S., Bézard, B., Lellouch, E., Coustenis, A., de Bergh, C., Hirtzig, M., Drossart, P. [2012]. Icarus 219, 110-128) have been applied to the analysis of Gemini-N/NIFS observations of Neptune made in 2009 and VLT/CRIRES observations made in 2010. The new line data are found to greatly improve the fit to the observed spectra and present a considerable advance over previous methane datasets. The improved fits lead to an empirically derived wavelength-dependent correction to the scattering properties of the main observable cloud deck at 2-3 bars that is very similar to the correction determined for Uranus' lower cloud using the same line dataset by Irwin et al. (Irwin, P.G.J., de Bergh, C., Courtin, R., Bézard, B., Teanby, N.A., Davis, G.R., Fletcher, L.N., Orton, G.S., Calcutt, S.B., Tice, D., Hurley, J. [2012]. Icarus 220, 369-382). By varying the abundance of CH3D in our simulations, analysis of the Gemini/NIFS observations leads to a new determination of the CH3D/CH4 ratio for Neptune of 3.0-0.9+1.0×10-4, which is smaller than previous determinations, but is identical (to within error) with the CH3D/CH4 ratio of 2.9-0.5+0.9×10-4 derived by a similar analysis of Gemini/NIFS observations of Uranus made in the same year. Thus it appears that the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune have an almost identical D/H ratio, which suggests that the icy planetisimals forming these planets came from the same source reservoir, or a reservoir that was well-mixed at the locations of ice giant formation, assuming complete mixing between the atmosphere and interior of both these planets. VLT/CRIRES observations of Neptune have also been analysed with the WKMC-80K methane line database, yielding very good fits, with little evidence for missing absorption features. The CRIRES spectra indicate that the mole fraction of CO at the 2-3 bar level must be

  5. The VLT LBG Redshift Survey - III. The clustering and dynamics of Lyman-break galaxies at z ˜ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielby, R.; Hill, M. D.; Shanks, T.; Crighton, N. H. M.; Infante, L.; Bornancini, C. G.; Francke, H.; Héraudeau, P.; Lambas, D. G.; Metcalfe, N.; Minniti, D.; Padilla, N.; Theuns, T.; Tummuangpak, P.; Weilbacher, P.

    2013-03-01

    We present a catalogue of 2135 galaxy redshifts from the VLT LBG Redshift Survey (VLRS), a spectroscopic survey of z ≈ 3 galaxies in wide fields centred on background quasi-stellar objects. We have used deep optical imaging to select galaxies via the Lyman-break technique. Spectroscopy of the Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) was then made using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) instrument, giving a mean redshift of z = 2.79. We analyse the clustering properties of the VLRS sample and also of the VLRS sample combined with the smaller area Keck-based survey of Steidel et al. From the semiprojected correlation function, wp(σ), for the VLRS and combined surveys, we find that the results are well fit with a single power-law model, with clustering scale lengths of r0 = 3.46 ± 0.41 and 3.83 ± 0.24 h-1 Mpc, respectively. We note that the corresponding combined ξ(r) slope is flatter than for local galaxies at γ = 1.5-1.6 rather than γ = 1.8. This flat slope is confirmed by the z-space correlation function, ξ(s), and in the range 10 < s < 100 h-1 Mpc the VLRS shows an ≈2.5σ excess over the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) linear prediction. This excess may be consistent with recent evidence for non-Gaussianity in clustering results at z ≈ 1. We then analyse the LBG z-space distortions using the 2D correlation function, ξ(σ, π), finding for the combined sample a large-scale infall parameter of β = 0.38 ± 0.19 and a velocity dispersion of sqrt{< w_z^2rangle }=420^{+140}_{-160} km s^{-1}. Based on our measured β, we are able to determine the gravitational growth rate, finding a value of f(z = 3) = 0.99 ± 0.50 (or fσ8 = 0.26 ± 0.13), which is the highest redshift measurement of the growth rate via galaxy clustering and is consistent with ΛCDM. Finally, we constrain the mean halo mass for the LBG population, finding that the VLRS and combined sample suggest mean halo masses of log(MDM/M⊙) = 11.57 ± 0.15 and 11.73 ± 0

