Science.gov

Sample records for 2nd generation vlt

  1. 2nd Generation ELT Performance Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimson, Chad M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Search And Rescue is supporting RTCA SC-229 with research and recommendations for performance specifications for the 2nd generation of emergency locator transmitters. Areas for improvement and methods for collecting data will be presented.

  2. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  3. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Definition Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert M.; Stucker, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Mid-Term Report summarizes the status of Kelly Space & Technology's activities during the first two and one half months of the program. This report was presented to the cognoscente Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) and selected Marshall Space Flight Center staff members on 26 September 2000. The report has been approved and is distributed on CD-ROM (as a PowerPoint file) in accordance with the terms of the subject contract, and contains information and data addressing the following: (1) Launch services demand and requirements; (2) Architecture, alternatives, and requirements; (3) Costs, pricing, and business cases analysis; (4) Commercial financing requirements, plans, and strategy; (5) System engineering processes and derived requirements; and (6) RLV system trade studies and design analysis.

  4. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle NASA Led Propulsion Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Design, development and test of a 2nd generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is presented. This current paper discusses the following: 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project, Overview of NASA Led Tasks in Propulsion, Gen2 Turbo Machinery Technology Demonstrator, and Combustion Devices Test Bed, GRCop-84 Sheet For Combustion Chambers, Nozzles and Large Actively Cooled Structures

  5. 2nd Generation RLV: Program Goals and Acquisition Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. Bart; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The risk to loss of life for Space Shuttle crewmembers is approximately one in 245 missions. U.S. launch service providers captured nearly 100%, of the commercial launch market revenues in the mid 1980s. Today, the U.S. captures less than 50% of that market. A launch system architecture is needed that will dramatically increase the safety of space flight while significantly reducing the cost. NASA's Space Launch Initiative, which is implemented by the 2nd Generation RLV Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center, seeks to develop technology and reusable launch vehicle concepts which satisfy the commercial launch market needs and the unique needs of NASA. Presented in this paper are the five primary elements of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan along with the highest level goals and the acquisition strategy of the 2nd Generation RLV Program. Approval of the Space Launch Initiative FY01 budget of $290M is seen as a major commitment by the Agency and the Nation to realize the commercial potential that space offers and to move forward in the exploration of space.

  6. The MUSE second-generation VLT instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, R.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bauer, S.; Biswas, I.; Blaizot, J.; Boudon, D.; Brau-Nogue, S.; Brinchmann, J.; Caillier, P.; Capoani, L.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Couderc, P.; Daguisé, E.; Deiries, S.; Delabre, B.; Dreizler, S.; Dubois, J.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; Emsellem, E.; Fechner, T.; Fleischmann, A.; François, M.; Gallou, G.; Gharsa, T.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Guiderdoni, B.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Le Floch, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Olaya, J.-C.; Pares, L.; Pasquini, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Pelló, R.; Petit, C.; Popow, E.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Roth, M.; Rupprecht, G.; Serre, D.; Schaye, J.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.,; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Yerle, N.

    2010-07-01

    Summary: The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph currently in manufacturing, assembly and integration phase. MUSE has a field of 1x1 arcmin2 sampled at 0.2x0.2 arcsec2 and is assisted by the VLT ground layer adaptive optics ESO facility using four laser guide stars. The instrument is a large assembly of 24 identical high performance integral field units, each one composed of an advanced image slicer, a spectrograph and a 4kx4k detector. In this paper we review the progress of the manufacturing and report the performance achieved with the first integral field unit.

  7. Philips' 2nd generation Novallure LED candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Pei, Zhigang; Yuan, Chuan; Jiang, Tan; Lu, Zhengsong; Wang, Yuqian; Duan, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Yan; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Ye

    2010-08-01

    Finding an energy efficient replacement of incandescent candle lamp has been a technical challenge. Compact fluorescent lamps, for example, can be miniaturized to fit the form factor of a candle lamp but they fail to reproduce its "sparkle" effect. Empowered by solid state lighting technology along with original optical design, Philips has successfully developed LED-powered candle lamps "Novallure" with great energy savings (2W power consumption with lumen output of 55 lumen) and the "butterfly" radiation pattern that mimics the sparkle effect from an incandescent candle lamp. With new high performance LED packages, novel under-cut prismatic optics and state-of-the-art electronic driver solution and thermal solution, we have developed a 2nd generation Novallure with breakthrough performance: a dimmable 2700K 136 lumen LED candle lamp with CRI 90.

  8. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  9. Aging Studies of 2nd Generation BaBar RPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    The BaBar detector, operating at the PEPII B factory of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), installed over 200 2nd generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in 2002. The streamer rates produced by backgrounds and signals from normal BaBar running vary considerably (0.1- >20 Hz/cm2) depending on the layer and position of the chambers, thus providing a broad spectrum test of RPC performance and aging. The lowest rate chambers have performed very well with stable efficiencies averaging 95%. Other chambers had rate-dependant inefficiencies due to Bakelite drying which were reversed by the introduction of humidified gases. RPC inefficiencies in the highest rate regions of the higher rate chambers have been observed and also found to be rate dependant. The inefficient regions grow with time and have not yet been reduced by operation with humidified input gas. Three of these chambers were converted to avalanche mode operation and display significantly improved efficiencies. The rate of production of HF in the RPC exhaust gases was measured in avalanche and streamer mode RPCs and found to be comparable despite the lower current of the avalanche mode RPCs.

  10. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  11. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  12. Coal-fired generation staging a comeback. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The report is an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in coal-fired power generation. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in coal-fired generation, the challenges faced in implementing coal-fired generation projects, and the current and future state of coal-fired generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal-fired generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in coal-fired generation; An analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of coal-fired generation projects; A description of coal-fired generation technologies; A review of the economic drivers of coal-fired generation project success; An evaluation of coal-fired generation versus other generation technologies; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting new coal-fired generation; and A listing of planned coal-fired generation projects. 13 figs., 12 tabs., 1 app.

  13. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Potential Commercial Development Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Rogacki, John R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The presentation will discuss potential commercial development scenarios for a Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle. The analysis of potential scenarios will include commercial rates of return, government return on investment, and market considerations. The presentation will include policy considerations in addition to analysis of Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle economics. The data discussed is being developed as a part of NASA's Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program, for consideration as potential scenarios for enabling a next generation system. Material will include potential scenarios not previously considered by NASA or presented at other conferences. Candidate paper has not been presented at a previous meeting, and conference attendance of the author has been approved by NASA.

  14. Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-15

    The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  15. Support to 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    In this final report regarding support to the second generation RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) propulsion project office, a list of tasks accomplished is presented. During this period, Lee & Associates, LLC participated in numerous Systems Requirements Reviews (SRR) related to the Cobra development program.

  16. Operations Analysis of the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noneman, Steven R.; Smith, C. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program is developing a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. The program goals include lowering the risk of loss of crew to 1 in 10,000 and reducing annual operations cost to one third of the cost of the Space Shuttle. The SLI missions include NASA, military and commercial satellite launches and crew and cargo launches to the space station. The SLI operations analyses provide an assessment of the operational support and infrastructure needed to operate candidate system architectures. Measures of the operability are estimated (i.e. system dependability, responsiveness, and efficiency). Operations analysis is used to determine the impact of specific technologies on operations. A conceptual path to reducing annual operations costs by two thirds is based on key design characteristics, such as reusability, and improved processes lowering labor costs. New operations risks can be expected to emerge. They can be mitigated with effective risk management with careful identification, assignment, tracking, and closure. SLI design characteristics such as nearly full reusability, high reliability, advanced automation, and lowered maintenance and servicing coupled with improved processes are contributors to operability and large operating cost reductions.

  17. Automated CFD Database Generation for a 2nd Generation Glide-Back-Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pandya, Shishir A.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Tejmil, Edward

    2003-01-01

    A new software tool, AeroDB, is used to compute thousands of Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions for a 2nd generation glide-back booster in one week. The solution process exploits a common job-submission grid environment using 13 computers located at 4 different geographical sites. Process automation and web-based access to the database greatly reduces the user workload, removing much of the tedium and tendency for user input errors. The database consists of forces, moments, and solution files obtained by varying the Mach number, angle of attack, and sideslip angle. The forces and moments compare well with experimental data. Stability derivatives are also computed using a monotone cubic spline procedure. Flow visualization and three-dimensional surface plots are used to interpret and characterize the nature of computed flow fields.

  18. NASA 2nd Generation RLV Program Introduction, Status and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan L.; Smith, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI), managed by the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2ndGen RLV) Program, was established to examine the possibility of revolutionizing space launch capabilities, define conceptual architectures, and concurrently identify the advanced technologies required to support a next-generation system. Initial Program funds have been allocated to design, evaluate, and formulate realistic plans leading to a 2nd Gen RLV full-scale development (FSD) decision by 2006. Program goals are to reduce both risk and cost for accessing the limitless opportunities afforded outside Earth's atmosphere fo civil, defense, and commercial enterprises. A 2nd Gen RLV architecture includes a reusable Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle, an on-orbit transport and return vehicle, ground and flight operations, mission planning, and both on-orbit and on-the-ground support infrastructures All segments of the architecture must advance in step with development of the RLV if a next-generation system is to be fully operational early next decade. However, experience shows that propulsion is the single largest contributor to unreliability during ascent, requires the largest expenditure of time for maintenance, and takes a long time to develop; therefore, propulsion is the key to meeting safety, reliability, and cost goals. For these reasons, propulsion is SLI's top technology investment area.

  19. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  20. Life Cycle Systems Engineering Approach to NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Safie, Fayssal; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd- generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1 -in- 10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. Given a candidate architecture that possesses credible physical processes and realistic technology assumptions, the next set of analyses address the system's functionality across the spread of operational scenarios characterized by the design reference missions. The safety/reliability and cost/economics associated with operating the system will also be modeled and analyzed to answer the questions "How safe is it?" and "How much will it cost to acquire and operate?" The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and

  1. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd-generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  2. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  3. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Control and Irradiated EPC 2nd Generation GaN FETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Results of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  4. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders. PMID:26972324

  5. The planar optics phase sensor: a study for the VLTI 2nd generation fringe tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blind, Nicolas; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Absil, Olivier; Alamir, Mazen; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Defrère, Denis; Feautrier, Philippe; Hénault, François; Jocou, Laurent; Kern, Pierre; Laurent, Thomas; Malbet, Fabien; Mourard, Denis; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Sarlette, Alain; Surdej, Jean; Tarmoul, Nassima; Tatulli, Eric; Vincent, Lionel

    2010-07-01

    In a few years, the second generation instruments of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) will routinely provide observations with 4 to 6 telescopes simultaneously. To reach their ultimate performance, they will need a fringe sensor capable to measure in real time the randomly varying optical paths differences. A collaboration between LAOG (PI institute), IAGL, OCA and GIPSA-Lab has proposed the Planar Optics Phase Sensor concept to ESO for the 2nd Generation Fringe Tracker. This concept is based on the integrated optics technologies, enabling the conception of extremely compact interferometric instruments naturally providing single-mode spatial filtering. It allows operations with 4 and 6 telescopes by measuring the fringes position thanks to a spectrally dispersed ABCD method. We present here the main analysis which led to the current concept as well as the expected on-sky performance and the proposed design.

  6. Enabling the 2nd Generation in Space: Building Blocks for Large Scale Space Endeavours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhardt, D.; Garretson, P.; Will, P.

    Today the world operates within a "first generation" space industrial enterprise, i.e. all industry is on Earth, all value from space is from bits (data essentially), and the focus is Earth-centric, with very limited parts of our population and industry participating in space. We are limited in access, manoeuvring, on-orbit servicing, in-space power, in-space manufacturing and assembly. The transition to a "Starship culture" requires the Earth to progress to a "second generation" space industrial base, which implies the need to expand the economic sphere of activity of mankind outside of an Earth-centric zone and into CIS-lunar space and beyond, with an equal ability to tap the indigenous resources in space (energy, location, materials) that will contribute to an expanding space economy. Right now, there is no comfortable place for space applications that are not discovery science, exploration, military, or established earth bound services. For the most part, space applications leave out -- or at least leave nebulous, unconsolidated, and without a critical mass -- programs and development efforts for infrastructure, industrialization, space resources (survey and process maturation), non-traditional and persistent security situational awareness, and global utilities -- all of which, to a far greater extent than a discovery and exploration program, may help determine the elements of a 2nd generation space capability. We propose a focus to seed the pre-competitive research that will enable global industry to develop the necessary competencies that we currently lack to build large scale space structures on-orbit, that in turn would lay the foundation for long duration spacecraft travel (i.e. key technologies in access, manoeuvrability, etc.). This paper will posit a vision-to-reality for a step wise approach to the types of activities the US and global space providers could embark upon to lay the foundation for the 2nd generation of Earth in space.

  7. The New 2nd-Generation SRF R&D Facility at Jefferson Lab: TEDF

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Reilly, Anthony V.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a near-complete renovation of the SRF-based accelerator research and development facilities at Jefferson Lab. The project to accomplish this, the Technical and Engineering Development Facility (TEDF) Project has completed the first of two phases. An entirely new 3,100 m{sup 2} purpose-built SRF technical work facility has been constructed and was occupied in summer of 2012. All SRF work processes with the exception of cryogenic testing have been relocated into the new building. All cavity fabrication, processing, thermal treatment, chemistry, cleaning, and assembly work is collected conveniently into a new LEED-certified building. An innovatively designed 800 m2 cleanroom/chemroom suite provides long-term flexibility for support of multiple R&D and construction projects as well as continued process evolution. The characteristics of this first 2nd-generation SRF facility are described.

  8. Computer Generation of Subduction Frequencies for 2ND Order Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deonarine, Samaroo

    The Landau theory of 2nd order phase transitions and Group theory Criteria are used to predict which subgroups G (L-HOOK EQ) G(,0) can occur in transitions for 2-D systems (plane-group to plane-group and diperiodic to diperiodic). Previous work 1 on the 17 plane space groups has been based on the tables of Coxeter & Moser 2 and the International Tables of X-ray Crystallography (ITXRC, 1965) 3 . These tables do not exhaust all the possible subgroups of a space group 4 . Since such explicit tables are non-existent for other families of space groups we have developed algorithms that make a systematic search of the parent unit cell of G(,0) to locate the origin and orientation of all its subgroups G, G (L-HOOK EQ) G(,0). We have written a RATFOR/FORTRAN program for the VAX 11-780 which will generate the subduction frequencies. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). for allowed second order phase transitions in 2-dimensional systems that are describable by the 80 diperiodic Groups G(,0) and G 5 . Our program gives a complete tabulation (Origin, new Translation Sublattice, Subduction Frequency, Subgroup and its Generators) of the allowed continuous or second order phase transitions from a parent diperiodic group G(,0) to another diperiodic subgroup G.

  9. Improved beam spot measurements in the 2nd generation proton beam writing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yong; van Mourik, Martin W.; Santhana Raman, P.; van Kan, Jeroen A.

    2013-07-01

    Nanosized ion beams (especially proton and helium) play a pivotal role in the field of ion beam lithography and ion beam analysis. Proton beam writing has shown lithographic details down to the 20 nm level, limited by the proton beam spot size. Introducing a smaller spot size will allow smaller lithographic features. Smaller probe sizes, will also drastically improve the spatial resolution for ion beam analysis techniques. Among many other requirements, having an ideal resolution standard, used for beam focusing and a reliable focusing method, is an important pre-requisite for sub-10 nm beam spot focusing. In this paper we present the fabrication processes of a free-standing resolution standard with reduced side-wall projection and high side-wall verticality. The resulting grid is orthogonal (90.0° ± 0.1), has smooth edges with better than 6 nm side-wall projection. The new resolution standard has been used in focusing a 2 MeV H2+ beam in the 2nd generation PBW system at Center for Ion Beam Applications, NUS. The beam size has been characterized using on- and off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) and ion induced secondary electron detection, carried out with a newly installed micro channel plate electron detector. The latter has been shown to be a realistic alternative to STIM measurements, as the drawback of PIN diode detector damage is alleviated. With these improvements we show reproducible beam focusing down to 14 nm.

  10. BMI differences in 1st and 2nd generation immigrants of Asian and European origin to Australia.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Morgan, Lawrie

    2011-01-01

    We estimate assimilation of immigrants' body mass index (BMI) to the host population of Australia over one generation, conducting separate analyses for immigrants from 7 regions of Europe and Asia. We use quantile regressions to allow for differing impact of generational status across 19 quantiles of BMI from under-weight to morbidly obese individuals. We find that 1st generation South European immigrants have higher, and South and East Asian immigrants have lower BMI than Australians, but have assimilated to the BMI of their hosts in the 2nd generation. There are no or only small BMI differences between Australians and 1st and 2nd generation immigrants from East Europe, North-West Europe, Middle East and Pacific regions. We conclude that both upward and downward assimilation in some immigrant groups is most likely caused by factors which can change over one generation (such as acculturation), and not factors which would take longer to change (such as genetics). Our results suggest that public health policies targeting the lifestyles of well educated Asian immigrants may be effective in preventing BMI increase in this subgroup. PMID:20869292

  11. Time resolved 2nd harmonic generation at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Sanjay; Eom, Chang-Beom; Ryu, Sangwoo; Cen, Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Ultrafast spectroscopy can produce information of carrier/lattice dynamics, which is especially valuable for understanding phase transitions at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) are both associated with wide band gap, which allows deep penetration of commonly used laser wavelengths and therefore usually leads to overwhelming bulk signal background. Here we report a time resolved study of a 2nd harmonic generation (SHG) signal resulting from impulsive below-the-band-gap optical pumping. The nonlinear nature of the signal enables us to probe the interface directly. Output of a home built Ti:Sapphire laser and BBO crystal were used to generate 30fs pulses of two colors (405nm and 810nm). The 405nm pulse was used to pump the LAO/STO interfaces, while 2nd harmonics of the 810nm pulse generated at the interfaces was probed as a function of the time delay. Signals from samples with varying LAO thicknesses clearly correlates to the metal-insulator transition. Distinct time dependent signals were observed at LAO/STO interfaces grown on different substrates. Experiments performed at different optical polarization geometries, interface electric fields and temperatures allow us to paint a clearer picture of the novel oxide heterostructures under investigation.

  12. MUSE: A Second-Generation Integral-Field Spectrograph for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, R. M.; Bacon, R.; Bauer, S.; Boehm, P.; Boudon, D.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Caillier, P.; Capoani, L.; Carollo, C. M.; Champavert, N.; Contini, T.; Daguisé, E.; Delabre, B.; Devriendt, J.; Dreizler, S.; Dubois, J.; Dupieux, M.; Dupin, J. P.; Emsellem, E.; Ferruit, P.; Franx, M.; Gallou, G.; Gerssen, J.; Guiderdoni, B.; Hahn, T.; Hofmann, D.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kollatschny, W.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Lilly, S. J.; Lizon, J. L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pasquini, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Pécontal, E.; Pello, R.; Petit, C.; Picat, J.-P.; Popow, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Reiss, R.; Renault, E.; Roth, M.; Schaye, J.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Stroebele, S.; Stuik, R.; Weilbacher, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Wozniak, H.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation instrument in development for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), due to begin operation in 2011/12. MUSE will be an extremely powerful integral-field spectrograph fed by a new multiple-laser adaptive optics system on the VLT. In its usual operating mode, MUSE will, in a single observation, produce a 3-dimensional data cube consisting of 90,000 R 3000 spectra, each covering a full spectral octave (480-930 nm), and fully sampling a contiguous 1×1 arcmin2 field with 0.2×0.2 arcsec2 apertures. A high-resolution mode will increase the spatial sampling to 0.025 arcsec per pixel. MUSE is built around a novel arrangement of 24 identical spectrographs (each comparable to a 1st generation VLT instrument), which are fed by a set of 24 precision image slicers. MUSE is designed for stability, with only 2 modes, and virtually no moving parts, allowing very long exposures to be accumulated. Together with high throughput, this ensures that MUSE will have extreme sensitivity for observing faint objects. We overview the technical and scientific aspects of MUSE, highlighting the key challenges for dealing with the unprecedented quantity and complexity of the data, and the integration with the VLT adaptive optics facility (AOF) - a key development on the path to extremely large telescopes (ELTs).

  13. Impact of Insulin Resistance on Neointimal Tissue Proliferation after 2nd-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Isao; Komatsu, Sachiko; Nakahara, Shiro; Kobayashi, Sayuki; Sakai, Yoshihiko; Taguchi, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is established as an effective treatment for patients with ischemic heart disease; in particular, drug-eluting stent implantation is known to suppress in-stent restenosis. Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for restenosis, so reducing insulin resistance is being studied as a new treatment approach. In this prospective study, we sought to clarify the factors associated with in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention, and we evaluated the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index as a predictor of restenosis. We enrolled 136 consecutive patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention at our hospital from February 2010 through April 2013. All were implanted with a 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent. We distributed the patients in accordance with their HOMA-IR index values into insulin-resistant Group P (HOMA-IR, ≥2.5; n=77) and noninsulin-resistant Group N (HOMA-IR, <2.5; n=59). Before and immediately after stenting, we measured reference diameter, minimal lumen diameter, and percentage of stenosis, and after 8 months we measured the last 2 factors and late lumen loss, all by means of quantitative coronary angiography. After 8 months, the mean minimal lumen diameter was smaller in Group P than that in Group N (1.85 ± 1.02 vs 2.37 ± 0.66 mm; P=0.037), and the mean late lumen loss was larger (0.4 ± 0.48 vs 0.16 ± 0.21 mm; P=0.025). These results suggest that insulin resistance affects neointimal tissue proliferation after 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent implantation. PMID:26413014

  14. STARS 2.0: 2nd-generation open-source archiving and query software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winegar, Tom

    2008-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope is in process of developing an open-source alternative to the 1st-generation software and databases (STARS 1) used for archiving and query. For STARS 2, we have chosen PHP and Python for scripting and MySQL as the database software. We have collected feedback from staff and observers, and used this feedback to significantly improve the design and functionality of our future archiving and query software. Archiving - We identified two weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS archiving software: a complex and inflexible table structure and uncoordinated system administration for our business model: taking pictures from the summit and archiving them in both Hawaii and Japan. We adopted a simplified and normalized table structure with passive keyword collection, and we are designing an archive-to-archive file transfer system that automatically reports real-time status and error conditions and permits error recovery. Query - We identified several weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS query software: inflexible query tools, poor sharing of calibration data, and no automatic file transfer mechanisms to observers. We are developing improved query tools and sharing of calibration data, and multi-protocol unassisted file transfer mechanisms for observers. In the process, we have redefined a 'query': from an invisible search result that can only transfer once in-house right now, with little status and error reporting and no error recovery - to a stored search result that can be monitored, transferred to different locations with multiple protocols, reporting status and error conditions and permitting recovery from errors.

  15. A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

  16. Outcome of Treatment of CML with 2nd Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors After Imatinib Failure

    PubMed Central

    Cornelison, A. Megan; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cortes, Jorge; Jabbour, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Although imatinib revolutionized the management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), recent data indicate a transformation in the treatment approach likely in the near future. For patients who fail with standard-dose imatinib therapy, imatinib dose escalation is a second-line option. However, high-dose imatinib is not an appropriate approach for patients experiencing drug toxicity, and there remain questions over the durability of responses achieved with this strategy. Alternative second-line options include the newer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) like dasatinib and nilotinib. A substantial amount of long-term data for these agents is available. Although both are potent and specific BCR-ABL TKIs, dasatinib and nilotinib exhibit unique pharmacological profiles and response patterns relative to different patient characteristics, such as disease stage and BCR-ABL mutational status. The superiority of second generation TKIs over imatinib in newly diagnosed disease has been recognized as well. They induce high and rapid rates of cytogenetic and molecular response, with less progression to advanced forms of disease in comparison with imatinib. Several investigational agents specific for those patients with the T315I mutation remain under evaluation. The future of CML therapy may include early use of these potent agents to help more patients achieve molecular remission and potentially be a path to a CML cure. PMID:22035738

  17. InAs/GaSb type II superlattices for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Rehm, Robert; Schmitz, Johannes; Fleissner, Joachim; Rutz, Frank; Kirste, Lutz; Scheibner, Ralf; Wendler, Joachim; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-01-01

    InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices (SL) based on GaSb, InAs and AlSb have proven their great potential for high performance infrared detectors. Lots of interest is currently focused on the development of short-period InAs/GaSb SLs for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation infrared detectors between 3 - 30 μm. For the fabrication of mono- and bispectral thermal imaging systems in the mid-wavelength infrared region (MWIR) a manufacturable technology for high responsivity thermal imaging systems has been developed. InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices can be fabricated with up to 1000 periods in the intrinsic region without revealing diffusion limited behavior. This enables the fabrication of InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high responsivity comparable to state of the art CdHgTe and InSb detectors. The material system is also ideally suited for the fabrication of dual-color MWIR/MWIR InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high quantum efficiency for missile approach warning systems with simultaneous and spatially coincident detection in both spectral channels.

  18. Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report 2nd Generation Implementing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-09-14

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document.

  19. Probing Unexplored Territories with MUSE: a Second-Generation Instrument for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Svend; Böhm, Petra; Boudon, Didier; Brau-Nogue, Sylvie; Caillier, Patrick; Capoani, Lionel; Carollo, C. Marcella; Champavert, Nicolas; Contini, Thierry; Daguise, Eric; Dalle, Didier; Delabre, Bernard; Devriendt, Julien; Dreizler, Stefan; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupieux, Michel; Dupin, Jean-Pierre; Emsellem, Eric; Ferruit, Pierre; Franx, Marijn; Gallou, Gérard; Gerssen, Joris; Guiderdoni, Bruno; Hahn, Thomas; Hofmann, Denni; Jarno, Aurélien; Kelz, Andreas; Koehler, Christof; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Kosmalski, Johan; Laurent, Florence; Lilly, Simon J.; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Loupias, Magali; Lynn, Stéphanie; Manescau, Antonio; McDermid, Richard M.; Monstein, Christian; Nicklas, Harals; Perès, Laurent; Pasquini, Luca; Pécontal, Emmanuel; Pécontal-Rousset, Arlette; Pello, Roser; Petit, Chantal; Picat, Jean-Pierre; Popow, Emil; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Reiss, Roland; Renault, Edgar; Roth, Martin; Schaye, Joop; Soucail, Geneviève; Steinmetz, Matthias; Ströbele, Stefan; Stuik, Remko; Weilbacher, Peter; Wozniak, Herve; de Zeeuw, P. Tim

    2006-06-01

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph presently under preliminary design study. MUSE has a field of 1 × 1 arcmin2 sampled at 0.2 × 0.2 arcsec2 and is assisted by the VLT ground layer adaptive optics ESO facility using four laser guide stars. The simultaneous spectral range is 0.465-0.93 μm, at a resolution of R ~ 3000. MUSE couples the discovery potential of a large imaging device to the measuring capabilities of a high-quality spectrograph, while taking advantage of the increased spatial resolution provided by adaptive optics. MUSE has also a high spatial resolution mode with 7.5 × 7.5 arcsec2 field of view sampled at 25 milli-arcsec. In this mode MUSE should be able to obtain diffraction-limited data cubes in the 0.6-0.93 μm wavelength range.

  20. Probing unexplored territories with MUSE: a second generation instrument for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, R.; Bauer, S.; Boehm, P.; Boudon, D.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Caillier, P.; Capoani, L.; Carollo, C. M.; Champavert, N.; Contini, T.; Daguisé, E.; Dallé, D.; Delabre, B.; Devriendt, J.; Dreizler, S.; Dubois, J.; Dupieux, M.; Dupin, J. P.; Emsellem, E.; Ferruit, P.; Franx, M.; Gallou, G.; Gerssen, J.; Guiderdoni, B.; Hahn, T.; Hofmann, D.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kollatschny, W.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Lilly, S. J.; Lizon, J.; Loupias, M.; Lynn, S.; Manescau, A.; McDermid, R. M.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pasquini, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Pécontal, E.; Pello, R.; Petit, C.; Picat, J.-P.; Popow, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Reiss, R.; Renault, E.; Roth, M.; Schaye, J.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Stroebele, S.; Stuik, R.; Weilbacher, P.; Wozniak, H.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    2006-06-01

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph under preliminary design study. MUSE has a field of 1x1 arcmin2 sampled at 0.2x0.2 arcsec2 and is assisted by the VLT ground layer adaptive optics ESO facility using four laser guide stars. The simultaneous spectral range is 0.465-0.93 μm, at a resolution of R~3000. MUSE couples the discovery potential of a large imaging device to the measuring capabilities of a high-quality spectrograph, while taking advantage of the increased spatial resolution provided by adaptive optics. This makes MUSE a unique and tremendously powerful instrument for discovering and characterizing objects that lie beyond the reach of even the deepest imaging surveys. MUSE has also a high spatial resolution mode with 7.5x7.5 arcsec2 field of view sampled at 25 milli-arcsec. In this mode MUSE should be able to obtain diffraction limited data-cubes in the 0.6-0.93 μm wavelength range. Although the MUSE design has been optimized for the study of galaxy formation and evolution, it has a wide range of possible applications; e.g. monitoring of outer planets atmosphere, environment of young stellar objects, super massive black holes and active nuclei in nearby galaxies or massive spectroscopic surveys of stellar fields in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies.

  1. [Modalities of use of ceritinib (Zykadia™), a 2nd generation ALK inhibitor, in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Giroux Leprieur, Etienne; Fallet, Vincent; Wislez, Marie

    2015-12-01

    Around 4% of advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) harbor a ALK rearrangement, with high sensitivity to ALK inhibitor as crizotinib. However, the vast majority of these tumors end with a tumor progression after several months of treatment with crizotinib. Ceritinib is a 2nd generation ALK inhibitor, which showed high efficiency in NSCLC with ALK rearrangement. Results from phase I trial showed a response rate at 58% in these tumors, with a similar rate for previously crizotinib-treated patients or crizotinib-naïve patients. Moreover, cerebral responses were observed with ceritinib. Preliminary date from a phase 2 trial confirmed these results. These promising results allowed a European marketing authorization (autorisation de mise sur le marché [AMM]) since May 2015 for the treatment of advanced NSCLC with ALK rearrangement and resistance or intolerance to crizotinib. PMID:26597476

  2. Efficient 2(nd) and 4(th) harmonic generation of a single-frequency, continuous-wave fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, Thomas; Imai, Yutaka; Masuda, Hisashi; Eguchi, Naoya; Saito, Masaki; Kubota, Shigeo

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate efficient cavity-enhanced second and fourth harmonic generation of an air-cooled, continuous-wave (cw), single-frequency 1064 nm fiber-amplifier system. The second harmonic generator achieves up to 88% total external conversion efficiency, generating more than 20-W power at 532 nm wavelength in a diffraction-limited beam (M(2) < 1.05). The nonlinear medium is a critically phase-matched, 20-mm long, anti-reflection (AR) coated LBO crystal operated at 25 degrees C. The fourth harmonic generator is based on an AR-coated, Czochralski-grown beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal optimized for low loss and high damage threshold. Up to 12.2 W of 266-nm deep-UV (DUV) output is obtained using a 6-mm long critically phase-matched BBO operated at 40 degrees C. This power level is more than two times higher than previously reported for cw 266-nm generation. The total external conversion efficiency from the fundamental at 1064 nm to the fourth harmonic at 266 nm is >50%. PMID:18542230

  3. Performance Evaluation of Electrochem's PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Michael C.; Hoberecht, Mark

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program is being developed to meet national needs for civil and commercial space access with goals of reducing the launch costs, increasing the reliability, and reducing the maintenance and operating costs. To this end, NASA is considering an all- electric capability for NGLT vehicles requiring advanced electrical power generation technology at a nominal 20 kW level with peak power capabilities six times the nominal power. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been identified as a viable candidate to supply this electrical power; however, several technology aspects need to be assessed. Electrochem, Inc., under contract to NASA, has developed a breadboard power generator to address these technical issues with the goal of maximizing the system reliability while minimizing the cost and system complexity. This breadboard generator operates with dry hydrogen and oxygen gas using eductors to recirculate the gases eliminating gas humidification and blowers from the system. Except for a coolant pump, the system design incorporates passive components allowing the fuel cell to readily follow a duty cycle profile and that may operate at high 6:1 peak power levels for 30 second durations. Performance data of the fuel cell stack along with system performance is presented to highlight the benefits of the fuel cell stack design and system design for NGLT vehicles.

  4. Advances with the new AIMS fab 193 2nd generation: a system for the 65 nm node including immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibold, Axel M.; Poortinga, E.; Doornmalen, H. v.; Schmid, R.; Scherubl, T.; Harnisch, W.

    2005-06-01

    The Aerial Image Measurement System, AIMS, for 193nm lithography emulation is established as a standard for the rapid prediction of wafer printability for critical structures including dense patterns and defects or repairs on masks. The main benefit of AIMS is to save expensive image qualification consisting of test wafer exposures followed by wafer CD-SEM resist or wafer analysis. By adjustment of numerical aperture (NA), illumination type and partial coherence (σ) to match any given stepper/ scanner, AIMS predicts the printability of 193nm reticles such as binary with, or without OPC and phase shifting. A new AIMS fab 193 second generation system with a maximum NA of 0.93 is now available. Improvements in field uniformity, stability over time, measurement automation and higher throughput meet the challenging requirements of the 65nm node. A new function, "Global CD Map" can be applied to automatically measure and analyse the global CD uniformity of repeating structures across a reticle. With the options of extended depth-of-focus (EDOF) software and the upcoming linear polarisation capability in the illumination the new AIMS fab 193 second generation system is able to cover both dry and immersion requirements for NA < 1. Rigorous simulations have been performed to study the effects of polarisation for imaging by comparing the aerial image of the AIMS to the resist image of the scanner.

  5. Autocommander: A Supervisory Controller for Integrated Guidance and Control for the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, J. E.; Lawrence, D. A.; Zhu, J. J.; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical architecture for integrated guidance and control that achieves risk and cost reduction for NASA's 2d generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Guidance, attitude control, and control allocation subsystems that heretofore operated independently will now work cooperatively under the coordination of a top-level autocommander. In addition to delivering improved performance from a flight mechanics perspective, the autocommander is intended to provide an autonomous supervisory control capability for traditional mission management under nominal conditions, G&C reconfiguration in response to effector saturation, and abort mode decision-making upon vehicle malfunction. This high-level functionality is to be implemented through the development of a relational database that is populated with the broad range of vehicle and mission specific data and translated into a discrete event system model for analysis, simulation, and onboard implementation. A Stateflow Autocoder software tool that translates the database into the Stateflow component of a Matlab/Simulink simulation is also presented.

  6. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    SciTech Connect

    Usov, Igor O; Arendt, Paul N; Stan, Liliana; Holesinger, Terry G; Foltyn, Steven R; Depaula, Raymond F

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  7. Study of recovery characteristics of 2nd generation HTS tapes with different stabilizers for resistive type superconducting fault current limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jie; Zeng, Weina; Ma, Jun; Yao, Zhihao; Li, Zhuyong; Jin, Zhijian; Hong, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    The resistive type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is one of the most important superconducting power applications nowadays. As known, this type of SFCL is settled directly in the power transmission line. When a short fault happens, the temperature of the superconductors in the SFCL will increase sharply due to the huge generated heat. This means the superconductors need time to recover the superconducting properties and be ready for the next short fault. So the recovery characteristics become one of the most crucial features of the resistive type SFCL. In this paper, several different kinds of measuring methods are presented to calculate the recovery time of the HTS tapes, and comparison of these methods is also carried out by a standard test. On basis of this, samples with different kinds of stabilizers are used to explore the influence of stabilizer on their recovery characteristics. In addition, the influence of the encapsulation technology is also discussed in this paper.

  8. Comparison of Five 2nd-Generation Supraglottic Airway Devices for Airway Management Performed by Novice Military Operators

    PubMed Central

    Henlin, Tomas; Sotak, Michal; Kovaricek, Petr; Tyll, Tomas; Balcarek, Lukas; Michalek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Five different second-generation supraglottic airway devices, ProSeal LMA, Supreme LMA, i-gel, SLIPA, and Laryngeal Tube Suction-D, were studied. Operators were inexperienced users with a military background, combat lifesavers, nurses, and physicians. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. Devices were inserted in the operating room in low light conditions after induction of general anesthesia. Primary outcome was successful insertion on the first attempt while secondary aims were insertion time, number of attempts, oropharyngeal seal pressure, ease of insertion, fibre optic position of device, efficacy of ventilation, and intraoperative trauma or regurgitation of gastric contents. Results. In total, 505 patients were studied. First-attempt insertion success rate was higher in the Supreme LMA (96%), i-gel (87.9%), and ProSeal LMA (85.9%) groups than in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D (80.6%) and SLIPA (69.4%) groups. Insertion time was shortest in the Supreme LMA (70.4 ± 32.5 s) and i-gel (74.4 ± 41.1 s) groups (p < 0.001). Oropharyngeal seal pressures were higher in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D and ProSeal LMA groups than in other three devices. Conclusions. Most study parameters for the Supreme LMA and i-gel were found to be superior to the other three tested supraglottic airway devices when inserted by novice military operators. PMID:26495289

  9. New approaches for improving the production of the 1st and 2nd generation ethanol by yeast.

    PubMed

    Kurylenko, Olena; Semkiv, Marta; Ruchala, Justyna; Hryniv, Orest; Kshanovska, Barbara; Abbas, Charles; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Sibirny, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Increase in the production of 1st generation ethanol from glucose is possible by the reduction in the production of ethanol co-products, especially biomass. We have developed a method to reduce biomass accumulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the manipulation of the intracellular ATP level due to overexpression of genes of alkaline phosphatase, apyrase or enzymes involved in futile cycles. The strains constructed accumulated up to 10% more ethanol on a cornmeal hydrolysate medium. Similar increase in ethanol accumulation was observed in the mutants resistant to the toxic inhibitors of glycolysis like 3-bromopyruvate and others. Substantial increase in fuel ethanol production will be obtained by the development of new strains of yeasts that ferment sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic feedstocks, especially xylose, a pentose sugar. We have found that xylose can be fermented under elevated temperatures by the thermotolerant yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. We combined protein engineering of the gene coding for xylose reductase (XYL1) along with overexpression of the other two genes responsible for xylose metabolism in yeast (XYL2, XYL3) and the deletion of the global transcriptional activator CAT8, with the selection of mutants defective in utilizing ethanol as a carbon source using the anticancer drug, 3-bromopyruvate. Resulted strains accumulated 20-25 times more ethanol from xylose at the elevated temperature of 45°C with up to 12.5 g L(-1) produced. Increase in ethanol yield and productivity from xylose was also achieved by overexpression of genes coding for the peroxisomal enzymes: transketolase (DAS1) and transaldolase (TAL2), and deletion of the ATG13 gene. PMID:26619255

  10. Optical coherence tomography analysis of the stent strut and prediction of resolved strut malapposition at 3 months after 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Daisuke; Miyahara, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Naoki; Fukuoka, Shusuke; Sakai, Masataka; Dohi, Kaoru; Ito, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    Our objective was to clarify whether thrombogenic problems with stent struts are resolved at 3 months after 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent implantation. Twenty-one patients with stable angina pectoris having 28 (22 zotarolimus-eluting, 6 everolimus-eluting) stents with optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were evaluated. Stent strut coverage and malapposition were evaluated by OCT immediately after PCI and at 3-month follow-up. Acute strut malapposition was observed in 26 out of 28 analyzed stents (92.9 %). At 3-month follow-up, 7 (26.9 %) of those 26 stents with strut malapposition were completely resolved, and the mean percentages of uncovered struts and malapposed struts were 8.3 and 2.0 % when analyzed by each individual stent. When analyzing a total of 30,060 struts, 807 struts (2.7 %) demonstrated acute strut malapposition. Among these, 219 struts (27.1 %) demonstrated persistent strut malapposition. On the basis of receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, a strut-to-vessel (S-V) distance ≤160 µm on post-stenting OCT images was the corresponding cutoff point for resolved malapposed struts (sensitivity 78.1 %, specificity 62.8 %, area under the curve 0.758). The S-V distance of persistent malapposed struts on post-stenting OCT images was longer than that of resolved malapposed struts (235 ± 112 vs. 176 ± 93 µm, p < 0.01). At 3 months after PCI, the prevalence rates of uncovered and malapposed struts were relatively low in 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent. Our results suggest that OCT-guide PCI with an S-V distance ≤160 µm may be recommended especially in patients with planed short-term DAPT. PMID:26334709

  11. Space Ops 2002: Bringing Space Operations into the 21st Century. Track 3: Operations, Mission Planning and Control. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle-Concepts for Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    With the successful implementation of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enters a new era of opportunity for scientific research. The ISS provides a working laboratory in space, with tremendous capabilities for scientific research. Utilization of these capabilities requires a launch system capable of routinely transporting crew and logistics to/from the ISS, as well as supporting ISS assembly and maintenance tasks. The Space Shuttle serves as NASA's launch system for performing these functions. The Space Shuttle also serves as NASA's launch system for supporting other science and servicing missions that require a human presence in space. The Space Shuttle provides proof that reusable launch vehicles are technically and physically implementable. However, a couple of problems faced by NASA are the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining the Space Shuttle and its relative inability to support high launch rates. The 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV) is NASA's solution to this problem. The 2nd Gen RLV will provide a robust launch system with increased safety, improved reliability and performance, and less cost. The improved performance and reduced costs of the 2nd Gen RLV will free up resources currently spent on launch services. These resource savings can then be applied to scientific research, which in turn can be supported by the higher launch rate capability of the 2nd Gen RLV. The result is a win - win situation for science and NASA. While meeting NASA's needs, the 2nd Gen RLV also provides the United States aerospace industry with a commercially viable launch capability. One of the keys to achieving the goals of the 2nd Gen RLV is to develop and implement new technologies and processes in the area of flight operations. NASA's experience in operating the Space Shuttle and the ISS has brought to light several areas where automation can be used to augment or eliminate functions

  12. Delivery of the Second Generation VLT Secondary Mirror (M2) Unit to ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, R.; Vernet, E.; Madec, P.-Y.; Lizon, J.-L.; Duhoux, P.; Conzelmann, R.; Hubin, N.; Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Pescoller, D.; Mair, C.; Picin, F.; Gallieni, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Mantegazza, M.; Fumi, L.; Riccardi, A.; Briguglio, R.; Poutriquet, F.; Ruch, E.; Rinchet, A.; Carré, J.-F.; Fappani, D.

    2013-03-01

    The deformable secondary mirror (DSM), one of the key systems of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF), has been delivered to ESO. It has been fully qualified in standalone mode and has successfully passed the technical acceptance Europe. Recently it was installed on ASSIST, the test bench for the AOF, and will undergo optical tests, which will complete its preliminary acceptance in Europe. With its 1170 actuators and 1.1-metre thin-shell mirror, it constitutes the largest adaptive optics mirror ever produced. The DSM constitutes a fine accomplishment by European industry and is set to become the "flagship" of the AOF on Paranal.

  13. New efficient artemisinin derived agents against human leukemia cells, human cytomegalovirus and Plasmodium falciparum: 2nd generation 1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrids.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Christoph; Fröhlich, Tony; Zeino, Maen; Marschall, Manfred; Bahsi, Hanife; Leidenberger, Maria; Friedrich, Oliver; Kappes, Barbara; Hampel, Frank; Efferth, Thomas; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B

    2015-06-01

    In our ongoing search for highly active hybrid molecules exceeding their parent compounds in anticancer, antimalaria as well as antiviral activity and being an alternative to the standard drugs, we present the synthesis and biological investigations of 2nd generation 1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrids. In vitro tests against the CCRF-CEM leukemia cell line revealed di-1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrid 7 as the most active compound (IC50 of 0.01 μM). Regarding the activity against the multidrug resistant subline CEM/ADR5000, 1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrid 5 showed a remarkable activity (IC50 of 0.53 μM). Contrary to the antimalaria activity of hybrids 4-8 against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain with slightly higher IC50 values (between 7.2 and 30.2 nM) than that of their parent compound DHA, hybrids 5-7 possessed very promising activity (IC50 values lower than 0.5 μM) against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The application of 1,2,4-trioxane-ferrocene hybrids against HCMV is unprecedented and demonstrated here for the first time. PMID:25965779

  14. Direct and non-destructive proof of authenticity for the 2nd generation of Brazilian real banknotes via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Franco, Marcos Fernando; Regino, Karen Gomes; Lehmann, Eraldo Luiz; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Using a desorption/ionization technique, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (EASI-MS), documents related to the 2nd generation of Brazilian Real currency (R$) were screened in the positive ion mode for authenticity based on chemical profiles obtained directly from the banknote surface. Characteristic profiles were observed for authentic, seized suspect counterfeit and counterfeited homemade banknotes from inkjet and laserjet printers. The chemicals in the authentic banknotes' surface were detected via a few minor sets of ions, namely from the plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), most likely related to the official offset printing process, and other common quaternary ammonium cations, presenting a similar chemical profile to 1st-generation R$. The seized suspect counterfeit banknotes, however, displayed abundant diagnostic ions in the m/z 400-800 range due to the presence of oligomers. High-accuracy FT-ICR MS analysis enabled molecular formula assignment for each ion. The ions were separated by 44 m/z, which enabled their characterization as Surfynol® 4XX (S4XX, XX=40, 65, and 85), wherein increasing XX values indicate increasing amounts of ethoxylation on a backbone of 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (Surfynol® 104). Sodiated triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TBG) of m/z 229 (C10H22O4Na) was also identified in the seized counterfeit banknotes via EASI(+) FT-ICR MS. Surfynol® and TBG are constituents of inks used for inkjet printing. PMID:25498934

  15. Early onset hypercholesterolemia induced by the 2nd-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Delphine; Mirault, Tristan; Cluzeau, Thomas; Gautier, Jean-François; Guilhot, François; Dombret, Hervé; Messas, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite a well-recognized clinical benefit of the 2nd-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with imatinib-resistant/-intolerant or newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia, recent evidence suggests that nilotinib has a propensity to increase the risk of occlusive arterial events, especially in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors. Given the key role of lipids in cardiovascular diseases, we studied the plasma lipid profile and global cardiovascular risk prior to and during nilotinib therapy in a series of 27 patients in the setting of a prospective single center study. Data from a minimum 1-year follow up showed that nilotinib significantly increased total, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol within three months. Consequently, the proportion of patients with non-optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from 48.1% to 88.9% by 12 months, leading to cholesterol-lowering drug intervention in 22.2% of patients. The proportion of patients with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 40.7% to 7.4% by 12 months. In contrast, a significant decrease in triglycerides was observed. Global cardiovascular risk worsened in 11.1% of patients due to diabetes or occlusive arterial events. Whether hypercholesterolemia was the main driver of occlusive arterial events was uncertain: a longer follow up is necessary to ask whether nilotinib-induced hypercholesterolemia increases long-term risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Nevertheless, given key atherogenic properties of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we conclude that when prescribing nilotinib, commitment to detect lipid disorders at baseline and during follow up is mandatory given their frequency, requirement for changes in lifestyle or drug intervention, and potential for long-term cardiovascular complications. PMID:24658819

  16. The AVES adaptive optics spectrograph for the VLT: status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Delabre, Bernard; Pasquini, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Santin, Paolo; Damiani, Francesco; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Spano, Paolo; Bonifacio, P.; Catalano, Santo; Molaro, Paolo P.; Randich, S.; Rodono, Marcello

    2003-03-01

    We report on the status of AVES, the Adaptive-optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph proposed for the secondary port of the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) recently installed at the VLT. AVES is an intermediate resolution (R ≍ 16,000) high-efficiency fixed- format echelle spectrograph which operates in the spectral band 500 - 1,000 nm. In addition to a high intrinsic efficiency, comparable to that of ESI at Keck II, it takes advantage of the adaptive optics correction provided by NAOS to reduce the sky and detector contribution in background-limited observations of weak sources, thus allowing a further magnitude gain with respect to comparable non-adaptive optics spectrographs. Simulations show that the instrument will be capable of reaching a magnitude V = 22.5 at S/N > 10 in two hours, two magnitudes weaker than GIRAFFE at the same resolution and 3 magnitudes weaker than the higher resolution UVES spectrograph. Imaging and coronographic functions have also been implemented in the design. We present the results of the final design study and we dicuss the technical and operational issues related to its implementation at the VLT as a visitor instrument. We also discuss the possibility of using a scaled-up non-adaptive optics version of the same design as an element of a double- or triple-arm intermediate-resolution spectrograph for the VLT. Such an option looks attractive in the context of a high-efficiency large-bandwidth (320 - 1,500 nm) spectrograph ("fast-shooter") being considered by ESO as a 2nd-generation VLT instrument.

  17. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  18. Happy Anniversary, VLT !

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    Telescopes (UTs) and will in due time also include four moving 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs), the first one of which successfully passed its first tests in January of this year (see ESO PR 01/04). With unprecedented optical resolution and unsurpassed surface area, the VLT produces extremely sharp images and can record light from the faintest and most remote objects in the Universe. It works at the limit of modern technology, regularly allowing the scientists to peer into new and unknown territories in the immense Universe. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. For this reason, the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes were positioned in a quasi-trapezoidal configuration. The light beams from these telescopes, at this moment two-by-two, can be combined in the VLT Interferometer (VLTI). It provides the European scientific community with a ground-based telescope array with collecting power significantly greater than any other facilities available at present or being planned, offering imaging and spectroscopy capabilities at visible and infrared wavelengths. Seven of the planned ten first-generation astronomical instruments are now in operation at the VLT. They cover all major observing modes required to tackle current "hot", front-line research topics: * the multi-mode instrument FORS1 (FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph) and its twin, FORS2, * the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) cryogenic infrared imager and spectrometer, * the UVES (Ultra-violet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph) high-dispersion spectrograph, * the NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics facility producing images as sharp as if taken in space [2], * the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) four-channel multiobject spectrograph and imager - allowing to obtain low-resolution spectra of up to 1000 galaxies at a time * the Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) that offers the unique capability to study

  19. Happy Anniversary, VLT !

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    Telescopes (UTs) and will in due time also include four moving 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs), the first one of which successfully passed its first tests in January of this year (see ESO PR 01/04). With unprecedented optical resolution and unsurpassed surface area, the VLT produces extremely sharp images and can record light from the faintest and most remote objects in the Universe. It works at the limit of modern technology, regularly allowing the scientists to peer into new and unknown territories in the immense Universe. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. For this reason, the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes were positioned in a quasi-trapezoidal configuration. The light beams from these telescopes, at this moment two-by-two, can be combined in the VLT Interferometer (VLTI). It provides the European scientific community with a ground-based telescope array with collecting power significantly greater than any other facilities available at present or being planned, offering imaging and spectroscopy capabilities at visible and infrared wavelengths. Seven of the planned ten first-generation astronomical instruments are now in operation at the VLT. They cover all major observing modes required to tackle current "hot", front-line research topics: * the multi-mode instrument FORS1 (FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph) and its twin, FORS2, * the Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) cryogenic infrared imager and spectrometer, * the UVES (Ultra-violet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph) high-dispersion spectrograph, * the NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics facility producing images as sharp as if taken in space [2], * the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) four-channel multiobject spectrograph and imager - allowing to obtain low-resolution spectra of up to 1000 galaxies at a time * the Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) that offers the unique capability to study

  20. MUSE alignment onto VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success

  1. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: II. Air quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management on air quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health using a second generation of Environmentally Superior Technology. The second generation system combines solid-liquid sep...

  2. ESPRESSO instrument control electronics: a PLC based distributed layout for a second generation instrument at ESO VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, V.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Mannetta, M.; Santin, P.; Mégevand, D.; Zerbi, F.

    2014-07-01

    ESPRESSO is an ultra-stable fiber-fed spectrograph designed to combine incoherently the light coming from up to 4 Unit Telescopes of the ESO VLT. From the Nasmyth focus of each telescope the light, through an optical path, is fed by the Coudé Train subsystems to the Front End Unit placed in the Combined Coudé Laboratory. The Front End is composed by one arm for each telescope and its task is to convey the incoming light, after a calibration process, into the spectrograph fibers. To perform these operations a large number of functions are foreseen, like motorized stages, lamps, digital and analog sensors that, coupled with dedicated Technical CCDs (two per arms), allow to stabilize the incoming beam up to the level needed to exploit the ESPRESSO scientific requirements. The Instrument Control Electronics goal is to properly control all the functions in the Combined Coudé Laboratory and the spectrograph itself. It is fully based on a distributed PLC architecture, abandoning in this way the VME-based technology previously adopted for the ESO VLT instruments. In this paper we will describe the ESPRESSO Instrument Control Electronics architecture, focusing on the distributed layout and its interfaces with the other ESPRESSO subsystems.

  3. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: I. Water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New legislation in North Carolina promotes the replacement of old lagoon technology with new Environmentally Superior Technology. Scientists at ARS Florence Center and industry cooperators completed design and demonstration of a second generation treatment system for swine waste that can achieve hig...

  4. The VLT Opening Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, J.

    1999-06-01

    The beginning of the VLT era was marked by two major events: the VLT Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March 1999, preceded by the VLT Opening Symposium on 1-4 March. ESO is indebted to Professor J.A. Music Tomicic, Rector of the Universidad Católica del Norte, for hosting this symposium. Another major event occurred on the night of 4 March: First light was achieved ahead of schedule at Kueyen, the second 8.2-m VLT unit telescope.

  5. Integration of health management and support systems is key to achieving cost reduction and operational concept goals of the 2nd generation reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Phillip L.; Greene, Scott

    2002-07-01

    Our aerospace customers are demanding that we drastically reduce the cost of operating and supporting our products. Our space customer in particular is looking for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle systems to support more aircraft like operation. To achieve this goal requires more than an evolution in materials, processes and systems, what is required is a paradigm shift in the design of the launch vehicles and the processing systems that support the launch vehicles. This paper describes the Automated Informed Maintenance System (AIM) we are developing for NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Our system includes an Integrated Health Management (IHM) system for the launch vehicles and ground support systems, which features model based diagnostics and prognostics. Health Management data is used by our AIM decision support and process aids to automatically plan maintenance, generate work orders and schedule maintenance activities along with the resources required to execute these processes. Our system will automate the ground processing for a spaceport handling multiple RLVs executing multiple missions. To accomplish this task we are applying the latest web based distributed computing technologies and application development techniques.

  6. Control system for the 2nd generation Berkeley AutoMounters (BAM2) at GM/CA CAT macromolecular crystallography beamlines

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, O.; Hilgart, M.; Ogata, C.; Pothineni, S.; Cork, C.

    2011-01-01

    GM/CA CAT at Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is an NIH funded facility for crystallographic structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray diffraction. A second generation Berkeley automounter is being integrated into the beamline control system at the 23-BM experimental station. This new device replaces the previous all-pneumatic gripper motions with a combination of pneumatics and XYZ motorized linear stages. The latter adds a higher degree of flexibility to the robot including auto-alignment capability, accommodation of a larger capacity sample Dewar of arbitrary shape, and support for advanced operations such as crystal washing, while preserving the overall simplicity and efficiency of the Berkeley automounter design. PMID:21822343

  7. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the

  8. [Implications of TCGA Network Data on 2nd Generation Immunotherapy Concepts Based on PD-L1 and PD-1 Target Structures].

    PubMed

    Peters, I; Tezval, H; Kramer, M W; Wolters, M; Grünwald, V; Kuczyk, M A; Serth, J

    2015-11-01

    The era of cytokines, given to patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) as part of an unspecific immunomodulatory treatment concept, seems to have ended with the introduction of targeted therapies. However, preliminary data from studies on treatment with checkpoint inhibitors (e. g. anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1) may point the way to second-generation immunotherapy. The rationale of such immunomodulatory treatment is to stop or interrupt the tumour from "escaping" the body's immune defence. Thompson et al. report that increased protein expression of PD-L1 (CD274/ B7-H1) in tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating immune cells (TILs; lymphocytes and histiocytes) is associated with unfavourable clinical pathological parameters as well as poor survival. In small pilot groups of mRCC patients it was found that increased PD-L1 protein expression in tumours and TILs may be correlated with the objective response to anti-PD-1 treatment. Sometimes, however, a very wide variety of response rates was observed, which raises the question if this can be explained by individual expression levels of PD-L1 (CD 274) or PD-1 (PDCD1).Recently published data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) Network now provide a genome-wide data base that allows us to review or validate the molecular results obtained in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) to date.In this study, we analysed the TCGA KIRC mRNA expression data for PD-L1 and PD-1 for a possible association with clinical pathological parameters and the survival of 417 ccRCC patients.The mRNA expression of PD-L1 in primary nephrectomy specimens revealed no significant association with unfavourable clinical parameters. Interestingly, though, a positive correlation with patient survival was found (HR=0,59, p=0,006).These results, which partly contradict the concept applied to date, point out the necessity to ascertain the characteristics of PD-L1 and PD-1 expression at mRNA and protein

  9. 2nd Generation QUATARA Flight Computer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, Jay; Keys, Andrew; Fraticelli, Jose Molina; Capo-Iugo, Pedro; Peeples, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Single core flight computer boards have been designed, developed, and tested (DD&T) to be flown in small satellites for the last few years. In this project, a prototype flight computer will be designed as a distributed multi-core system containing four microprocessors running code in parallel. This flight computer will be capable of performing multiple computationally intensive tasks such as processing digital and/or analog data, controlling actuator systems, managing cameras, operating robotic manipulators and transmitting/receiving from/to a ground station. In addition, this flight computer will be designed to be fault tolerant by creating both a robust physical hardware connection and by using a software voting scheme to determine the processor's performance. This voting scheme will leverage on the work done for the Space Launch System (SLS) flight software. The prototype flight computer will be constructed with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components which are estimated to survive for two years in a low-Earth orbit.

  10. VLT Science Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzini, Alvio

    Over eight years have passed since April first, 1999, when the UT1 of the VLT started regular scientific observations. These have been incredibly exciting years, with all the four VLT telescopes coming progressively into play, and its ten scientific instruments starting to deliver high quality data. I have been asked to start this timely meeting on how best use the VLT over the next ten years and beyond, by mentioning some of the most exciting results so far achieved with the VLT. So many and in so many disparate areas have been the outstanding VLT results, that it is a great embarrassment to be forced to make a choice. I have then decided to show one result for each of the ten VLT instruments, preferentially when the instrument was pushed to its limits. This exercise may show what fascinating science is just beyond such limits, and draw indications for possible upgrades or new VLT instruments. Inevitably, important instrument modes and science areas have been left out of this brief introductory review. The choice is certainly biased depending on my more or less direct experience, and focuses in particular on two areas, exoplanets and galaxy evolution at 1.4

  11. PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The "PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework, 2nd Edition" provides the foundation for the three international assessments planned as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016: PIRLS, PIRLS Literacy, and ePIRLS. PIRLS represents the…

  12. The VLT Opening Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    Scientists Meet in Antofagasta to Discuss Front-Line Astrophysics To mark the beginning of the VLT era, the European Southern Observatory is organizing a VLT Opening Symposium which will take place in Antofagasta (Chile) on 1-4 March 1999, just before the start of regular observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope on April 1, 1999. The Symposium occupies four full days and is held on the campus of the Universidad Catolica del Norte. It consists of plenary sessions on "Science in the VLT Era and Beyond" and three parallel Workshops on "Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift" , "Star-way to the Universe" and "From Extrasolar Planets to Brown Dwarfs" . There will be many presentations of recent work at the major astronomical facilities in the world. The meeting provides a very useful forum to discuss the latest developments and, in this sense, contributes to the planning of future research with the VLT and other large telescopes. The symposium will be opened with a talk by the ESO Director General, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , on "Paranal - an observatory for the 21st century". It will be followed by reports about the first scientific results from the main astronomical instruments on VLT UT1, FORS1 and ISAAC. The Symposium participants will see the VLT in operation during special visits to the Paranal Observatory. Press conferences are being arranged each afternoon to inform about the highlights of the conference. After the Symposium, there will be an Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March Contributions from ESO ESO scientists will make several presentations at the Symposium. They include general reviews of various research fields as well as important new data and results from the VLT that show the great potential of this new astronomical facility. Some of the recent work is described in this Press Release, together with images and spectra of a large variety of objects. Note that all of these data will soon become publicly available via the VLT Archive

  13. Building the VLT with CAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattri, M.; Brunetto, E.

    1989-06-01

    The Euclid Computer Aided Design (CAD) system from MATRA-Data, installed at ESO Headquarters, is an indispensable tool for VLT design studies. It also allows to "build" the VLT mechanical structure, as shown on these pictures, of an 8 m unit telescope.

  14. 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Martinez, Ed; Arcadi, Marla

    2005-01-01

    Included are presentations from the 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop. The purpose of the second workshop was to continue to unite the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers and mission designers and planners; whose expertise, experience and interests are in the areas of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics of planetary entry vehicles. Mars lander missions and the first probe mission to Titan made 2004 an exciting year for planetary exploration. The Workshop addressed entry probe science, engineering challenges, mission design and instruments, along with the challenges of reconstruction of the entry, descent and landing or the aerocapture phases. Topics addressed included methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed; techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder and Mars MER; upcoming missions such as the imminent entry of Huygens and future Mars entry probes; and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.

  15. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-05-11

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention--the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention--affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer's 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  16. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregrate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention—the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention—affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer’s 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  17. Elements of the Next Generation Science Standards' (NGSS) New Framework for K-12 Science Education aligned with STEM designed projects created by Kindergarten, 1st and 2nd grade students in a Reggio Emilio project approach setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, Nicole

    This paper examines how elements of the Next Generation Science Standards' (NGSS) New Framework for K-12 Science Education standards (National Research Council 2011)---specifically the cross-cutting concept "cause and effect" are aligned with early childhood students' creation of projects of their choice. The study took place in a Reggio Emilio-inspired, K-12 school, in a multi-aged kindergarten, first and second grade classroom with 14 students. Students worked on their projects independently with the assistance of their peers and teachers. The students' projects and the alignment with the Next Generation Science Standards' New Framework were analyzed by using pre and post assessments, student interviews, and discourse analysis. Results indicate that elements of the New Framework for K-12 Science Education emerged through students' project presentation, particularly regarding the notion of "cause and effect". More specifically, results show that initially students perceived the relationship between "cause and effect" to be negative.

