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Sample records for 2nd instar larvae

  1. Mutation of a Cuticle Protein Gene, BmCPG10, Is Responsible for Silkworm Non-Moulting in the 2nd Instar Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiaoling; Kang, Lequn; Xia, Dingguo; Qiu, Zhiyong; Tang, Shunming; Li, Muwang; Shen, Xingjia; Zhang, Guozheng

    2016-01-01

    In the silkworm, metamorphosis and moulting are regulated by ecdysone hormone and juvenile hormone. The subject in the present study is a silkworm mutant that does not moult in the 2nd instar (nm2). Genetic analysis indicated that the nm2 mutation is controlled by a recessive gene and is homozygous lethal. Based on positional cloning, nm2 was located in a region approximately 275 kb on the 5th linkage group by eleven SSR polymorphism markers. In this specific range, according to the transcriptional expression of thirteen genes and cloning, the relative expression level of the BmCPG10 gene that encodes a cuticle protein was lower than the expression level of the wild-type gene. Moreover, this gene’s structure differs from that of the wild-type gene: there is a deletion of 217 bp in its open reading frame, which resulted in a change in the protein it encoded. The BmCPG10 mRNA was detectable throughout silkworm development from the egg to the moth. This mRNA was low in the pre-moulting and moulting stages of each instar but was high in the gluttonous stage and in newly exuviated larvae. The BmCPG10 mRNA showed high expression levels in the epidermis, head and trachea, while the expression levels were low in the midgut, Malpighian tubule, prothoracic gland, haemolymph and ventral nerve cord. The ecdysone titre was determined by ELISA, and the results demonstrated that the ecdysone titre of nm2 larvae was lower than that of the wild-type larvae. The nm2 mutant could be rescued by feeding 20-hydroxyecdysone, cholesterol and 7—dehydrocholesterol (7dC), but the rescued nm2 only developed to the 4th instar and subsequently died. The moulting time of silkworms could be delayed by BmCPG10 RNAi. Thus, we speculated that the mutation of BmCPG10 was responsible for the silkworm mutant that did not moult in the 2nd instar. PMID:27096617

  2. Mutation of a Cuticle Protein Gene, BmCPG10, Is Responsible for Silkworm Non-Moulting in the 2nd Instar Mutant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Pingyang; Zhao, Qiaoling; Kang, Lequn; Xia, Dingguo; Qiu, Zhiyong; Tang, Shunming; Li, Muwang; Shen, Xingjia; Zhang, Guozheng

    2016-01-01

    In the silkworm, metamorphosis and moulting are regulated by ecdysone hormone and juvenile hormone. The subject in the present study is a silkworm mutant that does not moult in the 2nd instar (nm2). Genetic analysis indicated that the nm2 mutation is controlled by a recessive gene and is homozygous lethal. Based on positional cloning, nm2 was located in a region approximately 275 kb on the 5th linkage group by eleven SSR polymorphism markers. In this specific range, according to the transcriptional expression of thirteen genes and cloning, the relative expression level of the BmCPG10 gene that encodes a cuticle protein was lower than the expression level of the wild-type gene. Moreover, this gene's structure differs from that of the wild-type gene: there is a deletion of 217 bp in its open reading frame, which resulted in a change in the protein it encoded. The BmCPG10 mRNA was detectable throughout silkworm development from the egg to the moth. This mRNA was low in the pre-moulting and moulting stages of each instar but was high in the gluttonous stage and in newly exuviated larvae. The BmCPG10 mRNA showed high expression levels in the epidermis, head and trachea, while the expression levels were low in the midgut, Malpighian tubule, prothoracic gland, haemolymph and ventral nerve cord. The ecdysone titre was determined by ELISA, and the results demonstrated that the ecdysone titre of nm2 larvae was lower than that of the wild-type larvae. The nm2 mutant could be rescued by feeding 20-hydroxyecdysone, cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7dC), but the rescued nm2 only developed to the 4th instar and subsequently died. The moulting time of silkworms could be delayed by BmCPG10 RNAi. Thus, we speculated that the mutation of BmCPG10 was responsible for the silkworm mutant that did not moult in the 2nd instar. PMID:27096617

  3. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-01-01

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters.  PMID:24870629

  4. [Description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2006-01-01

    A description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke, based on specimens collected on yaro, Acacia macracantha Bonpl & Humb ex Willd. (Fabaceae), in the Chaca valley, Primera Región, Chile, is presented. PMID:18575693

  5. [Last instar larva and pupa of Melipotis cellaris (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2010-01-01

    The last instar larva and pupa of Melipotis cellaris (Guenée) are described and illustrated, based on specimens collected in northern Chile, associated with Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae). PMID:21120382

  6. Description of the final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936 (Odonata, Libellulidae), using rearing and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Philip O M; Butler, Stephen G; Dow, Rory A

    2016-01-01

    The final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from three male and six female larvae collected in Sarawak, Borneo (East Malaysia). It is compared with an early instar larva, which was matched to the adult O. borneense by DNA barcoding, and the known larvae of other species of this genus that occur in the region. PMID:27394221

  7. Description of the final-instar larva of Heliogomphus selysi Fraser (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Chainthong, Damrong

    2014-01-01

    The final instar larva of Heliogomphus selysi Fraser, 1925, is described and illustrated for the first time based on specimens collected in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. Antennae, legs and paraprocts are similar morphologically to H. kelantanensis and H. scorpio but with a unique combination of dorsal hooks and lateral spines. PMID:24870650

  8. [Last instar larva, pupa and a new distribution record of Periploca otrebla Vargas (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2007-01-01

    A description and figures of the last instar larva and pupa of Periploca otrebla Vargas are presented, based on specimens collected on Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae) in the type locality, Azapa valley, Arica Province, northern Chile. The Chaca valley, Arica Province, northern Chile, is mentioned as a new locality for the geographic distribution of P. otrebla, previously known only from the type locality. PMID:18246263

  9. Biochemical and histological effects of gibberellic acid on Locusta migratoria migratoria fifth instar larvae.

    PubMed

    Abdellaoui, Khemais; Ben Halima-Kamel, Monia; Acheuk, Fatma; Soltani, Noureddine; Aribi, Nadia; Hamouda, Mohamed HabibBen

    2013-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3), a plant growth regulator, on Locusta migratoria migratoria fifth instar larvae. Newly emerged larvae were exposed to various concentrations of GA3 administered by topical application or by forced ingestion. Results showed that treated insects exhibited toxic symptoms with a dose-dependent mortality. GA3 toxicity was also demonstrated by perturbation of the moult processes. In fact, we noted that treated insects present exuviations difficulties due to the impossibility to reject the old integuments causing mortality in the 5th instar larvae. Histological study of proventriculus revealed alterations in the epithelial cells and absence of apolysis phenomenon. Data also showed that GA3 induced significant quantitative variation of haemolymph metabolites. These changes result in a significant decrease in the total concentration of proteins and carbohydrates and an increase in the total concentration of haemolymph lipids. PMID:25149232

  10. Constituents of osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Burger, B V; Munro, Z; Röth, M; Spies, H S; Truter, V; Geertsema, H; Habich, A

    1985-08-01

    The defensive osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of the citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was found to contain methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, α-pinene, myrcene, limonene, β-phellandrene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, β-caryophyllene, (E)-β-farnesene, and germacrene-A, as well as a further number of unidentified sesquiterpenoid constituents. The presence of germacrene-A in the secretion was inferred from the formation of β-elemene under certain GC conditions. Larvae of the second, third, and fourth instars produce qualitatively similar secretions. Remarkable quantitative differences were found between the secretions of individual larvae. These variations could not be correlated with the diet on which the larvae were fed, their sex, instar, or color form. However, in a number of larvae the two prongs of the osmeterium were found to produce quantitatively different secretions. PMID:24310333

  11. Identifying 1st instar larvae for three forensically important blowfly species using "fingerprint" cuticular hydrocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2014-07-01

    Calliphoridae are known to be the most forensically important insects when it comes to establishing the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) in criminal investigations. The first step in calculating the PMImin is to identify the larvae present to species level. Accurate identification which is conventionally carried out by morphological analysis is crucial because different insects have different life stage timings. Rapid identification in the immature larvae stages would drastically cut time in criminal investigations as it would eliminate the need to rear larvae to adult flies to determine the species. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis on 1st instar larvae has been applied to three forensically important blowflies; Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that each species holds a distinct "fingerprint" hydrocarbon profile, allowing for accurate identification to be established in 1-day old larvae, when it can be challenging to apply morphological criteria. Consequently, this GC-MS based technique could accelerate and strengthen the identification process, not only for forensically important species, but also for other entomological samples which are hard to identify using morphological features. PMID:24815992

  12. Morphology and identification of first instar larvae of Australian blowflies of the genus Chrysomya of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Wallman, James F

    2016-10-01

    Light microscopy photographs, line illustrations and scanning electron microscopy micrographs are provided for first instar larvae of six Australian species of Chrysomya. All species have confirmed or potential in forensic investigations given their carrion-breeding habits. Morphology of the first instar larvae of Ch. nigripes, Ch. rufifacies, Ch. saffranea and Ch. varipes is revised, while larvae of Ch. incisularis and Ch. latifrons are described for the first time. The following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antennal complex, maxillary palpus, facial mask, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles and cephaloskeleton. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are described. Verification of earlier descriptions revealed major discrepancies between published data, especially in the case of Ch. nigripes. The present results allow clarification, correction and, especially, complementation of the existing information provided by numerous authors. Finally, an identification key for first instar larvae of Australian necrophagous Chrysomya is presented. PMID:27282097

  13. Classification of forensically-relevant larvae according to instar in a closely related species of carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae).

    PubMed

    Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2016-06-01

    Carrion beetle larvae of Necrodes littoralis (Linnaeus, 1758), Oiceoptoma thoracicum (Linnaeus, 1758), Thanatophilus sinuatus (Fabricius, 1775), and Thanatophilus rugosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Silphidae: Silphinae) were studied to test the concept that a classifier of the subfamily level may be successfully used to classify larvae according to instar. Classifiers were created and validated using a linear discriminant analysis (LDA). LDA generates classification functions which are used to calculate classification values for tested specimens. The largest value indicates the larval instar to which the specimen should be assigned. Distance between dorsal stemmata and width of the pronotum were used as classification features. The classifier correctly classified larvae of N. littoralis and O. thoracicum, whereas in the case of T. sinuatus and T. rugosus a few misclassifications were recorded. For this reason, a separate genus level classifier was created for larvae of Thanatophilus. We conclude that larval instar classifiers of the subfamily or genus level have very high classification accuracy and therefore they may be safely used to classify carrion beetle larvae according to instar in forensic practice. PMID:27071758

  14. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

  15. Extremely miniaturised and highly complex: the thoracic morphology of the first instar larva of Mengenilla chobauti (Insecta, Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Osswald, Judith; Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2010-07-01

    Thoracic structures of the extremely small first instar larva of the strepsipteran species Mengenilla chobauti (ca. 200 microm) were examined, described and reconstructed 3-dimensionally. The focus is on the skeletomuscular system. The characters were compared to conditions found in other insect larvae of very small (Ptiliidae) or large (Dytiscus) size (both Coleoptera) and features of "triungulin" larvae, first instar larvae of Rhipiphoridae, Meloidae (both Coleoptera), and Mantispidae (Neuroptera). The specific lifestyle and the extreme degree of miniaturisation result in numerous thoracic modifications. Many sclerites of the exo- and endoskeleton are reduced. Cervical sclerites, pleural ridges, furcae and spinae are absent. Most of the longitudinal muscles are connected within the thorax, and a pair of ventral longitudinal muscles is present in the pleural region of the meso- and metathorax. This results in a high intersegmental flexibility. Due to the size reduction and the correlated shift of the brain to the thorax, with 94 identified muscles the thoracic musculature appears highly compact. Compared to larger larvae the number of both the individual muscles and the muscle bundles are distinctly reduced. The thorax of the first instar larvae displays many additional strepsipteran autapomorphies. At least partly due to the highly specialised condition, potential synapomorphies with other groups were not found. PMID:19874911

  16. First instar larvae morphology of Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies. Implications for interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Félix D; Liedo, Pablo; Nieto-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Mireles, Héctor; Barrera, Juan F; Montoya, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the first instars of the Opiinae braconids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Utetes anastrephae and Opius hirtus (the first is exotic, and the others are natives to Mexico), parasitoids of Anastrepha fruit flies, are described and compared. The possible implications on interspecific competition among these species are discussed. The most significant adaptations found were: (1) the mouth apparatus, where the large mandibles and fang-shaped maxillary lobes present in D. longicaudata and U. anastrephae larvae were absent in O. hirtus, D. areolatus and D. crawfordi larvae, and (2) the degree of mobility for exploration and escape, such as the lateral and caudal appendages that were only present in D. longicaudata (ventrolateral appendages in the base of the head capsule), U. anastrephae (caudal lobe with two appendages) and D. areolatus (caudal lobe with a round apex with a globular shape). The first instar larvae of the species D. longicaudata show morphological adaptations that apparently confer competitive advantages against the larvae of D. areolatus, D. crawfordi and O. hirtus. However, the first instar larvae of U. anastrephae show larger mandibles, an adaptation that could enable this species to resist competition from D. longicaudata. PMID:26806764

  17. Description of the second- and third-instar larva of South African Stenomastigus longicornis (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Kilian, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The second- and third-instar larvae of the South African species of Mastigini, Stenomastigus longicornis, are described. The serial homology of chaetotaxic structures and differences between larval instars are discussed. The larva of Stenomastigus is very similar to that of Palaeostigus, but differences in proportions of body parts, number of setae on the head, thorax and abdomen and possibly also the shape of the antennal sensory appendage can be used to distinguish them. A frontal impression surrounded by modified setae with greatly enlarged surface, presumably functioning as a glandular evaporation apparatus, and the antennomere II subdivided into three sections, are suggested as synapomorphies of Mastigini; within Mastigitae this tribe is also unique in lacking the urogomphs, which are present in larvae of Leptomastacini and Clidicini. Geniculate and slender antennae with a strongly oblique distal margin of antennomere II are a putative larval synapomorphy of Mastigitae. PMID:27615878

  18. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron D.; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae. PMID:25009429

  19. Instar growth and molt increments in Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) chalimus larvae.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Christiane; Hamre, Lars Are; Nilsen, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is an ectoparasitic copepod causing severe problems to the fish farming industry and to wild salmonids. Morphologically, all stages in the life cycle of L. salmonis have been described in detail based on successive samples from host populations. However, the rate of development differs between males and females as well as between individuals. It has therefore been difficult to observe development within stages, and this has led to a longstanding misinterpretation of the number of chalimus stages. Here samples of chalimi obtained for 12 consecutive days were observed daily in incubators. Chalimus 1 was able to molt in incubators only when fully grown and close to molting, whereas chalimus 2 was able to molt at about 60% of total instar growth. Total length instar growth was about 35% in both chalimus 1 and chalimus 2 and about equal among males and females; the cephalothorax increased by about 12% and the posterior body by about 80%. Instar growth was probably the main factor that led to the former belief that L. salmonis had four chalimus stages. Relative total length increase at molting was at the same order of magnitude as instar growth, but total length of females increased significantly more than that of males at molting. Consequently, a sexual size dimorphism was established upon molting to chalimus 2 and males were about 10% smaller than females. While growth by molting was mainly caused by cephalothorax increase, instar growth was mainly due to increase of the posterior body. The cephalothorax/total length ratio decreased from beginning to end of the instar phase suggesting that it may be used as an instar age marker. Male and female chalimus 2 can almost uniquely be identified by cephalothorax length. Chalimus 1 lasted between 5 and 6 days for males and between 6 and 7 days for females at 10°C. Chalimus 2 males lasted between 6 and 7 days and females between 7 and 8 days. PMID:25451218

  20. Isolation of fourth-instars larva of Aedes (Finlaya) harveyi (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Nilgiri hills, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Hiriyan, J; Nath, Anjan Jyoti

    2016-03-01

    During the post monsoon season of 2012, the ovitraps were employed for dengue vector surveillance nearer to human habitations in the Nilgiri hills of Southern India. All the eggs obtained were brought to laboratory, and reared individually to adult stage for identification. A total of 30 exuviae of fourth-instars larva specimen were identified as Aedes (Finlaya) harveyi which were compared to other closely related species. Though the adult male and female of Aedes (Finlaya) harveyi were recorded from some parts of India but so far the larval stage has not been recorded. PMID:27065629

  1. Altered differential hemocyte count in 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as a response to chronic exposure of Acephate

    PubMed Central

    Rajak, Prem; Dutta, Moumita

    2015-01-01

    Acephate, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, was used to investigate the effects of its chronic exposure on hemocyte abundance in a non-target dipteran insect Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, six graded concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 μg/ml were selected, which are below the reported residual values (up to 14 μg/ml) of the chemical. 1st instar larvae were fed with these concentrations up to the 3rd instar stage and accordingly hemolymph smears from these larvae were prepared for differential hemocyte count. Three types of cells are found in Drosophila hemolymph, namely, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and crystal cells. Plasmatocyte count was found to decrease with successive increase in treatment concentrations. Crystal cells showed an increasing trend in their number. Though the number of lamellocytes was very low, a bimodal response was noticed. Lamellocyte number was found to increase with the initial three concentrations, followed by a dose dependent reduction in their number. As hemocytes are directly linked to the immune system of fruit flies, fluctuations in normal titer of these cells may affect insect immunity. Hemocytes share homologies in their origin and mode of action with the immune cells of higher organisms including man. Thus the present findings suggest that immune cells of humans and other organisms may be affected adversely under chronic exposure to Acephate. PMID:27486365

  2. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Nelson A.; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the morphology of its immature stages. An analysis of mandible shape and linear morphometric variability was applied to third-instar larvae of five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex: Mexican, Andean, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Brazilian-1. Outline geometric morphometry was used to study the mouth hook shape and linear morphometry analysis was performed using 24 linear measurements of the body, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, mouth hook and hypopharyngeal sclerite. Different morphotypes were grouped accurately using canonical discriminant analyses of both the geometric and linear morphometry. The shape of the mandible differed among the morphotypes, and the anterior spiracle length, number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, length and height of the mouth hook and length of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were the most significant variables in the linear morphometric analysis. Third-instar larvae provide useful characters for studies of cryptic species in the Anastrepha fraterculus complex. PMID:26798253

  3. Redescription of late-instar larva of Scydmoraphes sparshalli (Denny) Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The larva of Scydmoraphes sparshalli is redescribed. This is the first complete description of an immature Scydmoraphes with special focus on the chaetotaxic characters. The larva is unique among Cyrtoscydmini in having three pairs of stemmata, a very long sensory appendage of the antennomere II, mandibles with mesal row of microserrations interrupted by smooth portion of mandibular margin; maxillary mala with asetose apex and a row of very long, modified setae on mesal margin, and extremely elongate maxillary palpomere III and labium. A comparative study of previous descriptions resulted in recognizing a misidentification of a Scydmoraphes larva (the "Typ 2-Larve" of Schmid) as a putative Neuraphes (Pararaphes). The serial homology of chaetotaxic structures in the larva of Scydmoraphes sparshalli is discussed, and comparative notes on the larvae of Scydmoraphes, Neuraphes and Stenichnus are given, with an identification key. PMID:26624387

  4. Review of the last instar larvae and pupae of Hexatoma (Eriocera) and Hexatoma (Hexatoma) (Diptera, Limoniidae, Limnophilinae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Gelhaus, Jon K

    2015-01-01

    Description, illustrations and habitat characteristics are given for the previously unknown larvae and pupae of Nearctic species Hexatoma (Eriocera) californica, H. (E.) fuliginosa and East Palaearctic species H. (E.) sachalinensis, H. (E.) stackelbergi, H. (E.) ussuriensis and H. (s.str.) nubeculosa. Hexatoma (E.) sachalinensis, H. (E.) stackelbergi, and H. (s.str.) nubeculosa are reported new for Mongolia based on larval and reared adult collections. There are no distinguishing morphological characters to separate last instar larvae of the subgenera H. (Eriocera) and H. (Hexatoma), while pupae of these subgenera can be separated by the size and shape of the spines on the terminal segments. This study indicates that microscopic setae on the last abdominal segment, length of maxillary palpi, sclerotization of the spiracular field, length of spiracular lobes, length of setae on the apical part of the ventral lobes, the shape of the labrum and the arrangement of sensory structures on the labrum are the main larval characters to distinguish among species in this genus. The shape and length of the respiratory horns, size and number of the horns of the cephalic crest, length of the antennal sheaths, the lengths of the sheaths of the legs, size and shape of tubercles on the antennal scape are the main distinguishing pupal characters for the species of this genus. Nearly all known species of Hexatoma develop in sand or gravel in bottom of large and medium size rivers, smaller streams and creeks while last instar larvae and pupae can be found in the riparian zone, usually in gravel, sand or under stones. PMID:26624121

  5. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Gary J.; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis. PMID:26798272

  6. Orientation of European corn borer first instar larvae to synthetic green leaf volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer (ECB) neonate larvae are capable of orienting toward maize odors and of avoiding spinach odors. We previously reported that maize odors attraction was dependent on the stimulus regime. This led us to propose that maize odors could have a repellent or attractive effect depending o...

  7. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models. PMID:26336228

  8. Description of the last instar larva and new contributions to the knowledge of the pupa of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya (Diptera, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Florentina; Anjos-Santos, Danielle; Funes, Amparo; Ronderos, María M

    2016-07-11

    The fourth instar larva of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya is described for the first time and a complete description of the pupa is provided, through use of phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Studied specimens were collected in a pond connected to a small wetland "mallin" on the Patagonian steppe, Chubut province, Argentina. PMID:27411066

  9. Comparative Proteomics and Expression Analysis of Five Genes in Epicauta chinensis Larvae from the First to Fifth Instar

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiurong; Wang, Dun; Lv, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Blister beetle is an important insect model for both medicinal and pure research. Previous research has mainly focused on its biology and biochemistry, but very little data is yet available in the molecular biology. This study uses differential proteomics technology to analyze the soluble proteins extracted from each of the 5 instars larvae of Epicauta chinensis. 42 of the differentially-expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Some of these proteins’ function and their expression profiles are analyzed. Our analysis revealed dynamics regulation of the following proteins: Axin-like protein pry-1 (APR-1), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), vitellogenin (Vg) and lysozyme C (Lmz-S). APR-1 negatively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Its overexpression could result in embryo, leg, eye and ovary ectopica or malformation. DLD catalyzes the pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, the latter is the starting material of juvenile hormone (JH) and ipsdienol biosynthesis through the MVA pathway in insects. While Vg synthesis can be regulated by JH and stimulated by food factors. So DLD may affect the synthesis of JH, ipsdienol and Vg indirectly. The activity of lysozyme is an indicator of the immunity. Nutrition/food should be taken into account for its potential role during the development of larva in the future. Among the five genes and their corresponding proteins’ expression, only hsc70 gene showed a good correspondence with the protein level. This reflects the fluctuating relationship between mRNA and protein levels. PMID:24586908

  10. Comparative proteomics and expression analysis of five genes in Epicauta chinensis larvae from the first to fifth instar.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiurong; Wang, Dun; Lv, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Blister beetle is an important insect model for both medicinal and pure research. Previous research has mainly focused on its biology and biochemistry, but very little data is yet available in the molecular biology. This study uses differential proteomics technology to analyze the soluble proteins extracted from each of the 5 instars larvae of Epicauta chinensis. 42 of the differentially-expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Some of these proteins' function and their expression profiles are analyzed. Our analysis revealed dynamics regulation of the following proteins: Axin-like protein pry-1 (APR-1), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), vitellogenin (Vg) and lysozyme C (Lmz-S). APR-1 negatively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Its overexpression could result in embryo, leg, eye and ovary ectopica or malformation. DLD catalyzes the pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, the latter is the starting material of juvenile hormone (JH) and ipsdienol biosynthesis through the MVA pathway in insects. While Vg synthesis can be regulated by JH and stimulated by food factors. So DLD may affect the synthesis of JH, ipsdienol and Vg indirectly. The activity of lysozyme is an indicator of the immunity. Nutrition/food should be taken into account for its potential role during the development of larva in the future. Among the five genes and their corresponding proteins' expression, only hsc70 gene showed a good correspondence with the protein level. This reflects the fluctuating relationship between mRNA and protein levels. PMID:24586908

  11. The hydroxylation of tyrosine by an enzyme from third-instar larvae of the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala.

    PubMed

    Pau, R N; Kelly, C

    1975-06-01

    1. Two pro-(phenol oxidase) were distinguished when the blood of late-third-instar larvae of Calliphora erythrocephala was electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gels with Tris-glycine buffer, pH 8.3. One pro-(phenol oxidase), after activation by an enzyme readily catalyses the oxidation of both L-tyrosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). The second enzyme catalyses the oxidation of L-dopa but not of L-tyrosoine. 2. One of the pro-(phenol oxidases) was purified over 2000-fold from homogenates of whole larvae. This enzyme, after activation, catalyses the oxidation of both dopa and tyrosine. On electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels with Tris-glycine buffer, pH 8.3, it has the same mobility as the enzyme in the blood which catalyses the oxidation of both tyrosine and dopa. 3. The pro-(phenol oxidase)-activating enzyme was purified over 100-fold from homogenates of whole larvae. 4. The oxidation of L-tyrosine, in the presence of the activated purified phenol oxidase, reached a steady maximum rate after a lag period that was directly related to tyrosine concentration and inversely related to enzyme concentration. 5. The effect of the addition of electron donors on the lag period was studied. Dopa, dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) and 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6,7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine are the most effective hydrogen donors. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, the oxidation of which was not catalysed by the activated pro-(phenol oxidase), did not affect the lag period. PMID:810140

  12. Synthesis, activity, and QSAR studies of tryptamine derivatives on third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Linn.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rafael R B; Brito, Thaysnara B; Nepel, Angelita; Costa, Emmanoel V; Barison, Andersson; Nunes, Rogéria S; Santos, Roseli L C; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2014-01-01

    Special attention has been given to the mosquito Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae) owing to numerous dengue epidemic outbreaks worldwide. Failure to control vector spreading is accounted for unorganized urban growth and resistance to larvicides and insecticides. Therefore, researchers are currently searching for new and more efficient larvicides and insecticides to aid dengue control measures. Triptamine is known to affect insect behavior, development, and physiology. Expression of this compound in plants has reduced the growth rate of herbivore insects. In view of these facts, it was of our interest to synthesize triptamine amide derivatives as potential larvicides against Ae. aegypti, establishing a Structure-Activity Relationship. Eleven amide derivatives of triptamine were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their larvicidal activity against third-instar Ae. aegypti larvae. N-(2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-2,2,2-trichloroacetamide exhibited the highest overall larvicidal potency, while N-(2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)ethyl) acetamide displayed the lowest larvicidal potency. A regression equation correlating the larvicidal activity with Log P was obtained. We have found a clear relationship between the larvicidal activity of non-chlorinated compounds and Log P. Analysis of the relationship between Log P and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti may be useful in the evaluation of potential larvicidal compounds. PMID:24295020

  13. Structural and Genetic Investigation of the Egg and First-Instar Larva of an Egg-Laying Population of Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a Species of Forensic Importance.

    PubMed

    Pimsler, Meaghan L; Pape, Thomas; Johnston, J Spencer; Wharton, Robert A; Parrott, Jonathan J; Restuccia, Danielle; Sanford, Michelle R; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Tarone, Aaron M

    2014-11-01

    Flies in the family Sarcophagidae incubate their eggs and are known to be ovoviviparous (i.e., ovolarviparous), but a laboratory-maintained colony of Blaesoxipha plinthopyga (Wiedemann) deposited clutches of viable eggs over 10 generations. A description of the egg and first-instar larva of this species is provided along with genetic data (genome size and cytochrome oxidase I sequences). The egg is similar to previously described eggs of other Sarcophagidae but differs in the configuration of the micropyle. In the first-instar larva, the oral ridges are much more developed than has been described for other species. B. plinthopyga has forensic importance, and the present descriptive information is critical for proper case management. PMID:26309319

  14. Defensive secretion of first-instar larvae of rootstalk borer weevil,Diaprepes abbreviatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to the fire-antSolenopsis geminata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Pavis, C; Malusse, C; Ducrot, P H; Howse, F; Jaffe, K; Descoins, C

    1992-11-01

    Since several species of predatory ants show some kind of repulsion towards the first-instar larvae (FIL) ofDiaprepes abbreviatus L., the predatory behavior ofSolenopsis geminata (F.), a common ant in the citrus groves in Guadeloupe, was studied. Different extracts of larvae were disposed on egg masses ofD. abbreviatus and presented as prey to the ants, both in the field and in the laboratory. The ants are repelled by the FIL extracts. The allelochemicals involved are produced in large amounts, from 5 to 20 ng per larva. Physiochemical analyses have led to the identification of two sesquiterpenes of molecular weight 218 and 234, secreted in the respective proportions of 65 and 35%. PMID:24254783

  15. Toxic Potential of Synthesized Graphene Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite in the Third Instar Larvae of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg9

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Khan, Wasi; Khanam, Saba; Jyoti, Smita; Naz, Falaq; Rahul; Singh, Braj Raj; Naqvi, Alim H.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the graphene zinc oxide nanocomposite (GZNC) was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for its toxic potential on third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg9. The synthesized GZNC was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The GZNC in 0.1% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was sonicated for 10 minutes and the final concentrations 0.033, 0.099, 0.199, and 3.996 μg/μL of diet were established. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on it separately for 24 and 48 hr. The hsp70 expression was measured by o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside assay, tissue damage was measured by trypan blue exclusion test, and β-galactosidase activity was monitored by in situ histochemical β-galactosidase staining. Oxidative stress was monitored by performing lipid peroxidation assay and total protein estimation. Ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining was performed on midgut cells for apoptotic index and the comet assay was performed for the DNA damage. The results of the present study showed that the exposure of 0.199 and 3.996 μg/μL of GZNC was toxic for both 24 hr and 48 hr of exposure. The doses of 0.033 μg/μL and 0.099 of GZNC showed no toxic effects on its exposure to the third instar larvae for 24 hr as well as 48 hr of duration. PMID:25025047

  16. Evaluation of the Toxic Potential of Graphene Copper Nanocomposite (GCNC) in the Third Instar Larvae of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg9

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Fatima, Ambreen; Jyoti, Smita; Naz, Falaq; Rahul; Khan, Wasi; Singh, Braj Raj; Naqvi, Alim Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional carbon sheet with single-atom thickness, have attracted the scientific world for its potential applications in various field including the biomedical areas. In the present study the graphene copper nanocomposite (GCNC) was synthesized, characterized and evaluated for its toxic potential on third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg9. The synthesized GCNC was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The GCNC in 0.1% DMSO was sonicated for 10 min and the final concentration of 0.033, 0.099, 0.199 and 3.996 µg/µl of diet were established. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on it separately for 24 and 48 hrs. The hsp70 expression was measured by O-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside assay, tissue damage by trypan blue exclusion test and β-galactosidase activity was monitored by in situ histochemical β-galactosidase staining. Oxidative stress was monitored by performing lipid peroxidation assay and total protein estimation. Ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining was performed on midgut cells for apoptotic index and the comet assay was performed for the DNA damage. The results of the present study showed that the exposure of 0.199 and 3.996 µg/µl of GCNC were toxic for 24 hr of exposure and for 48 hr of exposure: 0.099, 0.199 and 3.996 µg/µl of GCNC was toxic. The dose of 0.033 µg/µl of GCNC showed no toxic effects on its exposure to the third instar larvae for 24 hr as well as 48 hrs. This dose can be considered as No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). PMID:24339891

  17. [Damage-loss relationships and integrated control of 3rd instar larvae of Actias selene nigpoana Felder in planting area of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc].

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Wang, C; Zhang, Q; Cheng, X

    1997-08-01

    In the present paper, the damage-loss model of Actias selene ningpoana to Cornus officinalis was tested and the results indicated that the yield loss rates obeyed the equation Y = 100 - EXP(4.6042 - 0.0315X). The economic threshold of the 2hd and 3rd instar larvae of A. selene nigpoana was then determined as 22 and 8 insects per tree respecitively. Suggestions for integrated control have been made based on the research of activities of A. selene ningpoana in the forest. PMID:11038910

  18. Evaluation of the toxic potential of calcium carbide in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9).

    PubMed

    Danish, Mohd; Fatima, Ambreen; Khanam, Saba; Jyoti, Smita; Rahul; Ali, Fahad; Naz, Falaq; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the toxic potential of calcium carbide (CaC2) was studied on the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). The third instar larvae were exposed to 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32×10(-3)g/ml of CaC2 in diet for 24h. The results reveal that the dose 2×10(-3)g/ml was not toxic but the remaining doses showed a dose dependent significant increase in the hsp70 expression, β-galactosidase activity, tissue damage, oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content), glutathione-S-transferase activity, expression of Caspase 3 and 9, apoptotic index and DNA damage (midgut cells). A significant reduction as compared to control group in total protein, glutathione content and acetylcholinesterase activity was also observed. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy analysis (ICPAES) reveals the presence of copper, iron, sodium, aluminium, manganese, calcium, nickel and mercury. The toxic effects of CaC2 in the present study may be attributed to the impurities present in it. PMID:26298668

  19. Toxicity and sublethal effects of six insecticides to last instar larvae and adults of the biocontrol agents Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Garzón, A; Medina, P; Amor, F; Viñuela, E; Budia, F

    2015-08-01

    To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed. PMID:25828251

  20. Effects of seasonal acclimation on cold tolerance and biochemical status of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller, last instar larvae.