  6. Three Generations of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaleski, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The current Tracking and Data Relay Satellite configuration consists of nine in-orbit satellites (four first generation, three second generation and two third generation satellites) globally distributed in geosynchronous orbit to provide near continuous data relay service to missions like Hubble Space Telescope and the International Space Station. The 1st generation spacecraft were designed by TRW/Northrop Grumman with their launches of the five spacecraft ranging from 1983 through 1995. The 2nd and 3rd generation spacecraft were designed by Boeing with their launches ranging 2000 - 2002 and 2013 - 2017 respectively. TDRS-3 is now 27 years on orbit, continues to be a capable asset for the TDRS constellation. Lack of need for inclination control combined with large fuel reserves and redundancy on critical elements provides spacecraft that operate well past design life, all of which contributes to expanded TDRS constellation support capabilities. All spacecraft generations have issues. Significant issues will be summarized with the focus on the Boeing related problems. Degradations and failures are continually assessed and provide the foundation for yearly updates to spacecraft reliability models, constellation service projections and deorbit plans (in order to meet NASAs mandate of limiting orbital debris). Even when accounting for degradations and failures, the life expectancy for the Boeing delivered 2nd generation TDRS-8, 9 10 TDRS are anticipated to be 25+ years.

  7. First results from the VIMOS/VLT Deep Survey (VVDS): luminosity functions from z˜0 to z˜1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, E.; Ilbert, O.; Tresse, L.; Bardelli, S.; Arnouts, S.; Zamorani, G.; Le Fèvre, O.; Vettolani, G.; Adami, C.; sBolzonella, M.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Busarello, G.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gavignaud, I.; Gregorini, L.; Guzzo, L.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mathez, G.; Mazure, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Merluzzi, P.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Picat, J. P.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Zanichelli, A.

    The VIMOS/VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) is an on-going program to map the evolution of galaxies, large scale structures and AGNs from the redshift measurement of more than 100000 objects down to a magnitude IAB=24, in combination with a multi-wavelength dataset from radio to X-rays. We present here the results obtained from the first epoch data, regarding in particular the evolution of the luminosity function.

  8. News and Views: VLT moves a step closer to optical interferometry; Astronomical imaging aids fight against melanomas; Magma ocean on Io; Crab's bumper flare; Titan lightning rare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-06-01

    The four 8 m telescopes at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope in Paranal have come together to work as a single telescope at last - 10 years after two beams were first combined in the VLT interferometer using the new instrument PIONIER. An astronomer who works on instrumentation for the Keck Telescope is applying the same techniques to measure and assess malignant melanomas - partly as a result of the frequent skin cancer checks he himself undergoes.

  9. Chemistry and petrology of Luna 24 lithic fragments and less than 250-micron soils - Constraints on the origin of VLT mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Lange, D. E.; Keil, K.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported on a combined INAA-petrologic study of 17 small (0.2-1.5 mg) Luna 24 lithic and mineral fragments and INAA study of 5 bulk soils and mineral separates from gabbro 24170. Lithic and mineral fragments are classified into VLT mare basalts (ferrobasalt and metabasalts), low-Ti, variolitic mare basalt, gabbros, melt rock and soil breccia. Data indicate 5 possible magma types, represented by: (1) VLT ferrobasalt and gabbro fragments, with low-TiO2 (about 1%), slightly bow-shaped REE pattern, and low REE concentrations (5-10X chondritic); (2) a ferrobasalt (Laul et al., 1978) and metabasalt fragments with major and trace element contents similar to (1), but positive Eu anomalies; (3) one gabbro fragment with distinctive pyroxene compositional trend (increasing Ti with nearly constant Fe/Fe + Mg) and highest REE contents of any Luna 24 mare basaltic sample, (4) a gabbro fragment with considerably less V and Cr2O3 than ferrobasalt and metabasalt fragments; and (5) variolitic basalt fragment with higher Ti2(2.3%) than other Luna 24 basalts and pyroxene that has increasing then decreasing Ti with increasing Fe/Fe + Mg. Trace element data place constraints on the nature of the source region and possible parent magmas for the Luna 24 VLT ferrobasalt.