  18. Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus If confirmed, cases would be first instances ... investigating a second possible case of locally transmitted Zika infection. On Tuesday, the first possible case of ...

  19. Molecular motors and the 2nd law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhisong

    2014-03-01

    Molecular motors from biology and nanotechnology often operate on chemical energy of fuel molecules in an isothermal environment, unlike macroscopic heat engines that draw energy from a heat flow between two temperatures. Nevertheless, isothermal molecular motors are still subject to the 2nd law of thermodynamics in a fundamental way: their directional motion must cost a finite amount of energy other than the environmental heat even though no work is done; otherwise the 2nd law would be violated. Hence the 2nd law requires a finite energy price for pure direction of molecular motors. But what is the lowest price of direction allowed by the 2nd law? And how does the 2nd law-decreed price of direction limit performance of molecular motors? In the talk, I shall present our theoretical study of the 2nd law-molecular motor link on basis of the accumulated biomotor phenomenology, and also introduce our experimental effort to develop biomimetic DNA bipedal nanomotors following the mechanistic guidelines out of the theoretical study. [Main contents of this talk are from references:] This work is partially supported by FRC grants R-144-000-259-112, R-144-000-290-112 and R-144-000-320-112.

  20. 2nd PEGS Annual Symposium on Antibodies for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mitchell; Royston, Ivor; Beck, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The 2nd Annual Antibodies for Cancer Therapy symposium, organized again by Cambridge Healthtech Institute as part of the Protein Engineering Summit, was held in Boston, USA from April 30th to May 1st, 2012. Since the approval of the first cancer antibody therapeutic, rituximab, fifteen years ago, eleven have been approved for cancer therapy, although one, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, was withdrawn from the market.  The first day of the symposium started with a historical review of early work for lymphomas and leukemias and the evolution from murine to human antibodies. The symposium discussed the current status and future perspectives of therapeutic antibodies in the biology of immunoglobulin, emerging research on biosimilars and biobetters, and engineering bispecific antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates. The tumor penetration session was focused on the understanding of antibody therapy using ex vivo tumor spheroids and the development of novel agents targeting epithelial junctions in solid tumors. The second day of the symposium discussed the development of new generation recombinant immunotoxins with low immunogenicity, construction of chimeric antigen receptors, and the proof-of-concept of ‘photoimmunotherapy’. The preclinical and clinical session presented antibodies targeting Notch signaling and chemokine receptors.  Finally, the symposium discussed emerging technologies and platforms for therapeutic antibody discovery. PMID:22864478

  1. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2G RLV). Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve; Sides, Steve; Kmiec, Tom; Arbogast, Tim; Mayers, Tom; Doehnert, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This is a revised final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  2. VLT instruments: industrial solutions for non-scientific detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhoux, P.; Knudstrup, J.; Lilley, P.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Mannetta, M.

    2014-07-01

    . ESPRESSO is a fiber-fed, cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph that will be located in the Combined-Coudé Laboratory of the VLT in the Paranal Observatory in Chile. It will be able to operate either using the light of any of the UT's or using the incoherently combined light of up to four UT's. The stabilization of the incoming beam is achieved by dedicated piezo systems controlled via active loops closed on 4 + 4 dedicated TCCD's for the stabilization of the pupil image and of the field with a frequency goal of 3 Hz on a 2nd to 3rd magnitude star. An additional 9th TCCD system shall be used as an exposure-meter. In this paper we will present the technical CCD solution for future VLT instruments.

  3. 2nd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, L.

    2014-07-30

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet (ft3) generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  4. With the VLT Interferometer towards Sharper Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    The Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre Opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) European science and technology will gain further strength when the new, front-line Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre (NEVEC) opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) this week. It is a joint venture of the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA) (itself a collaboration between the Universities of Amsterdam, Groningen, Leiden, and Utrecht) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It is concerned with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The Inauguration of the new Centre will take place on Friday, May 26, 2000, at the Gorlaeus Laboratory (Lecture Hall no. 1), Einsteinweg 55 2333 CC Leiden; the programme is available on the web. Media representatives who would like to participate in this event and who want further details should contact the Nova Information Centre (e-mail: jacques@astro.uva.nl; Tel: +31-20-5257480 or +31-6-246 525 46). The inaugural ceremony is preceded by a scientific workshop on ground and space-based optical interferometry. NEVEC: A Technology Centre of Excellence As a joint project of NOVA and ESO, NEVEC will develop in the coming years the expertise to exploit the unique interferometric possibilities of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) - now being built on Paranal mountain in Chile. Its primary goals are the * development of instrument modeling, data reduction and calibration techniques for the VLTI; * accumulation of expertise relevant for second-generation VLTI instruments; and * education in the use of the VLTI and related matters. NEVEC will develop optical equipment, simulations and software to enable interferometry with VLT [1]. The new Center provides a strong impulse to Dutch participation in the VLTI. With direct involvement in this R&D work, the scientists at NOVA will be in the front row to do observations with this unique research facility, bound to produce top-level research and many exciting new discoveries. The ESO VLTI at Paranal ESO PR Photo 14a/00

  5. Evolution of the VLT instrument control system toward industry standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiekebusch, Mario J.; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Knudstrup, Jens; Popovic, Dan; Zins, Gerard

    2010-07-01

    The VLT control system is a large distributed system consisting of Linux Workstations providing the high level coordination and interfaces to the users, and VME-based Local Control Units (LCU's) running the VxWorks real-time operating system with commercial and proprietary boards acting as the interface to the instrument functions. After more than 10 years of VLT operations, some of the applied technologies used by the astronomical instruments are being discontinued making it difficult to find adequate hardware for future projects. In order to deal with this obsolescence, the VLT Instrumentation Framework is being extended to adopt well established Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components connected through industry standard fieldbuses. This ensures a flexible state of the art hardware configuration for the next generation VLT instruments allowing the access to instrument devices via more compact and simpler control units like PC-based Programmable Logical Controllers (PLC's). It also makes it possible to control devices directly from the Instrument Workstation through a normal Ethernet connection. This paper outlines the requirements that motivated this work, as well as the architecture and the design of the framework extension. In addition, it describes the preliminary results on a use case which is a VLTI visitor instrument used as a pilot project to validate the concepts and the suitability of some COTS products like a PC-based PLCs, EtherCAT8 and OPC UA6 as solutions for instrument control.

  6. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  7. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  8. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…

  9. With the VLT Interferometer towards Sharper Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    The Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre Opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) European science and technology will gain further strength when the new, front-line Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre (NEVEC) opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) this week. It is a joint venture of the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA) (itself a collaboration between the Universities of Amsterdam, Groningen, Leiden, and Utrecht) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It is concerned with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The Inauguration of the new Centre will take place on Friday, May 26, 2000, at the Gorlaeus Laboratory (Lecture Hall no. 1), Einsteinweg 55 2333 CC Leiden; the programme is available on the web. Media representatives who would like to participate in this event and who want further details should contact the Nova Information Centre (e-mail: jacques@astro.uva.nl; Tel: +31-20-5257480 or +31-6-246 525 46). The inaugural ceremony is preceded by a scientific workshop on ground and space-based optical interferometry. NEVEC: A Technology Centre of Excellence As a joint project of NOVA and ESO, NEVEC will develop in the coming years the expertise to exploit the unique interferometric possibilities of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) - now being built on Paranal mountain in Chile. Its primary goals are the * development of instrument modeling, data reduction and calibration techniques for the VLTI; * accumulation of expertise relevant for second-generation VLTI instruments; and * education in the use of the VLTI and related matters. NEVEC will develop optical equipment, simulations and software to enable interferometry with VLT [1]. The new Center provides a strong impulse to Dutch participation in the VLTI. With direct involvement in this R&D work, the scientists at NOVA will be in the front row to do observations with this unique research facility, bound to produce top-level research and many exciting new discoveries. The ESO VLTI at Paranal ESO PR Photo 14a/00

  10. Technical Issues Map for the NHI System Interface and Support Systems Area: 2nd Quarter FY07

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-03-01

    This document provides a mapping of technical issues associated with development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) intermediate heat transport loop and nuclear hydrogen plant support systems to the work that has been accomplished or is currently underway in the 2nd quarter of FY07.

  11. The transient nature of 2nd-order stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Robert F; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2008-05-01

    There are currently two competing dichotomies used to describe how local stereoscopic information is processed by the human visual system. The first is in terms of the type of the spatial filtering operations used to extract relevant image features prior to stereoscopic analysis (i.e. 1st- vs 2nd-order stereo; [Hess, R. F., & Wilcox, L. M. (1994). Linear and non-linear filtering in stereopsis. Vision Research, 34, 2431-2438]). The second is in terms of the temporal properties of the mechanisms used to process stereoscopic information (i.e. sustained vs transient stereo; [Schor, C. M., Edwards, M., & Pope, D. R. (1998). Spatial-frequency and contrast tuning of the transient-stereopsis system. Vision Research, 38(20), 3057-3068]). Here we compare the dynamics of 1st- and 2nd-order stereopsis using several types of stimuli and find a clear dissociation in which 1st-order stimuli exhibit sustained properties while 2nd-order patterns show more transient properties. Our results and analyses unify and simplify two complimentary bodies of work. PMID:18407312

  12. VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Mair, C.; Pescoller, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Mantegazza, M.; Gallieni, D.; Vernet, E.; Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Duhoux, P.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Manetti, M.; Morandini, M.

    2012-07-01

    The VLT Deformable secondary is planned to be installed on the VLT UT#4 as part of the telescope conversion into the Adaptive Optics test Facility (AOF). The adaptive unit is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the forthcoming ELT-generation adaptive correctors, like the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been recently assembled after the completion of the manufacturing and modular test phases. In this paper, we present the most relevant aspects of the system integration and report the preliminary results of the electromechanical tests performed on the unit. This test campaign is a typical major step foreseen in all similar systems built so far: thanks to the metrology embedded in the system, that allows generating time-dependent stimuli and recording in real time the position of the controlled mirror on all actuators, typical dynamic response quality parameters like modal settling time, overshoot and following error can be acquired without employing optical measurements. In this way the system dynamic and some aspect of its thermal and long term stability can be fully characterized before starting the optical tests and calibrations.

  13. VLT Images the Horsehead Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Summary A new, high-resolution colour image of one of the most photographed celestial objects, the famous "Horsehead Nebula" (IC 434) in Orion, has been produced from data stored in the VLT Science Archive. The original CCD frames were obtained in February 2000 with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope on Paranal (Chile). The comparatively large field-of-view of the FORS2 camera is optimally suited to show this extended object and its immediate surroundings in impressive detail. PR Photo 02a/02 : View of the full field around the Horsehead Nebula. PR Photo 02b/02 : Enlargement of a smaller area around the Horse's "mouth" A spectacular object ESO PR Photo 02a/02 ESO PR Photo 02a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 485 pix - 63k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 970 pix - 896k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1951 x 2366 pix - 4.7M] ESO PR Photo 02b/02 ESO PR Photo 02b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 501 pix - 91k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1002 pix - 888k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1139 x 1427 pix - 1.9M] Caption : PR Photo 02a/02 is a reproduction of a composite colour image of the Horsehead Nebula and its immediate surroundings. It is based on three exposures in the visual part of the spectrum with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m KUEYEN telescope at Paranal. PR Photo 02b/02 is an enlargement of a smaller area. Technical information about these photos is available below. PR Photo 02a/02 shows the famous "Horsehead Nebula" , which is situated in the Orion molecular cloud complex. Its official name is Barnard 33 and it is a dust protrusion in the southern region of the dense dust cloud Lynds 1630 , on the edge of the HII region IC 434 . The distance to the region is about 1400 light-years (430 pc). This beautiful colour image was produced from three images obtained with the multi-mode FORS2 instrument at the second VLT Unit Telescope ( KUEYEN ), some months after it had "First Light", cf. PR 17/99. The image files were extracted from the VLT Science Archive Facility and the

  14. Two 2nd Circuit decisions represent mixed bag on insurance.

    PubMed

    2000-01-21

    The 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York issued two important rulings within a week on the extent to which the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulates insurance practices. [Name removed] v. Allstate Life Insurance Co. was a plaintiff-friendly decision, finding that the insurance company illegally refused to sell life insurance to a married couple because of their mental disability, major depression. [Name removed]. v. Israel Discount Bank of New York was more defendant friendly and tackled the issue of whether the ADA permits different benefit caps for mental and physical disabilities. PMID:11367226

  15. The VLT Survey Telescope ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, T.; Metcalfe, N.; Chehade, B.; Findlay, J. R.; Irwin, M. J.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Lewis, J. R.; Yoldas, A. Kupcu; Mann, R. G.; Read, M. A.; Sutorius, E. T. W.; Voutsinas, S.

    2015-08-01

    The VLT Survey Telescope ATLAS survey is an optical ugriz survey aiming to cover ≈4700 deg2 of the southern sky to similar depths as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From reduced images and object catalogues provided by the Cambridge Astronomical Surveys Unit, we first find that the median seeing ranges from 0.8 arcsec FWHM (full width at half-maximum) in i to 1.0 arcsec in u, significantly better than the 1.2-1.5 arcsec seeing for SDSS. The 5σ mag limit for stellar sources is rAB = 22.7 and in all bands these limits are at least as faint as SDSS. SDSS and ATLAS are more equivalent for galaxy photometry except in the z band where ATLAS has significantly higher throughput. We have improved the original ESO magnitude zero-points by comparing m < 16 star magnitudes with the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey in gri, also extrapolating into u and z, resulting in zero-points accurate to ≈ ± 0.02 mag. We finally compare star and galaxy number counts in a 250 deg2 area with SDSS and other count data and find good agreement. ATLAS data products can be retrieved from the ESO Science Archive, while support for survey science analyses is provided by the OmegaCAM Science Archive, operated by the Wide-Field Astronomy Unit in Edinburgh.

  16. The design of ERIS for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amico, P.; Marchetti, E.; Pedichini, F.; Baruffolo, A.; Delabre, B.; Duchateau, M.; Ekinci, M.; Fantinel, D.; Fedrigo, E.; Finger, G.; Frank, C.; Hofmann, R.; Jolley, P.; Lizon, J. L.; Le Louarn, M.; Madec, P.-Y.; Soenke, C.; Weisz, H.

    2012-09-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation instrument planned for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF)1. It is an AO assisted instrument that will make use of the Deformable Secondary Mirror and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF), and it is designed for the Cassegrain focus of the telescope UT4. The project just concluded its conceptual design phase and is awaiting formal approval to continue to the next phase. ERIS will offer 1-5 μm imaging and 1-2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with high Strehl performance. As such it will replace, with much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important and popular observing capabilities currently offered by NACO2 (diffraction limited imaging in JM band, Sparse Aperture Masking and APP coronagraphy) and by SINFONI3, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be re-used in ERIS. The Cassegrain location and the performance requirements impose challenging demands on the project, from opto-mechanical design to cryogenics to the operational concept. In this paper we describe the baseline design proposed for ERIS and discuss these technical challenges, with particular emphasis on the trade-offs and the novel solutions proposed for building ERIS.

  17. The crystal structure of ^7Li2ND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubota, Masami; Sorby, Magnus H.; Hino, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Hauback, Bjorn C.; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2008-03-01

    Recently much attention has been given to reversible hydrogen storage materials possessing high gravimetric capacity. Lithium amide/imide systems are promising candidates. Chen et al.[1] found that a mixture of lithium amide and lithium hydride can reversibly store hydrogen up to 6.5 mass% forming lithium imide (Li2NH). Among them, the crystal structure of Li2NH is still controversial. Balogh et al.[2] have reported a cubic structure model. However, this model differs significantly from theoretical structure models. In this work, the crystal structure of the isotopically substituted ^7Li2ND has been investigated by powder neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments. In our data some peaks, which should be a single peak for cubic symmetry, were obviously split indicating a lower symmetry than cubic for lithium imide. The structure of ^7Li2ND will be described. [1] P. Chen et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 107 (2003) 10967. [2] M.P. Balogh et al., J. Alloys Compd. 420 (2006) 326.

  18. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, E.; Smith, M.

    2012-07-26

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  19. Multiple Eyes for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    First System of Deployable Multi-Integral Field Units Ready Summary The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory is being equipped with many state-of-the-art astronomical instruments that will allow observations in a large number of different modes and wavebands. Soon to come is the Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) , a project co-ordinated by ESO. It incorporates several complex components, now being constructed at various research institutions in Europe and Australia. One of these, a true technological feat, is a unique system of 15 deployable fibre bundles, the so-called Integral Field Units (IFUs) . They can be accurately positioned within a sky field-of-view measuring no less that 25 arcmin in diameter, i.e., almost as large as the full Moon . Each of the IFUs looks like an insect's eye and images a small sky area (3 x 2 arcsec 2 ) with a multiple microlens. From each IFU, 20 narrow light beams are sent via optical fibres to an advanced spectrograph. All 300 spectra are recorded simultaneously by a sensitive digital camera. A major advantage of this technique is that, contrary usual spectroscopic observations in which spectral information is obtained along a (one-dimensional) line on the sky, it now allows (two-dimensional) area spectroscopy . This will permit extremely efficient spectral observations of many celestial objects, including faint galaxies, providing detailed information about their internal structure and motions. Such studies will have an important impact on our understanding, e.g., of the early evolution of galaxies , the main building blocks in the Universe. The IFUs have been developed by a team of astronomers and engineers [2] at the Observatoire de Paris-Meudon. All IFU components are now at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) where they are being checked and integrated into the instrument [3]. PR Photo 03a/02 : The GIRAFFE spectrograph in the ESO Assembly Hall (Garching, Germany) . PR Photo 03b/02

  20. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. S.

    2014-02-01

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source.

  1. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Jeong, S H; Kim, T S; Lee, K W; Chang, D H; In, S R; Bae, Y S

    2014-02-01

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source. PMID:24593593

  2. The Second Stellar Spectrum and the non-LTE Problem of the 2nd Kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the radiative transfer problem of calculating the spectral line intensity and polarization that emerges from a (generally magnetized) astrophysical plasma composed of atoms and molecules whose excitation state is significantly influenced by radiative transitions produced by an anisotropic radiation field. The numerical solution of this non-LTE problem of the 2nd kind is facilitating the physical understanding of the second solar spectrum and the exploration of the complex magnetism of the extended solar atmosphere, but much more could be learned if high-sensitivity polarimeters were developed also for the present generation of night-time telescopes. Interestingly, I find that the population ratio between the levels of some resonance line transitions can be efficiently modulated by the inclination of a weak magnetic field when the anisotropy of the incident radiation is significant, something that could provide a new diagnostic tool in astrophysics.

  3. [Microsurgical 2nd toe transfer for catastrophic hand reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Placer, A; Lozano, Ja

    2007-01-01

    The correct reconstruction of the catastrophic hand requires complex surgical techniques. The microsurgical transference of a toe is indicated when all other reconstructive options are shown to be useless for the reconstruction of the required clamp function. In this clinical note we set out the case of a 32 year old man, who came to our accident and emergency department after suffering a traffic accident. After exploration the diagnosis was that of catastrophic left hand, among other policontusions. Urgent surgery was carried out, saving the maximum possible viable structures. The immediate result of this surgery was a hand with 1st, 4th and 5th functional fingers. As the essential clamp function between the 1st and 4th or 5th fingers was not totally satisfactory, we decided to reconstruct the 3rd finger of his hand with his ipsilateral 2nd toe. All pertinent studies to determine vascularisation of the flap were carried out in planning the surgery, and the microsurgical transfer was then realized, which was successful. Today, after a suitable rehabilitation, the patient has recovered a satisfactory function of heavy and fine clamp in the operated hand. Toe to hand transfer is a good option for finger reconstruction and its function. Rehabilitation is the key to functional recovery. PMID:18227902

  4. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Maria L.; Dolganova, Irina N.; Gevorgyan, Narine; Guzman, Angela; Papoyan, Aram; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The ICTP smr2633: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications" (OPTICS-2014) http://indico.ictp.it/event/a13253/ was held in Yerevan and Ashtarak, Armenia, on 1-5 September 2014. The Symposium was organized by the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) with the collaboration of the SPIE Armenian Student Chapter, the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-Pyrkal, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the BMSTU SPIE & OSA student chapters. The International Symposium OPTICS-2014 was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics. This symposium "Optics and its Applications" was the First Official ICTP Scientific Event in Armenia. The presentations at OPTICS-2014 were centered on these topics: optical properties of nanostructures; quantum optics & information; singular optics and its applications; laser spectroscopy; strong field optics; nonlinear & ultrafast optics; photonics & fiber optics; optics of liquid crystals; and mathematical methods in optics.

  5. APTWG: 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. Q.; Shi, Y. J.; Tamura, N.; Jhang, Hogun; Watanabe, T.-H.; Ding, X. T.

    2013-02-01

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to and discussions at the 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held in Chengdu, China, from 15 to 18 May 2012. The topics of the meeting were organized under five main headings: momentum transport, non-locality in transport, edge turbulence and L-H transition, three-dimensional effects on transport physics, and particle, momentum and heat pinches. It is found that lower hybrid wave and ion cyclotron wave induce co-current rotation while electron cyclotron wave induces counter-current rotation. A four-stage imaging for low (L) to high (H) confinement transition gradually emerges and a more detailed verification is urgently expected. The new edge-localized modes mitigation technique with supersonic molecular beam injection was approved to be effective to some extent on HL-2A and KSTAR. It is also found that low collisionality, trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient transition (or transition of higher to lower density and temperature gradients), fuelling and lithium coating are in favour of inward pinch of particles in tokamak plasmas.

  6. Highlights of the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamen; Fatima, Vayani; Fatima, Nazeefa; Das, Sayoni; Rahman, Farzana; Hassan, Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    Following the success of the 1 st Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK, a 2 nd Student Symposium took place on 7 th October 2015 at The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich, UK. This short report summarizes the main highlights from the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium. PMID:27239284

  7. Examples to Accompany "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books, 2nd Edition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

    This book is intended to be used with "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books," 2nd edition (DCRB) as an illustrative aid to catalogers and others interested in or needing to interpret rare book cataloging. As such, it is to be used in conjunction with the rules it illustrates, both in DCRB and in "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules," 2nd edition…

  8. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Doughty, Christine; Gasperikova, Erika; Peterson, John; Conrad, Mark; Cook, Paul; Tiemi, Onishi

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  9. PREFACE: 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO 2008'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, P.; Kolodziej, J. J.; Konior, J.; Szymonski, M.

    2009-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers presented at the 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO2008', that was held in Kraków, Poland, 25-28 June 2008. It was organized jointly by the Polish Chemical Society, Polish Physical Society, Polish Vacuum Society, and the Centre for Nanometer-scale Science and Advanced Materials (NANOSAM) of the Jagiellonian University. The meeting presentations were categorized into the following topics: 1. Nanomechanics and nanotribology 2. Characterization and manipulation in nanoscale 3. Quantum effects in nanostructures 4. Nanostructures on surfaces 5. Applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine 6. Nanotechnology in education 7. Industrial applications of nanotechnology, presentations of the companies 8. Nanoengineering and nanomaterials (international sessions shared with the fellows of Maria-Curie Host Fellowships within the 6th FP of the European Community Project 'Nano-Engineering for Expertise and Development, NEED') 9. Nanopowders 10. Carbon nanostructures and nanosystems 11. Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics 12. Nanomaterials in catalysis 13. Nanospintronics 14. Ethical, social, and environmental aspects of nanotechnology The Conference was attended by 334 participants. The presentations were delivered as 7 invited plenary lectures, 25 invited topical lectures, 78 oral and 108 poster contributions. Only 1/6 of the contributions presented during the Conference were submitted for publication in this Proceedings volume. From the submitted material, this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains 37 articles that were positively evaluated by independent referees. The Organizing Committee gratefully acknowledges all these contributions. We also thank all the referees of the papers submitted for the Proceedings for their timely and thorough work. We would like to thank all members of the National Program Committee for their work in the selection process of

  10. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Baer-Keeley, Melanie; Fortheringham, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development Conference was held in association with Earth Day 1997, five years after the first Interface Conference. Rapid population growth in California has intensified the inevitable conflict between land development and preservation of natural ecosystems. Sustainable development requires wise use of diminishing natural resources and, where possible, restoration of damaged landscapes. These Earth Week Celebrations brought together resource managers, scientists, politicians, environmental consultants, and concerned citizens in an effort to improve the communication necessary to maintain our natural biodiversity, ecosystem processes and general quality of life. As discussed by our keynote speaker, Michael Soule, the best predictor of habitat loss is population growth and nowhere is this better illustrated than in California. As urban perimeters expand, the interface between wildlands and urban areas increases. Few problems are more vexing than how to manage the fire prone ecosystems indigenous to California at this urban interface. Today resource managers face increasing challenges of dealing with this problem and the lead-off section of the proceedings considers both the theoretical basis for making decisions related to prescribed burning and the practical application. Habitat fragmentation is an inevitable consequence of development patterns with significant impacts on animal and plant populations. Managers must be increasingly resourceful in dealing with problems of fragmentation and the often inevitable consequences, including susceptibility to invasive oganisms. One approach to dealing with fragmentation problems is through careful landplanning. California is the national leader in the integration of conservation and economics. On Earth Day 1991, Governor Pete Wilson presented an environmental agenda that promised to create between land owners and environmentalists, agreements that would guarantee the protection of

  11. 1st- and 2nd-order motion and texture resolution in central and peripheral vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Sperling, G.

    1995-01-01

    STIMULI. The 1st-order stimuli are moving sine gratings. The 2nd-order stimuli are fields of static visual texture, whose contrasts are modulated by moving sine gratings. Neither the spatial slant (orientation) nor the direction of motion of these 2nd-order (microbalanced) stimuli can be detected by a Fourier analysis; they are invisible to Reichardt and motion-energy detectors. METHOD. For these dynamic stimuli, when presented both centrally and in an annular window extending from 8 to 10 deg in eccentricity, we measured the highest spatial frequency for which discrimination between +/- 45 deg texture slants and discrimination between opposite directions of motion were each possible. RESULTS. For sufficiently low spatial frequencies, slant and direction can be discriminated in both central and peripheral vision, for both 1st- and for 2nd-order stimuli. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, at both retinal locations, slant discrimination is possible at higher spatial frequencies than direction discrimination. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, motion resolution decreases 2-3 times more rapidly with eccentricity than does texture resolution. CONCLUSIONS. (1) 1st- and 2nd-order motion scale similarly with eccentricity. (2) 1st- and 2nd-order texture scale similarly with eccentricity. (3) The central/peripheral resolution fall-off is 2-3 times greater for motion than for texture.

  12. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  13. Motion control solution for new PLC-based standard development platform for VLT instrument control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, D.; Brast, R.; Di Lieto, N.; Kiekebusch, M.; Knudstrup, J.; Lucuix, C.

    2014-07-01

    More than a decade ago, due to obsolescence issues, ESO initiated the design and implementation of a custom-made CANbus based motion controller (CAN-RMC) to provide, together with a tailor-made software library (motor library), the motion control capabilities for the VME platform needed for the second generation VLT/VLTI instruments. The CAN-RMC controller has been successfully used in a number of VLT instruments but it has high production costs compared to the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) industrial solutions available on the market today. In the scope of the selection of a new PLC-based platform for the VLT instrument control systems, ESO has evaluated motion control solutions from the company Beckhoff. This paper presents the investigation, implementation and testing of the PLC/TwinCAT/EtherCAT motion controllers for DC and stepper motors and their adaptation and integration into the VLT instrumentation framework. It reports functional and performance test results for the most typical use cases of astronomical instruments like initialization sequences, tracking, switch position detections, backslash compensation, brake handling, etc. In addition, it gives an overview of the main features of TwinCAT NC/PTP, PLCopen MC, EtherCAT motion control terminals and the engineering tools like TwinCAT Scope that are integrated into the development environment and simplify software development, testing and commissioning of motorized instrument functions.

  14. VLT Data Flow System Begins Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    Building a Terabyte Archive at the ESO Headquarters The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the sum of many sophisticated parts. The site at Cerro Paranal in the dry Atacama desert in Northern Chile is one of the best locations for astronomical observations from the surface of the Earth. Each of the four 8.2-m telescopes is a technological marvel with self-adjusting optics placed in a gigantic mechanical structure of the utmost precision, continuously controlled by advanced soft- and hardware. A multitude of extremely complex instruments with sensitive detectors capture the faint light from distant objects in the Universe and record the digital data fast and efficiently as images and spectra, with a minimum of induced noise. And now the next crucial link in this chain is in place. A few nights ago, following an extended test period, the VLT Data Flow System began providing the astronomers with a steady stream of high-quality, calibrated image and spectral data, ready to be interpreted. The VLT project has entered into a new phase with a larger degree of automation. Indeed, the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope, ANTU, with the FORS1 and ISAAC instruments, has now become a true astronomy machine . A smooth flow of data through the entire system ESO PR Photo 25a/99 ESO PR Photo 25a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 292 pix - 104k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 584 pix - 264k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2189 pix - 1.5M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 25a/99 : Simplified flow diagramme for the VLT Data Flow System . It is a closed-loop software system which incorporates various subsystems that track the flow of data all the way from the submission of proposals to storage of the acquired data in the VLT Science Archive Facility. The DFS main components are: Program Handling, Observation Handling, Telescope Control System, Science Archive, Pipeline and Quality Control. Arrows indicate lines of feedback. Already from the start of this project more than ten years ago, the ESO Very Large Telescope was

  15. VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT CASCADES TOWARDS FILTRATION PLANT AND LOS ANGELES RESERVOIR - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Cascades Structures, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. MAGAZINE E30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE E-30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL LOOKING TO THE REAR OF THE MAGAZINE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING MACHINE. LIGHT TABLE USED TO CHECK FOR CLOTH DEFECTS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  18. 12. Bldg #13, 2nd floor, interior stone walls w/windows and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Bldg #13, 2nd floor, interior stone walls w/windows and bent pipe thru wall L and light bulbs in ceiling, to NE - Lawrence Machine Shop, Building No. 13, Union & Canal Streets, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  19. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  20. 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159807.html 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic Scientists concerned it ... the United States who was infected with a bacteria that is resistant to an antibiotic of last ...

  1. Front elevation of Rostrum with 2nd Division American Expeditionary Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation of Rostrum with 2nd Division American Expeditionary Force Monument in foreground, view to northwest - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  2. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  3. 73. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STEPPED PLATFORM, BENCHES, AND LIGHT STANDARDS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 21. VIEW FROM INTERIOR OF 2ND FLOOR ARCHED WINDOW WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW FROM INTERIOR OF 2ND FLOOR ARCHED WINDOW WITH HOLLOW STEEL SASH AND POLISHED PLATE WIRE GLASS. THIS WINDOW IS AT THE FRONT OF THE BUILDING. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. "First Light" for the VLT Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    Excellent Fringes From Bright Stars Prove VLTI Concept Summary Following the "First Light" for the fourth of the 8.2-m telescopes of the VLT Observatory on Paranal in September 2000, ESO scientists and engineers have just successfully accomplished the next major step of this large project. On March 17, 2001, "First Fringes" were obtained with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) - this important event corresponds to the "First Light" for an astronomical telescope. At the VLTI, it occurred when the infrared light from the bright star Sirius was captured by two small telescopes and the two beams were successfully combined in the subterranean Interferometric Laboratory to form the typical pattern of dark and bright lines known as " interferometric fringes ". This proves the success of the robust VLTI concept, in particular of the "Delay Line". On the next night, the VLTI was used to perform a scientific measurement of the angular diameter of another comparatively bright star, Alpha Hydrae ( Alphard ); it was found to be 0.00929±0.00017 arcsec . This corresponds to the angular distance between the two headlights of a car as seen from a distance of approx. 35,000 kilometres. The excellent result was obtained during a series of observations, each lasting 2 minutes, and fully confirming the impressive predicted abilities of the VLTI . This first observation with the VLTI is a monumental technological achievement, especially in terms of accuracy and stability . It crucially depends on the proper combination and functioning of a large number of individual opto-mechnical and electronic elements. This includes the test telescopes that capture the starlight, continuous and extremely precise adjustment of the various mirrors that deflect the light beams as well as the automatic positioning and motion of the Delay Line carriages and, not least, the optimal tuning of the VLT INterferometer Commissionning Instrument (VINCI). These initial observations prove the overall concept for the

  6. The 2nd-order Post-Newtonian Orbit Equation of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yu; Fei, Bao-Jun; Sun, Wei-Jin; Ji, Cheng-Xiang

    2008-10-01

    Based on the 2nd-order post-Newtonian approximation under the DSX frame of the general relativity theory, the 2nd-order post-Newtonian orbital equation of light in the axis-symmetrical stationary spacetime is derived, and from this, the angle of deflection of light propagating in the equatorial plane is derived. The obtained results are consistent with those of the Schwarzchild and Kerr metrics within the limits of measuring precision.

  7. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, A.

    1990-12-01

    This report is a manual for the valiant little terminal. Information covered in this report is as follow: an introduction to VLT; installation; starting up; text screen menus; graphics screen menus; introduction to VLT's scripting facility; quick reference section; and troubleshooting.

  8. Automated observation scheduling for the VLT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that, in order to optimize the observing efficiency of large telescopes, some changes will be required in the way observations are planned and executed. Not all observing programs require the presence of the astronomer at the telescope: for those programs which permit service observing it is possible to better match planned observations to conditions at the telescope. This concept of flexible scheduling has been proposed for the VLT: based on current and predicted environmental and instrumental observations which make the most efficient possible use of valuable time. A similar kind of observation scheduling is already necessary for some space observatories, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Space Telescope Science Institute is presently developing scheduling tools for HST, based on the use of artificial intelligence software development techniques. These tools could be readily adapted for ground-based telescope scheduling since they address many of the same issues. The concept are described on which the HST tools are based, their implementation, and what would be required to adapt them for use with the VLT and other ground-based observatories.

  9. Automated observation scheduling for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-08-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that, in order to optimize the observing efficiency of large telescopes, some changes will be required in the way observations are planned and executed. Not all observing programs require the presence of the astronomer at the telescope: for those programs which permit service observing it is possible to better match planned observations to conditions at the telescope. This concept of flexible scheduling has been proposed for the VLT: based on current and predicted environmental and instrumental observations which make the most efficient possible use of valuable time. A similar kind of observation scheduling is already necessary for some space observatories, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Space Telescope Science Institute is presently developing scheduling tools for HST, based on the use of artificial intelligence software development techniques. These tools could be readily adapted for ground-based telescope scheduling since they address many of the same issues. The concept are described on which the HST tools are based, their implementation, and what would be required to adapt them for use with the VLT and other ground-based observatories.

  10. A deformable secondary mirror for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, R.; Biasi, R.; Gallieni, D.; Riccardi, A.; Lazzarini, P.; Hubin, N.; Fedrigo, E.; Donaldson, R.; Oberti, S.; Stroebele, S.; Conzelmann, R.; Duchateau, M.

    2006-06-01

    ESO has initiated in June 2004 a feasibility study to investigate the possibility to retro-fit one of the VLT 8 m telescope with a deformable secondary mirror (DSM). The scope of this effort has been broadened to a concept of Adaptive Optics Facility (adaptive telescope with adapted instrument park). The feasibility study, conducted by MicroGate, ADS Intl and the INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, has been successful (no show stopper identified) and has provided an elegant design of an alternate M2-Unit for the VLT. It features a 1170 actuators DSM based on the voice coil force actuators coupled with capacitive sensors. An 80 kHz internal control loop allows implementing of electronic damping. The simulations performed have shown a fitting error of 62.5 nm rms (r ° = 12.1 cm @ 30 deg. zenith) with a 2mm thin shell and 1.5 kW of heat dissipation. The design shall provide a full stroke of ~50 μm and a rise time of < 1 msec. The DSM will be focused and "centered" by a Hexapod and a bi-positions electro-mechanism will allow switching from Nasmyth to Cassegrain focus configuration. Several features are planned to ease maintenance and diagnostic.

  11. Testing the VLT AO facility with ASSIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuik, Remko; Arsenault, Robin; Boland, Wilfried; Deep, Atul; Delabre, Bernard; Hubin, Norbert; Kolb, Johann; La Penna, Paolo; Molster, Frank; Wiegers, Emiel

    2010-07-01

    The testing and verification of ESO Very Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Facility (VLT-AOF) requires new and innovative techniques to deal with the absence of an intermediate focus on the telescope. ASSIST, The Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator, was developed to provide a testing facility for the ESO AOF and will allow off-telescope testing of three elements of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility; the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the AO systems for MUSE and HAWK-I (GALACSI and GRAAL). ASSIST will provide a full testing environment which includes an interferometric testing mode for the DSM, an on-axis testing mode with a single wavefront sensor and full operation testing modes for both the AO systems. Both natural as well as laser guide stars will be simulated under various asterisms and a realistic turbulent atmosphere will be provided for varying atmospheric conditions. ASSIST passed its final design review and is now being manufactured, integrated and tested and will be operational in mid 2011, in time for first testing with the DSM.

  12. An experimental VLT cryo-cooler instrumentation vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Gerd; Lizon, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-01

    Cryo-coolers are widely used to provide the required temperature levels of ESO's VLT instrumentation suite, mainly for infrared instruments and their detectors. Nevertheless, mechanical vibrations induced by these refrigerator systems became a serious issue over the last years. Especially for the extremely sensitive VLT-Interferometer even micro vibration levels can be critical. As a consequence ESO started some time ago a comprehensive vibration reduction program. Major tasks involved are the quantification of typical cryo-cooler instrument vibration levels and their impact on the VLT / VLT-I optical stability. This paper describes the design, construction and calibration of a dedicated VLT dummy instrument comprising six powerful state-of-the-art 2-stage cold heads and the subsequent comprehensive vibration measurement test campaign. As a result trendsetting cryo-cooler instrument design and operation recommendations are presented.

  13. Severe weather phenomena: SQUALL LINES The case of July 2nd 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschivescu, Mihnea; Tanase, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    The wind intensity plays an important role, among the dangerous meteorological phenomena, to produce negative effects on the economy and the social activities, particularly when the wind is about to turn into a storm. During the past years one can notice an increase of wind frequency and intensity due to climate changes and, consequently, as a result of the extreme meteorological phenomena not only on a planetary level but also on a regional one. Although dangerous meteorological phenomena cannot be avoided, since they are natural, nevertheless they can be anticipated and decision making institutions and mass media can be informed. This is the reason why, in this paper, we set out to identify the synoptic conditions that led to the occurrence of the severe storm case in Bucharest on July 2nd, 2009, as well as the matrices that generate such cases. At the same time we sought to identify some indications evidence especially from radar data so as to lead to the improvement of the time interval between the nowcasting warning and the actual occurrence of the phenomenon.

  14. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  15. The Scientific Return of VLT Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterzik, M.; Dumas, C.; Grothkopf, U.; Kaufer, A.; Leibundgut, B.; Marteau, S.; Meakins, S.; Patat, F.; Primas, F.; Rejkuba, M.; Romaniello, M.; Stoehr, F.; Tacconi-Garman, L.; Vera, I.

    2015-12-01

    An in-depth analysis of the publications from 8414 distinct scheduled VLT observing programmes between April 1999 and March 2015 (Periods 63 to 94) is presented. The productivity by mode (Visitor or Service Mode) and type (Normal and Large, Guaranteed Time, Target of Opportunity, Director's Discretionary Time) are examined through their publication records. We investigate how Service Mode rank classes impact the scientific return. Several results derive from this study: Large Programmes result in the highest productivity, whereas only about half of all scheduled observing programmes produce a refereed publication. Programmes that result in a publication yield on average two refereed papers. B rank class Service Mode Programmes appear to be slightly less productive. Follow-up studies will investigate in more detail the parameters that influence the productivity of the Observatory.

  16. 11 Years of Cloud Characteristics from SEVIRI: 2nd Edition of the CLAAS Dataset by CMSAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; Fokke Meirink, Jan; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Kniffka, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Spatiotemporal variability of clouds is an important aspect of the climate system. Therefore climate data records of cloud properties are valuable to many researchers in the climate community. The passive SEVIRI imager onboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellites is well suited for the needs of cloud retrievals as it provides measurements in 12 spectral channels every 15 minutes and thus allows for capturing both the spatial and the temporal variability of clouds. However, requirements on climate data records are high in terms of record length and homogeneity, so that intercalibration and homogenization among the available SEVIRI instruments becomes a crucial factor. We present the 2nd edition of the CLoud Property DAtAset using SEVIRI (CLAAS-2) generated within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CMSAF), that is temporally extended and qualitatively improved compared to the 1st edition. CLAAS-2 covers the time period 2004-2014 and features cloud mask, cloud top properties, cloud phase, cloud type, and microphysical cloud properties on the complete SEVIRI disc in 15-minute temporal resolution. Temporally and spatially averaged quantities, mean diurnal cycles and monthly histograms are included as well. CLAAS-2 was derived from a homogenized data basis, obtained by intercalibrating visible and infrared SEVIRI radiances (of Meteosat 8, 9 and 10) with MODIS, using state-of-the-art retrieval schemes. In addition to the dataset characteristics, we will present validation results using CALIPSO as reference observations. The CLAAS-2 dataset will allow for a large variety of applications of which some will be indicated in our presentation, with focus on determining diurnal to seasonal cycles, spatially resolved frequencies of cloud properties as well as showing the potential for using CLAAS-2 data for model process studies.

  17. Physics design of the DARHT 2nd axis accelerator cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y J; Houck, T L; Reginato, L J; Shang, C C; Yu, S S

    1999-08-19

    The next generation of radiographic machines based on induction accelerators require very high brightness electron beams to realize the desired x-ray spot size and intensity. This high brightness must be maintained throughout the beam transport, from source to x-ray converter target. The accelerator for the second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility is being designed to accelerate a 4-kA, 2-{micro}s pulse of electrons to 20 MeV. After acceleration, the 2-{micro}s pulse will be chopped into a train of four 50-ns pulses with variable temporal spacing by rapidly deflecting the beam between a beam stop and the final transport section. The short beam pulses will be focused onto an x-ray converter target generating four radiographic pulses within the 2-{micro}s window. Beam instability due to interaction with the accelerator cells can very adversely effect the beam brightness and radiographic pulse quality. This paper describes the various issues considered in the design of the accelerator cell with emphasis on transverse impedance and minimizing beam instabilities.

  18. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  19. Four-dimensional investigation of the 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, O.; Tzallas, P.; Benis, E. P.; Kruse, J.; Peralta Conde, A.; Kalpouzos, C.; Charalambidis, D.

    2009-10-01

    The 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique, widely utilized in directly measuring ultra-short light pulses durations, is examined in detail via model calculations that include three-dimensional integration over a large ionization volume, temporal delay and spatial displacement of the two beams of the autocorrelator at the focus. The effects of the inherent displacement to the 2nd order autocorrelation technique are demonstrated for short and long pulses, elucidating the appropriate implementation of the technique in tight focusing conditions. Based on the above investigations, a high accuracy 2nd order volume autocorrelation measurement of the duration of the 5th harmonic of a 50 fs long laser pulse, including the measurement of the carrier wavelength oscillation, is presented.

  20. Regional Observations of North Korea Explosions: 1st and 2nd Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Shin, Jin Soo; Lee, Hee-Il; Park, Jung Ho; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung; Kim, Tea Sung; Che, Il-Young; Lim, In-Seub

    2010-05-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthally full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of the 1st and the 2nd test data showed that the 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly discriminate these events from two nearby natural earthquakes above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion also indicate the 2nd test had a very large isotropic component. But mb-Ms discrimination, which has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of the 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of both 1st and 2nd tests, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. These variations are mainly due to lateral variation of crustal structures surrounding the test site. Remarkably mb(Lg) showed very linear relationship with mb(Pn). By considering attenuation characteristics according to the propagation path, the variations could be effectively reduced. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of both tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of the 2nd test were much larger than that of the 1st one. The ratio of P-wave amplitudes of two tests showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the

  1. Monitoring North Korea Explosions: Status and Result of 1st and 2nd Tests (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H.; Lee, H.; Shin, J.; Park, J.; Sheen, D.; Kim, G.; Che, I.; Lim, I.; Kim, T.

    2009-12-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthal full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries, and only stations with the distance of 200 to 550 Km from the test site were considered. Irrespective of azimuthal directions of stations from the test site, the conventional discrimination, Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly showed that both tests were explosion. But mb-Ms discrimination did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of 1st test, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of 1st and 2nd test data showed that 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of 1st and 2nd tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of 2nd test were much larger than that of 1st one. The ratio of 1st and 2nd P-wave amplitudes showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the estimated energy or yield were ranged from 4 to roughly 10 times. KIGAM evaluated the yield of 2nd test were 8 times in the average larger than that of 1st one.

  2. DOE performance indicators for 2nd quarter CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a Department-wide Performance Indicator (PI) Program for trending and analysis of operational data as directed by DOE Order 5480.26. The PI Program was established to provide a means for monitoring the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) performance of the DOE at the Secretary and other management levels. This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports generated for the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) by EG&G Idaho, Inc. to meet the requirements of the PI Program as directed by the DOE Standard (DOE-STD-1048-92). The information in this tenth quarterly report, while contributing to a historical database for supporting future trending analysis, does not at this time provide a sound basis for developing trend-related conclusions. In the future, it is expected that trending and analysis of operational data will enhance the safety culture in both DOE and contractor organizations by providing an early warning of deteriorating environment, safety, and health conditions. DOE-STD-1048-92 identifies four general areas of PIs. They are: Personnel Safety, Operational Incidents, Environment, and Management. These four areas have been subdivided into 26 performance indicators. Approximately 115 performance indicator control and distribution charts comprise the body of this report. A brief summary of PIs contained in each of these general areas is provided. The four EG&G facilities whose performance is charted herein are as follows: (1) The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), (2) The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), (3) The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), and (4) The Test Reactor Area (TRA) Hot Cells.

  3. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  4. First Visiting Astronomers at VLT KUEYEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    A Deep Look into the Universal Hall of Mirrors Starting in the evening of April 1, 2000, Ghislain Golse and Francisco Castander from the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées (Toulouse, France) [1] were the first "visiting astronomers" at Paranal to carry out science observations with the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, KUEYEN . Using the FORS2 multi-mode instrument as a spectrograph, they measured the distances to a number of very remote galaxies, located far out in space behind two clusters of galaxies. Such observations may help to determine the values of cosmological parameters that define the geometry and fate of the Universe. After two nights of observations, the astronomers came away from Paranal with a rich harvest of data and a good feeling. "We are delighted that the telescope performed so well. It is really impressive how far out one can reach with the VLT, compared to the `smaller' 4-meter telescopes with which we previously observed. It opens a new window towards the distant, early Universe. Now we are eager to start reducing and analysing these data!" , Francisco Castander said. Measuring the Geometry of the Universe with Multiple Images in Cluster Lenses The present programme is typical of the fundamental cosmological studies that are now being undertaken with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Clusters of galaxies are very massive objects. Their gravitational fields intensify ("magnify") and distort the images of galaxies behind them. The magnification factor for the faint background galaxy population seen within a few arcminutes of the centre of a massive cluster at intermediate distance (redshift z ~ 0.2 - 0.4, i.e., corresponding to a look-back time of approx. 2 - 4 billion years) is typically larger than 2, and occasionally much larger. The clusters thus function as gravitational lenses . They may be regarded as "natural telescopes" that help us to see fainter objects further out into space than would otherwise be possible with our own telescopes. In a

  5. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Maxfield, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  6. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This NERL-Cincinnati publication, “Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition” was prepared as the continuation of an initiative to gather together under a single cover a compendium of standardized laborato...

  7. 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of China (ESC) and Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME) hosted the 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases in Beijing, China, May 23-27, 2011. The theme of the Forum was “Impact of global climate ch...

  8. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  9. Stem cells and cancer immunotherapy: Arrowhead’s 2nd annual cancer immunotherapy conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from academia and industry gathered on April 4 and 5, 2013, in Washington DC at the Arrowhead’s 2nd Annual Cancer Immunotherapy Conference. Two complementary concepts were discussed: cancer “stem cells” as targets and therapeutic platforms based on stem cells.

  10. Evaluation of a Hand Washing Program for 2nd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program.…

  11. The Effect of Using Computer Edutainment on Developing 2nd Primary Graders' Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Abdel Raheem, Azza Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempted to examine the effect of using computer edutainment on developing 2nd graders' writing skills. The study comprised thirty-second year primary stage enrolled in Bani Hamad primary governmental school, Minia governorate. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one…

  12. 70. VIEW OF LIFEGUARD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. VIEW OF LIFEGUARD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT) AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF TEE (RIGHT), WITH VIEW OF PILINGS, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 71. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT), SHOWING VIEW OF PILINGS, LIFEGURD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF TEE (RIGHT), LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. "First Light" for the VLT Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    Excellent Fringes From Bright Stars Prove VLTI Concept Summary Following the "First Light" for the fourth of the 8.2-m telescopes of the VLT Observatory on Paranal in September 2000, ESO scientists and engineers have just successfully accomplished the next major step of this large project. On March 17, 2001, "First Fringes" were obtained with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) - this important event corresponds to the "First Light" for an astronomical telescope. At the VLTI, it occurred when the infrared light from the bright star Sirius was captured by two small telescopes and the two beams were successfully combined in the subterranean Interferometric Laboratory to form the typical pattern of dark and bright lines known as " interferometric fringes ". This proves the success of the robust VLTI concept, in particular of the "Delay Line". On the next night, the VLTI was used to perform a scientific measurement of the angular diameter of another comparatively bright star, Alpha Hydrae ( Alphard ); it was found to be 0.00929±0.00017 arcsec . This corresponds to the angular distance between the two headlights of a car as seen from a distance of approx. 35,000 kilometres. The excellent result was obtained during a series of observations, each lasting 2 minutes, and fully confirming the impressive predicted abilities of the VLTI . This first observation with the VLTI is a monumental technological achievement, especially in terms of accuracy and stability . It crucially depends on the proper combination and functioning of a large number of individual opto-mechnical and electronic elements. This includes the test telescopes that capture the starlight, continuous and extremely precise adjustment of the various mirrors that deflect the light beams as well as the automatic positioning and motion of the Delay Line carriages and, not least, the optimal tuning of the VLT INterferometer Commissionning Instrument (VINCI). These initial observations prove the overall concept for the

  15. Sharpest Ever VLT Images at NAOS-CONICA "First Light"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    diffraction-limited imaging with NAOS-CONICA at a wavelength of 1.257 µm allows to view the individual components of a close double star, here the binary star GJ 263 for which the angular distance between the two stars is only 0.030 arcsec (i.e., the angle subtended by a 1 Euro coin at a distance of 160 km). Spatially resolved observations of binary stars like this one will allow the determination of orbital parameters, and ultimately of the masses of the individual binary star components. After few days of optimisation and calibration, NAOS-CONICA was able to "close the loop" on a reference star as faint as visual magnitude 17 and to provide a fine diffraction-limited K-band image with Strehl ratio 19% under 0.6 arcsec seeing. PR Photo 33i/01 provides a view of this image, as seen in the recorder frame and as a 3D-profile. The exposure time was 200 seconds. The ability to use reference stars as faint as this is an enormous asset for NAOS-CONICA - it will be first to offer this capability to non-specialist users with an instrument on an 8-10 m class telescope . This permits to access many sky fields and already get significant AO corrections, without having to wait for the artificial laser guide star now being constructed for the VLT, see below. 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC - a satellite of our Galaxy) is the most luminous, giant HII region in the Local Group of Galaxies. It is powered by a massive star cluster with more than 100 ultra-luminous stars (of the "Wolf-Rayet"-type and O-stars). The NAOS CONICA K-band image PR Photo 33x/01 resolves the dense stellar core of high-mass stars at the centre of the cluster, revealing thousands of lower mass cluster members. Due to the lack of a sufficiently bright, isolated and single reference star in this sky field, the observers used instead the bright central star complex (R136a) to generate the corrective signals to the flexible mirror, needed to compensate for the atmospheric turbulence. However, R136a is not a

  16. First Images from VLT Science Verification Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    Two Weeks of Intensive Observations Successfully Concluded After a period of technical commissioning tests, the first 8.2-m telescope of the ESO VLT (UT1) has successfully performed an extensive series of "real science" observations , yielding nearly 100 hours of precious data. They concern all possible types of astronomical objects, from distant galaxies and quasars to pulsars, star clusters and solar system objects. This intensive Science Verification (SV) Programme took place as planned from August 17 to September 1, 1998, and was conducted by the ESO SV Team at the VLT Observatory on Paranal (Chile) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). The new giant telescope lived fully up to the high expectations and worked with spectacular efficiency and performance through the entire period. All data will be released by September 30 via the VLT archive and the web (with some access restrictions - see below). The Science Verification period Just before the beginning of the SV period, the 8.2-m primary mirror in its cell was temporarily removed in order to install the "M3 tower" with the tertiary mirror [1]. The reassembly began on August 15 and included re-installation at the Cassegrain focus of the VLT Test Camera that was also used for the "First Light" images in May 1998. After careful optical alignment and various system tests, the UT1 was handed over to the SV Team on August 17 at midnight local time. The first SV observations began immediately thereafter and the SV Team was active 24 hours a day throughout the two-week period. Video-conferences between Garching and Paranal took place every day at about noon Garching time (6 o'clock in the morning on Paranal). Then, while the Paranal observers were sleeping, data from the previous night were inspected and reduced in Garching, with feedback on what was best to do during the following night being emailed to Paranal several hours in advance of the beginning of the observations. The campaign ended in the

  17. Giant Eyes for the VLT Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    First Scientific Results with Combined Light Beams from Two 8.2-m Unit Telescopes Summary It started as a preparatory technical experiment and it soon developed into a spectacular success. Those astronomers and engineers who were present in the control room that night now think of it as the scientific dawn of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) . On October 29, 2001, ANTU and MELIPAL , two of the four VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes at the ESO Paranal Observatory, were linked for the first time. Light from the southern star Achernar (Alpha Eridani) was captured by the two telescopes and sent to a common focus in the observatory's Interferometric Laboratory. Following careful adjustments of the optical paths, interferometric fringes were soon recorded there, proving that the beams from the two telescopes had been successfully combined "in phase" . From an analysis of the observed pattern (the "fringe contrast"), the angular diameter of Achernar was determined to be 1.9 milli-arcsec. At the star's distance (145 light-years), this corresponds to a size of 13 million km. The observation is equivalent to measuring the size of a 4-metre long car on the surface of the Moon. This result marks the exciting starting point for operations with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) and it was immediately followed up by other scientific observations. Among these were the first measurements of the diameters of three red dwarf stars ("Kapteyn's star" - HD 33793, HD 217987 and HD 36395), a precise determination of the variable diameters of the pulsating Cepheid stars Beta Doradus and Zeta Geminorum (of great importance for the calibration of the universal distance scale), as well as a first interferometric measurement of the core of Eta Carinae , an intriguing, massive southern object that may possibly become the next supernova in our galaxy. This milestone is another important step towards the ultimate goal of the VLT project - to combine all four 8.2-m telescopes

  18. Individual Differences In The School Performance of 2nd-Grade Children Born to Low-Income Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apiwattanalunggarn, Kunlakarn Lekskul; Luster, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that contribute to individual differences in the school performance of 2nd-grade children born to adolescent mothers. The sample of this study was 90 low-income adolescent mothers and their children. Data were collected from the adolescent mothers and their first-born children, now in 2nd grade,…

  19. A Milestone for the VLT Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    Less than one month after "First Light" for the fourth 8.2-m YEPUN telescope ( ESO PR 18/00 ), another special moment occurred at ESO's Paranal Observatory. This time, it was the first truly "underground" event, in the 168-metre long Interferometric Tunnel that has been dug beneath the platform at the top of the mountain. As one staff member remarked on this occasion, it was something like "the first scheduled trip of the Paranal metro"! With the successful integration of the first Delay Line on Monday, September 25th, 2000, ESO has accomplished another important step towards the VLT Interferometer (VLTI). It will be followed by the integration of the second Delay Line by the end of November and the third is scheduled for February 2001; both are now in their final development phase in Europe. "VLTI First Light" is then expected to take place soon thereafter, by means of two small special telescopes ("siderostats"). The combination of the light beams from two of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes will happen in mid-2001. The VLTI Delay Lines The VLTI Delay Lines form essential parts of this very complicated optical system. They serve to ensure that the light beams from several telescopes arrive in phase at the common interferometric focus. Details about how they function may be found in ESO PR 04/98. In order to achieve the necessary performance, ESO has worked with two Dutch contractors, Fokker Space and TNO-TPD - Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research - Institute of Applied Physics , to arrive at a totally new Delay Line concept. Another Dutch participant in the VLTI project is the Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre (NEVEC) , cf. ESO PR 14/00. The installation at Paranal The last twelve months have been very busy for the integration team, with much preparatory work at the VLTI buildings for the final installation of the Delay Line systems. The assembly of the translation mechanisms for the first two Delay Lines in the tunnel started in mid-2000. This included

  20. VIMOS - a Cosmology Machine for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Successful Test Observations With Powerful New Instrument at Paranal [1] Summary One of the most fundamental tasks of modern astrophysics is the study of the evolution of the Universe . This is a daunting undertaking that requires extensive observations of large samples of objects in order to produce reasonably detailed maps of the distribution of galaxies in the Universe and to perform statistical analysis. Much effort is now being put into mapping the relatively nearby space and thereby to learn how the Universe looks today . But to study its evolution, we must compare this with how it looked when it still was young . This is possible, because astronomers can "look back in time" by studying remote objects - the larger their distance, the longer the light we now observe has been underway to us, and the longer is thus the corresponding "look-back time". This may sound easy, but it is not. Very distant objects are very dim and can only be observed with large telescopes. Looking at one object at a time would make such a study extremely time-consuming and, in practical terms, impossible. To do it anyhow, we need the largest possible telescope with a highly specialised, exceedingly sensitive instrument that is able to observe a very large number of (faint) objects in the remote universe simultaneously . The VLT VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) is such an instrument. It can obtain many hundreds of spectra of individual galaxies in the shortest possible time; in fact, in one special observing mode, up to 6400 spectra of the galaxies in a remote cluster during a single exposure, augmenting the data gathering power of the telescope by the same proportion. This marvellous science machine has just been installed at the 8.2-m MELIPAL telescope, the third unit of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory. A main task will be to carry out 3-dimensional mapping of the distant Universe from which we can learn its large-scale structure . "First light

  1. VIMOS - a Cosmology Machine for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Successful Test Observations With Powerful New Instrument at Paranal [1] Summary One of the most fundamental tasks of modern astrophysics is the study of the evolution of the Universe . This is a daunting undertaking that requires extensive observations of large samples of objects in order to produce reasonably detailed maps of the distribution of galaxies in the Universe and to perform statistical analysis. Much effort is now being put into mapping the relatively nearby space and thereby to learn how the Universe looks today . But to study its evolution, we must compare this with how it looked when it still was young . This is possible, because astronomers can "look back in time" by studying remote objects - the larger their distance, the longer the light we now observe has been underway to us, and the longer is thus the corresponding "look-back time". This may sound easy, but it is not. Very distant objects are very dim and can only be observed with large telescopes. Looking at one object at a time would make such a study extremely time-consuming and, in practical terms, impossible. To do it anyhow, we need the largest possible telescope with a highly specialised, exceedingly sensitive instrument that is able to observe a very large number of (faint) objects in the remote universe simultaneously . The VLT VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) is such an instrument. It can obtain many hundreds of spectra of individual galaxies in the shortest possible time; in fact, in one special observing mode, up to 6400 spectra of the galaxies in a remote cluster during a single exposure, augmenting the data gathering power of the telescope by the same proportion. This marvellous science machine has just been installed at the 8.2-m MELIPAL telescope, the third unit of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory. A main task will be to carry out 3-dimensional mapping of the distant Universe from which we can learn its large-scale structure . "First light

  2. Performance of 2nd Generation BaBar Resistive Plate Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Anulli, F.; Baldini, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Cheng, C.H.; Lange, D.J.; Wright, D.M.; Messner, R.; Wisniewski, William J.; Pappagallo, M.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Capra, R.; /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Oregon U. /UC, Riverside /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-07-12

    The BaBar detector has operated nearly 200 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), constructed as part of an upgrade of the forward endcap muon detector, for the past two years. The RPCs experience widely different background and luminosity-driven singles rates (0.01-10 Hz/cm{sup 2}) depending on position within the endcap. Some regions have integrated over 0.3 C/cm{sup 2}. RPC efficiency measured with cosmic rays is high and stable. The average efficiency measured with beam is also high. However, a few of the highest rate RPCs have suffered efficiency losses of 5-15%. Although constructed with improved techniques and minimal use of linseed oil, many of the RPCs, which are operated in streamer mode, have shown increased dark currents and noise rates that are correlated with the direction of the gas flow and the integrated current. Studies of the above aging effects are presented and correlated with detector operating conditions.