    PubMed

    Heydari, M; Izadi, H

    2014-10-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, a pest of Punica granatum, overwinters as a larva. In this study, physiological changes, water content, cold hardiness and supercooling points (SCPs) in relation to ambient temperature in the overwintering period (October to March) and changes of these factors between diapausing (February) and non-diapausing (September) larvae were studied. Pupae that were derived from diapausing larvae (April) and from non-diapausing larvae (August) were also compared. Total body sugar, lipid and protein contents increased with decrease in the temperature and reached the highest levels (12.82, 1.99 and 6.11 mg g-1 body weight, respectively) in February, but glycogen content decreased and reached the lowest level (1.12 mg g-1 body weight) in February. There were significant differences in the levels of these compounds between diapausing and non-diapausing larvae, and pupae that were derived from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. Trehalose and myo-inositol contents increased during diapause and reached the highest levels (0.50 and 0.07 mg g-1 body weight, respectively) in February. There were significant differences in the levels of these compounds between diapausing and non-diapausing larvae, but the differences between pupae that were derived from diapausing and non-diapausing larvae were not significant. The SCP of diapausing larvae (-17.3 °C) was significantly lower than in the non-diapausing larvae (-12.0 °C). SCP decreased gradually in autumn and reached the lowest level in the middle of winter. Changes of cold hardiness were inversely proportional to SCP changes. The lowest levels of water (65%) and weight (43.13 mg) were recorded in January and March, respectively. Most probably, lipids play a role as energy reserve, and low-molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols provide cryoprotection for overwintering larvae of the carob moth. Since the overwintering larvae die at temperatures above the SCP, the carob moth larvae were found

  1. Effect of methyl methanesulfonate on hsp70 expression and tissue damage in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vineet; Ara, Gulshan; Afzal, Mohammad; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is an anti-carcinogenic drug and its toxicity has been reported in various experimental models. The hsp70s are a family of ubiquitously expressed heat shock proteins. In the recent years, hsp70 has been considered to be one of the candidate genes for predicting cytotoxicity against environmental chemicals. Nowadays emphasis is given to the use of alternatives to mammals in testing, research and education. The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (EVCAM) has recommended the use of Drosophila as an alternative model for scientific studies. Almost all living organisms possess proteins with a similar structure to that of hsp70s. In the present study, the toxicity of MMS was evaluated by quantifying hsp70 expression and tissue damage in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9, at different doses and hours of exposure. We studied the effect of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 µl/ml of MMS at 2, 4, 24 and 48 hours of exposure on hsp70 expression by using the soluble O-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) assay and on establishing the tissue damage by the Trypan blue exclusion assay in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg 9. A dose-dependent increase in the expression of hsp70 was observed at 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 µl/ml of MMS compared to the control. At the highest dose, i.e. 1.0 µl/ml of MMS, the activity of hsp70 was decreased due to tissue damage. PMID:22058658

  2. Description of the second and third instars of Aspidytes wrasei Balke, Ribera & Beutel, 2003, with comments on the identification of larvae of Aspidytes Ribera, Beutel, Balke & Vogler, 2002 (Coleoptera: Aspidytidae), and phylogenetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Michat, Mariano C; Alarie, Yves; Jia, Fenglong; Xu, Shengquan; Hájek, Jiří; Balke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The second- and third instar larvae of the cliff water beetle Aspidytes wrasei Balke, Ribera & Beutel, 2003 are studied for the first time with special emphasis on morphometry and chaetotaxy. A review of the characters useful in the identification of larvae of Aspidytes Ribera, Beutel, Balke & Vogler, 2002 is presented. Confirming previous findings, larvae of this genus are unique within Hydradephaga in the dorsally oriented spiracles on the abdominal segment VIII of instars II and III. The inclusion of Aspidytidae within the superfamily Dytiscoidea is reinforced by the following putative synapomorphies: presence of pore PAp, proximal insertion of pore ANg, apical or subapical insertion of seta MX8, presence of pore LAd, and distal insertion of seta CO6. Larvae of A. wrasei differ from those of A. niobe Ribera, Beutel, Balke & Vogler, 2002 in several significant characters that may indicate that both species have a long history of independent evolution. PMID:25543641

  3. Effect of Bt-176 maize pollen on first instar larvae of the Peacock butterfly (Inachis io) (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Felke, Martin; Langenbruch, Gustav-Adolf; Feiertag, Simon; Kassa, Adane

    2010-01-01

    More than 10 years after registration of the first Bt maize cultivar in Europe, there still exists a remarkable lack of data on effects on Lepidoptera which would be necessary for a complete and comprehensive environmental risk assessment. So far only very few European butterfly species have been tested in this aspect. In our study the effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize pollen (event Bt-176) on the development and survival of neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly, Inachis io (L.) was for the first time shown. The results of our study suggest that the Peacock butterfly may serve as a model organism for assessing potential side effects of new developed transgenic Bt crops on non-target butterflies in a GMO environmental risk assessment. The study was done under laboratory conditions by exposing larvae of the Peacock butterfly to various pollen doses of transgenic maize event Bt-176 (cv. PACTOL CB) or the conventional isogenic maize (cv. PACTOL) using a no-choice test. Larvae feeding for 48 h on nettle plants (Urtica dioica) that were contaminated with higher pollen concentrations from Bt-176 maize (205 and 388 applied pollen.cm⁻²) suffered a significantly higher mortality rate (68 and 85% respectively) compared to larvae feeding on leaves with no pollen (11%), or feeding on leaves with pollen from conventional maize (6 to 25%). At lower Bt maize pollen doses (23-104 applied pollen.cm⁻²),mortality ranged from 11-25% and there were no apparent differences among treatments. The corresponding LC₅₀-and LC₉₀-values for neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly were 187 and 448 applied pollen grains.cm⁻² of Bt-176, respectively.Weight of larvae surviving consumption of Bt-176 maize pollen declined between 10 and 81% with increased pollen doses (r = -0.95). The highest weight reduction (81%) corresponded to the highest pollen concentration (388 pollen grains applied.cm⁻²). Ingestion of pollen from the conventional maize hybrid did not

  4. Cannibalism and predation behaviour of the blowfly, Chrysomyia albiceps (Wiedemann) larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Omar, A H

    1995-12-01

    Chrysomyia albiceps is considered as a carrion inhabitant and is essentially scavenger. It is among the first species to arrive at carrion and lays its eggs on it almost immediately under favourable conditions. Field studies in Giza area showed that although other flies arrive at the carrion shortly following Chrysomyia, as decomposition progresses, its larvae are the major component predominate, and the common fly emerging from carrion is its adults. First instar larvae is entirely necrophagous, but the 2nd and early 3rd instar larvae may be facultatively predaceous on other dipteran larvae (Muscina and Parasarcophaga) as an alternative food source under crowded or starved conditions. Cannibalism, second and early 3rd instars preying on the 1st instar larvae and on themselves has also been found. Considering the predation behaviour, C. albiceps may be considered as beneficial biological control agent to help in reducing populations of carrion flies which are of medical and veterinary importance owing to their significant role in causing the different kind of myiasis of man and animals. The second instar is less inclined than the early 3rd instar to serve as a predator. The numerous heavily sclerotized spines and fleshy processes of the robust and powerful preyer early 3rd instar larvae help in subduing the prey while their strong mouthhooks are used to penetrate the bodies of the other larvae for fluid extraction. PMID:8586867

  5. Unique biochemical and molecular biological mechanism of synergistic actions of formamidine compounds on selected pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph F A; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that formamidine pesticides such as amitraz and chlordimeform effectively synergize toxic actions of certain pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides in some insect species on the 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Here we studied the biochemical basis of the synergistic actions of the formamidines in amplifying the toxicity of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids such as dinotefuran and thiamethoxam, as well as deltamethrin-fenvalerate type of pyrethroids. We tested the hypothesis that their synergistic actions are mediated by the octopamine receptor, and that the major consequence of octopamine receptor activation is induction of trehalase to increase glucose levels in the hemolymph. The results show that formamidines cause a significant up-regulation of the octopamine receptor and trehalase mRNA expressions. Furthermore, formamidines significantly elevate levels of free glucose when co-treated with dinotefuran, deltamethrin and fenvalerate, but not with permethrin or fenitrothion, which showed no synergistic toxic effects with formamidines. These results support the conclusion that the main mode of synergism is based on the ability to activate the octopamine receptor, which is particularly effective with insecticides causing hyperexcitation-induced glucose release and consequently leading to quick energy exhaustion. PMID:25987221

  6. Laboratory evaluations of Lepidopteran-active soybean seed treatments on survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two anthranilic diamide insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole, were evaluated as soybean, Glycine max L., seed treatments for control of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Bioassays were conducted using 2nd instar larvae and plants from both field and greenhouse gr...

  7. Biology and feeding requirements larval hunter flies Coenosia attenuata (Diptera:Muscidae) reared in larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera:Sciaridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval feeding requirements and biology of the generalist predatory muscid fly Coenosia attenuata were investigated at 25 deg C. Larval C. attenuata were fed 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-instar (L2, L3, and L4) larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens at variable rates to determine minimum and optimu...

  8. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  9. HISTOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF SOME BIOLOGICAL AGENTS ON CULEX PIPIENS LARVAE.

    PubMed

    El Sobky, Mona M; Ismail, Howaida I H; Assar, Abada A

    2016-04-01

    The histochemical effects of the lethal concentration that kills 50% of larvae (LC50) of three biological agents, abamectin, Bacillus thuringiensis and spinosad on the carbohydrates (polysaccharides), proteins, nucleic acids and lipids content of the midgut and fat bodies of Culex pipiens 2nd instar larvae were studied. The results showed that the three tested compounds reduced the carbohydrates (polysaccharides), proteins, RNA synthesis and lipids content after 72 hours of treatment where abamectin was the most effective followed by Bacillus thuringiensis then spinosad. PMID:27363043

  10. Carbon isotope ratios document that the elytra of western corn rootworm reflects adult versus larval feeding and later instar larvae prefer Bt corn to alternate hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L., worldwide. While exploring conventional approaches to management and more recently bioengineering, extended research has been conducted on ways to manage its root-feeding larvae. The nee...

  11. Description of adult and third instar larva of Trichostetha curlei sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) from the Cape region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Šípek, Petr; Ball, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new high altitude montane species of Trichostetha Burmeister, 1842 is described from the Elandsberg range of the Western Cape interior. This represents the 14th species of the genus and the first to be reported with a description of its larva. It is a significant addition to the growing number of species that exhibit no adult feeding behaviour and a short period of activity restricted to the onset of summer. Larvae dwell in rock crevices, feeding on decomposing plant matter. The genus Trichostetha is heterogeneous and the complex variability observed in some species, especially T. capensis (Linnaeus, 1767), requires the re-instatement of taxa that were recently synonymised. Thus, T. bicolor Péringuey, 1907 is here re-proposed as a separate species and T. capensis hottentotta (Gory & Percheron, 1833) as a separate subspecies. Conversely, T. alutacea Allard, 1994 is recognised as a dark variety of T. signata (Fabricius, 1775) and is, consequently, synonymised with this species. PMID:25161367

  12. Carbon isotope ratios document that the elytra of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) reflects adult versus larval feeding and later instar larvae prefer Bt corn to alternate hosts.

    PubMed

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Adamczyk, John J; Higdon, Matthew L; Clark, Thomas L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    In much of the Corn Belt and parts of Europe, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most important insect pest of maize. The need for additional basic knowledge of this pest has been highlighted while developing resistance management plans for insecticidal genetically modified crops. This study evaluated the possibility of tracking feeding habits of western corn rootworm larvae using stable carbon isotope signatures. Plants accumulate different ratios of (13)C:(12)C isotopes, usually expressed as δ(13)C, according to whether they use the C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathway. Herbivore biomass is expected to reflect the δ(13)C of the food they eat. For the current experiment, western corn rootworm larvae were grown on different species of plants exhibiting different δ(13)C values. The δ(13)C values were then measured in elytra of emerged beetles. When beetles were unfed, biomass reflected larval feeding. When beetles were fed for 31 d postemergence, δ(13)C values of elytra almost exclusively reflected adult feeding. These results suggest the use of caution in the interpretation of δ(13)C data aiming to document larval diet history when adult feeding history is unknown. The technique was also used to evaluate western corn rootworm larval choice between alternate hosts and maize with and without genetically modified (Bt) traits aimed at their control. Propensity for feeding on alternate hosts versus maize was biased toward feeding on maize regardless whether the maize had Bt or not, suggesting western corn rootworm larvae were not repelled by Bt. These data will be helpful for regulators in interpreting western corn rootworm feeding data on Bt maize. PMID:24874160

  13. Evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus against Mansonia dyari larvae in phosphate lakes in Polk County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Floore, Tom; Wardz, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Effective Mansonia larval control is difficult to achieve in Polk County, Florida, because the larvae attach to the root and stem mass of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). This study evaluated 2 Bacillus sphaericus larvicides as possible control products in 3 phosphate lakes in 2 areas maintained by Polk County Mosquito Control. VectoLex WDG was applied at 56 kg/km2 and 170 kg/km2 and VectoLex CG at 560 kg/km2 and 1,100 kg/km2. One lake in each site was an untreated control. Larval collections were made by collecting water lettuce plants that were shaken, washed, and processed through a series of sieves to grade larvae as early (1st, 2nd) and late (3rd, 4th) instars. Pretreatment and posttreatment collections were made in each lake. More than 3,100 larvae were collected during the study. Approximately 65% of the larvae collected were Ist/2nd instars in both areas. The higher rate of VectoLex CG reduced the larval population 63% and the higher rate of VectoLex WDG by 44%. Against the Ist/2nd instar aggregate the higher rate of VectoLex CG was more effective (69%) than the VectoLex WDG. The VectoLex CG granules appeared to remain nearer the surface and the larvae than the WDG granules. Better effectiveness might have been attained if the entire lake had been treated. In this study, VectoLex CG appeared to be more effective than VectoLex WDG. PMID:19852221

  14. Instar determination in forensically useful beetles Necrodes littoralis (Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2014-08-01

    In order to estimate postmortem interval from immature insects, it is necessary to accurately determine which instars are present in a corpse sample. Unfortunately, most forensically useful beetles lack morphological features specific for particular instars, and the only way to distinguish larval instars of particular species is to measure their size. The aim of this study was to test which measurements are useful for instar determination of Necrodes littoralis (Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae) and how to combine them to get accurate and easy to use instar classifier. Six morphological features were measured: distance between dorsal stemmata, width of the pronotum, length of the body, width of the mesonotum, width of the eighth abdominal tergite and length of the first segment of urogomphus. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to create and validate classifiers. Validation was made with fully sclerotized larvae and larvae just after ecdysis (not fully sclerotized and coloured). All the features were found to be useful for instar determination. The most useful features were the width of the mesonotum and the distance between dorsal stemmata. Complete classifiers (the ones incorporating all features) assigned larvae to instars with no misclassifications, unless larval specimens were just after ecdysis. Even in the case of larvae just after ecdysis complete classifiers were highly effective, although some third instars of C. maxillosus were misclassified as second instars. Simple classifiers (the ones incorporating only two, the best features) performed similarly well with fully sclerotized larvae, but in the case of larvae just after ecdysis they revealed higher misclassification rate than complete classifiers. These results indicate that measurement of any highly sclerotized larval structure of N. littoralis and C. maxillosus may be useful for instar determination. They also show that fully sclerotized larvae may be accurately classified

  15. An Adaptive Kernel Smoothing Method for Classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Larval Instars

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Guanjun; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks’ rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby’s growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods. PMID:26546689

  16. Chemically mediated group formation in soil-dwelling larvae and pupae of the beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2014-09-01

    Many insects form groups through interactions among individuals, and these are often mediated by chemical, acoustic, or visual cues and signals. In spite of the diversity of soil-dwelling insects, their aggregation behaviour has not been examined as extensively as that of aboveground species. We investigated the aggregation mechanisms of larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus, which live in groups in humus soil. In two-choice laboratory tests, 2nd- and 3rd-instar larvae gathered at conspecific larvae irrespective of the kinship. The ablation of maxillae, which bear chemosensilla, abolished aggregation behaviour. Intact larvae also exhibited aggregation behaviour towards a larval homogenate. These results suggest that larval aggregation is mediated by chemical cues. We also demonstrated that the mature larvae of T. dichotomus built their pupal cells close to a mesh bag containing a conspecific pupal cell, which indicated that larvae utilize chemical cues emanating from these cells to select the pupation site. Thus, the larvae of T. dichotomus may use chemical cues from the conspecifics in two different contexts, i.e. larval aggregation and pupation site selection. Using conspecific cues, larvae may be able to choose suitable locations for foraging or building pupal cells. The results of the present study highlight the importance of chemical information in belowground ecology.

  17. The Implications of Temperature-Mediated Plasticity in Larval Instar Number for Development within a Marine Invertebrate, the Shrimp Palaemonetes varians

    PubMed Central

    Oliphant, Andrew; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Variations in larval instar number are common among arthropods. Here, we assess the implications of temperature-mediated variations in larval instar number for larval development time, larval growth rates, and juvenile dry weight within the palaemonid shrimp, Palaemonetes varians. In contrast with previous literature, which focuses on terrestrial arthropods, particularly model and pest species often of laboratory lines, we use wild shrimp, which differ in their life history from previous models. Newly-hatched P. varians larvae were first reared at 5, 10, 17, 25, and 30°C to assess their thermal scope for development. Larvae developed at 17, 25, and 30°C. At higher temperatures, larvae developed through fewer larval instars. Two dominant developmental pathways were observed; a short pathway of four instars and a long pathway of five instars. Longer developmental pathways of six to seven instars were rarely observed (mostly at lower temperatures) and consisted of additional instars as ‘repeat’ instars; i.e. little developmental advance over the preceding instar. To assess the implications of temperature-mediated variation in larval instar number, newly-hatched larvae were then reared at 15, 20, and 25°C. Again, the proportion of larvae developing through four instars increased with temperature. At all temperatures, larval development time and juvenile dry weight were greater for larvae developing through five instars. Importantly, because of the increasing proportion of larvae developing through four instars with increasing temperature, larval traits associated with this pathway (reduced development time and juvenile dry weight) became more dominant. As a consequence of increasing growth rate with temperature, and the shift in the proportion of larvae developing through four instars, juvenile dry weight was greatest at intermediate temperatures (20°C). We conclude that at settlement P. varians juveniles do not follow the temperature-size rule; this is of

  18. Feeding patterns of migratory and non-migratory fourth instar larvae of two coexisting Chaoborus species in an acidic and metal contaminated lake: Importance of prey ingestion rate in predicting metal bioaccumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, M.-N.; Hare, L.; Marcoux, P.

    2003-01-01

    We studied diel variations in the feeding habits and migratory behaviors of two coexisting Chaoborus species in an acidic and metal contaminated lake (Lake Turcotte, QC, Canada). We found that although the zooplankton community was dominated by rotifers, both Chaoborus species fed mostly on chironomids and crustaceans despite the relatively low abundance of these prey types in the lake plankton. Chaoborus americanus larvae fed on those of Chaoborus punctipennis, but not vice versa. The non-migratory species (C. americanus) fed throughout the day and night whereas the migratory species (C. punctipennis) fed only at night while in the water column. The larger-bodied C. americanus consumed more prey and had a more diverse diet than did the smaller-bodied C. punctipennis. Differences in feeding habits between the Chaoborus species inhabiting Lake Turcotte (prey biomass, prey types) likely explain in part their ability to coexist. Attempts to predict Cd in the Chaoborus species using our measurements of Cd in their prey and their prey ingestion rates met with mixed success; although we correctly predicted higher Cd concentrations for C. americanus larvae than for C. punctipennis larvae, we under-predicted absolute Cd concentrations. We suggest that studies such as ours that are based on analyses of gut contents of larvae collected at intervals of 4h or longer likely underestimate prey ingestion rates.

  19. The transfer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from the host plant to butterfly larvae through a food chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Shinkai, Yusuke; Niki, Rikio; Takeda, Ken; Irie, Masaru

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the transfer of nanoparticles within a terrestrial food chain. Oviposited eggs of the swallowtail butterfly (Atrophaneura alcinous) were hatched on the leaves of the host plant (Aristolochia debilis), and the root stock and root hairs were submerged in a suspension of 10 μg/ml titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a 100 ml bottle. The presence of TiO2-NPs in the veins of the leaves was confirmed by X-ray analytical microscopy (X-ray AM). The hatched 1st instar larvae fed on the leaves to moult into 2nd instar larvae. Small agglomerates of TiO2-NPs less than 150 nm in diameter were identified in the vascular tissue of the exposed plant, the midgut and the excreta of the larvae by transmission electron microscopy. The image of Ti elemental mapping by X-ray AM was analysed with the quantitative spatial information mapping (QSIM) technique. The results demonstrated that TiO2-NPs were transferred from the plant to the larvae and they were disseminated throughout the environment via larval excreta.

  20. The transfer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from the host plant to butterfly larvae through a food chain

    PubMed Central

    Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Shinkai, Yusuke; Niki, Rikio; Takeda, Ken; Irie, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the transfer of nanoparticles within a terrestrial food chain. Oviposited eggs of the swallowtail butterfly (Atrophaneura alcinous) were hatched on the leaves of the host plant (Aristolochia debilis), and the root stock and root hairs were submerged in a suspension of 10 μg/ml titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a 100 ml bottle. The presence of TiO2-NPs in the veins of the leaves was confirmed by X-ray analytical microscopy (X-ray AM). The hatched 1st instar larvae fed on the leaves to moult into 2nd instar larvae. Small agglomerates of TiO2-NPs less than 150 nm in diameter were identified in the vascular tissue of the exposed plant, the midgut and the excreta of the larvae by transmission electron microscopy. The image of Ti elemental mapping by X-ray AM was analysed with the quantitative spatial information mapping (QSIM) technique. The results demonstrated that TiO2-NPs were transferred from the plant to the larvae and they were disseminated throughout the environment via larval excreta. PMID:27030539

  1. The transfer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from the host plant to butterfly larvae through a food chain.

    PubMed

    Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Shinkai, Yusuke; Niki, Rikio; Takeda, Ken; Irie, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the transfer of nanoparticles within a terrestrial food chain. Oviposited eggs of the swallowtail butterfly (Atrophaneura alcinous) were hatched on the leaves of the host plant (Aristolochia debilis), and the root stock and root hairs were submerged in a suspension of 10 μg/ml titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a 100 ml bottle. The presence of TiO2-NPs in the veins of the leaves was confirmed by X-ray analytical microscopy (X-ray AM). The hatched 1st instar larvae fed on the leaves to moult into 2nd instar larvae. Small agglomerates of TiO2-NPs less than 150 nm in diameter were identified in the vascular tissue of the exposed plant, the midgut and the excreta of the larvae by transmission electron microscopy. The image of Ti elemental mapping by X-ray AM was analysed with the quantitative spatial information mapping (QSIM) technique. The results demonstrated that TiO2-NPs were transferred from the plant to the larvae and they were disseminated throughout the environment via larval excreta. PMID:27030539

  2. Description of the third instar of Hygrobia nigra (Clark, 1862) Coleoptera: Paelobiidae), with a key for the identification of mature larvae of Hygrobia Latreille, 1804 and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Michat, Mariano C; Alarie, Yves; Hendrich, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The mature larva of the squeak beetle Hygrobia nigra (Clark, 1862) (Paelobiidae) is studied for the first time based on detailed descriptions and illustrations of selected structures, with special emphasis on morphometry and chaetotaxy. A key for the identification of mature larvae of four of the six species of Hygrobia Latreille, 1804 known worldwide is presented. The phylogenetic relationships of the species are analyzed based on a cladistic analysis of a combined data set including larval and adult characters. Hygrobia nigra shares with the other known species of the genus several larval apomorphies including the presence of paramedian lip-like lobes on the epipharynx, a well-developed gula, gills on thoracic and first three abdominal sterna, and the maxillary stipites inserted into submental pouches, and is unique in the presence of a larger number of secondary setae on the metacoxa. The presence of a compact group of minute sensilla in the place where the galea is commonly located suggests that members of Hygrobia lost the galea, a condition independently evolved in some dytiscid lineages. The Australian species form a well-supported clade characterized by the presence of a short nasale, fewer natatory setae on the metatibia, and a marked shortening of the antennal sensorial appendage and the last abdominal segment. However, no larval characters were discovered to resolve relationships within that clade. The Palearctic H. hermanni (Fabricius, 1775) lacks a distinct nasale and is resolved as sister to the clade formed by the Australian species. PMID:25081162

  3. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2nd and 3rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2nd and 3rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. Conclusion: Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt) is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management. PMID:25629069

  4. 2nd Generation ELT Performance Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimson, Chad M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Search And Rescue is supporting RTCA SC-229 with research and recommendations for performance specifications for the 2nd generation of emergency locator transmitters. Areas for improvement and methods for collecting data will be presented.

  5. Absence of outer caudal setae on all larval instars of Phlebotomus tobbi from the Ionian Greek islands.

    PubMed

    Killick-Kendrick, R; Killick-Kendrick, M; Leger, N; Pesson, B; Madulo-Leblond, G; Page, A M

    1989-04-01

    Larval instars 2, 3 and 4 of Phlebotomus tobbi Adler, Theodor & Lourie from the Greek islands of Corfu and Zakynthos were found to have two caudal setae instead of the four usually present on these instars of Phlebotomus larvae. In a scanning electron microscope comparison with larvae of P. papatasi (Scopoli), a sensillum was seen in place of each outer seta of P. tobbi larvae, suggesting secondary loss of the setae. As the larvae of less than a tenth of the species and subspecies of the genus Phlebotomus have been seen and described, it cannot be assumed that those of P. tobbi are unique in having only two caudal setae. However, four caudal setae in late instars can no longer be considered as a constant character of the genus Phlebotomus. Observations on the larvae of P. tobbi also raise the question of the unknown function of the caudal setae. PMID:2519655

  6. Winter survival of immature instars of Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon and Mansonia titillans Walker (Diptera: Culicidae), in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Juan P; Mulieri, Pablo R; Patitucci, Luciano D; Sander, Valeria A; Rodríguez, Patricia L; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a whole year research on the ecology of Mansonia indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, Costanera Sur Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The usage of different floating plants by immature instars and their overwintering was analyzed. The percentage of usage of the available floating macrophytes (Pistia, Limnobium, and Salvinia) by the larvae and pupae was studied. Also, we defined positivity (P+) as the percentage of plants with immature instars for each plant genus on a monthly basis. Ma. immature instars were captured throughout the year and Pistia was the resource most commonly exploited by the mosquitoes. The percentage of fourth-instar larvae and pupae on Pistia roots with respect to total immature instars captured was assessed on a monthly and seasonal basis. The proportion of fourth-instar larvae and pupae from both species of Mansonia on water lettuce roots, showed significant differences between months and seasons. Our results suggest that the populations of Ma. indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, survive during winter mainly as fourth-instar larvae. PMID:17072469

  7. Laboratory and field evaluation of spinosad, a biorational natural product, against larvae of Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongxing; Mulla, Mir S

    2009-12-01

    Spinosad, a fermentation product from the naturally occurring soil actinomycete bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa, has been reported to have a high level of activity against phytophagous insects and insects impacting human and animal health. It has low mammalian toxicity and a favorable environmental profile, including low persistence and no toxicity to fish and wildlife at mosquito larvicidal rates. In order to determine the activity and efficacy of spinosad against larvae of Culex mosquitoes, technical powder and liquid formulations of spinosad were tested against mosquito larvae under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, spinosad powder was highly active against 2nd and 4th instars of Culex quinquefasciatus after 24 h of exposure. The extent of mortality increased slightly after 48 h of exposure. Second instars were slightly more susceptible than 4th instars. The liquid formulation showed somewhat higher activity (about 2x) than the technical powder material at both the LCs50 and LC90 levels. In field microcosm tests against natural populations of mosquitoes, the liquid formulation yielded excellent control of immature Culex spp. for 21 days at concentrations of 0.05 mg (AI)/liter and 35 days at 0.1 to 0.5 mg (AI)/liter in outdoor tubs. This formulation also yielded excellent control of natural Culex mosquitoes for 14 days or longer at 0.025 to 0.1 mg (AI)/liter in outdoor ponds. From our data, it appears that spinosad as a new mode of action has a good potential for controlling mosquito larvae. PMID:20099593

  8. Parasitism of Western Corn Rootworm Larvae and Pupae by Steinernema carpocapsae.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J J; Brooks, M A

    1995-03-01

    Virulence and development of the insect-parasitic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Mexican strain), were evaluated for the immature stages of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Third instar rootworm larvae were five times more susceptible to nematode infection than second instar larvae and 75 times more susceptible than first instar larvae and pupae, based on laboratory bioassays. Rootworm eggs were not susceptible. Nematode development was observed in all susceptible rootworm stages, but a complete life cycle was observed only in second and third instar larvae and pupae. Nematode size was affected by rootworm stage; the smallest infective-stage nematodes were recovered from second instar rootworm larvae. Results of this study suggest that S. carpocapsae should be applied when second and third instar rootworm larvae are predominant in the field. PMID:19277256

  9. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid's immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present in

  10. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid’s immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present

  11. The fate of vicilins, 7S storage globulins, in larvae and adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Sheila M; Uchôa, Adriana F; Silva, José R; Samuels, Richard I; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Oliveira, Eliana M; Linhares, Ricardo T; Alexandre, Daniel; Silva, Carlos P

    2010-09-01

    The fate of vicilins ingested by Callosobruchus maculatus and the physiological importance of these proteins in larvae and adults were investigated. Vicilins were quantified by ELISA in the haemolymph and fat body during larval development (2nd to 4th instars), in pupae and adults, as well as in ovaries and eggs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the majority of absorbed vicilins were degraded in the fat body. Tracing the fate of vicilins using FITC revealed that the FITC-vicilin complex was present inside cells of the fat body of the larvae and in the fat bodies of both male and female adult C. maculatus. Labelled vicilin was also detected in ovocytes and eggs. Based on the results presented here, we propose that following absorption, vicilins accumulate in the fat body, where they are partially degraded. These peptides are retained throughout the development of the insects and eventually are sequestered by the eggs. It is possible that accumulation in the eggs is a defensive strategy against pathogen attack as these peptides are known to have antimicrobial activity. Quantifications performed on internal organs from larvae of C. maculatus exposed to extremely dry seeds demonstrated that the vicilin concentration in the haemolymph and fat body was significantly higher when compared to larvae fed on control seeds. These results suggest that absorbed vicilins may also be involved in the survival of larvae in dry environments. PMID:20230826

  12. PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The "PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework, 2nd Edition" provides the foundation for the three international assessments planned as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016: PIRLS, PIRLS Literacy, and ePIRLS. PIRLS represents the…

  13. Roles of uptake, biotransformation, and target site sensitivity in determining the differential toxicity of chlorpyrifos to second to fourth instar Chironomous riparius (Meigen)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Sandahl, J.F.; Jenkins, J.J.; Curtis, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    Early life stages of aquatic organisms tend to be more sensitive to various chemical contaminants than later life stages. This research attempted to identify the key biological factors that determined sensitivity differences among life stages of the aquatic insect Chironomous riparius. Specifically, second to fourth instar larvae were exposed in vivo to both low and high waterborne concentrations of chlorpyrifos to examine differences in accumulation rates, chlorpyrifos biotransformation, and overall sensitivity among instars. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assays were performed with chlorpyrifos and the metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon, to investigate potential target site sensitivity differences among instars. Earlier instars accumulated chlorpyrifos more rapidly than later instars. There were no major differences among instars in the biotransformation rates of chlorpyrifos to the more polar metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and chlorpyridinol (TCP). Homogenate AChE activities from second to fourth instar larvae were refractory to chlorpyrifos, even at high concentrations. In contrast, homogenate AChE activities were responsive in a dose-dependent manner to chlorpyrifos-oxon. In general, it appeared that chlorpyrifos sensitivity differences among second to fourth instar C. riparius were largely determined by differences in uptake rates. In terms of AChE depression, fourth instar homogenates were more sensitive to chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon than earlier instars. However, basal AChE activity in fourth instar larvae was significantly higher than basal AChE activity in second to third instar larvae, which could potentially offset the apparent increased sensitivity to the oxon. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stage-specific quercetin sulfation in the gut of Mythimna separata larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Aboshi, Takako; Ishida, Masahiro; Matsushita, Kaori; Hirano, Yunosuke; Nishida, Ritsuo; Mori, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The metabolism of quercetin was investigated in Mythimna separata larvae. Quercetin 4'-O-sulfate was mainly identified in the frass when 6th instar larvae were fed artificial diets containing 1% quercetin. In the case of the 3rd instar larvae, a larger amount of quercetin was detected in the frass. M. separata larvae had different metabolic strategies for quercetin at different developmental stages. PMID:25036481

  15. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  16. Shock chloramination: potential treatment for Chironomidae (Diptera) larvae nuisance abatement in water supply systems.

    PubMed

    Broza, M; Halpern, M; Teltsch, B; Porat, R; Gasith, A

    1998-08-01

    In the early 1990s, infestations of midge larvae (Chironomidae, Chironomus sp.) were discovered in the potable water system of Tel Aviv, Israel. Control measures, such as draining and cleaning tanks, spraying water into the tank's air space, and electrocution traps of midge adults, were either inadequate or ineffective. In this system, monochloramine concentrations of up to 0.75 mg/liter are used routinely as a secondary disinfectant. This chemical was tested in the laboratory as a toxicant of midge larvae. The mortality of 4th instar midge larvae after short exposure to high chloramine concentrations (LC50 values of 32 mg/liter for 75 min) suggested the efficacy of instituting a Shock Chloramination treatment program. Tanks were partially drained until they contained only 20 cm of water and were then temporarily disconnected. Chloramine was added to this water to produce a concentration of approximately 70 mg/liter for 1-2 h. Subsequently, all dead chironomids were flushed out, and the tank was refilled to attain the operational volume of water. A 2nd identical treatment of water in the tank was suggested 7 d later to kill midges from reproductive adults and egg-masses that survived the 1st treatment. This treatment program was tested in commercial covered tanks and gave complete control of these pests for 6-10 wk. These results suggest that this treatment program may effectively prevent midge outbreaks in Israel's drinking water supply system during the height of the summer. PMID:9725031

  17. Effects of Cucurbitacin on the Activity of Nucleopolyhedroviruses against Pickleworm Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cucurbitacin-containing feeding stimulant (Invite® EC) was attractive to second instar pickleworm larvae in the absence of a food source. Second instar pickleworm larvae also fed preferentially on cucumber fruits that were treated with a 1% (0.01X) solution of Invite EC. However, 1% Invite did...