  10. ZELDA, a Zernike wavefront sensor for the fine measurement of quasi-static aberrations in coronagraphic systems: concept studies and results with VLT/SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Diaye, M.; Vigan, A.; Dohlen, K.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Girard, J. H. V.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Fusco, T.; Blanchard, P.; Le Merrer, J.; Le Mignant, D.; Madec, F.; Moreaux, G.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Zins, G.

    2016-07-01

    The high-contrast imaging instruments VLT/SPHERE and GPI have been routinely observing gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and debris disks around nearby stars since 2013-2014. In these facilities, low-wind effects or differential aberrations between the extreme Adaptive Optics sensing path and the science path represent critical limitations for the observation of exoplanets orbiting their host star with a contrast ratio larger than 106 at small separations. To circumvent this problem, we proposed ZELDA, a Zernike wavefront sensor to measure these quasistatic aberrations at a nanometric level. A prototype was installed on VLT/SPHERE during its integration in Chile. We recently performed measurements on an internal source with ZELDA in the presence of Zernike or Fourier modes introduced with the deformable mirror of the instrument. In this communication, we present the results of our experiment and report on the contrast gain obtained with a first ZELDA-based wavefront correction. We finally discuss the suitability of such a solution for a possible upgrade of VLT/SPHERE and for its use with future E-ELT instruments or space missions with high-contrast capabilities (e.g. WFIRST-AFTA, HDST).

  11. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey. Public release of 1599 redshifts to IAB≤24 across the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fèvre, O.; Vettolani, G.; Paltani, S.; Tresse, L.; Zamorani, G.; Le Brun, V.; Moreau, C.; Bottini, D.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Mancini, D.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mathez, G.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zucca, E.; Arnaboldi, M.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Ciliegi, P.; Gregorini, L.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey around the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). We have measured 1599 new redshifts with VIMOS on the European Observatory Very Large Telescope - UT3, in an area 21 × 21.6 arcmin2, including 784 redshifts in the Hubble Space Telescope - Advanced Camera for Surveys GOODS area. 30% of all objects with IAB=24 have been observed independently of magnitude, indicating that the sample is purely magnitude limited. We have reached an unprecedented completeness level of 84% in terms of the ratio of secure measurements vs. observed objects, while 95% of all objects have a redshift measurement. A total of 1452 galaxies, 139 stars, 8 QSOs have a redshift identification, 141 of these being unsecure measurements. The redshift distribution down to IAB=24 is peaked at a median redshift z=0.73, with a significant high redshift tail extending up to ˜4. Several high density peaks in the distribution of galaxies are identified. In particular, the strong peak at z=0.735 contains more than 130 galaxies in a velocity range ±2000 km s-1 distributed all across the transverse ˜20 h-1 Mpc of the survey. We are releasing all redshifts to the community, along with the cross identification with HST-ACS GOODS sources on the CENCOS database environment http://cencosw.oamp.fr. The data presented in this paper has been obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CLASH-VLT: the FF cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 (Balestra+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestra, I.; Mercurio, A.; Sartoris, B.; Girardi, M.; Grillo, C.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Biviano, A.; Ettori, S.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Medezinski, E.; Merten, J.; Ogrean, G. A.; Tozzi, P.; Umetsu, K.; Vanzella, E.; van Weeren, R. J.; Zitrin, A.; Annunziatella, M.; Caminha, G. B.; Broadhurst, T.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Fritz, A.; Frye, B.; Kelson, D.; Lombardi, M.; Maier, C.; Meneghetti, M.; Monna, A.; Postman, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Seitz, S.; Ziegler, B.