  3. Validation of the 2nd Generation Proteasome Inhibitor Oprozomib for Local Therapy of Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Semren, Nora; Habel-Ungewitter, Nunja C; Fernandez, Isis E; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Stöger, Tobias; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition has been shown to prevent development of fibrosis in several organs including the lung. However, effects of proteasome inhibitors on lung fibrosis are controversial and cytotoxic side effects of the overall inhibition of proteasomal protein degradation cannot be excluded. Therefore, we hypothesized that local lung-specific application of a novel, selective proteasome inhibitor, oprozomib (OZ), provides antifibrotic effects without systemic toxicity in a mouse model of lung fibrosis. Oprozomib was first tested on the human alveolar epithelial cancer cell line A549 and in primary mouse alveolar epithelial type II cells regarding its cytotoxic effects on alveolar epithelial cells and compared to the FDA approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ). OZ was less toxic than BZ and provided high selectivity for the chymotrypsin-like active site of the proteasome. In primary mouse lung fibroblasts, OZ showed significant anti-fibrotic effects, i.e. reduction of collagen I and α smooth muscle actin expression, in the absence of cytotoxicity. When applied locally into the lungs of healthy mice via instillation, OZ was well tolerated and effectively reduced proteasome activity in the lungs. In bleomycin challenged mice, however, locally applied OZ resulted in accelerated weight loss and increased mortality of treated mice. Further, OZ failed to reduce fibrosis in these mice. While upon systemic application OZ was well tolerated in healthy mice, it rather augmented instead of attenuated fibrotic remodelling of the lung in bleomycin challenged mice. To conclude, low toxicity and antifibrotic effects of OZ in pulmonary fibroblasts could not be confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis of bleomycin-treated mice. In light of these data, the use of proteasome inhibitors as therapeutic agents for the treatment of fibrotic lung diseases should thus be considered with caution. PMID:26340365

  4. The new 2nd-generation laser station at Santiago de Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masevich, A. G.; Chepurnov, B. D.; Fundora, M.; del Pino, J.; Kautzleben, H.

    The new laser-radar station at Santiago de Cuba was equipped in cooperation between the Academies of Sciences of the USSR, Cuba and the G.D.R. The system is based on a modified satellite-tracking camera (SBG). Its basic concept and the technical performance are similar to the laser-radar station of the Central Institute for Physics of the Earth, Potsdam. During a first 6-weeks-observation campaign (Dec. 1985 - Jan. 1986), 70 satellite passes (including 40 passes of the geodynamical satellite LAGEOS) were obtained.

  5. Utilisation of 2nd Generation Web Technologies in Master Level Vocational Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tóth, Péter

    2009-01-01

    The Masters level Opportunities and Technological Innovation in Vocational Teacher Education project (project site: http://motivate.tmpk.bmf.hu/) aims to develop the use and management of virtual learning environments in the area of vocational teacher training, drawing on a well established international partnership of institutions providing both…

  6. Reed canary grass as a feedstock for 2nd generation bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Uusitalo, Jaana; Pahkala, Katri; Kontturi, Markku; Viikari, Liisa; Weymarn, Niklas von; Siika-Aho, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of reed canary grass, harvested in the spring or autumn, and barley straw were studied. Steam pretreated materials were efficiently hydrolysed by commercial enzymes with a dosage of 10-20FPU/g d.m. Reed canary grass harvested in the spring was hydrolysed more efficiently than the autumn-harvested reed canary grass. Additional β-glucosidase improved the release of glucose and xylose during the hydrolysis reaction. The hydrolysis rate and level of reed canary grass with a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase could be improved by supplementation of purified enzymes. The addition of CBH II improved the hydrolysis level by 10% in 48hours' hydrolysis. Efficient mixing was shown to be important for hydrolysis already at 10% dry matter consistency. The highest ethanol concentration (20g/l) and yield (82%) was obtained with reed canary grass at 10% d.m. consistency. PMID:22939601

  7. Validation of the 2nd Generation Proteasome Inhibitor Oprozomib for Local Therapy of Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Semren, Nora; Habel-Ungewitter, Nunja C.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Stöger, Tobias; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome inhibition has been shown to prevent development of fibrosis in several organs including the lung. However, effects of proteasome inhibitors on lung fibrosis are controversial and cytotoxic side effects of the overall inhibition of proteasomal protein degradation cannot be excluded. Therefore, we hypothesized that local lung-specific application of a novel, selective proteasome inhibitor, oprozomib (OZ), provides antifibrotic effects without systemic toxicity in a mouse model of lung fibrosis. Oprozomib was first tested on the human alveolar epithelial cancer cell line A549 and in primary mouse alveolar epithelial type II cells regarding its cytotoxic effects on alveolar epithelial cells and compared to the FDA approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZ). OZ was less toxic than BZ and provided high selectivity for the chymotrypsin-like active site of the proteasome. In primary mouse lung fibroblasts, OZ showed significant anti-fibrotic effects, i.e. reduction of collagen I and α smooth muscle actin expression, in the absence of cytotoxicity. When applied locally into the lungs of healthy mice via instillation, OZ was well tolerated and effectively reduced proteasome activity in the lungs. In bleomycin challenged mice, however, locally applied OZ resulted in accelerated weight loss and increased mortality of treated mice. Further, OZ failed to reduce fibrosis in these mice. While upon systemic application OZ was well tolerated in healthy mice, it rather augmented instead of attenuated fibrotic remodelling of the lung in bleomycin challenged mice. To conclude, low toxicity and antifibrotic effects of OZ in pulmonary fibroblasts could not be confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis of bleomycin-treated mice. In light of these data, the use of proteasome inhibitors as therapeutic agents for the treatment of fibrotic lung diseases should thus be considered with caution. PMID:26340365

  8. Integrated vehicle test bed for IVHM systems on 2nd generation RLV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, M. L.; Baroth, E.; Mellinger, L.; Park, H.; Stough, T.; Brown, S. A.; Meyer, C. M.

    2003-01-01

    The IVTB concept is to validate spacecraft system designs and evaluate new technologies; its focus is to identify and resolve problems at the early stages of development and facilitate new technology transfer.

  9. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.4: Vortex Transport by Uniform Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d. The CESE method is a time accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist, the 2nd-order accurate version was used. In regards to the ez4d code, it is an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available. As part of its architecture, ez4d has the capability to utilize multi-thread and Messaging Passage Interface (MPI) for parallel runs.

  10. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.1: Transonic Ringleb Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d (an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available.) The CESE method is a time-accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist.

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  12. [Employment and education in the 2nd economic and social development plan of Togo].

    PubMed

    Dovi-sodemekou, F B

    1985-01-01

    Togo is a developing country whose population is increasing at the rapid rate of 2.7%/year. Economic development is therefore a necessity to ensure at least an average standard of living. Plans of development include objectives of structural societal changes, including improvements in education and employment. This study analyzes the evolution of population activities. It identifies obstacles to the improvement of education and employment. The investigation examines the employment and education situation before adoption of the 2nd plan of Togo and predicts the probable evolution of the situation. Despite the priority accorded to agriculture, the 2nd plan appears to give greater importance to industry. The industrial and commercial sector has witnessed a 65.2% investment increase, whereas the rural sector had an investment increase of 11.8%. The 2nd plan, in view of its relation to the evolution of economic activities, took into account the demand for manual labor. In the private sector, industries should occupy an important position. The dualism of a modern and a traditional sector is considered a cause of underdevelopment. The modern sector should be developed in order to suppress the traditional sector and allow progress in society. As a result of this approach, agriculture is given a 2ndary role. PMID:12267415

  13. Very large millimeter/submillimeter array toward search for 2nd Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Saito, Masao

    2012-09-01

    ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) is a revolutionary radio telescope and its early scientific operation has just started. It is expected that ALMA will resolve several cosmic questions and will give us a new cosmic view. Our passion for astronomy naturally goes beyond ALMA because we believe that the 21st-century astronomy should pursue the new scientific frontier. In this conference, we propose a project of the future radio telescope to search for habitable planets and finally detect 2nd Earth as a migratable planet. Detection of 2nd Earth is one of the ultimate dreams not only for astronomers but also for every human being. To directly detect 2nd Earth, we have to carefully design the sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope by conducting trade-off analysis between the confusion limit and the minimum detectable temperature. The result of the sensitivity analysis is derived assuming an array that has sixty-four (64) 50-m antennas with 25-μm surface accuracy mainly located within the area of 300 km (up to 3000 km), dual-polarization SSB receivers with the best noise temperature performance achieved by ALMA or better, and IF bandwidth of 128 or 256 GHz.. We temporarily name this telescope "Very Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (VLMSA)". Since this sensitivity is extremely high, we can have a lot of chances to study the galaxy, star formation, cosmology and of course the new scientific frontier.

  14. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  15. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, A.

    1992-08-01

    VLT came to be used at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), because SLAC wanted to assess the Amiga's usefulness as a color graphics terminal and T{sub E}X workstation. Before the project could really begin, the people at SLAC needed a terminal emulator which could successfully talk to the IBM 3081 (now the IBM ES9000-580) and all the VAXes on the site. Moreover, it had to compete in quality with the Ann Arbor Ambassador GXL terminals which were already in use at the laboratory. Unfortunately, at the time there was no commercial program which fit the bill. Luckily, Willy Langeveld had been independently hacking up a public domain VT100 emulator written by Dave Wecker et al. and the result, VLT, suited SLAC's purpose. Over the years, as the program was debugged and rewritten, the original code disappeared, so that now, in the present version of VLT, none of the original VT100 code remains.

  16. Twenty Years of FORS Science Operations on the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupprecht, G.; Böhnhardt, H.; Moehler, S.; Møller, P.; Saviane, I.; Ziegler, B.

    2010-06-01

    Celebrating the double jubilee of ten years in operation of FORS1 and FORS2, this article summarises, from an insider’s point of view, the history of the FORS instruments, arguably the most prolific on ESO’s Very Large Telescope. The FORS story began in the early 1990s and FORS1 was the first VLT user instrument to be commissioned. Both FORS instruments have undergone considerable evolution and quickly parted from the original concept of being identical twins. They have both made major contributions to scientific research and have helped shape VLT operations. In 2009, FORS1 was retired, but FORS2 continues, fusing the best of both.

  17. Deploying the testbed for the VLT adaptive optics facility: ASSIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuik, Remko; La Penna, Paolo; Dupuy, Christophe; de Haan, Menno; Arsenault, Robin; Boland, Wilfried; Elswijk, Eddy; ter Horst, Rik; Hubin, Norbert; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Molster, Frank; Wiegers, Emiel

    2012-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Facility (VLT-AOF) will transform the VLT Unit Telescope 4 to an Adaptive Telescope. In absence of an intermediate focus before the Adaptive Secondary in this Ritchey-Chrétien type telescope and in order to reduce the testing and calibration of the system on-sky, ASSIST, The Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator, was developed. It provides an off-sky testing facility for the ESO AOF and will provide a full testing environment for three elements of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility: the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the AO modules for MUSE and HAWK-I (GALACSI and GRAAL). ASSIST was delivered to ESO Garching, where it was assembled and tested. Currently ASSIST is being integrated with the Deformable Secondary Mirror, the first step in the full system testing of the two AO systems for the VLT AOF on ASSIST. This paper briefly reviews the design and properties of ASSIST and reports on the first results of ASSIST in stand-alone mode.

  18. Carbon dioxide emissions and the overshoot ratio change resulting from the implementation of 2nd Energy Master Plan in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The direction of the energy policies of the country is important in the projection of environmental impacts of the country. The greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of the energy sector in South Korea is very huge, about 600 MtCO2e in 2011. Also the carbon footprint due to the energy consumption contributes to the ecological footprint is also large, more than 60%. Based on the official plans (the national greenhouse gases emission reduction target for 2030 (GHG target for 2030) and the 2nd Energy Master Plan (2nd EMP)), several scenarios were proposed and the sensitivity of the GHG emission amount and 'overshoot ratio' which is the ratio of ecological footprint to biocapacity were estimated. It was found that to meet the GHG target for 2030 the ratio of non-emission energy for power generation should be over 71% which would be very difficult. We also found that the overshoot ratio would increase from 5.9 in 2009 to 7.6 in 2035. Thus, additional efforts are required to reduce the environmental burdens in addition to optimize the power mix configuration. One example is the conversion efficiency in power generation. If the conversion efficiency in power generation rises up 50% from the current level, 40%, the energy demand and resultant carbon dioxide emissions would decrease about 10%. Also the influence on the environment through changes in consumption behavior, for example, the diet choice is expected to be meaningful.

  19. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  20. VLT Smashes the Record of the Farthest Known Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    formed which could illuminate the vast space. The Universe was a cold and opaque place. This sombre era is therefore quite reasonably dubbed the "Dark Ages". A few hundred million years later, the first generation of stars and, later still, the first galaxies and quasars, produced intense ultraviolet radiation, gradually lifting the fog over the Universe. This was the end of the Dark Ages and, with a term again taken over from human history, is sometimes referred to as the "Cosmic Renaissance". Astronomers are trying to pin down when - and how - exactly the Dark Ages finished. This requires looking for the remotest objects, a challenge that only the largest telescopes, combined with a very careful observing strategy, can take up. Using a Gravitational Telescope With the advent of 8-10 meter class telescopes spectacular progress has been achieved during the last decade. Indeed it has since become possible to observe with some detail several thousand galaxies and quasars out to distances of nearly 12 billion light-years (i.e. up to a redshift of 3 [3]). In other words astronomers are now able to study individual galaxies, their formation, evolution, and other properties over typically 85 % of the past history of the Universe. Further in the past, however, observations of galaxies and quasars become scarce. Currently, only a handful of very faint galaxies are seen approximately 1,200 to 750 million years after the Big Bang (redshift 5-7). Beyond that, the faintness of these sources and the fact their light is shifted from the optical to the near infrared has so far severely limited the studies. An important breakthrough in this quest for the earliest formed galaxy has now been achieved by a team of French and Swiss astronomers [2] using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) equipped with the near-infrared sensitive instrument ISAAC. To accomplish this, they had to combine the light amplification effect of a cluster of galaxies - a Gravitational Telescope - with the light

  1. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  2. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:27426066

  3. Easy Glide in a Coarse-Grained Mg-2Zn-2Nd Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Jonas, John J.; Yue, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Compression tests were performed at 673 K (400 °C) on a Mg-2Zn-2Nd alloy at the strain rates of 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001/s. The 0.1 and 0.01/s flow curves displayed work hardening to a peak stress at around 0.2 true strain. However, testing at 0.001/s led to steady-state flow at about 22 MPa from 0.03 true strain onwards. Such a steady-state flow is attributed to the predominance of basal slip under these conditions.

  4. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition?

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Bundred, P E

    2000-05-01

    The ratio between the length of the 2nd and 4th digits is: (a) fixed in utero; (b) lower in men than in women; (c) negatively related to testosterone and sperm counts; and (d) positively related to oestrogen concentrations. Prenatal levels of testosterone and oestrogen have been implicated in infertility, autism, dyslexia, migraine, stammering, immune dysfunction, myocardial infarction and breast cancer. We suggest that 2D:4D ratio is predictive of these diseases and may be used in diagnosis, prognosis and in early life-style interventions which may delay the onset of disease or facilitate its early detection. PMID:10859702

  5. [Infected chorionic hematoma as a cause of infection in the 2nd trimester].

    PubMed

    Weigel, M; Friese, K; Schmitt, W; Strittmatter, H J; Melchert, F

    1992-12-01

    Superinfected subchorionic haematomas are a rare septic focus in the 2nd trimenon. Symptoms being unspecific, the diagnosis has to be made by exclusion, in most cases. As the changes of a successful treatment of the manifest infection is poor, antibiotic prophylaxis as well as close laboratory controls and early antibiotic therapy should be discussed after sonographic diagnosis of an intrauterine haematoma. Two of our three patients reported on having suffered a miscarriage; only one pregnancy could be maintained after spontaneous depletion of the infected haemorrhage. PMID:1490559

  6. Very low Ti /VLT/ basalts - A new mare rock type from the Apollo 17 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Phaneritic fragments, vitrophyres, and glass beads of a new very low Ti (VLT) mare basalt are found in the Apollo 17 drill core. VLT lithic fragments are characterized by TiO2 content of approximately 0.5%, Mg/(Mg + Fe) of approximately 0.52, CaO/Al2O3 of approximately 0.9, and low alkali content. Although mineral systematics and modal composition of VLT basalt are similar to Apollo 12 and 15 low Ti basalts, VLT basalts cannot be related to these mare basalts by crystal fractionation. Since VLT basalt is isochemical with some of the less mafic green glasses, fractionation of VLT magma from a liquid of green-glass composition is a possibility. Spectral reflectance studies suggest that VLT-type basalts may be relatively common in mare basins.

  7. VLT Captures First Direct Spectrum of an Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    eclipse", and then the spectrum could be extracted by comparing the light of the star before and after. However, this method can only be applied if the orientation of the exoplanet's orbit is exactly right, which is true for only a small fraction of all exoplanetary systems. The present spectrum, on the other hand, was obtained from the ground, using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), in direct observations that do not depend on the orbit's orientation. As the host star is several thousand times brighter than the planet, this is a remarkable achievement. "It's like trying to see what a candle is made of, by observing it from a distance of two kilometres when it's next to a blindingly bright 300 Watt lamp," says Janson. The discovery was made possible by the infrared instrument NACO, mounted on the VLT, and relied heavily on the extraordinary capabilities of the instrument's adaptive optics system [3]. Even more precise images and spectra of giant exoplanets are expected both from the next generation instrument SPHERE, to be installed on the VLT in 2011, and from the European Extremely Large Telescope. The newly collected data show that the atmosphere enclosing the planet is still poorly understood. "The features observed in the spectrum are not compatible with current theoretical models," explains co-author Wolfgang Brandner. "We need to take into account a more detailed description of the atmospheric dust clouds, or accept that the atmosphere has a different chemical composition from that previously assumed." The astronomers hope to soon get their hands on the fingerprints of the other two giant planets so they can compare, for the first time, the spectra of three planets belonging to the same system. "This will surely shed new light on the processes that lead to the formation of planetary systems like our own," concludes Janson. Notes [1] As every rainbow demonstrates, white light can be split up into different colours. Astronomers artificially split up the light they

  8. Next VLT Instrument Ready for the Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    FORS2 Commissioning Period Successfully Terminated The commissioning of the FORS2 multi-mode astronomical instrument at KUEYEN , the second FOcal Reducer/low dispersion Spectrograph at the ESO Very Large Telescope, was successfully finished today. This important work - that may be likened with the test driving of a new car model - took place during two periods, from October 22 to November 21, 1999, and January 22 to February 8, 2000. The overall goal was to thoroughly test the functioning of the new instrument, its conformity to specifications and to optimize its operation at the telescope. FORS2 is now ready to be handed over to the astronomers on April 1, 2000. Observing time for a six-month period until October 1 has already been allocated to a large number of research programmes. Two of the images that were obtained with FORS2 during the commissioning period are shown here. An early report about this instrument is available as ESO PR 17/99. The many modes of FORS2 The FORS Commissioning Team carried out a comprehensive test programme for all observing modes. These tests were done with "observation blocks (OBs)" that describe the set-up of the instrument and telescope for each exposure in all details, e.g., position in the sky of the object to be observed, filters, exposure time, etc.. Whenever an OB is "activated" from the control console, the corresponding observation is automatically performed. Additional information about the VLT Data Flow System is available in ESO PR 10/99. The FORS2 observing modes include direct imaging, long-slit and multi-object spectroscopy, exactly as in its twin, FORS1 at ANTU . In addition, FORS2 contains the "Mask Exchange Unit" , a motorized magazine that holds 10 masks made of thin metal plates into which the slits are cut by means of a laser. The advantage of this particular observing method is that more spectra (of more objects) can be taken with a single exposure (up to approximately 80) and that the shape of the slits can be

  9. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policy makers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  10. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-Jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-Kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-Qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-Wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  11. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence. PMID:26334946

  12. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  13. RADIAL VELOCITIES FROM VLT-KMOS SPECTRA OF GIANT STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6388

    SciTech Connect

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Valenti, E.; Cirasuolo, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present new radial velocity measurements for 82 stars, members of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 6388, obtained from ESO-VLT K-band Multi Object Spectrograph (KMOS) spectra acquired during the instrument Science Verification. The accuracy of the wavelength calibration is discussed and a number of tests of the KMOS response are presented. The cluster systemic velocity obtained (81.3 ± 1.5 km s{sup –1}) is in very good agreement with previous determinations. While a hint of ordered rotation is found between 9'' and 20'' from the cluster center, where the distribution of radial velocities is clearly bimodal, more data are needed before drawing any firm conclusions. The acquired sample of radial velocities has also been used to determine the cluster velocity dispersion (VD) profile between ∼9'' and 70'', supplementing previous measurements at r < 2'' and r > 60'' obtained with ESO-SINFONI and ESO-FLAMES spectroscopy, respectively. The new portion of the VD profile nicely matches the previous ones, better defining the knee of the distribution. The present work clearly shows the effectiveness of a deployable integral field unit in measuring the radial velocities of individual stars for determining the VD profile of Galactic GCs. It represents the pilot project for an ongoing large program with KMOS and FLAMES at the ESO-VLT, aimed at determining the next generation of VD and rotation profiles for a representative sample of GCs.

  14. Adaptive periodic error correction for the VLT telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erm, Toomas; Sandrock, Stefan

    2003-02-01

    As a further step to improve the excellent tracking performance of the VLT telescopes, the intrinsic errors in the telescope drive systems are analysed. These errors fall into two categories, torque disturbances and sensor errors and they have different impact on the performance. Models for the errors are developed and algorithms for on line adaptive parameter identification are presented. The models can be used to significantly reduce the influence of the errors and also to monitor parameters like friction and unbalance. The VLT servo model is used to test and verify the models and algorithms. It follows a description of the real-time software aspects of the algorithms, which have been implemented for VxWorks-based systems. The software design allows various options for the adaptation of the process coefficients, either running permanently in background, only on demand through maintenance procedures, or fixed off-line modeling based on recorded process data. Finally, real test data are presented.

  15. Site testing for the VLT in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) will need sites for three telescopes. The telescopes considered include the 3.5 m New Technology Telescope to be completed in 1987, the 15 m Swedish-ESO mm/submm telescope, and the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The first two telescopes will probably be placed on La Silla. However, because of humidity considerations, a later transfer of the 15 m mm/submm telescope to a drier site appears possible. The main reason for conducting a new site survey is related to the VLT. Possible areas for establishing an observatory in the Southern Hemisphere are examined, taking into account Northern Chile. Attention is given to an area south of Antofagasta, mountains west of the Salar de Punta Negra, mountains between San Pedro de Atacama and El Tatio, mountains east of La Silla, problems regarding the observation of faint objects, water vapor content, and difficulties due to wind.

  16. Chemical Analysis of Fornax dwarf spheroidal with VLT/FLAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letarte, B.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.

    The Fornax dSph is a nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxy with five globular clusters and a complex star formation history. It is one of the most massive dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. Using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph on the VLT, we have obtained high resolution (R˜20 000) spectra for 80 Red Giant Branch stars in the central 25' of the Fornax dSph. We present abundance ratios for some of the elements we have in our analysis, including alpha (Mg and Ca), iron-peak (Fe and Ni) and heavy (Y, Ba, Eu) elements. We compare our results with the Milky Way (MW) and our recent VLT/UVES abundance determinations of nine individual stars in Fornax globular clusters.

  17. A Super-Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Bacon, Roland

    A cryogenic, near-infrared (Hawaii2 domain) imaging FTS is proposed for a Nasmyth focus of an 8-m VLT, as a unique solution for providing integral field spectroscopy at high spectral resolution (R = 50,000 at 2 μm) over a large field, up to 3 x 3 arcmin FOV. Another mode is proposed behind AO with a smaller field but preserving high spectral resolution.

  18. ESPRESSO: projecting a rocky exoplanet hunter for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mégevand, Denis; Herreros, José-Miguel; Zerbi, Filippo; Cabral, Alexandre; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Cristiani, Stefano; Rebolo, Rafael; Santos, Nuno C.

    2010-07-01

    ESPRESSO is a high-resolution, highly stable spectrograph for the VLT. It will inherit and enhance most capabilities from HARPS and UVES, combining both stability and efficiency. The main science driver will be the detection and characterization of Earth-like planets, but many additional science cases will benefit from its highly stable spectroscopic observations. The facility will be installed at the combined Coudé focus of the VLT and may be linked with any of the four UT telescopes, enabling thus a great flexibility for the efficient use of telescope time. This particularity makes the interface with the VLT more complex than for an instrument fed by a single telescope. It impacts on the complexity of the relationship between the consortium providing the instrument and ESO, the customer. The targeted high RV accuracy requires very high performances in stability and resolution, which in turn require adequate technical solutions at several levels. This paper describes the instrument system and subsystems, enlightening the most valuable differences between ESPRESSO and it's predecessors, the details of the project, entering now the design phases, the ESPRESSO consortium, composed of Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swiss institutes, and the relationship between the consortium and ESO.

  19. Tetragonal ZrO2:Nd3+ nanosphere: Combustion synthesis, luminescence and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Chandrasekhar, D.; Kadam, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Nanocrystalline ZrO2:Nd3+ was synthesised using gel-combustion method and characterized systematically using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Through this route we can stabilize metastable tetragonal phase at 500 °C through addition of 1 mol % Nd3+ which is technologically more important. Optical characterization of the sample was done using photoluminescence (PL) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). PL studies shows an intense and optimum stimulated emission cross section of 1065 nm peak corresponding to 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 which and thus it can be a probable laser material. PAS is used to investigate electronic absorption of Nd3 in zirconia. Various covalency parameters like nephelauxetic ratio (β), covalency factor (b1/2) and Sinha parameter (δ) were evaluated for pure oxide powder and as well as for Nd3+ doped zirconia.

  20. International symposium on peripheral nerve repair and regeneration and 2nd club Brunelli meeting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The International Symposium "Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration and 2nd Club Brunelli Meeting" was held on December 4-5, 2009 in Turin, Italy (Organizers: Bruno Battiston, Stefano Geuna, Isabelle Perroteau, Pierluigi Tos). Interest in the study of peripheral nerve regeneration is very much alive because complete recovery of nerve function almost never occurs after nerve reconstruction and, often, the clinical outcome is rather poor. Therefore, there is a need for defining innovative strategies for improving the success of recovery after nerve lesion and repair and this meeting was intended to discuss, from a multidisciplinary point of view, some of today's most important issues in this scientific field, arising from both basic and clinical neurosciences. PMID:20214775

  1. International symposium on peripheral nerve repair and regeneration and 2nd club Brunelli meeting.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Mehmet; Geuna, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The International Symposium "Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration and 2nd Club Brunelli Meeting" was held on December 4-5, 2009 in Turin, Italy (Organizers: Bruno Battiston, Stefano Geuna, Isabelle Perroteau, Pierluigi Tos). Interest in the study of peripheral nerve regeneration is very much alive because complete recovery of nerve function almost never occurs after nerve reconstruction and, often, the clinical outcome is rather poor. Therefore, there is a need for defining innovative strategies for improving the success of recovery after nerve lesion and repair and this meeting was intended to discuss, from a multidisciplinary point of view, some of today's most important issues in this scientific field, arising from both basic and clinical neurosciences. PMID:20214775

  2. A Perpendicular Biased 2nd Harmonic Cavity for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C. Y.; Dey, J.; Madrak, R. L.; Pellico, W.; Romanov, G.; Sun, D.; Terechkine, I.

    2015-07-13

    A perpendicular biased 2nd harmonic cavity is currently being designed for the Fermilab Booster. Its purpose cavity is to flatten the bucket at injection and thus change the longitudinal beam distribution so that space charge effects are decreased. It can also with transition crossing. The reason for the choice of perpendicular biasing over parallel biasing is that the Q of the cavity is much higher and thus allows the accelerating voltage to be a factor of two higher than a similar parallel biased cavity. This cavity will also provide a higher accelerating voltage per meter than the present folded transmission line cavity. However, this type of cavity presents technical challenges that need to be addressed. The two major issues are cooling of the garnet material from the effects of the RF and the cavity itself from eddy current heating because of the 15 Hz bias field ramp. This paper will address the technical challenge of preventing the garnet from overheating.

  3. Glass fiber laser at 1. 36. mu. m from SiO sub 2 :Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Hakimi, F.; Po, H.; Tumminelli, R.; McCollum, B.C.; Zenteno, L.; Cho, N.M.; Snitzer, E. )

    1989-10-01

    By adding 14 mol % P{sub 2}O{sub 5} to the core of a SiO{sub 2}:Nd fiber, laser emission was obtained at 1.36 {mu}m. From the fluorescent spectra and laser thresholds for the {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 3/2} transitions, the net gain at 1.36 {mu}m is 0.024 dB/mW, and the ratio of excited-state absorption (the {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}{ital G}{sub 1/2} transition) to stimulated emission is estimated to be 0.78.

  4. Preliminary GPS orbit combination results of the IGS 2nd reprocessing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    International GNSS Service (IGS) has contributed to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame by reprocessing historic GPS network data and submitting Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions and Earth Rotation Parameters. For the 2nd reprocessing campaign, Analysis Centers (ACs) used up to 21 years of GPS observation data with daily integrations. IERS2010 conventions are applied to model the physical effects of the Earth. Total eight ACs have participated (7 Global solutions, and 2 Tide Gauge solutions) by reprocessing entire time series in a consistent way using the latest models and methodology. IGS combined daily SINEX TRF and EOP combinations have already been submitted to the IERS for ITRF2013. This presentation mainly focuses on the preliminary quality assessment of the reprocessed AC orbits. Quality of the orbit products are examined by examining the repeatability between daily AC satellite ephemeris. Power spectral analysis shows the background noise characteristics of each AC products, and its periodic behaviors.

  5. [Measurement report on the horizontal position relationship between the umbilicus and the 2nd lum- bar spinal process in adults].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingyi; Fu, Liyuan; Wang, Yueqi; Qiu, Wenqi; Yao, Miaojie; Zhao, Baixiao; Guo, Changqing

    2016-04-01

    The impact factors were explored to determine the horizontal positional relationship between the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar spinal process in adults and to verify the accuracy of the localization of Shenshu (BL 23) via the umbilicus. The position of the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar spinal process was measured in 100 participants and the data were analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. It was found that the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar process were not positioned horizontally. The positional relationship of these two sites was not apparently correlated with gender, age, body weight, body height, BMI, waistline and discomfort of lumbar region. The umbilicus was commonly and posteriorly projected on the site between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebra. It is explained that the localization of Shenshu (BL23) via the umbilicus is not accurate. PMID:27352498

  6. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS < 0), where the entropy is a degree of uniformity. What is the entropy? Loosely speaking, sand on the beach is more uniform at a higher entropy value than the rocks composing a mountain - the internal binding energy tells the paleontologists the existence of information. To a politician, landside voting results has only the winning information but more entropy, while a non-uniform voting distribution record has more information. For the human's effortless brain at constant temperature, we can solve the minimum of Helmholtz free energy (H = E - TS) by computing BSS, and then their pairwise-entropy source correlation function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (

  7. ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-12-01

    As the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) rapidly takes on shape, Europe has just come one step closer to the realisation of its 556 million DEM astronomical showcase project. Last week, the ESO Council held its semi-annual meeting in Milan (Italy) [1]. During a break in the long agenda list, Council members had the opportunity to visit the Ansaldo factory in the outskirts of this city and to see for the first time the assembled mechanical structure of one of the four 8.2-metre VLT Unit telescopes. This Press Release is accompanied by a photo that shows the ESO Council delegates in front of the giant telescope. After a long climb up the steep staircase to the large Nasmyth platform at the side of the telescope where the astronomical instruments will later be placed, Dr. Peter Creola (Switzerland) , President of the ESO Council and a mechanics expert, grabbed the handrail and surveyed the structure with a professional eye: `I knew it was going to be big, but not that enormous!', he said. Other delegates experienced similar feelings, especially when they watched the 430 tonnes of steel in the 24-metre tall and squat structure turn smoothly and silently around the vertical axis. The Chairman of the ESO Scientific Technical Committee (STC), Dr. Johannes Andersen (Denmark) , summarized his first, close encounter with the VLT by `This is great fun!' and several of his colleague astronomers were soon seen in various corners of the vast structure, engaged in elated discussions about the first scientific investigations to be done with the VLT in two years' time. The VLT Main Structures The visit by Council took place at the invitation of Ansaldo Energia S.p.A. (Genova), EIE-European Industrial Engineering S.r.I. (Venice) and SOIMI-Societa Impianti Industriale S.p.A. (Milan), the three Italian enterprises responsible for the construction of the main structures of the VLT 8.2-metre Unit telescopes. Short speeches were given on this occasion by Drs. Ferruccio Bressani (Ansaldo

  8. VLT observations of the asymmetric Etched Hourglass Nebula, MyCn 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, N.; Redman, M. P.; Lloyd, M.; Matsuura, M.; Singh, N.; Meaburn, J.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The mechanisms that form extreme bipolar planetary nebulae remain unclear. Aims: The physical properties, structure, and dynamics of the bipolar planetary nebula, MyCn 18, are investigated in detail with the aim of understanding the shaping mechanism and evolutionary history of this object. Methods: VLT infrared images, VLT ISAAC infrared spectra, and long-slit optical Echelle spectra are used to investigate MyCn 18. Morpho-kinematic modelling was used to firmly constrain the structure and kinematics of the source. A timescale analysis was used to determine the kinematical age of the nebula and its main components. Results: A spectroscopic study of MyCn 18's central and offset region reveals the detailed make-up of its nebular composition. Molecular hydrogen, atomic helium, and Bracket gamma emission are detected from the central regions of MyCn 18. ISAAC spectra from a slit position along the narrow waist of the nebula demonstrate that the ionised gas resides closer to the centre of the nebula than the molecular emission. A final reconstructed 3D model of MyCn 18 was generated, which provides kinematical information on the expansion velocity of its nebular components by means of position-velocity (P-V) arrays. A kinematical age of the nebula and its components were obtained by the P-V arrays and timescale analysis. Conclusions: The structure and kinematics of MyCn 18 are better understood using an interactive 3D modelling tool called SHAPE. A dimensional and timescale analysis of MyCn 18's major components provides a possible mechanism for the nebula's asymmetry. The putative central star is somewhat offset from the geometric centre of the nebula, which is thought to be the result of a binary system. We speculate that the engulfing and destruction of an exoplanet during the asymptotic giant branch phase may have been a key event in shaping MyCn 18 and generating of its hypersonic knotty outflow.

  9. The Hyphen as a Syllabification Cue in Reading Bisyllabic and Multisyllabic Words among Finnish 1st and 2nd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häikiö, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Finnish ABC books present words with hyphens inserted at syllable boundaries. Syllabification by hyphens is abandoned in the 2nd grade for bisyllabic words, but continues for words with three or more syllables. The current eye movement study investigated how and to what extent syllable hyphens in bisyllabic ("kah-vi" "cof-fee")…

  10. Give It a Shot! Toolkit for Nurses and Other Immunization Champions Working with Secondary Schools. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Chu, Lynda; Wooley, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent immunization saves lives--but promoting immunization takes time and thought, and today's nurses and other health advocates are faced with a host of ever-expanding responsibilities in a time of reduced budgets and staff. This toolkit is thus structured as an easy and reliable resource. This 2nd edition contains: (1) a 64-page manual;…

  11. Conference Proceedings: 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International; Disability in the Family. (Brighton, England, September 18-21, 1978)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Association for Disability and Rehabilitation, London (England).

    The conference proceedings of the 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International (1978) on the theme disability in the family contains the agenda and approximately 80 papers. National presentations consider the theme in papers by representatives of Finland, Hungary, Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal, Hong Kong, India, The German…

  12. The Influence of Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Phoneme Awareness in 2nd and 4th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics--neighborhood density and word frequency--interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods: Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation…

  13. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  14. Iron metabolism in African American women during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of a high-risk pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the 2nd and 3rd trimester in African American women classified as a high-risk pregnancy. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 47 African American women classified a...

  15. Curriculum on the Edge of Survival: How Schools Fail to Prepare Students for Membership in a Democracy. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Typically, school curriculum has been viewed through the lens of preparation for the workplace or higher education, both worthy objectives. However, this is not the only lens, and perhaps not even the most powerful one to use, if the goal is to optimize the educational system. "Curriculum on the Edge of Survival, 2nd Edition," attempts to define…

  16. Phase Relations of the CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 System and the Implication for Rare Earths Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thu Hoai; Malfliet, Annelies; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2016-03-01

    CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 slags were equilibrated at 1773 K and 1873 K (1500 °C and 1600 °C) for 24 hours in Ar, and quenched in water to determine the operative phase relations. The composition and crystallinity of the phases in equilibrium were determined by EPMA-WDS and EBSD, respectively. Based on these analyses, the liquid stability region was accurately determined, and a large part of the isothermal section of the phase diagram was constructed. Data resulting from this work can be used to generate a thermodynamic database for rare-earth oxide-containing systems and to support further investigation on separation of rare earths from metallurgical slags or other residues through high-temperature processing.

  17. Phase Relations of the CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 System and the Implication for Rare Earths Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thu Hoai; Malfliet, Annelies; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2016-06-01

    CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 slags were equilibrated at 1773 K and 1873 K (1500 °C and 1600 °C) for 24 hours in Ar, and quenched in water to determine the operative phase relations. The composition and crystallinity of the phases in equilibrium were determined by EPMA-WDS and EBSD, respectively. Based on these analyses, the liquid stability region was accurately determined, and a large part of the isothermal section of the phase diagram was constructed. Data resulting from this work can be used to generate a thermodynamic database for rare-earth oxide-containing systems and to support further investigation on separation of rare earths from metallurgical slags or other residues through high-temperature processing.

  18. VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey and Multiplicity of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.

    2013-06-01

    The VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS) has obtained optical spectroscopy of over 800 OB and Wolf-Rayet stars in the 30 Doradus region with the aim to investigate a number of questions regarding the formation, evolution and final fate of the most massive stars and the dynamics of the region. In this presentation, I will review some of the most important results obtained by the VFTS so far. The multi-epoch strategy was designed to identify spectroscopic binaries, and I will describe the binary properties in the 30 Dor region in the broader context of our knowledge of the multiplicity of massive stars.

  19. The VLT Survey Telescope: What Stands Behind the Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.

    The VLT Survey Telescope (VST) is the 2.6-m survey telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) for the visible band, the largest in the world designed to exclusively survey the skies in visible light. It is equipped with the OmegaCAM 268 Mpix 16 × 16 K CCD camera, covering a wide-field of 1 deg2 with 0.21 arcsec/pixel resolution. We provide a short history of the project and an overview of the instrument, summarizing the delivered performance.

  20. The tracking control system of the VLT Survey Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, P; Arcidiacono, C; Argomedo, J; Dall'Ora, M; D'Orsi, S; Farinato, J; Magrin, D; Marty, L; Ragazzoni, R; Umbriaco, G

    2012-09-01

    The VLT survey telescope is the latest telescope installed at European Southern Observatory's Paranal observatory that is considered one of the best sites for optical astronomy for the excellent seeing conditions. The exceptional quality of the site imposes tight requirements for the telescope tracking system that shall perform very well to fully exploit the extreme sharpness of the Chilean sky. We describe the specific solutions adopted for pointing, servo and guiding systems and the results obtained during the commissioning of the telescope. The hardware implementation relies on industry components and the control solutions privilege both the performance and the future maintainability of the system. PMID:23020397

  1. Concept of the ESO-VLT Project-Beam Combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, F.

    The optical configuration of the VLT is based on a linear array of 4 independently mounted 8 m telescopes. They can be operated either independently or in various combination schemes. In the latter case the light collected with the unit telescopes is fed via beam combination optics to the combined focus. The coherent combination path opens long baseline interferometry with a resolution span of approx. 0.5 marcsec in the blue to approx. 30 marcsec at 20 μm wavelength in the case of a 150 m baseline.

  2. Minimal Clinically Important Difference on Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd Version

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Deli, Gabriella; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the estimates of minimal clinically important difference for Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) total score and dimensions. Methods. The subject population consisted of 413 PD patients. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and PDSS-2 were assessed. Nine months later the PDSS-2 was reevaluated with the Patient-Reported Global Impression Improvement Scale. Both anchor-based techniques (within patients' score change method and sensitivity- and specificity-based method by receiver operating characteristic analysis) and distribution-based approaches (effect size calculations) were utilized to determine the magnitude of minimal clinically important difference. Results. According to our results, any improvements larger than −3.44 points or worsening larger than 2.07 points can represent clinically important changes for the patients. These thresholds have the effect size of 0.21 and −0.21, respectively. Conclusions. Minimal clinically important differences are the smallest change of scores that are subjectively meaningful to patients. Studies using the PDSS-2 as outcome measure should utilize the threshold of −3.44 points for detecting improvement or the threshold of 2.07 points for observing worsening. PMID:26539303

  3. Efficient Simulation of Wing Modal Response: Application of 2nd Order Shape Sensitivities and Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Liu, Youhua

    2000-01-01

    At the preliminary design stage of a wing structure, an efficient simulation, one needing little computation but yielding adequately accurate results for various response quantities, is essential in the search of optimal design in a vast design space. In the present paper, methods of using sensitivities up to 2nd order, and direct application of neural networks are explored. The example problem is how to decide the natural frequencies of a wing given the shape variables of the structure. It is shown that when sensitivities cannot be obtained analytically, the finite difference approach is usually more reliable than a semi-analytical approach provided an appropriate step size is used. The use of second order sensitivities is proved of being able to yield much better results than the case where only the first order sensitivities are used. When neural networks are trained to relate the wing natural frequencies to the shape variables, a negligible computation effort is needed to accurately determine the natural frequencies of a new design.

  4. Wind-US Results for the AIAA 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance III; Foster, Lancert; Mankbadi, Mina

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains Wind-US results presented at the 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The workshop was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Breathing Propulsion Systems Integration Technical Committee with the purpose of assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics for air breathing propulsion applications. Attendees included representatives from government, industry, academia, and commercial software companies. Participants were encouraged to explore and discuss all aspects of the simulation process including the effects of mesh type and refinement, solver numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. The first set of challenge cases involved computing the thrust and discharge coefficients for a 25deg conical nozzle for a range of nozzle pressure ratios between 1.4 and 7.0. Participants were also asked to simulate two cases in which the 25deg conical nozzle was bifurcated by a solid plate, resulting in vortex shedding (NPR=1.6) and shifted plume shock (NPR=4.0). A second set of nozzle cases involved computing the discharge and thrust coefficients for a convergent dual stream nozzle for a range of subsonic nozzle pressure ratios. The workshop committee also compared the plume mixing of these cases across various codes and models. The final test case was a serpentine inlet diffuser with an outlet to inlet area ratio of 1.52 and an offset of 1.34 times the inlet diameter. Boundary layer profiles, wall static pressure, and total pressure at downstream rake locations were examined.

  5. Introduction of the 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollet, Stefan; Maxwell, Reed; Dages, Cecile; Mouche, Emmanuel; Mugler, Claude; Paniconi, Claudio; Park, Young-Jin; Putti, Mario; Shen, Chaopeng; Stisen, Simon; Sudicky, Edward; Sulis, Mauro; Ji, Xinye

    2015-04-01

    The 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project commenced in June 2013 with a workshop at Bonn University funded by the German Science Foundation and US National Science Foundation. Three test cases were defined and compared that are available online at www.hpsc-terrsys.de including a tilted v-catchment case; a case called superslab based on multiple slab-heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity along a hillslope; and the Borden site case, based on a published field experiment. The goal of this phase is to further interrogate the coupling of surface-subsurface flow implemented in various integrated hydrologic models; and to understand and quantify the impact of differences in the conceptual and technical implementations on the simulation results, which may constitute an additional source of uncertainty. The focus has been broadened considerably including e.g. saturated and unsaturated subsurface storages, saturated surface area, ponded surface storage in addition to discharge, and pressure/saturation profiles and cross-sections. Here, first results are presented and discussed demonstrating the conceptual and technical challenges in implementing essentially the same governing equations describing highly non-linear moisture redistribution processes and surface-groundwater interactions.

  6. Transient 2(nd) Degree Av Block Mobitz Type II: A Rare Finding in Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Singh, Omkar; Agarwal, Ayush; Singh, Amit K; Yadav, Subhash

    2015-05-01

    Dengue has been a major problem as endemic occurs almost every year and causes a state of panic due to lack of proper diagnostic methods and facilities for proper management. Patients presenting with classical symptoms are easy to diagnose, however as a large number of cases occur every year, a number of cases diagnosed with dengue fever on occasion presents with atypical manifestations, which cause extensive evaluation of the patients, unnecessary referral to higher centre irrespective of the severity and therefore a rough idea of these manifestations must be present in the backdrop in order to prevent these problems. Involvement of cardiovascular system in dengue has been reported in previous studies, and they are usually benign and self-limited. The importance of study of conduction abnormalities is important as sometimes conduction blocks are the first sign of acute myocarditis in patients of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in shock. We present here a case of 2(nd) Degree Mobitz Type II atrioventricular AV block in a case of Dengue Hemorrhagic fever reverting to the normal rhythm in recovery phase and no signs thereafter on follow up. PMID:26155512

  7. AVES: an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Luca; Delabre, Bernard; Avila, Gerardo; Bonaccini, Domenico

    1998-07-01

    We present the preliminary study of a low cost, high performance spectrograph for the VLT, for observations in the V, R and I bands. This spectrograph is meant for intermediate (R equals 16,000) resolution spectroscopy of faint (sky and/or detector limited) sources, with particular emphasis on the study of solar-type (F-G) stars belonging to the nearest galaxies and to distant (or highly reddened) galactic clusters. The spectrograph is designed to use the adaptive optics (AO) systems at the VLT Telescope. Even if these AO systems will not provide diffraction limited images in the V, R and I bands, the photon concentration will still be above approximately 60% of the flux in an 0.3 arcsecond aperture for typical Paranal conditions. This makes the construction of a compact, cheap and efficient echelle spectrograph possible. AVES will outperform comparable non adaptive optic instruments by more than one magnitude for sky- and/or detector-limited observations, and it will be very suitable for observations in crowded fields.

  8. Phoenix: automatic science processing of ESO-VLT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuschik, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    ESO has implemented a process to automatically create science-grade data products and offer them to the scientific community, ready for scientific analysis. This process, called 'phoenix', is built on two main concepts: 1. a certification procedure for pipelines which includes a code review and, if necessary, upgrade; and 2. a certification procedure for calibrations which are processed into master calibrations, scored and trended. These master calibrations contain all information about the intrinsic instrumental variations and instabilities inevitable for ground-based telescopes. The phoenix process then automatically processes all science data using the certified pipeline and the certified master calibrations. Phoenix currently focuses on spectroscopic data. The first phoenix project has been the processing of all science data from UVES, ESO's high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the VLT. More than 100,000 Echelle spectra of point sources, from begin of operations (March 2000) until now, have been reduced and are available to the public from the ESO archive, http://archive.eso.org/cms/eso-data/eso-data-products.html. The phoenix process will also feed future UVES data into the archive. The second project has been X-SHOOTER slit spectroscopy which currently has more than 30,000 Echelle spectra from the UV to the infrared (up to 2.5μm). The phoenix process will be extended to other, mostly spectroscopic, instruments with certified pipelines, like FLAMES. Also, all future VLT instruments will be supported by phoenix.

  9. Unlocking the Past of Sakurai's Object Using FORS/VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, F.; Palsa, R.; Köppen, J.; Blöcker, T.; Rosa, M. R.

    2000-09-01

    Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr) was discovered by Japanese amateur astronomer Y. Sakurai in February 1996 and first classified as a slow nova. Follow-up observations though immediately showed this to be a very special object indeed. It turned out to be a true stellar chameleon, perhaps the most rapidly evolving star ever witnessed. Details of its discovery and early observations are found in Duerbeck et al. (1996, 1997), Kerber et al. (1998) and Clayton & de Marco (1997). We have now used the combined power of FORS/VLT in order to deepen our insight into this object and its evolution. Using FORS/VLT observations, we have obtained the best spectrum of the old PN surrounding Sakurai's object. We have derived improved values for the interstellar reddening and we have been able to reliably measure additional diagnostic lines. In particular, the value found for the He II 4686 line is in excellent agreement with our earlier model calculations. We thereby confirm the previous result that the star was a hot, highly evolved PN nucleus before the flash.

  10. The VLT Weighs the Invisible Matter in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    Shapes and Orientations of 76,000 Distant Galaxies Summary An international team of astronomers [1] has succeeded in mapping the "dark" (invisible) matter in the Universe, as seen in 50 different directions from the Earth. They find that, within the uncertainty, it is unlikely that mass alone would stop the current expansion of the Universe . This fundamental result is based on the powerful, but challenging method of "cosmic shear" . It depends on very accurate measurements of the apparent, weak distortion and preferential orientation of images of distant galaxies . This effect is caused by deflection of the light from those galaxies by the large mass concentrations in the Universe it encounters on its way to us. The larger these masses are, the larger are the apparent image distortions and the more pronounced are the alignments of neigbouring galaxy images. The new analysis was made possible by means of unique observational data, obtained under excellent conditions with the the ESO 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope and the multi-mode FORS1 instrument at the Paranal Observatory . PR Photo 32/00 : Sky field with images of distant galaxies observed with the VLT for this research programme, and compared with a reconstructed map of the distribution of mass in this direction. The VLT Observations ESO PR Photo 32/00 ESO PR Photo 32/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 252 pix - 35k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 504 pix - 232k] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 1890 pix - 2.0Mb] Caption : PR Photo 32/00 shows an example of the mapping of the dark mass distribution in one of the 50 sky fields observed with the VLT and FORS1. To the left is the original image, a 36-min exposure in a near-infrared wavelength band. To the right is the reconstructed map of the mass (a "mass photo") in this direction, based on an analysis of the weak shear effect seen in the field; that is, on the measured elongations and directions of the axes of the galaxy images in this field. The brighter areas indicate the directions in which

  11. New Vistas Open with MIDI at the VLT Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    "First Fringes" in Mid-Infrared Spectral Region with Two Giant Telescopes Summary Following several weeks of around-the-clock work, a team of astronomers and engineers from Germany, the Netherlands, France and ESO [2] has successfully performed the first observations with the MID-Infrared interferometric instrument (MIDI), a new, extremely powerful instrument just installed in the underground laboratory of the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). In the early morning of December 15, 2002, two of the 8.2 m VLT unit telescopes (ANTU and MELIPAL) were pointed towards the southern star eta Carinae and the two light beams were directed via the complex intervening optics system towards MIDI. After a few hours of tuning and optimization, strong and stable interferometric fringes were obtained, indicating that all VLTI components - from telescopes to the new instrument - were working together perfectly. Two more stars were observed before sunrise, further proving the stability of the entire system. The first observations with MIDI mark one more important step towards full and regular operation of the VLT Interferometer [3] . They are a result of five years of determined efforts within a concerted technology project, based on a close collaboration between ESO and several European research institutes (see below). Now opening great research vistas, they also represent several "firsts" in observational astrophysics, together amounting to a real breakthrough in the field of astronomical interferometry . New views at mid-infrared wavelengths : MIDI is sensitive to light of a wavelength near 10 µm, i.e., in the mid-infrared spectral region ("thermal infrared"). This provides rich opportunities to study a wide range of otherwise inaccessible, crucial astrophysical phenomena, e.g., the formation of planets in dusty disks around newborn stars and the innermost regions around black holes. However, it is a great technical challenge to perform mid

  12. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  13. Madeira Extreme Floods: 2009/2010 Winter. Case study - 2nd and 20th of February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, V.; Marques, J.; Silva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Floods are at world scale the natural disaster that affects a larger fraction of the population. It is a phenomenon that extends it's effects to the surrounding areas of the hydrographic network (basins, rivers, dams) and the coast line. Accordingly to USA FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) flood can be defined as:"A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties from: Overflow of inland or tidal waters; Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; Mudflow; Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined above." A flash flood is the result of intense and long duration of continuous precipitation and can result in dead casualties (i.e. floods in mainland Portugal in 1967, 1983 and 1997). The speed and strength of the floods either localized or over large areas, results in enormous social impacts either by the loss of human lives and or the devastating damage to the landscape and human infrastructures. The winter of 2009/2010 in Madeira Island was characterized by several episodes of very intense precipitation (specially in December 2009 and February 2010) adding to a new record of accumulated precipitation since there are records in the island. In February two days are especially rainy with absolute records for the month of February (daily records since 1949): 111mm and 97mm on the 2nd and 20th respectively. The accumulated precipitation ended up with the terrible floods on the 20th of February causing the lost of dozens of human lives and hundreds of millions of Euros of losses The large precipitation occurrences either more intense precipitation in a short period or less intense precipitation during a larger period are sometimes the precursor of

  14. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  15. A convective divertor utilizing a 2nd-order magnetic field null

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognlien, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    New results motivate a detailed study of a magnetic divertor concept characterized by strong plasma convection near a poloidal magnetic field (Bp) null region. The configuration is that of a near-2nd-order Bp null (Bp ~ Δ r2) , as in a snowflake divertor. The concept has 2 key features: (A) Convection spreads the heat flux between multiple divertor legs and further broadens the heat-flux profile within each leg, thereby greatly reducing target-plate heat loads. (B) The heat flux is further reduced by line radiation in each leg in detachment-like ionization zones. Theory indicates that convective turbulence arises when the poloidal plasma beta, βp = 2μ0nT/B p 2 >> 1 . Measurements in TCV now more fully quantify earlier NSTX and TCV observations of plasma mixing, and related modeling of TCV indicates that strongly enhanced null-region transport is present. Convective mixing provides a stabilizing mechanism to prevent the ionization fronts (hydrogenic and impurity) from collapsing to a highly radiating core MARFE. Also, the radiating zone maps to a very small region at the midplane owing to the very weak Bp in the convective region, thus minimizing its impact on the core plasma. Detailed calculations are reported that combine features A and B noted above. The plasma mixing mechanisms are described together with the corresponding transport model implemented in the 2D UEDGE edge transport code. UEDGE calculations are presented that quantify the roles of mixing, impurity radiation, and detachment stability for a realistic snowflake configuration. Work in collaboration with D.D. Ryutov, S.I. Krasheninnikov, and M.V. Umansky. Performed for the U.S. DoE by LLNS, LLC, LLNL, under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Mechanosensitivity of the 2nd Kind: TGF-β Mechanism of Cell Sensing the Substrate Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Cockerill, Max; Rigozzi, Michelle K.; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells can sense forces applied to them, but also the stiffness of their environment. These are two different phenomena, and here we investigate the mechanosensitivity of the 2nd kind: how the cell can measure an elastic modulus at a single point of adhesion—and how the cell can receive and interpret the chemical signal released from the sensor. Our model uses the example of large latent complex of TGF-β as a sensor. Stochastic theory gives the rate of breaking of latent complex, which initiates the signaling feedback loop after the active TGF-β release and leads to a change of cell phenotype driven by the α-smooth muscle actin. We investigate the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of the model, comparing them with experiments. In particular, we analyse the timescale of approach to the steady state, the stability of the non-linear dynamical system, and how the steady-state concentrations of the key markers vary depending on the elasticity of the substrate. We discover a crossover region for values of substrate elasticity closely corresponding to that of the fibroblast to myofibroblast transition. We suggest that the cell could actively vary the parameters of its dynamic feedback loop to ‘choose’ the position of the transition region and the range of substrate elasticity that it can detect. In this way, the theory offers the unifying mechanism for a variety of phenomena, such as the myofibroblast conversion in fibrosis of wounds and lungs and smooth muscle cell dysfunction in cardiac disease. PMID:26448620

  17. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  18. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed. PMID:21660238

  19. Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES): comparative performance of 2nd-, 4th-, and 8th-grade Czech children.

    PubMed

    Otto, D A; Skalik, I; House, D E; Hudnell, H K

    1996-01-01

    The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System was designed for field studies of workers, but many NES tests can be performed satisfactorily by children as young as 7 or 8 years old and a few tests, such as simple reaction time, can be performed by preschool children. However, little comparative data from children of different ages or grade levels are available. Studies of school children in the Czech Republic indicate that 2nd-grade children could perform the following NES tests satisfactorily: Finger Tapping, Visual Digit Span. Continuous Performance, Symbol-Digit Substitution, Pattern Comparison, and simpler conditions of Switching Attention. Comparative scores of boys and girls from the 2nd, 4th, and 8th grades and power analyses to estimate appropriate sample size were presented. Performance varied systematically with grade level and gender. Larger samples were needed with younger children to achieve comparable levels of statistical power. Gender comparisons indicated that boys responded faster, but made more errors than girls. PMID:8866533

  20. Physical properties of double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ohoyama, Kenji

    2013-01-15

    The crystal, magnetic structures and physical properties of the double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are investigated through powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. The Rietveld analysis reveals that the Nd and Os ions are arranged with regularity over the six-coordinate B sites in a distorted perovskite ABO{sub 3} framework. The monoclinic crystal structure described by space group P2{sub 1}/n (tilt system a{sup -}a{sup -}c{sup +}) becomes more distorted with decreasing temperature from 300 K down to 2.5 K. This compound shows a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} below 65 K. An antiferromagnetic ordering of Nd{sup 3+} also occurs at lower temperatures ({approx}20 K). The magnetic structure is of Type I and the magnetic moments of Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. - Graphical Abstract: The Magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is of Type I, and the magnetic moments of the Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structures of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are determined to be monoclinic below 300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its electrical resistivity shows a Mott variable-range hopping behavior with localized carriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An antiferromagnetic ordering of the Os{sup 5+}moment occurs at 65 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is determined to be of Type I.

  1. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  2. First discoveries in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Koter, A.; Sana, H.; Evans, C.; Besthenlehner, J. M.; Taylor, W. D.

    2013-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is a multi-epoch spectroscopic campaign targeting ˜800 of the most massive stars in the 30 Dor region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The dataset comprises well over 300 O-type stars, including 20 Of/WN and Wolf-Rayet stars. A survey of this type has a large potential for serendipitous discoveries. We discuss three intriguing findings in the subset of O and WNh stars obtained in the first year of data analysis: (i) VFTS 682, the first ˜150 M⊙ star that is not located in the core of a massive star cluster; (ii) VFTS 102, a near-critically spinning O9 V star, and (iii) R139, found to be the most massive binary system where both components are O supergiants.

  3. VLT Spectroscopy of Four Short Period Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Howell, S. B.; Mason, E.

    2006-12-01

    VLT UVES spectroscopy of four short period, non-magnetic cataclysmic variable stars is presented. The stars observed were GW Lib, BW Scl, VY Aqr, and Z Cha. The 0.1A resolution spectra were uses to measure line strengths and velocity information. Using these measured values, physical parameters, such as the stellar masses, the binary inclination, and the nature of the accretion disk were determined. Mass constraints in the stars BW Scl and GW Lib strongly suggest that the mass donors are likely to be degenerate stars with masses less than 0.06 M-sun. Skinner's research was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation through Scientific Program Order No. 3 (AST-0243875) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  4. Constraining Quasar Structural Evolution with VLT/ISAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, Jack; Marziani, Paola; Stirpe, Giovanna; Zamfir, Sebastian; Dultzin, Deborah; Calvani, Massimo; Repetto, Paolo; Zamanov, Radoslav

    2009-09-01

    We describe a VLT-ISAAC spectroscopic survey of the Hb region for more than 50 quasars at redshifts between 1 and 3. We use the width of Hb as a virial estimator of black hole mass and the Eddington ratio. The minimum observed width of Hb increases from ~ 500-1000 km/s at low luminosity to ~ 3500 km/s in the high luminosity domain. This trend is consistent with the virial assumption and a broad line region size-luminosity relation with exponent a ~ 0.65. Broader lined sources show a second very broad and redshifted Hb line component, which should be removed for reliable black hole mass estimation.