  18. Larval sampling and instar determination in field populations of northern and western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Hammack, Leslie; Ellsbury, Michael M; Roehrdanz, Richard L; Pikul, Joseph L

    2003-08-01

    Abundance and head capsule width were measured for northern (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence) and western corn rootworm (D. virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae recovered primarily from maize root systems but also from large soil cores each centered around a root system. Larvae for measurement derived from field populations under infestation and rotation regimes that allowed most specimens to be assigned to species. A frequency distribution of head capsule widths indicated three separate peaks for western corn rootworm, presumably representing frequency of the three larval instars, with no larvae measuring 280 or 420 microm in the valleys between peaks. Multiple normal curves fit to similar but partially overlapping peaks generated by northern corn rootworm suggested that division of first to second and second to third instar can best be made for this species at 267 and 406 microm, respectively (270 and 410 when measurements are made to the nearest 20 microm). These results implied that instar of individuals from mixed northern and western corn rootworm populations can be accurately judged from head capsule width without having to determine species. The relative abundance of western corn rootworm instars was similar in root systems removed from the center of 19-cm diameter x 19-cm deep soil cores and in soil cores from which the root systems were removed. Furthermore, the number of larvae from root systems correlated significantly with that from the surrounding soil. These results indicated that the former and much more convenient sampling unit can be used to estimate population developmental stage and possibly density, at least early in the season when these tests were done and young larvae predominated. PMID:14503586

  19. Latex constituents from Calotropis procera (R. Br.) display toxicity upon egg hatching and larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Márcio Viana; Bandeira, Glaís de Paiva; de Freitas, Cléverson Diniz Teixeira; Nogueira, Nádia Accioly Pinto; Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; de Sousa, Petrônio Augusto Simão; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2006-08-01

    Calotropis procera R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant with leaves, roots, and bark being exploited by popular medicine to fight many human and animal diseases. This work deals with the fractionation of the crude latex produced by the green parts of the plant and aims to evaluate its toxic effects upon egg hatching and larval development of Aedes aegypti. The whole latex was shown to cause 100% mortality of 3rd instars within 5 min. It was fractionated into water-soluble dialyzable (DF) and non-dialyzable (NDF) rubber-free materials. Both fractions were partially effective to prevent egg hatching and most of individuals growing under experimental conditions died before reaching 2nd instars or stayed in 1st instars. Besides, the fractions were very toxic to 3rd instars causing 100% mortality within 24 h. When both fractions were submitted to heat-treatment the toxic effects were diminished considerably suggesting low thermostability of the toxic compounds. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of both fractions and their newly fractionated peaks obtained through ion exchange chromatography or desalting attested the presence of proteins in both materials. When submitted to protease digestion prior to larvicidal assays NDF lost most of its toxicity but DF was still strongly active. It may be possible that the highly toxic effects of the whole latex from C. procera upon egg hatching and larvae development should be at least in part due to its protein content found in NDE However the toxicity seems also to involve non protein molecules present in DF. PMID:17072453

  20. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Definition Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert M.; Stucker, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Mid-Term Report summarizes the status of Kelly Space & Technology's activities during the first two and one half months of the program. This report was presented to the cognoscente Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) and selected Marshall Space Flight Center staff members on 26 September 2000. The report has been approved and is distributed on CD-ROM (as a PowerPoint file) in accordance with the terms of the subject contract, and contains information and data addressing the following: (1) Launch services demand and requirements; (2) Architecture, alternatives, and requirements; (3) Costs, pricing, and business cases analysis; (4) Commercial financing requirements, plans, and strategy; (5) System engineering processes and derived requirements; and (6) RLV system trade studies and design analysis.

  1. 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Martinez, Ed; Arcadi, Marla

    2005-01-01

    Included are presentations from the 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop. The purpose of the second workshop was to continue to unite the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers and mission designers and planners; whose expertise, experience and interests are in the areas of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics of planetary entry vehicles. Mars lander missions and the first probe mission to Titan made 2004 an exciting year for planetary exploration. The Workshop addressed entry probe science, engineering challenges, mission design and instruments, along with the challenges of reconstruction of the entry, descent and landing or the aerocapture phases. Topics addressed included methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed; techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder and Mars MER; upcoming missions such as the imminent entry of Huygens and future Mars entry probes; and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.

  2. Radiation-induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase in Caribbean fruit fly larvae (diptera:tephritidae) as the basis for a simple test of irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Smittle, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    First instars of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100, and 150 Gy doses from a Cs-137 source, and observed for whole body melanization as late third instars. Control larvae rapidly melanized, whereas larvae irradiated at {ge}20 Gy failed to show typical melanization after freezing and thawing. Assays of phenoloxidase in control and irradiated larvae showed greatly decreased enzyme activity at {ge}20 Gy and substantial reduction at lower doses. Larvae were also irradiated on the 1st d of each instar, and phenoloxidase activity was determined when they became late third instars. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of the first instar and on 1st d of the second instar has {approx}90% or greater reduction in phenoloxidase activity as late third instars. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of the instar had {approx}50% reduction in phenoloxidase activity at the time they became late third instars leaving the food to pupate. A simple spot test for phenoloxidase was developed that produced a red color with a crushed control larvae and no color with a larva irradiated at {ge}25 Gy. The radiation induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase activity, and a simple spot test may serve as tests for irradiation treatment of Caribbean fruit fly larvae. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. First-instar western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: chrysomelidae) response to carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Strnad, S.P.; Bergman, M.K.; Fulton, W.C.

    1986-08-01

    Responses of first-instar western corn rootworm to CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ gas gradients were studied in a laboratory test arena. Number of larvae reaching the gas source, number of turns toward and away from the gas source, larval velocity, and number of turns per cm traveled were recorded. Larvae exhibited a positive chemotactic response to CO/sub 2/ but not N/sub 2/ or air. There was no indication that a kinesis of any type was involved because velocities and turning rates were not significantly different among treatments. Results indicate that newly hatched larve may use CO/sub 2/ to locate corn roots.

  4. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-05-11

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention--the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention--affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer's 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  5. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregrate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention—the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention—affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer’s 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  6. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle NASA Led Propulsion Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Design, development and test of a 2nd generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is presented. This current paper discusses the following: 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project, Overview of NASA Led Tasks in Propulsion, Gen2 Turbo Machinery Technology Demonstrator, and Combustion Devices Test Bed, GRCop-84 Sheet For Combustion Chambers, Nozzles and Large Actively Cooled Structures

  7. Comments on the biology of Sciodrepoides watsoni watsoni (Spence, 1813) with descriptions of larvae and pupa (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Cholevinae).

    PubMed

    Kilian, Aleksandra; Mądra, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The late-instar larva of Sciodrepoides watsoni watsoni is redescribed and the egg, first and second instar and pupa are described for the first time. Immature stages habitus, chaetotaxy, detailed illustrations and details of life cycle are provided. Previous descriptions of larva of S. watsoni are discussed. The structures of larvae of S. watsoni are compared with those of other known larvae of Cholevinae. PMID:25947836

  8. [Toxicity and influencing factors of liquid chlorine on chironomid larvae].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xing-Bin; Cui, Fu-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song; Guo, Zhao-Hai; Xu, Feng; Liu, Li-Jun

    2005-09-01

    The excessive propagation of Chironomid larvae (red worm) in the sedimentation tanks is a difficult problem for the normal function of waterworks. The toxic effect of liquid chlorine on the different instar larvae of Chironomid was studied using distilled water as test sample. Furthermore, the effect of pH value, organic matter content, ammonia nitrogen, and algae content on toxicity of liquid chlorine was observed. The results show that the tolerance of Chironomid larvae to liquid chlorine is strengthened with the increase in instar. The 24h semi-lethal concentration (LC50) of liquid chlorine to the 4th instar larvae of Chironomid is 3.39 mg/L. Low pH value and high algae content are helpful to improve the toxic effect of liquid chlorine to Chironomid larvae. In neutral water body, the increase in organic matter content results in the decrease in the death rate of Chironomid larvae. The toxicity of liquid chlorine differs greatly in different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen. The death rate of the 4th instar larvae of Chironomid in raw water is higher by contrast with that in sedimentation tanks water for 24h disposal with various amount of liquid chlorine. PMID:16366477

  9. Transmission of a Gammabaculovirus within Cohorts of Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Roger; Quiring, Dan T.; Lucarotti, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV: Gammabaculovirus: Baculoviridae) of diprionid sawflies (Diprionidae: Hymenoptera) are highly host specific and only infect the midgut epithelium. While still alive, infected sawfly larvae excrete NPV-laden diarrhea that contaminates food sources. The diarrhea can then be consumed by conspecific larvae, resulting in rapid horizontal transmission of the virus. To better understand the efficacy of Gammabaculovirus-based biological control products, the horizontal spread of such a virus (NeabNPV) within cohorts of balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) larvae was studied by introducing NeabNPV-treated larvae into single-cohort groups at densities similar to those observed during the increasing (field study) and peak (laboratory study) phases of an outbreak. In field studies (~200 N. abietis larvae/m2 of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) foliage), NeabNPV-induced mortality increased positively in a density-dependent manner, from 23% (in control groups) to 51% with the addition of one first-instar NeabNPV-treated larva, to 84% with 10 first–instar-treated larvae. Mortality was 60% and 63% when one or 10 NeabNPV-treated third-instar larva(e), respectively, were introduced into groups. Slightly higher levels of NeabNPV-induced mortality occurring when NeabNPV-treated larvae were introduced into first- rather than third-instar cohorts suggests that early instars are more susceptible to the virus. In the laboratory (~1330 N. abietis larvae/ m2 of foliage), NeabNPV-caused mortality increased from 20% in control groups to over 80% with the introduction of one, five or 10 NeabNPV-treated larvae into treatment groups of first-instar larvae. PMID:26466722

  10. Head capsule widths of nymphal instars of the cotton fleahopper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current guidelines for distinguishing the five nymphal instars of the cotton fleahopper are based on wing pad characteristics. However, wing pads on earlier instars can be difficult to discern, and distinctions among wing pad characteristics of these instars are rather subtle. Consequently, inexpe...

  11. Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus If confirmed, cases would be first instances ... investigating a second possible case of locally transmitted Zika infection. On Tuesday, the first possible case of ...

  12. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas. PMID:27395963

  13. Isolation and characterization of storage lipids in sugarbeet root maggot larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder) (Diptera: Ulidiidae), survives the winter by undergoing diapause as a matured third-instar larva. Third instars of this insect have been successfully maintained in cold (6±1 deg.C) storage for up to six years. The energy cost associated with t...

  14. Molecular motors and the 2nd law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhisong

    2014-03-01

    Molecular motors from biology and nanotechnology often operate on chemical energy of fuel molecules in an isothermal environment, unlike macroscopic heat engines that draw energy from a heat flow between two temperatures. Nevertheless, isothermal molecular motors are still subject to the 2nd law of thermodynamics in a fundamental way: their directional motion must cost a finite amount of energy other than the environmental heat even though no work is done; otherwise the 2nd law would be violated. Hence the 2nd law requires a finite energy price for pure direction of molecular motors. But what is the lowest price of direction allowed by the 2nd law? And how does the 2nd law-decreed price of direction limit performance of molecular motors? In the talk, I shall present our theoretical study of the 2nd law-molecular motor link on basis of the accumulated biomotor phenomenology, and also introduce our experimental effort to develop biomimetic DNA bipedal nanomotors following the mechanistic guidelines out of the theoretical study. [Main contents of this talk are from references:] This work is partially supported by FRC grants R-144-000-259-112, R-144-000-290-112 and R-144-000-320-112.

  15. Mosquito larvae change their feeding behavior in response to kairomones from some predators.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Derek

    2014-03-01

    The efficacy of using predators for the biological control of mosquito disease vectors will be reduced if mosquito larvae respond to predator presence. The larvae of two mosquito species were investigated to study whether they responded to predator kairomones by increasing surface filter-feeding, which is a less active and thus less risky feeding strategy than bottom feeding. Culex quinquefasciatus Say is normally found in highly polluted water, where it will have little contact with predators. Except for some third instars, its larvae showed no response to four different types of predators. Culiseta longiareolata Macquart, living in rain-filled rock pools, is frequently attacked by a range of predators. All instars tested (second, third, and fourth instars) strongly responded to chemicals from dragonfly nymphs (Crocothemis erythraea Brullé), damselfly nymphs (Ischnura evansi Morton), and the fish Aphanius dispar Ruppel. However, they did not respond to final-instar water scorpions (Nepa cinerea L.), which would not feed on the mosquito larvae. Second- and third-instar Cs. longiareolata produced the same response to chopped up mosquito larvae as they did to dragonfly nymphs, but fourth instars produced a significantly stronger response to dragonfly nymphs-both those unfed and those fed in situ. Thus, Cs. longiareolata not only identified different predators and responded accordingly, but also responded to conspecific alarm pheromones. Cx quinquefasciatus showed little response to predators or to alarm pheromones from damaged conspecific larvae. PMID:24724285

  16. Response and effect of two plant crude extracts on mosquito larvae Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    El-Ela, N A; Talha, M; El-Aziz, A A

    1998-01-01

    The response and effect of two plant crude extract from dry Damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) and Neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) were tested against the first and third instar larvae of mosquito (Culex pipiens). The results showed that both extracts had a larvicidal effect. Neem seed extract was more toxic than Damsissa extract against both the first and third instar larvae. In addition, the young larvae (first instar) were more susceptible to Neem seeds than the old ones (third instar) as revealed from the LC50 values, while Damsissa showed nearly the same effect against both stages. Meanwhile, treatment of Neem seed extracts resulted in prolongation of the larval period accompanied with a decrease in larval activity. Moreover, the effect of the two extracts on larval total esterase isozymes was examined. Neem extract showed an adverse effect on the third instar larvae, since only one band (E1) was observed and the other 4 bands disappeared at all concentrations used, as compared with untreated control larvae (El, E2, E3, E4, and E5). Meanwhile, Damsissa extract treatment of the third instar larvae showed an additional band located between E3 and E4, and the absence of two bands (E2 and E3) after treatment with 0.5x10(4), 1x10(4) and 1.5x10(4) ppm, while treatment with 0.25x10(4) ppm did not result in any changes in larval total esterase. PMID:17217029

  17. PRELIMINARY DATA ON USE OF THE INLAND SILVERSIDE, 'MENIDIA BERYLLINA', TO CONTROL MOSQUITO LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of procedures for spawning and culture of the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, was conducted. The control efficacy of young Menidia, 21 to 37 days old, was determined in the laboratory with the 1st and 2nd instars of Aedes taeniorhynchus and Anopheles quadrimaculatus...

  18. Response to host plant odors and aggregation pheromone by larvae of the Colorado potato beetle on a servosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a servosphere (locomotion compensator), locomotory behaviour of Colorado potato beetle larvae was measured in detail in response to pulsed and non-pulsed odors of hostplant and conspecific pheromone. Second instar larvae showed decreased Straightness of movement, and all larvae showed decrease...

  19. Efficacy of an Esfenvalerate plus Methoprene Aerosol for the Control of Eggs and Fifth Instars of the Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerosol insecticides may provide an alternative to fumigants for control of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), a major insect pest of stored processed food. In this study, eggs and larvae (5th instars) of P. interpunctella were exposed to aerosol applications of the pyrethroid esf...

  20. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  1. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  2. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  4. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the reindeer warble fly larva.

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, M S; Nilssen, A C; Lyslo, A; Syrdalen, P; Dannevig, L

    1991-01-01

    Two boys with ophthalmomyiasis caused by the first instar larva of the reindeer warble fly Hypoderma tarandi are reported. Both were 9 years old and came from the coast of northern Norway. One had ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior and one eye had been removed because of progressive pain and blindness. Histological examination showed the remains of a fly larva. The second boy had ophthalmomyiasis externa with a tumour in the upper eyelid, and histological examination showed a warble with a well preserved larva. Identification of the parasite in the histological material was based on the finding of cuticular spines and parts of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton identical with those of the first instar larva of H tarandi. Images PMID:2030144

  5. Larvae of two East-Asian species of Nemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae).

    PubMed

    Teslenko, Valentina A

    2016-01-01

    Associated larvae of the two East-Asian Nemoura species, N. papilla Okamoto and N. ussuriensis Zhiltzova are described and illustrated in detail for the first time. The main diagnostic features of late instar larvae of both species are color and pigment patterns, the chaetotaxy of the pronotum, legs, abdomen, and cercal segments. PMID:27615981

  6. Multi-year survival of sugarbeet root maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis) larvae in cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet root maggots (Tetanops myopaeformis), as third-instar larvae have been successfully maintained in cold (6 ± 1ºC) storage for up to six years. To test the hypothesis that this long term survival in storage is facilitated by larvae undergoing prolonged diapause, comparative studies on respir...

  7. Internal Lipids of Sugarbeet Root Maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis) Larvae: Effects of Multi-year Cold Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet root maggots, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder), survive more than five years of laboratory cold (6oC) storage as mature third-instar larvae. To quantify energy costs associated with prolonged storage, internal lipids of larvae stored for 1, 2, 3, and 5 years were compared and characterized wi...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1631 - Oxfendazole and trichlorfon paste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intestinalis, 2nd and 3rd instars; G. nasalis, 3rd instar) and the following gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), pinworms (Oxyuris equi), adult and 4th stage larvae; large...

  9. The transient nature of 2nd-order stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Robert F; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2008-05-01

    There are currently two competing dichotomies used to describe how local stereoscopic information is processed by the human visual system. The first is in terms of the type of the spatial filtering operations used to extract relevant image features prior to stereoscopic analysis (i.e. 1st- vs 2nd-order stereo; [Hess, R. F., & Wilcox, L. M. (1994). Linear and non-linear filtering in stereopsis. Vision Research, 34, 2431-2438]). The second is in terms of the temporal properties of the mechanisms used to process stereoscopic information (i.e. sustained vs transient stereo; [Schor, C. M., Edwards, M., & Pope, D. R. (1998). Spatial-frequency and contrast tuning of the transient-stereopsis system. Vision Research, 38(20), 3057-3068]). Here we compare the dynamics of 1st- and 2nd-order stereopsis using several types of stimuli and find a clear dissociation in which 1st-order stimuli exhibit sustained properties while 2nd-order patterns show more transient properties. Our results and analyses unify and simplify two complimentary bodies of work. PMID:18407312

  10. Nematode larvae infecting Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces: Teleostei) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuraiem, Bianca P; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza N; Gomes, Delir C; Clemente, Sérgio C São

    2016-05-31

    From July to December, 2013, thirty Priacanthus arenatus specimens commercialized in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were acquired. The fish were necropsied and filleted to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty fish (66.7%) out of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae. A total of 2024 larvae were collected; among them, 30 third-instar larvae of Anisakis sp. showed prevalence (P) = 20%, mean abundance (MA) = 1, and the mean intensity (MI) = 5, and infection sites (IS) = caecum, stomach, liver, and mesentery; and 1,994 third-instar larvae (1,757 encysted and 237 free) of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 66.7%, MA = 66.5, and MI = 99.7, and IS = spleen, caecum, stomach, liver, mesentery, and abdominal muscle. This is the first study to report H. deardorffoverstreetorum and Anisakis sp. larvae parasitizing P. arenatus. PMID:27254444

  11. Development of a solitary koinobiont hyperparasitoid in different instars of its primary and secondary hosts.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Fei, Minghui; Lammers, Mark; Kos, Martine; Zhu, Feng; Heinen, Robin; Poelman, Erik H; Gols, Rieta

    2016-07-01

    Parasitoid wasps are excellent organisms for studying the allocation of host resources to different fitness functions such as adult body mass and development time. Koinobiont parasitoids attack hosts that continue feeding and growing during parasitism, whereas idiobiont parasitoids attack non-growing host stages or paralyzed hosts. Many adult female koinobionts attack a broad range of host stages and are therefore faced with a different set of dynamic challenges compared with idiobionts, where host resources are largely static. Thus far studies on solitary koinobionts have been almost exclusively based on primary parasitoids, yet it is known that many of these are in turn attacked by both koinobiont and idiobiont hyperparasitoids. Here we compare parasitism and development of a primary koinobiont hyperparasitoid, Mesochorus gemellus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in larvae of the gregarious primary koinobiont parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) developing in the secondary herbivore host, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). As far as we know this is the first study to examine development of a solitary primary hyperparasitoid in different stages of its secondary herbivore host. Pieris brassicae caterpillars were parasitized as L1 by C. glomerata and then these parasitized caterpillars were presented in separate cohorts to M. gemellus as L3, L4 or L5 instar P. brassicae. Different instars of the secondary hosts were used as proxies for different developmental stages of the primary host, C. glomerata. Larvae of C. glomerata in L5 P. brassicae were significantly longer than those in L3 and L4 caterpillars. Irrespective of secondary host instar, every parasitoid cluster was hyperparasitized by M. gemellus but all only produced male progeny. Male development time decreased with host stage attacked, whereas adult male body mass did not, which shows that M. gemellus is able to optimally exploit older host larvae in terms of adult size despite their

  12. DEPENDENCE OF ECDYSTEROID METABOLISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN HOST LARVAE ON THE TIME OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION AND THE ACTIVITY OF THE UDP-GLUCOSYL TRANSFERASE GENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infection of fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae with the wild-type (Wt) gypsy moth baculovirus, LdNPV on the first day post-molt, or infection of fifth instars on the fifth day post-molt, results in elevated ecdysteroid levels in both he...

  13. Two 2nd Circuit decisions represent mixed bag on insurance.

    PubMed

    2000-01-21

    The 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York issued two important rulings within a week on the extent to which the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulates insurance practices. [Name removed] v. Allstate Life Insurance Co. was a plaintiff-friendly decision, finding that the insurance company illegally refused to sell life insurance to a married couple because of their mental disability, major depression. [Name removed]. v. Israel Discount Bank of New York was more defendant friendly and tackled the issue of whether the ADA permits different benefit caps for mental and physical disabilities. PMID:11367226

  14. Physiological and Morphological Aspects of Aedes aegypti Developing Larvae: Effects of the Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Novaluron

    PubMed Central

    Farnesi, Luana C.; Brito, José M.; Linss, Jutta G.; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo L.

    2012-01-01

    Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU) that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i) there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii) thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii) chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i) significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii) induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii) rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae

  15. Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen

    PubMed Central

    Hellmich, Richard L.; Siegfried, Blair D.; Sears, Mark K.; Stanley-Horn, Diane E.; Daniels, Michael J.; Mattila, Heather R.; Spencer, Terrence; Bidne, Keith G.; Lewis, Leslie C.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to establish the relative toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and pollen from Bt corn to monarch larvae. Toxins tested included Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry9C, and Cry1F. Three methods were used: (i) purified toxins incorporated into artificial diet, (ii) pollen collected from Bt corn hybrids applied directly to milkweed leaf discs, and (iii) Bt pollen contaminated with corn tassel material applied directly to milkweed leaf discs. Bioassays of purified Bt toxins indicate that Cry9C and Cry1F proteins are relatively nontoxic to monarch first instars, whereas first instars are sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins. Older instars were 12 to 23 times less susceptible to Cry1Ab toxin compared with first instars. Pollen bioassays suggest that pollen contaminants, an artifact of pollen processing, can dramatically influence larval survival and weight gains and produce spurious results. The only transgenic corn pollen that consistently affected monarch larvae was from Cry1Ab event 176 hybrids, currently <2% corn planted and for which re-registration has not been applied. Results from the other types of Bt corn suggest that pollen from the Cry1Ab (events Bt11 and Mon810) and Cry1F, and experimental Cry9C hybrids, will have no acute effects on monarch butterfly larvae in field settings. PMID:11559841

  16. The crystal structure of ^7Li2ND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubota, Masami; Sorby, Magnus H.; Hino, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Hauback, Bjorn C.; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2008-03-01

    Recently much attention has been given to reversible hydrogen storage materials possessing high gravimetric capacity. Lithium amide/imide systems are promising candidates. Chen et al.[1] found that a mixture of lithium amide and lithium hydride can reversibly store hydrogen up to 6.5 mass% forming lithium imide (Li2NH). Among them, the crystal structure of Li2NH is still controversial. Balogh et al.[2] have reported a cubic structure model. However, this model differs significantly from theoretical structure models. In this work, the crystal structure of the isotopically substituted ^7Li2ND has been investigated by powder neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments. In our data some peaks, which should be a single peak for cubic symmetry, were obviously split indicating a lower symmetry than cubic for lithium imide. The structure of ^7Li2ND will be described. [1] P. Chen et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 107 (2003) 10967. [2] M.P. Balogh et al., J. Alloys Compd. 420 (2006) 326.

  17. 2nd Generation RLV: Program Goals and Acquisition Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. Bart; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The risk to loss of life for Space Shuttle crewmembers is approximately one in 245 missions. U.S. launch service providers captured nearly 100%, of the commercial launch market revenues in the mid 1980s. Today, the U.S. captures less than 50% of that market. A launch system architecture is needed that will dramatically increase the safety of space flight while significantly reducing the cost. NASA's Space Launch Initiative, which is implemented by the 2nd Generation RLV Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center, seeks to develop technology and reusable launch vehicle concepts which satisfy the commercial launch market needs and the unique needs of NASA. Presented in this paper are the five primary elements of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan along with the highest level goals and the acquisition strategy of the 2nd Generation RLV Program. Approval of the Space Launch Initiative FY01 budget of $290M is seen as a major commitment by the Agency and the Nation to realize the commercial potential that space offers and to move forward in the exploration of space.

  18. Acute toxicity of plant essential oils to scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and their analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are important contaminant and root-herbivore pests of ornamental crops. In order to develop alternatives to conventional insecticides, 24 plant essential oils were tested for their acute toxicity against third instar larvae of the Japanese beetle P...

  19. RESPIROMETRY DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SUGARBEET ROOT MAGGOT LARVAE IN LONG-TERM STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature 3rd-instar sugarbeet root maggots, starting as diapausing larvae have a remarkable ability to survive more than 5 years in laboratory storage at 5-7 degrees Celsius. To test the hypothesis that this long term survival in storage is facilitated by larvae continuing in the state of diapause, co...

  20. [Larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Le Clec'h, C; de Gentile, L; Verret, J L

    1995-01-01

    Larbish, cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption, is a serpiginous cutaneous eruption caused by skin penetration of infective larva from various animal nematodes. Hookworms (Ancylostoma brasiliense, A. caninum) are the most common causative parasites. They live in the intestines of dogs and cats where their ova are deposited in the animal feces. In sandy and shady soil, when temperature and moisture are elevated, the ova hatch and mature into infective larva. Infection occurs when humans have contact with the infected soil. Infective larva penetrate the exposed skin of the body, commonly around the feet, hands and buttocks. In humans, the larva are not able to complete their natural cycle and remain trapped in the upper dermis of the skin. The disease is widespread in tropical or subtropical regions, especially along the coast on sandy beaches. The diagnosis is easy for the patient who is returning from a tropical or subtropical climate and gives a history of beach exposure. The characteristic skin lesion is a fissure or erythematous cord which is displaced a few millimeters each day in a serpiginous track. Scabies, the larva currens syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis, must be distinguished from other creeping eruptions and subcutaneous swelling lesions caused by other nematodes or myiasis. Medical treatments are justified because it shortens the duration of the natural evolution of the disease. Topical tiabendazole is safe for localized invasions, but prolonged treatment may be necessary. Oral thiabendazole treatment for three days is effective, but sometimes is associated with adverse effects. Trials using albendazole for one or four consecutive days appear more efficacious. More recent trials using ivermectine showed that a single oral dose can cure 100% of the patients; thus, this drug looks very promising as a new form of therapy. Individual prophylaxis consists of avoiding skin contact with soil which has been contaminated with dog or cat feces

  1. Si-CSP9 regulates the integument and moulting process of larvae in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Daifeng; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Liang, Guangwen; He, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been predicted to be involved in development; however, direct evidence for their involvement is lacking, and genetic basis is largely unknown. To determine the function of the chemosensory protein 9 (Si-CSP9) gene in Solenopsis invicta, we used RNA interference to silence Si-CSP9 in 3rd-instar larvae. The 3rd-instar larvae failed to shed their cuticle after being fed Si-CSP9-directed siRNA, and expression profiling of RNAi-treated and untreated control larvae showed that 375 genes were differentially expressed. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 4 pathways associated with larval development were significantly enriched. Blast analysis revealed that one fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene was up-regulated and 4 fatty acid synthase (FAT) genes and one protein kinase DC2 gene (PKA) were down-regulated in the enriched pathways. Significantly higher expression of these genes was found in 4th-instar larvae, and Pearson correlation analysis of the expression patterns revealed significant relationships among Si-CSP9, PKA, FAAH, and FAT1-4. Moreover, we confirmed that expression levels of Si-CSP9, FAAH, and FAT1-4 were significantly reduced and that the development of 3rd-instar larvae was halted with PKA silencing. These results suggest that Si-CSP9 and PKA may be involved in the network that contributes to development of 3rd-instar larvae. PMID:25784646

  2. Si-CSP9 regulates the integument and moulting process of larvae in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daifeng; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Liang, Guangwen; He, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been predicted to be involved in development; however, direct evidence for their involvement is lacking, and genetic basis is largely unknown. To determine the function of the chemosensory protein 9 (Si-CSP9) gene in Solenopsis invicta, we used RNA interference to silence Si-CSP9 in 3rd-instar larvae. The 3rd-instar larvae failed to shed their cuticle after being fed Si-CSP9-directed siRNA, and expression profiling of RNAi-treated and untreated control larvae showed that 375 genes were differentially expressed. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 4 pathways associated with larval development were significantly enriched. Blast analysis revealed that one fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene was up-regulated and 4 fatty acid synthase (FAT) genes and one protein kinase DC2 gene (PKA) were down-regulated in the enriched pathways. Significantly higher expression of these genes was found in 4th-instar larvae, and Pearson correlation analysis of the expression patterns revealed significant relationships among Si-CSP9, PKA, FAAH, and FAT1-4. Moreover, we confirmed that expression levels of Si-CSP9, FAAH, and FAT1-4 were significantly reduced and that the development of 3rd-instar larvae was halted with PKA silencing. These results suggest that Si-CSP9 and PKA may be involved in the network that contributes to development of 3rd-instar larvae. PMID:25784646

  3. Metallothionein modulation in relation to cadmium bioaccumulation and age-dependent sensitivity of Chironomus riparius larvae.

    PubMed

    Toušová, Zuzana; Kuta, Jan; Hynek, David; Adam, Vojtěch; Kizek, René; Bláha, Luděk; Hilscherová, Klára

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to contribute to understanding of the mechanisms behind sensitivity differences between early and late instar larvae of Chironomus riparius and to address the influence of the differences in standard testing approaches on the toxicity evaluation. A 10-day contact sediment toxicity test was carried out to assess sensitivity to cadmium exposure in relation to different age and laboratory culture line origin of test organisms. Chironomid larvae of early (OECD 218 method) and late instar (US-EPA600/R-99/064 method) differed substantially in sensitivity of traditional endpoints (OECD: LOEC 50 and 10 μg Cd/g dry weight (dw); US-EPA: LOEC > 1000 and 100 μg Cd/g dw for survival and growth, respectively). Bioaccumulated cadmium and metallothioneins (MTs) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the role of MTs in reduced sensitivity to cadmium in late instar larvae. Metallothioneins were induced after treatment to greater Cd concentrations, but their levels in relation to cadmium body burdens did not fully explain low sensitivity of late instars to cadmium, which indicates some other effective way of detoxification in late instars. This study brings new information related to the role of MTs in age-dependent toxicant sensitivity and discusses the implications of divergence in data generated by chironomid sediment toxicity tests by standardized methods using different instars. PMID:26957427

  4. Description of the final instar of Trichomalopsis peregrina (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), with data and comments on the preimaginal stages

    SciTech Connect

    Tormos, J. . E-mail: tormos@usal.es; Asis, J.D.; Frago, E.; Selfa, J.; Pujade-Villar, J.; Guara, M.

    2007-03-15

    The preimaginal stages of T. peregrina are described. The egg displays a sculptured chorion, which is found only on those deposited externally. The immature larvae are characterized by their peculiarities in (a) a setose ring on the thoracic and abdominal segments, (b) an anal notch and (c) size and the sensory structures of the head capsule. The final instar is described and illustrated. Morphological structures of diagnostic value are discussed. The most salient character shown by the mature larva of this species lies in the epistoma, which is complete. (author) [Spanish] Se describen las fases de huevo y larva de T. peregrina. El huevo, como es caracteristico en los que se depositan externamente, presenta un corion ornamentado. Las larvas inmaduras exhiben peculiaridades en (a) el anillo setoso de los segmentos toracicos y abdominales, (b) la escotadura anal y (c) el tamano, y estructuras sensoriales, de la capsula cefalica. El estado de caracter mas sobresaliente presentado por la larva madura de esta especie radica en la presencia de un epistoma totalmente diferenciado. (author)

  5. Philips' 2nd generation Novallure LED candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Pei, Zhigang; Yuan, Chuan; Jiang, Tan; Lu, Zhengsong; Wang, Yuqian; Duan, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Yan; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Ye

    2010-08-01

    Finding an energy efficient replacement of incandescent candle lamp has been a technical challenge. Compact fluorescent lamps, for example, can be miniaturized to fit the form factor of a candle lamp but they fail to reproduce its "sparkle" effect. Empowered by solid state lighting technology along with original optical design, Philips has successfully developed LED-powered candle lamps "Novallure" with great energy savings (2W power consumption with lumen output of 55 lumen) and the "butterfly" radiation pattern that mimics the sparkle effect from an incandescent candle lamp. With new high performance LED packages, novel under-cut prismatic optics and state-of-the-art electronic driver solution and thermal solution, we have developed a 2nd generation Novallure with breakthrough performance: a dimmable 2700K 136 lumen LED candle lamp with CRI 90.