    2016-07-01

    The cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 was observed between 2012 December and 2014 November as part of the ESO Large Programme 186.A-0798 "Dark Matter Mass Distributions of Hubble Treasury Clusters and the Foundations of ΛCDM Structure Formation Models" (P.I.: Piero Rosati) using VIMOS at the ESO VLT. A total of 21 masks were observed (15 LR-Blue (low-resolution) masks and 6 MR (medium-resolution) masks). The LR-Blue masks cover the spectral range 3700-6700Å with a resolution of R=180, while the MR masks cover the range 4800-10000Å with a resolution of R=580. The massive cluster has been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as part of the Multi-Cycle Treasury program Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH; P.I.: M. Postman; Postman et al. 2012, J/ApJS/199/25). The HST survey is nicely complemented by Subaru wide-field imaging. (3 data files).

  13. Wavelength calibration from 1-5μm for the CRIRES+ high-resolution spectrograph at the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seemann, U.; Anglada-Escude, G.; Baade, D.; Bristow, P.; Dorn, R. J.; Follert, R.; Gojak, D.; Grunhut, J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Heiter, U.; Ives, D. J.; Jeep, P.; Jung, Y.; Käufl, H.-U.; Kerber, F.; Klein, B.; Lizon, J.-L.; Lockhart, M.; Löwinger, T.; Marquart, T.; Oliva, E.; Paufique, J.; Piskunov, N.; Pozna, E.; Reiners, A.; Smette, A.; Smoker, J.; Stempels, E.; Valenti, E.

    2014-08-01

    CRIRES at the VLT is one of the few adaptive optics enabled instruments that offer a resolving power of 105 from 1 - 5 μm. An instrument upgrade (CRIRES+) is proposed to implement cross-dispersion capabilities, spectro-polarimetry modes, a new detector mosaic, and a new gas absorption cell. CRIRES+ will boost the simultaneous wavelength coverage of the current instrument (~ γ/70 in a single-order) by a factor of 10 in the cross-dispersed configuration, while still retaining a ~> 10 arcsec slit suitable for long-slit spectroscopy. CRIRES+ dramatically enhances the instrument's observing efficiency, and opens new scientific opportunities. These include high-precision radial-velocity studies on the 3 m/s level to characterize extra-solar planets and their athmospheres, which demand for specialized, highly accurate wavelength calibration techniques. In this paper, we present a newly developed absorption gas-cell to enable high-precision wavelength calibration for CRIRES+. We also discuss the strategies and developments to cover the full operational spectral range (1 - 5 μµm), employing cathode emission lamps, Fabry-Perot etalons, and absorption gas-cells.

  14. A tip/tilt mirror with large dynamic range for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijnveld, N.; Henselmans, R.; Nijland, B.

    2011-09-01

    One of the critical elements in the Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the Optical Tube Assembly (OTA), consisting of a stable 20x laser beam expander and an active tip/tilt mirror, the Field Selector Mechanism (FSM). This paper describes the design and performance testing of the FSM. The driving requirement for the FSM is its large stroke of +/-6.1 mrad, in combination with less than 1.5 μrad RMS absolute accuracy. The FSM design consists of a Zerodur mirror, bonded to a membrane spring and strut combination to allow only tip and tilt. Two spindle drives actuate the mirror, using a stiffness based transmission to increase resolution. Absolute accuracy is achieved with two differential inductive sensor pairs. A prototype of the FSM is realized to optimize the control configuration and measure its performance. Friction in the spindle drive is overcome by creating a local velocity control loop between the spindle drives and the shaft encoders. Accuracy is achieved by using a cascaded low bandwidth control loop with feedback from the inductive sensors. The pointing jitter and settling time of the FSM are measured with an autocollimator. The system performance meets the strict requirements, and is ready to be implemented in the first OTA.