  5. ESO Council Resolves to Continue VLT Project at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    The ESO Council has just met at the ESO Headquarters in Garching during two days of intensive consultations. Among the important items on the agenda were the recent developments around the Very Large Telescope Project at Paranal, and also the possible membership of other countries. RELATIONS WITH CHILE The ESO Council appreciated the continued efforts by the Government of the Republic of Chile to bring to a successful conclusion the various pending matters concerning the relations between the Republic of Chile and this Organisation. It noted the solution of serious problems which have interfered with ESO's operations in its host country, and now awaits formal confirmation from the Chilean Government that also the legal proceedings around the land dispute around the Paranal site are cleared. Council expects that the ratification of the "Intermediate, Supplementary and Amending Agreement" will occur without undue delay and it reiterates its intention to approve this Agreement at the same time as the Chilean Parliament. Meanwhile, Council expressed its pleasure to welcome those Chilean scientists now nominated by the Chilean Government as observers to the ESO committees. Council instructed the ESO Management to continue work at Paranal. Although the delegates were increasingly optimistic that the VLT project can ultimately remain at Paranal, they nevertheless also requested the Management to pursue, until further notice, the ongoing comparative study of first-class astronomical sites in the world. In connection with the pending issues in the relationship with Chile, Council remained preoccupied about the recognition of ESO's immunities by the Chilean judiciary and it requested from the Management that the assessment of the financial and other implications of the recent events which have interfered with the VLT construction work at Paranal be completed. Finally, in order to provide additional avenues for frequent contacts, the ESO Council invited the Chilean Government

  6. Active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; Noethe, Lothar; Magrin, Demetrio; Kuijken, Konrad; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Argomedo, Javier; Capaccioli, Massimo; Dall'Ora, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Farinato, Jacopo; Fierro, Davide; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Savarese, Salvatore; Rakich, Andrew; Umbriaco, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope, the 2.6-m survey telescope designed for visible wavelengths of the European Southern Observatory at Cerro Paranal, in the Atacama desert. The telescope is characterized by a wide field of view (1.42 deg diameter), leading to tighter active optics than in conventional telescopes, in particular for the alignment requirements. We discuss the effects of typical error sources on the image quality and present the specific solutions adopted for wavefront sensing and correction of the aberrations, which are based on the shaping of a monolithic primary mirror and the positioning of the secondary in five degrees of freedom. PMID:26974616

  7. PREFACE: 1st-2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome - Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YRMR Organizing Committee; Cannuccia, E.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2011-03-01

    Students in science, particularly in physics, face a fascinating and challenging future. Scientists have proposed very interesting theories, which describe the microscopic and macroscopic world fairly well, trying to match the quantum regime with cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena in all their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. More and more accurate and complex experiments have been devised and these are now going to test the paradigms of physics. Notable experiments include: the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is going to shed light on the physics of the Standard Model of Particles and its extensions; the Planck-Herschel satellites, which target a very precise measurement of the properties of our Universe; and the Free Electron Lasers facilities, which produce high-brilliance, ultrafast X-ray pulses, allowing the investigation of the fundamental processes of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. These projects are the result of huge collaborations spread across the world, involving scientists belonging to different and complementary research fields: physicists, chemists, biologists and others, keen to make the best of these extraordinary laboratories. Even though each branch of science is experiencing a process of growing specialization, it is very important to keep an eye on the global picture, remaining aware of the deep interconnections between inherent fields. This is even more crucial for students who are beginning their research careers. These considerations motivated PhD students and young post-docs connected to the Roman scientific research area to organize a conference, to establish the background and the network for interactions and collaborations. This resulted in the 1st and 2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome (http://ryrm.roma2.infn.it), one day conferences aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics in Italy

  8. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  9. First Giant Mirror for the ESO VLT Ready at REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    The REOSC Contract In 1989, the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the European Organisation for Astronomy, awarded to REOSC, a subsidiary of the SFIM Group and located in Saint Pierre du Perray (France), a comprehensive contract for the polishing of four 8.2-metre diameter mirrors for the unit telescopes of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) project. These mirrors are the largest ever manufactured and polished. This contract comprises not only the polishing and high-precision optical testing of each giant mirror, but also the safe condition of transportation of the blanks which were manufactured by Schott Glaswerke in Mainz (Germany). In order to fulfill the contract, REOSC conceived, built and equipped a novel, high-tech workshop which would allow to polish and test the mirrors, each of which has a surface area of more than 50 square metres. First 8.2-Metre Mirror is Ready and within Specifications The REOSC polishing facility for giant mirrors was built in Saint Pierre du Perray, just south of Paris. It is equipped with two machines: one for grinding and the other for polishing the mirrors, and both with 150-actuator systems that support the thin and flexible mirrors. All equipment is computer controlled. State-of-the-art interferometers probe the accuracy of the mirror surface as the polishing proceeds; they are installed at the top level of the facility in a 30-metre high tower, at the centre of the mirror's radius of curvature. The success of the work at REOSC is now evident by the fact that careful measurements of the first mirror earlier this month have shown that the final optical surface is correct to within 0.00005 millimetres. For illustration, this corresponds to an accuracy of only 1 millimetre deviation over a surface with a diameter of 165 kilometres (equivalent to the entire Paris area)! ESO Receives the First VLT Mirror After having been carefully placed in a special transport box designed by REOSC, the first mirror blank, weighing 23.5 tons and

  10. Petrology and geochemistry of VLT glasses from double drive tube 79001/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Martinez, R. R.; Mckay, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of more general studies of soils from Apollo 17 double drive tube 79001/2, glasses from the 79001/2 core are being analyzed by a multidisciplinary approach including SEM/EDS and INAA. Efforts are currently focused on VLT (very low-Ti; TiO2 less than 1 wt%) mare glasses, which are common in 79001/2 and have also been found in other Apollo 17 soils. One of the primary objectives is to determine whether any or all of the Apollo 17 VLT glasses represent pristine volcanic compositions. In addition, the range of VLT glass compositions and possible relationships between the glasses and VLT lithic samples, for which some geochemical data have been obtained previously, is being defined.

  11. New VLT Observations Address the Age of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    First Detailed Spectra of White Dwarf Stars in a Globular Cluster Recent observations with the FORS1 instrument at the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (ANTU) by an international group of astronomers [1] have resulted in crucial new information about some small and faint stars within an old star cluster in the Milky Way. Thanks to the enormous light gathering power and, not least, the excellent optical quality of ANTU , it was possible for the first time to obtain detailed spectra of several very faint stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397 . Earlier images with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) hinted that they might be White Dwarf Stars (WDs) , i.e. Earth-size, hot and extremely dense stars that represent the end products of the evolution of stars like the Sun. The VLT spectra confirmed this classification and, even more important, have also permitted a first determination of the stellar spectral type, temperature and surface gravity, as well as the mass of four WDs in NGC 6397 . In particular, the astronomers learned that the brightest of the four observed WDs has a mass of about 0.35 solar masses, much lower than the mean mass of 0.55 - 0.65 solar masses that is typical for local white dwarfs. Distance and age determinations This means that the precise distance determination to a globular cluster, from a comparison of its WD stars to more nearby WDs with well-known masses and distances, will now be possible, provided the individual properties of the cluster WDs are well determined from such spectroscopic observations [2]. The mass strongly influences the brightness of a WD and comparing a low-mass globular cluster WD to a more massive local WD would underestimate the distance to the globular cluster. As these stars are very faint, the spectroscopic observations required for their analysis are very difficult and can only be done with large telescopes like the VLT. Accurate distances to the globular clusters allow to determine their age accurately. Milky Way

  12. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  13. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones -- Phase I, 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Black, Bill; Biraud, Sebastien

    2009-03-31

    This is the year-end report of the 2nd year of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix 3. Literature survey of published information on the relationship between geologic and hydrologic characteristics of faults was conducted. The survey concluded that it may be possible to classify faults by indicators based on various geometric and geologic attributes that may indirectly relate to the hydrologic property of faults. Analysis of existing information on the Wildcat Fault and its surrounding geology was performed. The Wildcat Fault is thought to be a strike-slip fault with a thrust component that runs along the eastern boundary of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is believed to be part of the Hayward Fault system but is considered inactive. Three trenches were excavated at carefully selected locations mainly based on the information from the past investigative work inside the LBNL property. At least one fault was encountered in all three trenches. Detailed trench mapping was conducted by CRIEPI (Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industries) and LBNL scientists. Some intriguing and puzzling discoveries were made that may contradict with the published work in the past. Predictions are made regarding the hydrologic property of the Wildcat Fault based on the analysis of fault structure. Preliminary conceptual models of the Wildcat Fault were proposed. The Wildcat Fault appears to have multiple splays and some low angled faults may be part of the flower structure. In parallel, surface geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity survey and seismic reflection profiling along three lines on the north and south of the LBNL site. Because of the steep terrain, it was difficult to find optimum locations for survey lines as it is desirable for them to be as

  14. 2nd Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    It was an honor and a great pleasure for all those involved in its organization to welcome the participants to the ''Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean'' (RADIO 2014) international conference that was held from 7th to 10th April 2014 at the Sugar Beach Resort, Wolmar, Flic-en-Flac, Mauritius. RADIO 2014 is the second of a series of conferences organized in the Indian Ocean region. The aim of the conference is to discuss recent developments, theories and practical applications covering the whole scope of radio-frequency engineering, including radio waves, antennas, propagation, and electromagnetic compatibility. The RADIO international conference emerged following discussions with engineers and scientists from the countries of the Indian Ocean as well as from other parts of the world and a need was felt for the organization of such an event in this region. Following numerous requests, the Island of Mauritius, worldwide known for its white sandy beaches and pleasant tropical atmosphere, was again chosen for the organization of the 2nd RADIO international conference. The conference was organized by the Radio Society, Mauritius and the Local Organizing Committee consisted of scientists from SUPELEC, France, the University of Mauritius, and the University of Technology, Mauritius. We would like to take the opportunity to thank all people, institutions and companies that made the event such a success. We are grateful to our gold sponsors CST and FEKO as well as URSI for their generous support which enabled us to partially support one PhD student and two scientists to attend the conference. We would also like to thank IEEE-APS and URSI for providing technical co-sponsorship. More than hundred and thirty abstracts were submitted to the conference. They were peer-reviewed by an international scientific committee and, based on the reviews, either accepted, eventually after revision, or rejected. RADIO 2014 brought together participants from twenty countries spanning

  15. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  16. Trace element identification of three chemically distinct very low titanium (VLT) basalt glasses from Apollo 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, David J.; McKay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.

    1994-02-01

    Small VLT samples from Apollo 17 soils were analyzed for trace elements using newly developed high sensitivity INAA techniques. Three distinct groups of VLT compositions are identified. Cobalt contents clearly delineate the HICo, MECo, and LOCo groups, which are also clearly identifiable by their major and minor element compositions. The results allow conclusions to be drawn concerning the sequence of events that produced the regolith at the Apollo 17 landing site.

  17. Research at the CEA in the field of safety in 2nd and 3rd generation light water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billot, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The research programs at the CEA in the field of safety in nuclear reactors are carried out in a framework of international partnerships. Their purpose is to develop studies on: The methods allowing for the determination of earthquake hazards and their consequences; The behaviour of fuel in an accident situation; The comprehension of deflagration and detonation phenomena of hydrogen and the search for effective prevention methods involving an explosion risk; The cooling of corium in order to stop its progression in and outside the vessel thereby reducing the risk of perforating the basemat; The behaviour of the different fission product families according to their volatility for the UO2 and MOX fuels.

  18. Development of a 2nd Generation Decision Support Tool to Optimize Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2012, EPA’s Office of Research and Development released the MSW decision support tool (MSW-DST) to help identify strategies for more sustainable MSW management. Depending upon local infrastructure, energy grid mix, population density, and waste composition and quantity,...

  19. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Definition Program: Pratt & Whitney Propulsion Risk Reduction Requirements Program (TA-3 & TA-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  20. Explaining the Success of High-Achieving 2nd-Generation Latino Students at Elite Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Latinos represent the largest minority population in the US, yet are one of the most underserved groups in the educational system. As such, they have been the focus of much attention by educational researchers. However, there is little work enabling researchers to understand how many factors might interactively support achievement. Moreover, the…

  1. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  2. "First Light" Approaches for Fourth VLT Unit Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-08-01

    These days, the ESO staff at Paranal is having a strong feeling of "déja-vu". Only seven months after the third 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, MELIPAL , achieved "First Light", this crucial moment is now rapidly approaching for YEPUN , the fourth and last of the giants at the ESO observatory. Following successful coating with a thin layer of aluminium in early June 2000, the 8.2-m primary Zerodur mirror (M1) was placed in its supporting cell and safely attached to the mechanical structure of YEPUN on July 31. On August 26, the 1.1-m M2 Beryllium Mirror for YEPUN was coated. Again, this delicate operation went very well and the measured reflectivity was excellent, about 91%. The M2 mirror and its support were then assembled and successfully installed at the telescope on Sunday, August 27. Before the optical mirrors were installed, and with dummies in their place, careful tests were made of most telescope functions. In particular, this included accurate balancing of the 450-tonnes telescope frame on its hydrostatic oil bearings, as well as precise adjustment of all motions. It now remains for the ESO engineers to do the final performance optimization of the entire telescope. The work on the fourth telescope has been particularly noticeable because a large proportion of the assembly, integration, tuning and testing was organised and executed by ESOs young group of capable engineers and technicians. As the engineering staff at Paranal has grown and during the earlier work on the first three telescopes, they have been acquiring the necessary expertise to autonomously integrate and maintain the 8.2-m telescopes. During the coming "First Light" observations, light from the selected celestial objects will be registered by the VLT Test Camera at the Cassegrain Focus. This comparatively simple instrument was also used for the consecutive "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). It is mounted on the telescope's optical axis

  3. Order and disorder in Ca 2ND 0.90H 0.10-A structural and thermal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C.; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T. S.

    2011-08-01

    The structure of calcium nitride hydride and its deuterided form has been re-examined at room temperature and studied at high temperature using neutron powder diffraction and thermal analysis. When synthesised at 600 °C, a mixture of both ordered and disordered Ca 2ND 0.90H 0.10 phases results. The disordered phase is the minor component and has a primitive rocksalt structure (spacegroup Fm3 m) with no ordering of D/N on the anion sites and the ordered phase is best described using the rhombohedral spacegroup R-3 m with D and N arranged in alternate layers in (111) planes. This mixture of ordered and disordered phases exists up to 580 °C, at which the loss of deuterium yields Ca 2ND 0.85 with the disappearance of the disordered phase. In the new ordered phase there exists a similar content of vacancies on both anion sites; to achieve this balance, a little N transfers onto the D site, whereas there is no indication of D transferring onto the N-sites. These observations are thought to indicate that the D/N ordering is difficult to achieve with fully occupied anion sites. It has previously been reported that Ca 2ND has an ordered cubic cell with alternating D and N sites in the [100] directions [1]; however, for the samples studied herein, there were clearly two coexisting phases with apparent broadening/splitting of the primitive peaks but not for the ordered peaks. The rhombohedral phase was in fact metrically cubic; however, all the observed peaks were consistent with the rhombohedral unit cell with no peaks requiring the larger ordered cubic unit cell to be utilised. Furthermore this rhombohedral cell displays the same form of N-D ordering as the Sr and Ba analogues, which are metrically rhombohedral.

  4. New Vistas Open with MIDI at the VLT Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    "First Fringes" in Mid-Infrared Spectral Region with Two Giant Telescopes Summary Following several weeks of around-the-clock work, a team of astronomers and engineers from Germany, the Netherlands, France and ESO [2] has successfully performed the first observations with the MID-Infrared interferometric instrument (MIDI), a new, extremely powerful instrument just installed in the underground laboratory of the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). In the early morning of December 15, 2002, two of the 8.2 m VLT unit telescopes (ANTU and MELIPAL) were pointed towards the southern star eta Carinae and the two light beams were directed via the complex intervening optics system towards MIDI. After a few hours of tuning and optimization, strong and stable interferometric fringes were obtained, indicating that all VLTI components - from telescopes to the new instrument - were working together perfectly. Two more stars were observed before sunrise, further proving the stability of the entire system. The first observations with MIDI mark one more important step towards full and regular operation of the VLT Interferometer [3] . They are a result of five years of determined efforts within a concerted technology project, based on a close collaboration between ESO and several European research institutes (see below). Now opening great research vistas, they also represent several "firsts" in observational astrophysics, together amounting to a real breakthrough in the field of astronomical interferometry . New views at mid-infrared wavelengths : MIDI is sensitive to light of a wavelength near 10 µm, i.e., in the mid-infrared spectral region ("thermal infrared"). This provides rich opportunities to study a wide range of otherwise inaccessible, crucial astrophysical phenomena, e.g., the formation of planets in dusty disks around newborn stars and the innermost regions around black holes. However, it is a great technical challenge to perform mid

  5. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/ Austria | November 28th - 29th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation. PMID:25713602

  6. [Combined Anterior and Posterior Surgical Approaches for Resection of a 2nd-rib Chondrosarcoma Occupying the Superior Sulcus].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Yoshikazu; Anraku, Masaki; Saito, Noriyuki; Fukumoto, Kento; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yusuke; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Jun

    2016-06-01

    A 77-year-old man with right chest wall chondrosarcoma invading vertebral bodies underwent resection. Computed tomography (CT) showed that the tumor occupied the right superior sulcus, and was close to mediastinal organs including the trachea and esophagus. We adopted a combined anterior and posterior approaches that made safe and curative resection possible. In the anterior approach, we dissected and mobilized the neurovascular structures and neighboring organs from the tumor. A-4 cm gutter on the ventral side of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd thoracic vertebral bodies was created for safe resection. By the subsequent posterior approach, successful resection was achieved without violating tumor margins. PMID:27246126

  7. THE 2nd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 10–14 APRIL 2010, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Baharnoori, Moogeh; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Boucher, Aurelie A.; Buchy, Lisa; Chaddock, Christopher; Chiliza, Bonga; Föcking, Melanie; Fornito, Alex; Gallego, Juan A.; Hori, Hiroaki; Huf, Gisele; Jabbar, Gul A.; Kang, Shi Hyun; El Kissi, Yousri; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Modinos, Gemma; Abdel-Fadeel, Nashaat A.M.; Neubeck, Anna-Karin; Ng, Hsiao Piau; Novak, Gabriela; Owolabi, Olasunmbo.O.; Prata, Diana P.; Rao, Naren P.; Riecansky, Igor; Smith, Darryl C.; Souza, Renan P.; Thienel, Renate; Trotman, Hanan D.; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Woodberry, Kristen A.; O'Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, was held in Florence, Italy, April 10–15, 2010. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs of each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged from each session and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these reviews. It is hoped that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:20934307

  8. Quantitative metabolic profiles of 2nd and 3rd trimester human amniotic fluid using 1H HR-MAS spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Brad R.; Zhao, Shoujun; Kornak, John; Zhang, Vickie Y.; Iman, Rahwa; Kurhanewicz, John; Vahidi, Kiarash; Yu, Jingwei; Caughey, Aaron B.; Swanson, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Object To establish and compare normative metabolite concentrations in 2nd and 3rd trimester human amniotic fluid samples in an effort to reveal metabolic biomarkers of fetal health and development. Materials and methods Twenty-one metabolite concentrations were compared between 2nd (15–27 weeks gestation, N = 23) and 3rd (29–39 weeks gestation, N = 27) trimester amniotic fluid samples using 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy. Data were acquired using the electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations method and quantified using a modified semi-parametric quantum estimation algorithm modified for high-resolution ex vivo data. Results Sixteen of 21 metabolite concentrations differed significantly between 2nd and 3rd trimester groups. Betaine (0.00846±0.00206 mmol/kg vs. 0.0133±0.0058 mmol/kg, P <0.002) and creatinine (0.0124±0.0058 mmol/kg vs. 0.247±0.011 mmol/kg, P <0.001) concentrations increased significantly, while glucose (5.96±1.66 mmol/kg vs. 2.41±1.69 mmol/kg, P <0.001), citrate (0.740±0.217 mmol/kg vs. 0.399±0.137 mmol/kg, P <0.001), pyruvate (0.0659±0.0103 mmol/kg vs. 0.0299±0.286 mmol/kg, P <0.001), and numerous amino acid (e.g. alanine, glutamate, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, and valine) concentrations decreased significantly with advancing gestation. A stepwise multiple linear regression model applied to 50 samples showed that gestational age can be accurately predicted using combinations of alanine, glucose and creatinine concentrations. Conclusion These results provide key normative data for 2nd and 3rd trimester amniotic fluid metabolite concentrations and provide the foundation for future development of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers to evaluate fetal health and development. PMID:19779747

  9. GRB host galaxy studies with VLT/X-shooter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, S. D.

    We present the Italian-French GTO program dedicated to optical-NIR spectroscopy of long gamma-ray bursts (LGRB) host galaxies with VLT/X-shooter. To date most of the spectroscopical studies of GRB hosts are limited to z<1. At the end of the GTO period we will have collected the slit spectra of ˜ 30 GRB hosts: about a half at 0.8 < z < 1.5 and the remaining at z>1.5. Thanks to the unique capability of the X-shooter spectrograph we will be able to determine the properties of these objects (star formation rate, metallicity, extinction...) and compare them to those observed in absorption through the afterglow spectroscopy and to those of the galaxy samples studied in current galaxy surveys. Using the IFU X-shooter setup we will also perform the first IFU survey of GRB hosts, collecting the IFU spectra for a sample of ˜ 15 hosts at z<0.5. Here we will show some example of the studies we are carrying on with some preliminary results. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at Paranal Observatory under programmes ID 084.A-0260 (PI: J. Fynbo), 084.A-0631, 085.A-0795 and 086.A-0874 (PIs: S. Piranomonte and H. Flores).

  10. Sharpest Ever VLT Images at NAOS-CONICA "First Light"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Very Promising Start-Up of New Adaptive Optics Instrument at Paranal Summary A team of astronomers and engineers from French and German research institutes and ESO at the Paranal Observatory is celebrating the successful accomplishment of "First Light" for the NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics facility . With this event, another important milestone for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) project has been passed. Normally, the achievable image sharpness of a ground-based telescope is limited by the effect of atmospheric turbulence. However, with the Adaptive Optics (AO) technique, this drawback can be overcome and the telescope produces images that are at the theoretical limit, i.e., as sharp as if it were in space . Adaptive Optics works by means of a computer-controlled, flexible mirror that counteracts the image distortion induced by atmospheric turbulence in real time. The larger the main mirror of the telescope is, and the shorter the wavelength of the observed light, the sharper will be the images recorded. During a preceding four-week period of hard and concentrated work, the expert team assembled and installed this major astronomical instrument at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN Unit Telescope (UT4). On November 25, 2001, following careful adjustments of this complex apparatus, a steady stream of photons from a southern star bounced off the computer-controlled deformable mirror inside NAOS and proceeded to form in CONICA the sharpest image produced so far by one of the VLT telescopes. With a core angular diameter of only 0.07 arcsec, this image is near the theoretical limit possible for a telescope of this size and at the infrared wavelength used for this demonstration (the K-band at 2.2 µm). Subsequent tests reached the spectacular performance of 0.04 arcsec in the J-band (wavelength 1.2 µm). "I am proud of this impressive achievement", says ESO Director General Catherine Cesarsky. "It shows the true potential of European science and technology and it provides a fine

  11. Optical calibration and test of the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Runa; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2013-12-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT (ESO) represents the state-of-art of the large-format deformable mirror technology with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on actuator co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the results of the optical characterization of the mirror unit with the ASSIST facility located at ESO-Garching and executed in a collaborative effort by ESO, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.). The main purposes of the tests are the optical characterization of the shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions. The results are used for the optical acceptance of the DSM and to allow the next test phase coupling the DSM with the wave-front sensor modules of the new Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) of ESO.

  12. The design of the MOONS-VLT spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, E.; Diolaiti, E.; Garilli, B.; Gratton, R.; Lorenzetti, D.; Schipani, P.; Scuderi, S.; Vanzella, E.; Cirasuolo, M.; Afonso, J.; Bender, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Kaper, L.; Vanzi, L.; Baffa, C.; Bianco, A.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bruno, P.; Carbonaro, L.; Centrone, M.; Cresci, G.; De Caprio, V.; Del Vecchio, C.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Di Paola, A.; D'Alessio, F.; D'Alessandro, M.; D'Orsi, S.; Falcini, G.; Ferruzzi, D.; Fontana, A.; Foppiani, I.; Fumana, M.; Giani, E.; Leone, F.; Li Causi, G.; Lombini, M.; Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; Marty, L.; Miglietta, L.; Munari, M.; Navarro, R.; Origlia, L.; Paioro, L.; Pedichini, F.; Pragt, J.; Randich, S.; Scodeggio, M.; Spanò, P.; Speziali, R.; Stuik, R.; Tozzi, A.; Vitali, F.

    2012-09-01

    MOONS is a new conceptual design for a multi-object spectrograph for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) which will provide the ESO astronomical community with a powerful, unique instrument able to serve a wide range of Galactic, Extragalactic and Cosmological studies. The instrument foresees 1000 fibers which can be positioned on a field of view of 500 square-arcmin. The sky-projected diameter of each fiber is at least 1 arcsec and the wavelengths coverage extends from 0.8 to 1.8 μm. This paper presents and discusses the design of the spectrometer, a task which is allocated to the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF). The baseline design consists of two identical cryogenic spectrographs. Each instrument collects the light from over 500 fibers and feeds, through dichroics, 3 spectrometers covering the "I" (0.79-0.94 μm), "YJ" (0.94-1.35 μm) and "H" (1.45-1.81 μm) bands. The low resolution mode provides a complete spectrum with a resolving power ranging from R'4,000 in the YJ-band, to R'6,000 in the H-band and R'8,000 in the I-band. A higher resolution mode with R'20,000 is also included. It simultaneously covers two selected spectral regions within the J and H bands.

  13. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  14. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS < 0), where the entropy is a degree of uniformity. What is the entropy? Loosely speaking, sand on the beach is more uniform at a higher entropy value than the rocks composing a mountain - the internal binding energy tells the paleontologists the existence of information. To a politician, landside voting results has only the winning information but more entropy, while a non-uniform voting distribution record has more information. For the human's effortless brain at constant temperature, we can solve the minimum of Helmholtz free energy (H = E - TS) by computing BSS, and then their pairwise-entropy source correlation function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (

  15. The VLT Measures the Shape of a Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    First Polarimetric Detection of Explosion Asymmetry has Cosmological Implications Summary An international team of astronomers [2] has performed new and very detailed observations of a supernova in a distant galaxy with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). They show for the first time that a particular type of supernova, caused by the explosion of a "white dwarf", a dense star with a mass around that of the Sun, is asymmetric during the initial phases of expansion . The significance of this observation is much larger than may seem at a first glance . This particular kind of supernova, designated "Type Ia", plays a very important role in the current attempts to map the Universe. It has for long been assumed that Type Ia supernovae all have the same intrinsic brightness , earning them a nickname as "standard candles". If so, differences in the observed brightness between individual supernovae of this type simply reflect their different distances. This, and the fact that the peak brightness of these supernovae rivals that of their parent galaxy, has allowed to measure distances of even very remote galaxies . Some apparent discrepancies that were recently found have led to the discovery of cosmic acceleration . However, this first clearcut observation of explosion asymmetry in a Type Ia supernova means that the exact brightness of such an object will depend on the angle from which it is seen. Since this angle is unknown for any particular supernova, this obviously introduces an amount of uncertainty into this kind of basic distance measurements in the Universe which must be taken into account in the future. Fortunately, the VLT data also show that if you wait a little - which in observational terms makes it possible to look deeper into the expanding fireball - then it becomes more spherical. Distance determinations of supernovae that are performed at this later stage will therefore be more accurate. PR Photo 24a/03 : Spiral galaxy NGC

  16. Status and new operation modes of the versatile VLT/NaCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Julien H. V.; Kasper, Markus; Quanz, Sascha P.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Rengaswamy, Sridharan; Schödel, Rainer; Gallenne, Alexandre; Gillessen, Stefan; Huerta, Nicolas; Kervella, Pierre; Kornweibel, Nick; Lenzen, Rainer; Mérand, Antoine; Montagnier, Guillaume; O'Neal, Jared; Zins, Gérard

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims at giving an update on the most versatile Adaptive Optics fed instrument to date, the well known and successful NACO*. Although NACO is only scheduled for about two more years† at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), it keeps on evolving with additional operation modes bringing original astronomical results. The high contrast imaging community uses it creatively as a test-bench for SPHERE‡ and other second generation planet imagers. A new visible wavefront sensor (WFS) optimized for Laser Guide Star (LGS) operations has been installed and tested, the cube mode is more and more required for frame selection on bright sources, a seeing enhancer mode (no tip/tilt correction) is now offered to provide full sky coverage and welcome all kind of extragalactic applications, etc. The Instrument Operations Team (IOT) and Paranal engineers are currently working hard at maintaining the instrument overall performances but also at improving them and offering new capabilities, providing the community with a well tuned and original instrument for the remaining time it is being used. The present contribution delivers a non-exhaustive overview of the new modes and experiments that have been carried out in the past months.

  17. Density functional theory calculations on the active site of biotin synthase: mechanism of S transfer from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster and the role of 1st and 2nd sphere residues.

    PubMed

    Rana, Atanu; Dey, Subal; Agrawal, Amita; Dey, Abhishek

    2015-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed on the active site of biotin synthase (BS) to investigate the sulfur transfer from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster to dethiobiotin (DTB). The active site is modeled to include both the 1st and 2nd sphere residues. Molecular orbital theory considerations and calculation on smaller models indicate that only an S atom (not S²⁻) transfer from an oxidized Fe(2)S(2) cluster leads to the formation of biotin from the DTB using two adenosyl radicals generated from S-adenosyl-L-methionine. The calculations on larger protein active site model indicate that a 9-monothiobiotin bound reduced cluster should be an intermediate during the S atom insertion from the Fe(2)S(2) cluster consistent with experimental data. The Arg260 bound to Fe1, being a weaker donor than cysteine bound to Fe(2), determines the geometry and the electronic structure of this intermediate. The formation of this intermediate containing the C9-S bond is estimated to have a ΔG(≠) of 17.1 kcal/mol while its decay by the formation of the 2nd C6-S bond is calculated to have a ΔG(≠) of 29.8 kcal/mol, i.e. the 2nd C-S bond formation is calculated to be the rate determining step in the cycle and it leads to the decay of the Fe(2)S(2) cluster. Significant configuration interaction (CI), present in these transition states, helps lower the barrier of these reactions by ~30-25 kcal/mol relative to a hypothetical outer-sphere reaction. The conserved Phe285 residue near the Fe(2)S(2) active site determines the stereo selectivity at the C6 center of this radical coupling reaction. Reaction mechanism of BS investigated using DFT calculations. Strong CI and the Phe285 residue control the kinetic rate and stereochemistry of the product. PMID:26369537

  18. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  19. Influence of Nd dopant amount on microstructure and photoluminescence of TiO2:Nd thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcieszak, Damian; Mazur, Michal; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Morgiel, Jerzy; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Misiewicz, Jan

    2015-10-01

    TiO2 and TiO2:Nd thin films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering process from mosaic Ti-Nd targets with various Nd concentration. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopic techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) in the near infrared obtained upon 514.5 nm excitation was also examined. The relationship between the Nd concentration, structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of prepared thin films was investigated and discussed. XRD and TEM measurements showed that an increase in the Nd concentration in the thin films hinders the crystal growth in the deposited coatings. Depending on the Nd amount in the thin films, TiO2 with the rutile, mixed rutile-amorphous or amorphous phase was obtained. Transmittance measurements revealed that addition of Nd dopant to titania matrix did not deteriorate optical transparency of the coatings, however it influenced on the position of the fundamental absorption edge and therefore on the width of optical band gap energy. All TiO2:Nd thin films exhibited PL emission that occurred at ca. 0.91, 1.09 and 1.38 μm. Finally, results obtained for deposited coatings showed that titania with the rutile structure and 1.0 at.% of Nd was the most efficient in VIS to NIR photon conversion.

  20. Surface-emitting quantum cascade laser with 2nd-order metal-semiconductor gratings for single-lobe emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, C.; Sigler, C.; Kirch, J. D.; Lindberg, D.; Earles, T.; Botez, D.; Mawst, L. J.

    2016-03-01

    Grating-coupled, surface-emitting (GCSE) quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are demonstrated with high-power, single-lobe surface emission. A 2nd-order Au-semiconductor distributed-feedback (DFB)/ distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) grating is used for feedback and out-coupling. The DFB and DBR grating regions are 2.55 mm- and 1.28 mm-long, respectively, for a total grating length of 5.1 mm. The lasers are designed to operate in a symmetric longitudinal mode by causing resonant coupling of the guided optical mode to the antisymmetric surface-plasmon modes of the 2nd-order metal/semiconductor grating. In turn, the antisymmetric longitudinal modes are strongly absorbed by the metal in the grating, causing the symmetric longitudinal mode to be favored to lase, which produces a single lobe beam over a grating duty-cycle range of 36-41 %. Simulations indicate that the symmetric mode is always favored to lase, independent of the random phase of residual reflections from the device's cleaved ends. Peak pulsed output powers of ~ 0.4 W were measured with single-lobe, single-mode operation near 4.75 μm.

  1. XUV spectra of 2nd transition row elements: identification of 3d-4p and 3d-4f transition arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokasani, Ragava; Long, Elaine; Maguire, Oisin; Sheridan, Paul; Hayden, Patrick; O'Reilly, Fergal; Dunne, Padraig; Sokell, Emma; Endo, Akira; Limpouch, Jiri; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-12-01

    The use of laser produced plasmas (LPPs) in extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray lithography and metrology at 13.5 nm has been widely reported and recent research efforts have focused on developing next generation sources for lithography, surface morphology, patterning and microscopy at shorter wavelengths. In this paper, the spectra emitted from LPPs of the 2nd transition row elements from yttrium (Z = 39) to palladium (Z = 46), with the exception of zirconium (Z = 40) and technetium (Z = 43), produced by two Nd:YAG lasers which delivered up to 600 mJ in 7 ns and 230 mJ in 170 ps, respectively, are reported. Intense emission was observed in the 2-8 nm spectral region resulting from unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) due to 3d-4p, 3d-4f and 3p-3d transitions. These transitions in a number of ion stages of yttrium, niobium, ruthenium and rhodium were identified by comparison with results from Cowan code calculations and previous studies. The theoretical data were parameterized using the UTA formalism and the mean wavelength and widths were calculated and compared with experimental results.

  2. Constraints on Chariklo's rings from HST and VLT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicardy, Bruno; Buie, Marc W.; Benedetti-Rossi, Gustavo; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; Bueno de Camargo, Julio I.; Duffard, Rene; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Gratadour, Damien; Dumas, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    In June 2013, a stellar occultation revealed for the first time ever the presence of two dense and narrow rings around a small object of the solar system, the Centaur (10199) Chariklo (Braga-Ribas et al., Nature 508, 72, 2014). This body follows an eccentric orbit between Saturn and Uranus, with perihelion and aphelion distances of 13.1 and 18.5 AU. Due to Uranus perturbations, its orbit is unstable on the very short time scale of ~10 Myr (Horner at al. MNRAS 354, 798, 2004). The two rings (C1R and C2R, respectively) have orbital radii aC1R= 390.6±3.3 km and aC2R= 404.8±3.3 km, and typical widths WC1R ~6.5 km and WC2R ~2 km, optical depths τC1R ~ 0.4 and τC1R ~ 0.06, with a gap of ~9 km between the two. Chariklo's radius, RC~ 120 km (Duffard et al. AA 568, A79, 2014 Fornasier et al. AA 518, L11, 2014), implies that the ring system lies at 3.3-3.4 RC, farther away than the classical Roche limit of 2.4 RC that would be obtained for spherical ring particles with the same density as Chariklo.To better understand Chariklo's surroundings, and thus the origin of the rings, direct imaging of Chariklo has been performed using HST and VLT, with respectively 3 visits and 2 runs performed between April and August 2015. The HST images were obtained with the WFC3/UVIS camera with filters F300X (250-350 nm), F475X (400-650 nm) and F350LP (300-1000 nm), and typical PSF size of 30 milli-arcsec (mas), corresponding to about 300~km at Chariklo. Conversely, the SPHERE high contrast instrument at ESO VLT provided images in the near IR (Y, J and H bands), with typical expected PSF sizes of 30-40 mas (300-400~km at Chariklo). The main goals of those observations were: (1) obtain direct images of the rings, confirming their geometry and their orientation, (2) derive multi-wavelength photometry, thus constraining their composition (concerning in particular the presence of water ice), (3) perform a deep search of small satellites (down to a few km in diameter), (4) faint dusty rings

  3. The VLT Unravels the Nature of the Fastest Binary Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Two Hot White Dwarfs Perform a Tight Dance Summary Observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile and the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) on the Canary Islands during the past two years have enabled an international group of astronomers [1] to unravel the true nature of an exceptional binary stellar system. This system, designated RX J0806.3+1527 , was first discovered as an X-ray source of variable brightness - once every five minutes, it "switches off" for a short moment. The new observations have shown beyond doubt that this period reflects the orbital motion of two "white dwarf" stars that revolve around each other at a distance of only 80,000 km . Each of the stars is about as large as the Earth and this is the shortest orbital period known for any binary stellar system. The VLT spectrum displays lines of ionized helium, indicating that the presence of an exceedingly hot area on one of the stars - a "hot spot" with a temperature of approx. 250,000 degrees. The system is currently in a rarely seen, transitory evolutionary state . PR Photo 10a/02 : U- and R-band images of RX J0806.3+1527. PR Photo 10b/02 : Spectrum of RX J0806.3+1527 An amazing stellar binary system ESO PR Photo 10a/02 ESO PR Photo 10a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 400 pix - 440k] [Normal - JPEG: 1600 x 800 pix - 1.1M] Caption : PR Photo 10a/02 shows U and R filter images of the sky field around RX J0806.3+1527 (at centre of circle), obtained with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument on VLT KUEYEN. The object is brightest at the shorter wavelength (U-band) - reflecting its very high temperature. Technical information about the photo is available below. One year is the time it takes the Earth to move once around the Sun, our central star. This may seem quite fast when measured on the scale of the Universe, but this is a snail's motion compared to the the speed of two recently discovered stars. They revolve around each other 100,000 times faster; one full revolution takes only 321

  4. Successful "First Light" for VLT High-Resolution Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    Great Research Prospects with UVES at KUEYEN A major new astronomical instrument for the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile), the UVES high-resolution spectrograph, has just made its first observations of astronomical objects. The astronomers are delighted with the quality of the spectra obtained at this moment of "First Light". Although much fine-tuning still has to be done, this early success promises well for new and exciting science projects with this large European research facility. Astronomical instruments at VLT KUEYEN The second VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope, KUEYEN ("The Moon" in the Mapuche language), is in the process of being tuned to perfection before it will be "handed" over to the astronomers on April 1, 2000. The testing of the new giant telescope has been successfully completed. The latest pointing tests were very positive and, from real performance measurements covering the entire operating range of the telescope, the overall accuracy on the sky was found to be 0.85 arcsec (the RMS-value). This is an excellent result for any telescope and implies that KUEYEN (as is already the case for ANTU) will be able to acquire its future target objects securely and efficiently, thus saving precious observing time. This work has paved the way for the installation of large astronomical instruments at its three focal positions, all prototype facilities that are capable of catching the light from even very faint and distant celestial objects. The three instruments at KUEYEN are referred to by their acronyms UVES , FORS2 and FLAMES. They are all dedicated to the investigation of the spectroscopic properties of faint stars and galaxies in the Universe. The UVES instrument The first to be installed is the Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) that was built by ESO, with the collaboration of the Trieste Observatory (Italy) for the control software. Complete tests of its optical and mechanical components, as well as of its CCD detectors and of the complex

  5. Literacy: The Key to Success. A Literacy Handbook, 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-York Library System, Utica, NY.

    Designed to provide a comprehensive literacy reference for public libraries, this handbook presents a glossary of terms, background information on functional literacy, and brief reviews of 14 additional topics: (1) literacy statistics; (2) adult performance levels; (3) the problem of adult education; (4) illiteracy generates itself; (5) about…

  6. Conceptual design and optimization of a 1-1/2 generation PFBC plant task 14. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Witman, P.M.; Harbaugh, L.; Rubow, L.N.; Horazak, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    The economics and performance of advanced pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) cycles developed for utility applications during the last 10 years (especially the 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle) are projected to be favorable compared to conventional pulverized coal power plants. However, the improved economics of 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles are accompanied by the perception of increased technological risk related to the pressurized carbonizer and its associated gas cleanup systems. A PFBC cycle that removed the uncertainties of the carbonizer while retaining the high efficiency and low cost of a 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle could improve the prospects for early commercialization and pave the way for the introduction of the complete 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle at some later date. One such arrangement is a PFBC cycle with natural gas topping combustion, referred to as the 1.5-Generation PFBC cycle. This cycle combines the advantages of the 2nd-Generation PFBC plant with the reduced risk associated with a gas turbine burning natural gas, and can potentially be part of a phased approach leading to the commercialization of utility 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles. The 1.5-Generation PFBC may also introduce other advantages over the more complicated 2nd-Generation PFBC system. This report describes the technical and economic evaluation of 1.5-Generation PFBC cycles for utility or industrial power generation.

  7. Faintest Methane Brown Dwarf Discovered with the NTT and VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-08-01

    FORS1 and ISAAC instruments at the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope during the first period of VLT observations. Such distant objects are quite red (due to their high redshift) and are best detected by a combination of visible and infrared exposures. Discovery of an extremely infrared object ESO PR Photo 35a/99 ESO PR Photo 35a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 251 pix - 72k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 502 pix - 224k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 1881 pix - 1.7M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 35a/99 : Part of the NTT Deep Field , with the new Methane Brown Dwarf NTTDF J1205-0744 at the centre. The field measures 1.3 x 1.3 arcmin 2. The object is well visible in the SOFI infrared exposure (left) in the J-band at wavelength 1.25 µm, but not in the SUSI one at a shorter wavelength (right) in the i-band at 0.8 µm. North is up and East is left. The astronomers noted a star-like object of extreme colour in this field. While it was well visible and similarly bright in both SOFI infrared images (J = 20.2 and K = 20.3), it could not be seen at all on the SUSI images in the visible spectral region, even at the longest wavelength (i-band) observed with that instrument (i-J > 6 mag), cf. PR Photo 35a/99 . No "normal" object is known to have such extreme colours. The new object now received the designation NTTDF J1205-0744 , indicating that it was discovered in the NTT Deep Field at the given position on the sky. It seemed that there were only two possibilities. Either it was an extremely distant quasar (redshift about 8) at the edge of the observable universe, or it must be a very cold object in the Milky Way Galaxy. Whatever its nature, this was obviously a most interesting object. Spectroscopic observations of NTTDF J1205-0744 ESO PR Photo 35b/99 ESO PR Photo 35b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 337 pix - 56k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 674 pix - 124k] Caption to ESO PR Photo 35b/99 : The infrared spectrum of NTTDF J1205-0744 , as obtained with SOFI at the NTT and ISAAC at VLT ANTU, and compared to the spectrum of the

  8. The VLT Unravels the Nature of the Fastest Binary Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Two Hot White Dwarfs Perform a Tight Dance Summary Observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile and the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) on the Canary Islands during the past two years have enabled an international group of astronomers [1] to unravel the true nature of an exceptional binary stellar system. This system, designated RX J0806.3+1527 , was first discovered as an X-ray source of variable brightness - once every five minutes, it "switches off" for a short moment. The new observations have shown beyond doubt that this period reflects the orbital motion of two "white dwarf" stars that revolve around each other at a distance of only 80,000 km . Each of the stars is about as large as the Earth and this is the shortest orbital period known for any binary stellar system. The VLT spectrum displays lines of ionized helium, indicating that the presence of an exceedingly hot area on one of the stars - a "hot spot" with a temperature of approx. 250,000 degrees. The system is currently in a rarely seen, transitory evolutionary state . PR Photo 10a/02 : U- and R-band images of RX J0806.3+1527. PR Photo 10b/02 : Spectrum of RX J0806.3+1527 An amazing stellar binary system ESO PR Photo 10a/02 ESO PR Photo 10a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 400 pix - 440k] [Normal - JPEG: 1600 x 800 pix - 1.1M] Caption : PR Photo 10a/02 shows U and R filter images of the sky field around RX J0806.3+1527 (at centre of circle), obtained with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument on VLT KUEYEN. The object is brightest at the shorter wavelength (U-band) - reflecting its very high temperature. Technical information about the photo is available below. One year is the time it takes the Earth to move once around the Sun, our central star. This may seem quite fast when measured on the scale of the Universe, but this is a snail's motion compared to the the speed of two recently discovered stars. They revolve around each other 100,000 times faster; one full revolution takes only 321

  9. Project DEEP STEAM 2nd and 3rd quarter reports, April 1-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Clay, R.G.; Lee, D.O.; Marshall, B.W.; Muir, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    The objective of Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this project are development of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam-generation systems. During the period April 1-September 30, 1981, activity was completed on the development of a low-pressure-combustion, indirect-contact downhole generator (Rocketdyne), and effort continued on two high-pressure, direct-contact designs (Foster-Miller Associates, Sandia National Laboratories). Field testing of the Sandia design began in the Wilmington Field at Long Beach, California. This was the first test of a high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generator in a deep well. Development of a second Sandia design, using pure oxygen as the oxidizer, was initiated. Progress continued on the Min-Stress II packer concept at L'Garde, Inc., and on the extruded metal packer at Foster-Miller. A new insulant test series was begun at the Tacoma test tower. The instrumented bare-string steam injection test in Canada, initiated in cooperation with Husky Oil in the last report period, was successfully completed in early May. A redesigned test program to allow simultaneous testing of several different insulated tubulars is scheduled for October 1981.

  10. Post-flight BET products for the 2nd discovery entry, STS-19 (51-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, G. M.; Mcconnell, J. G.; Heck, M. L.; Troutman, P. A.; Waters, L. A.; Findlay, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    The post-flight products for the second Discovery flight, STS-19 (51-A), are summarized. The inertial best estimate trajectory (BET), BT19D19/UN=169750N, was developed using spacecraft dynamic measurements from Inertial Measurement Unit 2 (IMU2) in conjunction with the best tracking coverage available for any of the earlier Shuttle entries. As a consequence of the latter, an anchor epoch was selected which conforms to an initial altitude of greater than a million feet. The Extended BET, ST19BET/UN=274885C, incorporated the previously mentioned inertial reconstructed state information and the Langley Atmospheric Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) atmosphere, ST19MET/UN=712662N, with some minor exceptions. Primary and back-up AEROBET reels are NK0165 and NK0201, respectively. This product was only developed over the lowermost 360 kft altitude range due to atmosphere problems but this relates to altitudes well above meaningful signal in the IMUs. Summary results generated from the AEROBET for this flight are presented with meaningful configuration and statistical comparisons from the previous thirteen flights. Modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) files were generated based on IMU2 and the Rate Gyro Assembly/Accelerometer Assembly (RGA/AA), respectively. Appendices attached define spacecraft and physical constants utilized, show plots of the final tracking data residuals from the post-flight fit, list relevant parameters from the BET at a two second spacing, and retain for archival purpose all relevant input and output tapes and files generated.

  11. Effect of the nanocrystalline structure type on the optical properties of TiO2:Nd (1 at.%) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Michal; Wojcieszak, Damian; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Misiewicz, Jan; Morgiel, Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films, each doped with the same amount of neodymium (1 at.%) were deposited by Low Pressure Hot Target Reactive Sputtering and High Energy Reactive Magnetron Sputtering processes in order to obtain anatase and rutile thin film structures respectively. The microstructure and phase composition were analyzed using the transmission electron microscopy method including high resolution electron microscopy imaging. The measurements of the optical properties showed, that both prepared thin films were transparent in the visible light range and had a low extinction coefficient of ca. 3 ṡ 10-3. The thin film with the anatase structure had a lower cut-off wavelength and refractive index and a higher value of optical energy band gap as-compared to the TiO2:Nd coating with the rutile structure. Simultaneously, more efficient photoluminescence emission was observed for the rutile thin films.

  12. Morgenröthe or business as usual: a personal account of the 2nd Annual EULAR Congress, Prague

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2001-01-01

    The 2nd Annual European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Congress, held in Prague, 13–16 June 2001, was an impressive event with a record turnout of 8300 delegates. It offered a large variety of first-class state of the art lectures by some 180 invited worldwide speakers. Several new and ongoing therapeutic developments were discussed. The aim to attract the young scientific community was only partly achieved, and the dependence on industry posed some problems. The organization, however, was a big improvement compared with the previous congress in this series. The number of submitted abstracts was relatively low (1200) compared with the number of delegates. Accommodation of satellite symposia and organization of poster sessions remain problem areas of this meeting. The Annual EULAR Congress emerges as one of the two most important annual congresses of rheumatology, the other being the American College of Rheumatology meeting.

  13. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  14. CRACking ion channel targets: 2nd annual Ion Channel Targets Conference. 12-13 September 2006, Boston, MA, USA.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The 2nd Annual Ion Channel Targets (ICT) Conference (by Select Bioscience LLC) was held in Boston on 12-13 September 2006. A healthy mixture of scientists from pharma, biotech and academic sectors attended the meeting. The speaker list reflected this mixture. In general, the conference focused on new ion channel targets and the methods for studying them in detail. Keynote lectures from Professors David Clapham (Harvard Medical School, USA) and Reinhold Penner (University of Hawaii, USA) set the tone by highlighting recent findings with a voltage-gated proton channel (Clapham), cation channel in sperm (Clapham) and the calcium-release-activated calcium channel (Penner). Also described at ICT were voltage-gated sodium, potassium, transmembrane-receptor-potential channels, as well as ligand-gated nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) and GABA type A receptors. PMID:17150038

  15. The influence of neighborhood density and word frequency on phoneme awareness in 2nd and 4th grades

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics – neighborhood density and word frequency – interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation between words' neighborhood density, word frequency, and phoneme awareness performance was examined across grades while covarying type and place of deletion. Results A predicted interaction was revealed: words from dense neighborhoods or those with high frequency were more likely to yield correct phoneme awareness responses across grades. Conclusions Findings support an expansion to the lexical restructuring model to include interactions between neighborhood density and word frequency to account for phoneme awareness. PMID:20691979

  16. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories. PMID:26298195

  17. A 52 hours VLT/FORS2 spectrum of a bright z ~ 7 HUDF galaxy: no Ly-α emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzella, E.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Castellano, M.; Grazian, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Nonino, M.; Cristiani, S.; Zamorani, G.; Vignali, C.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: We aim to determine the redshift of GDS_1408, the most solid z ~ 7 galaxy candidate lying in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Methods: We have used all the VLT spectra for GDS_1408 that has been collected by two other groups with FORS2 at VLT and by us in the last five years for a total integration time of 52 h. The combined spectrum is the deepest ever obtained of a galaxy in the reionization epoch. Results: We do not detect any emission line or continuum up to 10 100 Å. Based on an accurate set of simulations, we are able to put a stringent upper limit of f(Lyα) <3 × 10-18 erg/s/cm2 at 3-9 sigma in the explored wavelength range, which corresponds to a rest-frame equivalent width EW< 9 Å. Combining this limit with the spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling, we refine the redshift to be z = 6.82 ± 0.1 (1-sigma). The same SED fitting indicates that GDS_1408 is relatively extinct (A1600 ≃ 1) with a dust corrected star-formation rate of ≃20 M⊙ yr-1. The comparison between the un-attenuated equivalent width predicted by the case-B recombination theory and the observed upper limit provides a limit on the effective Lyα escape fraction of fesceff(Lyα) < 8%. Even though we cannot rule out a major contribution of the inter/circum galactic medium in damping the line, a plausible interpretation is that G2_1408 is moderately evolved and contains sufficient gas and dust to attenuate the Lyα emission before it reaches the intergalactic medium. Conclusions: The redshift confirmation of even the best z ≃ 7 candidates is very hard to achieve (unless the Lyα or unusually strong rest-UV nebular emission lines are present) with the current generation of 8-10 m class telescopes. We show that both JWST and E-ELT are necessary to make decisive progresses. Currently, the increased redshift accuracy obtained with this kind of analysis makes ALMA an interesting option for the redshift confirmation. This work is based on data collected at ESO VLT (prog.ID 084.A-0951(A

  18. Assessing VLT-UT science image quality from active optics Shack-Hartmann spot patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete, Julio; Kolb, Johan; Lombardi, Gianluca; Noethe, Lothar; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-07-01

    A one year database has been gathered from the VLT active optics Shack-Hartmann (S-H) wavefront sensor images taken at each operating focus about every 30 seconds. The VLT telescope control software includes a dedicated code to extract the median full width at half maximum of the unvignetted S-H spots which is used for this study. This code applies a 1-D fit, assuming circular Hartmann spots, which allows to work only on foci equipped with atmospheric dispersion correction, or when the telescopes are observing close to zenith. The S-H image size measured inside the 30m enclosures is compared the outside seeing measured at 6m above ground by the VLT Astronomical Site Monitor (DIMM). A method for correcting DIMM measurements from surface layer turbulence contamination is proposed.

  19. Numerical Simulation of the Francis Turbine and CAD used to Optimized the Runner Design (2nd).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutikno, Priyono

    2010-06-01

    Hydro Power is the most important renewable energy source on earth. The water is free of charge and with the generation of electric energy in a Hydroelectric Power station the production of green house gases (mainly CO2) is negligible. Hydro Power Generation Stations are long term installations and can be used for 50 years and more, care must be taken to guarantee a smooth and safe operation over the years. Maintenance is necessary and critical parts of the machines have to be replaced if necessary. Within modern engineering the numerical flow simulation plays an important role in order to optimize the hydraulic turbine in conjunction with connected components of the plant. Especially for rehabilitation and upgrading existing Power Plants important point of concern are to predict the power output of turbine, to achieve maximum hydraulic efficiency, to avoid or to minimize cavitations, to avoid or to minimized vibrations in whole range operation. Flow simulation can help to solve operational problems and to optimize the turbo machinery for hydro electric generating stations or their component through, intuitive optimization, mathematical optimization, parametric design, the reduction of cavitations through design, prediction of draft tube vortex, trouble shooting by using the simulation. The classic design through graphic-analytical method is cumbersome and can't give in evidence the positive or negative aspects of the designing options. So it was obvious to have imposed as necessity the classical design methods to an adequate design method using the CAD software. There are many option chose during design calculus in a specific step of designing may be verified in ensemble and detail form a point of view. The final graphic post processing would be realized only for the optimal solution, through a 3 D representation of the runner as a whole for the final approval geometric shape. In this article it was investigated the redesign of the hydraulic turbine's runner

  20. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically better than open hepatectomy: preparing for the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Go; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Han, Ho-Seong; Kaneko, Hironori; Buell, Joseph F

    2014-10-01

    Six years have passed since the first International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection was held. This comparatively new surgical technique has evolved since then and is rapidly being adopted worldwide. We compared the theoretical differences between open and laparoscopic liver resection, using right hepatectomy as an example. We also searched the Cochrane Library using the keyword "laparoscopic liver resection." The papers retrieved through the search were reviewed, categorized, and applied to the clinical questions that will be discussed at the 2nd Consensus Conference. The laparoscopic hepatectomy procedure is more difficult to master than the open hepatectomy procedure because of the movement restrictions imposed upon us when we operate from outside the body cavity. However, good visibility of the operative field around the liver, which is located beneath the costal arch, and the magnifying provide for neat transection of the hepatic parenchyma. Another theoretical advantage is that pneumoperitoneum pressure reduces hemorrhage from the hepatic vein. The literature search turned up 67 papers, 23 of which we excluded, leaving only 44. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are underway, but their results are yet to be published. Most of the studies (n = 15) concerned short-term results, with some addressing long-term results (n = 7), cost (n = 6), energy devices (n = 4), and so on. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically superior to open hepatectomy in terms of good visibility of the operative field due to the magnifying effect and reduced hemorrhage from the hepatic vein due to pneumoperitoneum pressure. However, there is as yet no evidence from previous studies to back this up in terms of short-term and long-term results. The 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection will arrive at a consensus on the basis of the best available evidence, with video presentations focusing on surgical techniques and the publication

  1. VLT imaging of the β Pictoris gas disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, R.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Fathi, K.; Thébault, Ph.; Liseau, R.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Circumstellar debris disks older than a few Myr should be largely devoid of primordial gas remaining from the protoplanetary disk phase. Tracing the origin of observed atomic gas in Keplerian rotation in the edge-on debris disk surrounding the ~12 Myr old star β Pictoris requires more detailed information about its spatial distribution than has previously been acquired by limited slit spectroscopy. Especially indications of asymmetries and presence of Ca ii gas at high disk latitudes call for additional investigation to exclude or confirm its connection to observed dust structures or suggested cometary bodies on inclined eccentric orbits. Aims: We set out to recover a complete image of the Fe i and Ca ii gas emission around β Pic by spatially resolved, high-resolution spectroscopic observations to better understand the morphology and origin of the gaseous disk component. Methods: The multiple fiber facility FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), with the large integral-field-unit ARGUS, was used to obtain spatially resolved optical spectra (from 385.9 to 404.8 nm) in four regions covering the northeast and southwest side of the disk. Emission lines from Fe i (at 386.0 nm) and Ca ii (at 393.4 and 396.8 nm) were mapped and could be used to fit a parametric function for the disk gas distribution, using a gas-ionisation code for gas-poor debris disks. Results: Both Fe i and Ca ii emission are clearly detected, with the former dominating along the disk midplane, and the latter revealing vertically more extended gas. The surface intensity of the Fe i emission is lower but more extended in the northeast (reaching the 210 AU limit of our observations) than in the southwest, while Ca ii shows the opposite asymmetry. The modelled Fe gas disk profile shows a linear increase in scale height with radius, and a vertical profile that suggests dynamical interaction with the dust. We also qualitatively demonstrate that the Ca ii emission profile can be

  2. New Results from the McDonald Observatory and ESO/VLT Planet Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; Kürster, M.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Bean, J. L.

    We discuss the current status of our precision radial velocity surveys at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory, as well as at the ESO/VLT in the southern hemisphere. With the HET we have just detected a planetary system, consisting of 2 Jovian-type planets, around a very metal-poor star ([Fe/H] = -0.68). Furthermore, using the VLT data for Barnard's star and Proxima Cen we will demonstrate that our current sensitivity for low-mass planets around mid M dwarfs (M4-M5V) approaches 1 Earth mass.

  3. VLT Observations Confirm that the Universe Was Hotter in the Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    . However, slight temperature variations in different directions have been measured, most recently by means of detailed observations from a balloon above Antarctica (the Boomerang experiment). Since the universe is expanding, it must have been denser in the past. A particular prediction of the Big Bang theory is also that the temperature of the CMBR must have been higher at earlier times. However, although quite a few attempts have been made, no clear observational confirmation of this has been possible so far. In fact, the best observations until now have only been able to establish upper limits to the cosmic temperature at earlier epochs. But proof is now available from new observations carried out with the Ultra-violet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope on Paranal . Very demanding observations The further we look out into the Universe, the further we look back in time. It was actually suggested more than 30 years ago that the predicted increase of temperature with distance (redshift) could be tested by observing specific absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars. The idea is simply that at earlier epochs, the CMBR was hot enough to excite certain atomic levels, and thus to give rise to particular absorption lines in the spectrum of a celestial object. Some faint absorption lines of neutral carbon atoms were found to be especially promising, in the sense that they were predicted to be very sensitive to the surrounding temperature. However, previous generations of (smaller) astronomical telescopes were unable to achieve spectra of sufficient quality of these faint absorption lines in faint and remote objects in the distant (i.e., early) Universe. The need to isolate the CMBR effects The advent of 8-m class telescopes has now changed this situation. A few years ago, the 10-m Keck telescope (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA) obtained a spectrum of a quasar that was sufficiently detailed to determine an upper limit to the temperature of

  4. Rocketdyne - J-2 Saturn V 2nd and 3rd Stage Engine. Chapter 2, Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The J-2 engine was unique in many respects. Technology was not nearly as well-developed in oxygen/hydrogen engines at the start of the J-2 project. As a result, it experienced a number of "teething" problems. It was used in two stages on the Saturn V vehicle in the Apollo Program, as well as on the later Skylab and Apollo/Soyuz programs. In the Apollo Program, it was used on the S-II stage, which was the second stage of the Saturn V vehicle. There were five J-2 engines at the back end of the S-II Stage. In the S-IV-B stage, it was a single engine, but that single engine had to restart. The Apollo mission called for the entire vehicle to reach orbital velocity in low Earth orbit after the first firing of the Saturn-IV-B stage and, subsequently, to fire a second time to go on to the moon. The engine had to be man-rated (worthy of transporting humans). It had to have a high thrust rate and performance associated with oxygen/hydrogen engines, although there were some compromises there. It had to gimbal for thrust vector control. It was an open-cycle gas generator engine delivering up to 230,000 pounds of thrust.

  5. Quality assurance at the VLT: real-time assessment and closed loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieske, Steffen; Wolff, Burkhard

    2015-12-01

    We will present a summary of the procedures in place at the VLT to ensure in real-time the quality of scientific and calibration data taken during the night, to monitor completeness and validity of calibrations in general, and to close the feedback loop with all stakeholders involved.

  6. Alcohol affects video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions differently.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Michael; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    People frequently combine alcohol use and gambling. However, our understanding of the effects of alcohol on gambling behavior is limited, both in terms of what the effects are and how they occur. The effects of a moderately intoxicating dose of alcohol (i.e., a blood alcohol concentration of .06 g%) on the video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions of community-recruited nonpathological (n = 30) and probable pathological gamblers (n = 30) were compared. Alcohol increased the rate of double up betting (i.e., choosing to play a bonus game, after a winning video poker hand, which involves trying to pick a higher ranked card than the dealer's card from among 5 face down cards) of probable pathological gamblers, but did not influence their irrational beliefs about VLT play. Alcohol maintained the irrational beliefs about VLT play of nonpathological gamblers, but did not influence their gambling behaviors. Results are consistent with a growing body of research finding that gambling cognitions have an equivocal role in explaining actual gambling behaviors. Potential mechanisms for the observed effects are discussed. Applied implications discussed include: educating regular VLT players about the effects of alcohol on irrational gambling cognitions; reconsidering policies and practices that make alcohol available where machine gambling takes place; and targeting even moderate alcohol use in the treatment of gambling problems. PMID:24731116

  7. Workshop report on the 2nd Joint ENCCA/EuroSARC European bone sarcoma network meeting: integration of clinical trials with tumour biology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This is the report of the 2nd Joint ENCCA/EuroSARC European Bone Sarcoma Network Meeting held in Leiden, The Netherlands, on 26-27 September 2013, bringing together preclinical and clinical investigators on bone sarcoma. The purpose of this workshop was to present the achievements of biological research and clinical trials in bone sarcomas and to stimulate crosstalk.

  8. Research and Prediction of the Application of Multimedia Teaching Aid in Teaching Technical Education on the 2nd Level of Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebila, Ján

    2011-01-01

    The purpose and the main aim of the pedagogic experiment were to practically verify the success of Multimedia Teaching Aid (MTA) in conditions of primary schools. We assumed that the use of our multimedia teaching aid in teaching technical education on the 2nd level of primary schools would significantly affect the level of knowledge of pupils…

  9. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  10. Growth, structure, and optical properties of a self-activated crystal: Na2Nd2O(BO3)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Faxian; Zhang, Guochun; Yao, Jiyong; Xu, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xinyuan; Fu, Ying; Wu, Yicheng

    2015-08-01

    A self-activated crystal Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 has been grown from the Na2O-Nd2O3-B2O3-NaF system. Its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and verified by infrared spectrum and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, space group P21/c with unit-cell parameters a = 10.804 Å, b = 6.421 Å, c = 10.450 Å, β = 117.95°, Z = 4, and V = 640.4 Å3. Its absorption and emission spectra were measured at room temperature. Based on the absorption spectrum, the spontaneous transition probabilities, fluorescence branch ratio, and the radiation lifetime of 4F3/2 state were calculated. The emission properties under the 355 nm excitation were also evaluated. The electronic structure of Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 was calculated by the first-principles method. The obtained results show that Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 may be a promising microchip laser material.