  6. Requirements for in vitro germination of Paenibacillus larvae spores.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Israel; Phui, Andy; Elekonich, Michelle M; Abel-Santos, Ernesto

    2013-03-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), a disease affecting honey bee larvae. First- and second-instar larvae become infected when they ingest food contaminated with P. larvae spores. The spores then germinate into vegetative cells that proliferate in the midgut of the honey bee. Although AFB affects honey bees only in the larval stage, P. larvae spores can be distributed throughout the hive. Because spore germination is critical for AFB establishment, we analyzed the requirements for P. larvae spore germination in vitro. We found that P. larvae spores germinated only in response to l-tyrosine plus uric acid under physiologic pH and temperature conditions. This suggests that the simultaneous presence of these signals is necessary for spore germination in vivo. Furthermore, the germination profiles of environmentally derived spores were identical to those of spores from a biochemically typed strain. Because l-tyrosine and uric acid are the only required germinants in vitro, we screened amino acid and purine analogs for their ability to act as antagonists of P. larvae spore germination. Indole and phenol, the side chains of tyrosine and tryptophan, strongly inhibited P. larvae spore germination. Methylation of the N-1 (but not the C-3) position of indole eliminated its ability to inhibit germination. Identification of the activators and inhibitors of P. larvae spore germination provides a basis for developing new tools to control AFB. PMID:23264573

  7. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  8. Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1-F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2(nd) instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

  9. Ecologically Acceptable usage of Derivatives of Essential Oil of Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, as Antifeedants Against Larvae of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1–F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2nd instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

  10. Histopathological changes in third-instar and adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) after in vitro heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce. PMID:25797796

  11. Histopathological Changes in Third-Instar and Adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) After in vitro Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce. PMID:25797796

  12. Actuation development and evaluation for INSTAR: inertially stabilized rifle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brei, Diann E.; Vendlinski, James; Frecker, Mary I.; Bharti, Smita

    2003-08-01

    In the use of piezoelectric actuators, it is a clear choice to use stack (or d33 mode) architectures when very high force is required or benders (or d31 mode) architectures when very high displacements are needed. However, the choice isn't as clear for applications that need simultaneously a moderate force and displacement. This paper presents one such application, INSTAR that is posed with this dilemma. INSTAR is a novel rifle system that has an inertially stabilized barrel via an active suspension based on piezoelectric actuation. While the frequency required for this application was low (~10Hz), the displacement (+/- 200 to 400 microns) and the force (22-45 N) are moderate. Two very different actuation approaches were developed, modeled, fabricated and experimentally validated within the INSTAR demonstration platform: 1) a d31 approach based on the Recurve architecture with focus on generating higher forces than is common for d31 actuators and 2) a d33 approach based upon a compliant mechanism designed using topology optimization with focus on providing more amplified strain than is common for d33 actuators. Both approaches were successful in meeting the INSTAR requirements, but each had its on advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Dichloromethane attracts diabroticite larvae in a laboratory behavioral bioassay.

    PubMed

    Jewett, D K; Bjostad, L B

    1996-07-01

    A two-choice laboratory behavioral bioassay was used to demonstrate that dichloromethane elicits the dose-dependent attraction of secondinstar western and southern corn rootworms. Preliminary data suggest that second-instar banded cucumber beetles are also attracted to dichloromethane. An eluotropic series of 10 materials, including distilled water, ethanol, methanol, acetone, ethyl dichloroacetate, dichloromethane, diethyl ether, benzene, hexadecane, and hexane, was tested for attraction of western corn rootworm larvae. Dichloromethane was the only one attractive at all doses tested, and orthogonal comparisons revealed a quadratic trend (convex) for responses of larvae to increasing dose. Benzene and hexadecane also attracted larvae, but significantly fewer than dichloromethane, and only at three doses and one dose, respectively. Orthogonal comparisons revealed no linear or quadratic trend for responses of larvae to increasing doses of either compound. Dichloromethane is the first organic compound demonstrated to attract western corn rootworm larvae in the absence of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide has previously been reported to attract western corn rootworm larvae either independently or when combined with other organic compounds, and the sensitivity of our bioassay was tested by demonstrating the dose-dependent attraction of western corn rootworm larvae to carbonated water as a carbon dioxide source. We have also demonstrated the attraction of southern corn rootworm larvae to carbon dioxide and propose that carbon dioxide and dichloromethane behave analogously when they interact with chemoreceptor sites on larvae. PMID:24226089

  14. [Microsurgical 2nd toe transfer for catastrophic hand reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Placer, A; Lozano, Ja

    2007-01-01

    The correct reconstruction of the catastrophic hand requires complex surgical techniques. The microsurgical transference of a toe is indicated when all other reconstructive options are shown to be useless for the reconstruction of the required clamp function. In this clinical note we set out the case of a 32 year old man, who came to our accident and emergency department after suffering a traffic accident. After exploration the diagnosis was that of catastrophic left hand, among other policontusions. Urgent surgery was carried out, saving the maximum possible viable structures. The immediate result of this surgery was a hand with 1st, 4th and 5th functional fingers. As the essential clamp function between the 1st and 4th or 5th fingers was not totally satisfactory, we decided to reconstruct the 3rd finger of his hand with his ipsilateral 2nd toe. All pertinent studies to determine vascularisation of the flap were carried out in planning the surgery, and the microsurgical transfer was then realized, which was successful. Today, after a suitable rehabilitation, the patient has recovered a satisfactory function of heavy and fine clamp in the operated hand. Toe to hand transfer is a good option for finger reconstruction and its function. Rehabilitation is the key to functional recovery. PMID:18227902

  15. 2nd PEGS Annual Symposium on Antibodies for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mitchell; Royston, Ivor; Beck, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The 2nd Annual Antibodies for Cancer Therapy symposium, organized again by Cambridge Healthtech Institute as part of the Protein Engineering Summit, was held in Boston, USA from April 30th to May 1st, 2012. Since the approval of the first cancer antibody therapeutic, rituximab, fifteen years ago, eleven have been approved for cancer therapy, although one, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, was withdrawn from the market.  The first day of the symposium started with a historical review of early work for lymphomas and leukemias and the evolution from murine to human antibodies. The symposium discussed the current status and future perspectives of therapeutic antibodies in the biology of immunoglobulin, emerging research on biosimilars and biobetters, and engineering bispecific antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates. The tumor penetration session was focused on the understanding of antibody therapy using ex vivo tumor spheroids and the development of novel agents targeting epithelial junctions in solid tumors. The second day of the symposium discussed the development of new generation recombinant immunotoxins with low immunogenicity, construction of chimeric antigen receptors, and the proof-of-concept of ‘photoimmunotherapy’. The preclinical and clinical session presented antibodies targeting Notch signaling and chemokine receptors.  Finally, the symposium discussed emerging technologies and platforms for therapeutic antibody discovery. PMID:22864478

  16. Aging Studies of 2nd Generation BaBar RPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    The BaBar detector, operating at the PEPII B factory of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), installed over 200 2nd generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in 2002. The streamer rates produced by backgrounds and signals from normal BaBar running vary considerably (0.1- >20 Hz/cm2) depending on the layer and position of the chambers, thus providing a broad spectrum test of RPC performance and aging. The lowest rate chambers have performed very well with stable efficiencies averaging 95%. Other chambers had rate-dependant inefficiencies due to Bakelite drying which were reversed by the introduction of humidified gases. RPC inefficiencies in the highest rate regions of the higher rate chambers have been observed and also found to be rate dependant. The inefficient regions grow with time and have not yet been reduced by operation with humidified input gas. Three of these chambers were converted to avalanche mode operation and display significantly improved efficiencies. The rate of production of HF in the RPC exhaust gases was measured in avalanche and streamer mode RPCs and found to be comparable despite the lower current of the avalanche mode RPCs.

  17. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Maria L.; Dolganova, Irina N.; Gevorgyan, Narine; Guzman, Angela; Papoyan, Aram; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The ICTP smr2633: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications" (OPTICS-2014) http://indico.ictp.it/event/a13253/ was held in Yerevan and Ashtarak, Armenia, on 1-5 September 2014. The Symposium was organized by the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) with the collaboration of the SPIE Armenian Student Chapter, the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-Pyrkal, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the BMSTU SPIE & OSA student chapters. The International Symposium OPTICS-2014 was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics. This symposium "Optics and its Applications" was the First Official ICTP Scientific Event in Armenia. The presentations at OPTICS-2014 were centered on these topics: optical properties of nanostructures; quantum optics & information; singular optics and its applications; laser spectroscopy; strong field optics; nonlinear & ultrafast optics; photonics & fiber optics; optics of liquid crystals; and mathematical methods in optics.

  18. APTWG: 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. Q.; Shi, Y. J.; Tamura, N.; Jhang, Hogun; Watanabe, T.-H.; Ding, X. T.

    2013-02-01

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to and discussions at the 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held in Chengdu, China, from 15 to 18 May 2012. The topics of the meeting were organized under five main headings: momentum transport, non-locality in transport, edge turbulence and L-H transition, three-dimensional effects on transport physics, and particle, momentum and heat pinches. It is found that lower hybrid wave and ion cyclotron wave induce co-current rotation while electron cyclotron wave induces counter-current rotation. A four-stage imaging for low (L) to high (H) confinement transition gradually emerges and a more detailed verification is urgently expected. The new edge-localized modes mitigation technique with supersonic molecular beam injection was approved to be effective to some extent on HL-2A and KSTAR. It is also found that low collisionality, trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient transition (or transition of higher to lower density and temperature gradients), fuelling and lithium coating are in favour of inward pinch of particles in tokamak plasmas.

  19. A new Brazilian Passiflora leafminer: Spinivalva gaucha, gen. n., sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Gracillariinae), the first gracillariid without a sap-feeding instar.

    PubMed

    Brito, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Vargas, Hector A; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2013-01-01

    Male, female, pupa, larva and egg of a new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Gracillariinae), Spinivalva gaucha Moreira and Vargas from southern Brazil are described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences including members of related lineages is also provided. The immature stages are associated with Passiflora actinia, Passiflora misera and Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae), and build mines on the adaxial leaf surface. Initially the mines are serpentine in shape, but later in larval ontogeny become a blotch type. Although the larvae are hypermetamorphic as in other Gracillariidae, there is no sap-feeding instar in Spinivalva gaucha; the larva feeds on the palisade parenchyma, thus producing granular frass during all instars. Pupation occurs outside the mine; prior to pupating, the larva excretes numerous bubbles that are placed in rows on the lateral margins of the cocoon external surface. This is the second genus of gracillariid moth described for the Atlantic Rain Forest, and the second gracillariid species known to be associated with Passifloraceae. PMID:23794860

  20. A new Brazilian Passiflora leafminer: Spinivalva gaucha, gen. n., sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Gracillariinae), the first gracillariid without a sap-feeding instar

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Vargas, Hector A.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Male, female, pupa, larva and egg of a new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Gracillariinae), Spinivalva gaucha Moreira and Vargas from southern Brazil are described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences including members of related lineages is also provided. The immature stages are associated with Passiflora actinia, Passiflora misera and Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae), and build mines on the adaxial leaf surface. Initially the mines are serpentine in shape, but later in larval ontogeny become a blotch type. Although the larvae are hypermetamorphic as in other Gracillariidae, there is no sap-feeding instar in Spinivalva gaucha; the larva feeds on the palisade parenchyma, thus producing granular frass during all instars. Pupation occurs outside the mine; prior to pupating, the larva excretes numerous bubbles that are placed in rows on the lateral margins of the cocoon external surface. This is the second genus of gracillariid moth described for the Atlantic Rain Forest, and the second gracillariid species known to be associated with Passifloraceae. PMID:23794860

  1. Tadpoles of three common anuran species from Thailand do not prey on mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Weterings, Robbie

    2015-12-01

    Tadpoles are often considered to be predators of mosquito larvae and are therefore beneficial for the control of certain disease vectors. Nevertheless, only a few species have actually been recorded to prey on mosquito larvae. The mosquito larvae predation rates of tadpoles of three common Thai anuran species (Bufo melanostictus, Kaloula pulchra and Hylarana raniceps) were experimentally tested. Tadpoles in varying developmental stages were used to assess a size/age effect on the predation rate. In addition, different instars of Culex quinquefasciatus were used in order to assess a prey size effect on the predation rates. All three species failed to show any evidence of mosquito larvae predation. Neither small nor large tadpoles fed on mosquito larvae. Prey size also did not affect predation. Although tadpoles do not feed on mosquito larvae, there may be other direct or indirect inter-specific interactions that adversely impact the development of larvae in shared habitats with tadpoles. PMID:26611955

  2. Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Instar Effects on Rate of Parasitism by Eretmocerus mundus and Encarsia pergandiella (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to compare preference among Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, Biotype B instars for parasitization by Encarsia pergandiella Howard and Eretmocerus mundus Mercet when provided one instar only, two different instars, and four different instars simultaneously. In the single instar-choic...

  3. Highlights of the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamen; Fatima, Vayani; Fatima, Nazeefa; Das, Sayoni; Rahman, Farzana; Hassan, Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    Following the success of the 1 st Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK, a 2 nd Student Symposium took place on 7 th October 2015 at The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich, UK. This short report summarizes the main highlights from the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium. PMID:27239284

  4. Examples to Accompany "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books, 2nd Edition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

    This book is intended to be used with "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books," 2nd edition (DCRB) as an illustrative aid to catalogers and others interested in or needing to interpret rare book cataloging. As such, it is to be used in conjunction with the rules it illustrates, both in DCRB and in "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules," 2nd edition…

  5. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Doughty, Christine; Gasperikova, Erika; Peterson, John; Conrad, Mark; Cook, Paul; Tiemi, Onishi

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  6. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    PubMed Central

    Kitvatanachai, S; Apiwathnasorn, C; Leemingsawat, S; Wongwit, W; Overgaard, HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms. Methods Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx. gelidus. The levels of lead were higher in the Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.08-47.47 µg/g), than in the wastewaters surface (0.01-0.78 µg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the criteria for lead determination. Conclusions The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination, to complemente conventional techniques. PMID:23569727

  7. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  8. PREFACE: 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO 2008'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, P.; Kolodziej, J. J.; Konior, J.; Szymonski, M.

    2009-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers presented at the 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO2008', that was held in Kraków, Poland, 25-28 June 2008. It was organized jointly by the Polish Chemical Society, Polish Physical Society, Polish Vacuum Society, and the Centre for Nanometer-scale Science and Advanced Materials (NANOSAM) of the Jagiellonian University. The meeting presentations were categorized into the following topics: 1. Nanomechanics and nanotribology 2. Characterization and manipulation in nanoscale 3. Quantum effects in nanostructures 4. Nanostructures on surfaces 5. Applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine 6. Nanotechnology in education 7. Industrial applications of nanotechnology, presentations of the companies 8. Nanoengineering and nanomaterials (international sessions shared with the fellows of Maria-Curie Host Fellowships within the 6th FP of the European Community Project 'Nano-Engineering for Expertise and Development, NEED') 9. Nanopowders 10. Carbon nanostructures and nanosystems 11. Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics 12. Nanomaterials in catalysis 13. Nanospintronics 14. Ethical, social, and environmental aspects of nanotechnology The Conference was attended by 334 participants. The presentations were delivered as 7 invited plenary lectures, 25 invited topical lectures, 78 oral and 108 poster contributions. Only 1/6 of the contributions presented during the Conference were submitted for publication in this Proceedings volume. From the submitted material, this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains 37 articles that were positively evaluated by independent referees. The Organizing Committee gratefully acknowledges all these contributions. We also thank all the referees of the papers submitted for the Proceedings for their timely and thorough work. We would like to thank all members of the National Program Committee for their work in the selection process of

  9. Circulating hemocytes from larvae of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): cell types and their role in phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Moreira Neto, João Felipe; Pereira, Gustavo Borges; Franco, Mariani Borges; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specifically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by trapping them in hemocyte aggregates called nodules, or by forming an organized multicellular capsule around large parasites. In the current investigation the cellular in the hemolymph third instar larvae of M. scutellaris has been characterized by means of light microscopy analysis and phagocytosis assays were performed in vivo by injection of 0.5 microm fluorescence beads in order to identify the hemocyte types involved in phagocytosis. Four morphotypes of circulating hemocytes were found in 3rd instar larvae: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids. The results presented plasmatocytes and granulocytes involved in phagocytic response of foreign particles in 3rd instar larvae of M. scutellaris. PMID:19914078

  10. Eicosanoids mediate melantoic nodulation reactions to viral infection in larvae of the parasitic wasp, Pimpla turionellae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nodulation is the predominant insect cellular immune response to bacterial and fungal infections and it can also be induced by viral infection. Treating seventh instar larvae of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella with Bovine herpes simplex virus-1 (BHSV-1) induced nodulation reactions in a dose-d...

  11. Digestive enzymes in the gut and salivary gland of the larvae of Chilo auricilius Ddgn.

    PubMed

    Somadder, K; Shrivastava, M

    1980-02-15

    Amylase, alpha- and beta-glucosidase, alpha- and beta-galactosidase, beta-fructosidase, trypsin, aminotripeptidase, leucine-aminopeptidase, prolinase, prolidase glycyl-L-leucine dipeptidase and glygylglycine dipeptidase are present in the 3rd instar larvae of Chilo auricilius. PMID:6989621

  12. EFFECT OF RECOMBINANT AEA-TMOF ON HELIOTHIS VIRESCENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trypsin biosynthesis in H. virescens and larval growth (Weight gain) were followed after feeding 1st and 2nd instar larvae recombinant Pichia pastoris synthesizing TMOF in artificial diet for 7 days. Inhibition of 32% and 22.3% in weight gain was noted in 1st and 2nd instars, respectively, as compar...

  13. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Baer-Keeley, Melanie; Fortheringham, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development Conference was held in association with Earth Day 1997, five years after the first Interface Conference. Rapid population growth in California has intensified the inevitable conflict between land development and preservation of natural ecosystems. Sustainable development requires wise use of diminishing natural resources and, where possible, restoration of damaged landscapes. These Earth Week Celebrations brought together resource managers, scientists, politicians, environmental consultants, and concerned citizens in an effort to improve the communication necessary to maintain our natural biodiversity, ecosystem processes and general quality of life. As discussed by our keynote speaker, Michael Soule, the best predictor of habitat loss is population growth and nowhere is this better illustrated than in California. As urban perimeters expand, the interface between wildlands and urban areas increases. Few problems are more vexing than how to manage the fire prone ecosystems indigenous to California at this urban interface. Today resource managers face increasing challenges of dealing with this problem and the lead-off section of the proceedings considers both the theoretical basis for making decisions related to prescribed burning and the practical application. Habitat fragmentation is an inevitable consequence of development patterns with significant impacts on animal and plant populations. Managers must be increasingly resourceful in dealing with problems of fragmentation and the often inevitable consequences, including susceptibility to invasive oganisms. One approach to dealing with fragmentation problems is through careful landplanning. California is the national leader in the integration of conservation and economics. On Earth Day 1991, Governor Pete Wilson presented an environmental agenda that promised to create between land owners and environmentalists, agreements that would guarantee the protection of

  14. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  15. 1st- and 2nd-order motion and texture resolution in central and peripheral vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Sperling, G.

    1995-01-01

    STIMULI. The 1st-order stimuli are moving sine gratings. The 2nd-order stimuli are fields of static visual texture, whose contrasts are modulated by moving sine gratings. Neither the spatial slant (orientation) nor the direction of motion of these 2nd-order (microbalanced) stimuli can be detected by a Fourier analysis; they are invisible to Reichardt and motion-energy detectors. METHOD. For these dynamic stimuli, when presented both centrally and in an annular window extending from 8 to 10 deg in eccentricity, we measured the highest spatial frequency for which discrimination between +/- 45 deg texture slants and discrimination between opposite directions of motion were each possible. RESULTS. For sufficiently low spatial frequencies, slant and direction can be discriminated in both central and peripheral vision, for both 1st- and for 2nd-order stimuli. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, at both retinal locations, slant discrimination is possible at higher spatial frequencies than direction discrimination. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, motion resolution decreases 2-3 times more rapidly with eccentricity than does texture resolution. CONCLUSIONS. (1) 1st- and 2nd-order motion scale similarly with eccentricity. (2) 1st- and 2nd-order texture scale similarly with eccentricity. (3) The central/peripheral resolution fall-off is 2-3 times greater for motion than for texture.

  16. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  17. Are Aristolochic Acids Responsible for the Chemical Defence of Aposematic Larvae of Battus polydamas (L.) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)?

    PubMed

    Morais, A B B; Brown, K S; Stanton, M A; Massuda, K F; Trigo, J R

    2013-12-01

    Aristolochic acids (AAs) are thought to be responsible for the chemical protection of the aposematic larvae Battus polydamas (L.) (Papilionidae: Troidini) against predators. These compounds are sequestered by larvae from their Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) host plants. Studying the role of the chemical protection of the second and fifth instars of B. polydamas against potential predators, we found that the consumption of larvae by the carpenter ant Camponotus crassus Mayr and young chicks Gallus gallus domesticus was dependent on larval developmental stage. Second instars were more preyed upon than fifth instars; however, the assassin bug Montina confusa Stål was not deterred by chemical defences of the fifth instar B. polydamas. Laboratory bioassays with carpenter ants and young chicks using palatable baits topically treated with a pure commercial mixture of AAs I and AAs II in concentrations up to 100 times those previously found in B. polydamas larvae showed no activity. Similar results were found in field bioassays, where palatable baits treated as above were exposed to the guild of predators that attack B. polydamas larvae and were also consumed irrespective of the commercial AA concentration used. These results suggest that the mixture of AAs I and AAs II have no defensive role against predators, at least against those investigated in the present work. Other compounds present in Aristolochia host plants such as O-glycosylated AAs; benzylisoquinoline alkaloids; and mono-, sesqui-, di-, and triterpenes, which can be sequestered by Troidini, could act as deterrents against predators. PMID:27193273

  18. Book gill development in embryos and first and second instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura).

    PubMed

    Farley, Roger D

    2010-09-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the development of the opisthosomal appendages and book gills of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Later embryonic stages were examined as well as the first and second instars. The observations are compared with a much earlier light microscopic description of book gill development in the horseshoe crab and with book lung development in scorpion embryos and first and second instars in a recent study with SEM. After the third embryonic molt in the horseshoe crab, the opisthosomal appendages are of sufficient size so they could be fractured or dissected open so internal cells and other structures could be examined. The opisthosomal appendages and book gill lamellae of first and second instars were also opened. The observations support the earlier histological report that the gill lamellae are a hypodermal outgrowth from the posterior surface of the preceding branchial appendages. The genital operculum, branchial appendages and gill lamellae are very thin and consist of external cuticle, hypodermis and space holders. The latter help hold the cuticle walls in place so hemolymph can flow through the narrow channels. The space holders are formed from cell processes that extend into the lumen from the hypodermis just inside the external cuticle. In the recent SEM study in scorpion embryos and in some histological investigations in spider embryos, the book lung lamellae are formed by alignment of cells from an invaginated sac or mass of cells. This clearly differs from the mode of formation of gill lamellae as observed in this and earlier investigations. These reports of differences in embryology refine but do not preclude hypotheses about book gill/book lung homology since addition, deletion or modification of ancestral features often occur for the benefit of the embryos and larvae. PMID:20420937

  19. Thermal Death Kinetics of Fifth-Instar Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liling; Zhongxin, Li; Ma, Wenqiang; Yan, Shengkun; Cui, Kuanbo

    2015-01-01

    The infestation of rice moth, Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae), causes severe losses in postharvest walnuts. Heat has been studied as a phytosanitary treatment to replace chemical fumigation for controlling this pest. Information on kinetics for thermal mortality of C. cephalonica is needed for developing effective postharvest phytosanitary thermal treatments of walnuts. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar C. cephalonica were investigated at temperatures between 44°C and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C min−1 using a heating block system. The results showed that thermal-death curves for C. cephalonica larvae followed a 0 order of kinetic reaction. The time to reach 100% mortality decreased with increasing temperature from 150 min at 44°C to 2.5 min at 50°C. The activation energy for controlling C. cephalonica was 466–592 kJ/mol, and the z value obtained from the thermal death time curve was 3.3°C. This kinetic model prediction could be useful in designing the thermal treatment protocol for controlling C. cephalonica in walnuts. PMID:25843578

  20. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Liling; Zhongxin, Li; Ma, Wenqiang; Yan, Shengkun; Cui, Kuanbo

    2015-01-01

    The infestation of rice moth, Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae), causes severe losses in postharvest walnuts. Heat has been studied as a phytosanitary treatment to replace chemical fumigation for controlling this pest. Information on kinetics for thermal mortality of C. cephalonica is needed for developing effective postharvest phytosanitary thermal treatments of walnuts. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar C. cephalonica were investigated at temperatures between 44°C and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C min(-1) using a heating block system. The results showed that thermal-death curves for C. cephalonica larvae followed a 0 order of kinetic reaction. The time to reach 100% mortality decreased with increasing temperature from 150 min at 44°C to 2.5 min at 50°C. The activation energy for controlling C. cephalonica was 466-592 kJ/mol, and the z value obtained from the thermal death time curve was 3.3°C. This kinetic model prediction could be useful in designing the thermal treatment protocol for controlling C. cephalonica in walnuts. PMID:25843578

  1. New insights for Drosophila GAGA factor in larvae

    PubMed Central

    Blanch, Marta; Piñeyro, David; Bernués, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    GAGA factor plays important roles during Drosophila embryogenesis and its maternal contribution is essential for early development. Here, the role of GAGA factor was studied in 3rd instar larvae using depletion and overexpression conditions in wing disc and transcriptome analysis. We found that genes changing expression were different to those previously described using GAGA mutants in embryos. No apparent phenotypes on GAGA depletion could usually be observed at larval stages in imaginal discs but a strong effect on salivary gland polytene chromosomes was observed. In the adult, GAGA depletion produced many defects like abnormal cell proliferation in the wing, impaired dorsal closure and resulted in homeotic transformation of abdominal segment A5. Unexpectedly, no effects on Ultrabithorax expression were observed. Short overexpression of GAGA factor in 3rd instar larvae also resulted in activation of a set of genes not previously described to be under GAGA regulation, and in lethality at pupa. Our results suggest a little contribution of GAGA factor on gene transcription in wing discs and a change of the genes regulated in comparison with embryo. GAGA factor activity thus correlates with the global changes in gene expression that take place at the embryo-to-larva and, later, at the larva-to-pupa transitions. PMID:26064623

  2. Predation of Chaoborus punctipennis on larvae of Dorosoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, N.S.; Mattice, J.S.

    1982-05-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate the significance of predation of Chaoborus punctipennis on Dorosoma larvae. Only third (III) and fourth (IV) instars of Chaoborus consumed shad larvae in the laboratory studies. Predation was directly related to shad density and chaoborus size, but was not related to age (or size) of yolk-sac Dorosoma or to temperature in the range of 20 to 25/sup 0/C prevalent during shad spawning. Analysis of evening plankton samples collected in Blue Springs Cove, Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee, during the shad spawning season suggested that interactions between the two species were reduced by spatial, temporal, and seasonal separation. Shad larvae were most abundant near the water surface, particularly near the shoreline and near dawn; III and IV instar Chaoborus were most abundant at 3 or 5 meter depths below the surface and highest concentrations were in deeper water areas between 2100 and 0300. In Blue Springs Cove in 1980, densities of shad and Chaoborus were too low to expect predation to occur based on the extrapolation of predation rates derived from the laboratory studies. This conclusion received further support from the fact that no signs of shad larvae were found in the crops of narcotized Chaoborus collected in Blue Springs Cove.

  3. VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT CASCADES TOWARDS FILTRATION PLANT AND LOS ANGELES RESERVOIR - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Cascades Structures, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. MAGAZINE E30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE E-30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL LOOKING TO THE REAR OF THE MAGAZINE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING MACHINE. LIGHT TABLE USED TO CHECK FOR CLOTH DEFECTS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  6. 12. Bldg #13, 2nd floor, interior stone walls w/windows and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Bldg #13, 2nd floor, interior stone walls w/windows and bent pipe thru wall L and light bulbs in ceiling, to NE - Lawrence Machine Shop, Building No. 13, Union & Canal Streets, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  7. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  8. 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159807.html 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic Scientists concerned it ... the United States who was infected with a bacteria that is resistant to an antibiotic of last ...

  9. Front elevation of Rostrum with 2nd Division American Expeditionary Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation of Rostrum with 2nd Division American Expeditionary Force Monument in foreground, view to northwest - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  10. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  11. 73. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STEPPED PLATFORM, BENCHES, AND LIGHT STANDARDS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 21. VIEW FROM INTERIOR OF 2ND FLOOR ARCHED WINDOW WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW FROM INTERIOR OF 2ND FLOOR ARCHED WINDOW WITH HOLLOW STEEL SASH AND POLISHED PLATE WIRE GLASS. THIS WINDOW IS AT THE FRONT OF THE BUILDING. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. The ectoparasitic wasp Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) uses instar-specific endocrine disruption strategies to suppress the development of its host Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, John P; Bell, Howard A; Audsley, Neil; Marris, Gay C; Kirkbride-Smith, Anne; Bryning, Gareth; Frisco, Caroline; Cusson, Michel

    2006-01-01

    To successfully complete its development, the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis must inhibit the moult of its host, Lacanobia oleracea. In the present study, we examined the possibility that moult- and metamorphosis-associated endocrine events may be disrupted in caterpillars parasitized as newly moulted last (sixth) instars. Juvenile hormone (JH) titres on days 2 and 5 of the final stadium were significantly higher (> 100 fold) in parasitized than in non-parasitized hosts, in which JH was essentially absent. Elevated JH levels were associated with reduced haemolymph JH esterase (JHE) activity (down by 99.8%) and enhanced in vitro JH biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) (up to 4.5 fold). Wasp adults and/or larvae, in which we measured high levels of JH III (up to 2.7 ng/g), but little or no JH I or JH II, were not seen as likely sources of JH in parasitized hosts, in which we found mostly JH I and JH II. In addition, removal of parasitoid eggs or larvae after oviposition did not prevent the rise in JH titres seen in parasitoid-laden hosts, suggesting that wasp venom may be responsible for the observed hormonal dysfunction. Host haemolymph 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) levels were largely unaffected by parasitism during the final stadium although they were observed to increase earlier and decrease more rapidly in parasitized insects. We compare these results with those reported earlier for L. oleracea larvae parasitized by E. pennicornis as penultimate (fifth) instars, which display significantly depressed 20-E titres relative to control larvae. We conclude that E. pennicornis employs host endocrine-disruption strategies that differ according to whether the host is parasitized as a penultimate or final-stadium larva. PMID:17064726

  14. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae to gedunin-related limonoids.

    PubMed

    Gurulingappa, Hallur; Tare, Vrushali; Pawar, Pushpa; Tungikar, Vijay; Jorapur, Yogesh R; Madhavi, Sriram; Bhat, Sujata V

    2009-06-01

    The major non-azadirachtin limonoids such as gedunin (1), epoxyazadiradione (3), nimbocinol (4), and nimolicinol (5) from Azadirachta indica A. Juss ('neem') and their derivatives were evaluated for their toxic action against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Gedunin exhibited 100% toxic action against both the mosquito larvae at 50 and 10 ppm. Epoxyazadiradione and epoxynimolicinol also showed significant toxicities (> or =50%) against larvae of both mosquito species at 50 ppm. These neem limonoids can have benefits in mosquito-control programs. PMID:19551731

  15. Color variability and body size of larvae of two Epomis species (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Israel, with a key to the larval stages

    PubMed Central

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species identification using the characteristics of developmental stages is challenging. However, for insect taxonomy the coloration of larval stages can be an informative feature. The use of live specimens is recommended for this because the color fades in preserved specimens. In this study we examine the possibility of using variation in coloration and color pattern of larvae in order to distinguish between twoground beetlesspecies Epomis dejeani (Dejean, 1831) and Epomis circumscriptus (Duftschmid, 1812). We present an atlas and describe the coloration and body size of the three larval stages of the above species based on live specimens. An identification key is given for the three larval instars of the two Epomis species. The first instar larvae of the two Epomis species can be easily distinguished based on their color. From the second instar on, the variability in coloration and color patterns increases, creating an overlap in these attributes between larvae of the two species. Except for minor differences in color of the antennae and the base of the mandibles, larvae of the two species are indistinguishable at the second and third larval stages. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to use variation in coloration and color pattern in live larvae in order to identify coleopterans. The color atlas of the larvae enables simple separation of the two Epomis species without requiring sophisticated magnifying devices, although it is less straightforward at the second and third larval stages. We found similar body lengths between the two species for all developmental stages, except for third instar larvae prior to pupation. In the two species the difference in larval body length before pupation positively correlated with that of the adult beetles. More than 70% of the adults’ length can be explained by the length of the late third-instar larva; i.e. the large larvae develop into large adults. The larger specimens are the females. PMID

  16. Effects of salinity on the larvae of some Afrotropical anopheline mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, M; Le Sueur, D

    1988-10-01

    Laboratory experiments showed that the larvae of some freshwater-breeding Afrotropical anopheline species exhibit various degrees of tolerance to 25% sea-water. At 24 degrees C, survival rates from egg to fourth instar larva were significantly less in salt-water than in freshwater for four species: 39.5% versus 55.4% for Anopheles tenebrosus Dönitz, 31.9% versus 86.2% for An. mousinhoi De Meillon & Pereira, 3.5% versus 67.9% for An. pharoensis Theobald and 3.9% versus 41.9% for An. quadriannulatus (Theobald). Conversely, An. merus Dönitz showed a significantly better survival rate of 46.4% in 25% sea-water compared with 15.5% in freshwater. Simulated winter conditions did not significantly change these differential survival rates of An. merus. Effects of salinity on the anal papillae of third instar larvae are discussed. PMID:2980197

  17. The 2nd-order Post-Newtonian Orbit Equation of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yu; Fei, Bao-Jun; Sun, Wei-Jin; Ji, Cheng-Xiang

    2008-10-01

    Based on the 2nd-order post-Newtonian approximation under the DSX frame of the general relativity theory, the 2nd-order post-Newtonian orbital equation of light in the axis-symmetrical stationary spacetime is derived, and from this, the angle of deflection of light propagating in the equatorial plane is derived. The obtained results are consistent with those of the Schwarzchild and Kerr metrics within the limits of measuring precision.