  15. The Four-Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) for the ESO VLT Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackenberg, W.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Lewis, S.; Holzlohner, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Comin, M.; Dupuy, C.; Guidolin, I. M.; Kern, L.; Quattri, M.; Quentin, J.; Ridings, R.; Argomedo, J.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R.; Delabre, B.; Donaldson, R.; Downing, M.; Duchateau, M.; Hubin, N.; Igl, G.; Jochum, L.; Jolley, P.; Jost, A.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Lizon, J.-L.; Le Louarn, M.; Madec, P.-Y.; Manescau, A.; Paufique, J.; Pirard, J.-F.; Reyes, J.; Silber, A.; Soenke, C.; Stroebele, S.; Stuik, R.; Tordo, S.; Vernet, E.; Collazos, R. Guzman

    2011-09-01

    The 4LGSF is to be installed as a subsystem of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) on Unit Telescope 4 (UT4) of the VLT, to provide the AO systems GALACSI/MUSE and GRAAL/HAWK-I with four sodium laser guide stars. The 4LGSF will deploy four modular LGS Units at the UT4 Centrepiece. Two key aspects of the 4LGSF design are: (i) new industrial laser source (fibre lasers) with reduced volume, reduced need of maintenance, higher reliability, simpler operation and optimised spectral format for highly efficient sodium excitation, (ii) modular structure of the four LGS Units, composed of the laser and laser launch telescope, capable to operate independently of the others. The final design of the 4LGSF is now complete and the project has entered the manufacturing, assembly, integration and test phase. Furthermore, modular LGS units containing the laser emitter integrated on the launch telescope have already been demonstrated at ESO in the past years, and results will be presented. We believe that having the laser sources as an integral part of a modular unit together with the launching system offers many advantages at the system level, including the avoidance of beam relays, retaining the flexibility to use as many LGS as required independently, and the possibility of building redundancy into the system. We believe that many of these 4LGSF concepts can serve for ELT multi-LGS-assisted adaptive telescope designs and provide a valuable experience in advance of the E-ELT.

  16. Deep VLT/HAWKI and Keck/MOSFIRE K-band imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Gabriel; Marchesini, Danilo

    2015-08-01

    We will present recently-obtained deep K-band imaging of the first four Frontier Fields, Abell 2744 and MACS 0416 with the VLT/HAWK-I instrument and MACS-0717 and MACS-1149 with Keck/MOSFIRE. The final HAWK-I mosaics reach a depth of K~26 AB (5-sigma) with superb ground-based image quality ~0.4" FWHM across the field; shorter integrations with MOSFIRE reach K~25 AB and with FWHM~0.5". The 7'x7' HAWKI field of view provides ideal simultaneous coverage of both the HST cluster and parallel fields (with additional area also covered by Subaru optical and IRAC imaging), and the K band at 2.2 µm crucially fills the gap between the deep space-based imaging bandpasses observed with HST and Spitzer. The addition of the 2.2 µm imaging and photometry greatly improves the constraints on both the photometric redshifts and the stellar-population properties of galaxies extending well below the characteristic stellar mass across most of the age of the universe, down to, and including, the redshifts of the targeted galaxy clusters. The reduced, aligned mosaics of all the K-band fields are made freely available to the Frontier Fields community; identical deep HAWK-I observations of the final two Frontier Fields (Abell 370 and Abell S1063) have been awarded and will be obtained in the upcoming ESO observing periods.

  17. Direct detection of scattered light gaps in the transitional disk around HD 97048 with VLT/SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginski, C.; Stolker, T.; Pinilla, P.; Dominik, C.; Boccaletti, A.; de Boer, J.; Benisty, M.; Biller, B.; Feldt, M.; Garufi, A.; Keller, C. U.; Kenworthy, M.; Maire, A. L.; Ménard, F.; Mesa, D.; Milli, J.; Min, M.; Pinte, C.; Quanz, S. P.; van Boekel, R.; Bonnefoy, M.; Chauvin, G.; Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Girard, J. H. V.; Keppler, M.; Kopytova, T.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Langlois, M.; Rouan, D.; Vigan, A.