  11. Summary of the 2nd International Symposium on Arthrogryposis, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 17-19, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith G; Agranovich, Olga; Ogranovich, Alga; Pontén, Eva; Pontén, Ava; van Bosse, Harold J P

    2015-06-01

    Enormous progress has been made in understanding the etiology and therapies for arthrogryposis (multiple congenital contractures). A 2nd International Symposium on Arthrogryposis was sponsored by the Turner Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. Olga Agranovich, Head of the Arthrogryposis Department of the Turner Institute, organized this special meeting. Care providers from multiple disciplines from all over the world representing 18 nations attended. Participants included: Pediatric orthopedic specialists, rehabilitation physicians, occupational therapists, physical therapists, medical geneticists, neurologists, craniofacial physicians, psychologists, developmental biologists, as well as representatives from parent support groups. The 1st symposium established the need for a collaborative and interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of arthrogryposis, engagement of parent support organizations, and the aim for more research. The Second Symposium highlighted the continuing need for more research on various therapies, identification of different types of arthrogryposis, standardized descriptions of severity, development of new orthotics, improved prenatal diagnosis, and studying adult outcome. Major progress has been made on both upper and lower limb treatments. PMID:25847824

  12. Long-term monitoring of the human intestinal microbiota from the 2nd week to 13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Pӓrtty, Anna; Kalliomӓki, Marko; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2014-08-01

    Microbial contact begins prior to birth and continues rapidly thereafter. Few long term follow-up studies have been reported and we therefore characterized the development of intestinal microbiota of ten subjects from the 2nd week of life to 13 years of age. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with several bacterial group-specific primer sets demonstrated the colonization steps of defined bacterial groups in the microbiota. Bifidobacterium species were seen throughout the test period in all subjects. Bacteroides fragilis group and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group species were not detected in several subjects during the first 6 months of life but were commonly seen after 12 months of life. Streptococcus group appeared during early life but was not seen in several subjects at the age of 13 years. Although a few species were linked with the increasing age, major bacterial species in the groups did not change dramatically. Rather considerable changes were found in the relative abundances of each bacterial species. Clustering analysis of total bacterial flora indicated that the microbiota changed considerably between 6 months and 12 months of life, and, at the age of 12 months, the intestinal microbiota was already converted toward a profile characteristic of an adult microbiota. Probiotic supplementation in the beginning of life did not have major impacts on later microbiota development. PMID:24933584

  13. Study on microstructure and properties of extruded Mg-2Nd-0.2Zn alloy as potential biodegradable implant material.

    PubMed

    Li, Junlei; Tan, Lili; Wan, Peng; Yu, Xiaoming; Yang, Ke

    2015-04-01

    Mg-2Nd-0.2Zn (NZ20) alloy was prepared for the application as biodegradable implant material in this study. The effects of the extrusion process on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of the alloy were investigated. The as-cast alloy was composed of α-Mg matrix and Mg12Nd eutectic compound. The solution treatment could lead to the Mg12Nd phase dissolution and the grain coarsening. The alloy (E1) preheated at 380°C for 1h and extruded at 390°C presents fine grains with amounts of tiny Mg12Nd particles uniformly dispersed throughout the boundaries and the interior of the grains. The alloy (E2) preheated at 480°C for 1h and extruded at 500°C exhibits relatively larger grains with few nano-scale Mg12Nd phase particles dispersed. The alloy of E1, compared with E2, showed relatively lower corrosion rate, higher yield strength and slightly lower elongation. PMID:25686968

  14. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine. PMID:26455002

  15. Explicit formulas for 2nd-order driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C-X. )

    2012-04-25

    Optimization of nonlinear driving terms have become a useful tool for designing storage rings, especially modern light sources where the strong nonlinearity is dominated by the large chromatic effects of quadrupoles and strong sextupoles for chromaticity control. The Lie algebraic method is well known for computing such driving terms. However, it appears that there was a lack of explicit formulas in the public domain for such computation, resulting in uncertainty and/or inconsistency in widely used codes. This note presents explicit formulas for driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles, which can be considered as thin elements. The computation is accurate to the 4th-order Hamiltonian and 2nd-order in terms of magnet parameters. The results given here are the same as the APS internal note AOP-TN-2009-020. This internal nte has been revised and published here as a Light Source Note in order to get this information into the public domain, since both ELEGANT and OPA are using these formulas.

  16. Increasing the water temperature of a 2nd order stream reach: Hydraulic aspects of a whole-stream manipulative experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.; Canhoto, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    What will happen when water temperatures of streams increases, due to climate changes or in connection with rapidly changing human systems? Trying to answer to this question a whole-stream manipulative experiment was undertaken, where an increase in water temperature was artificially induced on a 2nd order stream reach. The main objective of this poster is to describe this experiment focusing on the design of the hydraulic system. The system maintained a steady flow while allowing natural variation in abiotic factors and was successfully used to evaluate the effects of warming on a stream ecosystem at several levels of biological organization. A constant flow of stream water was controlled by a hydraulic setup (~22m long; ~1.5m width) subdivided into two independent channels. One channel of the study reach received heated water (~3°C above the other), while the other received water at stream ambient temperature. The warming system maintained a steady gravity controlled flow making use of weirs and valves.

  17. Enhanced Deficits in Long-Term Potentiation in the Adult Dentate Gyrus with 2nd Trimester Ethanol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Jennifer L.; White, Emily R.; Christie, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during pregnancy can cause structural and functional changes in the brain that can impair cognitive capacity. The hippocampal formation, an area of the brain strongly linked with learning and memory, is particularly vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present experiments we sought to determine if the functional effects of developmental ethanol exposure could be linked to ethanol exposure during any single trimester-equivalent. Ethanol exposure during the 1st or 3rd trimester-equivalent produced only minor changes in synaptic plasticity in adult offspring. In contrast, ethanol exposure during the 2nd trimester equivalent resulted in a pronounced decrease in long-term potentiation, indicating that the timing of exposure influences the severity of the deficit. Together, the results from these experiments demonstrate long-lasting alterations in synaptic plasticity as the result of developmental ethanol exposure and dependent on the timing of exposure. Furthermore, these results allude to neural circuit malfunction within the hippocampal formation, perhaps relating to the learning and memory deficits observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:23227262

  18. A neutron powder diffraction study of ND 3 intercalated titanium disulfide, 3 R-TiS 2ND 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwmeester, H. J. M.; Wiegers, G. A.

    1988-10-01

    Neutron powder diffraction of rhombohedral 3 R-TiS 2ND 3 ( a = 3.419 Å, c = 27.03 Å at 300 K, space group R overline3m ) has shown that ND 3 molecules and ND +4 ions, present in a ratio of about 5 to 1 from chemical and physical evidence, occupy statistically the trigonal-prismatic holes between TiS 2 sandwiches. One cannot distinguish between ND 3 and ND +4. Powder intensities calculated for a model with spherically symmetric ND 3 molecules (corresponding to isotropically rotating ND 3 and ND +4) in the trigonal-prismatic holes were in reasonable agreement with the observed intensities. Attempts to obtain information on the precise orientation of ND 3 and ND +4 in the TiS 2 lattice using refinements with structure factors were not successful; the reliability R factor was 0.093 for spherical symmetric ND 3 molecules with nitrogen in the center of the trigonal-prismatic holes.

  19. Near infrared emission and energy transfer in Eu2+ - Nd3+ co-doped Ca2BO3Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talewar, R. A.; Joshi, C. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Novel near infrared (NIR) emitting phosphor, Ca2BO3Cl:Eu2+, Nd3+ was synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction and characterized with X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence emission, photoluminescence excitation spectra and fluorescence decay measurements. When excited with 400 nm, the phosphor gives broadband emission at 560 nm, which corresponds to the allowed 5d → 4f transition of Eu2+ and an intense NIR emissions in the range 800-1400 nm, which are assigned to the characteristic 4I9/2,11/2,13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ions. The dependence of visible and NIR emissions, decay lifetime and the energy transfer efficiency (ηETE) were investigated in detail. The luminescence spectra, both in visible (VIS) and NIR regions, and decay lifetime curves of Eu2+ have been measured to prove energy transfer (ET) from Eu2+ to Nd3+. These results demonstrate the possibility for enhancing the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of silicon solar cell by modifying the absorption and utilizing the UV to blue part of the solar spectrum where the efficiency of c-Silicon solar cell is low.

  20. Universe (2nd edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, W.J. III

    1988-01-01

    A general text on astronomy is presented. The foundations of the science are reviewed, including descriptions of naked-eye observatons of eclipses and planetary motions and such basic tools as Kepler's laws, the fundamental properties of light, and the optics of telescopes. The formation of the solar system is addressed, and the planets and their satellites are discussed individually. Solar science is treated in detail. Stellar evolution is described chronologically from birth to death. Molecular clouds, star clusters, nebulae, neutron stars, black holes, and various other phenomena that occur in the life of a star are examined in the sequence in which they naturally occur. A survey of the Milky Way introduces galactic astronomy. Quasars and cosmology are addressed, including the most recent developments in research. 156 references.

  1. Electrocradiographic Qrs Axis, Q Wave and T-wave Changes in 2nd and 3rd Trimester of Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    S., Chandrasekharappa; Brid, S.V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy although a physiological phenomena affects all the functions of the maternal body and brings about remarkable changes in the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular changes and many of the physiological adaptations of normal pregnancy alter the physical findings thus, sometimes misleading the diagnosis of heart disease. Pregnancy also brings about various changes in the electrocardiogram, further confusing with that of heart disease. This study is undertaken to highlight the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave of the Electrocardiogram and thereby helps us to distinguish it from that of pathological changes. Objectives: To study the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave in the electrocardiogram and to compare with that of normal non pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Fifty normal pregnant women in 2nd and 3rd trimester each between 20– 35 y of age and 50 normal non pregnant women of the same age group were selected for the study. A 12 lead ECG was recorded by using ECG machine with special emphasis on QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave changes and all the parameters were analysed. Results: The ECG changes observed in our study include, deviation of QRS axis towards left as pregnancy advanced, significant increased incidence of occurrence of prominent Q waves in lead II, III and avF in pregnant group (p < 0.05 ) and, T-wave abnormalities like flat and inverted T-waves in lead III, V1 – V3 were more frequent in pregnant group ( p<0.05 ) than in non pregnant group. Conclusion:Normal pregnancy brings about various changes in ECG. These changes during pregnancy should be interpretated with caution by the physicians. It is necessary to understand the normal physiological changes which in turn help us in better management of those with cardiac disease. PMID:25386425

  2. ENABLE -- A systolic 2nd level trigger processor for track finding and e/[pi] discrimination for ATLAS/LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Klefenz, F.; Noffz, K.H.; Zoz, R. . Lehrstuhl fuer Informatik V); Maenner, R. . Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen)

    1994-08-01

    The Enable Machine is a systolic 2nd level trigger processor for the transition radiation detector (TRD) of ATLAS/LHC. It is developed within the EAST/RD-11 collaboration at CERN. The task of the processor is to find electron tracks and to reject pion tracks according to the EAST benchmark algorithm in less than 10[mu]s. Track are identified by template matching in a ([psi],z) region of interest (RoI) selected by a 1st level trigger. In the ([psi],z) plane tracks of constant curvature are straight lines. The relevant lines form mask templates. Track identification is done by histogramming the coincidences of the templates and the RoI data for each possible track. The Enable Machine is an array processor that handles tracks of the same slope in parallel, and tracks of different slope in a pipeline. It is composed of two units, the Enable histogrammer unit and the Enable z/[psi]-board. The interface daughter board is equipped with a HIPPI-interface developed at JINR/-Dubna, and Xilinx 'corner turning' data converter chips. Enable uses programmable gate arrays (XILINX) for histogramming and synchronous SRAMs for pattern storage. With a clock rate of 40 MHz the trigger decision time is 6.5 [mu]s and the latency 7.0 [mu]s. The Enable machine is scalable in the RoI size as well as in the number of tracks processed. It can be adapted to different recognition tasks and detector setups. The prototype of the Enable Machine has been tested in a beam time of the RD6 collaboration at CERN in October 1993.

  3. New design approaches for a very high resolution spectrograph for the combined focus of the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanò, Paolo; Delabre, Bernard; Dekker, Hans; Avila, Gerardo

    2008-07-01

    To achieve very-high spectral resolutions (R>100,000) with large telescopes (D>8m) new optical solutions have been investigated in the context of the ESPRESSO project for the VLT, starting from the initial design of CODEX for the E-ELT. ESPRESSO is a high-efficiency, high-stability, high-resolution visible spectrograph for the combined Coude focus of the VLT. Among these new solutions, we can mention: free-form optics, used to design an all-mirror anamorphic pupil slicer, large mosaic echelle grating, slanted VPH gratings, super-corrected atmospheric dispersion corrector. All these solutions have been usefully applied to design the spectrograph for ESPRESSO, and its Coude relay system.

  4. The new VLT-DSM M2 unit: construction and electromechanical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallieni, Daniele; Biasi, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    We present the design, construction and validation of the new M2 unit of the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror. In the framework of the Adaptive Optics Facility program, ADS and Microgate designed a new secondary unit which replaces the current Dornier one. The M2 is composed by the mechanical structure, a new hexapod positioner and the Deformable Secondary Mirror unit.The DSM is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been fully integrated and, before starting the optical calibration, has completed the electromechanical characterization, focused on the dynamic performance. With respect to the previous units we introduced several improvements, both in hardware and control architecture that allowed achieving a significant enhancement of the system dynamics and reduction of power consumption.

  5. Investigating High N/O Blue Compact Galaxies with VLT-IFUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B.; Tsamis, Y.; Walsh, J.; Barlow, M.; Westmoquette, M.

    2013-06-01

    A series of publications concerning the spatially resolved chemical bundance analyses of a sample of blue compact galaxies, using VLT-FLAMES and VLT-VIMOS integral field observations, is summarised. Four out of the five galaxies observed were previously labelled as having enhanced nitrogen-to-oxygen (N/O) ratios for their metallicities. However, our analyses reveal regions of enhanced N/O in only three of these galaxies. The integral field unit observations provide maps of the physical and chemical conditions within each system, along with maps of stellar population age, star-forming rate and emission from Wolf-Rayet stars. By combining this plethora of information, we have attempted to disentangle the relationship between N-enrichment and WR stars in blue compact galaxies, and reveal that it is far from being one to one.

  6. The Return of the Mid-infrared to the VLT: News from the VISIR Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käufl, H. U.; Kerber, F.; Asmus, D.; Baksai, P.; Di Lieto, N.; Duhoux, P.; Heikamp, S.; Hummel, C.; Ives, D.; Jakob, G.; Kirchbauer, J.-P.; Mehrgan, L.; Momany, Y.; Pantin, E.; Pozna, E.; Riquelme, M.; Sandrock, S.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Smette, A.; Stegmeier, J.; Taylor, J.; Tristram, K.; Valdes, G.; van den Ancker, M.; Weilenmann, U.; Wolff, B.

    2015-03-01

    The VLT mid-infrared imager and spectrometer VISIR returns to science operations following an extended upgrade period. Among the most important modifications are: the imaging and spectroscopic detectors have been replaced with larger AQUARIUS (1024 by 1024 pixel) detector arrays; the N-band low-resolution grating has been exchanged; and support is now provided for precipitable water vapour monitoring, in order to select the best observing conditions. The AQUARIUS detectors stem from a development for very low background applications which result in excess noise under ground-based conditions. A series of interventions was needed to find a scheme that effectively exploits these detectors for ground-based use, involving the implementation of faster chopping. VISIR has been returned to service at the VLT with enhanced capabilities.

  7. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XIV. The O-type stellar content of 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walborn, N. R.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Evans, C. J.; Markova, N.; Lennon, D. J.; de Koter, A.

    2014-04-01

    Detailed spectral classifications are presented for 352 O-B0 stars in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey ESO Large Programme, of which 213 O-type are judged of sufficiently high quality for further morphological analysis. Among them, six subcategories of special interest are distinguished. (1) Several new examples of the earliest spectral types O2-O3 have been found, while a previously known example has been determined to belong to the nitrogen-rich ON2 class. (2) A group of extremely rapidly rotating main-sequence objects has been isolated, including the largest vsini values known, the spatial and radial-velocity distributions of which suggest ejection from the two principal ionizing clusters NGC 2070 and NGC 2060. (3) Several new examples of the evolved, rapidly rotating Onfp class show similar evidence, although at least some of them are spectroscopic binaries. (4) No fewer than 48 members of the Vz category, hypothesized to be on or near the zero-age main sequence, are found in this sample; in contrast to the rapid rotators, they are strongly concentrated to the ionizing clusters and a newly recognized region of current and recent star formation to the north, supporting their interpretation as very young objects, as do their relatively faint absolute magnitudes. (5) A surprisingly large fraction of the main-sequence spectra belong to the recently recognized V((fc)) class, with C iii emission lines of similar strength to the usual N iii in V((f)) spectra, although a comparable number of the latter are also present, as well as six objects with very high-quality data but no trace of either emission feature, presenting new challenges to physical interpretations. (6) Two mid-O Vz and three late-O giant/supergiant spectra with morphologically enhanced nitrogen lines have been detected. Absolute visual magnitudes have been derived for each star with individual extinction laws, and composite Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams provide evidence of the multiple generations present

  8. Testing 3D SPH Models Of Eta Carina's Winds By HST, RXTE, VLT And VLTI Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Madura, T.; Groh, J.; Weigelt, G.; Corcoran, M.; Owocki, S.; Russell, C.; Okazaki, A.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of Eta Carina have been combined with three-dimensional smoothed-particle hydrodynamic (3DSPH) simulations providing considerable insight on this >100 Mo binary that may become near-term supernovae, a GRB, or a staid WR binary. Understanding how this system loses 1e-3 Mo/yr, 500 km/s will provide new understanding of massive stellar evolution, including the first progenitors of GRBs, supernovae and pseudo-supernovae. The 3DSPH models extend to 100 semi-major axes ( 2000 AU, <2” at 2300 pc). At these scales, HST/STIS resolves [Fe III] and [Fe II] spatial-velocity structures that change with orbital phase and position angle. Radiative transfer models combining temperature and density with EtaCar B's FUV lead to synthetic spectroimages of extended wind-wind interfaces. Model X-ray light curves provide orbital inclination and location of periastron but cannot determine sky PA. Synthetic spectro-images generated for a range of possible binary orientations lead to best-fit when the orbital axis is closely aligned with the Homunculus axis of symmetry, and periastron with EtaCar B on the far side of EtaCar A. VLTI/AMBER measures of the continuum, extended hydrogen and helium structures of EtaCar A demonstrate that, across periastron, EtaCar B penetrates the primary extended atmosphere. Spectroimagery observations of He 10830 by VLT/CRIRES show blue-shifted emission extending to -1500 km/s, consistent with wind-wind structures driven by the companion's fast wind. The 2009.0 RXTE X-ray recovery and return of the spectroscopic high state was much sooner than the 1998.0 and 2003.5 recoveries. What has changed? Suggestions range from a drop in the primary wind, changes in the secondary wind or line-of-sight shifting of the wind-wind boundary. We will discuss potential observational tests based upon predictions by 3DSPH models.

  9. Effects of a Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) Banner on Gambling: A Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Timothy; Nicki, Richard; Otteson, Amy; Elliott, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a warning banner, informing patrons of the randomness of Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) outcomes, on gambling behaviour and beliefs were tested in a field setting using a mixed-model 2 x 3 design over a six-week period with 27 problem and 27 non-problem gamblers recruited from bars in a Canadian city with a population of 85,000.…

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GRB 130606A VLT/X-shooter spectroscopy (Hartoog+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartoog, O. E.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Goto, T.; Kruhler, T.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; De Cia, A.; Xu, D.; Moller, P.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Flores, H.; Goldoni, P.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Krogager, J.-K.; Kaper, L.; Ledoux, C.; Levan, A. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Sollerman, J.; Sparre, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.; Wiersema, K.; Datson, J.; Salinas, R.; Mikkelsen, K.; Aghanim, N.

    2015-06-01

    Reduced visual (VIS) and Near-IR (NIR) VLT/X-shooter spectra (before normalization) of the afterglow of GRB130606A (Pipeline produced, see headers of the fits files for additional info). The original data files and calibrations can be found on http://archive.eso.org/wdb/wdb/eso/xshooter/form under program 091.C-0934(C) querying the following coordinates: coord1 = 16 37 35.188 coord2 = +29 47 47.03 (2 data files).

  11. Adoption of new software and hardware solutions at the VLT: the ESPRESSO control architecture case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirami, R.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Coretti, I.; Santin, P.; Mannetta, M.; Baldini, V.; Cristiani, S.; Abreu, M.; Cabral, A.; Monteiro, M.; Mégevand, D.; Zerbi, F.

    2012-09-01

    ESPRESSO is a fiber-fed cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph which can be operated with one or up to 4 UT (Unit Telescope) of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will be located in the Combined-Coudé Laboratory (CCL) of the VLT and it will be the first permanent instrument using a 16-m equivalent telescope. The ESPRESSO control software and electronics are in charge of the control of all instrument subsystems: the four Coudé Trains (one for each UT), the front-end and the fiber-fed spectrograph itself contained within a vacuum vessel. The spectrograph is installed inside a series of thermal enclosures following an onion-shell principle with increasing temperature stability from outside to inside. The proposed electronics architecture will use the OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) as a standard layer to communicate with PLCs (Programmable Logical Controller), replacing the old Instrument Local Control Units (LCUs) for ESO instruments based on VME technology. The instrument control software will be based on the VLT Control Software package and will use the IC0 Field Bus extension for the control of the instrument hardware. In this paper we present the ESPRESSO software architectural design proposed at the Preliminary Design Review as well as the control electronics architecture.

  12. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user`s manual. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, A.

    1992-08-01

    VLT came to be used at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), because SLAC wanted to assess the Amiga`s usefulness as a color graphics terminal and T{sub E}X workstation. Before the project could really begin, the people at SLAC needed a terminal emulator which could successfully talk to the IBM 3081 (now the IBM ES9000-580) and all the VAXes on the site. Moreover, it had to compete in quality with the Ann Arbor Ambassador GXL terminals which were already in use at the laboratory. Unfortunately, at the time there was no commercial program which fit the bill. Luckily, Willy Langeveld had been independently hacking up a public domain VT100 emulator written by Dave Wecker et al. and the result, VLT, suited SLAC`s purpose. Over the years, as the program was debugged and rewritten, the original code disappeared, so that now, in the present version of VLT, none of the original VT100 code remains.

  13. Studies of Nondefective Adenovirus 2-Simian Virus 40 Hybrid Viruses III. Base Composition, Molecular Weight, and Conformation of the Ad2+ND1 Genome

    PubMed Central

    Crumpacker, Clyde S.; Henry, Patrick H.; Kakefuda, Tuyoski; Rowe, Wallace P.; Levin, Myron J.; Lewis, Andrew M.

    1971-01-01

    The nondefective adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid virus, Ad2+ND1, differs from the defective Ad-SV40 hybrid populations previously described, in that this hybrid virus can replicate without the aid of nonhybrid adenovirus helper. Consequently, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from this virus, which can be obtained free of nonhybrid adenovirus DNA, is well suited for biophysical studies on Ad-SV40 hybrid DNA. Such studies have been performed and demonstrate Ad2+ND1 DNA to have a buoyant density (1.715 g/cm3) and thermal denaturation profile (Tm = 75.1 C) almost identical with nonhybrid Ad2 DNA. Furthermore, its molecular weight, as determined by analytical zone sedimentation and electron microscopy, was 22 × 106 to 25 × 106 daltons, which is also very similar to that determined for Ad2. Electron micrographs showed all of the hybrid molecules to be double-stranded and linear. By using this determination of the molecular weight of Ad2+ND1 DNA and assuming that 1% of this molecule consists of covalently linked SV40 DNA (see companion paper), we calculate that the hybrid DNA molecule contains 220 × 103 to 250 × 103 daltons of SV40 DNA, or the equivalent of one-tenth of the SV40 genome. PMID:4323710

  14. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  15. EDITORIAL: Selected Papers from OMS'07, the 2nd Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2008-06-01

    OMS'07 was the 2nd Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society (EOS) on Optical Microsystems (OMS). It was organized by the EOS in the frame of its international topical meeting activity, and after the success of the inaugural meeting was once again held in Italy, 30 September to 3 October 2007, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. The local organizing committee was composed of researchers from `La Sapienza' University in Rome and the National Council of Research (CNR) in Naples, Italy. A selected group of leading scientists in the field formed the international scientific committee. The conference was fully dedicated to the most recent advancements carried out in the field of optical microsystems. More then 150 scientists coming from five continents attended the conference and more than 100 papers were presented, organized into the following sessions: Photonic cystals and metamaterials Optofluidic microsystems and devices Optical microsystems and devices New characterization methods for materials and devices Application of optical systems Optical sources and photodetectors Optical resonators Nonlinear optic devices Micro-optical devices. Four keynote lecturers were invited for the Plenary sessions: Federico Capasso, Harvard University, USA; Bahram Javidi, University of Connecticut, USA (Distinguished Lecturer, Emeritus of LEOS--IEEE Society); Demetri Psaltis, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ammon Yariv, California Institute of Technology, USA. Furthermore, 21 invited speakers opened each session of the conference with their talks. In addition a special session was organized to celebrate eighty years of the Isituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata (INOA) of CNR. The special invited speaker for this session was Professor Theodor W Hänsch (Nobel Prize in Physics, 2005), who gave a lecture entitled `What can we do with optical frequency combs?' In this special issue of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, a selection of the most interesting

  16. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  17. Thermochemistry of glasses along the 2NdAlO3 3SiO2 join

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yahong; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Tangeman, Jean A.; Weber, J. K. Richard

    2003-08-01

    Five Nd-aluminosilicate glasses along the 2NdAlO3-3SiO2 join were synthesized using conventional drop-quench techniques. A sixth glass, with the end-member NdAlO3 composition, required synthesis by containerless liquid-phase processing methods to avoid crystallization. Enthalpies of drop solution (DeltaHds) and formation (DeltaHf) for the Nd-aluminosilicate glasses and the NdAlO3-composition end-member glass were measured in molten 2PbO-B2O3 at 1078 K in a twin Calvet type calorimeter. Values for DeltaHds for the Nd-aluminosilicate glasses increase with decreasing silica content from 130.7 +/- 1.5 to 149.6 +/- 0.6 kJ mol-1. Similarly, values of DeltaHf increase with decreasing silica content from 41.0 +/- 2.0 to 59.0 +/- 1.6 kJ mol-1. Values of DeltaHds and DeltaHf for NdAlO3-composition glass were measured as 99.3 +/- 0.9 and 139.2 +/- 2.1 kJ mol-1, respectively. Using transposed temperature drop calorimetry, the enthalpy of vitrification for NdAlO3-composition glass was measured as 69.5 +/- 0.9 kJ mol-1 relative to the stable crystalline neodymium aluminium perovskite (NdAlO3) phase. Enthalpies of mixing were calculated based on amorphous end members; the strongly negative values support the absence of immiscibility in this system. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine glass transition (Tg) and crystallization (Tx) temperatures, as well as values for the configurational heat capacity (DeltaCP(Tg)) and the temperature range of the supercooled liquid interval (DeltaT(SCL)). The NdAlO3-composition glass showed no evidence of a glass transition prior to crystallization; only a single exotherm was observed, the onset of which occurred at 1045 K. For the Nd-aluminosilicates, values of Tg and DeltaT(SCL) increase with increasing silica content, from 1128 to 1139 K and from ~95 to ~175 K, respectively. Values of (DeltaCP(Tg)) increase with decreasing silica content, from ~27 to ~75 J/g fw lowastK, reflecting the increasing fragility and decreasing

  18. Data Reduction Software for the VLT Integral Field Spectrometer SPIFFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, J.; Thatte, N.; Eisenhauer, F.; Tecza, M.; Abuter, R.; Horrobin, M.

    2004-07-01

    A data reduction software package is developed to reduce data of the near-IR integral field spectrometer SPIFFI built at MPE. The basic data reduction routines are coded in ANSI C. The high level scripting language Python is used to connect the C-routines allowing fast prototyping. Several Python scripts are written to produce the needed calibration data and to generate the final result, a wavelength calibrated data cube with the instrumental signatures removed.

  19. Validation through simulations of a C_n^2 profiler for the ESO/VLT Adaptive Optics Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Guesalaga, A.; Kolb, J.; Le Louarn, M.; Madec, P.-Y.; Neichel, B.

    2015-04-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) project envisages transforming one of the VLT units into an adaptive telescope and providing its ESO (European Southern Observatory) second generation instruments with turbulence-corrected wavefronts. For MUSE and HAWK-I this correction will be achieved through the GALACSI and GRAAL AO modules working in conjunction with a 1170 actuators deformable secondary mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). Multiple wavefront sensors will enable GLAO (ground layer adaptive optics) and LTAO (laser tomography adaptive optics) capabilities, whose performance can greatly benefit from a knowledge about the stratification of the turbulence in the atmosphere. This work, totally based on end-to-end simulations, describes the validation tests conducted on a C_n^2 profiler adapted for the AOF specifications. Because an absolute profile calibration is strongly dependent on a reliable knowledge of turbulence parameters r0 and L0, the tests presented here refer only to normalized output profiles. Uncertainties in the input parameters inherent to the code are tested as well as the profiler response to different turbulence distributions. It adopts a correction for the unseen turbulence, critical for the GRAAL mode, and highlights the effects of masking out parts of the corrected wavefront on the results. Simulations of data with typical turbulence profiles from Paranal were input to the profiler, showing that it is possible to identify reliably the input features for all the AOF modes.

  20. A VLT/FLAMES STUDY OF THE PECULIAR INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 1846. I. KINEMATICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, A. D.; Da Costa, G. S.; Yong, D.; Ferguson, A. M. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present high-resolution VLT/FLAMES observations of red giant stars in the massive intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 1846, which, on the basis of its extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO), possesses an internal age spread of Almost-Equal-To 300 Myr. We describe in detail our target selection and data reduction procedures, and construct a sample of 21 stars possessing radial velocities indicating their membership of NGC 1846 at high confidence. We consider high-resolution spectra of the planetary nebula Mo-17, and conclude that this object is also a member of the cluster. Our measured radial velocities allow us to conduct a detailed investigation of the internal kinematics of NGC 1846, the first time this has been done for an EMSTO system. The key result of this work is that the cluster exhibits a significant degree of systemic rotation, of a magnitude comparable to the mean velocity dispersion. Using an extensive suite of Monte Carlo models we demonstrate that, despite our relatively small sample size and the substantial fraction of unresolved binary stars in the cluster, the rotation signal we detect is very likely to be genuine. Our observations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of simulations modeling the formation of multiple populations of stars in globular clusters, where a dynamically cold, rapidly rotating second generation is a common feature. NGC 1846 is less than one relaxation time old, so any dynamical signatures encoded during its formation ought to remain present.

  1. Design and preliminary tests of the VLT secondary mirror unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, Stefano; Manil, Emmanuel; Schmid, M.; Dost, K. H.

    1997-03-01

    The mechanics of the secondary unit are located behind the secondary mirror as seen from the telescope focus. The secondary is undersized and defines the pupil of the telescope. There is a focusing and centering drive for slow adjustments of the secondary mirror. In addition, the secondary mirror has a fast beam steering mechanism for chopping and rapid guiding to remove atmospheric wavefront tilt during observations. The specified square wave chopping frequency is 5 Hz with a duty cycle larger than 80%. To achieve a high bandwidth, the secondary mirror is manufactured of light-weighted beryllium coated with nickel. The beam steering mechanism has a counter-vibrating mass to compensate for dynamic forces and moments. The chopping mechanism has been successfully tested. The code of the digital control used during the tests was generated using Matlab real time toolbox. The servos were implemented on a digital signal processor card equipped with a TMS 320C40. To compensate for resonances inside the bandwidth of the servos, a special filter is applied in the velocity loop. The design of the secondary unit is now completed and fabrication and assembly have begun.

  2. The VLT LBG Redshift Survey - I. Clustering and dynamics of ≈1000 galaxies at z≈ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielby, R. M.; Shanks, T.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Infante, L.; Crighton, N. H. M.; Bornancini, C.; Bouché, N.; Héraudeau, P.; Lambas, D. G.; Lowenthal, J.; Minniti, D.; Padilla, N.; Petitjean, P.; Theuns, T.

    2011-06-01

    We present the initial imaging and spectroscopic data acquired as part of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) VIMOS Lyman-break galaxy Survey. UBR (or UBVI) imaging covers five ≈36 × 36 arcmin2 fields centred on bright z > 3 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), allowing ≈21 000 2 < z < 3.5 galaxy candidates to be selected using the Lyman-break technique. We performed spectroscopic follow-up using VLT VIMOS, measuring redshifts for 1020 z > 2 Lyman-break galaxies and 10 z > 2 QSOs from a total of 19 VIMOS pointings. From the galaxy spectra, we observe a 625 ± 510 km s-1 velocity offset between the interstellar absorption and Lyman α emission-line redshifts, consistent with previous results. Using the photometric and spectroscopic catalogues, we have analysed the galaxy clustering at z≈ 3. The angular correlation function, w(θ), is well fitted by a double power law with clustering scalelength, r0= 3.19+0.32-0.54 h-1 Mpc and slope γ= 2.45 for r < 1 h-1 Mpc and r0= 4.37+0.43-0.55 h-1 Mpc with γ= 1.61 ± 0.15 at larger scales. Using the redshift sample we estimate the semiprojected correlation function, wp(σ), and, for a γ= 1.8 power law, find r0= 3.67+0.23-0.24 h-1 Mpc for the VLT sample and r0= 3.98+0.14-0.15 h-1 Mpc for a combined VLT+Keck sample. From ξ(s) and ξ(σ, π), and assuming the above ξ(r) models, we find that the combined VLT and Keck surveys require a galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion of ≈700 km s-1, higher than ≈400 km s-1 assumed by previous authors. We also measure a value for the gravitational growth rate parameter of β(z= 3) = 0.48 ± 0.17, again higher than that previously found and implying a low value for the bias of b= 2.06+1.1-0.5. This value is consistent with the galaxy clustering amplitude which gives b= 2.22 ± 0.16, assuming the standard cosmology, implying that the evolution of the gravitational growth rate is also consistent with Einstein gravity. Finally, we have compared our Lyman-break galaxy clustering amplitudes with

  3. PC based PLCs and ethernet based fieldbus: the new standard platform for future VLT instrument control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiekebusch, Mario J.; Lucuix, Christian; Erm, Toomas M.; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Zamparelli, Michele; Kern, Lothar; Brast, Roland; Pirani, Werther; Reiss, Roland; Popovic, Dan; Knudstrup, Jens; Duchateau, Michel; Sandrock, Stefan; Di Lieto, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    ESO is currently in the final phase of the standardization process for PC-based Programmable Logical Controllers (PLCs) as the new platform for the development of control systems for future VLT/VLTI instruments. The standard solution used until now consists of a Local Control Unit (LCU), a VME-based system having a CPU and commercial and proprietary boards. This system includes several layers of software and many thousands of lines of code developed and maintained in house. LCUs have been used for several years as the interface to control instrument functions but now are being replaced by commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems based on BECKHOFF Embedded PCs and the EtherCAT fieldbus. ESO is working on the completion of the software framework that enables a seamless integration into the VLT control system in order to be ready to support upcoming instruments like ESPRESSO and ERIS, that will be the first fully VLT compliant instruments using the new standard. The technology evaluation and standardization process has been a long and combined effort of various engineering disciplines like electronics, control and software, working together to define a solution that meets the requirements and minimizes the impact on the observatory operations and maintenance. This paper presents the challenges of the standardization process and the steps involved in such a change. It provides a technical overview of how industrial standards like EtherCAT, OPC-UA, PLCOpen MC and TwinCAT can be used to replace LCU features in various areas like software engineering and programming languages, motion control, time synchronization and astronomical tracking.

  4. Ti-bearing oxide minerals in lunar meteorite Y793169 with the VLT affinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Arai, Tomoko; Saiki, Kazuto

    1993-01-01

    Lunar meteorite, Yamato 793169 previously classified as a VLT mare basalt contains considerable amounts of Ti-bearing oxides in the mesostasis area (2 vol. percent). Mineralogical study of these oxides revealed that they are isolated grains of ilmenite, ulvospinel and chromite, which are formed at the last stage of crystallization. Ti/(Ti+Al+Cr) and Cr/(Cr+Al) versus Fe/(Mg+Fe) variations of these phases are not in the same trends as in the low Ti pigeonite basalts of Apollo 12 and 15 in spite of its higher TiO2 contents. Among four lunar meteorites proposed to be samples of mare regions of the Moon, EET87521 and Y793274 are breccias rich in lunar mare components, but Y793169 and A881757 are crystalline rocks composed of Fe-rich pigeonite and plagioclase with affinity to the VLT basalts, despite their higher bulk TiO2 contents than the limit for VLT. Polished think sections (PTS) Y793169,51-3 and A881757,51-4 (Asuka-31) supplied by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) were investigated. Both samples were allocated as parts of two consortium studies. Mineral chemistries and textures were examined by an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), JEOL 840A with X-ray chemical map analysis (CMA) utilities. Modal abundances of minerals in Y793169 were obtained from colored backscattered electron (BSE) image of SEM for a particular mineral by a computer and by point analysis for minerals with a similar BSE intensity.

  5. Ti-bearing oxide minerals in lunar meteorite Y793169 with the VLT affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Arai, Tomoko; Saiki, Kazuto

    1993-03-01

    Lunar meteorite, Yamato 793169 previously classified as a VLT mare basalt contains considerable amounts of Ti-bearing oxides in the mesostasis area (2 vol. percent). Mineralogical study of these oxides revealed that they are isolated grains of ilmenite, ulvospinel and chromite, which are formed at the last stage of crystallization. Ti/(Ti+Al+Cr) and Cr/(Cr+Al) versus Fe/(Mg+Fe) variations of these phases are not in the same trends as in the low Ti pigeonite basalts of Apollo 12 and 15 in spite of its higher TiO2 contents. Among four lunar meteorites proposed to be samples of mare regions of the Moon, EET87521 and Y793274 are breccias rich in lunar mare components, but Y793169 and A881757 are crystalline rocks composed of Fe-rich pigeonite and plagioclase with affinity to the VLT basalts, despite their higher bulk TiO2 contents than the limit for VLT. Polished think sections (PTS) Y793169,51-3 and A881757,51-4 (Asuka-31) supplied by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) were investigated. Both samples were allocated as parts of two consortium studies. Mineral chemistries and textures were examined by an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), JEOL 840A with X-ray chemical map analysis (CMA) utilities. Modal abundances of minerals in Y793169 were obtained from colored backscattered electron (BSE) image of SEM for a particular mineral by a computer and by point analysis for minerals with a similar BSE intensity.

  6. The VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey: an overview of the VFTS results so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.

    2013-02-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) has acquired multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 800 O, B and Wolf-Rayet stars in the 30 Doradus region with the aim to investigate a number of important questions related to the evolution of massive stars and of cluster dynamics. In this paper, I first provide an overview of the scientific results obtained by the VFTS consortium so far. I then review the constraints obtained on the multiplicity properties of massive stars in 30 Dor and compare them to our recent results from a Milky Way sample.

  7. As Eyes See Young Stars Assemble: Star and Planet Formation in the VLT Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughrean, Mark J.

    The river of time leading to this meeting on star and planet formation with the VLT can apparently be traced back to somewhere in the vicinity of Lake Geneva almost 25 years ago, in 1977. In this introductory talk, I attempt to navigate back upstream and locate the source of the river and in doing so, discover a rather surprising link to musical happenings elsewhere on the lake at the same time. The reader is free to decide whether they find the connection more than mere coincidence, let alone interesting.

  8. GBS-discovered quiescent X-ray binaries: XMM eclipse duration and VLT spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, Peter

    2013-10-01

    We propose to use XMM to observe eclipsing probable quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries selected from the Galactic Bulge Survey. The XMM data are crucial to determine the eclipsing duration, one cannot do this as accurately from optical light curves as from X-ray light curves as the X-ray emission region is small compared to the mass donor star. Using the XMM eclipse duration and the VLT spectroscopy we can determine virtually model independent masses of the compact objects. Furthermore, we may select different mass ratio systems favoring low-mass black holes.

  9. Concept and implementation of a virtual image slicer at the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisard, S.; Sterzik, M.; Muñoz, I.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of "Virtual Image Slicer" was developed and implemented at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The Virtual Image Slicer consists in elongating the stars in a given direction by the use of the Active Optics of the telescope. Alignment of the major axis of the elongated star along the entrance slit of the spectrograph allows to increase the total signal collected in a single (polarimetric) spectrum by a factor of up to 100 or more relative to a perfectly shaped image for bright sources.

  10. [Influence of hypocaloric diet with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex on status of patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Sokol'nikov, A A; Kaganov, B S

    2011-01-01

    Addition of a vitamin-mineral complex (VMC) to a standard hypocaloric diet leads to a positive dynamics of antropometric characteristics in patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees which is comparable to effectiveness of standard dietotherapy (dietary treatment) traditionally used in complex treatment of obesity. Addition of 1,8 mg of vitamin B2 as part of VMC to a hypocaloric diet is shown to be inadequate in eradication of marginal provision of riboflavin when using diets reduced in calories. PMID:22232885

  11. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Isotopic Studies of Meteorite Kalahari 009: An Old VLT Mare Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Bischoff, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Kalahari 009 is a fragmental basaltic breccia contain ing various very-low-Ti (VLT) mare basalt clasts embedded in a fine-g rained matrix of similar composition. This meteorite and lunar meteorite Kalahari 008, an anorthositic breccia, were suggested to be paired mainly due to the presence of similar fayalitic olivines in fragment s found in both meteorites. Thus, Kalahari 009 probably represents a VLT basalt that came from a locality near a mare-highland boundary r egion of the Moon, as compared to the typical VLT mare basalt samples collected at Mare Crisium during the Luna-24 mission. The concordant Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar ages of such a VLT basalt (24170) suggest that the extrusion of VLT basalts at Mare Crisium occurred 3.30 +/- 0.05 Ga ag o. Previous age results for Kalahari 009 range from approximately 4.2 Ga by its Lu-Hf isochron age to 1.70?0.04 Ga of its Ar-Ar plateau ag e. However, recent in-situ U-Pb dating of phosphates in Kalahari 009 defined an old crystallization age of 4.35+/- 0.15 Ga. The authors su ggested that Kalahari 009 represents a cryptomaria basalt. In this r eport, we present Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic results for Kalahari 009, discuss the relationship of its age and isotopic characteristics to t hose of other L-24 VLT mare basalts and other probable cryptomaria ba salts represented by Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts, and discuss it s petrogenesis.

  12. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Particle Physics in memoriam Engin Arık and her Colleagues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetin, Serkant Ali; Jenni, Peter; Erkcan Özcan, Veysi; Nefer Şenoğuz, Vedat

    2012-02-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Particle Physics in memoriam Engin Arık and her Colleagues: Fatma Şenel Boydağ, İskender Hikmet, Mustafa Fidan, Berkol Doğan and Engin Abat was held at Doğuş University, İstanbul, Turkey on 20-25 June 2011. The conference was organized jointly by the Doğuş and Boğaziçi Universities, with support from CERN and the Turkish Academy of Sciences. This was the second International Conference on Particle Physics (ICPP) organized in memory of Engin Arık and her Colleagues who lost their lives in the tragic plane accident on November 30 2007, on their way to the workshop of the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The first of this conference series was held on 27-31 October 2008 at Boğaziçi University, İstanbul, Turkey. The conference is intended to be repeated every two years in Istanbul as a Conference Series under the name 'ICPP-Istanbul'. Professor Engin Arık had a pioneering role in experimental particle physics in Turkey, and was an inspiring teacher to many colleagues. She led the Turkish participation in experiments at CERN such as CHARMII, SMC, CHORUS, ATLAS and CAST. One of her latest involvements was in the national project to design the Turkish Accelerator Center with the collaboration of 10 Turkish universities including Doğuş and Boğaziçi. Our dear colleagues not only participated in the TAC project but also collaborated on the ATLAS (E Arık, E Abat and B Doğan) and CAST (E Arık, F Şenel Boydağ, İ Hikmet and B Doğan) experiments. We believe that the ICPP-Istanbul conference series has been, and will always be, a way to commemorate them in a most appropriate context. The topics covered in ICPP-Istanbul-II were 'LHC Physics and Tevatron Results', 'Neutrinos and Dark Matter', 'Particle Factories' and 'Accelerator Physics and Future TeV Scale Colliders'. The main emphasis was on the recent experimental results in high-energy physics with discussions on expectations from existing or future

  13. Keck and VLT AO Observations and Models of the Uranian Rings During the 2007 Ring Plane Crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, I.; Dunn, D. E.; Hammel, H. B.; Showalter, M. R.; Gibbard, S.; Matthews, K.; van Dam, M.; Sromovsky, L.; Fry, P.; Stam, D.; Hartung, M.; Nicholson, P.

    2011-10-01

    We observed the uranian rings at and near the ring plane crossing (RPX) of 16 August 2007 using the Keck and VLT telescopes, both equipped with nearinfrared cameras coupled to adaptive optics systems. The rings are partially obscuring each other when they are close edge-on, therefore we developed a model to analyze the observations. The model was tested by Dunn, de Pater and Stam (2010) against observations of the uranian rings that were taken in July 2004. In this talk we present results based on a comparison of the RPX Keck and VLT observations with models.

  14. Ices and Gas in Star Forming Regions as Seen with VLT-ISAAC Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartois, E.; D'Hendecourt, L.; Thi, W.-F.; Pontopiddan, K.; Schutte, W.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    We present a low and medium resolution spectra survey of young stellar objects of intermediate mass as well as of a few with high mass. These lines of sight were observed between 2.8 and 5.1 μm using ISAAC mounted on VLT-UT1 to follow the astrochemical evolution of solid matter surrounding embedded young stellar objects. Besides the study of the H2O and CO ice features in intermediate mass southern clouds objects (S 1), the VLT 8-m class telescopes were also used to search for weaker features tracing chemical interactions, such as the formation of ammonia hydrates (S 3), HDO (S 5) OD stretching vibration, the so-called ``XCN'' feature, and to observe CH3OH. K-band (2.2μm) spectroscopy also offers an access to very faint absorptions, adding additional constraints (S 4). We can also make a comparison with the excitation of gas phase CO lines observed with the same instrument along the lines of sight (S 2). These observations are compared to models and laboratory data in order to provide insight into the chemical history, and chemical differences between the well studied high mass stars and fainter sources now accessible.

  15. MACAO-VLTI: An Adaptive Optics system for the ESO VLT interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Robin; Alonso, Jaime; Bonnet, Henri; Brynnel, Joar; Delabre, Bernard; Donaldson, Robert; Dupuy, Christophe; Fedrigo, Enrico; Farinato, Jacopo; Hubin, Norbert N.; Ivanescu, L.; Kasper, Markus E.; Paufique, J.; Rossi, S.; Tordo, Sebastien; Stroebele, Stefan; Lizon, Jean-Luis; Gigan, Pierre; Delplancke, Francoise; Silber, A.; Quattri, Marco; Reiss, Roland

    2003-02-01

    MACAO stands for Multi Application Curvature Adaptive Optics. A similar concept is applied to fulfill the need for wavefront correction for several VLT instruments. MACAO-VLTI is one of these built in 4 copies in order to equip the Coude focii of the ESO VLT's. The optical beams will then be corrected before interferometric recombination in the VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) laboratory. MACAO-VLTI uses a 60 elements bimorph mirror and curvature wavefront sensor. A custom made board processes the signals provided by the wavefront detectors, 60 Avalanche Photo-diodes, and transfer them to a commercial Power PC CPU board for Real Time Calculation. Mirrors Commands are sent to a High Voltage amplifier unit through an optical fiber link. The tip-tilt correction is done by a dedicated Tip-tilt mount holding the deformable mirror. The whole wavefront is located at the Coude focus. Software is developed in house and is ESO compatible. Expected performance is a Strehl ratio sligthly under 60% at 2.2 micron for bright reference sources (star V<10) and a limiting magnitude of 17.5 (Strehl ~0.1). The four systems will be installed in Paranal successively, the first one being planned for June 2003 and the last one for June 2004.

  16. Final binary star results from the ESO VLT Lunar occultations program

    SciTech Connect

    Richichi, A.; Fors, O.; Cusano, F.; Ivanov, V. D.

    2014-03-01

    We report on 13 subarcsecond binaries, detected by means of lunar occultations in the near-infrared at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). They are all first-time detections except for the visual binary HD 158122, which we resolved for the first time in the near-infrared. The primaries have magnitudes in the range K = 4.5-10.0, and companions in the range K = 6.8-11.1. The magnitude differences have a median value of 2.4, with the largest being 4.6. The projected separations are in the range of 4-168 mas, with a median of 13 mas. We discuss and compare our results with the available literature. With this paper, we conclude the mining for binary star detections in the 1226 occultations recorded at the VLT with the ISAAC instrument. We expect that the majority of these binaries may be unresolvable by adaptive optics on current telescopes, and they might be challenging for long-baseline interferometry. However, they constitute an interesting sample for future larger telescopes and for astrometric missions such as GAIA.

  17. VLT: a sustainable solution to urban mobility, in João Pessoa-PB.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Uiara Wasconcelos; Silva, Glaucia Wasconcelos

    2012-01-01

    The changes happen quickly in today's world, simultaneously interacting with technological advances in the sciences and new paradigms socio-political and economic, in search of a sustainable future and a present with emergency strategies for the preservation of humanity and the planet "Earth ". Currently, the mobility of people in the intra-urban space is being threatened by congestion, pollution resulting from the appreciation of the culture of personal transport and the precariousness of public transportation. In the city of João Pessoa (PB), the subject of this finding for these disorders. Workers suffer the consequences of daily stress takes to access home-work, difficulty in arriving at the right time to the workplace and adverse reactions caused by pollution. The VLT (Light Rail Vehicle) has been presented as a viable solution to the problems of public transport, with several experiments that can be seen as positive in the world. This work involves the implementation of a public transport system based on VLT Corridor along the Avenue Dom Pedro II, in João Pessoa (PB), aiming to acquire a good transport network for use of the population, reduce the number of vehicles on process, minimize pollution and optimize urban mobility. PMID:22317037

  18. The deformable secondary mirror of VLT: final electro-mechanical and optical acceptance test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Angerer, Gerald; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2014-07-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT ended the stand-alone electro-mechanical and optical acceptance process, entering the test phase as part of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the ESO Headquarter (Garching). The VLT-DSM currently represents the most advanced already-built large-format deformable mirror with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the final results of the electro-mechanical and optical characterization of the DSM executed in a collaborative effort by the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.), INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and ESO. The electro-mechanical acceptance tests have been performed in the company premises and their main purpose was the dynamical characterization of the internal control loop response and the calibration of the system data that are needed for its optimization. The optical acceptance tests have been performed at ESO (Garching) using the ASSIST optical test facility. The main purpose of the tests are the characterization of the optical shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions.

  19. Hyperfine structure and lifetime measurements in the 4s2nd 2D3/2 Rydberg sequence of Ga I by time-resolved laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunqing; Tian, Yanshan; Yu, Qi; Bai, Wanshuang; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Chong; Dai, Zhenwen

    2016-05-01

    The hyperfine structure (HFS) constants of the 4s2nd 2D3/2 (n=6-18) Rydberg sequence and the 4s26p 2P3/2 level for two isotopes of 69Ga and 71Ga atoms were measured by means of the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) technique and the quantum beat method. The observed hyperfine quantum beat spectra were analyzed and the magnetic-dipole HFS constants A as well as the electric-quadrupole HFS constants B of these levels were obtained by Fourier transform and a program for multiple regression analysis. Also using TR-LIF method radiative lifetimes of the above sequence states were determined at room temperature. The measured lifetime values range from 69 to 2279 ns with uncertainties no more than 10%. To our knowledge, the HFS constants of this Rydberg sequence and the lifetimes of the 4s2nd 2D3/2 (n=10-18) levels are reported for the first time. Good agreement between our results and the previous is achieved.

  20. Apodization in high-contrast long-slit spectroscopy. II. Concept validation and first on-sky results with VLT/SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigan, A.; N'Diaye, M.; Dohlen, K.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Costille, A.; Caillat, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Blanchard, P.; Carle, M.; Ferrari, M.; Fusco, T.; Gluck, L.; Hugot, E.; Jaquet, M.; Langlois, M.; Le Mignant, D.; Llored, M.; Madec, F.; Mouillet, D.; Origné, A.; Puget, P.; Salasnich, B.; Sauvage, J.-F.

    2016-02-01

    Spectral characterization of young, giant exoplanets detected by direct imaging is one of the tasks of the new generation of high-contrast imagers. For this purpose, the VLT/SPHERE instrument includes a unique long-slit spectroscopy (LSS) mode coupled with Lyot coronagraphy in its infrared dual-band imager and spectrograph (IRDIS). The performance of this mode is intrinsically limited by the use of a non-optimal coronagraph, but in a previous work we demonstrated that it could be significantly improved at small inner-working angles using the stop-less Lyot coronagraph (SLLC). We now present the development, testing, and validation of the first SLLC prototype for VLT/SPHERE. Based on the transmission profile previously proposed, the prototype was manufactured using microdots technology and was installed inside the instrument in 2014. The transmission measurements agree well with the specifications, except in the very low transmissions (<5% in amplitude). The performance of the SLLC is tested in both imaging and spectroscopy using data acquired on the internal source. In imaging, we obtain a raw contrast gain of a factor 10 at 0.3'' and 5 at 0.5'' with the SLLC. Using data acquired with a focal-plane mask, we also demonstrate that no Lyot stop is required to reach the full performance, which validates the SLLC concept. Comparison with a realistic simulation model shows that we are currently limited by the internal phase aberrations of SPHERE. In spectroscopy, we obtain a gain of ~1 mag in a limited range of angular separations. Simulations show that although the main limitation comes from phase errors, the performance in the non-SLLC case is very close to the ultimate limit of the LSS mode. Finally, we obtain the very first on-sky data with the SLLC, which appear extremely promising for the future scientific exploitation of an apodized LSS mode in SPHERE.

  1. Lyman-α emitters in the context of hierarchical galaxy formation: predictions for VLT/MUSE surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, T.; Guiderdoni, B.; Blaizot, J.

    2016-02-01

    The VLT/Multi Unit Spectrograph Explorer (MUSE) integral-field spectrograph can detect Lyα emitters (LAE) in the redshift range 2.8 ≲ z ≲ 6.7 in a homogeneous way. Ongoing MUSE surveys will notably probe faint Lyα sources that are usually missed by current narrow-band surveys. We provide quantitative predictions for a typical wedding-cake observing strategy with MUSE based on mock catalogues generated with a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation coupled to numerical Lyα radiation transfer models in gas outflows. We expect ≈1500 bright LAEs (FLyα ≳ 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2) in a typical shallow field (SF) survey carried over ≈100 arcmin2 , and ≈2000 sources as faint as 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 in a medium-deep field (MDF) survey over 10 arcmin2 . In a typical deep field (DF) survey of 1 arcmin2 , we predict that ≈500 extremely faint LAEs (FLyα ≳ 4 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2) will be found. Our results suggest that faint Lyα sources contribute significantly to the cosmic Lyα luminosity and SFR budget. While the host haloes of bright LAEs at z ≈ 3 and 6 have descendants with median masses of 2 × 1012 and 5 × 1013 M⊙, respectively, the faintest sources detectable by MUSE at these redshifts are predicted to reside in haloes which evolve into typical sub-L* and L* galaxy haloes at z = 0. We expect typical DF and MDF surveys to uncover the building blocks of Milky Way-like objects, even probing the bulk of the stellar mass content of LAEs located in their progenitor haloes at z ≈ 3.

  2. PF-06463922, an ALK/ROS1 inhibitor, overcomes resistance to 1st and 2nd generation ALK inhibitors in pre-clinical models

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Helen Y.; Friboulet, Luc; Kodack, David P.; Engstrom, Lars D.; Li, Qiuhua; West, Melissa; Tang, Ruth W.; Wang, Hui; Tsaparikos, Konstantinos; Wang, Jinwei; Timofeevski, Sergei; Katayama, Ryohei; Dinh, Dac M.; Lam, Hieu; Lam, Justine L.; Yamazaki, Shinji; Hu, Wenyue; Patel, Bhushankumar; Bezwada, Divya; Frias, Rosa L.; Lifshits, Eugene; Mahmood, Sidra; Gainor, Justin F.; Affolter, Timothy; Lappin, Patrick B.; Gukasyan, Hovhannes; Lee, Nathan; Deng, Shibing; Jain, Rakesh K; Johnson, Ted W.; Shaw, Alice T.; Fantin, Valeria R.; Smeal, Tod

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY We report the preclinical evaluation of PF-06463922, a potent and brain penetrant ALK/ROS1 inhibitor. Compared to other clinically available ALK inhibitors, PF-06463922 displayed superior potency against all known clinically acquired ALK mutations, including the highly resistant G1202R mutant. Furthermore, PF-06463922 treatment led to regression of EML4-ALK driven brain metastases, leading to prolonged mouse survival, in a superior manner. Finally, PF-06463922 demonstrated high selectivity and safety margins in a variety of preclinical studies. These results suggest that PF-06463922 will be highly effective for the treatment of patients with ALK-driven lung cancers, including those who relapsed on clinically available ALK inhibitors due to secondary ALK kinase domain mutations and/or due to the failed control of brain metastases. PMID:26144315

  3. Identification and characterization of 2nd generation Invader Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs) for mixed-sequence recognition of double-stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sau, Sujay P.; Madsen, Andreas S.; Podbevsek, Peter; Andersen, Nicolai K.; Kumar, T. Santhosh; Andersen, Sanne; Rathje, Rie L.; Anderson, Brooke A.; Guenther, Dale C.; Karmakar, Saswata; Kumar, Pawan; Plavec, Janez; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Development of synthetic agents that recognize double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is a long-standing goal that is inspired by the promise for tools that detect, regulate and modify genes. Progress has been made with triplex-forming oligonucleotides, PNAs, and polyamides, but substantial efforts are currently devoted to the development of alternative strategies that overcome limitations observed with the classic approaches. In 2005, we introduced Invader Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs), i.e., double-stranded probes that are activated for mixed-sequence recognition of dsDNA through modification with ‘+1 interstrand zippers’ of 2’-N-(pyren-1-yl)methyl-2’-amino-α-L-LNA monomers. Despite promising preliminary results, progress has been slow due to the synthetic complexity of the building blocks. Here, we describe a study that led to the identification of two simpler classes of Invader monomers. We compare thermal denaturation characteristics of double-stranded probes featuring different interstrand zippers of pyrene-functionalized monomers based on 2’-amino-α-L-LNA, 2’-N-methyl-2’-amino-DNA, and RNA scaffolds. Insights from fluorescence spectroscopy, molecular modeling and NMR spectroscopy are used to elucidate the structural factors that govern probe activation. We demonstrate that probes with +1 zippers of 2’-O-(pyren-1-yl)methyl-RNA or 2’-N-methyl-2’-N-(pyren-1-yl)methyl-2’-amino-DNA monomers recognize DNA hairpins with similar efficiency as original Invader LNAs. Access to synthetically simple monomers will accelerate the use of Invader-mediated dsDNA-recognition for applications in molecular biology and nucleic acid diagnostics. PMID:24032477

  4. 1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Implementations of an eLearning Design: Re-Use from Postgraduate Law to Block/Online Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Sarah; Brewer, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of postgraduate students who were time poor and unable to regularly attend face-to-face classes, one lecturer in the Faculty Law at the University of Wollongong (UOW) sought the assistance of a Learning Designer to redesign the Postgraduate Practical Legal Training (PLT) program into a flexible blended learning format,…

  5. SHARK (System for coronagraphy with High order Adaptive optics from R to K band): a proposal for the LBT 2nd generation instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinato, Jacopo; Pedichini, Fernando; Pinna, Enrico; Baciotti, Francesca; Baffa, Carlo; Baruffolo, Andrea; Bergomi, Maria; Bruno, Pietro; Cappellaro, Enrico; Carbonaro, Luca; Carlotti, Alexis; Centrone, Mauro; Close, Laird; Codona, Johanan; Desidera, Silvano; Dima, Marco; Esposito, Simone; Fantinel, Daniela; Farisato, Giancarlo; Fontana, Adriano; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Giallongo, Emanuele; Gratton, Raffaele; Greggio, Davide; Guerra, Juan Carlos; Guyon, Olivier; Hinz, Philip; Leone, Francesco; Lisi, Franco; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Puglisi, Alfio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Salasnich, Bernardo; Sani, Eleonora; Scuderi, Salvo; Stangalini, Marco; Testa, Vincenzo; Verinaud, Christophe; Viotto, Valentina

    2014-08-01

    This article presents a proposal aimed at investigating the technical feasibility and the scientific capabilities of high contrast cameras to be implemented at LBT. Such an instrument will fully exploit the unique LBT capabilities in Adaptive Optics (AO) as demonstrated by the First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system, which is obtaining excellent results in terms of performance and reliability. The aim of this proposal is to show the scientific interest of such a project, together with a conceptual opto-mechanical study which shows its technical feasibility, taking advantage of the already existing AO systems, which are delivering the highest Strehl experienced in nowadays existing telescopes. Two channels are foreseen for SHARK, a near infrared channel (2.5-0.9 um) and a visible one (0.9 - 0.6 um), both providing imaging and coronagraphic modes. The visible channel is equipped with a very fast and low noise detector running at 1.0 kfps and an IFU spectroscopic port to provide low and medium resolution spectra of 1.5 x 1.5 arcsec fields. The search of extra solar giant planets is the main science case and the driver for the technical choices of SHARK, but leaving room for several other interesting scientific topics, which will be briefly depicted here.