  18. External Morphology and Ultra-Structure of Eggs and First Instar of Prepona Laertes Laertes (Hübner, [1811]), with Notes on Host Plant use and Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2011-01-01

    The external morphology and the tegument ultra-structure of Prepona laertes laertes (Hübner, [1811]) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae) eggs and first instar larvae feeding on Inga spp. (Fabaceae) in a forest fragment in Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil, are described. Descriptions of the morphology with illustrations are presented, based upon observations through scanning electron microscopy and stereoscopic and optic microscopes attached to a camera lucida. Descriptions and illustrations of the head capsule, chaetotaxy, tegument, and setae are presented. The taxonomy, morphological characters, and host plant use of Prepona laertes immature stages are discussed. PMID:22208698

  19. Larvicidal effect of andiroba oil, Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae), against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Silva, Onilda S; Prophiro, Josiane S; Nogared, Juliana C; Kanis, Luiz; Emerick, Sheila; Blazius, Rene D; Romão, Pedro R T

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the larvicidal effect of andiroba oil, Carapa guyanensis, against 2 strains of Aedes aegypti. After 8 h after exposure to oil, the lethal concentration (LC)90 and LC95 values for the GCZ (temephos-resistant) strain larvae were 80 and 86 ppm (1st instars), 98 and 106 (2nd instars), 166 and 182 (3rd instars), and 192 and 202 ppm (4th instars), respectively. TheLC90 and LC95 values for the Rockefeller strain larvae were 164 and 182 ppm (1st instars), 212 and 224 (2nd instars), 210 and 226 (3rd instars), and 450 and 490 ppm (4th instars), respectively. Comparison of the 2 laboratory strains of Ae. aegypti in the present study demonstrated significant variation in the susceptibility of larvae to andiroba oil. Whether a higher susceptibility of field populations of Ae. aegypti to andiroba oil occurs remains to be investigated. PMID:17304939

  20. Influence of long-term altered gravity on the swimming performance of developing cichlid fish: including results from the 2nd German Spacelab Mission D-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmann, H.; Hilbig, R.; Flemming, J.; Slenzka, K.

    This study presents qualitative and quantitative data concerning gravity-dependent changes in the swimming behaviour of developing cichlid fish larvae (Oreochromis mossambicus) after a 9 resp. 10 days exposure to increased acceleration (centrifuge experiments), to reduced gravity (fast-rotating clinostat), changed accelerations (parabolic air craft flights) and to near weightlessness (2nd German Spacelab Mission D-2). Changes of gravity initially cause disturbances of the swimming performance of the fish larvae. With prolonged stay in orbit a step by step normalisation of the swimming behaviour took place in the fish. After return to 1g earth conditions no somersaulting or looping could be detected concerning the fish, but still slow and disorientated movements as compared to controls occurred. The fish larvae adapted to earth gravity within 3-5 days. Fish seem to be in a distinct early developmental stages extreme sensitive and adaptable to altered gravity. However, elder fish either do not react or show compensatory behaviour e.g. escape reactions.

  1. Tolerance of codling moth and apple quality associated with low-pressure/low-temperature treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of effective low-pressure/low-temperature (LPLT) disinfestation treatments for fresh fruits requires knowledge on the tolerance of target insects to the LPLT treatment environment. In this study, different life stages of codling moth (eggs, 2nd-3rd instar larvae, 5th instar larvae and pu...

  2. Guppies as predators of common mosquito larvae in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-03-01

    Observation on predation activities of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) on the larvae of three species of mosquito, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out under laboratory conditions. Male and female guppies were used as predators for predation experiments on the 4th instars of mosquito larvae. The daily feeding rates comparing male and female guppies on mosquito larvae were different; the female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae than male guppies did. The daily feeding rates of female guppies were 121.3 for Ae. aegypti, 105.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 72.3 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The daily feeding rates of male guppies were 98.6 for Ae. aegypti, 73.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 47.6 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In terms of prey preference, there was greater preference towards mosquito larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by Ae. albopictus, and the least preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Male and female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae during lights on (day time) compared with lights off (night time). The water volume, prey species, number of fish predators available, prey densities, and prey's sex also influenced the predation activities. PMID:24968669

  3. Toxicity and Affecting Factors of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Israelensis on Chironomus kiiensis Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chuan-Wang; Sun, Li-Li; Wen, Rong-Rong; Li, Xiao-Peng; Wu, Hong-Qu; Wang, Zhi-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) is a suitable agent for controlling Chironomus kiiensis, a major pest polluting water. In this study, laboratory bioassays were used to study toxicity and affecting factors of Bti on C. kiiensis larvae. Tests were conducted using three commercial Bti formulations (oil miscible suspension, 1,200 ITU/mL; wettable power, 1,200 ITU/mg; technical material, 5,000 ITU/mg) of Bti. The toxicity of Bti formulations to third and fourth instar C. kiiensis larvae was in decreasing order of technical material, oil miscible suspension, and wettable powder, based on the 12 and 24 hour LC50 values. Increasing larval densities (from 10 to 30 per bioassay cup) increased the LC50 values for fourth instar C. kiiensis larvae. The LC50 values for fourth instar larvae reared in sand substrate were higher than those from soil substrate, and autoclaved substrates significantly increased the LC50 values. The technical material of Bti at 12 and 24 hours responded similarly to changes in temperature between 30° C and 15° C, but the LC50 values at a range of tested temperatures showed distinct differences in time points. PMID:23465075

  4. Trypsin inhibitor from Moringa oleifera flowers interferes with survival and development of Aedes aegypti larvae and kills bacteria inhabitant of larvae midgut.

    PubMed

    Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; de Lima Santos, Nataly Diniz; de Moura, Maiara Celine; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-02-01

    Moringa oleifera flower extract, with trypsin inhibitor activity, is a larvicidal agent on Aedes aegypti. This work reports the isolation of trypsin inhibitor (M. oleifera flower trypsin inhibitor (MoFTI)) and its effect on A. aegypti egg hatching, viability of newly hatched larvae, survival of pupae, and growth of inhabitant bacteria from midgut of fourth-instar larvae (L4). MoFTI (K i, 2.4 μM), isolated by affinity chromatography on trypsin-agarose column, was an 18.2 kDa polypeptide on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Flower extract (at concentrations of 8.5-17.0 mg/mL) reduced egg hatchability while MoFTI (0.05-0.5 mg/mL) did not affect the hatching rate. Mortality of newly hatched larvae ranged from 3.5 to 19.1 % in the presence of the extract (4.0-17.0 mg/mL) and was also promoted by MoFTI (LC50, 0.3 mg/mL). After 72 h, larvae incubated with extract at 13.0 and 17.0 mg/mL were at stages L2 and L1, respectively, while in control they reached L3 instar. In the presence of MoFTI, at all concentrations tested, the larvae did not pass the first instar. Flower extract and MoFTI did not interfere on pupae survival. The extract and MoFTI inhibited the growth of L4 gut bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 3.47 and 0.031 mg/mL, respectively) but only the inhibitor showed bactericide effect (minimum bactericidal concentration of 1.0 mg/mL). The findings reported herein indicate that MoFTI constitutes a larvicidal principle from M. oleifera flowers against A. aegypti newly hatched larvae and is an antibacterial agent active against the microbiota from L4 gut. PMID:24271154

  5. Four-dimensional investigation of the 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, O.; Tzallas, P.; Benis, E. P.; Kruse, J.; Peralta Conde, A.; Kalpouzos, C.; Charalambidis, D.

    2009-10-01

    The 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique, widely utilized in directly measuring ultra-short light pulses durations, is examined in detail via model calculations that include three-dimensional integration over a large ionization volume, temporal delay and spatial displacement of the two beams of the autocorrelator at the focus. The effects of the inherent displacement to the 2nd order autocorrelation technique are demonstrated for short and long pulses, elucidating the appropriate implementation of the technique in tight focusing conditions. Based on the above investigations, a high accuracy 2nd order volume autocorrelation measurement of the duration of the 5th harmonic of a 50 fs long laser pulse, including the measurement of the carrier wavelength oscillation, is presented.

  6. Cannibalism Affects Core Metabolic Processes in Helicoverpa armigera Larvae-A 2D NMR Metabolomics Study.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Fredd; Shino, Amiu; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cannibalism is known in many insect species, yet its impact on insect metabolism has not been investigated in detail. This study assessed the effects of cannibalism on the metabolism of fourth-instar larvae of the non-predatory insect Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidotera: Noctuidea). Two groups of larvae were analyzed: one group fed with fourth-instar larvae of H. armigera (cannibal), the other group fed with an artificial plant diet. Water-soluble small organic compounds present in the larvae were analyzed using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and principal component analysis (PCA). Cannibalism negatively affected larval growth. PCA of NMR spectra showed that the metabolic profiles of cannibal and herbivore larvae were statistically different with monomeric sugars, fatty acid- and amino acid-related metabolites as the most variable compounds. Quantitation of ¹H-(13)C HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence) signals revealed that the concentrations of glucose, glucono-1,5-lactone, glycerol phosphate, glutamine, glycine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, ornithine, proline, threonine and valine were higher in the herbivore larvae. PMID:27598144

  7. Regional Observations of North Korea Explosions: 1st and 2nd Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Shin, Jin Soo; Lee, Hee-Il; Park, Jung Ho; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung; Kim, Tea Sung; Che, Il-Young; Lim, In-Seub

    2010-05-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthally full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of the 1st and the 2nd test data showed that the 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly discriminate these events from two nearby natural earthquakes above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion also indicate the 2nd test had a very large isotropic component. But mb-Ms discrimination, which has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of the 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of both 1st and 2nd tests, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. These variations are mainly due to lateral variation of crustal structures surrounding the test site. Remarkably mb(Lg) showed very linear relationship with mb(Pn). By considering attenuation characteristics according to the propagation path, the variations could be effectively reduced. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of both tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of the 2nd test were much larger than that of the 1st one. The ratio of P-wave amplitudes of two tests showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the

  8. Monitoring North Korea Explosions: Status and Result of 1st and 2nd Tests (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H.; Lee, H.; Shin, J.; Park, J.; Sheen, D.; Kim, G.; Che, I.; Lim, I.; Kim, T.

    2009-12-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthal full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries, and only stations with the distance of 200 to 550 Km from the test site were considered. Irrespective of azimuthal directions of stations from the test site, the conventional discrimination, Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly showed that both tests were explosion. But mb-Ms discrimination did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of 1st test, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of 1st and 2nd test data showed that 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of 1st and 2nd tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of 2nd test were much larger than that of 1st one. The ratio of 1st and 2nd P-wave amplitudes showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the estimated energy or yield were ranged from 4 to roughly 10 times. KIGAM evaluated the yield of 2nd test were 8 times in the average larger than that of 1st one.

  9. Regulation of the corpora allata in male larvae of the cockroach Diploptera punctata

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of corpora allata was studied in final instar males of Diploptera punctata. The glands were manipulated in vivo and removed to determine the effect by in vitro radiochemical assay for juvenile hormone synthesis. Corpora allata were also treated with putative regulatory factors in vitro. During the final stadium the corpora allata were inhibited both by nerves and by humoral factors. Neural inhibition was shown by an increase in juvenile hormone synthesis following denervation of the corpora allata. This operation elicited an extra larval instar. Humoral inhibition was shown by the decline in juvenile hormone synthesis of adult female corpora allata following transplantation into final instar larval hosts, and conversely the increase in juvenile hormone synthesis by larval corpora allata following implantation into adult females. Humoral inhibition was prevented by decapitation of larvae prior to the head critical period for molting and restored by implantation of a larval brain, showing that the brain is the source of this inhibition.

  10. Super-Protective Child-Rearing by Japanese Bess Beetles, Cylindrocaulus patalis: Adults Provide Their Larvae with Chewed and Predigested Wood.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Tatsuya; Wada, Noriko; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Anzai, Hirosi; Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Beetles of the family Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are termed subsocial. The insects inhabit rotten wood as family groups consisting of the parents and their offspring. The Japanese species Cylindrocaulus patalis has the lowest fecundity among passalids because siblicide occurs among the first-instar larvae; accordingly, parental care toward the survived larva is the highest among Passalidae. To clarify the nutritional relationships between the parents and their offspring, we investigated their ability to digest three types of polysaccharides that are components of wood (cellulose and β-1,4-xylan) and fungal cell walls (β-1,3-glucan). Although carboxymethyl-cellulase activity was barely detectable, β-xylosidase, β-glucosidase, β-1,4-xylanase and β-1,3-glucanase activities were clearly detected in both adults and larvae. Because the activities of enzymes that digest β-1,3-glucan were much higher than those for degrading β-1,4-xylan, in both adults and larvae, it is concluded that they are mainly fungivorous. Furthermore, these digestive enzymatic activities in second- and third-instar larvae were much lower than they were in adults. Although all larval instars grew rapidly when fed chewed wood by their parents, larvae ceased growing and died when fed only artificially ground wood meals. We conclude that the larvae are assumed to be provided with chewed predigested wood in which β-1,3-glucan is degraded by parental enzymes. PMID:27128944

  11. Super-Protective Child-Rearing by Japanese Bess Beetles, Cylindrocaulus patalis: Adults Provide Their Larvae with Chewed and Predigested Wood

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Tatsuya; Wada, Noriko; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Anzai, Hirosi; Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Beetles of the family Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are termed subsocial. The insects inhabit rotten wood as family groups consisting of the parents and their offspring. The Japanese species Cylindrocaulus patalis has the lowest fecundity among passalids because siblicide occurs among the first-instar larvae; accordingly, parental care toward the survived larva is the highest among Passalidae. To clarify the nutritional relationships between the parents and their offspring, we investigated their ability to digest three types of polysaccharides that are components of wood (cellulose and β-1,4-xylan) and fungal cell walls (β-1,3-glucan). Although carboxymethyl-cellulase activity was barely detectable, β-xylosidase, β-glucosidase, β-1,4-xylanase and β-1,3-glucanase activities were clearly detected in both adults and larvae. Because the activities of enzymes that digest β-1,3-glucan were much higher than those for degrading β-1,4-xylan, in both adults and larvae, it is concluded that they are mainly fungivorous. Furthermore, these digestive enzymatic activities in second- and third-instar larvae were much lower than they were in adults. Although all larval instars grew rapidly when fed chewed wood by their parents, larvae ceased growing and died when fed only artificially ground wood meals. We conclude that the larvae are assumed to be provided with chewed predigested wood in which β-1,3-glucan is degraded by parental enzymes. PMID:27128944

  12. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Maxfield, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This NERL-Cincinnati publication, “Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition” was prepared as the continuation of an initiative to gather together under a single cover a compendium of standardized laborato...

  14. 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of China (ESC) and Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME) hosted the 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases in Beijing, China, May 23-27, 2011. The theme of the Forum was “Impact of global climate ch...

  15. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  16. Stem cells and cancer immunotherapy: Arrowhead’s 2nd annual cancer immunotherapy conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from academia and industry gathered on April 4 and 5, 2013, in Washington DC at the Arrowhead’s 2nd Annual Cancer Immunotherapy Conference. Two complementary concepts were discussed: cancer “stem cells” as targets and therapeutic platforms based on stem cells.

  17. Evaluation of a Hand Washing Program for 2nd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program.…

  18. The Effect of Using Computer Edutainment on Developing 2nd Primary Graders' Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Abdel Raheem, Azza Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempted to examine the effect of using computer edutainment on developing 2nd graders' writing skills. The study comprised thirty-second year primary stage enrolled in Bani Hamad primary governmental school, Minia governorate. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one…

  19. 70. VIEW OF LIFEGUARD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. VIEW OF LIFEGUARD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT) AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF TEE (RIGHT), WITH VIEW OF PILINGS, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. 71. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT), SHOWING VIEW OF PILINGS, LIFEGURD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF TEE (RIGHT), LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. Preliminary data on use of the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, to control mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Middaugh, D P; Hester, P G; Meisch, M V; Stark, P M

    1985-12-01

    A study of procedures for spawning and culture of the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, was conducted. The efficacy of young Menidia, 20 to 22 and 31 to 33 days old, to control mosquito larvae was determined in the laboratory with first and second larval instars of the saltmarsh mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus. Feeding trials were run at salinities of 1, 5, 15 and 25%. Field trials were also conducted to determine if Menidia would effectively control Culex quinquefasciatus in brackish water impoundments. PMID:3880260

  2. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Brittany E.; Miller, Dini M.

    2015-01-01

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development. PMID:26463070

  3. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brittany E; Miller, Dini M

    2015-01-01

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development. PMID:26463070

  4. Accumulation of mercury in larvae and adults, Chironomus riparius (Meigen)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Among benthic aquatic insects there are taxa that grow abundant in sediments polluted with organic matter. Some of them also tolerate high levels of heavy metals. In this research short exposure and partial life cycle tests were carried out to evaluate the accumulation of mercury in Chironomus riparius Meigen larvae, pupal exuviae and adults from water enriched with HgCl/sub 2/. Their abundance in heavily polluted waters and the fact that it is easy to rear them suggested the use of this species for the toxicity tests considered in our present research. Short exposure tests were carried out to evaluate the LC/sub 50/ of HgCl/sub 2/ for the 4th instar larva of C. riparius Meigen.

  5. The larva of Athripsodes genei (Rambur 1842) (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae).

    PubMed

    Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Athripsodes genei (Rambur 1842). Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of A. genei keys together with A. albifrons (Linnaeus 1758), A. commutatus (Rostock 1874), A. leucophaeus (Rambur 1842) and Athripsodes tavaresi (Navás 1916). These species differ in the number of ventral edge setae at the 1st tibia and in the shape and colour of the submentum. With respect to zoogeography, Athripsodes genei is a (micro-)endemic of the collin and planar regions of Sardinia and Corsica (Graf et al. 2008). According to mandible morphology, A. genei is a collector-gatherer, shredder and, to a minor extent, also a predator. PMID:25283900

  6. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana. PMID:17354401

  7. Individual Differences In The School Performance of 2nd-Grade Children Born to Low-Income Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apiwattanalunggarn, Kunlakarn Lekskul; Luster, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that contribute to individual differences in the school performance of 2nd-grade children born to adolescent mothers. The sample of this study was 90 low-income adolescent mothers and their children. Data were collected from the adolescent mothers and their first-born children, now in 2nd grade,…

  8. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose {ge}20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms ( Manduca sexta larvae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B.; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  10. Recycling of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 in mosquito larvae: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Charles, J F; Nicolas, L

    1986-01-01

    After ingestion by Culex pipiens and Anopheles stephensi fourth instar larvae, spores of Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362 rapidly germinated inside live mosquito midgut. Bacterial counts and electron microscopic observations on intoxicated larvae revealed that the number of viable spores rapidly decreased during the first 12 h, with a minimum between 12 and 24 h. In cadavers, the number of heat-resistant spores quickly increased between the first and second day post-feeding. After one week, the number of spores inside dead larvae reached approximately 20 times the number of ingested spores for both mosquito species (ca. 4 X 10(5) spores/larva). Ultrathin sections of recycled spores showed the presence of a crystalline inclusion identical to that initially present in spores before ingestion. Bioassay on C. pipiens fourth instar larvae showed a similar toxicity between in vivo recycled spores (LC50 = 1.1 +/- 0.3 X 10(5) spores/ml after 24-h exposure) and culture-medium-grown spores of B. sphaericus strain 2362 (LC50 = 1.7 +/- 0.4 X 10(5) spores/ml). PMID:2893581

  11. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction. PMID:26105046

  12. Fatty acids in anopheline mosquito larvae and their habitats.

    PubMed

    Komínková, Dana; Rejmánková, Eliška; Grieco, John; Achee, Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Larvae of the three important Central American malaria vectors, Anopheles albimanus, An. vestitipennis, and An. darlingi, are found in distinctly different habitats broadly defined by hydrology and aquatic vegetation, but little is known about the actual food quality and quantity of these habitats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are of special interest, because mosquitoes require 20:5ω3 (EPA), 20:4ω6 (ARA), and 22:6ω3 (DHA) and without an adequate supply of these PUFAs they are not able to complete their life cycle. We collected samples of larvae and their corresponding habitats and analyzed their fatty acid (FA) composition to reveal if there are any species-specific and habitat-specific differences in FA composition, and if habitat FA differences can be linked to differences in the mosquito FA pattern and, ultimately, mosquito performance. We also assessed how FA of wild larvae compare to the laboratory-reared larvae. Habitats were generally low in essential PUFAs and there were no significant differences among the FA composition of habitat samples. There were significant differences in FA composition of larvae. An. darlingi contained significantly higher amounts of FA, specifically a higher content of ω-6 PUFA, represented mainly by the linoleic acid (18:2ω-6). Large differences were found between field-collected and laboratory-reared An. vestitipennis larvae, especially in the content of PUFAs. The laboratory-reared larvae contained significantly more of the total FA, ω3 PUFA, and MUFA. The laboratory-reared larvae contained three to five times more essential PUFAs, EPA, and DHA. However, there were no differences in the total dry weight of the 4(th) instar larvae between the wild vs laboratory-reared larvae. Total FA in both larvae and habitats of An. albimanus and An. darlingi were positively correlated with the concentration of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC, PON) in their respective habitats, but no such correlation was found for An

  13. Genes Expressed Differentially in Hessian Fly Larvae Feeding in Resistant and Susceptible Plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Shun; Liu, Sanzhen; Wang, Haiyan; Cheng, Xiaoyan; El Bouhssini, Mustapha; Whitworth, R Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. In this study, we investigated the genes that were expressed differentially between larvae in resistant plants and those in susceptible plants through RNA sequencing on the Illumina platform. Informative genes were 11,832, 14,861, 15,708, and 15,071 for the comparisons between larvae in resistant versus susceptible plants for 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively, after larvae had reached the feeding site. The transcript abundance corresponding to 5401, 6902, 8457, and 5202 of the informative genes exhibited significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in the respective paired comparisons. Overall, genes involved in nutrient metabolism, RNA and protein synthesis exhibited lower transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants, indicating that resistant plants inhibited nutrient metabolism and protein production in larvae. Interestingly, the numbers of cytochrome P450 genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants were comparable to, or higher than those with lower transcript abundance, indicating that toxic chemicals from resistant plants may have played important roles in Hessian fly larval death. Our study also identified several families of genes encoding secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that were expressed at early stage of 1(st) instar larvae and with more genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants. Those SSGPs are candidate effectors with important roles in plant manipulation. PMID:27529231

  14. Genes Expressed Differentially in Hessian Fly Larvae Feeding in Resistant and Susceptible Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Shun; Liu, Sanzhen; Wang, Haiyan; Cheng, Xiaoyan; El Bouhssini, Mustapha; Whitworth, R. Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. In this study, we investigated the genes that were expressed differentially between larvae in resistant plants and those in susceptible plants through RNA sequencing on the Illumina platform. Informative genes were 11,832, 14,861, 15,708, and 15,071 for the comparisons between larvae in resistant versus susceptible plants for 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively, after larvae had reached the feeding site. The transcript abundance corresponding to 5401, 6902, 8457, and 5202 of the informative genes exhibited significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in the respective paired comparisons. Overall, genes involved in nutrient metabolism, RNA and protein synthesis exhibited lower transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants, indicating that resistant plants inhibited nutrient metabolism and protein production in larvae. Interestingly, the numbers of cytochrome P450 genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants were comparable to, or higher than those with lower transcript abundance, indicating that toxic chemicals from resistant plants may have played important roles in Hessian fly larval death. Our study also identified several families of genes encoding secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that were expressed at early stage of 1st instar larvae and with more genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants. Those SSGPs are candidate effectors with important roles in plant manipulation. PMID:27529231

  15. Early Detection of Baculovirus Expression and Infection in Lepidopteran Larvae Fed Occlusion Bodies of an AcMNPV Recombinant Carrying a Red Fluorescent Protein Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method has been devised utilizing a baculovirus recombinant (AcMNPV hsp70Red) carrying a red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene under the early heat shock promoter (hsp70) to assess potential infectivity of larvae fed occlusion bodies. A time study was employed whereby first and third instars of Trich...

  16. Neonate larvae of the specialist herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera do not exploit the defensive volatile (E)-ß-caryophyllene to assist in locating maize roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The behavior of the neonate larvae of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (western corn rootworm, WCR) was assessed in presence of maize root constitutively emitting (E)-ß-caryophylene (EßC). This root volatile has been shown to attract both second instar WCR and insect-killing nematodes, offerin...

  17. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.4: Vortex Transport by Uniform Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d. The CESE method is a time accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist, the 2nd-order accurate version was used. In regards to the ez4d code, it is an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available. As part of its architecture, ez4d has the capability to utilize multi-thread and Messaging Passage Interface (MPI) for parallel runs.

  18. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.1: Transonic Ringleb Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d (an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available.) The CESE method is a time-accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist.

  19. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  20. [Employment and education in the 2nd economic and social development plan of Togo].

    PubMed

    Dovi-sodemekou, F B

    1985-01-01

    Togo is a developing country whose population is increasing at the rapid rate of 2.7%/year. Economic development is therefore a necessity to ensure at least an average standard of living. Plans of development include objectives of structural societal changes, including improvements in education and employment. This study analyzes the evolution of population activities. It identifies obstacles to the improvement of education and employment. The investigation examines the employment and education situation before adoption of the 2nd plan of Togo and predicts the probable evolution of the situation. Despite the priority accorded to agriculture, the 2nd plan appears to give greater importance to industry. The industrial and commercial sector has witnessed a 65.2% investment increase, whereas the rural sector had an investment increase of 11.8%. The 2nd plan, in view of its relation to the evolution of economic activities, took into account the demand for manual labor. In the private sector, industries should occupy an important position. The dualism of a modern and a traditional sector is considered a cause of underdevelopment. The modern sector should be developed in order to suppress the traditional sector and allow progress in society. As a result of this approach, agriculture is given a 2ndary role. PMID:12267415

  1. Very large millimeter/submillimeter array toward search for 2nd Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Saito, Masao

    2012-09-01

    ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) is a revolutionary radio telescope and its early scientific operation has just started. It is expected that ALMA will resolve several cosmic questions and will give us a new cosmic view. Our passion for astronomy naturally goes beyond ALMA because we believe that the 21st-century astronomy should pursue the new scientific frontier. In this conference, we propose a project of the future radio telescope to search for habitable planets and finally detect 2nd Earth as a migratable planet. Detection of 2nd Earth is one of the ultimate dreams not only for astronomers but also for every human being. To directly detect 2nd Earth, we have to carefully design the sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope by conducting trade-off analysis between the confusion limit and the minimum detectable temperature. The result of the sensitivity analysis is derived assuming an array that has sixty-four (64) 50-m antennas with 25-μm surface accuracy mainly located within the area of 300 km (up to 3000 km), dual-polarization SSB receivers with the best noise temperature performance achieved by ALMA or better, and IF bandwidth of 128 or 256 GHz.. We temporarily name this telescope "Very Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (VLMSA)". Since this sensitivity is extremely high, we can have a lot of chances to study the galaxy, star formation, cosmology and of course the new scientific frontier.

  2. NASA 2nd Generation RLV Program Introduction, Status and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan L.; Smith, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI), managed by the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2ndGen RLV) Program, was established to examine the possibility of revolutionizing space launch capabilities, define conceptual architectures, and concurrently identify the advanced technologies required to support a next-generation system. Initial Program funds have been allocated to design, evaluate, and formulate realistic plans leading to a 2nd Gen RLV full-scale development (FSD) decision by 2006. Program goals are to reduce both risk and cost for accessing the limitless opportunities afforded outside Earth's atmosphere fo civil, defense, and commercial enterprises. A 2nd Gen RLV architecture includes a reusable Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle, an on-orbit transport and return vehicle, ground and flight operations, mission planning, and both on-orbit and on-the-ground support infrastructures All segments of the architecture must advance in step with development of the RLV if a next-generation system is to be fully operational early next decade. However, experience shows that propulsion is the single largest contributor to unreliability during ascent, requires the largest expenditure of time for maintenance, and takes a long time to develop; therefore, propulsion is the key to meeting safety, reliability, and cost goals. For these reasons, propulsion is SLI's top technology investment area.

  3. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  4. The structure and morphogenic changes of antennae of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Matsucoccidae) in different instars.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Yingping; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Weimin; Wu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    To better understand the functioning and morphogenic changes of the antennae of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Kuwana) in different instars, the antennae are examined using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the antennae of M. matsumurae display three different styles in morphology and sensillar distribution in different instars. The antennae of first instar nymphs are relatively simple, including one campaniform sensillum (Ca), four smooth aporous trichoid sensilla (SAt), two intersegmental sensilla (Ins), two coeloconic sensilla (Co), three multiporous pegs (Mp) and four uniporous pegs (Up). The antennae of adult females and third instar male nymphs both possess similar antennae, and exhibit seven types of sensilla. Adult female antennae have in total 82-108 sensilla, including 9-16 Böhm's bristle (Bb), 3-7 Ca, 50-75 SAt, 0-3 Ins, 3-10 Co, 8 Mp and 5 Up, whereas third instar male nymph antennae possess approximately 62-79 sensilla. Adult male antennae are the most developed, possessing 259-312 sensilla, including 7-15 Bb, 2-5 Ca, 7-11 grooved aporous trichoid sensilla, 4-9 SAt, 0-3 Ins, 2-7 Co, 23-29 knobbed seta sensilla, 179-230 multiporous trichoid sensilla and 8 Mp. Based on these results, the main functions and morphogenic changes of antennae M. matsumurae in different instars are discussed. PMID:26849968

  5. Rearing Larvae of the Avian Nest Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), on Chicken Blood-Based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lahuatte, Paola F.; Lincango, M. P.; Heimpel, G. E.; Causton, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Captive rearing of insect pests is necessary to understand their biology and to develop control methods. The avian nest fly, Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitken, is a blood-sucking parasite during its larval stage and a serious threat to endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands where it is considered invasive. In order to procure large numbers of flies for biological studies, rearing media and diets were trialed for rearing the larval stage of P. downsi under controlled conditions in the absence of its avian host. P. downsi eggs were obtained from field-caught female flies, and once eggs hatched they were reared on chicken blood for the first 3 d. Following this, three diets were tested on second- and third-instar larvae: 1) chicken blood only; 2) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and dried milk powder; and 3) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and brewer’s yeast. Out of 385 P. downsi larvae tested, we were able to rear 50 larvae to the adult stage. The highest level of mortality was found in the first-instar larvae. Survivorship of second- and third-instar larvae was similar irrespective of diet and diet did not significantly influence larval or pupal development times; though larvae fed the diet with brewer’s yeast developed marginally faster. Pupal weights were similar to those of larvae that had developed on bird hosts in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first effective protocol for rearing a hematophagous parasitic avian fly from egg to adult in the absence of a living host. PMID:27493240

  6. Rearing Larvae of the Avian Nest Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), on Chicken Blood-Based Diets.

    PubMed

    Lahuatte, Paola F; Lincango, M P; Heimpel, G E; Causton, C E

    2016-01-01

    Captive rearing of insect pests is necessary to understand their biology and to develop control methods. The avian nest fly, Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitken, is a blood-sucking parasite during its larval stage and a serious threat to endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands where it is considered invasive. In order to procure large numbers of flies for biological studies, rearing media and diets were trialed for rearing the larval stage of P. downsi under controlled conditions in the absence of its avian host. P. downsi eggs were obtained from field-caught female flies, and once eggs hatched they were reared on chicken blood for the first 3 d. Following this, three diets were tested on second- and third-instar larvae: 1) chicken blood only; 2) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and dried milk powder; and 3) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and brewer's yeast. Out of 385 P. downsi larvae tested, we were able to rear 50 larvae to the adult stage. The highest level of mortality was found in the first-instar larvae. Survivorship of second- and third-instar larvae was similar irrespective of diet and diet did not significantly influence larval or pupal development times; though larvae fed the diet with brewer's yeast developed marginally faster. Pupal weights were similar to those of larvae that had developed on bird hosts in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first effective protocol for rearing a hematophagous parasitic avian fly from egg to adult in the absence of a living host. PMID:27493240

  7. Predation efficiency of indigenous larvivorous fish species on Culex pipiens L. larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in drainage ditches in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marti, Gerardo A; Azpelicueta, M de las Mercedes; Tranchida, María C; Pelizza, Sebastián A; García, Juan J

    2006-06-01

    Two neotropical freshwater fish species, Cnesterodom decemmaculatus (Poeciliidae) and Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae), were collected from human-made ditches, a common habitat of the house mosquito Culex pipiens in La Plata, Argentina. Cnesterodom decemmaculatus was recorded in 62 of the 100 examined ditches, whereas J. multidentata was collected from only 21 ditches sympatrically with C. decemmaculatus. Culex pipiens was the only mosquito species collected, and its larvae and pupae were found in 38 of the 100 ditches. Fish and mosquito larvae and pupae were collected together in only two ditches and were significantly negatively correlated. Siphons of larval Culex and remnants of chironomid larvae, copepods, aquatic mites, and fish were present in the gut contents of two C. decemmaculatus from mosquito-positive ditches, while diatoms and filamentous algae were recorded in every fish dissected. Adult C. decemmaculatus and J. multidentata needed approximately 6.2 h to completely digest one Cx. pipiens 4th instar larva under laboratory conditions. When fish were confined with a density of 60 or fewer Cx. pipiens 4th instar larvae, C. decemmaculatus and J. multidentata adults consumed 100% of them in one day but only 35% and 42%, respectively, when confined with 150 larvae. Eradication of Cx. pipiens from a ditch, where densities had averaged 250 immatures per dip, was achieved 17 days after the introduction of 1,700 C. decemmaculatus. PMID:16859096

  8. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3–1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  9. Host gut microorganisms' cues mediate orientation behaviour in the larva of the parasitoid Mallophora ruficauda.