    2016-11-01

    Aims: We studied the well-known circumstellar disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 97048 with high angular resolution to reveal undetected structures in the disk which may be indicative of disk evolutionary processes such as planet formation. Methods: We used the IRDIS near-IR subsystem of the extreme adaptive optics imager SPHERE at the ESO/VLT to study the scattered light from the circumstellar disk via high resolution polarimetry and angular differential imaging. Results: We imaged the disk in unprecedented detail and revealed four ring-like brightness enhancements and corresponding gaps in the scattered light from the disk surface with radii between 39 au and 341 au. We derived the inclination and position angle as well as the height of the scattering surface of the disk from our observational data. We found that the surface height profile can be described by a single power law up to a separation 270 au. Using the surface height profile we measured the scattering phase function of the disk and found that it is consistent with theoretical models of compact dust aggregates. We discuss the origin of the detected features and find that low mass (≤1 MJup) nascent planets are a possible explanation. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO Programs 096.C-0248, 096.C-0241, 077.C-0106).

  18. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  19. Nonlinear random motion analysis of coupled heave-pitch motions of a spar platform considering 1st-order and 2nd-order wave loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuxiao; Tang, Yougang; Li, Wei

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we consider first- and second-order random wave loads and the effects of time-varying displacement volume and transient wave elevation to establish motion equations of the Spar platform's coupled heave-pitch. We generated random wave loads based on frequency-domain wave load transfer functions and the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) wave spectrum, designed program codes to solve the motion equations, and then simulated the coupled heave-pitch motion responses of the platform in the time domain. We then calculated and compared the motion responses in different sea conditions and separately investigated the effects of second-order random wave loads and transient wave elevation. The results show that the coupled heave-pitch motion responses of the platform are primarily dominated by wave height and the characteristic wave period, the latter of which has a greater impact. Second-order mean wave loads mainly affect the average heave value. The platform's pitch increases after the second-order low frequency wave loads are taken into account. The platform's heave is underestimated if the transient wave elevation term in the motion equations is neglected.

  20. Astronomy4Kids: Utilizing online video forums to teach basic planetary concepts to children (pre-K to 2nd-grade)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Richard L.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed Astronomy4Kids to help cultivate the next generation of scientists by using technology to reach every interested child in both formal and informal learning environments. This online video series fills the void of effective STEM education tools for children under the age of 8. Our first collection of videos discuss many planetary topics, including the following: planet and moon formation theories, solar and lunar eclipses, and the seasonal effect of the Earth's tilt. As education and outreach become a larger focus of groups such as AAS and NASA, it is imperative to include programs such as Astronomy4Kids to extend these initiatives to younger age groups.Traditionally, this age group has been viewed as too young to be introduced to physics and astronomy concepts. However, child development research is consistently demonstrating the amazing plasticity of a young child's mind: the younger one is introduced to a complex concept, the easier it is to grasp later on. Following the philosophies of Fred Rogers, we present children with a real, relatable, instructor allowing them to focus on the concepts being presented.The format of Astronomy4Kids includes short instruction video clips that usually include a hands-on activity that is easily reproduced at home or in the classroom. This permits flexibility in how the video series is utilized. Within formal classroom or after-school situations, teachers and instructors can lead the discussion and activity with help from the video and supplemental materials (e.g. worksheets, concept outlines, etc.). Informal environments permit the viewer to complete the tasks on their own or simply enjoy the presentation. The video series can be found on YouTube (under "Astronomy 4 Kids") or Facebook (at www.facebook.com/astronomy4kids); we have also expanded to Instagram (www.instragram.com/astronomy4kids) and Pinterest (www.pinterest.com/astronomy4kids).