  6. Recent Observations of Clouds and Precipitation by the Airborne Precipitation Radar 2nd Generation in Support of the GPM and ACE Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate the unique dataset collected during the Global Precipitation Measurement Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx, US/Canada Jan/Feb 2012). We will focus on the significance of these observations for the development of algorithms for GPM and ACE, with particular attention to classification and retrievals of frozen and mixed phase hydrometeors.

  7. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: O-stars in VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (Ramirez-Agudelo+ 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Agudelo, O. H.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Sabin-Sanjulian, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Grafener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-09-01

    Projected rotational velocity measurements of 216 O-type stars observed at multi-epochs as part as the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. We measured projected rotational velocities by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied on a set of isolated spectral lines. (2 data files).

  9. Direct exoplanet detection and characterization using the ANDROMEDA method: Performance on VLT/NaCo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantalloube, F.; Mouillet, D.; Mugnier, L. M.; Milli, J.; Absil, O.; Gomez Gonzalez, C. A.; Chauvin, G.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Cornia, A.

    2015-10-01

    Context. The direct detection of exoplanets with high-contrast imaging requires advanced data processing methods to disentangle potential planetary signals from bright quasi-static speckles. Among them, angular differential imaging (ADI) permits potential planetary signals with a known rotation rate to be separated from instrumental speckles that are either statics or slowly variable. The method presented in this paper, called ANDROMEDA for ANgular Differential OptiMal Exoplanet Detection Algorithm, is based on a maximum likelihood approach to ADI and is used to estimate the position and the flux of any point source present in the field of view. Aims: In order to optimize and experimentally validate this previously proposed method, we applied ANDROMEDA to real VLT/NaCo data. In addition to its pure detection capability, we investigated the possibility of defining simple and efficient criteria for automatic point source extraction able to support the processing of large surveys. Methods: To assess the performance of the method, we applied ANDROMEDA on VLT/NaCo data of TYC-8979-1683-1 which is surrounded by numerous bright stars and on which we added synthetic planets of known position and flux in the field. In order to accommodate the real data properties, it was necessary to develop additional pre-processing and post-processing steps to the initially proposed algorithm. We then investigated its skill in the challenging case of a well-known target, β Pictoris, whose companion is close to the detection limit and we compared our results to those obtained by another method based on principal component analysis (PCA). Results: Application on VLT/NaCo data demonstrates the ability of ANDROMEDA to automatically detect and characterize point sources present in the image field. We end up with a robust method bringing consistent results with a sensitivity similar to the recently published algorithms, with only two parameters to be fine tuned. Moreover, the companion flux

  10. Structural and magnetic study of order-disorder behavior in the double perovskites Ba2Nd1-xMnxMoO6.

    PubMed

    Coomer, Fiona C; Cussen, Edmund J

    2014-01-21

    The synthesis and structural and magnetic characterization of the site-ordered double perovskites, Ba2Nd1-xMnxMoO6, 0 < x ≤ 1, are reported in order to show the effect of doping Jahn-Teller active, S = 1/2, Mo(5+) into the structure of Ba2MnMoO6, which exhibits anomalous long-range antiferromagnetic order. Rietveld refinements against room temperature neutron powder diffraction data indicate that the tetragonal distortion present in the Ba2NdMoO6 end member persists to x ≤ 0.3. This is predominantly manifested as a tilting of the MO6 octahedra, and there is no evidence of any structural phase transitions on cooling to 1.5 K. For x > 0.3, no deviation from the ideal cubic Fm3̅m symmetry is observed. Furthermore, dc-susceptibility measurements confirm that Mn(2+) is being doped onto the Nd(3+) site, and the associated oxidation of Mo(5+) to Mo(6+). For all compositions, the Curie-Weiss paramagnetic behavior above 150 K indicates negative Weiss constants that range from -24(2) and -85(2) K. This net antiferromagnetic interaction is weakest when x ≈ 0.5, where the disorder in cation site occupancy and competition with ferromagnetic interactions is the greatest. Despite these strong antiferromagnetic interactions, there is no evidence in the dc-susceptibility of a bulk cancellation of spins for x > 0.05. Low-temperature neutron diffraction measurements indicate that there is no long-range magnetic order for 0.1 ≤ x < 0.9. Ba2Nd0.10Mn0.90MoO6 exhibits additional Bragg scattering at 2 K, indicative of long-range antiferromagnetic ordering of the Mn(2+) cations, with a propagation vector k = (1/2, 1/2, 1/2). The scattering intensities can be modeled using a noncollinear magnetic structure with the Mn(2+) moments orientated antiferromagnetically along the four different ⟨111⟩ directions. PMID:24392887

  11. PREFACE: 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium on the Fundamental and Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices and Technologies (RJUS TeraTech - 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Valeriy; Ryzhii, Viktor; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) Bauman Moscow State Technical University Moscow, Russia, 3-6 June, 2013 The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) was held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University on 3-6 June 2013 and was devoted to modern problems of terahertz optical technologies. RJUS TeraTech 2013 was organized by Bauman Moscow State Technical University in cooperation with Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) and University of Buffalo (The State University of New York, USA). The Symposium was supported by Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Moscow, Russia) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant number 13-08-06100-g). RJUS TeraTech - 2013 became a foundation for sharing and discussing modern and promising achievements in fundamental and applied problems of terahertz optical technologies, devices based on grapheme and grapheme strictures, condensed matter of different nature. Among participants of RJUS TeraTech - 2013, there were more than 100 researchers and students from different countries. This volume contains proceedings of the 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies'. Valeriy Karasik, Viktor Ryzhii and Stanislav Yurchenko Bauman Moscow State Technical University Symposium chair Anatoliy A Aleksandrov, Rector of BMSTU Symposium co-chair Valeriy E Karasik, Head of the Research and Educational Center 'PHOTONICS AND INFRARED TECHNOLOGY' (Russia) Invited Speakers Taiichi Otsuji, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Akira Satou, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Michael Shur, Electrical, Computer and System Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, USA Natasha

  12. VLT/SPHERE- and ALMA-based shape reconstruction of asteroid (3) Juno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikinkoski, M.; Kaasalainen, M.; Ďurech, J.; Carry, B.; Marsset, M.; Fusco, T.; Dumas, C.; Merline, W. J.; Yang, B.; Berthier, J.; Kervella, P.; Vernazza, P.

    2015-09-01

    We use the recently released Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and VLT/SPHERE science verification data, together with earlier adaptive-optics images, stellar occultation, and lightcurve data to model the 3D shape and spin of the large asteroid (3) Juno with the all-data asteroid modelling (ADAM) procedure. These data set limits on the plausible range of shape models, yielding reconstructions suggesting that, despite its large size, Juno has sizable unrounded features moulded by non-gravitational processes such as impacts. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (prog. ID: 60.A-9379, 086.C-0785), and at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  13. Coronagraphic Upgrades at the VLT/NaCo: 4-Micron APP Enhanced Spectroscopy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Julien H. V.; Janson, Markus; Quanz, Sascha P.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Meyer, Michael R.; Kasper, Markus; Lenzen, Rainer; Wehmeier, Udo

    2010-10-01

    We present coronagraphic upgrades that took place in the past months on NaCo, the versatile high contrast imager/spectrograph currently operated at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). A review of the current high contrast techniques available on NACO is presented as well as potential upgrades. As strong emphasis is made on the advantage of using the 3-5 μm domain for achieving outstanding detectability and characterization of hot jupiters. The new Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraph successfully commissioned earlier in 2010 is introduced. Preliminary tests on APP enhanced spectroscopy are shown. This unique capability could allow to reach unprecedented science goals: directly detect molecular features (CH4, CO, etc.) of the atmosphere of gaseous exoplanets at relatively low inner working angles (0.2 to 0.8").

  14. VLT(I) instrument operations and maintenance at the Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufer, A.; Alvarez, J. L.; Bendek, E.; Caruso, F.; Castillo, R.; Jimenez, J.; Gillet, G.; Haddad, N.; Leiva, A.; Marchesi, M.; Mardones, P.; Riquelme, M.; Robert, P.; Weilenmann, U.

    2006-06-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) operates its Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Cerro Paranal, Chile) with to date 11 scientific instruments including two interferometric instruments and their numerous auxiliary systems at 4 Unit Telescopes (UTs) and 3 Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs). The rigorous application of preventive and corrective maintenance procedures and a close monitoring of the instruments' engineering data streams are the key ingredient towards the minimization of the technical downtime of the instruments. The extensive use of standardized hardware and software components and their strict configuration control is considered crucial to efficiently manage the large number of systems with the limited human and technical resources available. A close collaboration between the instrument engineers, the instrument scientists in instrument operation teams (IOTs) turns out to be vital to maintain and to the performance of the instrumentation suite. In this paper, the necessary tools, workflows, and organizational structures to achieve these objectives are presented.

  15. Particle accelerators in the hot spots of radio galaxy 3C 445, imaged with the VLT.

    PubMed

    Prieto, M Almudena; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Mack, Karl-Heinz

    2002-10-01

    Hot spots (HSs) are regions of enhanced radio emission produced by supersonic jets at the tip of the radio lobes of powerful radio sources. Obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT), images of the HSs in the radio galaxy 3C 445 show bright knots embedded in diffuse optical emission distributed along the post-shock region created by the impact of the jet into the intergalactic medium. The observations reported here confirm that relativistic electrons are accelerated by Fermi-I acceleration processes in HSs. Furthermore, both the diffuse emission tracing the rims of the front shock and the multiple knots demonstrate the presence of additional continuous re-acceleration processes of electrons (Fermi-II). PMID:12364799

  16. What's new with the flu? Reflections regarding the management and prevention of influenza from the 2nd New Zealand Influenza Symposium, November 2015.

    PubMed

    Charania, Nadia A; Mansoor, Osman D; Murfitt, Diana; Turner, Nikki M

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a common respiratory viral infection. Seasonal outbreaks of influenza cause substantial morbidity and mortality that burdens healthcare services every year. The influenza virus constantly evolves by antigenic drift and occasionally by antigenic shift, making this disease particularly challenging to manage and prevent. As influenza viruses cause seasonal outbreaks and also have the ability to cause pandemics leading to widespread social and economic losses, focused discussions on improving management and prevention efforts is warranted. The Immunisation Advisory Centre (IMAC) hosted the 2nd New Zealand Influenza Symposium (NZiS) in November 2015. International and national participants discussed current issues in influenza management and prevention. Experts in the field presented data from recent studies and discussed the ecology of influenza viruses, epidemiology of influenza, methods of prevention and minimisation, and experiences from the 2015 seasonal influenza immunisation campaign. The symposium concluded that although much progress in this field has been made, many areas for future research remain. PMID:27607085

  17. Meridional variation in tropospheric methane on Titan observed with AO spectroscopy at Keck and VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Mitchell, Jonathan L.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Rojo, Patricio M.; Corlies, Paul; Barnes, Jason W.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Brown, Robert H.; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Clark, Roger N.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Sotin, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of the tropospheric methane on Titan was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Ground-based observations at 1.5 μm (H-band) were performed during the same night using instruments with adaptive optics at both the W.M. Keck Observatory and at the Paranal Observatory on 17 July 2014 UT. The integral field observations with SINFONI on the VLT covered the entire H-band at moderate resolving power, R = λ / Δλ ≈ 1500 , while the Keck observations were performed with NIRSPAO near 1.5525 μm at higher resolution, R ≈ 25, 000 . The moderate resolution observations are used for flux calibration and for the determination of model parameters that can be degenerate in the interpretation of high resolution spectra. Line-by-line calculations of CH4 and CH3D correlated k distributions from the HITRAN 2012 database were used, which incorporate revised line assignments near 1.5 μm . We fit the surface albedo and aerosol distributions in the VLT SINFONI observations that cover the entire H-band window and used these quantities to constrain the models of the high-resolution Keck NIRSPAO spectra when retrieving the methane abundances. Cassini VIMS images of the polar regions, acquired on 20 July 2014 UT, are used to validate the assumption that the opacity of tropospheric aerosol is relatively uniform below 10 km. We retrieved methane abundances at latitudes between 42°S and 80°N. The tropospheric methane in the Southern mid-latitudes was enhanced by a factor of ∼10-40% over the nominal profile that was measured using the GCMS on Huygens. The northern hemisphere had ∼90% of the nominal methane abundance up to polar latitudes (80°N). These measurements suggest that a source of saturated polar air is equilibrating with dryer conditions at lower latitudes.

  18. Operational concept of the VLT's adaptive optics facility and its instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntschner, H.; Amico, P.; Kolb, J.; Madec, P. Y.; Arsenault, R.; Sarazin, M.; Summers, D.

    2012-09-01

    The ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) will transform UT4 of the VLT into a laser driven adaptive telescope in which the corrective optics, specifically the deformable secondary mirror, and the four Laser Guide Star units are integrated. Three instruments, with their own AO modules to provide field selection capabilities and wavefront sensing, will make use of this system to provide a variety of observing modes that span from large field IR imaging with GLAO, to integral field visible spectroscopy with both GLAO and LTAO, to SCAO high Strehl imaging and spectroscopy. Each of these observing modes carries its specific demands on observing conditions. Optimal use of telescope night-time, with such a high in demand and versatile instruments suite, is mandatory to maintain and even improve upon the scientific output of the facility. This implies that the standard VLT model for operations must be updated to cover these partly new demands. In particular, we discuss three key aspects: (1) the need for an upgrade of the site monitoring facilities to provide the operators with real-time information on the environmental conditions, including the ground layer strength, and their evolution throughout the night; (2) a set of tools and procedures to effectively use these data to optimize the short-term scheduling (i.e. with granularity of one night) of the telescope and (3) the upgrade of the current laser beam avoidance software to better cope with the AOF operational scheme, where the four laser units are continuously operated as long as the atmospheric conditions allow.

  19. ESO's VLT Helps ESA's Rosetta Spacecraft Prepare to Ride on a Cosmic Bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    New Images of Comet Wirtanen's Nucleus [1] Summary New images of Comet Wirtanen's 1-km 'dirty snowball' nucleus have been obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile). They show this object at a distance of approx. 435 million km from the Sun, about the same as when the Rosetta spacecraft of the European Space Agency (ESA) arrives in 2011. The new observations indicate that the comet has a very low degree of activity at this point in its orbit - almost no material is seen around the nucleus. This means that there will not be so much dust near the nucleus as to make the planned landing dramatically difficult. PR Photo 06a/02 : The Nucleus of Comet Wirtanen (composite photo). PR Photo 06b/02 : Comet Wirtanen's motion in the sky (animated). A distant target ESO PR Photo 06a/02 ESO PR Photo 06a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 445 pix - 120k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 890 pix - 1.1M] ESO PR Photo 06b/02 ESO PR Photo 06b/02 [Animated GIF: 400 x 420 pix - 312k] Caption : PR Photo 06a/02 shows a (false-colour) composite image of the nucleus of Comet Wirtanen (the point of light at the centre), recorded on December 9, 2001, with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN Unit Telescope. It is based on four exposures and since the telescope was set to track the motion of the comet in the sky, the images of stars in the field are seen as four consecutive trails. The measured brightness and the fact that the image of the comet's 'dirty snowball' nucleus is almost star-like indicates that it is surrounded by a very small amount of gas or dust. The diameter of the nucleus is about 1 km and the distance to the comet from the Earth was approx. 534 million km. In PR Photo 06b/02 , the four exposures have been combined to show the motion of the comet during the four exposures. Technical information about the photos is available below. Chase a fast-moving comet, land on it and 'ride' it while it speeds up towards the Sun: not the script of a science-fiction movie

  20. Simulating a measurement of the 2nd knee in the cosmic ray spectrum with an atmospheric fluorescence telescope tower array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiali; Yang, Qunyu; Bai, Yunxiang; Cao, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    A fluorescence telescope tower array has been designed to measure cosmic rays in the energy range of 10(17)-10(18) eV. A full Monte Carlo simulation, including air shower production, light generation and propagation, detector response, electronics, and trigger system, has been developed for that purpose. Using such a simulation tool, the detector configuration, which includes one main tower array and two side-trigger arrays, 24 telescopes in total, has been optimized. The aperture and the event rate have been estimated. Furthermore, the performance of the X max technique in measuring composition has also been studied. PMID:24737964

  1. Simulating a Measurement of the 2nd Knee in the Cosmic Ray Spectrum with an Atmospheric Fluorescence Telescope Tower Array

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiali; Yang, Qunyu; Bai, Yunxiang; Cao, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    A fluorescence telescope tower array has been designed to measure cosmic rays in the energy range of 1017–1018 eV. A full Monte Carlo simulation, including air shower production, light generation and propagation, detector response, electronics, and trigger system, has been developed for that purpose. Using such a simulation tool, the detector configuration, which includes one main tower array and two side-trigger arrays, 24 telescopes in total, has been optimized. The aperture and the event rate have been estimated. Furthermore, the performance of the Xmax⁡ technique in measuring composition has also been studied. PMID:24737964

  2. Computer-Generated Geometry Instruction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Helen W.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    This study hypothesized that increased intensity of graphic information, presented in computer-generated instruction, could be differentially beneficial for students with hyperactivity and inattention by improving their ability to sustain attention and hold information in-mind. To this purpose, 18 2nd-4th grade students, recruited from general…

  3. Microgravimetric and magnetometric three-dimensional analysis in the 2nd section of the Bosque de Chapultepec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo-Zenil, D.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, J.; García-Serrano, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Bosque de Chapultepec is the most important recreational area in Mexico City. In the early 20th century construction material in this region was exploited illegally generating a clandestine system of mines without any registration or census. Later in the early 50's it was planned the creation of a park in the area, nonetheless many mines were blocked by debris or vegetation and only a few mines were filled to build the infrastructure of the park. In June 2006, the collapse of the foundation slab of the Lago Mayor emptied 5000 cubic meters of water, which made clear the need of near surface geophysics studies to locate instabilities due to underground cavities. This work describes the progress of microgravimetry and magnetometry studies located in a forest region where the collapse of a mine entrance occurred. This mine has 4 known branches, but the full extent or if these branches are connected to the entrance of another filled mine located approximately to 100 meters is unknown. The results of this work, in correlation with the geological model and preliminary results of seismic and electrical methods, show lateral variations that may be associated with cavities and possible structural faults, which represent hazards to the Bosque de Chapultepec.

  4. D Modeling of Headstones of the 2ND and 3RD Century by Low Cost Photogrammetric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landes, T.; Waton, M.-D.; Alby, E.; Gourvez, S.; Lopes, B.

    2013-07-01

    As a dozen headstones have been discovered during excavations in south Alsace, archaeologists stored them in the Regional Directorate of Cultural Affairs in Strasbourg. In order to complete the survey they are used to practice by hand on the steles, they asked the INSA Strasbourg to reconstruct at least the 7 figured sandstones in 3D. The high accuracy required by the archaeologists can be reached by an expensive technique using laserscanning system. Aim of the current work is to look for an alternative method and (if appropriate) low cost software allowing to provide a similar quality and a sufficient level of details. The 3D reconstruction of the headstones based exclusively on multiple images processing is presented. The step of point cloud generation is detailed because it determines the final product quality. Therefore, an assessment of the produced point cloud has been performed through comparison to a reference point cloud obtained by laser scanning technique. The steps leading to the photo-realistic textured 3D models of the headstones are presented and the software used for that are evaluated. The final product respects the accuracy requirement of 1 mm desired by the archaeologists.

  5. International Conference on Small and Special Electrical Machines, 2nd, London, England, September 22-24, 1981, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papers are presented on recent research concerning small and special electrical machines, including machine selection and environmental aspects; induction motors; stepping motors and drives; actuators, torque motors, and couplers; hysteresis and reluctance motors; synchronous motors and generators (including permanent magnet); control schemes and servo machines; and dc motors (including permanent magnet and brushless). Topics examined include the reliability of small ironless rotor dc motors, a new form of induction motor for fan drives, a study of the components of interbar voltage and magnetic field at the surface of small skewed diecast aluminum rotors, the microprocessor control of a step motor with various inertia loads, the synchronization of reluctance motor without pole-slipping, and the normal force in linear stepping motors. Also discussed are a direct simulation method using magnetic equivalent circuits for converter-fed reluctance machines, the synchronous performance of a single-phase machine with induced excitation, the application of design and analysis in small machines for aircraft, the microprocessor control of an inverter-driven reluctance motor, an electric main propulsion drive for a remotely piloted vehicle, and small dc motors with controllable electronic commutators. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  6. Extraction-Separation Performance and Dynamic Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with Adams Simulation: 2nd Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Anderson, Keith; Varela, Jose G.; Bernatovich, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project has advanced into the third generation of its parachute test campaign and requires technically comprehensive modeling capabilities to simulate multi-body dynamics (MBD) of test articles released from a C-17. Safely extracting a 30,000 lbm mated test article from a C-17 and performing stable mid-air separation maneuvers requires an understanding of the interaction between elements in the test configuration and how they are influenced by extraction parachute performance, aircraft dynamics, aerodynamics, separation dynamics, and kinetic energy experienced by the system. During the real-time extraction and deployment sequences, these influences can be highly unsteady and difficult to bound. An avionics logic window based on time, pitch, and pitch rate is used to account for these effects and target a favorable separation state in real time. The Adams simulation has been employed to fine-tune this window, as well as predict and reconstruct the coupled dynamics of the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV) and Cradle Platform Separation System (CPSS) from aircraft extraction through the mid-air separation event. The test-technique for the extraction of CPAS test articles has evolved with increased complexity and requires new modeling concepts to ensure the test article is delivered to a stable test condition for the programmer phase. Prompted by unexpected dynamics and hardware malfunctions in drop tests, these modeling improvements provide a more accurate loads prediction by incorporating a spring-damper line-model derived from the material properties. The qualification phase of CPAS testing is on the horizon and modeling increasingly complex test-techniques with Adams is vital to successfully qualify the Orion parachute system for human spaceflight.

  7. Hubble and ESO's VLT provide unique 3D views of remote galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    Astronomers have obtained exceptional 3D views of distant galaxies, seen when the Universe was half its current age, by combining the twin strengths of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope's acute eye, and the capacity of ESO's Very Large Telescope to probe the motions of gas in tiny objects. By looking at this unique "history book" of our Universe, at an epoch when the Sun and the Earth did not yet exist, scientists hope to solve the puzzle of how galaxies formed in the remote past. ESO PR Photo 10a/09 A 3D view of remote galaxies ESO PR Photo 10b/09 Measuring motions in 3 distant galaxies ESO PR Video 10a/09 Galaxies in collision For decades, distant galaxies that emitted their light six billion years ago were no more than small specks of light on the sky. With the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope in the early 1990s, astronomers were able to scrutinise the structure of distant galaxies in some detail for the first time. Under the superb skies of Paranal, the VLT's FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph (ESO 13/02) -- which obtains simultaneous spectra from small areas of extended objects -- can now also resolve the motions of the gas in these distant galaxies (ESO 10/06). "This unique combination of Hubble and the VLT allows us to model distant galaxies almost as nicely as we can close ones," says François Hammer, who led the team. "In effect, FLAMES/GIRAFFE now allows us to measure the velocity of the gas at various locations in these objects. This means that we can see how the gas is moving, which provides us with a three-dimensional view of galaxies halfway across the Universe." The team has undertaken the Herculean task of reconstituting the history of about one hundred remote galaxies that have been observed with both Hubble and GIRAFFE on the VLT. The first results are coming in and have already provided useful insights for three galaxies. In one galaxy, GIRAFFE revealed a region full of ionised gas, that is, hot gas composed of atoms that have been stripped of

  8. ESO's VLT Helps ESA's Rosetta Spacecraft Prepare to Ride on a Cosmic Bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    New Images of Comet Wirtanen's Nucleus [1] Summary New images of Comet Wirtanen's 1-km 'dirty snowball' nucleus have been obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile). They show this object at a distance of approx. 435 million km from the Sun, about the same as when the Rosetta spacecraft of the European Space Agency (ESA) arrives in 2011. The new observations indicate that the comet has a very low degree of activity at this point in its orbit - almost no material is seen around the nucleus. This means that there will not be so much dust near the nucleus as to make the planned landing dramatically difficult. PR Photo 06a/02 : The Nucleus of Comet Wirtanen (composite photo). PR Photo 06b/02 : Comet Wirtanen's motion in the sky (animated). A distant target ESO PR Photo 06a/02 ESO PR Photo 06a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 445 pix - 120k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 890 pix - 1.1M] ESO PR Photo 06b/02 ESO PR Photo 06b/02 [Animated GIF: 400 x 420 pix - 312k] Caption : PR Photo 06a/02 shows a (false-colour) composite image of the nucleus of Comet Wirtanen (the point of light at the centre), recorded on December 9, 2001, with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN Unit Telescope. It is based on four exposures and since the telescope was set to track the motion of the comet in the sky, the images of stars in the field are seen as four consecutive trails. The measured brightness and the fact that the image of the comet's 'dirty snowball' nucleus is almost star-like indicates that it is surrounded by a very small amount of gas or dust. The diameter of the nucleus is about 1 km and the distance to the comet from the Earth was approx. 534 million km. In PR Photo 06b/02 , the four exposures have been combined to show the motion of the comet during the four exposures. Technical information about the photos is available below. Chase a fast-moving comet, land on it and 'ride' it while it speeds up towards the Sun: not the script of a science-fiction movie

  9. Excellence and evidence in staffing: a data-driven model for excellence in staffing (2nd edition).

    PubMed

    Baggett, Margarita; Batcheller, Joyce; Blouin, Ann Scott; Behrens, Elizabeth; Bradley, Carol; Brown, Mary J; Brown, Diane Storer; Bolton, Linda Burnes; Borromeo, Annabelle R; Burtson, Paige; Caramanica, Laura; Caspers, Barbara A; Chow, Marilyn; Christopher, Mary Ann; Clarke, Sean P; Delucas, Christine; Dent, Robert L; Disser, Tony; Eliopoulos, Charlotte; Everett, Linda Q; Garcia, Amy; Glassman, Kimberly; Goodwin, Susan; Haagenson, Deb; Harper, Ellen; Harris, Kathy; Hoying, Cheryl L; Hughes-Rease, Marsha; Kelly, Lesly; Kiger, Anna J; Kobs-Abbott, Ann; Krueger, Janelle; Larson, Jackie; March, Connie; Martin, Deborah Maust; Mazyck, Donna; Meenan, Penny; McGaffigan, Patricia; Myers, Karen K; Nell, Kate; Newcomer, Britta; Cathy, Rick; O'Rourke, Maria; Rosa, Billy; Rose, Robert; Rudisill, Pamela; Sanford, Kathy; Simpson, Roy L; Snowden, Tami; Strickland, Bob; Strohecker, Sharon; Weems, Roger B; Welton, John; Weston, Marla; Valentine, Nancy M; Vento, Laura; Yendro, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA, 2010) and the Institute of Medicine's (IOM, 2011) Future of Nursing report have prompted changes in the U.S. health care system. This has also stimulated a new direction of thinking for the profession of nursing. New payment and priority structures, where value is placed ahead of volume in care, will start to define our health system in new and unknown ways for years. One thing we all know for sure: we cannot afford the same inefficient models and systems of care of yesterday any longer. The Data-Driven Model for Excellence in Staffing was created as the organizing framework to lead the development of best practices for nurse staffing across the continuum through research and innovation. Regardless of the setting, nurses must integrate multiple concepts with the value of professional nursing to create new care and staffing models. Traditional models demonstrate that nurses are a commodity. If the profession is to make any significant changes in nurse staffing, it is through the articulation of the value of our professional practice within the overall health care environment. This position paper is organized around the concepts from the Data-Driven Model for Excellence in Staffing. The main concepts are: Core Concept 1: Users and Patients of Health Care, Core Concept 2: Providers of Health Care, Core Concept 3: Environment of Care, Core Concept 4: Delivery of Care, Core Concept 5: Quality, Safety, and Outcomes of Care. This position paper provides a comprehensive view of those concepts and components, why those concepts and components are important in this new era of nurse staffing, and a 3-year challenge that will push the nursing profession forward in all settings across the care continuum. There are decades of research supporting various changes to nurse staffing. Yet little has been done to move that research into practice and operations. While the primary goal of this position paper is to generate research

  10. Mutation of a Cuticle Protein Gene, BmCPG10, Is Responsible for Silkworm Non-Moulting in the 2nd Instar Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiaoling; Kang, Lequn; Xia, Dingguo; Qiu, Zhiyong; Tang, Shunming; Li, Muwang; Shen, Xingjia; Zhang, Guozheng

    2016-01-01

    In the silkworm, metamorphosis and moulting are regulated by ecdysone hormone and juvenile hormone. The subject in the present study is a silkworm mutant that does not moult in the 2nd instar (nm2). Genetic analysis indicated that the nm2 mutation is controlled by a recessive gene and is homozygous lethal. Based on positional cloning, nm2 was located in a region approximately 275 kb on the 5th linkage group by eleven SSR polymorphism markers. In this specific range, according to the transcriptional expression of thirteen genes and cloning, the relative expression level of the BmCPG10 gene that encodes a cuticle protein was lower than the expression level of the wild-type gene. Moreover, this gene’s structure differs from that of the wild-type gene: there is a deletion of 217 bp in its open reading frame, which resulted in a change in the protein it encoded. The BmCPG10 mRNA was detectable throughout silkworm development from the egg to the moth. This mRNA was low in the pre-moulting and moulting stages of each instar but was high in the gluttonous stage and in newly exuviated larvae. The BmCPG10 mRNA showed high expression levels in the epidermis, head and trachea, while the expression levels were low in the midgut, Malpighian tubule, prothoracic gland, haemolymph and ventral nerve cord. The ecdysone titre was determined by ELISA, and the results demonstrated that the ecdysone titre of nm2 larvae was lower than that of the wild-type larvae. The nm2 mutant could be rescued by feeding 20-hydroxyecdysone, cholesterol and 7—dehydrocholesterol (7dC), but the rescued nm2 only developed to the 4th instar and subsequently died. The moulting time of silkworms could be delayed by BmCPG10 RNAi. Thus, we speculated that the mutation of BmCPG10 was responsible for the silkworm mutant that did not moult in the 2nd instar. PMID:27096617

  11. Mutation of a Cuticle Protein Gene, BmCPG10, Is Responsible for Silkworm Non-Moulting in the 2nd Instar Mutant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Pingyang; Zhao, Qiaoling; Kang, Lequn; Xia, Dingguo; Qiu, Zhiyong; Tang, Shunming; Li, Muwang; Shen, Xingjia; Zhang, Guozheng

    2016-01-01

    In the silkworm, metamorphosis and moulting are regulated by ecdysone hormone and juvenile hormone. The subject in the present study is a silkworm mutant that does not moult in the 2nd instar (nm2). Genetic analysis indicated that the nm2 mutation is controlled by a recessive gene and is homozygous lethal. Based on positional cloning, nm2 was located in a region approximately 275 kb on the 5th linkage group by eleven SSR polymorphism markers. In this specific range, according to the transcriptional expression of thirteen genes and cloning, the relative expression level of the BmCPG10 gene that encodes a cuticle protein was lower than the expression level of the wild-type gene. Moreover, this gene's structure differs from that of the wild-type gene: there is a deletion of 217 bp in its open reading frame, which resulted in a change in the protein it encoded. The BmCPG10 mRNA was detectable throughout silkworm development from the egg to the moth. This mRNA was low in the pre-moulting and moulting stages of each instar but was high in the gluttonous stage and in newly exuviated larvae. The BmCPG10 mRNA showed high expression levels in the epidermis, head and trachea, while the expression levels were low in the midgut, Malpighian tubule, prothoracic gland, haemolymph and ventral nerve cord. The ecdysone titre was determined by ELISA, and the results demonstrated that the ecdysone titre of nm2 larvae was lower than that of the wild-type larvae. The nm2 mutant could be rescued by feeding 20-hydroxyecdysone, cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7dC), but the rescued nm2 only developed to the 4th instar and subsequently died. The moulting time of silkworms could be delayed by BmCPG10 RNAi. Thus, we speculated that the mutation of BmCPG10 was responsible for the silkworm mutant that did not moult in the 2nd instar. PMID:27096617

  12. Development of China Hydrogeology Exploring Techniques in 30 Years --Comparison of Handbook of Hydrogeology of 1st and 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Handbook of Hydrogeology (2nd edition) is supported by one program from China Geological Survey (CGS): Research of Technical Methods of Hydrogeological Survey and Revision of Handbook of Hydrogeology. It is a reference book for those who are engaged in hydrogeological survey and research in China and covers fundamental principles, theories, survey and exploring techniques, and traditional experiences and achievements in hydrogeology. By comparing the 1st (1978) and 2nd (2012) edition of Handbook of Hydrogeology (in Chinese), this paper analyses the development of China hydrogeological survey and exploring techniques in last 30 years, especially the great change and progress in survey techniques of hydro-remote sensing and hydro-geophysical prospecting. In the first edition of Handbook of Hydrogeology, hydro-remote sensing was only mentioned as an interpretation of aerial pictures in a hydrogeological way, but had not yet formed an independent system and discipline. In the second edition, hydro-remote sensing is an important and independent chapter as one of the hydrogeological techniques. In it, various survey techniques of hydro-remote sensing and types and features of remote sensing data are classified. General systems of interpretation marks of remote sensing images are established, including marks of landform and Quaternary sediment, bedrock, structure types, water yield property, environmental elements of hydrogeology, aquifer group and so on. Systematic workflow is constructed, esp. in remote sensing images mapping and interpreting techniques. GPS and GIS are integrated into remote sensing. Remote sensing exploring instruments and interpreting softwares are also introduced and classified. Although hydro-geophysical prospecting, in the first edition of Handbook of Hydrogeology, was one independent chapter, there were only 10 exploring techniques. Equipments and instruments were simple and lagged in comparison to those in the second edition. The precision and

  13. VLT/X-shooter spectroscopy of the GRB 120327A afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, V.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Goldoni, P.; Covino, S.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Ledoux, C.; Calura, F.; Gorosabel, J.; Malesani, D.; Matteucci, F.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Savaglio, S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Hartoog, O. E.; Kaper, L.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Pian, E.; Piranomonte, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N.; Vergani, S. D.; Watson, D. J.; Xu, D.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: We present a study of the environment of the Swift long gamma-ray burst GRB 120327A at z ≈ 2.8 through optical spectroscopy of its afterglow. Methods: We analyzed medium-resolution, multi-epoch spectroscopic observations (R ~ 7000-12 000, corresponding to ~15-23 km s-1, S/N = 15-30 and wavelength range 3000-25 000 Å) of the optical afterglow of GRB 120327A, taken with X-shooter at the VLT 2.13 and 27.65 hr after the GRB trigger. Results: The first epoch spectrum shows that the ISM in the GRB host galaxy at z = 2.8145 is extremely rich in absorption features, with three components contributing to the line profiles. The hydrogen column density associated with GRB 120327A has log NH/cm-2 = 22.01 ± 0.09, and the metallicity of the host galaxy is in the range [X/H] = -1.3 to -1.1. In addition to the ground state lines, we detect absorption features associated with excited states of C ii, O i, Si ii, Fe ii, and Ni ii, which we used to derive information on the distance between the host absorbing gas and the site of the GRB explosion. The variability of the Fe iiλ2396 excited line between the two epochs proves that these features are excited by the GRB UV flux. Moreover, the distance of component I is found to be dI = 200+100-60 pc, while component II is located closer to the GRB, at dII = 100+40-30 pc. These values are among the lowest found in GRBs. Component III does not show excited transitions, so it should be located farther away from the GRB. The presence of H2 molecules is firmly established, with a molecular fraction f in the range f = 4 × 10-7-10-4. This particularly low value can be attributed to the small dust content. This represents the third positive detection of molecules in a GRB environment. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, ESO, the VLT/Kueyen telescope, Paranal, Chile, proposal code: 088.A-0051.The reduced spectrum is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130

  14. Intracluster light properties in the CLASH-VLT cluster MACS J1206.2-0847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Nonino, M.; Mercurio, A.; Grillo, C.; Rosati, P.; Biviano, A.; Annunziatella, M.; Balestra, I.; Cui, W.; Sartoris, B.; Lemze, D.; Ascaso, B.; Moustakas, J.; Ford, H.; Fritz, A.; Czoske, O.; Ettori, S.; Kuchner, U.; Lombardi, M.; Maier, C.; Medezinski, E.; Molino, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Strazzullo, V.; Tozzi, P.; Ziegler, B.; Bartelmann, M.; Benitez, N.; Bradley, L.; Brescia, M.; Broadhurst, T.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Gobat, R.; Graves, G.; Kelson, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Melchior, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Merten, J.; Moustakas, L. A.; Munari, E.; Postman, M.; Regős, E.; Seitz, S.; Umetsu, K.; Zheng, W.; Zitrin, A.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: We aim constrain the assembly history of clusters by studying the intracluster light (ICL) properties, estimating its contribution to the fraction of baryons in stars, f∗, and understanding possible systematics or bias using different ICL detection techniques. Methods: We developed an automated method, GALtoICL, based on the software GALAPAGOS, to obtain a refined version of typical BCG+ICL maps. We applied this method to our test case MACS J1206.2-0847, a massive cluster located at z ~ 0.44, which is part of the CLASH sample. Using deep multiband Subaru images, we extracted the surface brightness (SB) profile of the BCG+ICL and studied the ICL morphology, color, and contribution to f∗ out to R500. We repeated the same analysis using a different definition of the ICL, SBlimit method, i.e., a SB cut-off level, to compare the results. Results: The most peculiar feature of the ICL in MACS1206 is its asymmetric radial distribution, with an excess in the SE direction and extending toward the second brightest cluster galaxy, which is a post starburst galaxy. This suggests an interaction between the BCG and this galaxy that dates back to τ ≤ 1.5 Gyr. The BCG+ICL stellar content is ~8% of M∗,500, and the (de-) projected baryon fraction in stars is f∗ = 0.0177(0.0116), in excellent agreement with recent results. The SBlimit method provides systematically higher ICL fractions and this effect is stronger at lower SB limits. This is due to the light from the outer envelopes of member galaxies that contaminate the ICL. Though more time consuming, the GALtoICL method provides safer ICL detections that are almost free of this contamination. This is one of the few ICL study at redshift z > 0.3. At completion, the CLASH/VLT program will allow us to extend this analysis to a statistically significant cluster sample spanning a wide redshift range: 0.2 ≲ z ≲ 0.6. Based on data collected at the NASJ Subaru telescope, at the ESO VLT (prog.ID 186.A-0798), and the

  15. VLT Observations of the Peculiar Globular Cluster NGC 6712. III. The Evolved Stellar Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltrinieri, Barbara; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paresce, Francesco; De Marchi, Guido

    2001-06-01

    We present extensive UBVR photometry of the Galactic globular cluster (GGC) NGC 6712 obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) which reaches down to 2 mag below the main-sequence turn-off and allows us for the first time to determine the age of this cluster. By using the apparent luminosity of the zero age horizontal branch (ZAHB), VZAHB=16.32+/-0.05 and the stellar main-sequence (MS) turn-off (TO) magnitude VTO=19.82+/-0.10, we obtain ΔVHBTO=3.5+/-0.1 (a value fully compatible with that derived for other clusters), which suggests that, at an age of ~12 Gyr, NGC 6712 is coeval with other GGC of similar metallicity. We derive interstellar reddening by comparing the position and morphology of the red giant branch (RGB) with a wide variety of reference clusters and find E(B-V)=0.33+/-0.05, a value significantly lower than had been determined previously. Assuming this value for the reddening, we determine a true distance modulus of (m-M)0=14.55, corresponding to a distance of ~8 kpc. We find a population of 108 candidate blue straggler stars (BSSs), surprisingly large when compared with the typical BSS content of other low-concentration clusters. Moreover, we detect a very bright blue star in the core of NGC 6712 that might be a post-AGB star. These results, combined with those already presented in two companion papers, strongly support the hypothesis that NGC 6712 was, at some early epoch of its history, much more massive and concentrated. The continued interaction with the bulge and the disk of the Galaxy has driven it toward dissolution, and what we now observe is nothing but the remnant core of a cluster that once was probably one of the most massive in the Galaxy. Based on data taken at the VLT, European Southern Observatory, Chile, as part of the ESO observing program and 63.L-0423(A).

  16. VLT/X-Shooter survey of near-infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.; Cami, J.; Kaper, L.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H.; Ochsendorf, B. B.; van Hooff, S. H. M.; Salama, F.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The unknown identity of the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) carriers poses one of the longest standing unresolved problems in astrophysics. While the presence, properties, and behaviour of hundreds of optical DIBs between 4000 Å and 9000 Å have been well established, information on DIBs in both the ultra-violet and near-infrared (NIR) ranges is limited. Aims: In this paper, we present a spectral survey of the NIR range, from 0.9 μm to 2.5 μm. Our observations were designed to detect new DIBs, confirm previously proposed NIR DIBs, and characterise their behaviour with respect to known line-of-sight properties (including the optical DIBs present in our spectra). Methods: Using the X-Shooter instrument mounted on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) we obtained medium-resolution spectra of eight known DIB targets and one telluric reference star, from 3000 Å to 25 000 Å in one shot. Results: In addition to the known 9577, 9632, 10 780, 11 797, and 13 175 Å NIR DIBs, we confirm 9 out of the 13 NIR DIBs that were presented by Geballe et al. (2011, Nature, 479, 200). Furthermore, we report 11 new NIR DIB candidates. The strengths of the strongest NIR DIBs show a general correlation with reddening, E(B - V), but with a large scatter. Several NIR DIBs are more strongly correlated with the 5780 Å DIB strength than with E(B - V); this is especially the case for the 15 268 Å DIB. The NIR DIBs are strong: the summed equivalent widths of the five strongest NIR DIBs represent a small percent of the total equivalent width of the entire average DIB spectrum (per unit reddening). The NIR DIBs towards the translucent cloud HD 147889 are all weak with respect to the general trend. No direct match was found between observed NIR DIBs and laboratory matrix-isolation spectroscopic data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Conclusions: The strong correlation between the 5780-15 268 DIB pair implies that (Nf)5780/(Nf)15 268 = 14. However, the reduced strength of the

  17. VLT spectroscopy of low-metallicity emission-line galaxies: abundance patterns and abundance discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, N. G.; Izotov, Y. I.; Stasińska, G.; Fricke, K. J.; Henkel, C.; Papaderos, P.

    2011-05-01

    Context. We present deep spectroscopy of a large sample of low-metallicity emission-line galaxies. Aims: The main goal of this study is to derive element abundances in these low-metallicity galaxies. Methods: We analyze 121 VLT spectra of H ii regions in 46 low-metallicity emission-line galaxies. Of these spectra 83 are archival VLT/FORS1+UVES spectra of H ii regions in 31 low-metallicity emission-line galaxies that are studied for the first time with standard direct methods to determine the electron temperatures, the electron number densities, and the chemical abundances. Results: The oxygen abundance of the sample lies in the range 12 + log O/H = 7.2-8.4. We confirm previous findings that Ne/O increases with increasing oxygen abundance, likely because of a higher depletion of oxygen in higher-metallicity galaxies. The Fe/O ratio decreases from roughly solar at the lowest metallicities to about one tenth of solar, indicating that the degree of depletion of iron into dust grains depends on metallicity. The N/O ratio in extremely low-metallicity galaxies with 12 + log O/H < 7.5 shows a slight increase with decreasing oxygen abundance, which could be the signature of enhanced production of primary nitrogen by rapidly rotating stars at low metallicity. We present the first empirical relation between the electron temperature derived from [S iii]λ6312/λ9069 or [N ii]λ5755/λ6583 and the one derived from [O iii]λ4363/λ(4959+5007) in low-metallicity galaxies. We also present an empirical relation between te derived from [O ii]λ3727/(λ7320 + λ7330) or [S ii]λ4068/(λ6717 + λ6730) and [O iii]λ4363/λ(4959+5007). The electron number densities Ne(Cl iii) and Ne(Ar iv) were derived in a number of objects and are found to be higher than Ne(O ii) and Ne(S ii). This has potential implications for the derivation of the pregalactic helium abundance. In a number of objects, the abundances of C++ and O++ could be derived from recombination lines. Our study confirms the

  18. Kinematic Study of the Disrupting Globular Cluster Palomar 5 Using VLT Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenkirchen, Michael; Grebel, Eva K.; Dehnen, Walter; Rix, Hans-Walter; Cudworth, Kyle M.

    2002-09-01

    Wide-field photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey have recently revealed that the Galactic globular cluster Palomar 5 is in the process of being tidally disrupted. Here we investigate the kinematics of this sparse remote star cluster using high-resolution spectra from the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Twenty candidate cluster giants located within 6' of the cluster center have been observed with the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph on VLT-UT2. The spectra provide radial velocities with a typical accuracy of 0.15 km s-1. We find that the sample contains 17 certain cluster members with very coherent kinematics, two unrelated field dwarfs, and one giant with a deviant velocity, which is most likely a cluster binary showing fast orbital motion. From the confirmed members we determine the heliocentric velocity of the cluster as -58.7+/-0.2 km s-1. The total line-of-sight velocity dispersion of the cluster stars is 1.1+/-0.2 km s-1 (all members) or 0.9+/-0.2 km s-1 (stars on the red giant branch only). This is the lowest velocity dispersion that has so far been measured for a stellar system classified as a globular cluster. The shape of the velocity distribution suggests that there is a significant contribution from orbital motions of binaries and that the dynamical part of the velocity dispersion is therefore still substantially smaller than the total dispersion. Comparing the observations with the results of Monte Carlo simulations of binaries we find that the frequency of binaries in Pal 5 is most likely between 24% and 63% and that the dynamical line-of-sight velocity dispersion of the cluster must be smaller than 0.7 km s-1 (90% confidence upper limit). The most probable values of the dynamical dispersion lie in the range 0.12<=σ/km s-1<=0.41 (68% confidence). Pal 5 thus turns out to be a dynamically very cold system. Our results are compatible with an equilibrium system. We find that the luminosity of the cluster implies a total mass of only 4.5 to 6.0

  19. ESPRESSO Coudé-Train: complexities of a simultaneous optical feeding from the four VLT unit telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre; Abreu, Manuel; Coelho, João.; Gomes, Ricardo; Monteiro, Manuel; Oliveira, António; Santos, Pedro; Ávila, Gerardo; Delabre, Bernard-Alexis; Riva, Marco; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Coretti, Igor; Santos, Nuno C.; Zerbi, Filippo; Mégevand, Denis

    2014-07-01

    ESPRESSO is a fibre-fed, cross-dispersed, high-resolution, echelle spectrograph. Being the first purpose of ESPRESSO to develop a competitive and innovative high-resolution spectrograph to fully exploit the VLT (Very Large Telescope), and allow new science, it is important to develop the VLT array concept bearing in mind the need to obtain the highest stability, while preserving its best efficiency. This high-resolution ultra-stable spectrograph will be installed in the VLT at the Combined Coudé Laboratory (CCL), fed by four Coudé Trains, which brings the light from the Nasmyth platforms of the four VLT Unit Telescopes to the CCL. ESPRESSO will combine the efficiency of modern echelle spectrograph with extreme radial-velocity precision. It will achieve a gain of two magnitudes with respect to its predecessor HARPS, and the instrumental radial-velocity precision will be improved to reach cm/s level. Thanks to its ability of combining incoherently the light of the 4 UTs, ESPRESSO will offer new possibilities in various fields of astronomy. The Coudé Train is composed of a set of prisms, mirrors and lenses to deliver a pupil and an image in the CCL, including an Atmospheric Dispersion Compensator. The use of mainly refractive optics, and Total Internal Reflection, has the advantage of the inherent higher throughput, especially in the blue region of the spectrum. In this paper, we present the design of the Coudé Train, the evolution of the concept towards the manufacturing phase, its main characteristics and performances, and detail its subsystems: optical, mechanical and control electronics and software.

  20. Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Loba, P; Stewart, S H; Klein, R M; Blackburn, J R

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning reels game where participants could no longer "stop" the reels by touching the screen; and sensory feature manipulations. In control conditions, participants were exposed to standard settings for either a spinning reels or a video poker game. Dependent variables were self-ratings of reactions to each set of parameters. A set of 2(3) x 2 x 2 (game manipulation [experimental condition(s) vs. control condition] x game [spinning reels vs. video poker] x gambler status [pathological vs. non-pathological]) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on all dependent variables. The findings suggest that the sensory manipulations (i.e., fast speed/sound or slow speed/no sound manipulations) produced the most robust reaction differences. Before advocating harm reduction policies such as lowering sensory features of VLT games to reduce potential harm to pathological gamblers, it is important to replicate findings in a more naturalistic setting, such as a real bar. PMID:11842526

  1. Synthesis, structural characterization, and electrical properties of new oxygen-deficient tetragonal tungsten bronzes Ba2NdTi(2+x)Nb(3-x)O(15-x/2).

    PubMed

    Prades, Marta; Masó, Nahum; Beltrán, Héctor; Cordoncillo, Eloisa; West, Anthony R

    2013-02-18

    Oxygen-deficient tetragonal tungsten bronzes ceramics with general formula Ba(2)NdTi(2+x)Nb(3-x)O(15-x/2) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) have been prepared by low temperature solvothermal synthesis with final firing of ceramics at 1100-1300 °C in air. Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and neutron powder diffraction (ND) data at room temperature of Ba(2)NdTi(3)Nb(2)O(14.5) shows that Ba and Nd are ordered on the 15-coordinate and 12-coordinate sites, respectively, Ti and Nb are disordered nonrandomly over the two octahedral sites, and oxygen vacancies locate preferentially in the coordination sphere of Nd and Ti/Nb(2) atoms. Variable frequency impedance measurements show that samples are poor electronic conductors with activation energies ∼0.8-1.7 eV, conductivities ∼1 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at ∼725 °C and with some evidence of oxide ion conduction at high x values. Composition dependence of the dielectric properties shows a transition from classic ferroelectric behavior with Ba(2)NdTi(2)Nb(3)O(15) to a relaxor-like behavior with Ba(2)NdTi(3)Nb(2)O(14.5). At intermediate compositions, both a first-order phase transition and relaxor-like behavior are observed. PMID:23360368

  2. Creating a Culture of Human Rights, Democracy and Peace in the New Millennium. Proceedings of the International Conference on Children's Rights Education (2nd, Victoria, British Columbia, August 18-22, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha; Hart, Stuart; Cook, Philip

    The 2nd International Conference on Children's Rights in Education hosted approximately 150 child-centered international policy makers, who discussed the implications and implementation of children's rights to guide educational policy, research, and practice. This report presents an annotated agenda of the conference proceedings and, based on the…

  3. The Futures of Adult Educator(s): Agency, Identity and Ethos. Joint Conference Proceedings of the 2nd ESREA/ReNAdET Meeting and the 4th TQF Seminar (Tallinn, Estonia, November 9-11, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Jogi, Larissa, Ed.; Jutte, Wolfgang, Ed.; Zarifis, Georgios K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume contains the papers presented in the 2nd ESREA|ReNAdet meeting that was jointly organised with the VET & CULTURE Network in the University of Tallinn (Estonia), 9-11 November 2011. The papers that appear in the volume discuss the future (or the futures) of adult educators in respect to issues of developing their identities and…

  4. Stable isotopic evidence for diet at the Imperial Roman coastal site of Velia (1st and 2nd centuries AD) in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Biazzo, Marco; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Garnsey, Peter; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Lelli, Roberta; Salvadei, Loretana; Tartaglia, Gianna; Nava, Alessia; Renò, Lorena; Fiammenghi, Antonella; Rickards, Olga; Bondioli, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Here we report on a stable isotope palaeodietary study of a Imperial Roman population interred near the port of Velia in Southern Italy during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on collagen extracted from 117 adult humans as well as a range of fauna to reconstruct individual dietary histories. For the majority of individuals, we found that stable isotope data were consistent with a diet high in cereals, with relatively modest contributions of meat and only minor contributions of marine fish. However, substantial isotopic variation was found within the population, indicating that diets were not uniform. We suggest that a number of individuals, mainly but not exclusively males, had greater access to marine resources, especially high trophic level fish. However, the observed dietary variation did not correlate with burial type, number of grave goods, nor age at death. Also, individuals buried at the necropolis at Velia ate much less fish overall compared with the contemporaneous population from the necropolis of Portus at Isola Sacra, located on the coast close to Rome. Marine and riverine transport and commerce dominated the economy of Portus, and its people were in a position to supplement their own stocks of fish with imported goods in transit to Rome, whereas at Velia marine exploitation existed side-by-side with land-based economic activities. PMID:19280672

  5. Data and performances evaluation of the SPIDIA-DNA Pan-European External Quality Assessment: 2nd SPIDIA-DNA laboratory report

    PubMed Central

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Ibrahim-Gawel, Hady; Pazzagli, Mario; Verderio, Paolo; Ciniselli, Chiara Maura; Wyrich, Ralf; Gelmini, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Within the EU-SPIDIA project (www.spidia.eu), the quality parameters of blood genomic DNA were defined [SPIDIA-DNA: an External Quality Assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for DNA-based analyses – [1]; Influence of pre-analytical procedures on genomic DNA integrity in blood samples: the SPIDIA experience – [2]; Combining qualitative and quantitative imaging evaluation for the assessment of genomic DNA integrity: the SPIDIA experience – [3]. DNA quality parameters were used to evaluate the laboratory performance within an External Quality Assessment (EQA) [Second SPIDIA-DNA External Quality Assessment (EQA): Influence of pre-analytical phase of blood samples on genomic DNA quality – [4]. These parameters included DNA purity and yield by UV spectrophotometric measurements, the presence of PCR interferences by Kineret software and genomic DNA integrity analysis by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. Here we present the specific laboratory report of the 2nd SPIDIA-DNA EQA as an example of data and performances evaluation. PMID:26949730

  6. Development and Validation of Big Four Personality Scales for the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2nd Edition (SNAP-2)

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, William R.; Rudick, Monica M.; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently, integrative, hierarchical models of personality and personality disorder (PD)—such as the Big Three, Big Four and Big Five trait models—have gained support as a unifying dimensional framework for describing PD. However, no measures to date can simultaneously represent each of these potentially interesting levels of the personality hierarchy. To unify these measurement models psychometrically, we sought to develop Big Five trait scales within the Schedule for Adaptive and Nonadaptive Personality–2nd Edition (SNAP-2). Through structural and content analyses, we examined relations between the SNAP-2, Big Five Inventory (BFI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) ratings in a large data set (N = 8,690), including clinical, military, college, and community participants. Results yielded scales consistent with the Big Four model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Introversion, and Antagonism) and not the Big Five as there were insufficient items related to Openness. Resulting scale scores demonstrated strong internal consistency and temporal stability. Structural and external validity was supported by strong convergent and discriminant validity patterns between Big Four scale scores and other personality trait scores and expectable patterns of self-peer agreement. Descriptive statistics and community-based norms are provided. The SNAP-2 Big Four Scales enable researchers and clinicians to assess personality at multiple levels of the trait hierarchy and facilitate comparisons among competing “Big Trait” models. PMID:22250598

  7. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  8. Giant dielectric permittivity caused by carrier hopping in a layered cuprate Bi 2Ba 2Nd 1.6Ce 0.4Cu 2O 10+ δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Guanghan; Jiao, Zhengkuan

    2004-12-01

    The ceramic sample of a layered cuprate Bi 2Ba 2Nd 1.6Ce 0.4Cu 2O 10+ δ, so-called Ba-based Bi-2222 compound was studied by the measurement of the temperature (80-300 K) and the frequency (20-10 6 Hz) dependence of the complex dielectric permittivity. The dielectric constant was measured as high as ˜1000 at 1 kHz and 300 K with relatively low dissipation factor. However, it decreases systematically with decreasing temperature or with increasing frequency due to the dipolar relaxation process. This thermally activated relaxation process plays a dominant role for the low frequency dielectric response. Furthermore, the frequency-dependent ac conductivity was found to obey the power law σ=Aω. The results were interpreted in terms of Pike's model of hopping transport of localized charge carriers which yields explicitly the ω behavior and the temperature dependence of s. And we calculated the ionization energy of localized carriers W=0.35 eV for the present sample.

  9. Report on the 2nd International Consortium on Hallucination Research: Evolving Directions and Top-10 “Hot Spots” in Hallucination Research

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a report on the 2nd meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research, held on September 12th and 13th 2013 at Durham University, UK. Twelve working groups involving specialists in each area presented their findings and sought to summarize the available knowledge, inconsistencies in the field, and ways to progress. The 12 working groups reported on the following domains of investigation: cortical organisation of hallucinations, nonclinical hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to phenomenology, culture and hallucinations, subtypes of auditory verbal hallucinations, a Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale multisite study, visual hallucinations in the psychosis spectrum, hallucinations in children and adolescents, Research Domain Criteria behavioral constructs and hallucinations, new methods of assessment, psychological therapies, and the Hearing Voices Movement approach to understanding and working with voices. This report presents a summary of this meeting and outlines 10 hot spots for hallucination research, which include the in-depth examination of (1) the social determinants of hallucinations, (2) translation of basic neuroscience into targeted therapies, (3) different modalities of hallucination, (4) domain convergence in cross-diagnostic studies, (5) improved methods for assessing hallucinations in nonclinical samples, (6) using humanities and social science methodologies to recontextualize hallucinatory experiences, (7) developmental approaches to better understand hallucinations, (8) changing the memory or meaning of past trauma to help recovery, (9) hallucinations in the context of sleep and sleep disorders, and (10) subtypes of hallucinations in a therapeutic context. PMID:24282321

  10. Report on 2nd Royan Institute International Summer School on developmental biology and stem cells Tehran, Iran, 17-22nd July 2011.

    PubMed

    Newgreen, Donald; Grounds, Miranda; Jesuthasan, Suresh; Rashidi, Hassan; Familari, Mary

    2012-03-01

    The 2nd Royan Institute International Summer School was built around the topic of stem cells and grounding in the discipline of developmental biology. The meeting provided not only direct transfer of technical and intellectual information, the normal process in scientific meetings, but was also a forum for the exchange of personal ideas of science as a creative pursuit. This summer school introduced aspiring young Iranian scientists to international researchers and exposed the latter to a rich culture that highly values learning and education, attested by the confident, intelligent young men and women who asked probing questions and who were eager to participate in the workshops. Hossein Baharvand's dedication and passion for science have led to an impressive record of national and international peer-reviewed publications and an increasing number of students who pursue science in Iran, and shows how the right people can create an environment where good science, good science education and motivation will flourish. This report summarizes some of the activities of the workshop in the Royan Institute and the impressions of the visiting scientists in the wider context of the scientific and cultural heritage of Iran. PMID:22364877

  11. Influence of long-term altered gravity on the swimming performance of developing cichlid fish: including results from the 2nd German Spacelab Mission D-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmann, H.; Hilbig, R.; Flemming, J.; Slenzka, K.

    This study presents qualitative and quantitative data concerning gravity-dependent changes in the swimming behaviour of developing cichlid fish larvae (Oreochromis mossambicus) after a 9 resp. 10 days exposure to increased acceleration (centrifuge experiments), to reduced gravity (fast-rotating clinostat), changed accelerations (parabolic air craft flights) and to near weightlessness (2nd German Spacelab Mission D-2). Changes of gravity initially cause disturbances of the swimming performance of the fish larvae. With prolonged stay in orbit a step by step normalisation of the swimming behaviour took place in the fish. After return to 1g earth conditions no somersaulting or looping could be detected concerning the fish, but still slow and disorientated movements as compared to controls occurred. The fish larvae adapted to earth gravity within 3-5 days. Fish seem to be in a distinct early developmental stages extreme sensitive and adaptable to altered gravity. However, elder fish either do not react or show compensatory behaviour e.g. escape reactions.

  12. High-dispersion Spectroscopic Observations Of 8P/Tuttle With VLT/CRIRES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hitomi; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Dello Russo, N.; Kawakita, H.; Verback, R. J.; Weaver, H.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Smette, A.; Cochran, A.; Hutsemekers, D.; Schulz, R.; Stuwe, J.; Weiler, M.; Zucconi, J.; Arpigny, C.; Biver, N.; Crovisier, J.; Magain, P.; Rauer, H.; Sana, H.

    2008-09-01

    We present near-infrared observations of organic molecules in comet 8P/Tuttle. Comet 8P/Tuttle is a Halley-type comet and its last perihelion was in early January 2008. Our observations were carried out on January 28 and February 4 using CRIRES (CRyogenic high-resolution InfraRed Echelle Spectrograph) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). We used a 0.2" slit which provided a spectral resolving power of 80,000. We detected H2O, OH, HCN, C2H2 on Jan 28, and H2O, OH, CH4, C2H6, and CH3OH on Feb 4. We find that 8P/Tuttle is depleted in HCN, C2H2 and C2H6 relative to H2O compared with most other Oort cloud comets studied to date. Perhaps these depletions suggest that 8P/Tuttle formed in a different region from most Oort cloud comets, but it is also possible that the depletions are caused by repeated passages through the inner solar system.

  13. Design, fabrication, integration and commissioning of an upgraded guiding probe for the VLT unit telescope 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Christoph; Hammersley, Peter; Buzzoni, Bernard; Manescau, Antonio; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Birkmann, Martin; Mueller, Michael; Salgado, Fernando; Guisard, Stephane; Kroedel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    As part of the preparation for the arrival of the MUSE instrument to the VLT, it was required to adapt the hosting telescope (UT4) guide probe, to increase its back focal length. This is to allow enough space for the later deployment of the MUSE Adaptive Optics module GALACSI, in-between the telescope adapter rotator and the instrument itself. The UT guide probe is a critical component for the successful operation of the telescope, so its modification to increase the telescope's back focal length, while maintaining full compatibility with the existing operation model and other hardware, was rather demanding. The design, manufacture, assembly and test for the new supporting arm in the UT guiding probe is presented. It mixes the use of novel materials (HB-CESIC® for the mirrors substrates) and state of the art manufacturing techniques (3D printing mould production and rapid casting for the support structure), which allow producing easily a high performance subsystem. Characterization of the system prior delivery to the telescope, its integration in the UT and results after commissioning is presented. Its successful implementation has validated new manufacturing techniques that may prove very useful for future instruments development.