    PubMed

    Groba, H F; Castelo, M K

    2016-02-01

    The robber fly Mallophora ruficauda is one of the most important apicultural pests in the Pampas region of Argentina. This species is a parasitoid of scarab beetle larvae. Females lay eggs away from the host, and the larvae perform active search behaviour toward Cyclocephala signaticollis third instar larvae, parasitoid's preferred host. This behaviour is mediated by host-related chemical cues produced in hosts' fermentation chamber. Also, C. signaticollis larvae are attracted to fermentation chamber extracts. As scarab larvae have microbe-rich fermentation chamber, it has been suggested that microorganisms could be involved in the production of these semiochemicals. The aims of this work were first to ascertain the presence of microorganisms in the fermentation chamber of C. signaticollis larvae and second to determine the role of microorganisms in the orientation response of parasitoid and host larvae. We found that microorganisms-free C. signaticollis larvae showed deterioration in their development and did not produce the attractive semiochemicals. Therefore, we isolated fermentation chamber microorganisms of host larvae by means of different cultures media, and then, assayed different microorganisms' stimuli by binary choice tests. We were able to isolate microorganisms and determine that M. ruficauda larvae are attracted to semiochemicals from protein degradation in the fermentation chamber. However, C. signaticollis larvae were not attracted to any semiochemicals associated with microorganisms' activity in the fermentation chamber. Although we were unable to elucidate the exact role of gut microorganisms in host behaviour, we discuss their relevance in parasitoid host-seeking behaviour and host conspecific interaction in M. ruficauda-C. signaticollis system. PMID:26521818

  10. Reclassification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae as Paenibacillus larvae without subspecies differentiation.

    PubMed

    Genersch, Elke; Forsgren, Eva; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Ashiralieva, Ainura; Rauch, Sandra; Kilwinski, Jochen; Fries, Ingemar

    2006-03-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study of the two subspecies of Paenibacillus larvae, Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens, supported the reclassification of the subspecies into one species, Paenibacillus larvae, without subspecies separation. Our conclusions are based on the analysis of six reference strains of P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens and three reference strains and 44 field isolates of P. larvae. subsp. larvae. The latter originated from brood or honey of clinically diseased honey bee colonies or from honey of both clinically diseased and asymptomatic colonies from Sweden, Finland and Germany. Colony and spore morphology, as well as the metabolism of mannitol and salicin, did not allow a clear identification of the two subspecies and SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins did not support the subspecies differentiation. For genomic fingerprinting, repetitive element-PCR fingerprinting using ERIC primers and PFGE of bacterial DNA were performed. The latter method is a high-resolution DNA fingerprinting method proven to be superior to most other methods for biochemical and molecular typing and has not previously been used to characterize P. larvae. ERIC-PCR identified four different genotypes, while PFGE revealed two main clusters. One cluster included most of the P. larvae subsp. larvae field isolates, as well as all P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens reference strains. The other cluster comprised the pigmented variants of P. larvae subsp. larvae. 16S rRNA gene sequences were determined for some strains. Finally, exposure bioassays demonstrated that reference strains of P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens were pathogenic for honey bee larvae, producing symptoms similar to reference strains of P. larvae subsp. larvae. In comparison with the type strain for P. larvae subsp. larvae, ATCC 9545T, the P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens strains tested were even more virulent, since they showed a shorter LT100. An emended description of the species is given

  11. [Larva migrans cutanea].

    PubMed

    Nevoralová, Z

    2006-01-01

    A case of rare skin disease in Czech Republic caused by nematode larva is presented. The disease is most frequently caused by Ankylostoma brasiliensis and was imported from Brazil. It was successfully treated by peroral therapy with albendazol. PMID:16639935

  12. Baylisascaris larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Kazacos, Kevin R; Jelicks, Linda A; Tanowitz, Herbert B

    2013-01-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a roundworm of the raccoon found primarily in North America but also known to occur in other parts of the world including South America, Europe, and Japan. Migration of the larvae of this parasite is recognized as a cause of clinical neural larva migrans (NLM) in humans, primarily children. It is manifested as meningoencephalitis associated with marked eosinophilia of the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. Diagnosis is made by recovering and identifying larvae in or from the tissues, epidemiological history, serology, and imaging of the central nervous system. Treatment is with albendazole and steroids, although the prognosis is generally poor. This parasite can also cause ocular larva migrans (OLM) which usually presents as diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN). The ocular diagnosis can be made by visualizing the larva in the eye and by serology. Intraocular larvae can be destroyed by photocoagulation although albendazole and steroids may also be used. However, once visual disturbance is established the prognosis for improved vision is poor. Related Baylisascaris species occur in skunks, badgers, and certain other carnivores, although most cases of NLM are caused by B. procyonis. Baylisascaris procyonis has also been found in kinkajous in the USA and South America and may also occur in related procyonids (coatis, olingos, etc.). PMID:23829916

  13. Infection, transfection, and co-transfection of baculoviruses by microprojectile bombardment of larvae.

    PubMed

    Obregón-Barboza, Verónica; Del Rincón-Castro, Ma Cristina; Cabrera-Ponce, José L; Ibarra, Jorge E

    2007-03-01

    The use of baculoviruses as expression vectors for heterologous proteins has been practically limited to the use of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). In this work, infection, transfection and co-transfection events with the baculoviruses AcMNPV and Trichoplusia ni granulovirus (TnGV) were accomplished by bombardment of T. ni first-instar larvae with microprojectiles coated with virions, viral DNA, and viral DNA and a transfer vector, respectively. A series of shooting conditions were tested until positive results were obtained. The use of 1.6 microm gold particles at 900 psi shooting pressure, 400 Torr vacuum, 7 cm distance to target, on sets of 20 first-instar larvae held in a 16 mm diameter container, proved to be the best shooting conditions. Typical infection symptoms were shown by larvae when shot with viruses or viral DNA from AcMNPV or TnGV. Co-transfected recombinant AcMNPV and TnGV were identified by the formation of occlusion bodies and GFP, respectively, in bombarded larvae. This technique opens a wide range of possibilities, not only to use an extensive number of baculoviruses as expression vectors for heterologous proteins, but also be used to infect, transfect or co-transfect a wide variety of viruses into animal cells. PMID:17184851

  14. Locomotion and attachment of leaf beetle larvae Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zurek, Daniel B.; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Voigt, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    While adult green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula use tarsal adhesive setae to attach to and walk on smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings, larvae apply different devices for similar purposes: pretarsal adhesive pads on thoracic legs and a retractable pygopod at the 10th abdominal segment. Both are soft smooth structures and capable of wet adhesion. We studied attachment ability of different larval instars, considering the relationship between body weight and real contact area between attachment devices and the substrate. Larval gait patterns were analysed using high-speed video recordings. Instead of the tripod gait of adults, larvae walked by swinging contralateral legs simultaneously while adhering by the pygopod. Attachment ability of larval instars was measured by centrifugation on a spinning drum, revealing that attachment force decreases relative to weight. Contributions of different attachment devices to total attachment ability were investigated by selective disabling of organs by covering them with melted wax. Despite their smaller overall contact area, tarsal pads contributed to a larger extent to total attachment ability, probably because of their distributed spacing. Furthermore, we observed different behaviour in adults and larvae when centrifuged: while adults gradually slipped outward on the centrifuge drum surface, larvae stayed at the initial position until sudden detachment. PMID:25657837

  15. Effects of nutrition (herbivore vs carnivore) on energy charge and nucleotide composition in Hyas araneus larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, J.

    1992-03-01

    Growth rate expressed as dry weight, elemetnal composition (C, N, H), protein content and nucleotide composition (ATP, ADP, AMP, CTP, GTP and UTP) as well as adenosine were measured in laboratory cultured Hyas araneus larvae fed two different diets. One group was fed freshly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii, the other the diatom Odontella (Biddulphia) sinensis. Growth rate was reduced in the O. sinensis-fed group, reaching 20 to 50% of the growth rate of Artemia-fed larvae. In all cases, some further development to the next instar occurred when larvae were fed O. sinensis, although at reduced levels compared to Artemia-fed larvae. The adenylic energy charge was quite similar for the two nutritional conditions tested and therefore does not reflect the reduced growth rate in O. sinensis-fed larvae. The individual nucleotide content was clearly reduced in O. sinensis-fed larvae, reflecting the nutritional conditions already during early developmental periods. These reduced amount of nucleotides in O. sinensis-fed larvae were most obvious when adenylic nucleotide contents were pooled. Pooled adenylic nucleotides were found to be correlated with the individual content of carbon and protein, showing significant differences at both nutritional conditions tested.

  16. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  17. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  18. Life Cycle Systems Engineering Approach to NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Safie, Fayssal; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd- generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1 -in- 10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. Given a candidate architecture that possesses credible physical processes and realistic technology assumptions, the next set of analyses address the system's functionality across the spread of operational scenarios characterized by the design reference missions. The safety/reliability and cost/economics associated with operating the system will also be modeled and analyzed to answer the questions "How safe is it?" and "How much will it cost to acquire and operate?" The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and

  19. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd-generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  20. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  1. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:27426066

  2. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  3. Easy Glide in a Coarse-Grained Mg-2Zn-2Nd Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Jonas, John J.; Yue, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Compression tests were performed at 673 K (400 °C) on a Mg-2Zn-2Nd alloy at the strain rates of 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001/s. The 0.1 and 0.01/s flow curves displayed work hardening to a peak stress at around 0.2 true strain. However, testing at 0.001/s led to steady-state flow at about 22 MPa from 0.03 true strain onwards. Such a steady-state flow is attributed to the predominance of basal slip under these conditions.

  4. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Control and Irradiated EPC 2nd Generation GaN FETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Results of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  5. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition?

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Bundred, P E

    2000-05-01

    The ratio between the length of the 2nd and 4th digits is: (a) fixed in utero; (b) lower in men than in women; (c) negatively related to testosterone and sperm counts; and (d) positively related to oestrogen concentrations. Prenatal levels of testosterone and oestrogen have been implicated in infertility, autism, dyslexia, migraine, stammering, immune dysfunction, myocardial infarction and breast cancer. We suggest that 2D:4D ratio is predictive of these diseases and may be used in diagnosis, prognosis and in early life-style interventions which may delay the onset of disease or facilitate its early detection. PMID:10859702

  6. [Infected chorionic hematoma as a cause of infection in the 2nd trimester].

    PubMed

    Weigel, M; Friese, K; Schmitt, W; Strittmatter, H J; Melchert, F

    1992-12-01

    Superinfected subchorionic haematomas are a rare septic focus in the 2nd trimenon. Symptoms being unspecific, the diagnosis has to be made by exclusion, in most cases. As the changes of a successful treatment of the manifest infection is poor, antibiotic prophylaxis as well as close laboratory controls and early antibiotic therapy should be discussed after sonographic diagnosis of an intrauterine haematoma. Two of our three patients reported on having suffered a miscarriage; only one pregnancy could be maintained after spontaneous depletion of the infected haemorrhage. PMID:1490559

  7. Immune Defense Varies within an Instar in the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Booth, Kimberly; Cambron, Lizzette; Fisher, Nathan; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2015-01-01

    Research on how insect immunity changes with age as insects develop within an instar, or larval developmental stage, is limited and contradictory. Insects within an instar are preparing for the next developmental stage, which may involve changes in morphology or habitat. Immunity may also vary accordingly. To determine how immunity varies in the fifth instar, we tested humoral immune responses, antimicrobial peptide activity, and phenoloxidase activity using the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We determined that while M. sexta have more robust antimicrobial peptide and phenoloxidase responses at the beginning of their fifth instar, this did not translate into better survival of bacterial infection or lower bacterial load in the hemolymph. We also determined that M. sexta injected with bacteria early in the fifth instar experience lower growth rates and longer development times than caterpillars of the same age injected with sham. This could indicate a shift in energy allocation from growth and development to metabolically costly immune responses. Because of the importance of insects as pests and pollinators, understanding how immunity varies throughout development is critical. PMID:25730277

  8. Surplus Killing by Predatory Larvae of Corethrella appendiculata: Prepupal Timing and Site-Specific Attack on Mosquito Prey

    PubMed Central

    Lounibos, L. P.; Makhni, S.; Alto, B. W.; Kesavaraju, B.

    2008-01-01

    Surplus or ‘wasteful’ killing of uneaten prey has been documented in the fourth larval instar of various species of the mosquito genus Toxorhynchites that occur in treeholes and other phytotelmata. Here we document surplus killing by the predatory midge Corethrella appendiculata, which in Florida cohabits treeholes and artificial containers with larvae of Toxorhynchites rutilus. Provided with a surfeit of larval mosquito prey, surplus killing was observed only in the fourth instar of C. appendiculata, peaking in intensity in the final 24 h prior to pupation, as observed for Toxorhynchites spp. Attack sites identified from videotaped encounters with mosquito prey were divided among head, thorax, abdomen, and siphon. Consumed mosquito larvae (n = 70) were attacked primarily on the head (46%) or siphon (34%), but surplus-killed prey (n = 30) were attacked predominantly on the thorax (83%). Despite its independent evolution among different insect species in aquatic container habitats, the functional significance of prepupal surplus killing remains unclear. PMID:19081802

  9. Baylisascaris larva migrans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kazacos, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  10. Using wintergreen oil for mounting mosquito larvae: a safer alternative to xylene.

    PubMed

    Koay, J B; Natasya, N N; Nashithatul, Mag; Ihsanuddin, R; Salleh, F M; Azil, A H

    2016-01-01

    Permanent mounting of fourth instar mosquito larvae is essential for identifying Aedes spp. This procedure requires extensive exposure to xylene, a clearing agent in the mounting process. We investigated wintergreen oil as a substitute for xylene. Five hundred larvae were mounted on slides to evaluate shrinkage or expansion of specimens after clearing using xylene or wintergreen oil. We examined the ventral brush and siphonal hair tufts for species identification and for preservation of morphological characteristics after clearing specimens in xylene or wintergreen oil. Shrinkage of the length of whole larvae and width of the head, thorax and abdomen after mounting was significantly greater after clearing with xylene than with wintergreen oil. The length of the comb scale nearest the ventral brush was similar for both clearing agents. The clarity of the specimens after mounting was improved by clearing with wintergreen oil, but the integrity of the ventral brush and siphonal hair tufts were similar for both clearing agents. PMID:26528914

  11. Some ultrastructural superficial changes in house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae induced by eucalyptol oil.

    PubMed

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Boonchu, Noppawan; Piangjai, Somsak

    2004-01-01

    The ultrastructural superficial changes in third instar house fly (Musca domestica) and blow fly (Chrysomya megacephala) induced by eucalyptol oil were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Dipped in 0.902 g/ml eucalyptol for 30 sec, the larvae integument of both species showed significant aberrant appearance of the body surface, particularly swelling integument, bleb formation, partial breach and deformation of spines. PMID:15517029

  12. Instar development of the douglas-fir tussock moth in relation to field temperatures. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, R.C.; Grimble, D.G.; Weatherby, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    Instar development is recorded for the Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudot-sugata) for two different elevations in the Boise National Forest, Idaho, in 1991. The percentage of the population by instars is associated with accumulated degree-days after eclosion, which can be used to predict the proper timing for spray application. For all practical purposes, areas can be released for spraying when third instars are initially found.

  13. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policy makers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  14. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-Jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-Kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-Qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-Wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  15. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence. PMID:26334946

  16. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  17. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, E.; Smith, M.

    2012-07-26

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  18. Insights into How Longicorn Beetle Larvae Determine the Timing of Metamorphosis: Starvation-Induced Mechanism Revisited.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Yukio; Hoshizaki, Sugihiko

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of holometabolous insects must determine the timing of their metamorphosis. How they determine this timing has only been studied in detail for a few insect species. In a few species of Coleoptera, starvation is known to be a cue for metamorphosis, leading to the formation of smaller adults (starvation-induced pupation, SiP). We investigated the occurrence of SiP in the beetle Psacothea hilaris. When P. hilaris larvae were starved late in the feeding phase of the last (5th) instar, they exhibited typical SiP characterized by constancy of the time from food deprivation to pupation (TTP) irrespective of the body weight upon food deprivation or the length of prior feeding. In contrast, when larvae were starved early in the feeding phase, TTP decreased by roughly 1 day as the feeding became 1 day longer. The change in the response to starvation was estimated to occur on day 5.9 in the last instar. A series of refeeding experiments suggested that whereas SiP occurred readily in the larvae starved in the late feeding phase, activation of SiP was suspended until day 5.9 in the larvae starved early in the feeding phase. When P. hilaris larvae were fed continuously, they eventually ceased feeding spontaneously and pupated. The time length between spontaneous cessation of feeding and pupation was approximately equal to the TTP in SiP. This suggests that the same mechanism was activated by food deprivation in the late feeding phase and by spontaneous cessation of ad libitum feeding. PMID:27386861

  19. Insights into How Longicorn Beetle Larvae Determine the Timing of Metamorphosis: Starvation-Induced Mechanism Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Nagamine, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Yukio; Hoshizaki, Sugihiko

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of holometabolous insects must determine the timing of their metamorphosis. How they determine this timing has only been studied in detail for a few insect species. In a few species of Coleoptera, starvation is known to be a cue for metamorphosis, leading to the formation of smaller adults (starvation-induced pupation, SiP). We investigated the occurrence of SiP in the beetle Psacothea hilaris. When P. hilaris larvae were starved late in the feeding phase of the last (5th) instar, they exhibited typical SiP characterized by constancy of the time from food deprivation to pupation (TTP) irrespective of the body weight upon food deprivation or the length of prior feeding. In contrast, when larvae were starved early in the feeding phase, TTP decreased by roughly 1 day as the feeding became 1 day longer. The change in the response to starvation was estimated to occur on day 5.9 in the last instar. A series of refeeding experiments suggested that whereas SiP occurred readily in the larvae starved in the late feeding phase, activation of SiP was suspended until day 5.9 in the larvae starved early in the feeding phase. When P. hilaris larvae were fed continuously, they eventually ceased feeding spontaneously and pupated. The time length between spontaneous cessation of feeding and pupation was approximately equal to the TTP in SiP. This suggests that the same mechanism was activated by food deprivation in the late feeding phase and by spontaneous cessation of ad libitum feeding. PMID:27386861

  20. Semiochemicals released by pecan alleviate physiological suppression in overwintering larvae of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Vargas-Arispuro, I; Corella-Madueño, M A G; Harris, M K; Martínez-Téllez, M A; Gardea, A A; Fu-Castillo, A; Orozco-Avitia, A

    2013-10-01

    Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (pecan nut casebearer) is a monophagous herbivore of Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch (pecan); both are indigenous to North America, where Carya has evolved for ≈60 million years. We hypothesized that this close association may have resulted in a parallel evolution allowing casebearer to use pecan volatiles to synchronize seasonality. Casebearer overwinters in diapause as a first-instar larva in a hibernaculum attached to a dormant pecan bud. Larval emergence from this structure after diapause or postdiapause quiescence coincides with the onset of pecan bud growth in the spring, and this interaction was the subject of this study. Dormant pecan twigs with hibernacula-infested buds were exposed to a water control or pecan volatiles from 'Western Schley' cultivar, and monitored to observe larval response by using a microcalorimeter. Initial testing showed that metabolic heat produced by overwintering larvae remained low and unchanged when exposed to water vapor and significantly increased within a few hours after exposure to volatiles from new pecan foliage. This shows that these larvae in hibernacula are in a physiologically suppressed state of diapause or postdiapause quiescence, from which they detect and respond to these pecan volatiles. Further studies to quantify larval responses showed that 90 and 80% of the larvae became active and emerged from their hibernacula ≈6 d after exposure to Western Schley and 'Wichita' volatiles, respectively. Mixtures of 13 sesquiterpenes from those pecan volatiles were identified to induce physiological activity within larvae after hours of exposure, followed some days later by larval emergence from hibernacula. Host volatiles, to our knowledge, have not previously been reported to induce early instar larvae in hibernacula to rouse from a state of physiological arrest to resume normal growth and development. This also has potential for use in pest management. PMID:24331605

  1. Hepatic visceral larva migrans

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas; Dhaulakhandi, Dhara Ballabh

    2013-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a systemic manifestation of migration of second stage larvae of nematodes through the tissue of human viscera. It is not uncommon but is underdiagnosed in developing countries. The liver is the most common organ to be involved due to its portal venous blood supply. The imaging findings are subtle and differentiation from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastases, cystic mesenchymal hamartoma and granulomatous diseases is difficult. This case report highlights the imaging features of hepatic lesions of VLM along with clinical and laboratory data which help in clinching the diagnosis. PMID:23853189

  2. The endoparasitoid Cotesia kariyai (Ck) regulates the growth and metabolic efficiency of Pseudaletia separata larvae by venom and Ck polydnavirus.

    PubMed

    Nakamatsu, Y; Gyotoku, Y; Tanaka, T

    2001-06-01

    It was previously demonstrated that parasitization by Cotesia kariyai caused a decrease in weight gain and food consumption in host larvae, resulting in a lower final weight for parasitized hosts. It is predicted that C. kariyai regulates the physiological condition of the host to obtain maximum food under restricted nutritional conditions. Approximate digestibility (AD) was higher following parasitization but the efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) of the parasitized hosts was lower. This suggests that resources available to the parasitoid larvae are enhanced in the parasitized hosts. We evaluated the physiological changes caused by injection of calyx fluid (polydnavirus) plus venom (C+V) in nonparasitized hosts. Injection of C+V into the nonparasitized hosts duplicated the effects of parasitism, namely it increased the AD and decreased the ECD. Furthermore, C+V injections elevated trehalose concentrations in nonparasitized host 7 to 10 d after injection (2nd stadium of the parasitoid larva). Protein content also increased on days 9 and 10 after C+V injection. These results suggest that the nutrients that parasitoid larvae require for their growth increase in the hemolymph of the host during the 2nd stadium of the parasitoid larva. PMID:11249945

  3. The larva of Drusus vinconi Sipahiler, 1992 (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae)

    PubMed Central

    Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram; Bálint, Miklós; Kučinić, Mladen; Pauls, Steffen U.; Previšić, Ana; Keresztes, Lujza; Vitecek, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the previously unknown larva of Drusus vinconi Sipahiler, 1992. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of existing identification keys the larva of Drusus vinconi keys together with Drusus annulatus (Stephens, 1837), Drusus biguttatus (Pictet, 1834), Drusus ingridae Sipahiler, 1993, Hadimina torosensis Sipahiler, 2002 and Leptodrusus budtzi (Ulmer, 1913). These species differ in the contours of the pronotum in lateral view, the presence/absence of the pronotal transverse groove, the shape of the median notch of the pronotum (in anterior view), pronotal sculpturing, presence/absence of the lateral carina of the head capsule, the number of proximo-dorsal setae on the mid-and hind femora, where the lateral fringe starts on the abdomen, and in geographic distribution. With respect to zoogeography, Drusus vinconi is a (micro-)endemic of the Western Pyrenees. The species prefers stony substratum in springs and springbrooks of the montane and subalpine region (Graf et al. 2008; Sipahiler 1992, 1993). As a grazer, the larvae of Drusus vinconi feed on biofilm and epilithic algae. PMID:23950671

  4. Laboratory bioassays of entomopathogenic fungi for control of Delia radicum (L.) larvae.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Denny J; Snelling, Jane E; Dreves, Amy J; Jaronski, Stefan T

    2005-06-01

    Laboratory soil bioassays were performed at economic field rates for in-furrow (3.85 x 10(6)spores/g dry soil) and broadcast (3.85 x 10(5)spores/g dry soil) applications with three isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (F52, ATCC62176, and ARSEF5520) and one isolate of Beauveria bassiana (GHA). All isolates tested were infective to second instar Delia radicum (L.). The conditionally registered M. anisopliae isolate (F52) performed best killing an average of 85 and 72% of D. radicum larvae at the high and low concentration, respectively. The mean LC50 and LC95 of F52 against second instar D. radicum was 2.7 x 10(6) and 1.8 x 10(8)spores/g dry soil, respectively. The use of F52 in an integrated management program is discussed. PMID:16087004

  5. Efficacy of the Bm86 antigen against immature instars and adults of the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Perez-Perez, D; Bechara, G H; Machado, R Z; Andrade, G M; Del Vecchio, R E M; Pedroso, M S; Hernández, M V; Farnós, O

    2010-02-10

    The Bm86 antigen has been used to control ticks of the Boophilus genera in integrated programs that also include the use of acaricides. Because of recent phylogenetic studies have lead to the inclusion of all Boophilus species within the Rhipicephalus genera, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of the Bm86 antigen on the biotic potential of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Domestic dogs were vaccinated with Bm86 and challenged with the three instars of R. sanguineus. Male and female mongrel dogs were divided into two groups of four animals each, comprising non-vaccinated and vaccinated animals. Immunized dogs were given two doses of an experimental formulation containing 50mug of recombinant Bm86, at 21 days interval while the other group was given placebo, consisting of the same preparation without Bm86. Each dog was challenged 21 days after the last dose with 250 larvae, 100 nymphs and 55 adults (25 females and 30 males) released inside feeding chambers (one per instar) glued to their shaved flank. The effect of the vaccination was evaluated by determining biological parameters of ticks including the yield rates of larvae, nymphs and adult females. Adult females engorged weight, egg mass weight, efficiency rate of conversion to eggs (ERCE) and hatchability. In addition, sera were collected from dogs at 0, 21, 36, 45 and 75 days after the vaccination and used for the detection of specific antibodies by ELISA. Collection rates of larvae, nymphs and adult females fed on vaccinated dogs were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by 38%, 29% and 31%, respectively, as compared with non-vaccinated controls. Significant reductions were also observed in weight of engorged females and egg mass, in ERCE, but not in the hatch rate of ticks fed on immunized dogs. ELISA data revealed a marked and significant increase in optical densities of sera from vaccinated animals after the second dose of Bm86. We concluded that the Bm86 antigen used as a vaccine for dogs reduced the viability and

  6. Comparative studies of Metarhizium anisopliae and Tolypocladium cylindrosporum as pathogens of mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Riba, G; Keita, A; Soares, G G; Ferron, P

    1986-12-01

    Mosquito fungal pathogens, Metarhizium anisopliae and Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, were compared with regard to virulence against the larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens. Culex pipiens larvae were much more susceptible to M. anisopliae conidia than An. stephensi or Ae. aegypti. But Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens larvae were equally susceptible to T. cylindrosporum propagules which weakly attack An. stephensi. Using a high concentration conidial suspension (10(7) sp/ml) of M. anisopliae no. 139, Ae. aegypti larvae were killed immediately within 1.1 days, before intrahemocoelian invasion; but at lower concentrations (10(6) and 10(5) sp/ml), typical mycosis occurred. However, T. cylindrosporum no. 3 blastospores were much more pathogenic to Ae. aegypti larvae than conidia. Conidial suspension of 10(7) spores/ml killed 68% fourth-instar larvae, relative to the 96% invaded by blastospores under the same conditions. Presoaked conidia virulence appeared still intermediate between conidia and blastospores. At low temperatures, 15 degrees C, virulence of M. anisopliae highly decreased, while at the same temperature, T. cylindrosporum blastospores were still virulent. PMID:2906985

  7. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy against larvae of Aedes aegypti: confocal microscopy and fluorescence-lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, L. M.; Pratavieira, S.; Inada, N. M.; Kurachi, C.; Corbi, J.; Guimarães, F. E. G.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Recently a few demonstration on the use of Photodynamic Reaction as possibility to eliminate larvae that transmit diseases for men has been successfully demonstrated. This promising tool cannot be vastly used due to many problems, including the lake of investigation concerning the mechanisms of larvae killing as well as security concerning the use of photosensitizers in open environment. In this study, we investigate some of the mechanisms in which porphyrin (Photogem) is incorporated on the Aedes aegypti larvae previously to illumination and killing. Larvae at second instar were exposed to the photosensitizer and after 30 minutes imaged by a confocal fluorescence microscope. It was observed the presence of photosensitizer in the gut and at the digestive tract of the larva. Fluorescence-Lifetime Imaging showed greater photosensitizer concentration in the intestinal wall of the samples, which produces a strong decrease of the Photogem fluorescence lifetime. For Photodynamic Therapy exposition to different light doses and concentrations of porphyrin were employed. Three different light sources (LED, Fluorescent lamp, Sun light) also were tested. Sun light and fluorescent lamp shows close to 100% of mortality after 24 hrs. of illumination. These results indicate the potential use of photodynamic effect against the LARVAE of Aedes aegypti.

  8. Gut fluorescence analysis of barnacle larvae: An approach to quantify the ingested food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2012-10-01

    Gut fluorescence analysis can provide a snapshot of ingested food and has been employed in feeding studies of various organisms. In this study we standardised the gut fluorescence method using laboratory-reared barnacle larvae (Balanus amphitrite) fed with mono-algal diet Chaetoceros calcitrans, a unicellular diatom at a cell concentration of 2 × 105 cells ml-1. The gut fluorescence of IV-VI instar nauplii was found to be 370(±12) ng chlorophyll a larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 224(±63) ng chlorophyll a larva-1. A phaeopigment concentration in larval gut was found to be 311(±13) ng larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 172(±61) ng larva-1. The study also analysed larval samples collected from the field during different seasons from a tropical environment influenced by monsoons (Dona Paula bay, Goa, west coast of India), with characteristic temporal variations in phytoplankton abundance and diversity. Gut fluorescence of larvae obtained during the post-monsoon season was consistently higher when compared to the pre-monsoon season, suggesting the predominance of autotrophic forms in the larval gut during the post-monsoon season. Whereas, the low gut fluorescence obtained during the pre-monsoon season indicated the ingestion of food sources other than autotrophs. Such differences observed in the feeding behaviour of larvae could be due to differential availability of food for the larvae during different seasons and indicate the capability of larvae to feed on wide range of food sources. This study shows the value of the fluorescence method in feeding studies of planktotrophic organisms and in the evaluation of ecosystem dynamics.

  9. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  10. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  11. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diapausing 5th instars of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are serious quarantine pests of in-shell walnuts. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling this pest in walnuts...

  12. Tetragonal ZrO2:Nd3+ nanosphere: Combustion synthesis, luminescence and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Chandrasekhar, D.; Kadam, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Nanocrystalline ZrO2:Nd3+ was synthesised using gel-combustion method and characterized systematically using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Through this route we can stabilize metastable tetragonal phase at 500 °C through addition of 1 mol % Nd3+ which is technologically more important. Optical characterization of the sample was done using photoluminescence (PL) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). PL studies shows an intense and optimum stimulated emission cross section of 1065 nm peak corresponding to 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 which and thus it can be a probable laser material. PAS is used to investigate electronic absorption of Nd3 in zirconia. Various covalency parameters like nephelauxetic ratio (β), covalency factor (b1/2) and Sinha parameter (δ) were evaluated for pure oxide powder and as well as for Nd3+ doped zirconia.

  13. International symposium on peripheral nerve repair and regeneration and 2nd club Brunelli meeting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The International Symposium "Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration and 2nd Club Brunelli Meeting" was held on December 4-5, 2009 in Turin, Italy (Organizers: Bruno Battiston, Stefano Geuna, Isabelle Perroteau, Pierluigi Tos). Interest in the study of peripheral nerve regeneration is very much alive because complete recovery of nerve function almost never occurs after nerve reconstruction and, often, the clinical outcome is rather poor. Therefore, there is a need for defining innovative strategies for improving the success of recovery after nerve lesion and repair and this meeting was intended to discuss, from a multidisciplinary point of view, some of today's most important issues in this scientific field, arising from both basic and clinical neurosciences. PMID:20214775

  14. International symposium on peripheral nerve repair and regeneration and 2nd club Brunelli meeting.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Mehmet; Geuna, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The International Symposium "Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration and 2nd Club Brunelli Meeting" was held on December 4-5, 2009 in Turin, Italy (Organizers: Bruno Battiston, Stefano Geuna, Isabelle Perroteau, Pierluigi Tos). Interest in the study of peripheral nerve regeneration is very much alive because complete recovery of nerve function almost never occurs after nerve reconstruction and, often, the clinical outcome is rather poor. Therefore, there is a need for defining innovative strategies for improving the success of recovery after nerve lesion and repair and this meeting was intended to discuss, from a multidisciplinary point of view, some of today's most important issues in this scientific field, arising from both basic and clinical neurosciences. PMID:20214775

  15. A Perpendicular Biased 2nd Harmonic Cavity for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C. Y.; Dey, J.; Madrak, R. L.; Pellico, W.; Romanov, G.; Sun, D.; Terechkine, I.