  1. A neutron diffraction study of structural distortion and magnetic ordering in the cation-ordered perovskites Ba{sub 2}Nd{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}MoO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Oonagh M.; Cussen, Edmund J.

    2013-04-15

    The cation ordered perovskites Ba{sub 2}Nd{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}MoO{sub 6} (0.04≤x≤0.35) have been synthesised by solid-state techniques under reducing conditions at temperatures up to 1350 °C. Rietveld analyses of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data show that these compounds adopt a tetragonally distorted perovskite structure. The tetragonal distortion is driven by the bonding requirements of the Ba{sup 2+} cation that occupies the central interstice of the perovskite; this cation would be underbonded if these compounds retained the cubic symmetry exhibited by the prototypical structure. The size and charge difference between the lanthanides and Mo{sup 5+} lead to complete ordering of the cations to give a rock-salt ordering of Nd{sup 3+}/Y{sup 3+}O{sub 6} and MoO{sub 6} octahedra. The I4/m space group symmetry is retained on cooling the x=0.1, 0.2 and 0.35 samples to low temperature ca. 2 K. Ba{sub 2}Nd{sub 0.90}Y{sub 0.10}MoO{sub 6} undergoes a gradual distortion of the MoO{sub 6} units on cooling from room temperature to give two long trans bonds (2.001(2) Å) along the z-direction and four shorter apical bonds (1.9563(13) Å) in the xy-plane. This distortion of the MoO{sub 6} units stabilises the 4d{sup 1} electron in the d{sub xz} and d{sub yz} orbitals whilst the d{sub xy} orbital is increased in energy due to the contraction of the Mo–O bonds in the xy-plane. This bond extension along z is propagated through the structure and gives a negative thermal expansion of −13×10{sup −6} K{sup −1} along c. The overall volumetric thermal expansion is positive due to conventional expansion along the other two crystallographic axes. With increasing Y{sup 3+} content this distortion is reduced in x=0.2 and eliminated in x=0.35 which contains largely regular MoO{sub 6} octahedra. The x=0.1 and x=0.2 show small peaks in the neutron diffraction profile due to long range antiferromagnetic order arising from ordered moments of ca. 2 μ{sub B}. - Graphical

  2. Deep imaging survey of young, nearby austral stars . VLT/NACO near-infrared Lyot-coronographic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Bonavita, M.; Zuckerman, B.; Dumas, C.; Bessell, M. S.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Bonnefoy, M.; Desidera, S.; Farihi, J.; Lowrance, P.; Mouillet, D.; Song, I.

    2010-01-01

    Context. High contrast and high angular resolution imaging is the optimal search technique for substellar companions to nearby stars at physical separations larger than typically 10 AU. Two distinct populations of substellar companions, brown dwarfs and planets, can be probed and characterized. As a result, fossile traces of processes of formation and evolution can be revealed by physical and orbital properties, both for individual systems and as an ensemble. Aims: Since November 2002, we have conducted a large, deep imaging, survey of young, nearby associations of the southern hemisphere. Our goal is detection and characterization of substellar companions with projected separations in the range 10-500 AU. We have observed a sample of 88 stars, primarily G to M dwarfs, younger than 100 Myr, and within 100 pc of Earth. Methods: The VLT/NACO adaptive optics instrument of the ESO Paranal Observatory was used to explore the faint circumstellar environment between typically 0.1 and 10''. Diffraction-limited observations in H and K_s-band combined with Lyot-coronagraphy enabled us to reach primary star-companion brightness ratios as small as 10-6. The existence of planetary mass companions could therefore be probed. We used a standardized observing sequence to precisely measure the position and flux of all detected sources relative to their visual primary star. Repeated observations at several epochs enabled us to discriminate comoving companions from background objects. Results: We report the discovery of 17 new close (0.1-5.0'') multiple systems. HIP 108195 AB and C (F1 III-M6), HIP 84642 AB (a~14 AU, K0-M5) and TWA22 AB (a~1.8 AU; M6-M6) are confirmed comoving systems. TWA22 AB is likely to be a rare astrometric calibrator that can be used to test evolutionary model predictions. Among our complete sample, a total of 65 targets were observed with deep coronagraphic imaging. About 240 faint companion candidates were detected around 36 stars. Follow-up observations with