  14. VLT polarimetry observations of the middle-aged pulsar PSR B0656+14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, R. P.; Moran, P.; Shearer, A.; Testa, V.; Słowikowska, A.; Rudak, B.; Krzeszowski, K.; Kanbach, G.

    2015-11-01

    Context. Optical polarisation measurements are key tests for different models of the pulsar magnetosphere. Furthermore, comparing the relative orientation of the phase-averaged linear polarisation direction and the pulsar proper motion vector may unveil a peculiar alignment, clearly seen in the Crab pulsar. Aims: Our goal is to obtain the first measurement of the phase-averaged optical linear polarisation of the fifth brightest optical pulsar, PSR B0656+14, which also has a precisely measured proper motion, and to verify a possible alignment between the polarisation direction and the proper motion vector. Methods: We carried out observations with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to measure the phase-averaged optical polarisation degree (PD) and position angle (PA) of PSR B0656+14. Results: We measured a PD of 11.9% ± 5.5% and a PA of 125.8° ± 13.2°, measured east of north. Albeit of marginal significance, this is the first measurement of the phase-averaged optical PD for this pulsar. Moreover, we found that the PA of the phase-averaged polarisation vector is close to that of the pulsar proper motion (93.12° ± 0.38°). Conclusions: Deeper observations are needed to confirm our polarisation measurement of PSR B0656+14, whereas polarisation measurements for more pulsars will better assess possible correlations of the polarisation degree with the pulsar parameters. Based on observations collected at ESO, Paranal, under Programme 090.D-0106(A).

  15. An atlas of L-T transition brown dwarfs with VLT/XShooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, F.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.

    In this contribution we present the first results from a large observing campaign we are carrying out using VLT/Xshooter to obtain spectra of a large sample (˜250 objects) of L-T transition brown dwarfs. Here we report the results based on the first ˜120 spectra already obtained. The large sample, and the wide spectral coverage (300-2480 nm) given by Xshooter, will allow us to do a new powerful analysis, at an unprecedent level. By fitting the absorption lines of a given element (e.g. Na) at different wavelengths we can test ultracool atmospheric models and draw for the first time a 3D picture of stellar atmospheres at temperatures down to 1000K. Determining the atmospheric parameters (e.g. temperature, surface gravity and metallicity) of a big sample of brown dwarfs, will allow us to understand the role of these parameters on the formation of their spectra. The large number of objects in our sample also will allow us to do a statistical significant test of the birth rate and initial mass function predictions for brown dwarfs. Determining the shape of the initial mass function for very low mass objects is a fundamental task to improve galaxy models, as recent studies tep{2010Natur.468..940V} have shown that low-mass objects dominate in massive elliptical galaxies.

  16. Long-term performance of the VISIR/VLT instrument before the upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzycka, Danuta; Momany, Yazan; Lundin, Lars; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Käufl, Hans U.; Smette, Alain; Kerber, Florian; Van Den Ancker, Mario

    2012-09-01

    The ESO's VLT Spectrometer and Imager for the Mid-Infrared (VISIR) has been in operation at the Paranal Observatory since 2005. It is equipped with two DRS (formerly Boeing) 256 × 256 BIB arrays. The project to replace detectors into new Raytheon, 1k × 1k AQUARIUS devices as well as to modify observing modes, software, etc. is underway. The VISIR upgrade creates a well defined break point in the instruments' characteristics. For nearly 7 years of the VISIR operations we have been collecting and processing calibration data, in particular observations of the imaging and spectroscopic standard stars, within a regular data flow operation scheme. The derived quality control parameters have been systematically written into a database, which allows the analysis of their temporal behavior. We present an overview of the long term variations of the VISIR quality control parameters: sensitivity, conversion factor and mean background level estimations. The results will be later used to compare performance of VISIR before and after the upgrade.

  17. The extragalactic heritage of the Layer-Oriented MAD at VLT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falomo, R.; Ragazzoni, R.

    2011-09-01

    The layer-oriented wavefront sensor onboard MAD, capable to catch up to 8 stars on the pins of pyramids in a 2 arcmin Field of View has been tested at the VLT in a unique dedicated run lasting 6 consecutive nights. As this kind of MCAO observations is focused onto a field with many relatively faint reference stars our main focus was onto extragalactic targets that are plagued by the problem of limited sky coverage. While we achieved demonstrative science onto a very crowded field using a globular cluster, allowing to assess firmly the compensation stability over the FoV,we succeeded into securing scientific data for a number of extragalctic sources from the local Universe up to Z = 3. In particular we devised stellar population study in a dwarf galaxy, morphology of the jets in nearby AGN and the properties of the environment for high redshift quasars. The scientific outcome of the observation run, consisting into 6 published refereed papers and two forthcoming, is briefly reported along with some lessons learned.

  18. VLT spectroscopy of XTE J2123-058 during quiescence: the masses of the two components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casares, J.; Dubus, G.; Shahbaz, T.; Zurita, C.; Charles, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    We present Very Large Telescope (VLT) low-resolution spectroscopy of the neutron star X-ray transient XTE J2123-058 during its quiescent state. Our data reveal the presence of a K7V companion which contributes 77 per cent to the total flux at λ6300 and orbits the neutron star at K2=287+/-12kms-1. Contrary to other soft X-ray transients (SXTs), the Hα emission is almost exactly in antiphase with the velocity curve of the optical companion. Using the light-centre technique we obtain K1=140+/-27kms-1 and hence q=K1/K2=M2/M1=0.49+/-0.10. This, combined with a previous determination of the inclination angle (i=73°+/-4°) yields M1=1.55+/-0.31Msolar and M2=0.76+/-0.22Msolar. M2 agrees well with the observed spectral type. Doppler tomography of the Hα emission shows a non-symmetric accretion disc distribution mimicking that seen in SW Sex stars. Although we find a large systemic velocity of - 110+/-8kms-1 this value is consistent with the galactic rotation velocity at the position of J2123-058, and hence a halo origin. The formation scenario of J2123-058 is still unresolved.

  19. Tightening the constraints on the mass distribution of the Frontier Fields with VLT/MUSE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Benjamin; Richard, Johan; Mahler, Guillaume; Patricio, Vera; Lagattuta, David

    2015-08-01

    While the main ground-based optical multi-object spectrographs obtain spectra of a few tens of objects at a time, the panoramic integral-field ability of the new VLT/MUSE spectrograph increases that number by an order of magnitude. MUSE observations of HST deep fields yield a wealth of new spectroscopic identifications, revealing faint emission-line galaxies not detected in deep broad-band images. Here, we have combined the performances of the MUSE spectrograph together with the power of gravitational lensing by Frontier Fields galaxy clusters to offer a unique magnified view of the distant universe. With a field of view of 1x1 square arc minutes over the full 4750-9350Å wavelength domain, MUSE enables redshift measurements of numerous lensed galaxies in the cluster core, and in particular of tens of multiple-imaged systems. Those spectroscopically-confirmed multiple-imaged systems are further used as strong constraints to improve the cluster mass model and reach a level of precision in the mass distribution only achievable with the joint use of extremely deep HST images and deep MUSE spectroscopy. Magnification maps of the Frontier Fields clusters Abell 2744, Abell S1063, Abell 370, and MACSJ0416.1-2403, will be presented together with results obtained on a selection of highly-magnified background galaxies up to a redshift z~6.4.

  20. VLT/X-shooter Spectroscopy of a dusty planetary nebula discovered with Spitzer/IRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, I.; Overzier, R. A.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Spezzi, L.

    2011-02-01

    As part of a mid-infrared spectroscopic survey of young stars with the Spitzer Space Telescope, an unclassified red emission line object was discovered. Based on its high ionization state indicated by the Spitzer spectrum, this object could either be a dusty supernova remnant (SNR) or a planetary nebula (PN). In this research note, the object is classified and the available spectroscopic data are presented to the community for further analysis. UV/optical/NIR spectra were obtained during the science verification run of the VLT/X-shooter. A large number of emission lines are identified allowing the determination of the nature of this object. The presence of strong, narrow (Δv ~8 - 74 km s-1) emission lines, combined with very low line ratios of, e.g., [N ii]/Hα and [S ii]/Hα show that the object is a PN that lies at an undetermined distance behind the Serpens Molecular Cloud. This illustrates the potential of X-shooter as an efficient tool for constraining the nature of faint sources with unknown spectral properties or colors.

  1. HST and VLT investigations of the fragments of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR).

    PubMed

    Weaver, H A; Sekanina, Z; Toth, I; Delahodde, C E; Hainaut, O R; Lamy, P L; Bauer, J M; A'Hearn, M F; Arpigny, C; Combi, M R; Davies, J K; Feldman, P D; Festou, M C; Hook, R; Jorda, L; Keesey, M S; Lisse, C M; Marsden, B G; Meech, K J; Tozzi, G P; West, R

    2001-05-18

    At least 16 fragments were detected in images of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) taken on 5 August 2000 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and on 6 August with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Photometric analysis of the fragments indicates that the largest ones have effective spherical diameters of about 100 meters, which implies that the total mass in the observed fragments was about 2 x 10(9) kilograms. The comet's dust tail, which was the most prominent optical feature in August, was produced during a major fragmentation event, whose activity peaked on UT 22.8 +/- 0.2 July 2000. The mass of small particles (diameters less than about 230 micrometers) in the tail was about 4 x 10(8) kilograms, which is comparable to the mass contained in a large fragment and to the total mass lost from water sublimation after 21 July 2000 (about 3 x 10(8) kilograms). HST spectroscopic observations during 5 and 6 July 2000 demonstrate that the nucleus contained little carbon monoxide ice (ratio of carbon monoxide to water is less than or equal to 0.4%), which suggests that this volatile species did not play a role in the fragmentation of C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). PMID:11359001

  2. Alignment and integration of ASSIST: a test bench for VLT adaptive optics facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deep, Atul; Arsenault, Robin; Boland, Wilfried; Delabre, Bernard; Hubin, Norbert; La Penna, Paolo; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Molster, Frank; Stuik, Remko; Tordo, Sebastien; Wiegers, Emiel

    2010-08-01

    ASSIST, The Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator, is being developed to provide a testing facility for the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). It will allow the off-telescope testing of three elements of the VLT AOF; the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the AO systems for MUSE and HAWK-I (GALACSI and GRAAL). The core of ASSIST consists of a 2-mirror setup (AM1-AM2) allowing the on-axis test of the DSM in interferometric mode. However, during the initial stages of ASSIST integration, DSM would not be present. This makes the task of aligning AM1-AM2 to within an accuracy of 0.05mm/1 arcmin rather challenging. A novel technique known as Shack-Hartmann method has been developed and tested in the lab for this purpose. A Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor will be used to measure the mis-alignment between AM1-AM2 by recording the coma and astigmatism in the presence of large spherical aberration introduced because of tilt/decenter of AM2 with respect to AM1. Thereafter, 20 optical components including lenses, flat mirrors and beam-splitter cubes divided into five sub-assemblies should be aligned to AM1-AM2- DSM axis which ultimately passes through the mechanical axis of large AMOS rotator.

  3. Optical Tube Assemblies for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henselmans, R.; Nijkerk, D.; Lemmen, M.; Doelman, N.; Rijnveld, N.; Kamphues, F.

    2011-09-01

    ESO is implementing a new Adaptive Optics facility (AOF) on the Unit Telescope 4 (UT4) of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). For increased sky coverage, Four Laser Guide Star Facilities (4LGSF) will be installed. TNO is developing the Optical Tube Asssemblies (OTAs) for the 4LGSF.The OTAs are Galilean 20x beam expanders, expanding a ˜15 mm input beam to a steerable ˜300 mm output beam with a wavefront quality requirement of <50 nm rms. The allowed defocus under the influence of the changing environmental air temperature (0-15°C, -0.7°C/hr gradient) is only 0.2 waves. The thermal behaviour of the system has been analyzed by combining optical, lumped mass and FE analyses. The design is passively athermalized over a large temperature range as well as under the influence of thermal gradients. Extensive thermal and high power laser testing has shown the system performs as required. This poster describes the design and test results.

  4. Sub-arcsecond dusty environment of Eta Carinae with MIDI/VLTI and NACO/VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, O.; Min, M.; Herbst, T.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2004-12-01

    The core of the nebula surrounding Eta Carinae has been observed with the VLT Adaptive Optics system NACO and with the interferometer VLTI/MIDI. Narrow-band images at 3.74 and 4.05 micron reveal the butterfly shaped dusty environment with an unprecedented spatial resolution. A void region around the central source was discovered, whose radius corresponds to the expected dust sublimation radius. Fringes have been obtained in the Mid-IR which reveal a correlated flux of about 100 Jy situated 0.3" south-east from the photocenter of the nebula at 8.7 which corresponds with the location of the star as seen in other wavelengths. This correlated flux is partly attributed to the central object and these observations provide an upper limit for the SED of the central source from 2.2 micron to 13.5 micron. Moreover, we have been able to spectrally disperse the signal from the nebula itself at PA=318 degree, i.e. in the direction of the bipolar nebula (310 °) within the MIDI field of view of 3". A large amount of corundum (Al2O3) is discovered, peaking to the south-east from the star, whereas the dust content of the Weigelt blobs is more dominated by silicates.

  5. VLT/NACO Imaging of the Nearest AGB Star, L2 Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montargès, M.; Kervella, P.; Ridgway, S. T.; Perrin, G.; Chesneau, O.

    2015-08-01

    AGB stars are the most important contributors to the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy. During their later evolutionary stages they experience intense pulsations and eject most of their layers as they become planetary nebulae (PNe). The process leading to the formation of bipolar PNe remains poorly understood. It is assumed that the circumstellar disk of an AGB star could collimate the stellar wind to form a bipolar PN, yet very few of these disks have been observed. Using the adaptive-optics system of the VLT/NACO instrument at the Paranal Observatory and a "lucky imaging" technique, our team obtained near-infrared diffraction-limited images of the nearest AGB star, L2 Puppis. The deconvolved images reveal a dark structure in front of the star whose morphology and photometry match a dusty edge-on disk of olivine and pyroxene modeled with a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. The L band images also show a loop structure, possibly the signature of an interacting hidden companion.

  6. Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don L.; Queloz, Didier; Rauer, Heike; Watson, Christopher A.; West, Richard G.; Chazelas, Bruno; Louden, Tom M.; Bannister, Nigel; Bento, Joao; Burleigh, Matthew; Cabrera, Juan; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Genolet, Ludovic; Goad, Michael; Grange, Andrew; Jordán, Andrés; Lawrie, Katherine; McCormac, James; Neveu, Marion; Walker, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a new ground-based survey for transiting exoplanets. Our primary goal is to find the first statistically-significant sample of Neptunes and super-Earths that are bright enough for radial velocity confirmation. By measuring precise masses and radii we will constrain the bulk composition and internal structure of planets that span the transition between the gas giants and terrestrial planets. Our brightest exoplanets will also be suitable for atmospheric characterisation with large facilities such as the VLT, JWST and the E-ELT. NGTS construction began in June 2013, and the survey is due to commence in 2014.

  7. Advanced IRFPAs for next-generation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, John T.; Fletcher, Christopher L.; Graham, Roger W.; Patten, Elizabeth A.; Pham, Le T.; Pierce, Gregory; Scribner, Dean A.; Skele, Martins; Taylor, Scott M.; Trautfield, Walter C.

    2004-08-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has invented and demonstrated a new class of advanced focal plane arrays. These Advanced FPAs are sometimes called 3rd Generation or "Next Generation" FPAs because they have integrated onto the FPA the ability to sense multiple IR spectrums, have improved resolution and performance, and conduct image processing on the FPA ROIC. These next generation of FPAs are allowing more functionality and the detection of a more diverse set of data than previously possible with 2nd Gen FPAs. Examples and history of advanced next generation FPAs are reviewed including RVS"s Multispectral, Uncooled, Adaptive Sensors and other advanced sensors.

  8. Energy handbook, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Loftness, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    This handbook provides a compilation of data on world energy resources, utilization, and costs. The principle emphasis is on the U.S. in recent decades, but there is extensive information of the rest of the world and some data for not only recent centuries but also for the past millenium, while over 20 percent of the volume presents projections for the future. Tables, charts, and curves occupy about 90 percent of the page space while perhaps 10 percent is devoted to text that explains and qualifies the quantitative material.

  9. Diagnostic imaging, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.; Wastie, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses ultrasound radionuclide examinations, and computed tomography in an integrated, comprehensive account of conventional radiology. The authors describe the signs of each modality and how to apply this information in diagnosing diseases. A practical approach to the topic of radiology shows the reader how to use films to reach diagnoses and how to relate this field to the clinical problems that are of prime interest.

  10. Longwall mining. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2006-10-15

    The book covers US longwall mining technology that was developed and practiced in the US for the past 30 years. It covers all phases of longwall technology in 14 chapters. Each chapter is devoted to a subsystem of equipment or engineering technology. Each chapter begins with a brief introduction on the historical trends of development of the subsystem equipment or engineering technology, followed by a detailed description of the subsystem and engineering technology as they are practiced in the US today.

  11. Aquatic pollution, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book systematically covers all aspects of water pollution in marine and freshwater systems. Didactic style, frequent use of case studies and an extensive bibliography facilitate understanding of fundamental concepts. Offers basic, relevant ecological and toxicological information. Straightforward presentation of the scientific aspects of environmental issues. Information updated, particularly the discussion of toxicology and the case studies of water pollution. Three new chapters on acid rain, groundwater pollution and plastics are added.

  12. Ocean Science, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, K.

    1983-01-01

    An introductory treatment of all of the major areas of oceanographic studies including geological, physical, chemical, and biological aspects, ocean-atmosphere interactions, marine geology, and marine resources. Presents clear, concise explanations of ocean behavior and its properties. Explains the history behind specific aspects of the ocean environment. Includes considerably expanded sections on estuaries and marine biology, and chapters on marine ecology. Contents-The Earth. Plate Tectonics. The Ocean Bottom. Sediment Materials. Sediment Processes and Distributions. Properties of Ocean Waves. Waves and Tides. Beaches. The Components of Seawater--Part 1. The Components of Seawater--Part 2. The Ocean and Our Climate. The Earth's Rotation and Atmospheric Circulation. Ocean Surface Currents. Deep Ocean Currents and Water Masses. Seas and Estuaries. Biological Productivity in The Oceans. The Spectrum of Marine Organisms. Marine Ecology. Distributions and Lifestyles of Marine Organisms. Ocean Food Resources. Ocean Energy and Mineral Resources.

  13. General Physics, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternheim, Morton M.; Kane, Joseph W.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces physics to science students with a wide range of interests. Unlike many other physics texts, the coverage and emphasis here is influenced by the specific needs of science majors, including those in the life sciences, and thus treats topics such as geometric optics, mechanics of fluids and acoustics. The derivative is introduced in Chapter One and integrals are used sparingly until electricity and magnetism are covered. Entire chapters are devoted to applications of physics covering subjects such as nerve conduction, ionizing radiation and nuclear magnetic resonance, demonstrating the widespread utility of physics and the unity of science. To aid in comprehension, calculations involving calculus are carried out with a good deal of detail and discussion. Each chapter features a checklist of terms to define or explain as well as problems and exercises. Additional problems and exercises are located in the Supplementary Topics section.

  14. VLT Spectra "Resolve" a Stellar Disk at 25,000 Light-Years Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    Unique Observations of a Microlensing Event Summary Like our Sun, stars are large gaseous spheres. However, while we are able to perceive the Sun's disk, all other stars are so far away that they normally appear as points of light . Only specialized observing techniques, like interferometry [1], are able to "resolve" the images of nearby stars and to show them as extended balls of fire. But opportunities may sometimes arise that allow amazing observational feats in this field . Indeed, an international team of astronomers [2] has just "resolved" a single, normal star some 25,000 light years away , or about 1.6 billion times more distant than the Sun [3], by taking advantage of a multiple microlensing event . During such a rare event, the light from the remote star is amplified by the gravity of a faint object that passes in front of it, as seen from the Earth . In fact, this gravitational lens acts as a magnifying glass that focusses different parts of the star's image at different times. Using the FORS1 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope on Paranal during a microlensing event, the team was able to obtain detailed spectra of the different parts of the remote star. In doing so, they managed to probe its gaseous atmosphere at different depths. This is the first time that it has been possible to obtain detailed, spatially resolved spectra across the full face of a normal star other than the Sun [4]. PR Photo 16a/01 : The light-curve of Microlensing Event EROS-BLG-2000-5 . PR Photo 16b/01 : The sky area of EROS-BLG-2000-5. PR Photo 16c/01 : A VLT spectrum of EROS-BLG-2000-5. PR Photo 16d/01 : The observed change of the H-alpha line strength of EROS-BLG-2000-5. A many-faceted success story The following story is about a most unusual astronomical observation and also shows how modern astrophysics works . It combines the study of stellar atmospheres with the intricate optical effects produced by the gravitational field of a binary star in the Milky Way

  15. VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope no. 1 (as on September 7, 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    ESO Press Photos 28-30/95; 13 September 1995 The construction of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) advances rapidly, both in Europe and in Chile. These three photos show some of the main mechanical parts of the first 8.2-metre telescope, as they presented themselves in Milan (Italy) on Thursday, September 7, 1995. Two versions of these photos, one smaller and one larger and with better image resolution, are accessible for convenient transfer over the networks. The mechanical structure of VLT Unit Telescope no. 1 is now in the process of being mounted at the Ansaldo Energia premises in Milan (Italy). The so-called main structure (i.e., telescope azimuth and altitude mechanical structure, including hydrostatic bearing system, direct drives and direct mounted encoding system) was designed and is being built by the Italian consortium AES, composed of Ansaldo Energia (Genova), SOIMI (Milan) and EIE (Venice). Already two months from now, in November 1995, the complete, enormous mechanical structures of this telescope will be moving on the azimuth hydrostatic bearing tracks, using the direct drive system designed and built by the PHASE Company (Genova, Italy). The thorough testing phase will start by the end of December 1995 or at the beginning of January 1996. ESO Press Photo 28/95 [54K] [248K] shows the lower part of the azimuth structure of the telescope (the fork) on the concrete pier on which the azimuth tracks (hydrostatic bearing journal) are mounted. The very high accuracy of this enormous structure (compare with the persons in the photo!) is illustrated by the fact that the "run-out" of the azimuth axis of the fork has been measured as only 80 microns (0.08 millimetres) on 90 degrees turning angle. This is a remarkable result, especially since the centering of the axis is done on a radial journal with a diameter of no less than 9 metres. When the fork is equipped with all auxiliary systems, it will weigh about 320 t, will be 18 metres long and 8 metres wide. It

  16. Wind measurements in Saturn's atmosphere with UVES/VLT ground-based Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Pedro; Silva, Miguel; Peralta, Javier; Luz, David; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    We will present preliminary Doppler wind velocity results of Saturn's zonal flow at cloud level. Our aim is help to constrain the characterization of the equatorial jet at cloud level and the latitudinal variation of the zonal winds, to measure its spatial and temporal variability, to contribute to monitor the variability in order to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of Saturn's zonal winds, whose equatorial jet has a complex vertical structure and temporal variability (Sanchez-Lavega et al., Nature, 423, 623, 3003; Garcia-Melendo et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L22204. 2010). Finally, the complementarity with Cassini, providing an independent set of observations. The UVES/VLT instrument has been used, which simultaneously achieves high spectral resolving power and high spatial resolution. The field has been derotated in order to have the aperture aligned perpendicularly to Saturn's rotation axis. In this configuration, spatial information in the East-West direction is preserved in a set of spectra in the direction perpendicular to dispersion. The technique of absolute accelerometry (AA, Connes, 1985, ApSS 110, 211) has been applied to the backscattered solar spectrum in order to determine the Doppler shift associated with the zonal circulation. Our measurements have been made in the wavelength range of 480-680 nm. Previously we successfully adapted this Doppler velocimetry technique for measuring winds at Venus cloud tops (Machado et al. 2012). In the present study we will show the adaptation of this method for Saturn's case. Since the AA technique only allows to compare spectra where the line shifts are within the line width, in fast rotating atmospheres (as is the case of Saturn) the spectra must be compared by pairs from adjacent areas of the disk (adjacent pixels in the slit). We will use coordinated observations from the Cassini's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), in order to compare with the Doppler winds obtained from the UVES/VLT

  17. PREFACE: 2nd International School and Conference Saint-Petersburg OPEN on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures (SPbOPEN2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International School and Conference ''Saint Petersburg OPEN 2015'' on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures was held on April 6 - 8, 2015 at St. Petersburg Academic University. The School and Conference included a series of invited talks given by leading professors with the aim to introduce young scientists with actual problems and major advances in physics and technology. The keynote speakers were Mikhail V. Maximov (Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, Russia) Vladimir G. Dubrovskii (St. Petersburg Academic University and St. Petersburg State University, Russia) Anton Yu. Egorov (JSC Connector Optics, Russia) Victor V. Luchinin (St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, Russia) Vladislav E. Bugrov (St. Petersburg University of Internet Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Russia) Vitali A. Schukin (VI Systems, Germany) Yuri P. Svirko (University of Eastern Finland, Finland) During the poster session all undergraduate and graduate students attending the conference presented their works. A sufficiently large number of participants, with more than 170 student attendees from all over the world, allowed the Conference to provide a fertile ground for fruitful discussions between the young scientists as well as to become a perfect platform for valuable discussions between student authors and highly experienced scientists. The best student papers, which were selected by the Program Committee and by the invited speakers basing on the theses and their poster presentation, were awarded with diplomas of the conference - see the photos. This year ''Saint Petersburg OPEN 2015'' is organized by St. Petersburg Academic University in cooperation with Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. The School and Conference is supported by Russian Science Foundation, SPIE (The International Society for Optics and Photonics), OSA (The Optical Society) and by Skolkovo Foundation. It is a continuation of the annual schools and seminars for

  18. 2nd International Symposium on Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering (REES-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavadyan, Levon, Prof; Sachkov, Viktor, Prof; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr.; Bogdan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd International Symposium «Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering» (REES2015) was jointly organized by Tomsk State University (Russia), National Academy of Science (Armenia), Shenyang Polytechnic University (China), Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering (Russia), Siberian Physical-technical Institute (Russia), and Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) in September, 7-15, 2015, Belokuriha, Russia. The Symposium provided a high quality of presentations and gathered engineers, scientists, academicians, and young researchers working in the field of rare and rare earth elements mining, modification, separation, elaboration and application, in order to facilitate aggregation and sharing interests and results for a better collaboration and activity visibility. The goal of the REES2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on rare and rare earth elements technologies. The Symposium was aimed at presenting new trends in rare and rare earth elements mining, research and separation and recent achievements in advanced materials elaboration and developments for different purposes, as well as strengthening the already existing contacts between manufactures, highly-qualified specialists and young scientists. The topics of the REES2015 were: (1) Problems of extraction and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (2) Methods and approaches to the separation and isolation of rare and rare earth elements with ultra-high purity; (3) Industrial technologies of production and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (4) Economic aspects in technology of rare and rare earth elements; and (5) Rare and rare earth based materials (application in metallurgy, catalysis, medicine, optoelectronics, etc.). We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the Universities and Sponsors supporting the Symposium, and everyone who contributed to the organization of the event and to

  19. Improvement of Measurement Accuracy of Strain of Thin Film by CCD Camera with a Template Matching Method Using the 2ND-ORDER Polynomial Interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Hyub; Shin, Myung-Soo; Kang, Dong-Joong; Lim, Sung-Jo; Ha, Jong-Eun

    In this study, a system for non-contact in-situ measurement of strain during tensile test of thin films by using CCD camera with marking surface of specimen by black pen was implemented as a sensing device. To improve accuracy of measurement when CCD camera is used, this paper proposed a new method for measuring strain during tensile test of specimen with micrometer size. The size of pixel of CCD camera determines resolution of measurement, but the size of pixel can not satisfy the resolution required in tensile test of thin film because the extension of the specimen is very small during the tensile test. To increase resolution of measurement, the suggested method performs an accurate subpixel matching by applying 2nd order polynomial interpolation method to the conventional template matching. The algorithm was developed to calculate location of subpixel providing the best matching value by performing single dimensional polynomial interpolation from the results of pixel-based matching at a local region of image. The measurement resolution was less than 0.01 times of original pixel size. To verify the reliability of the system, the tensile test for the BeNi thin film was performed, which is widely used as a material in micro-probe tip. Tensile tests were performed and strains were measured using the proposed method and also the capacitance type displacement sensor for comparison. It is demonstrated that the new strain measurement system can effectively describe a behavior of materials after yield during the tensile test of the specimen at microscale with easy setup and better accuracy.

  20. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey: Multiplicity and Dynamics of the Massive Stars in 30 Dor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; Dunstall, P. R.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Walborn, N. R.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Evans, C. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    We present the first results on the multiplicity and dynamics of the OB star population in 30 Dor obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. Based on their radial velocity (RV) variations, we have identified over 100 O-type and about 160 B-type spectroscopic binaries. The observed spectroscopic binary fraction for the O and B stars in our sample is of the order 30-35%. Preliminary considerations on the binary detection rate suggest a true spectroscopic binary fraction of the order of 50%. The overall RV dispersion (σRV) of the O stars in the complete sample is about 10 km s-1 but we note that the NGC 2060 and NGC 2070 regions show slightly different dynamical properties. We identified 17 O-type runaway candidates that show deviating RVs. One third of these candidates are On/nn/nnn stars, indicating a large rotational velocity. We show that the fast rotators have different RV properties than the average of the sample and are distributed throughout the field. This suggests a link between large rotation rate and peculiar RVs and, ultimately, the runaway phenomenon. Using the O stars observed within 25″(˜ 6 pc) from the core of R136, we obtain a preliminary upper limit of 7.5 km s-1 to σdyn. Given that this value has yet to be corrected down for contributions of non-detected long period binaries, this indicates that R136 is possibly a dynamically stable cluster.

  1. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunstall, P. R.; Dufton, P. L.; Sana, H.; Evans, C. J.; Howarth, I. D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; de Mink, S. E.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W. D.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km s-1) are classified as spectroscopic binaries. We find an observed spectroscopic binary fraction (defined by periods of <103.5 d and mass ratios >0.1) for the B-type stars, fB(obs) = 0.25 ± 0.02, which appears constant across the field of view, except for the two older clusters (Hodge 301 and SL 639). These two clusters have significantly lower binary fractions of 0.08 ± 0.08 and 0.10 ± 0.09, respectively. Using synthetic populations and a model of our observed epochs and their potential biases, we constrain the intrinsic multiplicity properties of the dwarf and giant (i.e. relatively unevolved) B-type stars in 30 Dor. We obtain a present-day binary fraction fB(true) = 0.58 ± 0.11, with a flat period distribution. Within the uncertainties, the multiplicity properties of the B-type stars agree with those for the O stars in 30 Dor from the VFTS. Appendices A, B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A93

  2. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXIII. Two massive double-lined binaries in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, I. D.; Dufton, P. L.; Dunstall, P. R.; Evans, C. J.; Almeida, L. A.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Clark, J. S.; Langer, N.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Soszyński, I.; Taylor, W. D.

    2015-10-01

    Aims: We investigate the characteristics of two newly discovered short-period, double-lined, massive binary systems in the Large Magellanic Cloud, VFTS 450 (O9.7 II-Ib + O7::) and VFTS 652 (B1 Ib + O9: III:). Methods: We perform model-atmosphere analyses to characterise the photospheric properties of both members of each binary (denoting the "primary" as the spectroscopically more conspicuous component). Radial velocities and optical photometry are used to estimate the binary-system parameters. Results: We estimate Teff = 27 kK, log g = 2.9 (cgs) for the VFTS 450 primary spectrum (34 kK, 3.6: for the secondary spectrum); and Teff = 22 kK, log g = 2.8 for the VFTS 652 primary spectrum (35 kK, 3.7: for the secondary spectrum). Both primaries show surface nitrogen enrichments (of more than 1 dex for VFTS 652), and probable moderate oxygen depletions relative to reference LMC abundances. We determine orbital periods of 6.89 d and 8.59 d for VFTS 450 and VFTS 652, respectively, and argue that the primaries must be close to filling their Roche lobes. Supposing this to be the case, we estimate component masses in the range ~20-50 M⊙. Conclusions: The secondary spectra are associated with the more massive components, suggesting that both systems are high-mass analogues of classical Algol systems, undergoing case-A mass transfer. Difficulties in reconciling the spectroscopic analyses with the light-curves and with evolutionary considerations suggest that the secondary spectra are contaminated by (or arise in) accretion disks. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (VLT) as part of programmes 182.D-0222 and 090.D-0323.Tables 2, 3, and 8 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy of the Super-antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reunanen, J.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Ivanov, V. D.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of H- and K-band very large telescope/Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (VLT/SINFONI) integral field spectroscopy of the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy (ULIRG) IRAS 19254-7245 (the Super-antennae), an interacting double galaxy system containing an embedded active galactic nuclei. Deep K-band spectroscopy reveals Paα arising in a warped disc with position angle of 330° and an inclination i = 40°-55°. The kinemetric parameters derived for H2 are similar to Paα. Two high-ionization emission lines, [SiVI] and [AlIX], are detected and we identify as [NiII] the line observed at 1.94μm. Diluting non-stellar continuum, which was previously detected, has decayed, and the H-band continuum emission is consistent with pure stellar emission. Based on H2 emission-line ratios, it is likely that at the central 1-kpc region H2 is excited by ultraviolet fluorescence in dense clouds while shock excitation is dominant further out. This scenario is supported by very low Paα to H2 line ratio detected outside the nuclear region and non-thermal ortho/para ratios (~2.0-2.5) close to the nucleus. E-mail: reunanen@strw.leidenuniv.nl (JR); ltacconi@eso.org (LET); vivanov@eso.org (VDI) Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile [60.A-9041(A)].

  4. A VLT/X-Shooter study of accretion and photoevaporation in Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, Carlo Felice; Testi, Leonardo; Natta, Antonella; Ricci, Luca; Benisty, Myriam; Rosotti, Giovanni; Ercolano, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Transitional Disks (TDs) are considered to be a late evolutionary stage of optically thick massive disks whose inner regions are being evacuated, leaving behind large holes that can be detected both by modeling the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) or, in some cases, by mm-interferometry. These holes could be produced by processes of photoevaporation, grain growth, or planet formation. Still, none of these processes alone has been shown to be sufficient to explain all observations. In this context, the combination of inner hole size, mass accretion rate and wind properties is a powerful observational diagnostic of disk evolution models, but the current measurements of mass accretion rates for TDs are mostly based on secondary indicators (such as the 10% Ha width), and very few data on the wind properties for these objects are available. Here we present a detailed study of the accretion and wind properties of TDs carried out with the VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph. Combining new and archival X-Shooter observations, we collected a sample of more than 20 TDs from different nearby star-forming regions. Our sample includes objects with both small (<5-15 AU) and large (>20-30 AU) known inner hole size from the literature (either from mm-observations or infrared SED fitting). We check their stellar parameters (Teff, Lstar, Av, Mstar) and derive their accretion properties (Lacc, Macc) in a self-consistent way, which makes use of the wide wavelength coverage of X-Shooter, and study their wind properties by mean of different forbidden emission lines analysis. Here we present some preliminary results.

  5. NIR spectral constraints of Europa's surface with ESO/VLT/ SINFONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Poulet, François; Carter, John; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Europa is a major exobiological target with its possible sub-surface briny ocean buried under a water-ice dominated crust of several km-thick. The upcoming ESA L-class mission JUICE to the Jupiter system and its payload will partly address this question, in particular through compositional remote sensing in the near-infrared (using the MAJIS imaging hyperspectral spectrometer) and visible (using MAJIS and the camera JANUS) wavelength range. A global compositional mapping campaign was performed between October 2011 and January 2012 with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile for increasing our knowledge acquired with the NIMS instrument onboard the Galileo spacecraft and previous telescopic observations. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) is suitable to detect any narrow signature in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. The spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s (~35 by 70 km on Europa's surface). Depending on the hemisphere, our spectra are globally (1) dominated by crystalline water-ice distorted and asymmetric absorption features, or (2) dominated by sulfuric acid hydrate (Carlson et al. 1999b) coming from Iogenic sulfur ion bombardment. However, some well-identified geological structures such as crater (Pwyll) and some chaos regions (Tara Regio, Powys Regio) look spectrally different. Although hydrated magnesium sulfates as epsomite (MgSO4.7H2O) and chlorine hydrated salts were proposed to be present on the surface (Brown et al. 2013, Hanley et al. 2014), our preliminary fits from linear spectral modeling (using cryogenic laboratory spectra of these materials) cannot reproduce this result. Finally, no narrow signature, which could indicate the presence of material of exobiological interest, has been so far detected in this complex data set.

  6. Understanding the Relations between QSOs and Their Host Galaxies from Combined HST Imaging and VLT Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letawe, Y.; Magain, P.; Letawe, G.; Courbin, F.; Hutsemékers, D.

    2008-06-01

    The host galaxies of six nearby QSOs are studied on the basis of high-resolution HST optical images and spatially resolved VLT slit spectra. The gas ionization and velocity are mapped as a function of the distance to the central QSO. In the majority of the cases, the QSO significantly contributes to the gas ionization in its whole host galaxy, and sometimes even outside. Reflection or scattering of the QSO Hα line from remote regions of the galaxy is detected in several instances. The line shifts show that, in all cases, the matter responsible for the light reflection moves away from the QSO, likely accelerated by its radiation pressure. The two faintest QSOs reside in spirals, with some signs of a past gravitational perturbation. One of the intermediate-luminosity QSOs resides in a massive elliptical containing gas ionized (and probably pushed away) by the QSO radiation. The other medium-power object is found in a spiral galaxy displaying complex velocity structure, with the central QSO moving with respect to the bulge, probably as a result of a galactic collision. The two most powerful objects are involved in violent gravitational interactions, and one of them has no detected host. These results suggest that (1) large-scale phenomena, such as galactic collisions, are closely related to the triggering and the feeding of the QSO and (2) once ignited, the QSO has significant influence on its large-scale neighborhood (often the whole host and sometimes further away). Based on observations made with the Nasa/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (Cycle 13 proposal 10238), and with ANTU/UT1 at ESO-Paranal observatory in Chile [programs 65.P-0361(A) and 66.B-0139(A)].

  7. Performance of the VLT Planet Finder SPHERE. II. Data analysis and results for IFS in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Zurlo, A.; Vigan, A.; Claudi, R. U.; Alberi, M.; Antichi, J.; Baruffolo, A.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Bonnefoy, M.; Costille, A.; Desidera, S.; Dohlen, K.; Fantinel, D.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Giro, E.; Henning, T.; Kasper, M.; Langlois, M.; Maire, A.-L.; Martinez, P.; Moeller-Nilsson, O.; Mouillet, D.; Moutou, C.; Pavlov, A.; Puget, P.; Salasnich, B.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Sissa, E.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Vakili, F.; Waters, R.; Wildi, F.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We present the performance of the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) of SPHERE, the high-contrast imager for the ESO VLT telescope designed to perform imaging and spectroscopy of extrasolar planets, obtained from tests performed at the Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble facility during the integration phase of the instrument. Methods: The tests were performed using the instrument software purposely prepared for SPHERE. The output data were reduced applying the SPHERE data reduction and handling software, adding an improved spectral deconvolution procedure. To this aim, we prepared an alternative procedure for the spectral subtraction exploiting the principal component analysis algorithm. Moreover, a simulated angular differential imaging procedure was also implemented to estimate how the instrument performed once this procedure was applied at telescope. The capability of the IFS to faithfully retrieve the spectra of the detected faint companions was also considered. Results: We found that the application of the updated version of the spectral deconvolution procedure alone, when the algorithm throughput is properly taken into account, gives us a 5σ limiting contrast of the order of 5 × 10-6 or slightly better. The further application of the angular differential imaging procedure on these data should allow us to improve the contrast by one order of magnitude down to around 7 × 10-7 at a separation of 0.3 arcsec. The application of a principal component analysis procedure that simultaneously uses spectral and angular data gives comparable results. Finally, we found that the reproducibility of the spectra of the detected faint companions is greatly improved when angular differential imaging is applied in addition to the spectral deconvolution.

  8. Extremely high resolution tip-tilt-piston mirror mechanism for the VLT-NAOS field selector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudakis, Peter; Zago, Lorenzo; Chetelat, O.; Gentsch, R.; Mato Mira, F.

    2000-07-01

    NAOS (Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System) is the adaptive optics system presently developed for the ESO VLT. The field selectors are to feed the NAOS wavefront sensor with the light coming from an appropriate reference source which can be up to 1 arcmin (on the sky) distant from the center of the field of view. A large input tip-tilt-piston mirror selects the required part of the field of view. A second active mirror redirects the selected field to the wavefront sensor. The displacement of both mirrors are synchronized. The NAOS Field Selector consists of two extremely accurate tip-tilt-piston mirror mechanisms controlled in closed loop. Each mechanism provides a mechanical angle amplitude of +/- 6 degrees with a resolution and mechanical stability of 0.42 arcsec rms over 20 minutes. This implies a dynamic range of 100,000 which requires an extremely accurate, very high resolution closed loop control. Both mirrors are made in SiC for low mass and inertia. The design configuration of the mechanism in based on three electromagnetic actuators 120 degrees apart with the mobile magnets mounted on flexure guides. The mirror is supported by a combination of flex pivots and a membrane for flexibility in tilt and high radial stiffness. All kinematic joints consist of flexure elements so that the mechanism is essentially frictionless. The control system is implemented on a VME bus operated with the VXWorks OS with high electrical resolution (>= 18-bit) AD and DA interface boards. The controller has been carefully designed to achieve the best overall performances, i.e., a very good noise rejection, and a relatively low settling time.

  9. The Lyman break analogue Haro 11: spatially resolved chemodynamics with VLT FLAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.; Barlow, M. J.; Westmoquette, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    Using VLT/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) optical integral field unit observations, we present the first spatially resolved spectroscopic study of the well-known blue compact galaxy Haro 11, thought to be a local analogue to high-redshift Lyman break galaxies. Haro 11 displays complex emission line profiles, consisting of narrow (full width at half-maximum, FWHM ≲ 200 km s-1) and broad (FWHM ˜ 200-300 km s-1) components. We identify three distinct emission knots kinematically connected to one another. A chemodynamical analysis is presented, revealing that spatially resolved ionic and elemental abundances do not agree with those derived from integrated spectra across the galaxy. We conclude that this is almost certainly due to the surface brightness weighting of electron temperature in integrated spectra, leading to higher derived abundances. We find that the eastern knot has a low gas density, but a higher temperature (by ˜4000 K) and consequently an oxygen abundance ˜0.4 dex lower than the neighbouring regions. A region of enhanced N/O is found specifically in Knot C, confirming previous studies that found anomalously high N/O ratios in this system. Maps of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) feature at 4686 Å reveal large WR populations (˜900-1500 stars) in Knots A and B. The lack of WR stars in Knot C combined with an age of ˜7.4 Myr suggests that a recently completed WR phase may be responsible for the observed N/O excess. Conversely, the absence of N-enriched gas and strong WR emission in Knots A and B suggests that we are observing these regions at an epoch where stellar ejecta has yet to cool and mix with the interstellar medium.

  10. VLT/SPHERE deep insight of NGC 3603's core: Segregation or confusion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorrami, Z.; Lanz, T.; Vakili, F.; Lagadec, E.; Langlois, M.; Brandner, W.; Chesneau, O.; Meyer, M. R.; Carbillet, M.; Abe, L.; Mouillet, D.; Beuzit, J. L.; Boccaletti, A.; Perrot, C.; Thalmann, C.; Schmid, H.-M.; Pavlov, A.; Costille, A.; Dohlen, K.; Le Mignant, D.; Petit, C.; Sauvage, J. F.

    2016-04-01

    We present new near-infrared photometric measurements of the core of the young massive cluster NGC 3603 obtained with extreme adaptive optics. The data were obtained with the SPHERE instrument mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cover three fields in the core of this cluster. We applied a correction for the effect of extinction to our data obtained in the J and K broadband filters and estimated the mass of detected sources inside the field of view of SPHERE/IRDIS, which is 13.5''×13.5''. We derived the mass function (MF) slope for each spectral band and field. The MF slope in the core is unusual compared to previous results based on HST and VLT observations. The average slope in the core is estimated as -1.06 ± 0.26 for the main sequence stars with 3.5 M⊙ < M < 120M⊙. Thanks to the SPHERE extreme adaptive optics, 814 low-mass stars were detected to estimate the MF slope for the pre-main sequence stars with 0.6 M⊙ < M < 3.5M⊙, Γ = -0.54 ± 0.11 in the K-band images in two fields in the core of the cluster. For the first time, we derive the MF of the very core of the NGC 3603 young cluster for masses in the range 0.6-120 M⊙. Previous studies were either limited by crowding, lack of dynamic range, or a combination of both. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (guaranteed time observation 095.D-0309(A) and 095.D-0309(E))

  11. Spectroscopic confirmation of high-redshift supernovae with the ESO VLT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidman, C.; Howell, D. A.; Folatelli, G.; Garavini, G.; Nobili, S.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Blanc, G.; Burns, M. S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S. E.; Doi, M.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I.; Kashikawa, N.; Kim, A. G.; Knop, R. A.; Lee, B. C.; Mendez, J.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Nugent, P. E.; Pain, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Prasad, V.; Quimby, R.; Raux, J.; Regnault, N.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Sainton, G.; Schaefer, B. E.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanishev, V.; Walton, N. A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yasuda, N.; Supernova Cosmology Project

    2005-02-01

    We present VLT FORS1 and FORS2 spectra of 39 candidate high-redshift supernovae that were discovered as part of a cosmological study using type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) over a wide range of redshifts. From the spectra alone, 20 candidates are spectrally classified as SNe Ia with redshifts ranging from z=0.212 to z=1.181. Of the remaining 19 candidates, 1 might be a type II supernova and 11 exhibit broad supernova-like spectral features and/or have supernova-like light curves. The candidates were discovered in 8 separate ground-based searches. In those searches in which SNe Ia at z ˜ 0.5 were targeted, over 80% of the observed candidates were spectrally classified as SNe Ia. In those searches in which SNe Ia with z > 1 were targeted, 4 candidates with z > 1 were spectrally classified as SNe Ia and later followed with ground and space based observatories. We present the spectra of all candidates, including those that could not be spectrally classified as supernova. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal (ESO programs 265.A-5721(A), 67.A-0361(A), 267.A-5688(A), 169.A-0382(A) and (B)). Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Based in part on data collected from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. Based in part on data collected at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, which is operated by Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. Appendix A is only available in electronic form via http://www.edpsciences.org

  12. Mapping of Ozone on Mars at Infrared Wavelengths Using Crires at VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeva, Y. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G.; Novak, R.; Hartogh, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Kaufl, H.; Smette, A.

    2010-12-01

    We present spatially resolved maps of ozone and water on Mars, acquired on 21 August 2009 using the ultra-high resolution infrared spectrometer CRIRES at ESO’s VLT (Paranal, Chile). On Mars, the season was mid-summer in the South (Ls = 325) and the latitudinal resolution was 10 degrees FWHM at disk center. Ozone is produced by recombination of photochemically produced O and O2. It is destroyed by UV photolysis (with O2 (a1Dg) as a principal product) but also by reaction with odd hydrogen species (especially, H - a product of H2O vapor photolysis). Thus, simultaneous measurements of water and ozone can test this relationship. We quantified ozone using spectral lines (near 1.27 mm) of O2 (a1Dg). The emission from O2 (a1Dg) serves as a tracer for O3 above 20 km, since at lower altitudes collisions with CO2 quench the excited O2 (a1Dg) molecules. We confirmed the vertical location of the O2 (a1Dg) emission by extracting rotational temperatures from line-by-line ratios, and comparing them with standard vertical temperature profiles for this season and location(s). On the same night, we also obtained 2-D (lat-long) maps of Martian water from multiple H2O lines detected in the 3.3 mm region. We compare our retrieved distributions for ozone (latitude and altitude) with predictions of Lefevre et al. [I] based on their comprehensive 3-D circulation and photochemical model for the Martian atmosphere. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by NASA’s R&A Programs in Astrobiology (344-53-51), Planetary Astronomy (344-32-51-96), and Planetary Atmospheres (NNX09AB65G). We gratefully acknowledge the Director and staff of the European Southern Observatory, for supporting these observations. References: [I] Lefevre et al. (2004), J. of Geophys. Res. 109, E07004

  13. Low-resolution VLT Spectroscopy of GRBs 991216, 011211, 021211 and 030328

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vreeswijk, P. M.; Smette, A.; Fruchter, A. S.; Palazzi, E.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kaper, L.; Pian, E.; Masetti, N.

    2005-01-01

    We present low-resolution VLT spectroscopy of the aftergiow position of the gamma ray bursts 991216, 011211, 021211 and 030328. The spectmm of GRB 991216 shows two probable absorption systems at z = 0.80 and z = 1.02, where the highest redshift most likely reflects the distance to the host galaxy. A third, more uncertain, system may be detected at z = 0.77. HST imaging of the field obtained 4 months later, show two amorphous regions of emission, one at the projected OT position, the presumed host galaxy at z = 1.02, and the other 0"6 away. All significant lines in the spectrum of GRB 011211 are identified with lines originating in a single absorption system at z = 2.142 plus or minus 0.002, the redshift of the GRB 011211 host galaxy. We also detect Lya in the host, for which we fit a neutral hydrogen column density of log N(HI)=20.4 plus or minus 0.2, which indicates that it is a damped Lya system. For GRB021211, we detect a single emission line in a spectrum tens of days after the burst, which we identify as [OII] at z = 1.006. The galaxy l"5 away from the afterglow location has z = 0.800, and is therefore unrelated to the GRB. Finally, for GRB030328 at least two absorption systems are required to explain all significant lines: one at z = 1.522, the likely redshift of the GRB, and the other at z = 1.295. For the latter system we only detect two lines, and we consider the reality of this system to be uncertain.

  14. Geochemistry of HASP, VLT, and other glasses from double drive tube 79001/2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Wentworth, S. J.; Martinez, R. R.; Mckay, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 double drive tube 79001/2 (station 9, Van Serg Crater) is distinctive because of its extreme maturity, abundance, and variety of glass clasts. It contains mare glasses of both high Ti and very low Ti (VLT) compositions, and highland glasses of all compositions common in lunar regolith samples: highland basalt (feldspathic; Al2O3 greater than 23 wt percent), KREEP (Al2O3 less than 23 wt percent, K2O greater than 0.25 wt percent), and low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM; Al2O3 less than 23 wt percent, K2O less than 0.25 wt percent). It also contains rare specimens of high-alumina, silica-poor (HASP), and ultra Mg glasses. HASP glasses contain insufficient SiO2 to permit the calculation of a standard norm, and are thought to be the product of volatilization during impact melting. They have been studied by electron microprobe major-element analysis techniques but have not previously been analyzed for trace elements. The samples analyzed for this study were polished grain mounts of the 90-160 micron fraction of four sieved samples from the 79001/2 core (depth range 2.3-11.5 cm). A total of 80 glasses were analyzed by SEM/EDS and electron microprobe, and a subset of 33 of the glasses, representing a wide range of compositional types, was chosen for high-sensitivity INAA. A microdrilling device removed disks (mostly 50-100 micron diameter, weighing approx. 0.1-0.5 micro-g) for INAA. Preliminary data reported here are based only on short counts done within two weeks of irradiation.

  15. Dwarf planet Ceres: Ellipsoid dimensions and rotational pole from Keck and VLT adaptive optics images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, J. D.; Carry, B.; Merline, W. J.; Dumas, C.; Hammel, H.; Erard, S.; Conrad, A.; Tamblyn, P.; Chapman, C. R.

    2014-07-01

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object between Mars and Jupiter, is the target of the NASA Dawn mission, and we seek a comprehensive description of the spin-axis orientation and dimensions of Ceres in order to support the early science operations at the rendezvous in 2015. We have obtained high-angular resolution images using adaptive optics cameras at the W.M. Keck Observatory and the ESO VLT over ten dates between 2001 and 2010, confirming that the shape of Ceres is well described by an oblate spheroid. We derive equatorial and polar diameters of 967 ± 10 km and 892 ± 10 km, respectively, for a model that includes fading of brightness towards the terminator, presumably linked to limb darkening. These dimensions lie between values derived from a previous analysis of a subset of these images obtained at Keck by Carry et al. (Carry et al. [2008]. Astron. Astrophys. 478 (4), 235-244) and a study of Hubble Space Telescope observations (Thomas et al. [2005]. Nature 437, 224-226). Although the dimensions are 1-2% smaller than those found from the HST, the oblateness is similar. We find the spin-vector coordinates of Ceres to lie at (287°, +64°) in equatorial EQJ2000 reference frame (346°, +82° in ecliptic ECJ2000 coordinates), yielding a small obliquity of 3°. While this is in agreement with the aforementioned studies, we have improved the accuracy of the pole determination, which we set at a 3° radius.

  16. VLT Spectra "Resolve" a Stellar Disk at 25,000 Light-Years Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    Unique Observations of a Microlensing Event Summary Like our Sun, stars are large gaseous spheres. However, while we are able to perceive the Sun's disk, all other stars are so far away that they normally appear as points of light . Only specialized observing techniques, like interferometry [1], are able to "resolve" the images of nearby stars and to show them as extended balls of fire. But opportunities may sometimes arise that allow amazing observational feats in this field . Indeed, an international team of astronomers [2] has just "resolved" a single, normal star some 25,000 light years away , or about 1.6 billion times more distant than the Sun [3], by taking advantage of a multiple microlensing event . During such a rare event, the light from the remote star is amplified by the gravity of a faint object that passes in front of it, as seen from the Earth . In fact, this gravitational lens acts as a magnifying glass that focusses different parts of the star's image at different times. Using the FORS1 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope on Paranal during a microlensing event, the team was able to obtain detailed spectra of the different parts of the remote star. In doing so, they managed to probe its gaseous atmosphere at different depths. This is the first time that it has been possible to obtain detailed, spatially resolved spectra across the full face of a normal star other than the Sun [4]. PR Photo 16a/01 : The light-curve of Microlensing Event EROS-BLG-2000-5 . PR Photo 16b/01 : The sky area of EROS-BLG-2000-5. PR Photo 16c/01 : A VLT spectrum of EROS-BLG-2000-5. PR Photo 16d/01 : The observed change of the H-alpha line strength of EROS-BLG-2000-5. A many-faceted success story The following story is about a most unusual astronomical observation and also shows how modern astrophysics works . It combines the study of stellar atmospheres with the intricate optical effects produced by the gravitational field of a binary star in the Milky Way

  17. Eta Carinae: What We have learned recently with HST/STIS, VLT/UVES and VLTI: What We Might Learn with VLT/VLTI across the 2008/9 Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.

    2005-01-01

    Eta Carinae, the LBV that we have learned to love and hate, has revealed many clues of its character over the past seven years by studies with HST and VLT. Based upon X-Ray, optical and IR observations, Eta Carinae is convincingly a massive binary system that uniquely has major nebular ejecta that are connected with historical outbursts. We have successhlly followed the stellar and nebular changes over the 5.5 year cycle, especially with STIS and RXTE, and across the spectroscopic minimum in 2003.5 with STIS, CHANDRA, RXTE, FUSE, and VLT/UVES. The HST/STIS high spatial resolution, combined with appropriate spectral resolving powers from 1150 to 10300 A, has revealed much about the Central Source and especially the spatially resolved extended stellar atmosphere and the ejecta, known as the Homunculus. Indeed the neutral, dusty outer Homunculus, ejected in the 1840s, envelops the newly discovered ionized Little Homunculus, ejected in the 1890s. In line of sight, multiple hot clumps, both ionized and neutral, are seen in absorption and provide much information on the physical conditions of these massive ejecta. Against the nebular-scattered starlight, wind and nebular absorptions provide views at different angles from line of sight. The VLT/UVES studies from 2002 through 2004 provided very important time-sampled spectra of both the star as seen directly and as seen by the SE lobe viewing the polar region of the star. The VLTI 2.2 micron measures of the central source are consistent with a prolate spheroid with its axis extending along the axis of the Homunculus. This is consistent with the noticeably larger wind mass and higher terminal velocity along the axis of the Homunculus compared to that measured in line of sight at about 45 degrees from the polar axes. We understand the system to be a massive primary with an O or WR companion in a very highly elliptical orbit. The spectroscopic minimum occurs during periastron, when the greatly extended primary atmosphere and

  18. Gender Disparities in the Presentation, Management and Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2)

    PubMed Central

    Shehab, Abdulla; Al-Dabbagh, Bayan; AlHabib, Khalid F.; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Almahmeed, Wael; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas; Suwaidi, Jassim Al; Hersi, Ahmad; Faleh, Hussam Al; Asaad, Nidal; Saif, Shukri Al; Amin, Haitham

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender-related differences in mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been reported. The extent and causes of these differences in the Middle-East are poorly understood. We studied to what extent difference in outcome, specifically 1-year mortality are attributable to demographic, baseline clinical differences at presentation, and management differences between female and male patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Baseline characteristics, treatment patterns, and 1-year mortality of 7390 ACS patients in 65 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries were evaluated during 2008–2009, as part of the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2). Women were older (61.3±11.8 vs. 55.6±12.4; P<0.001), more overweight (BMI: 28.1±6.6 vs. 26.7±5.1; P<0.001), and more likely to have a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes. Fewer women than men received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE), aspirin, clopidogrel, beta blockers or statins at discharge. They also underwent fewer invasive procedures including angiography (27.0% vs. 34.0%; P<0.001), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (10.5% vs. 15.6%; P<0.001) and reperfusion therapy (6.9% vs. 20.2%; P<0.001) than men. Women were at higher unadjusted risk for in-hospital death (6.8% vs. 4.0%, P<0.001) and heart failure (HF) (18% vs. 11.8%, P<0.001). Both 1-month and 1-year mortality rates were higher in women than men (11% vs. 7.4% and 17.3% vs. 11.4%, respectively, P<0.001). Both baseline and management differences contributed to a worse outcome in women. Together these variables explained almost all mortality disparities. Conclusions/Significance Differences between genders in mortality appeared to be largely explained by differences in prognostic variables and management patterns. However, the origin of the latter differences need further study. PMID:23405162

  19. An Intensive Post Event Campaign (IPEC) on the extreme flash flood which affected the Starzel river (Germany) on the 2nd of June 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, E.