    2015-07-13

    A perpendicular biased 2nd harmonic cavity is currently being designed for the Fermilab Booster. Its purpose cavity is to flatten the bucket at injection and thus change the longitudinal beam distribution so that space charge effects are decreased. It can also with transition crossing. The reason for the choice of perpendicular biasing over parallel biasing is that the Q of the cavity is much higher and thus allows the accelerating voltage to be a factor of two higher than a similar parallel biased cavity. This cavity will also provide a higher accelerating voltage per meter than the present folded transmission line cavity. However, this type of cavity presents technical challenges that need to be addressed. The two major issues are cooling of the garnet material from the effects of the RF and the cavity itself from eddy current heating because of the 15 Hz bias field ramp. This paper will address the technical challenge of preventing the garnet from overheating.

  16. Automated CFD Database Generation for a 2nd Generation Glide-Back-Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pandya, Shishir A.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Tejmil, Edward

    2003-01-01

    A new software tool, AeroDB, is used to compute thousands of Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions for a 2nd generation glide-back booster in one week. The solution process exploits a common job-submission grid environment using 13 computers located at 4 different geographical sites. Process automation and web-based access to the database greatly reduces the user workload, removing much of the tedium and tendency for user input errors. The database consists of forces, moments, and solution files obtained by varying the Mach number, angle of attack, and sideslip angle. The forces and moments compare well with experimental data. Stability derivatives are also computed using a monotone cubic spline procedure. Flow visualization and three-dimensional surface plots are used to interpret and characterize the nature of computed flow fields.

  17. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. S.

    2014-02-01

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source.

  18. Glass fiber laser at 1. 36. mu. m from SiO sub 2 :Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Hakimi, F.; Po, H.; Tumminelli, R.; McCollum, B.C.; Zenteno, L.; Cho, N.M.; Snitzer, E. )

    1989-10-01

    By adding 14 mol % P{sub 2}O{sub 5} to the core of a SiO{sub 2}:Nd fiber, laser emission was obtained at 1.36 {mu}m. From the fluorescent spectra and laser thresholds for the {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}{ital I}{sub 3/2} transitions, the net gain at 1.36 {mu}m is 0.024 dB/mW, and the ratio of excited-state absorption (the {sup 4}{ital F}{sub 3/2} to {sup 4}{ital G}{sub 1/2} transition) to stimulated emission is estimated to be 0.78.

  19. The New 2nd-Generation SRF R&D Facility at Jefferson Lab: TEDF

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Reilly, Anthony V.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a near-complete renovation of the SRF-based accelerator research and development facilities at Jefferson Lab. The project to accomplish this, the Technical and Engineering Development Facility (TEDF) Project has completed the first of two phases. An entirely new 3,100 m{sup 2} purpose-built SRF technical work facility has been constructed and was occupied in summer of 2012. All SRF work processes with the exception of cryogenic testing have been relocated into the new building. All cavity fabrication, processing, thermal treatment, chemistry, cleaning, and assembly work is collected conveniently into a new LEED-certified building. An innovatively designed 800 m2 cleanroom/chemroom suite provides long-term flexibility for support of multiple R&D and construction projects as well as continued process evolution. The characteristics of this first 2nd-generation SRF facility are described.

  20. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Jeong, S H; Kim, T S; Lee, K W; Chang, D H; In, S R; Bae, Y S

    2014-02-01

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source. PMID:24593593

  1. Preliminary GPS orbit combination results of the IGS 2nd reprocessing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    International GNSS Service (IGS) has contributed to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame by reprocessing historic GPS network data and submitting Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions and Earth Rotation Parameters. For the 2nd reprocessing campaign, Analysis Centers (ACs) used up to 21 years of GPS observation data with daily integrations. IERS2010 conventions are applied to model the physical effects of the Earth. Total eight ACs have participated (7 Global solutions, and 2 Tide Gauge solutions) by reprocessing entire time series in a consistent way using the latest models and methodology. IGS combined daily SINEX TRF and EOP combinations have already been submitted to the IERS for ITRF2013. This presentation mainly focuses on the preliminary quality assessment of the reprocessed AC orbits. Quality of the orbit products are examined by examining the repeatability between daily AC satellite ephemeris. Power spectral analysis shows the background noise characteristics of each AC products, and its periodic behaviors.

  2. The Second Stellar Spectrum and the non-LTE Problem of the 2nd Kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the radiative transfer problem of calculating the spectral line intensity and polarization that emerges from a (generally magnetized) astrophysical plasma composed of atoms and molecules whose excitation state is significantly influenced by radiative transitions produced by an anisotropic radiation field. The numerical solution of this non-LTE problem of the 2nd kind is facilitating the physical understanding of the second solar spectrum and the exploration of the complex magnetism of the extended solar atmosphere, but much more could be learned if high-sensitivity polarimeters were developed also for the present generation of night-time telescopes. Interestingly, I find that the population ratio between the levels of some resonance line transitions can be efficiently modulated by the inclination of a weak magnetic field when the anisotropy of the incident radiation is significant, something that could provide a new diagnostic tool in astrophysics.

  3. The planar optics phase sensor: a study for the VLTI 2nd generation fringe tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blind, Nicolas; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Absil, Olivier; Alamir, Mazen; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Defrère, Denis; Feautrier, Philippe; Hénault, François; Jocou, Laurent; Kern, Pierre; Laurent, Thomas; Malbet, Fabien; Mourard, Denis; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Sarlette, Alain; Surdej, Jean; Tarmoul, Nassima; Tatulli, Eric; Vincent, Lionel

    2010-07-01

    In a few years, the second generation instruments of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) will routinely provide observations with 4 to 6 telescopes simultaneously. To reach their ultimate performance, they will need a fringe sensor capable to measure in real time the randomly varying optical paths differences. A collaboration between LAOG (PI institute), IAGL, OCA and GIPSA-Lab has proposed the Planar Optics Phase Sensor concept to ESO for the 2nd Generation Fringe Tracker. This concept is based on the integrated optics technologies, enabling the conception of extremely compact interferometric instruments naturally providing single-mode spatial filtering. It allows operations with 4 and 6 telescopes by measuring the fringes position thanks to a spectrally dispersed ABCD method. We present here the main analysis which led to the current concept as well as the expected on-sky performance and the proposed design.

  4. Enabling the 2nd Generation in Space: Building Blocks for Large Scale Space Endeavours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhardt, D.; Garretson, P.; Will, P.

    Today the world operates within a "first generation" space industrial enterprise, i.e. all industry is on Earth, all value from space is from bits (data essentially), and the focus is Earth-centric, with very limited parts of our population and industry participating in space. We are limited in access, manoeuvring, on-orbit servicing, in-space power, in-space manufacturing and assembly. The transition to a "Starship culture" requires the Earth to progress to a "second generation" space industrial base, which implies the need to expand the economic sphere of activity of mankind outside of an Earth-centric zone and into CIS-lunar space and beyond, with an equal ability to tap the indigenous resources in space (energy, location, materials) that will contribute to an expanding space economy. Right now, there is no comfortable place for space applications that are not discovery science, exploration, military, or established earth bound services. For the most part, space applications leave out -- or at least leave nebulous, unconsolidated, and without a critical mass -- programs and development efforts for infrastructure, industrialization, space resources (survey and process maturation), non-traditional and persistent security situational awareness, and global utilities -- all of which, to a far greater extent than a discovery and exploration program, may help determine the elements of a 2nd generation space capability. We propose a focus to seed the pre-competitive research that will enable global industry to develop the necessary competencies that we currently lack to build large scale space structures on-orbit, that in turn would lay the foundation for long duration spacecraft travel (i.e. key technologies in access, manoeuvrability, etc.). This paper will posit a vision-to-reality for a step wise approach to the types of activities the US and global space providers could embark upon to lay the foundation for the 2nd generation of Earth in space.

  5. Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The variation in instar number and the pattern of sequential instar development time of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied under 4 different diet regimes. Addition of dietary supplements consisting of dry potato or a mix of dry potato and dry egg whites significantly reduced...

  6. Ingestion of a marked bacterial pathogen of cotton conclusively demonstrates feeding by first instar southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-held dogma dictates that 1st instars of Nezara viridula (L.) do not feed, yet recent observations of stylet activity within a food source suggest otherwise. As a cosmopolitan pest of cotton and other high-value cash crops, confirmation of feeding by 1st instars may ultimately influence the biol...

  7. Using wing pad characteristics and head capsule widths to distinguish nymphal instars of the cotton fleahopper (Miridae: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), often require the ability to distinguish between the five nymphal instars. The only guideline for distinguishing instars, based primarily on wing pad characteristics, was published in an experiment station bulletin in 1929. Alth...

  8. Effect of Moringa oleifera lectin on development and mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Juliene S; Santos, Nataly D L; Napoleão, Thiago H; Gomes, Francis S; Ferreira, Rodrigo S; Zingali, Russolina B; Coelho, Luana C B B; Leite, Sônia P; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2009-11-01

    Aedes aegypti larvae have developed tolerance to many insecticides used for mosquito control. Moringa oleifera seeds contain a water-soluble lectin (WSMoL) and this paper reports the effect of M. oleifera seed extracts (MoE(1-15)) and WSMoL on development and survival of A. aegypti larvae. WSMoL peptide from in-gel trypsin digestion is also described. MoE(1-15) showed hemagglutinating activity and WSMoL had similarity with flocculating proteins from M. oleifera seeds. MoE(1) and MoE(3) delayed larval development which stopped in the third instar (L3) in MoE(6) and MoE(15). Significant (p<0.0001) larval mortality was only detected in MoE(15). Native WSMoL showed larvicidal activity (LC(50) 0.197 mg mL(-1)) and heated lectin, without hemagglutinating activity, did not kill fourth instar (L4) larvae. Optical microscopy showed that live L4 from MoE(1) presented underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen and hypertrophic segments; dead L4 from WSMoL were absent of underlying epithelium, had increased gut lumen and hypertrophic segments. The presence of hemagglutinating activity in the extracts suggests that soluble lectin promotes the delay of larval development and mortality; furthermore, the absence of larvicidal activity in heat-denatured WSMoL strengthens the involvement of lectin in this activity mechanism. PMID:19747711

  9. [Measurement report on the horizontal position relationship between the umbilicus and the 2nd lum- bar spinal process in adults].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingyi; Fu, Liyuan; Wang, Yueqi; Qiu, Wenqi; Yao, Miaojie; Zhao, Baixiao; Guo, Changqing

    2016-04-01

    The impact factors were explored to determine the horizontal positional relationship between the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar spinal process in adults and to verify the accuracy of the localization of Shenshu (BL 23) via the umbilicus. The position of the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar spinal process was measured in 100 participants and the data were analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. It was found that the umbilicus and the 2nd lumbar process were not positioned horizontally. The positional relationship of these two sites was not apparently correlated with gender, age, body weight, body height, BMI, waistline and discomfort of lumbar region. The umbilicus was commonly and posteriorly projected on the site between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebra. It is explained that the localization of Shenshu (BL23) via the umbilicus is not accurate. PMID:27352498

  10. Effects of herbivory by Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae on four woody ornamental plant species.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cliff G; Mannion, Catharine; Schaffer, Bruce

    2009-06-01

    The hypothesis that herbivory by Diaprepes root weevil larvae reduces leaf gas exchange and biomass was tested on buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.), mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.), and pond apple (Annona glabra L). For Surinam cherry, net CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal conductance, but not internal CO2 concentration (collectively referred to as leaf gas exchange values), were 7-32% higher in noninfested than infested plants. For buttonwood, all four gas exchange values were 10-54% higher for noninfested than infested plants 3 h after infestation with large, seventh-instar larvae. However, by 4 wk after this infestation, net CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal conductance, but not internal CO2 concentration, were 11-37% higher for infested than for noninfested plants. For mahogany and pond apple, there were few or no significant differences in leaf gas exchange values between infested and noninfested plants. For all species, mean shoot and root fresh and dry weights were higher for noninfested than infested plants, with the differences most significant for buttonwood (37-85% higher), followed by Surinam cherry (37-143% higher), mahogany (49-84% higher), and pond apple (24-46% higher), which had no significant differences. There were significant differences among plant species in mean head capsule widths, thus larval instars, of larvae recovered from soil with the largest larvae from Surinam cherry (2.59 +/- 0.19 mm) and the smallest from mahogany (2.29 +/- 0.06 mm). Based on differences in leaf gas exchange and plant biomass between infested and noninfested plants of the four species tested, buttonwood and Surinam cherry are the most vulnerable to feeding by Diaprepes larvae followed by mahogany then pond apple. PMID:19610430

  11. Egg Hatch and Survival and Development of Beet Webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Larvae at Different Combinations of Temperature and Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jihong; Cheng, Yunxia; Sappington, Thomas W; Jiang, Xingfu; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Lizhi

    2016-08-01

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatch, survival of first-fifth instars, survival of the full larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were investigated at combinations of four temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) and five relative humidities (RH; 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). We found that greatest egg hatch rate, survival rates of the first and second instars, and survival rate of the complete larval stage occurred at 22°C and 60-80% RH; the lowest values for these parameters were observed at 30°C and 20% RH. Survival of first instars was significantly affected by the interaction of temperature and relative humidity. However, survival of third and fourth instars was neither affected by temperature nor relative humidity, and that of fifth instars was significantly affected only by relative humidity level. The survival curve for larvae was well described by a type III Weibull distribution. Duration of larval stage decreased as temperature increased, but was not affected by relative humidity. We therefore conclude that eggs and early instars are the most critical stages for survival to the pupal stage, and 22-26°C and 60-80% RH are the optimum conditions for their survival and development. These findings confirm that temperature and relative humidity are the critical environmental factors affecting the population growth of L. sticticalis, with temperature being more important. PMID:27329620

  12. Evaluation of some adhesives for collecting Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala adults or mosquito larvae in sticky traps.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Yunus, H; Sohadi, R

    1987-07-01

    1. Seven types of water-insoluble adhesives were evaluated in sticky traps for collecting adults of Musca domestica L. and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) or mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say). 2. Adhesive viscosity affected the tackiness of the glues and this determined their trapping efficiency in air or water. 3. From the 'Hyvis' range of adhesives tested, 'Hyvis 200' was most effective for trapping adult flies. 4. With 24 h exposure to fourth instar Ae.aegypti larvae in tapwater, submerged plates coated with 'Hyvis 10', 'Hyvis 30' or 'Hyvis 200' formulations trapped the majority of larvae. In polluted water the highest rates of trapping were 17.3% of Ae.aegypti and 18.7% of Cx quinquefasciatus with 'Hyvis 200'. Floating traps were consistently less productive than submerged traps under laboratory conditions. 5. In a heavily polluted natural breeding-site of Cx quinquefasciatus, floating traps were more productive than submerged sticky traps with four of seven adhesives tested, the most efficient being 'Hyvis 200' (4.2 mosquitoes per hour) and Hyvis:polyethylene 90:10 (4.5/h). Despite the relative inefficiency of aquatic traps, emergent adults, pupae and second to fourth instars of larvae were collected quickly from the habitat. PMID:2979541

  13. LARVAL SAMPLING AND INSTAR DETERMINATION IN FIELD POPULATIONS OF NORTHERN AND WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head capsule width was measured for northern (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence) and western corn rootworm (D. virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae recovered primarily from maize root systems but also from large soil cores each centered around a root system. Larvae for measurement derived from fie...

  14. Technical Issues Map for the NHI System Interface and Support Systems Area: 2nd Quarter FY07

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-03-01

    This document provides a mapping of technical issues associated with development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) intermediate heat transport loop and nuclear hydrogen plant support systems to the work that has been accomplished or is currently underway in the 2nd quarter of FY07.

  15. The Hyphen as a Syllabification Cue in Reading Bisyllabic and Multisyllabic Words among Finnish 1st and 2nd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häikiö, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Finnish ABC books present words with hyphens inserted at syllable boundaries. Syllabification by hyphens is abandoned in the 2nd grade for bisyllabic words, but continues for words with three or more syllables. The current eye movement study investigated how and to what extent syllable hyphens in bisyllabic ("kah-vi" "cof-fee")…

  16. Give It a Shot! Toolkit for Nurses and Other Immunization Champions Working with Secondary Schools. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Chu, Lynda; Wooley, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent immunization saves lives--but promoting immunization takes time and thought, and today's nurses and other health advocates are faced with a host of ever-expanding responsibilities in a time of reduced budgets and staff. This toolkit is thus structured as an easy and reliable resource. This 2nd edition contains: (1) a 64-page manual;…

  17. Conference Proceedings: 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International; Disability in the Family. (Brighton, England, September 18-21, 1978)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Association for Disability and Rehabilitation, London (England).

    The conference proceedings of the 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International (1978) on the theme disability in the family contains the agenda and approximately 80 papers. National presentations consider the theme in papers by representatives of Finland, Hungary, Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal, Hong Kong, India, The German…

  18. The Influence of Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Phoneme Awareness in 2nd and 4th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics--neighborhood density and word frequency--interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods: Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation…

  19. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  20. Iron metabolism in African American women during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of a high-risk pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the 2nd and 3rd trimester in African American women classified as a high-risk pregnancy. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 47 African American women classified a...

  1. Curriculum on the Edge of Survival: How Schools Fail to Prepare Students for Membership in a Democracy. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Typically, school curriculum has been viewed through the lens of preparation for the workplace or higher education, both worthy objectives. However, this is not the only lens, and perhaps not even the most powerful one to use, if the goal is to optimize the educational system. "Curriculum on the Edge of Survival, 2nd Edition," attempts to define…

  2. Overwintering biology and limits of cold tolerance in larvae of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella.

    PubMed

    Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Šimek, P; Koštál, V

    2016-08-01

    Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella is an important pest of pistachio trees. It has an univoltine life-cycle and its larvae tunnel and feed inside pistachio twigs for almost 10 months each year. The last larval instars overwinter inside the twigs. Survival/mortality associated with low temperatures during overwintering stage is currently unknown. We found that overwintering larvae of the Rafsanjan (Iran) population of K. pistaciella rely on maintaining a stably high supercooling capacity throughout the cold season. Their supercooling points (SCPs) ranged between -19.4 and -22.7°C from October to February. Larvae were able to survive 24 h exposures to -15°C anytime during the cold season. During December and January, larvae were undergoing quiescence type of dormancy caused probably by low ambient temperatures and/or changes in host tree physiology (tree dormancy). Larvae attain highest cold tolerance (high survival at -20°C) during dormancy, which offers them sufficient protection against geographically and ecologically relevant cold spells. High cold tolerance during dormancy was not associated with accumulation of any low-molecular mass cryoprotective substances. The SCP sets the limit of cold tolerance in pistachio twig borer, meaning that high mortality of overwintering populations can be expected only in the regions or years where or when the temperatures fall below the average larval SCP (i.e., below -20°C). Partial mortality can be expected also when temperatures repeatedly drop close to the SCP on a diurnal basis. PMID:27063868

  3. Minimal Clinically Important Difference on Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd Version

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Deli, Gabriella; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the estimates of minimal clinically important difference for Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) total score and dimensions. Methods. The subject population consisted of 413 PD patients. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and PDSS-2 were assessed. Nine months later the PDSS-2 was reevaluated with the Patient-Reported Global Impression Improvement Scale. Both anchor-based techniques (within patients' score change method and sensitivity- and specificity-based method by receiver operating characteristic analysis) and distribution-based approaches (effect size calculations) were utilized to determine the magnitude of minimal clinically important difference. Results. According to our results, any improvements larger than −3.44 points or worsening larger than 2.07 points can represent clinically important changes for the patients. These thresholds have the effect size of 0.21 and −0.21, respectively. Conclusions. Minimal clinically important differences are the smallest change of scores that are subjectively meaningful to patients. Studies using the PDSS-2 as outcome measure should utilize the threshold of −3.44 points for detecting improvement or the threshold of 2.07 points for observing worsening. PMID:26539303

  4. Efficient Simulation of Wing Modal Response: Application of 2nd Order Shape Sensitivities and Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Liu, Youhua

    2000-01-01

    At the preliminary design stage of a wing structure, an efficient simulation, one needing little computation but yielding adequately accurate results for various response quantities, is essential in the search of optimal design in a vast design space. In the present paper, methods of using sensitivities up to 2nd order, and direct application of neural networks are explored. The example problem is how to decide the natural frequencies of a wing given the shape variables of the structure. It is shown that when sensitivities cannot be obtained analytically, the finite difference approach is usually more reliable than a semi-analytical approach provided an appropriate step size is used. The use of second order sensitivities is proved of being able to yield much better results than the case where only the first order sensitivities are used. When neural networks are trained to relate the wing natural frequencies to the shape variables, a negligible computation effort is needed to accurately determine the natural frequencies of a new design.

  5. Wind-US Results for the AIAA 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance III; Foster, Lancert; Mankbadi, Mina

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains Wind-US results presented at the 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The workshop was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Breathing Propulsion Systems Integration Technical Committee with the purpose of assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics for air breathing propulsion applications. Attendees included representatives from government, industry, academia, and commercial software companies. Participants were encouraged to explore and discuss all aspects of the simulation process including the effects of mesh type and refinement, solver numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. The first set of challenge cases involved computing the thrust and discharge coefficients for a 25deg conical nozzle for a range of nozzle pressure ratios between 1.4 and 7.0. Participants were also asked to simulate two cases in which the 25deg conical nozzle was bifurcated by a solid plate, resulting in vortex shedding (NPR=1.6) and shifted plume shock (NPR=4.0). A second set of nozzle cases involved computing the discharge and thrust coefficients for a convergent dual stream nozzle for a range of subsonic nozzle pressure ratios. The workshop committee also compared the plume mixing of these cases across various codes and models. The final test case was a serpentine inlet diffuser with an outlet to inlet area ratio of 1.52 and an offset of 1.34 times the inlet diameter. Boundary layer profiles, wall static pressure, and total pressure at downstream rake locations were examined.

  6. Introduction of the 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollet, Stefan; Maxwell, Reed; Dages, Cecile; Mouche, Emmanuel; Mugler, Claude; Paniconi, Claudio; Park, Young-Jin; Putti, Mario; Shen, Chaopeng; Stisen, Simon; Sudicky, Edward; Sulis, Mauro; Ji, Xinye

    2015-04-01

    The 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project commenced in June 2013 with a workshop at Bonn University funded by the German Science Foundation and US National Science Foundation. Three test cases were defined and compared that are available online at www.hpsc-terrsys.de including a tilted v-catchment case; a case called superslab based on multiple slab-heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity along a hillslope; and the Borden site case, based on a published field experiment. The goal of this phase is to further interrogate the coupling of surface-subsurface flow implemented in various integrated hydrologic models; and to understand and quantify the impact of differences in the conceptual and technical implementations on the simulation results, which may constitute an additional source of uncertainty. The focus has been broadened considerably including e.g. saturated and unsaturated subsurface storages, saturated surface area, ponded surface storage in addition to discharge, and pressure/saturation profiles and cross-sections. Here, first results are presented and discussed demonstrating the conceptual and technical challenges in implementing essentially the same governing equations describing highly non-linear moisture redistribution processes and surface-groundwater interactions.

  7. Improved beam spot measurements in the 2nd generation proton beam writing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yong; van Mourik, Martin W.; Santhana Raman, P.; van Kan, Jeroen A.

    2013-07-01

    Nanosized ion beams (especially proton and helium) play a pivotal role in the field of ion beam lithography and ion beam analysis. Proton beam writing has shown lithographic details down to the 20 nm level, limited by the proton beam spot size. Introducing a smaller spot size will allow smaller lithographic features. Smaller probe sizes, will also drastically improve the spatial resolution for ion beam analysis techniques. Among many other requirements, having an ideal resolution standard, used for beam focusing and a reliable focusing method, is an important pre-requisite for sub-10 nm beam spot focusing. In this paper we present the fabrication processes of a free-standing resolution standard with reduced side-wall projection and high side-wall verticality. The resulting grid is orthogonal (90.0° ± 0.1), has smooth edges with better than 6 nm side-wall projection. The new resolution standard has been used in focusing a 2 MeV H2+ beam in the 2nd generation PBW system at Center for Ion Beam Applications, NUS. The beam size has been characterized using on- and off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) and ion induced secondary electron detection, carried out with a newly installed micro channel plate electron detector. The latter has been shown to be a realistic alternative to STIM measurements, as the drawback of PIN diode detector damage is alleviated. With these improvements we show reproducible beam focusing down to 14 nm.

  8. Severe weather phenomena: SQUALL LINES The case of July 2nd 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschivescu, Mihnea; Tanase, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    The wind intensity plays an important role, among the dangerous meteorological phenomena, to produce negative effects on the economy and the social activities, particularly when the wind is about to turn into a storm. During the past years one can notice an increase of wind frequency and intensity due to climate changes and, consequently, as a result of the extreme meteorological phenomena not only on a planetary level but also on a regional one. Although dangerous meteorological phenomena cannot be avoided, since they are natural, nevertheless they can be anticipated and decision making institutions and mass media can be informed. This is the reason why, in this paper, we set out to identify the synoptic conditions that led to the occurrence of the severe storm case in Bucharest on July 2nd, 2009, as well as the matrices that generate such cases. At the same time we sought to identify some indications evidence especially from radar data so as to lead to the improvement of the time interval between the nowcasting warning and the actual occurrence of the phenomenon.

  9. Computer Generation of Subduction Frequencies for 2ND Order Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deonarine, Samaroo

    The Landau theory of 2nd order phase transitions and Group theory Criteria are used to predict which subgroups G (L-HOOK EQ) G(,0) can occur in transitions for 2-D systems (plane-group to plane-group and diperiodic to diperiodic). Previous work 1 on the 17 plane space groups has been based on the tables of Coxeter & Moser 2 and the International Tables of X-ray Crystallography (ITXRC, 1965) 3 . These tables do not exhaust all the possible subgroups of a space group 4 . Since such explicit tables are non-existent for other families of space groups we have developed algorithms that make a systematic search of the parent unit cell of G(,0) to locate the origin and orientation of all its subgroups G, G (L-HOOK EQ) G(,0). We have written a RATFOR/FORTRAN program for the VAX 11-780 which will generate the subduction frequencies. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). for allowed second order phase transitions in 2-dimensional systems that are describable by the 80 diperiodic Groups G(,0) and G 5 . Our program gives a complete tabulation (Origin, new Translation Sublattice, Subduction Frequency, Subgroup and its Generators) of the allowed continuous or second order phase transitions from a parent diperiodic group G(,0) to another diperiodic subgroup G.

  10. Transient 2(nd) Degree Av Block Mobitz Type II: A Rare Finding in Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Singh, Omkar; Agarwal, Ayush; Singh, Amit K; Yadav, Subhash

    2015-05-01

    Dengue has been a major problem as endemic occurs almost every year and causes a state of panic due to lack of proper diagnostic methods and facilities for proper management. Patients presenting with classical symptoms are easy to diagnose, however as a large number of cases occur every year, a number of cases diagnosed with dengue fever on occasion presents with atypical manifestations, which cause extensive evaluation of the patients, unnecessary referral to higher centre irrespective of the severity and therefore a rough idea of these manifestations must be present in the backdrop in order to prevent these problems. Involvement of cardiovascular system in dengue has been reported in previous studies, and they are usually benign and self-limited. The importance of study of conduction abnormalities is important as sometimes conduction blocks are the first sign of acute myocarditis in patients of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in shock. We present here a case of 2(nd) Degree Mobitz Type II atrioventricular AV block in a case of Dengue Hemorrhagic fever reverting to the normal rhythm in recovery phase and no signs thereafter on follow up. PMID:26155512

  11. Adenylate cyclase in prothoracic glands during the last larval instar of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, C H; Gu, S H; Chow, Y S

    2001-04-27

    We have previously reported that the absence of prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) signal transduction during the early last larval instar of Bombyx mori plays a role in leading to very low ecdysteroid levels in the hemolymph, inactivation of the corpora allata, as well as larval-pupal transformation. In the present study, adenylate cyclase was characterized in crude preparations of prothoracic gland cell membranes in an effort to localize the cause of refractoriness to PTTH. It was found that cyclase activity of the prothoracic glands from the day 6 last instar showed activation responses to fluoride, a guanine nucleotide analogue, as well as calmodulin (CaM) in dose-dependent fashions. The additive effects of day 5 prothoracic gland adenylate cyclase stimulation by fluoride and CaM imply that there may exist Gs protein-dependent and CaM-dependent forms of adenylate cyclase. For day 1 last instar prothoracic glands, which showed no response to stimulation by PTTH in either cAMP generation or ecdysteroidogenesis, adenylate cyclase activity exhibited far less responsiveness to Ca(2+)/CaM than did that from day 5 glands. These findings suggest that day 1 prothoracic glands may possess some lesions in the receptor-Ca(2+) influx-adenylate cyclase signal transduction pathway and these impairments in PTTH signal transduction may be, at least in part, responsible for decreased ecdysteroidogenesis. PMID:11267904

  12. Description of nymphal instars of Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones, 1969 (Acari: Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Pevidor, Luisa Viana; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Ornithodoros mimon is an argasid tick common on Chiroptera in the Neotropical region, where it also bites humans aggressively. Here we describe for the first time all nymphal instars (N1, N2 and N3) of O. mimon based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Although the nymphal instars of O. mimon resemble each other closely, there are characters that differentiate them: the N3 are taller that N1 and N2; the genital primordium occurs in some N2 and all N3; the spiracular plate in N1 and N2 is cone-like, but in N3 it is semicircular; and the submarginal dorsal groove is less distinct in N1 but more evident in N3. Nymphs of 0. mimon closely resemble the bat-associated species of the genus Ornithodoros included in the Alectorobius group. We review prior descriptions of nymphs of the Alectorobius group and make comparisons with nymphs of O. minon, highlighting characters with diagnostic information, such as the idiosomal shape, presence of discs and hood and absence subapical protuberance of tarsus I. The description of nymphal instars of O. mimon herein presented, improves the taxonomy of the family Argasidae, performing a work more detailed about the immature stage of this species. PMID:26106682

  13. Survival and behavioral responses of larvae of the caddis fly Hydropsyche angustipennis to copper and diazinon

    SciTech Connect

    Geest, H.G. van der; Greve, G.D.; Haas, E.M. De; Scheper, B.B.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Stuijfzand, S.C.; Augustijn, K.H.; Admiraal, W.

    1999-09-01

    This study reports on newly developed short-term survival and behavioral tests with larvae of the caddis fly Hydropsyche angustipennis using two model toxicants, copper and diazinon. Mortality of first instar larvae was shown to be a reliable endpoint, and it was demonstrated that H. angustipennis is among the more sensitive aquatic insects in terms of both copper and diazinon. In addition, short-term behavioral responses were found to be indicative of adverse effects of ecologically relevant low doses of copper. Using the tests developed in this study, hydropsychid species are excellent tools for discerning the effects of individual toxicants present in large European rivers, and these species may help in defining the conditions for ecological rehabilitation.

  14. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  15. Thermal summation model and instar determination of all developmental stages of necrophagous beetle, Sciodrepoides watsoni (Spence) (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Cholevinae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Necrophagous beetles are underrepresented in forensic entomology studies despite their undeniable utility for the field. In the present article, information is presented regarding the developmental biology and instar determination of Sciodrepoides watsoni (Spence, 1813), a very common species occurring across the Holarctic region. Wild collected beetles were kept in climate chambers at constant temperature (12, 15, 18, 21 and 28 °C) and their development was regularly documented. Parameters of thermal summation models and standard errors were calculated for each developmental stage. These models may be used for an estimation of post-mortem interval in legal investigations after further validation on local populations of S. watsoni. An additional methodology is introduced for future studies of size-based characteristics, addressing instar identification bias. The methodology provided estimations (mean, standard error and standard deviation) of S. watsoni larval head capsule width for preliminary larval instar determination. The methodology may be used with other morphological features to improve instar determination accuracy. PMID:27123379

  16. Madeira Extreme Floods: 2009/2010 Winter. Case study - 2nd and 20th of February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, V.; Marques, J.; Silva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Floods are at world scale the natural disaster that affects a larger fraction of the population. It is a phenomenon that extends it's effects to the surrounding areas of the hydrographic network (basins, rivers, dams) and the coast line. Accordingly to USA FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) flood can be defined as:"A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties from: Overflow of inland or tidal waters; Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; Mudflow; Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined above." A flash flood is the result of intense and long duration of continuous precipitation and can result in dead casualties (i.e. floods in mainland Portugal in 1967, 1983 and 1997). The speed and strength of the floods either localized or over large areas, results in enormous social impacts either by the loss of human lives and or the devastating damage to the landscape and human infrastructures. The winter of 2009/2010 in Madeira Island was characterized by several episodes of very intense precipitation (specially in December 2009 and February 2010) adding to a new record of accumulated precipitation since there are records in the island. In February two days are especially rainy with absolute records for the month of February (daily records since 1949): 111mm and 97mm on the 2nd and 20th respectively. The accumulated precipitation ended up with the terrible floods on the 20th of February causing the lost of dozens of human lives and hundreds of millions of Euros of losses The large precipitation occurrences either more intense precipitation in a short period or less intense precipitation during a larger period are sometimes the precursor of

  17. 11 Years of Cloud Characteristics from SEVIRI: 2nd Edition of the CLAAS Dataset by CMSAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin; Fokke Meirink, Jan; van Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan; Kniffka, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Spatiotemporal variability of clouds is an important aspect of the climate system. Therefore climate data records of cloud properties are valuable to many researchers in the climate community. The passive SEVIRI imager onboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellites is well suited for the needs of cloud retrievals as it provides measurements in 12 spectral channels every 15 minutes and thus allows for capturing both the spatial and the temporal variability of clouds. However, requirements on climate data records are high in terms of record length and homogeneity, so that intercalibration and homogenization among the available SEVIRI instruments becomes a crucial factor. We present the 2nd edition of the CLoud Property DAtAset using SEVIRI (CLAAS-2) generated within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CMSAF), that is temporally extended and qualitatively improved compared to the 1st edition. CLAAS-2 covers the time period 2004-2014 and features cloud mask, cloud top properties, cloud phase, cloud type, and microphysical cloud properties on the complete SEVIRI disc in 15-minute temporal resolution. Temporally and spatially averaged quantities, mean diurnal cycles and monthly histograms are included as well. CLAAS-2 was derived from a homogenized data basis, obtained by intercalibrating visible and infrared SEVIRI radiances (of Meteosat 8, 9 and 10) with MODIS, using state-of-the-art retrieval schemes. In addition to the dataset characteristics, we will present validation results using CALIPSO as reference observations. The CLAAS-2 dataset will allow for a large variety of applications of which some will be indicated in our presentation, with focus on determining diurnal to seasonal cycles, spatially resolved frequencies of cloud properties as well as showing the potential for using CLAAS-2 data for model process studies.