  3. CLASH-VLT: Environment-driven evolution of galaxies in the z = 0.209 cluster Abell 209

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annunziatella, M.; Mercurio, A.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Nonino, M.; Balestra, I.; Rosati, P.; Bartosch Caminha, G.; Brescia, M.; Gobat, R.; Grillo, C.; Lombardi, M.; Sartoris, B.; De Lucia, G.; Demarco, R.; Frye, B.; Fritz, A.; Moustakas, J.; Scodeggio, M.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Ziegler, B.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The analysis of galaxy properties, such as stellar masses, colors, sizes and morphologies, and the relations among them and the environment, in which the galaxies reside, can be used to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. Aims: We conduct a thorough study of the cluster A209 with a new large spectro-photometric dataset to investigate possible environmental effects on galaxy properties that can provide information on galaxy evolution in cluster hostile environments. Methods: We use the dataset obtained as part of the CLASH-VLT spectroscopic survey, supplemented with Subaru/SuprimeCam high-quality imaging in BVRIz-bands, which yields 1916 cluster members (50% of them spectroscopically confirmed) down to a stellar mass M⋆ = 108.6 M⊙. We determine the stellar mass function of these galaxies in different regions of the cluster, by separating the sample into star-forming and passive cluster members. We then determine the intra-cluster light and its properties. We also derive the orbits of low- (M⋆ ≤ 1010.0 M⊙) and high-mass (M⋆ > 1010.0 M⊙) passive galaxies and study the effect of the environment on the mass-size relation of early-type galaxies, selected according to their Sérsic index; the effects are studied separately for the galaxies in each mass range. Finally, we compare the cluster stellar mass density profile with the number density and total-mass density profiles. Results: The stellar mass function of the star-forming cluster galaxies does not depend on the environment. The slope found for passive galaxies becomes flatter in the densest cluster region, which implies that the low-mass component starts to dominate when moving away from the cluster center. The color distribution of the intra-cluster light is consistent with the color of passive cluster members. The analysis of the dynamical orbits of passive galaxies shows that low-mass galaxies have tangential orbits, avoiding small pericenters around the BCG. The

  4. The VIMOS-VLT deep survey. Evolution of the galaxy luminosity function up to z = 2 in first epoch data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilbert, O.; Tresse, L.; Zucca, E.; Bardelli, S.; Arnouts, S.; Zamorani, G.; Pozzetti, L.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J.-P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mathez, G.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pello, R.; Pollo, A.; Radovich, M.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Ciliegi, P.; Lamareille, F.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-09-01

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy luminosity function from the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) from the present to z = 2 in five (U, B, V, R and I) rest-frame band-passes. We use the first epoch VVDS deep sample of 11 034 spectra selected at 17.5 ≤ IAB ≤ 24.0, on which we apply the Algorithm for Luminosity Function (ALF), described in this paper. We observe a substantial evolution with redshift of the global luminosity functions in all bands. From z = 0.05 to z = 2, we measure a brightening of the characteristic magnitude M* included in the magnitude range 1.8-2.5, 1.7-2.4, 1.2-1.9, 1.1-1.8 and 1.0-1.6 in the U, B, V, R and I rest-frame bands, respectively. We confirm this differential evolution of the luminosity function with rest-frame wavelength from the measurement of the comoving density of bright galaxies (M ≤ M*(z = 0.1)). This density increases by a factor of around 2.6, 2.2, 1.8, 1.5, 1.5 between z=0.05 and z=1 in the U, B, V, R, I bands, respectively. We also measure a possible steepening of the faint-end slope of the luminosity functions, with Δα ˜ -0.3 between z=0.05 and z=1, similar in all bands.