    2009-04-01

    On the 2nd of June 2008 in the evening, the Zollernabkreis region, located 50 kilometers South from Stuttgart (Germany), was affected by extreme thunderstorms which induced large flash floods. The most severely affected area appeared to be the upper Starzel river catchment (130 km2) where the extraordinary flood caused large damages in two towns (Hechingen and Jungingen) and killed 3 people. The data collected immediately after the flood event are impressive: 75 mm of rainfall accumulated within 1 hour near Hechingen and up to 240 mm within 55 minutes measured on a private gauge in the town of Jungingen. These first elements led to the organization of an intensive post event campaign (IPEC) with two objectives: 1) to validate and complement the existing data on rainfall and runoff, 2) to analyze the dominant rainfall-runoff processes during such an extreme event. The field campaign took place in November 2008 and involved 11 scientists from various European research institutions contributing to the European research project Hydrate as well as hydrologists from the regional administration. 36 river cross-sections were surveyed in the affected watershed to map the discharges; detailed accounts of the flood in Jungingen as well as films and pictures were collected to establish the timing of the flood; and the available radar, rainfall and stream gauge measurements were verified. The main outcomes of this IPEC are the following: • The discharge mapping revealed very high spatial heterogeneities. The flood volumes were essentially produced on a very limited part of the catchment area: a 5 km2 area upstream Jungingen and about 10 km2 area for the whole Starzel watershed. • In this area, very high unit discharges were estimated - between 12 and 15 m3/s/km2. These values imply surprisingly low runoff rates (about 20%) according to the estimated rainfall intensities - which were validated during the field survey. • Such localized intense events do not appear to be

  20. High-dispersion infrared spectroscopic observations of comet 8P/Tuttle with VLT/CRIRES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Kawakita, H.; Dello Russo, N.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Smette, A.; Hutsemékers, D.; Stüwe, J.; Weiler, M.; Arpigny, C.; Biver, N.; Cochran, A.; Crovisier, J.; Magain, P.; Sana, H.; Schulz, R.; Vervack, R. J.; Weaver, H.; Zucconi, J.-M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the composition of the Halley-family comet (HFC) 8P/Tuttle investigated with high-dispersion near-infrared spectroscopic observations. The observations were carried out at the ESO VLT (Very Large Telescope) with the CRIRES instrument as part of a multi-wavelength observation campaign of 8P/Tuttle performed in late January and early February 2008. Radar observations suggested that 8P/Tuttle is a contact binary, and it was proposed that these components might be heterogeneous in chemistry. We determined mixing ratios of organic volatiles with respect to H2O and found that mixing ratios were consistent with previous near infrared spectroscopic observations obtained in late December 2007 and in late January 2008. It has been suggested that because 8P/Tuttle is a contact binary, it might be chemically heterogeneous. However, we find no evidence for chemical heterogeneity within the nucleus of 8P/Tuttle. We also compared the mixing ratios of organic molecules in 8P/Tuttle with those of both other HFCs and long period comets (LPCs) and found that HCN, C2H2, and C2H6 are depleted whereas CH4 and CH3OH have normal abundances. This may indicate that 8P/Tuttle was formed in a different region of the early solar nebula than other HFCs and LPCs. We estimated the conversion efficiency from C2H2 to C2H6 by hydrogen addition reactions on cold grains by employing the C2H6/(C2H6+C2H2) ratio. The C2H6/(C2H6+C2H2) ratio in 8P/Tuttle is consistent with the ratios found in other HFCs and LPCs within the error bars. We also discuss the source of C2 and CN based on our observations and conclude that the abundances of C2H2 and C2H6 are insufficient to explain the C2 abundances in comet 8P/Tuttle and that the abundance of HCN is insufficient to explain the CN abundances in the comet, so at least one additional parent is needed for each species, as pointed out in previous study. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Prog. 080.C

  1. High spatial and spectral resolution near-infrared mapping of Europa with ESO/VLT/ SINFONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Carter, John; Poulet, François; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2014-11-01

    Europa is a major exobiological target of interest owing to the possibility of a sub-surface briny ocean deeply buried under a water ice dominated crust several km thick (Dalton et al., 2010). The upcoming ESA L-class mission JUICE to the Jupiter system and its ambitious payload will address this question, in particular through compositional remote sensing in the near-infrared (MAJIS) and visible (MAJIS and JANUS) wavelength range.In order to improve our knowledge mainly acquired by the instrument NIMS on the Galileo spacecraft, we have started a compositional mapping campaign of the icy moons using adaptive optics on ground-based observations from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. Thanks to five nights of observation on the integral field spectrograph SINFONI, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of nearly the entire surface of Europa, with a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm in the wavelength range 1.48-2.42 μm for a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s, equivalent to 35 by 70 km on Europa’s surface.In this wavelength range, the spectra are generally dominated by crystalline and amorphous water-ice absorption features, but the distorted and asymmetric aspect of the 2.0 μm water-ice band on Europa’s leading side confirms the presence of non-ice minerals such as sulfuric acid hydrate (Carlson et al., 2005) and magnesium sulfates such as epsomite (MgSO4 - 7H2O) (Brown et al., 2013).Our first analysis reveals that the maps of the ice-water bands at 1.65 μm and 2.0 μm are, as expected, dominated by the leading/trailing effect, but also well correlated to well-identified geological structures as Pwyll Crater and Tara Regio. Global maps of relevant spectral parameters will be presented so as to showcase the spectral inhomogeneity of the surface of Europa for both major and minor signatures. No narrow signature, which could indicate the presence of material of exobiological interest, has been so far detected in this complex data set. By the time of the

  2. Linear spectral modeling of ground-based observations of Europa (ESO/VLT/SINFONI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Poulet, François; Carter, John; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2015-11-01

    Jupiter’s moon Europa may harbor a global salty subsurface liquid water ocean (Kivelson et al. 2000), and its surface should contain important clues about its composition. However, debate still persists about the nature of the surface chemistry and the relative roles of exogenous versus endogenous processing. Recently, Roth et al. (2014) reported the presence of activity by the detection of plumes reinforcing Europa as a major target of interests of upcoming space missions such as the ESA L-class mission JUICE.To continue the investigation of the composition of the surface of Europa, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed between October 2011 and January 2012 with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) is suitable to detect any narrow signature in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. The spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s (~35 by 70 km on Europa’s surface).We perform linear spectral modeling using 4 types of species : water-ice (both crystalline and amorphous), sulfuric acid hydrate, sulfate salts and Cl-rich salts. At first order, spectra on the leading side are, as expected, dominated by water-ice distorted and asymmetric absorption features, whereas sulfuric acid hydrate thought to originate from Iogenic sulfur ion bombardment is clearly predominant on the trailing side (Carlson et al. 2005).Salts are also required to fit any SINFONI spectrum with the following notable result: when Na/K-bearing chlorines instead of Mg-sulfates are used, the fits are improved whatever the region. The feature centered at ~2.07 µm previously associated to the magnesium sulfates (Brown et al. 2013) is also observed in the SINFONI spectra and can be reproduced by some chlorine salts. Global abundance maps will be presented, regional variations of abundances will be

  3. The η Car Campaign with UVES at the ESO VLT II. Interstellar and circumstellar absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, K.; Bomans, D. J.; Stahl, O.; Davidson, K.; Humphreys, R. M.; Gull, T. R.

    2005-09-01

    We monitored η Car and the Homunculus using the ESO VLT UVES spectrograph between 2002 and 2004 (see Weis et al., this proceedings). In these high dispersion spectra practically all interstellar absorption features known in the 3000 Å to 10000 Å regime are present (e.g. 4 Ti II lines, 3 Fe I lines, the Ca I line, both Na I doublets, the two K I doublets, and the Ca II doublets, several molecular lines, and a number of diffuse interstellar bands). Near-UV STIS spectra show many low ionization absorption lines (e.g. Gull et al., this proceedings), but there are several differences in the velocity structure and line strengths between these lines of sight, e.g. we do not detect multiple absorption components between -350 to -550 km s-1 in the UVES spectra. Changes over time are present in e.g. the Ca II lines, with small column density changes in the (probably interstellar) +80 km s-1 component and large changes in the -510 km s-1 component, which is most probably located in the outer shell of the Homunculus (see e.g. Nielsen et al., this proceedings). Similar changes in the Ti II 3384 Å component at -147 km s-1 are present, too. With the data set, we not only follow the temporal evolution of the circumstellar absorption components (presumably originating near η Car and in the Homunculus) before, during and after the event, but also search for changes along our long-slits centered on the star and on FOS4. Indeed, the -147 km s-1 component of the Ti II 3384 Å lines shows line strength variations over the southeast lobe of the Homunculus. A preliminary search for very high velocity absorption lines from the outer ejected using only one of our spectra already yielded a possible detection at -1500 km s-1. Clearly a detailed analysis of the absorption lines in the UVES data will provide many new insights into the structure and physics of η Car's ejecta.

  4. VLT/MUSE discovers a jet from the evolved B[e] star MWC 137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, A.; de Wit, W. J.; Groh, J. H.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Baade, D.; Rivinius, T.; Selman, F.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Martayan, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Not all stars exhibiting the optical spectral characteristics of B[e] stars are in the same evolutionary stage. The Galactic B[e] star MWC 137 is a prime example of an object with uncertain classification, where previous work has suggested either a pre- or a post-main sequence classification. Our goal is to settle this debate and provide a reliable evolutionary classification. Methods: Integral field spectrograph observations with the Very Large Telescope Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT MUSE) of the cluster SH 2-266 are used to analyze the nature of MWC 137. Results: A collimated outflow is discovered that is geometrically centered on MWC 137. The central position of MWC 137 in the cluster SH 2-266 within the larger nebula suggests strongly that it is a member of this cluster and that it is the origin of both the nebula and the newly discovered jet. Comparison of the color-magnitude diagram of the brightest cluster stars with stellar evolutionary models results in a distance of about 5.2 ± 1.4 kpc. We estimate that the cluster is at least 3 Myr old. The jet emanates from MWC 137 at a position angle of 18-20°. The jet extends over 66'' (1.7 pc) projected on the plane of the sky, shows several knots, and has electron densities of about 103 cm-1 and projected velocities of up to ± 450 km s-1. From the Balmer emission line decrement of the diffuse intracluster nebulosity, we determine E(B-V) = 1.4 mag for the inner 1' cluster region. The spectral energy distribution of the brightest cluster stars yields a slightly lower extinction of E(B-V) ~ 1.2 mag for the inner region and E(B-V) ~ 0.4-0.8 mag for the outer region. The extinction toward MWC 137 is estimated to be E(B-V) ~ 1.8 mag (AV ~ 5.6 mag). Conclusions: Our analysis of the optical and near-infrared color-magnitude and color-color diagrams suggests a post-main sequence stage for MWC 137. The existence of a jet in this object implies the presence of an accretion disk. Several possibilities for MWC

  5. The great observatories origins deep survey. VLT/VIMOS spectroscopy in the GOODS-south field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popesso, P.; Dickinson, M.; Nonino, M.; Vanzella, E.; Daddi, E.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Kuntschner, H.; Mainieri, V.; Cristiani, S.; Cesarsky, C.; Giavalisco, M.; Renzini, A.; GOODS Team

    2009-02-01

    Aims: We present the first results from the VIsible Multiobject Spectrograph (VIMOS) ESO/GOODS program of spectroscopy for faint galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S). This program complements the FORS2 ESO/GOODS campaign. Methods: All 3312 spectra were obtained in service mode with VIMOS at the ESO/VLT UT3. The VIMOS LR-Blue and MR grisms were used to cover different redshift ranges. Galaxies at 1.8 < z < 3.5 were observed in the GOODS VIMOS-LR-Blue campaign. Galaxies at z < 1 and Lyman Break Galaxies at z > 3.5 were observed in the VIMOS MR survey. Results: Here we report results for the first 12 masks (out of 20 total). We extracted 2344 from 6 LR-Blue masks and 968 from 6 MR masks. A large percentage, 33% of the LR-Blue and 18% of the MR spectra, are serendipitous observations. We obtained 1481 and 656 redshifts in the LR-Blue and MR campaign, respectively, for a total success rate of 70% and 75%, respectively, which decrease to 63% and 68% when also the serendipitous targets are considered. The typical redshift accuracy is σz = 0.001. The reliability of the redshift estimate varies with the quality flag. The LR-Blue quality flag A redshifts are reliable at ~95% confidence level, flag B redshifs at ~70% and quality C et ~40%. The MR redshift reliability is somewhat higher: 100% for quality flag A, ~90% for quality flag B and ~70% for flag C. By complementing our VIMOS spectroscopic catalog with all existing spectroscopic redshifts publicly available in the CDF-S, we created a redshift master catalog. By comparing this redshift compilation with different photometric redshift catalogs we estimate the completeness level of the CDF-S spectroscopic coverage in several redshift bins. Conclusions: The completeness level is very high, >60%, at z < 3.5, and it is very uncertain at higher redshift. The master catalog was used also to estimate completeness and contamination levels of different galaxy photometric selection techniques. The BzK selection method

  6. The VLT LBG redshift survey - V. Characterizing the z = 3.1 Lyman α emitter population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielby, R. M.; Tummuangpak, P.; Shanks, T.; Francke, H.; Crighton, N. H. M.; Bañados, E.; González-López, Jorge; Infante, L.; Orsi, A.

    2016-03-01

    We present a survey of z ˜ 3 Lyα emitters (LAEs) within the fields of the VLT Lyman break galaxies (LBG) redshift survey. The data encompass five independent survey fields co-spatial with spectroscopic LBG data and covering a larger total area than previously analysed for LAE number counts and clustering. This affords an improved analysis over previous work by minimizing the effects of cosmic variance and allowing the cross-clustering analysis of LAEs and LBGs. Our photometric sample consists of ≈600 LAE candidates, over an area of 1.07 deg2, with equivalent widths of ≳65 Å and a flux limit of ≈2 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1. From spectroscopic follow-up, we measured a success rate of 78 ± 18 per cent. We find the R-band continuum luminosity function to be ˜10 times lower than the luminosity function of LBGs at this redshift, consistent with previous studies. Exploiting the large area of the survey, we estimate the LAE auto-correlation function and find a clustering length of r0 = 2.86 ± 0.33 h-1 Mpc, low compared to the z ˜ 3 LBG population, but somewhat higher than previous LAE measurements. This corresponds to a median halo mass of MDM = 1011.0±0.3 h-1 M⊙. We present an analysis of clustering length versus continuum magnitude and find that the measurements for LAEs and LBGs are consistent at faint magnitudes. Our combined data set of LAEs and LBGs allows us to measure, for the first time, the LBG-LAE cross-correlation, finding a clustering length of r0 = 3.29 ± 0.57 h-1 Mpc and a LAE halo mass of 1011.1±0.4 h-1 M⊙. Overall, we conclude that LAEs inhabit primarily low-mass haloes, but form a relatively small proportion of the galaxy population found in such haloes.

  7. CLASH-VLT: testing the nature of gravity with galaxy cluster mass profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S.; Amendola, L.; Umetsu, K.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Caminha, G. B.; Frye, B.; Koekemoer, A.; Grillo, C.; Lombardi, M.; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.

    2016-04-01

    We use high-precision kinematic and lensing measurements of the total mass profile of the dynamically relaxed galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at z=0.44 to estimate the value of the ratio η=Ψ/Φ between the two scalar potentials in the linear perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric. An accurate measurement of this ratio, called anisotropic stress, could show possible, interesting deviations from the predictions of the theory of General Relativity, according to which Ψ should be equal to Φ. Complementary kinematic and lensing mass profiles were derived from exhaustive analyses using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (CLASH-VLT). Whereas the kinematic mass profile tracks only the time-time part of the perturbed metric (i.e. only Φ), the lensing mass profile reflects the contribution of both time-time and space-space components (i.e. the sum Φ+Ψ). We thus express η as a function of the mass profiles and perform our analysis over the radial range 0.5 Mpc<= r<= r200=1.96 Mpc. Using a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile, which well fits the data, we obtain η(r200)=1.01 ‑0.28+0.31 at the 68% C.L. We discuss the effect of assuming different functional forms for mass profiles and of the orbit anisotropy in the kinematic reconstruction. Interpreting this result within the well-studied f(R) modified gravity model, the constraint on η translates into an upper bound to the interaction length (inverse of the scalaron mass) smaller than 2 Mpc. This tight constraint on the f(R) interaction range is however substantially relaxed when systematic uncertainties in the analysis are considered. Our analysis highlights the potential of this method to detect deviations from general relativity, while calling for the need of further high-quality data on the total mass distribution of clusters and improved control on systematic effects.

  8. Spectral analysis of Uranus' 2014 bright storm with VLT/SINFONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, P. G. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Read, P. L.; Tice, D.; de Pater, I.; Orton, G. S.; Teanby, N. A.; Davis, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    An extremely bright storm system observed in Uranus' atmosphere by amateur observers in September 2014 triggered an international campaign to observe this feature with many telescopes across the world. Observations of the storm system in the near infrared were acquired in October and November 2014 with SINFONI on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. SINFONI is an Integral Field Unit spectrometer returning 64 × 64 pixel images with 2048 wavelengths and uses adaptive optics. Image cubes in the H-band (1.43-1.87 μm) were obtained at spatial resolutions of ∼ 0.1″ per pixel. The observations show that the centre of the storm feature shifts markedly with increasing altitude, moving in the retrograde direction and slightly poleward with increasing altitude. We also see a faint 'tail' of more reflective material to the immediate south of the storm, which again trails in the retrograde direction. The observed spectra were analysed with the radiative transfer and retrieval code, NEMESIS (Irwin et al. [2008]. J. Quant. Spec. Radiat. Transfer, 109, 1136-1150). We find that the storm is well-modelled using either two main cloud layers of a 5-layer aerosol model based on Sromovsky et al. (Sromovsky et al. [2011]. Icarus, 215, 292-312) or by the simpler two-cloud-layer model of Tice et al. (Tice et al. [2013]. Icarus, 223, 684-698). The deep component appears to be due to a brightening (i.e. an increase in reflectivity) and increase in altitude of the main tropospheric cloud deck at 2-3 bars for both models, while the upper component of the feature was modelled as being due to either a thickening of the tropospheric haze of the 2-layer model or a vertical extension of the upper tropospheric cloud of the 5-layer model, assumed to be composed of methane ice and based at the methane condensation level of our assumed vertical temperature and abundance profile at 1.23 bar. We also found this methane ice cloud to be responsible for the faint 'tail' seen to the feature

  9. Spectral analysis of Uranus’ 2014 bright storm with VLT/SINFONI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Read, Peter L.; Tice, Dane; de Pater, Imke; Orton, Glenn S.; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Davis, Gary R.

    2015-11-01

    Observations by amateur observers of an extremely bright storm system in Uranus’ atmosphere in September 2014 triggered an international campaign to view this feature with many telescopes across the world. Near infrared observations of the storm system were acquired in October/November 2014 with SINFONI on ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. SINFONI is an Integral Field Unit spectrometer, recording 64 × 64 pixel images with 2048 wavelengths/pixel using adaptive optics. H-band (1.43 - 1.87 µm) image 'cubes' were obtained at spatial resolutions of ˜ 0.1″ per pixel. The observations show that the centre of the storm feature shifts markedly with increasing altitude, moving in the retrograde direction and slightly poleward with increasing altitude. A faint 'tail' of more reflective material was also seen to the immediate south of the storm, which again trails in the retrograde direction. The observed spectra were analysed with the radiative transfer and retrieval code, NEMESIS (Irwin et al., 2008). We find that the storm is well-modelled using either two main cloud layers of a 5-layer aerosol model based on Sromovsky et al. (2011) or employing the simpler two-cloud-layer model of Tice et al. (2013). The deep component appears to be caused by a brightening (i.e. an increase in reflectivity) and increase in altitude of the main tropospheric cloud deck at 2 - 3 bars for both models, while the upper component of the feature appears to be due to either a thickening of the tropospheric haze of the 2-layer model or a vertical extension of the upper tropospheric cloud of the 5-layer model, assumed to be composed of methane ice and based at the assumed methane condensation level at 1.23 bar. For the 5-layer model we also found this methane ice cloud to be responsible for the faint ‘tail’ seen to the feature’s south and the brighter polar ‘hood’ seen in all observations polewards of ˜ 45°N.During the twelve days between our sets of observations the

  10. Methane on Mars: PFS and VLT, Keck, IRTF, SUBARU joint observations campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuranna, M.; Geminale, A.; Aronica, A.; Sonnabend, G.; Sornig, M.; Aoki, S.; Kasaba, Y.; Nakagawa, H.; Villanueva, G.; Mumma, M.

    2012-09-01

    During April and May 2012 the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) onboard Mars Express (MEx) performed a series of observations of Mars' atmosphere in combination with the campaigns of four important ground-based telescopes: CRIRESVLT, NIRSPEC-Keck2, HIPWAC-IRTF, and IRCSSUBARU. VLT is located in Paranal (Chile). Keck, SUBARU, and IRTF are located in Mauna Kea (Hawaii). This is the first time that simultaneous ground-based and remote-sensing observations of Martian atmosphere have been performed. The final aim is to verify CH4 on Mars, constrain its source, and investigate the distribution of H2O/HDO ratio. Moreover, the intercomparison of these analyses is of extreme importance for it will help us to understand the reason for the discrepancies among the results of various groups previously reported, and validate the various retrieval methods involved in the analyses. The areas of most interest for Methane have been targeted in the various campaigns. The observations cover different areas of possible sources of CH4, such as the areas where the extend plumes of CH4 were detected by previous ground-based and PFS/MEx observations [1,2] and suggested potential mud volcanism areas [3,4]. An example of PFS and SUBARU joint observations is shown in Figure 1. The map shows the region of Mars observed by IRCS on April 13th, from 05:00 to 12:00 UTC. Acidalia Planitia [30-60°N, 300-360°E] Terra Sabae [30S-30°N 300-330°W] and the North pole have been observed in early summer (Ls = 96°). PFS tracks of observations (yellow) are also shown in Figure 1 for the time period 10-17 April (cyan is for actual simultaneous observations). Proper retrieval of methane abundance with PFS requires several observations to be averaged in order to get sufficient SNR. If necessary, simultaneous and "quasi-simultaneous" (+/- 3 days) observations may be averaged together. Sub-Earth and Sub-Solar points are also shown in Figure 1 for April 13th, 7:00 am UTC (blue and yellow circles

  11. VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy of red giant branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasle, B.; de Boer, T. J. L.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Jablonka, P.; Venn, K.; Battaglia, G.; Starkenburg, E.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; François, P.; Helmi, A.; Primas, F.; Kaufer, A.; Szeifert, T.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Fornax is one of the most massive dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. The Fornax field star population is dominated by intermediate age stars but star formation was going on over almost its entire history. It has been proposed that Fornax experienced a minor merger event. Aims: Despite recent progress, only the high metallicity end of Fornax field stars ([Fe/H] > -1.2 dex) has been sampled in larger number via high resolution spectroscopy. We want to better understand the full chemical evolution of this galaxy by better sampling the whole metallicity range, including more metal poor stars. Methods: We use the VLT-FLAMES multi-fibre spectrograph in high-resolution mode to determine the abundances of several α, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements in a sample of 47 individual red giant branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We combine these abundances with accurate age estimates derived from the age probability distribution from the colour-magnitude diagram of Fornax. Results: Similar to other dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the old, metal-poor stars of Fornax are typically α-rich while the young metal-rich stars are α-poor. In the classical scenario of the time delay between Type II (SNe II) and Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia), we confirm that SNe Ia started to contribute to the chemical enrichment at [Fe/H] between -2.0 and -1.8 dex. We find that the onset of SNe Ia took place between 12-10 Gyr ago. The high values of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] reflect the influence of SNe Ia and AGB stars in the abundance pattern of the younger stellar population of Fornax. Conclusions: Our findings of low [α/Fe] and enhanced [Eu/Mg] are compatible with an initial mass function that lacks the most massive stars and with star formation that kept going on throughout the whole history of Fornax. We find that massive stars kept enriching the interstellar medium in α-elements, although they were not the main contributor to the iron enrichment. Based on FLAMES

  12. Jupiter's stratospheric hydrocarbons and temperatures after the July 2009 impact from VLT infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, L. N.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Mousis, O.

    2010-12-01

    Aims: Thermal infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the July 19, 2009 Jupiter impact site has been used to identify unique features of the physical and chemical atmospheric response to this unexpected collision. Methods: Images and high-resolution spectra of methane, ethane and acetylene emission (7-13 μm) from the 2009 impact site were obtained by the Very Large Telescope (VLT) mid-infrared camera/spectrometer instrument, VISIR. An optimal estimation retrieval algorithm was used to determine the atmospheric temperatures and hydrocarbon distribution in the month following the impact. Results: Ethane spectra at 12.25 μm could not be explained by a rise in temperature alone. Ethane was enhanced by 1.7-3.2 times the background abundance on July 26, implying production as the result of shock chemistry in a high C/O ratio environment, favouring an asteroidal origin for the 2009 impactor. Small enhancements in acetylene emission were also observed over the impact site. However, no excess methane emission was found over the impact longitude, either with broadband 7.9-μm imaging 21 h after the impact, or with center-to-limb scans of strong and weak methane lines between 7.9 and 8.1 μm in the ensuing days, indicating either extremely rapid cooling in the initial stages, or an absence of heating in the upper stratosphere (p < 10 mbar) due to the near-horizontal orientation of the impact. Models of 12.3-μm spectra are consistent with a ≈ 3 K rise in the lower stratosphere (p > 10 mbar), though this solution is highly dependent on the spectral properties of stratospheric debris. The enhanced ethane emission was localised over the impact streak, and was diluted in the ensuing weeks by redistribution of heated gases by zonal flow and mixing with the unperturbed jovian air. Conclusions: The different thermal energy deposition profiles, in addition to the highly reducing (C/O > 1) environment and shallow impactor angle, suggest that (a) the 2009 plume and shock-fronts did

  13. Second-order adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology (2nd-ASAM) for computing exactly and efficiently first- and second-order sensitivities in large-scale linear systems: II. Illustrative application to a paradigm particle diffusion problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacuci, Dan G.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents an illustrative application of the second-order adjoint sensitivity analysis methodology (2nd-ASAM) to a paradigm neutron diffusion problem, which is sufficiently simple to admit an exact solution, thereby making transparent the underlying mathematical derivations. The general theory underlying 2nd-ASAM indicates that, for a physical system comprising Nα parameters, the computation of all of the first- and second-order response sensitivities requires (per response) at most (2Nα + 1) "large-scale" computations using the first-level and, respectively, second-level adjoint sensitivity systems (1st-LASS and 2nd-LASS). Very importantly, however, the illustrative application presented in this work shows that the actual number of adjoint computations needed for computing all of the first- and second-order response sensitivities may be significantly less than (2Nα + 1) per response. For this illustrative problem, four "large-scale" adjoint computations sufficed for the complete and exact computations of all 4 first- and 10 distinct second-order derivatives. Furthermore, the construction and solution of the 2nd-LASS requires very little additional effort beyond the construction of the adjoint sensitivity system needed for computing the first-order sensitivities. Very significantly, only the sources on the right-sides of the diffusion (differential) operator needed to be modified; the left-side of the differential equations (and hence the "solver" in large-scale practical applications) remained unchanged. All of the first-order relative response sensitivities to the model parameters have significantly large values, of order unity. Also importantly, most of the second-order relative sensitivities are just as large, and some even up to twice as large as the first-order sensitivities. In the illustrative example presented in this work, the second-order sensitivities contribute little to the response variances and covariances. However, they have the

  14. Keck and VLT AO Observations and Models of the Uranian Rings During the 2007 Ring Plane Crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke; Dunn, D. E.; Stam, D.; Showalter, M.; Min, M.; Hammel, H.; Matthews, K.; Gibbard, S.; van Dam, M.; Hartung, M.

    2012-10-01

    We observed the uranian rings at and near the ring plane crossing (RPX) of 16 August 2007 using the Keck and VLT telescopes, both equipped with near-infrared cameras coupled to adaptive optics systems. The rings are partially obscuring each other when they are close edge-on; we therefore developed a model to analyze the observations. The model was tested by Dunn, de Pater and Stam (2010) against observations of the uranian rings that were taken in July 2004. In this poster we present results based on a comparison of the RPX Keck and VLT observations with models. Main conclusions: 1) The zeta ring appears to be vertically extended (full width 860 km); 2) the zeta ring is centrally condensed; 3) the extension of the eta ring is optically thin, but contains macroscopic material; 4) there is a broad dust sheet throughout the system that contains very small dust grains (g=0.85 rather than 0.7). This work has been funded through NASA’s Planetary Astronomy Program and the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics.

  15. MOLCAS 7: the next generation.

    PubMed

    Aquilante, Francesco; De Vico, Luca; Ferré, Nicolas; Ghigo, Giovanni; Malmqvist, Per-Ake; Neogrády, Pavel; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Pitonák, Michal; Reiher, Markus; Roos, Björn O; Serrano-Andrés, Luis; Urban, Miroslav; Veryazov, Valera; Lindh, Roland

    2010-01-15

    Some of the new unique features of the MOLCAS quantum chemistry package version 7 are presented in this report. In particular, the Cholesky decomposition method applied to some quantum chemical methods is described. This approach is used both in the context of a straight forward approximation of the two-electron integrals and in the generation of so-called auxiliary basis sets. The article describes how the method is implemented for most known wave functions models: self-consistent field, density functional theory, 2nd order perturbation theory, complete-active space self-consistent field multiconfigurational reference 2nd order perturbation theory, and coupled-cluster methods. The report further elaborates on the implementation of a restricted-active space self-consistent field reference function in conjunction with 2nd order perturbation theory. The average atomic natural orbital basis for relativistic calculations, covering the whole periodic table, are described and associated unique properties are demonstrated. Furthermore, the use of the arbitrary order Douglas-Kroll-Hess transformation for one-component relativistic calculations and its implementation are discussed. This section especially focuses on the implementation of the so-called picture-change-free atomic orbital property integrals. Moreover, the ElectroStatic Potential Fitted scheme, a version of a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics hybrid method implemented in MOLCAS, is described and discussed. Finally, the report discusses the use of the MOLCAS package for advanced studies of photo chemical phenomena and the usefulness of the algorithms for constrained geometry optimization in MOLCAS in association with such studies. PMID:19499541

  16. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. VIII. Multiplicity properties of the O-type star population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dunstall, P. R.; Evans, C. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Taylor, W. D.; Walborn, N. R.; Clark, J. S.; Crowther, P. A.; Herrero, A.; Gieles, M.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud is our closest view of a starburst region and is the ideal environment to investigate important questions regarding the formation, evolution and final fate of the most massive stars. Aims: We analyze the multiplicity properties of the massive O-type star population observed through multi-epoch spectroscopy in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. With 360 O-type stars, this is the largest homogeneous sample of massive stars analyzed to date. Methods: We use multi-epoch spectroscopy and variability analysis to identify spectroscopic binaries. We also use a Monte-Carlo method to correct for observational biases. By modeling simultaneously the observed binary fraction, the distributions of the amplitudes of the radial velocity variations and the distribution of the time scales of these variations, we constrain the intrinsic current binary fraction and period and mass-ratio distributions. Results: We observe a spectroscopic binary fraction of 0.35 ± 0.03, which corresponds to the fraction of objects displaying statistically significant radial velocity variations with an amplitude of at least 20 km s-1. We compute the intrinsic binary fraction to be 0.51 ± 0.04. We adopt power-laws to describe the intrinsic period and mass-ratio distributions: f(log 10P/d) ~ (log 10P/d)π (with log 10P/d in the range 0.15-3.5) and f(q) ~ qκ with 0.1 ≤ q = M2/M1 ≤ 1.0. The power-law indexes that best reproduce the observed quantities are π = -0.45 ± 0.30 and κ = -1.0 ± 0.4. The period distribution that we obtain thus favours shorter period systems compared to an Öpik law (π = 0). The mass ratio distribution is slightly skewed towards low mass ratio systems but remains incompatible with a random sampling of a classical mass function (κ = -2.35). The binary fraction seems mostly uniform across the field of view and independent of the spectral types and luminosity classes. The binary fraction in the outer

  17. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XII. Rotational velocities of the single O-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Sabín-Sanjulían, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Gräfener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, also known as the Tarantula nebula, is the nearest starburst region. It contains the richest population of massive stars in the Local Group, and it is thus the best possible laboratory to investigate open questions on the formation and evolution of massive stars. Aims: Using ground-based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to establish the (projected) rotational velocity distribution for a sample of 216 presumably single O-type stars in 30 Dor. The sample is large enough to obtain statistically significant information and to search for variations among subpopulations - in terms of spectral type, luminosity class, and spatial location - in the field of view. Methods: We measured projected rotational velocities, νesini, by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied to a set of isolated spectral lines. We also used an iterative deconvolution procedure to infer the probability density, P(νe), of the equatorial rotational velocity, νe. Results: The distribution of νesini shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 kms-1 and a high-velocity tail extending up to ~600 kms-1. This structure is also present in the inferred distribution P(νe) with around 80% of the sample having 0 < νe ≤ 300 kms-1 and the other 20% distributed in the high-velocity region. The presence of the low-velocity peak is consistent with what has been found in other studies for late O- and early B-type stars. Conclusions: Most of the stars in our sample rotate with a rate less than 20% of their break-up velocity. For the bulk of the sample, mass loss in a stellar wind and/or envelope expansion is not efficient enough to significantly spin down these stars within the first few Myr of evolution. If massive-star formation results in stars rotating at birth with a large portion of their break-up velocities, an

  18. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXI. Stellar spin rates of O-type spectroscopic binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Sana, H.; de Mink, S. E.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; de Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Tramper, F.; Gräfener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Vink, J. S.; Dufton, P. L.; Taylor, W. D.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The initial distribution of spin rates of massive stars is a fingerprint of their elusive formation process. It also sets a key initial condition for stellar evolution and is thus an important ingredient in stellar population synthesis. So far, most studies have focused on single stars. Most O stars are, however, found in multiple systems. Aims: By establishing the spin-rate distribution of a sizeable sample of O-type spectroscopic binaries and by comparing the distributions of binary subpopulations with one another and with that of presumed-single stars in the same region, we aim to constrain the initial spin distribution of O stars in binaries, and to identify signatures of the physical mechanisms that affect the evolution of the spin rates of massive stars. Methods: We use ground-based optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) to establish the projected equatorial rotational velocities (νesini) for components of 114 spectroscopic binaries in 30 Doradus. The νesini values are derived from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a set of spectral lines, using a FWHM vs. νesini calibration that we derive based on previous line analysis methods applied to single O-type stars in the VFTS sample. Results: The overall νesini distribution of the primary stars resembles that of single O-type stars in the VFTS, featuring a low-velocity peak (at νesini< 200 kms-1) and a shoulder at intermediate velocities (200 < νesini< 300 kms-1). The distributions of binaries and single stars, however, differ in two ways. First, the main peak at νesini ~ 100kms-1 is broader and slightly shifted towards higher spin rates in the binary distribution than that of the presumed-single stars. This shift is mostly due to short-period binaries (Porb~< 10 d). Second, the νesini distribution of primaries lacks a significant population of stars spinning faster than 300 kms-1, while such a population is clearly present in the single

  19. VLT UVES Observations of Interstellar Molecules and Diffuse Bands in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, D. E.; Federman, S. R.; Gredel, R.; Thorburn, J. A.; Lambert, D. L.

    2006-07-01

    We discuss the abundances of interstellar CH, CH+, and CN in the Magellanic Clouds, derived from spectra of seven SMC and 13 LMC stars obtained (mostly) with the VLT UVES. CH and/or CH+ have now been detected toward three SMC and nine LMC stars; CN is detected toward Sk 143 (SMC) and Sk -67 2 (LMC). These data represent nearly all the optical detections of these molecular species in interstellar media beyond the Milky Way. In the LMC, the CH/H2 ratio is comparable to that found for diffuse Galactic molecular clouds in four sight lines but is lower by factors of 2.5-4.0 in two others. In the SMC, the CH/H2 ratio is comparable to the local Galactic value in one sight line but is lower by factors of 10-15 in two others. The abundance of CH in the Magellanic Clouds thus appears to depend on local physical conditions and not just on metallicity. In both the SMC and the LMC, the observed relationships between the column density of CH and those of CN, CH+, Na I, and K I are generally consistent with the trends observed in our Galaxy. Using existing data for the rotational populations of H2 in these sight lines, we estimate temperatures, radiation field strengths, and local hydrogen densities for the diffuse molecular gas. The inferred temperatures range from about 45 to 90 K, the radiation fields range from about 1 to 900 times the typical local Galactic field, and the densities (in most cases) lie between 100 and 600 cm-3. Densities estimated from the observed N(CH), under the assumption that CH is produced via steady state gas-phase reactions, are considerably higher than those derived from H2. Much better agreement is found by assuming that the CH is made via the (still undetermined) process(es) responsible for the observed CH+. A significant fraction of the CH and CH+ in diffuse molecular material in the SMC and LMC may be produced in photon-dominated regions. The excitation temperature obtained from the populations of the two lowest CN rotational levels toward Sk -67

  20. CLASH-VLT: Substructure in the galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 from kinematics of galaxy populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, M.; Mercurio, A.; Balestra, I.; Nonino, M.; Biviano, A.; Grillo, C.; Rosati, P.; Annunziatella, M.; Demarco, R.; Fritz, A.; Gobat, R.; Lemze, D.; Presotto, V.; Scodeggio, M.; Tozzi, P.; Bartosch Caminha, G.; Brescia, M.; Coe, D.; Kelson, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Lombardi, M.; Medezinski, E.; Postman, M.; Sartoris, B.; Umetsu, K.; Zitrin, A.; Boschin, W.; Czoske, O.; De Lucia, G.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Meneghetti, M.; Monaco, P.; Monna, A.; Munari, E.; Seitz, S.; Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: In the effort to understand the link between the structure of galaxy clusters and their galaxy populations, we focus on MACS J1206.2-0847 at z ~ 0.44 and probe its substructure in the projected phase space through the spectrophotometric properties of a large number of galaxies from the CLASH-VLT survey. Methods: Our analysis is mainly based on an extensive spectroscopic dataset of 445 member galaxies, mostly acquired with VIMOS at VLT as part of our ESO Large Programme, sampling the cluster out to a radius ~2R200 (4 h70-1 Mpc). We classify 412 galaxies as passive, with strong Hδ absorption (red and blue galaxies), and with emission lines from weak to very strong. A number of tests for substructure detection are applied to analyze the galaxy distribution in the velocity space, in 2D space, and in 3D projected phase-space. Results: Studied in its entirety, the cluster appears as a large-scale relaxed system with a few secondary, minor overdensities in 2D distribution. We detect no velocity gradients or evidence of deviations in local mean velocities. The main feature is the WNW-ESE elongation. The analysis of galaxy populations per spectral class highlights a more complex scenario. The passive galaxies and red strong Hδ galaxies trace the cluster center and the WNW-ESE elongated structure. The red strong Hδ galaxies also mark a secondary, dense peak ~2 h70-1 Mpcat ESE. The emission line galaxies cluster in several loose structures, mostly outside R200. Two of these structures are also detected through our 3D analysis. The observational scenario agrees with MACS J1206.2-0847 having WNW-ESE as the direction of the main cluster accretion, traced by passive galaxies and red strong Hδ galaxies. The red strong Hδ galaxies, interpreted as poststarburst galaxies, date a likely important event 1-2 Gyr before the epoch of observation. The emission line galaxies trace a secondary, ongoing infall where groups are accreted along several directions. Based in large part

  1. High-permittivity microwave dielectric ceramics based on (1 - x)(Li1/2Nd1/2)TiO3-xCaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Xingyu; Jia, Aiqing; Bai, Shuxin

    2015-04-01

    Microwave (MW) dielectric ceramics in (1 - x)(Li1/2Nd1/2)TiO3-xCaTiO3 (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) composition were prepared through the conventional solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) indicated that the matrix phase was a continuous solid solution with orthorhombic perovskite structure. A minor amount of secondary phase was detected only in the composition of x = 0.7 and 0.8. The (1 - x)(Li1/2Nd1/2)TiO3-xCaTiO3 ceramics showed a very high permittivity of 118-153 and reasonable Q × f0 values of 2360-5930 GHz as x increased from 0.2 to 0.8. The temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) of the samples increased with increasing x value and was approximately linearly proportional to ɛr. Bi4B2O9 addition effectively tailored the τf of (1 - x)(Li1/2Nd1/2)TiO3-xCaTiO3 ceramics to near zero at low temperature, and induced no degradation of Q × f0 value. The x = 0.3 composition with 20 wt.%Bi4B2O9 addition sintered at 1050°C exhibited dielectric properties of ɛr = 112.4, Q × f0 = 2414 GHz and τf = 8.9 ppm/°C.

  2. GRB host galaxies with VLT/X-Shooter: properties at 0.8 < z < 1.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piranomonte, S.; Japelj, J.; Vergani, S. D.; Savaglio, S.; Palazzi, E.; Covino, S.; Flores, H.; Goldoni, P.; Cupani, G.; Krühler, T.; Mannucci, F.; Onori, F.; Rossi, A.; D'Elia, V.; Pian, E.; D'Avanzo, P.; Gomboc, A.; Hammer, F.; Randich, S.; Fiore, F.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2015-10-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are associated with the death of massive stars. Their host galaxies therefore represent a unique class of objects tracing star formation across the observable Universe. Indeed, recently accumulated evidence shows that GRB hosts do not differ substantially from general population of galaxies at high (z > 2) redshifts. However, it has been long recognized that the properties of z < 1.5 hosts, compared to general star-forming population, are unusual. To better understand the reasons for the supposed difference in LGRB hosts properties at z < 1.5, we obtained Very Large Telescope (VLT)/X-Shooter spectra of six hosts lying in the redshift range of 0.8 < z < 1.3. Some of these hosts have been observed before, yet we still lack well-constrained information on their characteristics such as metallicity, dust extinction and star formation rate (SFR). We search for emission lines in the VLT/X-Shooter spectra of the hosts and measure their fluxes. We perform a detailed analysis, estimating host average extinction, SFRs, metallicities and electron densities where possible. Measured quantities of our hosts are compared to a larger sample of previously observed GRB hosts at z < 2. SFRs and metallicities are measured for all the hosts analysed in this paper and metallicities are well determined for four hosts. The mass-metallicity relation, the fundamental metallicity relation and SFRs derived from our hosts occupy similar parameter space as other host galaxies investigated so far at the same redshift. We therefore conclude that GRB hosts in our sample support the found discrepancy between the properties of low-redshift GRB hosts and the general population of star-forming galaxies.

  3. VLT adaptive optics search for luminous substructures in the lens galaxy towards SDSS J0924+0219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, C.; Sluse, D.; Cantale, N.; Tewes, M.; Courbin, F.; Durrer, P.; Meylan, G.

    2011-12-01

    The anomalous flux ratios between quasar images are suspected of being caused by substructures in lens galaxies. We present new deep and high-resolution H and Ks imaging of the strongly lensed quasar SDSS J0924+0219 obtained using the ESO VLT with adaptive optics and the laser guide star system. SDSS J0924+0219 is particularly interesting because the observed flux ratio between the quasar images vastly disagree with the predictions from smooth mass models. With our adaptive optics observations we find a luminous object, Object L, located ~0.3'' to the north of the lens galaxy, but we show that it cannot be responsible for the anomalous flux ratios. Object L as well as a luminous extension of the lens galaxy to the south are seen in the archival HST/ACS image in the F814W filter. This suggests that Object L is part of a bar in the lens galaxy, as also supported by the presence of a significant disk component in the light profile of the lens galaxy. Finally, we find no evidence of any other luminous substructure that may explain the quasar images flux ratios. However, owing to the persistence of the flux ratio anomaly over time (~7 years), a combination of microlensing and millilensing is the favorite explanation for the observations. Based on observations obtained with the ESO VLT at Paranal observatory (Prog ID 084.A-0762(A); PI: Meylan). Also based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with the CASTLES (Cfa-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey) survey (ID: 9744, PI: C. S. Kochanek).

  4. A Prospective Three Generational Study of Fathers' Constructive Parenting: Influences from Family of Origin, Adolescent Adjustment, and Offspring Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee D.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, intergenerational study considered multiple influences on 102 fathers' constructive parenting of 181 children. Fathers in the 2nd generation (G2) were recruited as boys on the basis of neighborhood risk for delinquency and assessed through early adulthood. The fathers' parents (G1) and the G2 mothers of G3 also participated. A…

  5. Reconnaissance of the β Pictoris system down to 1.75 AU with the L' - b and vector vortex coronagraph on VLT/NACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milli, J.; Absil, O.; Mawet, D.; Lagrange, A.-M.

    2013-09-01

    High contrast imaging has thoroughly combed through the limited parameter space accessible with first-generation ground-based adaptive optics instruments and the HST. Only a few objects were discovered, and many non-detections reported and statistically interpreted. The field is now in need of a technological breakthrough. We aim at opening a new parameter space with first-generation systems such as NACO at the Very Large Telescope, by providing ground-breaking inner working angle (IWA) capabilities in the L' band. This mid-infrared wavelength range is a sweet spot for high contrast coronagraphy since the planets-to-star brightness ratio is favorable, while Strehl ratio is naturally higher. An annular groove phase mask (AGPM) vector vortex coronagraph optimized for the L' band, made out of diamond subwavelength gratings has been manufactured and qualified in the lab. The AGPM enables high contrast imaging at very small IWA (here 0".09), potentially being the key to a new parameter space. Here we present the results of the installation and successful commissioning of an L'- band AGPM on VLT/NACO. During a recent science verification run, we imaged the inner regions of Beta Pictoris down to the previously unexplored projected radius of 1.75 AU with unprecedented point source sensitivity. The disk was also clearly resolved down to its inner truncation . The new NACO mode is an opportunity to introduce a more rigorous framework for deriving detection limits at very small angles, which is also relevant for SPHERE and GPI and every high contrast imaging instrument with small IWA ambitions. Indeed, classical tools assuming Gaussian statistics, perfectly valid at large separations, loose significance close to the center simply because the sample size decreases dramatically (fewer resolution elements at a given radius). Moreover, the probability density function (PDF) of speckle noise and associated confidence level for detection depend on radius. ADI was shown to transform

  6. SPS 91 - Power from space; Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium, Ecole Superieure d'Electricite, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, Aug. 27-30, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on the concept of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) are presented. The general topics addressed include: global energy issues; SPS demonstration projects; extraterrestrial materials; power generation, conversion, and storage; environmental issues; development strategies.

  7. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

  8. Generation, Language, Body Mass Index, and Activity Patterns in Hispanic Children

    PubMed Central

    Taverno, Sharon E.; Rollins, Brandi Y.; Francis, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The acculturation hypothesis proposes an overall disadvantage in health outcomes for Hispanic immigrants with more time spent living in the U.S., but little is known about how generational status and language may influence Hispanic children’s relative weight and activity patterns. Purpose The association between generation and language was investigated with relative weight (BMI z-scores), physical activity, screen time, and participation in extracurricular activities (e.g., sports, clubs) in a U.S.-based, nationally representative sample of Hispanic children. Methods Participants included 2,012 Hispanic children aged 6–11 years from the cross-sectional, 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. Children were grouped according to generational status (1st, 2nd or 3rd), and the primary language spoken in the home (English vs non-English). Primary analyses included adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationships among variables; all analyses were conducted between 2008 and 2009. Results Compared to 3rd generation, English speakers, 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were over two times more likely to be obese. Moreover, 1st generation, non-English speakers were half as likely to engage in regular physical activity and sports. Both 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were less likely to participate in clubs compared to 2nd and 3rd generation, English speakers. Overall, all non–English speaking groups reported less screen time compared to 3rd generation, English speakers. Conclusions The hypothesis that Hispanics lose their health protection with more time spent in the U.S. was not supported in this sample of Hispanic children. PMID:20117570

  9. CLASH-VLT: Strangulation of cluster galaxies in MACS J0416.1-2403 as seen from their chemical enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, C.; Kuchner, U.; Ziegler, B. L.; Verdugo, M.; Balestra, I.; Girardi, M.; Mercurio, A.; Rosati, P.; Fritz, A.; Grillo, C.; Nonino, M.; Sartoris, B.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Environmental effects gain importance as large scale structures in the Universe develop with time and have become the dominant mechanism for quenching galaxies of intermediate and low stellar masses at lower redshifts. Therefore, clusters of galaxies at z< 0.5 are the sites where environmental effects are expected to be more pronounced and more easily observed with present-day large telescopes. Methods: We explore the Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 at z = 0.3972 with VIMOS/VLT spectroscopy from the CLASH-VLT survey covering a region that corresponds to almost three virial radii. We measure fluxes of Hβ, [O III]λ 5007, Hα, and [N II]λ 6584 emission lines of cluster members enabling us to unambiguously derive O/H gas metallicities, and also star formation rates from extinction-corrected Hα fluxes. We compare our cluster galaxy sample with a field sample at z ~ 0.4 drawn from zCOSMOS. Results: The 76 galaxies of our cluster sample follow the star-forming metallicity sequence in a diagnostic diagram disentangling ionizing sources. For intermediate masses we find a similar distribution of cluster and field galaxies in the mass vs. metallicity and mass vs. sSFR diagrams. An in-depth investigation furthermore reveals that bulge-dominated cluster galaxies have on average lower sSFRs and higher O/Hs than their disk-dominated counterparts. We use the location of galaxies in the projected velocity vs. position phase-space to separate our cluster sample into a region of objects accreted longer ago and a region of recently accreted and infalling galaxies. We find a higher fraction of accreted metal-rich galaxies (63%) compared to the fraction of 28% of metal-rich galaxies in the infalling regions. Intermediate-mass galaxies (9.2 < log (M/M⊙) < 10.2) falling into the cluster for the first time are found to be in agreement with predictions of the fundamental metallicity relation. In contrast, for already accreted star-forming galaxies of similar masses, we

  10. VLT near- to mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy of the M 17 UC1 - IRS5 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nürnberger, Dieter E. A.; Chini, Rolf; Jiang, Zhibo; Fang, Min

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the surroundings of the hypercompact H ii region M 17 UC1 to probe the physical properties of the associated young stellar objects and the environment of massive star formation. Methods: We use diffraction-limited near-IR (VLT/NACO) and mid-IR (VLT/VISIR) images to reveal the different morphologies at various wavelengths. Likewise, we investigate the stellar and nebular content of the region with VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy with a resolution R ˜ 1500 at H + K bands. Results: Five of the seven point sources in this region show L-band excess emission. A geometric match is found between the H2 emission and near-IR polarized light in the vicinity of IRS5A, and between the diffuse mid-IR emission and near-IR polarization north of UC1. The H2 emission is typical for dense photodissociation regions (PDRs), which are initially far-ultraviolet pumped and repopulated by collisional de-excitation. The spectral types of IRS5A and B273A are B3-B7 V/III and G4-G5 III, respectively. The observed infrared luminosity LIR in the range 1-20 μm is derived for three objects; we obtain 2.0 × 103 L⊙ for IRS5A, 13 L⊙ for IRS5C, and 10 L⊙ for B273A. Conclusions: IRS5 might be a young quadruple system. Its primary star IRS5A is confirmed to be a high-mass protostellar object (˜9 M⊙, ˜1 × 105 yrs); it might have terminated accretion due to the feedback from stellar activities (radiation pressure, outflow) and the expanding H ii region of M 17. The object UC1 might also have terminated accretion because of the expanding hypercompact H ii region, which it ionizes. The disk clearing process of the low-mass young stellar objects in this region might be accelerated by the expanding H ii region. The outflows driven by UC1 are running south-north with its northeastern side suppressed by the expanding ionization front of M 17; the blue-shifted outflow lobe of IRS5A is seen in two types of tracers along the same line of sight in the form of H2 emission

  11. PROCEEDINGS OF THE STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION SYMPOSIUM (2ND) HELD IN NEW ORLEANS, LA. ON AUGUST 29-SEPTEMBER 1, 1977. VOLUME II. UTILITY AND LARGE INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ;Contents: Field testing--application of combustion modification to power generating combustion sources; Analysis of NOx control in stationary sources; Overfire air technology for tangentially fired utility boilers burning western U.S. coal; The EPRI program on NOx control using ...

  12. Character Education Connections for School, Home and Community: A Guide for Integrating Character Education. Grades Pre-K through 12. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Diane

    This character education guide, for grades Pre-K through 12, presents field-generated, field-tested ideas for integrating character education with daily learning. The ideas are varied in design, scope, and developmental levels and range from half-hour lessons to school-wide events to year-long courses. Each unit (50 in all) is built on particular…

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) FINE PARTICLE SCRUBBER SYMPOSIUM (2ND) HELD IN NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA ON MAY 2-3, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the proceedings, including introductory remarks and 16 technical papers, of the Second Fine Particle Scrubber Symposium, held May 2-3, 1977, in New Orleans. Sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the symposium was held to stimulate and generate...

  14. Scientific Objectives and Design Study of an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) for the NAOS Visitor Focus at the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Zerbi, Filippo; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Bonanno, Giovanni; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Delabre, Bernard; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Marcantonio, Paolo Di; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Molaro, Paolo; Pasquini, Luca; Santin, Paolo

    We present the scientific case for an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) that we propose as a visitor instrument for the secondary port of NAOS at the VLT. We show that such an instrument would be ideal for intermediate resolution (R=16,000) spectroscopy of faint sky-limited objects down to a magnitude of V=24.0 and will complement very effectively the near-IR imaging capabilities of CONICA. We present examples of science programmes that could be carried out with such an instrument and which cannot be addressed with existing VLT instruments. We also report on the result of a two-year design study of the instrument, with specific reference to its use as parallel instrument of NAOS.

  15. VLT/ISAAC spectra of the Hβ region in intermediate-redshift quasars. III. Hβ broad-line profile analysis and inferences about BLR structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziani, P.; Sulentic, J. W.; Stirpe, G. M.; Zamfir, S.; Calvani, M.

    2009-02-01

    Aims: We present new VLT ISAAC spectra for 30 quasars, which we combine with previous data to yield a sample of 53 intermediate-redshift (z ≈ 0.9-3.0) sources. The sample is used to explore properties of prominent lines in the hβ spectral region of these very luminous quasars. Methods: We compare this data with two large low-redshift (z < 0.8) samples in a search for trends over almost 6dex in source luminosity. Results: We find two major trends: (1) a systematic increase in minimum FWHM hβ with luminosity (discussed in a previous paper). This lower FWHM envelope is best fit by assuming that the narrowest sources radiate near the Eddington limit, show line emission from a virialized cloud distribution, and obey a well-defined broad line region size vs. luminosity relation. (2) A systematic decrease in equivalent width of [oiii]λλ4959, 5007 (from W ≈ 15 to ~1 Å) with increasing source bolometric luminosity (from log L_bol ≈ 43 to log L_bol ≈ 49). Other identified trends require differntiating between so-called Population A and Bsources. We generate median composite spectra in six luminosity bins to maximize S/N. Population A sources show reasonably symmetric Lorentzian hβ profiles at all luminosities, while Pop. B sources require two component fits involving an unshifted broad and a redshifted very broad component. Very broad hβ increases in strength with increasing log L_bol, while the broad component remains constant, resulting in an apparent “Baldwin effect” with equivalent width decreasing from W ~ 80 to ~20 Å over our sample luminosity range. The roughly constant equivalent width shown by the hβ very broad component implies production in optically-thick, photoionized gas. The onset of the redshifted very broad component appears to be a critical change that occurs near the Pop. A-B boundary at FWHM hβ ≈ 4000 km s-1, which we relate to a critical Eddington ratio (≈ 0.2±0.1). Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal

  16. Small vs. large dust grains in transitional disks: do different cavity sizes indicate a planet?. SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) in polarized light with VLT/NACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Avenhaus, H.; Buenzli, E.; Dominik, C.; Meru, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Pinilla, P.; Schmid, H. M.; Wolf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Transitional disks represent a short stage of the evolution of circumstellar material. Studies of dust grains in these objects can provide pivotal information on the mechanisms of planet formation. Dissimilarities in the spatial distribution of small (μm-size) and large (mm-size) dust grains have recently been pointed out. Aims: Constraints on the small dust grains can be obtained by imaging the distribution of scattered light at near-infrared wavelengths. We aim at resolving structures in the surface layer of transitional disks (with particular emphasis on the inner 10-50 AU), thus increasing the scarce sample of high-resolution images of these objects. Methods: We obtained VLT/NACO near-IR high-resolution polarimetric differential imaging observations of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). This technique allows one to image the polarized scattered light from the disk without any occulting mask and to reach an inner working angle of ~0.1″. Results: A face-on disk is detected in H and Ks bands between 0.1″ and 0.9″. No significant differences are seen between the H and Ks images. In addition to the spiral arms, these new data allow us to resolve for the first time an inner disk cavity for small dust grains. The cavity size (≃28 AU) is much smaller than what is inferred for large dust grains from (sub-)mm observations (39 to 50 AU). This discrepancy cannot be ascribed to any resolution effect. Conclusions: The interaction between the disk and potential orbiting companion(s) can explain both the spiral arm structure and the discrepant cavity sizes for small and large dust grains. One planet may be carving out the gas (and, thus, the small grains) at 28 AU, and generating a pressure bump at larger radii (39 AU), which holds back the large grains. We analytically estimate that, in this scenario, a single giant planet (with a mass between 5 and 15 MJ) at 17 to 20 AU from the star is consistent with the observed cavity sizes. Based on observations collected at the

  17. RFA-based 589-nm guide star lasers for ESO VLT: a paradigm shift in performance, operational simplicity, reliability, and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedenauer, Axel; Karpov, Vladimir; Wei, Daoping; Hager, Manfred; Ernstberger, Bernhard; Clements, Wallace R. L.; Kaenders, Wilhelm G.

    2012-07-01

    Large telescopes equipped with adaptive optics require 20-25W CW 589-nm sources with emission linewidths of ~5 MHz. These Guide Star (GS) lasers should also be highly reliable and simple to operate and maintain for many years at the top of a mountain facility. Under contract from ESO, industrial partners TOPTICA and MPBC are nearing completion of the development of GS lasers for the ESO VLT, with delivery of the first of four units scheduled for December 2012. We report on the design and performance of the fully-engineered Pre-Production Unit (PPU), including system reliability/availability analysis, the successfully-concluded qualification testing, long-term component and system level tests and long-term maintenance and support planning. The chosen approach is based on ESO's patented narrow-band Raman Fiber Amplifier (EFRA) technology. A master oscillator signal from a linearly-polarized TOPTICA 20-mW, 1178-nm CW diode laser, with stabilized emission frequency and controllable linewidth up to a few MHz, is amplified in an MPBC polarization-maintaining (PM) RFA pumped by a high-power 1120-nm PM fiber laser. With efficient stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression, an unprecedented 40W of narrow-band RFA output has been obtained. This is then mode-matched into a resonant-cavity doubler with a free-spectral-range matching the sodium D2a to D2b separation, allowing simultaneous generation of an additional frequency component (D2b line) to re-pump the sodium atom electronic population. With this technique, the return flux can be increased without having to resort to electro-optical modulators and without the risk of introducing optical wave front distortions. The demonstrated output powers with doubling efficiencies >80% at 589 nm easily exceed the 20W design goal and require less than 700 W of electrical power. In summary, the fiber-based guide star lasers provide excellent beam quality and are modular, turn-key, maintenance-free, reliable, efficient, and ruggedized

  18. Design and Performance of Raman Fiber Amplifier Based 589-nm Guide Star Lasers for ESO VLT and Their Suitability for Future ELT AO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, V.; Protopopov, V.; Clements, W.; Kaenders, W. G.; Friedenauer, A.; Ernstberger, B.; Hackenberg, W.; Lewis, St. A.; Bonaccini Calia, D.

    2011-09-01

    Large telescopes equipped with adaptive optics require 20-25W CW 589-nm light sources with emission linewidths of ˜5MHz. Towards this goal, ESO has been working for a number of years on the development of laser sources based on high-power narrow-band 1178-nm Raman fiber amplifiers (RFA) with subsequent frequency doubling to 589nm, demonstrating field tested lasers and powers beyond 50W CW. We present the design and performance of the guide star lasers being developed by industrial partners Toptica and MPBC, under contract from ESO, for deployment at the ESO VLT. The laser is designed and robustly engineered specifically for deployment on telescope facilities. The laser design is based on ESO's patented narrow-band RFA. The linearly-polarized, fiber-coupled emission of a Toptica CW diode laser, emitting 20mW at 1178nm, serves as master oscillator signal with stabilized emission frequency and controllable spectral linewidth up to a few MHz. The narrow-band seed signal is amplified in a polarization-maintaining (PM) Raman fiber amplifier developed by MPBC. The amplifier is pumped by a high-power 1120-nm PM fiber laser. With efficient suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering, an unprecedented 40W of narrow-band RFA output has been obtained. The RFA output is then mode-matched into a resonant cavity doubler with a free spectral range exactly matching the sodium D2a to D2b separation. This allows simultaneous generation of an additional frequency component (D2b line) in the output beam to re-pump the electronic population of sodium atoms, thereby increasing the return flux. We have demonstrated doubling efficiencies >80%, resulting in CW output powers at 589nm easily exceeding the design goal of 20W. Fiber lasers provide excellent output beam quality and are turn-key, maintenance-free, reliable, ruggedized devices whose compactness allows installation directly on the launch telescope structure. They are therefore well suited for LGS applications, also considering

  19. Tracing The Origin Of Methane And Water On Mars: Mapping Regions Of Active Release At Ultra-high Spatial Resolution Using Keck And VLT Under AO Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, G. L.; Campbell, R.; Lyke, J.; Conrad, A.; Encrenaz, T.; Hartogh, P.; Kauefl, U.; Novak, R. E.; Tokunaga, A.

    2009-09-01

    Strong release of methane from active regions on Mars has been reported in northern summer (1) and southern spring (2). The spatial resolution of these measurements was about 500 km, sufficient to reveal discrete active regions. Regions of methane release appear mainly over ancient terrain (Noachian/Hesperian) known to have a rich hydration history, and often marked by fossae or other scarps. However, higher resolution is needed to test whether methane release is confined to a small number of narrowly defined vents or is widely distributed over the 500 km footprint. If narrowly confined, the plume should have correspondingly higher local density, enhancing spectral searches for water, methane, their isotopologues, and other trace gases that could reveal aspects of methane generation and depth of release. Ground-based telescopes equipped with both adaptive optics (AO) and high dispersion infrared spectrometers have delivered much higher spatial resolution on planetary bodies, but until now have not been applied to Mars. We acquired images and spectra of Mars under AO control at infrared wavelengths, using Keck-2 and ESO-VLT. In June 2009, we acquired test images with NIRC2/Keck-2 using AO in the natural guide star mode and achieved 0.12” FWHM resolution at 3.0 µm wavelength (Mars diameter was 4.7"). Diffraction-limited performance (0.06” at 3 µm) is expected during follow-up observations in September 2009. We observed Mars with UT1 under AO control (MACAO) in August and September 2009, and acquired spectra with CRIRES. We expect to achieve spatial resolution approaching 40 km in November-December 2009, representing a reduction in area by nearly a factor of 100 compared with earlier non-AO searches. Preliminary results will be presented. This work was funded by NASA grants 08-PAST08-0034 (Planetary Astronomy) and 08-PATM080-0031 (Planetary Atmospheres). 1. Mumma, Villanueva, Novak et al., Science 323, 1041 (2009) 2. Villanueva, Mumma, Novak, (in prep) 2009.

  20. Chemistry and petrology of Luna 24 lithic fragments and less than 250-micron soils - Constraints on the origin of VLT mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Lange, D. E.; Keil, K.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported on a combined INAA-petrologic study of 17 small (0.2-1.5 mg) Luna 24 lithic and mineral fragments and INAA study of 5 bulk soils and mineral separates from gabbro 24170. Lithic and mineral fragments are classified into VLT mare basalts (ferrobasalt and metabasalts), low-Ti, variolitic mare basalt, gabbros, melt rock and soil breccia. Data indicate 5 possible magma types, represented by: (1) VLT ferrobasalt and gabbro fragments, with low-TiO2 (about 1%), slightly bow-shaped REE pattern, and low REE concentrations (5-10X chondritic); (2) a ferrobasalt (Laul et al., 1978) and metabasalt fragments with major and trace element contents similar to (1), but positive Eu anomalies; (3) one gabbro fragment with distinctive pyroxene compositional trend (increasing Ti with nearly constant Fe/Fe + Mg) and highest REE contents of any Luna 24 mare basaltic sample, (4) a gabbro fragment with considerably less V and Cr2O3 than ferrobasalt and metabasalt fragments; and (5) variolitic basalt fragment with higher Ti2(2.3%) than other Luna 24 basalts and pyroxene that has increasing then decreasing Ti with increasing Fe/Fe + Mg. Trace element data place constraints on the nature of the source region and possible parent magmas for the Luna 24 VLT ferrobasalt.