  18. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  19. A convective divertor utilizing a 2nd-order magnetic field null

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognlien, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    New results motivate a detailed study of a magnetic divertor concept characterized by strong plasma convection near a poloidal magnetic field (Bp) null region. The configuration is that of a near-2nd-order Bp null (Bp ~ Δ r2) , as in a snowflake divertor. The concept has 2 key features: (A) Convection spreads the heat flux between multiple divertor legs and further broadens the heat-flux profile within each leg, thereby greatly reducing target-plate heat loads. (B) The heat flux is further reduced by line radiation in each leg in detachment-like ionization zones. Theory indicates that convective turbulence arises when the poloidal plasma beta, βp = 2μ0nT/B p 2 >> 1 . Measurements in TCV now more fully quantify earlier NSTX and TCV observations of plasma mixing, and related modeling of TCV indicates that strongly enhanced null-region transport is present. Convective mixing provides a stabilizing mechanism to prevent the ionization fronts (hydrogenic and impurity) from collapsing to a highly radiating core MARFE. Also, the radiating zone maps to a very small region at the midplane owing to the very weak Bp in the convective region, thus minimizing its impact on the core plasma. Detailed calculations are reported that combine features A and B noted above. The plasma mixing mechanisms are described together with the corresponding transport model implemented in the 2D UEDGE edge transport code. UEDGE calculations are presented that quantify the roles of mixing, impurity radiation, and detachment stability for a realistic snowflake configuration. Work in collaboration with D.D. Ryutov, S.I. Krasheninnikov, and M.V. Umansky. Performed for the U.S. DoE by LLNS, LLC, LLNL, under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Mechanosensitivity of the 2nd Kind: TGF-β Mechanism of Cell Sensing the Substrate Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Cockerill, Max; Rigozzi, Michelle K.; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells can sense forces applied to them, but also the stiffness of their environment. These are two different phenomena, and here we investigate the mechanosensitivity of the 2nd kind: how the cell can measure an elastic modulus at a single point of adhesion—and how the cell can receive and interpret the chemical signal released from the sensor. Our model uses the example of large latent complex of TGF-β as a sensor. Stochastic theory gives the rate of breaking of latent complex, which initiates the signaling feedback loop after the active TGF-β release and leads to a change of cell phenotype driven by the α-smooth muscle actin. We investigate the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of the model, comparing them with experiments. In particular, we analyse the timescale of approach to the steady state, the stability of the non-linear dynamical system, and how the steady-state concentrations of the key markers vary depending on the elasticity of the substrate. We discover a crossover region for values of substrate elasticity closely corresponding to that of the fibroblast to myofibroblast transition. We suggest that the cell could actively vary the parameters of its dynamic feedback loop to ‘choose’ the position of the transition region and the range of substrate elasticity that it can detect. In this way, the theory offers the unifying mechanism for a variety of phenomena, such as the myofibroblast conversion in fibrosis of wounds and lungs and smooth muscle cell dysfunction in cardiac disease. PMID:26448620

  1. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  2. The first complete 3D reconstruction of a Spanish fly primary larva (Lytta vesicatoria, Meloidae, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Ge, Si-Qin; Wipfler, Benjamin; Pohl, Hans; Hua, Yi; Slipiński, Adam; Yang, Xing-Ke; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2012-01-01

    The first detailed anatomical study of a primary larva of Meloidae is presented. Thereby techniques such as three-dimensional reconstructions, microtome sections, SEM (scanning electronic microscopy) and CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscopy) are applied. The structural features are discussed in the context of phylogeny, but also possible correlations with parasitism, phoresy and miniaturisation. The triungulin first instar larva is likely an apomorphy of Meloidae excl. Eleticinae and linked with a specialisation on acridoid eggs or larvae and provisions of bees. The campodeid body shape of Lytta and Meloinae is a groundplan feature of Meloidae, whereas a navicular body is an autapomorphy of the generally phoretic larvae of Nemognathinae. Head structures of Lytta and features of the postcephalic body are largely plesiomorphic. The musculature of the head is only moderately simplified while the one of the postcephalic body is well developed. Its thorax is largely characterised by plesiomorphies. The characteristics of the legs suggest phoretic habits, even though this does not apply to larvae of Lytta. It is conceivable that a phoretic behaviour is secondarily lost, together with some but not all morphological modifications related to it. Derived features of the abdomen of Meloidae are the complete loss of the fixed urogomphi (also missing in Rhipiphoridae and other related groups) and the presence of one or two conspicuous caudal bristles. Only few features of Lytta are shared with the parasitic larvae of Rhipiphoridae and Strepsiptera. These characteristics, which are possibly linked with specialised life habits, have obviously evolved independently. Miniaturisation effects are minimal in the larvae of Lytta. PMID:23300692

  3. The First Complete 3D Reconstruction of a Spanish Fly Primary Larva (Lytta vesicatoria, Meloidae, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Si-Qin; Wipfler, Benjamin; Pohl, Hans; Hua, Yi; Ślipiński, Adam; Yang, Xing-Ke; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2012-01-01

    The first detailed anatomical study of a primary larva of Meloidae is presented. Thereby techniques such as three-dimensional reconstructions, microtome sections, SEM (scanning electronic microscopy) and CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscopy) are applied. The structural features are discussed in the context of phylogeny, but also possible correlations with parasitism, phoresy and miniaturisation. The triungulin first instar larva is likely an apomorphy of Meloidae excl. Eleticinae and linked with a specialisation on acridoid eggs or larvae and provisions of bees. The campodeid body shape of Lytta and Meloinae is a groundplan feature of Meloidae, whereas a navicular body is an autapomorphy of the generally phoretic larvae of Nemognathinae. Head structures of Lytta and features of the postcephalic body are largely plesiomorphic. The musculature of the head is only moderately simplified while the one of the postcephalic body is well developed. Its thorax is largely characterised by plesiomorphies. The characteristics of the legs suggest phoretic habits, even though this does not apply to larvae of Lytta. It is conceivable that a phoretic behaviour is secondarily lost, together with some but not all morphological modifications related to it. Derived features of the abdomen of Meloidae are the complete loss of the fixed urogomphi (also missing in Rhipiphoridae and other related groups) and the presence of one or two conspicuous caudal bristles. Only few features of Lytta are shared with the parasitic larvae of Rhipiphoridae and Strepsiptera. These characteristics, which are possibly linked with specialised life habits, have obviously evolved independently. Miniaturisation effects are minimal in the larvae of Lytta. PMID:23300692

  4. Ingestion of a marked bacterial pathogen of cotton conclusively demonstrates feeding by first instar southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Esquivel, J F; Medrano, E G

    2014-02-01

    Long-held dogma dictates that first instars of Nezara viridula (L.) do not feed, yet recent observations of stylet activity within a food source suggest otherwise. As a cosmopolitan pest of cotton and other high-value cash crops, confirmation of feeding by first instars may ultimately influence the knowledge on biology and management strategies for this pest. To determine whether first instars feed, newly hatched nymphs were provided sterile green beans (control) or beans infected with a rifampicin-resistant marked bacterial pathogen (Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife)) of cotton. Insects were exposed to beans for 2 d, and feeding was confirmed based on detection of marked bacteria ingested by the insect. Normal bacterial flora was detected in all insects; however, control insects did not possess the marked bacteria. Of the first instars surviving on infected beans, ≍65% possessed the marked bacteria internally. Furthermore, the frequency of insects with marked bacteria was higher in insects collected directly from the bean surface than those that were off the bean at time of collection. Densities of innate and marked bacteria were comparable (both ranging from 10(1) to 10(3)), suggesting that the marked bacteria did not exclude preexisting bacterial flora. Marked bacteria were also detected in a subset of second instars, indicating marked bacteria were retained through the molting process after ingesting bacteria as first instars. Our findings conclusively demonstrate feeding by first instars and redefine the long-held perspective of nonfeeding by first instars. These findings may necessitate changes to crop protection strategies against feeding and vectoring of plant pathogens by N. viridula. PMID:24342007

  5. [Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Petithory, Jean-Claude

    2007-11-30

    The syndrome of visceral larva migrans was described for the first time in 1952 by Beaver. He demonstrated that the presence of nematodes larvae, particularly in the liver, were those of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Baylisascaris procyonis, the common racoon ascarid in the U.S.A. can also cause serious diseases in human. Digestive and respiratory clinical symptoms are usually moderate, however severe disease resulting from invasion of the myocardium or the brain has been reported. A blood hypereosinophilia is usually present the first few years after infection. Diagnosis uses serological methods, among them the ELISA test. Ocular larva is also possible with in that case, immunological modifications of the aqueous. Cutaneous larva migrans characterized by a linear, progressing, serpigenous eruption and intense itching is easy to diagnose. Larva migrans is due to dogs, cats and horses helminths. Dogs and cats (referred here as pets) now receive antihelmintitic treatments and parasites are now in decrease. PMID:18326429

  6. Survival and swimming behavior of insecticide-exposed larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is essentially a container-inhabiting species that is closely associated with urban areas. This species is a vector of human pathogens, including dengue and yellow fever viruses, and its control is of paramount importance for disease prevention. Insecticide use against mosquito juvenile stages (i.e. larvae and pupae) is growing in importance, particularly due to the ever-growing problems of resistance to adult-targeted insecticides and human safety concerns regarding such use in human dwellings. However, insecticide effects on insects in general and mosquitoes in particular primarily focus on their lethal effects. Thus, sublethal effects of such compounds in mosquito juveniles may have important effects on their environmental prevalence. In this study, we assessed the survival and swimming behavior of A. aegypti 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae exposed to increasing concentrations of insecticides. We also assessed cell death in the neuromuscular system of juveniles. Methods Third instar larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of azadirachtin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid and spinosad. Insect survival was assessed for 10 days. The distance swam, the resting time and the time spent in slow swimming were assessed in 4th instar larvae (L4) and pupae. Muscular and nervous cells of L4 and pupae exposed to insecticides were marked with the TUNEL reaction. The results from the survival bioassays were subjected to survival analysis while the swimming behavioral data were subjected to analyses of covariance, complemented with a regression analysis. Results All insecticides exhibited concentration-dependent effects on survival of larvae and pupae of the yellow fever mosquito. The pyrethroid deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide followed by spinosad, imidacloprid, and azadirachtin, which exhibited low potency against the juveniles. All insecticides except azadirachtin reduced L4 swimming speed and

  7. Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. In this study, the oils of 41 plants were evaluated for their effects against third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. At first, the oils were surveyed against A. aegypti using a 50-ppm solution. Thirteen oils from 41 plants (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum and sandalwood) induced 100% mortality after 24 h, or even after shorter periods. The best oils were tested against third-instar larvae of the three mosquito species in concentrations of 1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 ppm. The lethal concentration 50 values of these oils ranged between 1 and 101.3 ppm against A. aegypti, between 9.7 and 101.4 ppm for A. stephensi and between 1 and 50.2 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:16642386

  8. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed. PMID:21660238

  9. Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES): comparative performance of 2nd-, 4th-, and 8th-grade Czech children.

    PubMed

    Otto, D A; Skalik, I; House, D E; Hudnell, H K

    1996-01-01

    The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System was designed for field studies of workers, but many NES tests can be performed satisfactorily by children as young as 7 or 8 years old and a few tests, such as simple reaction time, can be performed by preschool children. However, little comparative data from children of different ages or grade levels are available. Studies of school children in the Czech Republic indicate that 2nd-grade children could perform the following NES tests satisfactorily: Finger Tapping, Visual Digit Span. Continuous Performance, Symbol-Digit Substitution, Pattern Comparison, and simpler conditions of Switching Attention. Comparative scores of boys and girls from the 2nd, 4th, and 8th grades and power analyses to estimate appropriate sample size were presented. Performance varied systematically with grade level and gender. Larger samples were needed with younger children to achieve comparable levels of statistical power. Gender comparisons indicated that boys responded faster, but made more errors than girls. PMID:8866533

  10. In vitro feeding of instars of the ixodid tick Amblyomma variegatum on skin membranes and its application to the transmission of Theileria mutans and Cowdria ruminatium.

    PubMed

    Voigt, W P; Young, A S; Mwaura, S N; Nyaga, S G; Njihia, G M; Mwakima, F N; Morzaria, S P

    1993-09-01

    An in vitro feeding method using rabbit or cattle skin membranes, applied successfully to all stages (larvae, nymphae and adults) of the ioxodid tick, Amblyomma variegatum, is described. The feeding apparatus consisted of a blood container with a membrane placed on top of a tick containment unit. A carbon dioxide atmosphere of between 5 and 10% and a temperature of 37 degrees C were used as stimulants for the attachment of the ticks. High CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere improved the feeding success of all instars. The effect of anticoagulation methods for the bloodmeal was investigated, and heparinized blood was found to be the most suitable for tick feeding. When the bloodmeal was replaced by tissue culture medium for feeding nymphs the subsequent moulting success was reduced. Adult ticks of both sexes remained attached for up to 16 days, until completion of their bloodmeals. All stages of the tick fed on whole blood in the artificial feeding system and all reached engorged weights less than those achieved by control ticks fed on experimental animals. A large proportion of ticks, fed artificially on whole blood, moulted or laid eggs successfully. The method was successfully applied for the transmission of Theileria mutans and Cowdria ruminantium to cattle. PMID:8233589

  11. Detection of Gnathostoma spinigerum Third-Stage Larvae in Snakeheads Purchased from a Central Part of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Jin-Ju; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2008-01-01

    To examine the infection status of freshwater fish with Gnathostoma spp. larvae in Myanmar, we purchased 15 snakeheads, Channa striatus, from a local market in a suburban area of Naypyidaw, the new capital city. Two larval gnathostomes were collected using an artificial digestion technique, and observed by a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The size of an intact larva was 2.65 mm long and 0.32 mm wide. The characteristic morphology of the larvae included the presence of a long esophagus (0.80 mm long), 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.43 mm long), and a characteristic head bulb with 4 rows of hooklets. The number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th row was 45, 48, 50, and 52, respectively. Based on these morphological characters, the larvae were identified as the advanced 3rd-stage larvae of Gnathostoma spinigerum. This is the first report of detection of G. spinigerum 3rd-stage larvae in the central part of Myanmar. Our study suggests that intake of raw meat of snakehead fish in Myanmar may result in human gnathostomiasis. PMID:19127338

  12. Physical properties of double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ohoyama, Kenji

    2013-01-15

    The crystal, magnetic structures and physical properties of the double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are investigated through powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. The Rietveld analysis reveals that the Nd and Os ions are arranged with regularity over the six-coordinate B sites in a distorted perovskite ABO{sub 3} framework. The monoclinic crystal structure described by space group P2{sub 1}/n (tilt system a{sup -}a{sup -}c{sup +}) becomes more distorted with decreasing temperature from 300 K down to 2.5 K. This compound shows a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} below 65 K. An antiferromagnetic ordering of Nd{sup 3+} also occurs at lower temperatures ({approx}20 K). The magnetic structure is of Type I and the magnetic moments of Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. - Graphical Abstract: The Magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is of Type I, and the magnetic moments of the Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structures of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are determined to be monoclinic below 300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its electrical resistivity shows a Mott variable-range hopping behavior with localized carriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An antiferromagnetic ordering of the Os{sup 5+}moment occurs at 65 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is determined to be of Type I.

  13. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  14. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders. PMID:26972324

  15. Susceptibility of first instar Toxorhynchites splendens to malathion, naled and resmethrin.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Schreiber, E T; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R

    1993-03-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to measure the response of first instar Toxorhynchites splendens to commonly used mosquito adulticides: malathion, naled and resmethrin. The concentrations of pesticide causing 50% mortality (LC50) after 24 h was 2.87, 69.1 and 623 ppb for resmethrin, malathion and naled, respectively. Naled was determined to be the least toxic of the 3 compounds tested for integrated use with Tx. splendens. The latter assessments were based on comparisons between laboratory-derived dose-response curves and maximum concentrations reached in standing water calculated using standard application rates. PMID:8096872

  16. Catalogue and historical overview of juvenile instars of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Norton, Roy A; Ermilov, Sergey G

    2014-01-01

    Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) comprise a taxonomically and morphologically diverse suborder of about 10,000 described species, not including the hyporder Astigmata, with collectively a global distribution. They are primarily soil and litter inhabitants, feeding on fungi and decaying plant remains with various levels of specificity. Though all five active instars are important for reasons that relate to both ecology and systematics, most species are known only as adults. Our purpose was to gather the existing world literature on the active juvenile instars (i.e., excluding prelarva) of oribatid mites, to put classifications and nomenclature in a current context, and to identify the nature of the information in each paper. A selected historical overview identifies the contributions of 19th century authors C.L. Koch, H. Nicolet and A.D. Michael, and summarizes errors that resulted in various oribatid mite juveniles being classified in genera, families and even suborders that were different from those of their adult instars. The catalogue includes all species known to us for which juveniles have been described: 805 species in 310 genera, representing only about 8% of the known oribatid mite species and 30% of genera. These represent 118 families, about 70% of those known. At the superfamily level, representation is weakest among the diverse Oppioidea and Oribatuloidea, and those superfamilies with juveniles that are endophagous in organic substrates, such as Phthiracaroidea, Euphthiracaroidea and Carabodoidea. Representation is strongest in the middle-derivative hyporder Nothrina, in which adults and juveniles are more easily associated, and in brachypyline superfamilies that are mostly affiliated with aquatic, semiaquatic or intertidal environments, such as Limnozetoidea and Ameronothroidea. Juvenile instars remain unknown for 45 families of Brachypylina. Four new nomenclatural actions were proposed: Ojaithrus nymphoides Habeeb, 1982 is a junior synonym of

  17. PREFACE: 1st-2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome - Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YRMR Organizing Committee; Cannuccia, E.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2011-03-01

    Students in science, particularly in physics, face a fascinating and challenging future. Scientists have proposed very interesting theories, which describe the microscopic and macroscopic world fairly well, trying to match the quantum regime with cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena in all their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. More and more accurate and complex experiments have been devised and these are now going to test the paradigms of physics. Notable experiments include: the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is going to shed light on the physics of the Standard Model of Particles and its extensions; the Planck-Herschel satellites, which target a very precise measurement of the properties of our Universe; and the Free Electron Lasers facilities, which produce high-brilliance, ultrafast X-ray pulses, allowing the investigation of the fundamental processes of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. These projects are the result of huge collaborations spread across the world, involving scientists belonging to different and complementary research fields: physicists, chemists, biologists and others, keen to make the best of these extraordinary laboratories. Even though each branch of science is experiencing a process of growing specialization, it is very important to keep an eye on the global picture, remaining aware of the deep interconnections between inherent fields. This is even more crucial for students who are beginning their research careers. These considerations motivated PhD students and young post-docs connected to the Roman scientific research area to organize a conference, to establish the background and the network for interactions and collaborations. This resulted in the 1st and 2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome (http://ryrm.roma2.infn.it), one day conferences aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics in Italy

  18. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  19. The relative abundance of hemocyte types in a polyphagous moth larva depends on diet.

    PubMed

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Moret, Yannick; Monceau, Karine; Thiéry, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Hemocytes are crucial cells of the insect immune system because of their involvement in multiple immune responses including coagulation, phagocytosis and encapsulation. There are various types of hemocytes, each having a particular role in immunity, such that variation in their relative abundance affects the outcome of the immune response. This study aims to characterize these various types of hemocytes in larvae of the grapevine pest insect Eupoecilia ambiguella, and to assess variation in their concentration as a function of larval diet and immune challenge. Four types of hemocytes were found in the hemolymph of 5th instar larvae: granulocytes, oenocytoids, plasmatocytes and spherulocytes. We found that the total concentration of hemocytes and the concentration of each hemocyte type varied among diets and in response to the immune challenge. Irrespective of the diet, the concentration of granulocytes increased following a bacterial immune challenge, while the concentration of plasmatocytes and spherulocytes differentially varied between larval diets. The concentration of oenocytoids did not vary among diets before the immune challenge but varied between larval diets in response to the challenge. These results suggest that the resistance of insect larvae to different natural enemies critically depends on the effect of larval diet on the larvae's investment into the different types of hemocytes. PMID:26940771

  20. Microfluidic devices for imaging neurological response of Drosophila melanogaster larva to auditory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi, Reza; Rezai, Pouya; Iyengar, Balaji G; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam Ravi

    2015-02-21

    Two microfluidic devices (pneumatic chip and FlexiChip) have been developed for immobilization and live-intact fluorescence functional imaging of Drosophila larva's Central Nervous System (CNS) in response to controlled acoustic stimulation. The pneumatic chip is suited for automated loading/unloading and potentially allows high throughput operation for studies with a large number of larvae while the FlexiChip provides a simple and quick manual option for animal loading and is suited for smaller studies. Both chips were capable of significantly reducing the endogenous CNS movement while still allowing the study of sound-stimulated CNS activities of Drosophila 3rd instar larvae using genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP5. Temporal effects of sound frequency (50-5000 Hz) and intensity (95-115 dB) on CNS activities were investigated and a peak neuronal response of 200 Hz was identified. Our lab-on-chip devices can not only aid further studies of Drosophila larva's auditory responses but can be also adopted for functional imaging of CNS activities in response to other sensory cues. Auditory stimuli and the corresponding response of the CNS can potentially be used as a tool to study the effect of chemicals on the neurophysiology of this model organism. PMID:25536889

  1. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  2. Antioxidant enzyme level response to prooxidant allelochemicals in larvae of the southern armyworm moth, Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Pritsos, C A; Ahmad, S; Elliott, A J; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    Larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, are highly polyphagous feeders which frequently encounter and feed upon plants containing high levels of prooxidant allelochemicals. While ingestion of moderate quantities of prooxidants can be tolerated by these larvae, ingestion of larger quantities can result in toxicity. Studies were conducted to assess the role of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the protection of S. eridania against redox active prooxidant plant allelochemicals. Dietary exposure of mid-fifth-instar larvae to either quercetin (a flavonoid) or xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin), which generate superoxide radical, and singlet oxygen, respectively, resulted in an increase in SOD levels. CAT levels increased in all groups of S. eridania including control insects. This may have been due to the sudden exposure to food following an extended fast of 18 h (to insure that larvae would not reject the diet because of the prooxidants' bitter taste) with an eventual lowering of CAT values with time. GR activities did not significantly change except for a slight inhibition at the highest prooxidant concentrations used at 12-h post-ingestion. The data from these studies suggest that SOD responds to prooxidant challenges in these insects and together with CAT and GR contributes to the insect's defense against potentially toxic prooxidant compounds. PMID:2161387

  3. Effect of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maria Goretti Araújo de; Maia, Ismália Cassandra Costa; Sousa, Bruna Dantas de; Morais, Selene Maia de; Freitas, Sílvia Maria

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil aqueous solutions (hydrolates) obtained by steam distillation of stalks and leaves of Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus and Croton zehntneri against Aedes aegypti larvae. Twenty-five larvae of third instar were placed in plastic beckers, containing the hydrolates (50 mL), in a four repetitions scheme. Water was used as control and the number of dead larvae was counted after 24 hours. The data obtained were submitted to Variance Analysis and Tukey test. Significant differences were observed among the hydrolates from different species and from different parts of each plant (p < 0.001). The hydrolates of stalk and leaf from C. nepetaefolius and C. zehntneri and leaf hydrolate of C. argyrophylloides presented 100% mortality against larvae. The compounds present in C. zenhtneri and C. nepetaefolius are oxygenated phenylpropanoids that are more soluble in water than the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes detected in the oils of C. argyrophylloides and C. sonderianus. This study showed that all species analyzed presented compounds with larvicidal properties, with differences between each plant parts. PMID:17119677

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of midgut cells from Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae resistant to Bacillus sphaericus.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Janaina Viana; Vasconcelos, Romero Henrique Teixeira; Furtado, André Freire; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2008-12-01

    The larvicidal action of the entomopathogen Bacillus sphaericus towards Culex quinquefasciatus is due to the binary (Bin) toxin present in crystals, which are produced during bacterial sporulation. The Bin toxin needs to recognize and bind specifically to a single class of receptors, named Cqm1, which are 60-kDa alpha-glucosidases attached to the apical membrane of midgut cells by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. C. quinquefasciatus resistance to B. sphaericus has been often associated with the absence of the alpha-glucosidase Cqm1 in larvae midgut microvilli. In this work, we aimed to investigate, at the ultrastructural level, the midgut cells from C. quinquefasciatus larvae whose resistance relies on the lack of the Cqm1 receptor. The morphological analysis showed that midgut columnar cells from the resistant larvae are characterized by a pronounced production of lipid inclusions, throughout the 4th instar. At the end of this stage, resistant larvae had an increased size and number of these inclusions in the midgut cells, while only a small number were observed in the cells from susceptible larvae. The morphological differences in the midgut cells of resistant larvae found in this work suggested that the lack of the Cqm1 receptor, which also has a physiological role as being an alpha-glucosidase, can be related to changes in the cell metabolism. The ultrastructural effects of Bin toxin on midgut epithelial cells from susceptible and resistant larvae were also investigated. The cytopathological alterations observed in susceptible larvae treated with a lethal concentration of toxin included breakdown of the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial swelling, microvillar disruption and vacuolization. Some effects were observed in cells from resistant larvae, although those alterations did not lead to larval death, indicating that the receptor Cqm1 is essential to mediate the larvicidal action of the toxin. This is the first ultrastructural study to show differences

  5. Microgavage of zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Cocchiaro, Jordan L; Rawls, John F

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development(1-5), physiology(6-11), disease(12-16), and host-microbe interactions(17-25). Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae(26). Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results. We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be

  6. Using Microfluidics Chips for Live Imaging and Study of Injury Responses in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bibhudatta; Ghannad-Rezaie, Mostafa; Li, Jiaxing; Wang, Xin; Hao, Yan; Ye, Bing; Chronis, Nikos; Collins, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Live imaging is an important technique for studying cell biological processes, however this can be challenging in live animals. The translucent cuticle of the Drosophila larva makes it an attractive model organism for live imaging studies. However, an important challenge for live imaging techniques is to noninvasively immobilize and position an animal on the microscope. This protocol presents a simple and easy to use method for immobilizing and imaging Drosophila larvae on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device, which we call the 'larva chip'. The larva chip is comprised of a snug-fitting PDMS microchamber that is attached to a thin glass coverslip, which, upon application of a vacuum via a syringe, immobilizes the animal and brings ventral structures such as the nerve cord, segmental nerves, and body wall muscles, within close proximity to the coverslip. This allows for high-resolution imaging, and importantly, avoids the use of anesthetics and chemicals, which facilitates the study of a broad range of physiological processes. Since larvae recover easily from the immobilization, they can be readily subjected to multiple imaging sessions. This allows for longitudinal studies over time courses ranging from hours to days. This protocol describes step-by-step how to prepare the chip and how to utilize the chip for live imaging of neuronal events in 3rd instar larvae. These events include the rapid transport of organelles in axons, calcium responses to injury, and time-lapse studies of the trafficking of photo-convertible proteins over long distances and time scales. Another application of the chip is to study regenerative and degenerative responses to axonal injury, so the second part of this protocol describes a new and simple procedure for injuring axons within peripheral nerves by a segmental nerve crush. PMID:24562098

  7. Effect of preservative solutions on preservation of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with implications for post-mortem interval estimates.

    PubMed

    Day, Donnah M; Wallman, James F

    2008-07-18

    A major role of forensic entomology is to estimate the post-mortem interval. An entomologist's estimate of post-mortem interval is based on a series of generally valid assumptions, error in any of which can alter the accuracy of an estimate. The initial process of collecting and preserving maggots can itself lead to error, as can the method of killing and preservation. Since circumstances exist where it is not possible to rear maggots, methods of killing and preservation can be vital to preserving the integrity of entomological evidence. In this study, a number of preservation techniques used at crime scenes and in mortuaries were examined, and their effect on feeding third-instar larvae of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina evaluated. The preservatives used were 70, 75, 80, 90 and 100% EtOH, Kahle's solution and 10% formalin. Each treatment was replicated three times. The effect of handling on first- and second-instar, feeding and post-feeding third-instar larvae of C. augur was also examined and compared to unhandled controls. Finally, the effects of preservatives were noted when larvae of C. augur and L. cuprina were placed into preservatives alive. It was found that continued handling is detrimental to specimens because preservative evaporates from both the vial and the specimens. No single preservative type was found to be entirely suitable for both species if DNA retrieval is desired. Specimens placed into most preservatives alive exhibited adverse colour changes, desiccation, sunkeness and agglomeration. It is concluded that the reaction to preservative type might be species specific and that different instars of the same species might also react differently. PMID:18514451

  8. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones -- Phase I, 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Black, Bill; Biraud, Sebastien

    2009-03-31

    This is the year-end report of the 2nd year of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix 3. Literature survey of published information on the relationship between geologic and hydrologic characteristics of faults was conducted. The survey concluded that it may be possible to classify faults by indicators based on various geometric and geologic attributes that may indirectly relate to the hydrologic property of faults. Analysis of existing information on the Wildcat Fault and its surrounding geology was performed. The Wildcat Fault is thought to be a strike-slip fault with a thrust component that runs along the eastern boundary of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is believed to be part of the Hayward Fault system but is considered inactive. Three trenches were excavated at carefully selected locations mainly based on the information from the past investigative work inside the LBNL property. At least one fault was encountered in all three trenches. Detailed trench mapping was conducted by CRIEPI (Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industries) and LBNL scientists. Some intriguing and puzzling discoveries were made that may contradict with the published work in the past. Predictions are made regarding the hydrologic property of the Wildcat Fault based on the analysis of fault structure. Preliminary conceptual models of the Wildcat Fault were proposed. The Wildcat Fault appears to have multiple splays and some low angled faults may be part of the flower structure. In parallel, surface geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity survey and seismic reflection profiling along three lines on the north and south of the LBNL site. Because of the steep terrain, it was difficult to find optimum locations for survey lines as it is desirable for them to be as

  9. 2nd Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    It was an honor and a great pleasure for all those involved in its organization to welcome the participants to the ''Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean'' (RADIO 2014) international conference that was held from 7th to 10th April 2014 at the Sugar Beach Resort, Wolmar, Flic-en-Flac, Mauritius. RADIO 2014 is the second of a series of conferences organized in the Indian Ocean region. The aim of the conference is to discuss recent developments, theories and practical applications covering the whole scope of radio-frequency engineering, including radio waves, antennas, propagation, and electromagnetic compatibility. The RADIO international conference emerged following discussions with engineers and scientists from the countries of the Indian Ocean as well as from other parts of the world and a need was felt for the organization of such an event in this region. Following numerous requests, the Island of Mauritius, worldwide known for its white sandy beaches and pleasant tropical atmosphere, was again chosen for the organization of the 2nd RADIO international conference. The conference was organized by the Radio Society, Mauritius and the Local Organizing Committee consisted of scientists from SUPELEC, France, the University of Mauritius, and the University of Technology, Mauritius. We would like to take the opportunity to thank all people, institutions and companies that made the event such a success. We are grateful to our gold sponsors CST and FEKO as well as URSI for their generous support which enabled us to partially support one PhD student and two scientists to attend the conference. We would also like to thank IEEE-APS and URSI for providing technical co-sponsorship. More than hundred and thirty abstracts were submitted to the conference. They were peer-reviewed by an international scientific committee and, based on the reviews, either accepted, eventually after revision, or rejected. RADIO 2014 brought together participants from twenty countries spanning

  10. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  11. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture. PMID:24567204

  12. Characterization of a sigma class glutathione S-transferase gene in the larvae of the honeybee (Apis cerana cerana) on exposure to mercury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoli; Sun, Rujiang; Yan, Huiru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2012-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that are mainly involved in detoxification of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds and oxidative stress resistance in insects. In this study, we identified a sigma class GST from Apis cerana cerana (AccGSTs4). The open reading frame of cDNA was 612 bp and encoded a 203 amino acid polypeptide, which exhibited the structural motif and domain organization characteristic of GST. Homology and evolutionary analysis indicated that the induced amino acid sequence of AccGSTs4 belonged to an insect sigma class group. Expression analysis indicated that AccGSTs4 was presented in all stages of development with high level in 4th instar larvae. Immunolocalization further revealed the distribution of AccGSTs4 in 4th instar larvae. RT-qPCR showed that the transcripts of AccGSTs4 from the larvae were upregulated under dietary HgCl(2). The GST activity under stress was higher than the controls fed on HgCl(2)-free diet. Disc diffusion assay provided evidence of recAccGSTs4 resistance to long-term exposure of HgCl(2) stress. Additionally, analysis of 5'-flanking region further clarified the probable expression patterns of AccGSTs4. Taken together, our findings indicate that the larvae AccGSTs4 may play a role in mercury stress response, and it will help to protect honeybees from heavy metals. PMID:22248933

  13. Evaluation of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for Control of Japanese Beetle Larvae in Turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Behle, Robert W; Richmond, Douglas S; Jackson, Mark A; Dunlap, Christopher A

    2015-08-01

    Experimental and commercial preparations of Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52 were evaluated for control of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarbaeidae), larvae (white grubs) in the laboratory and under field conditions. Experimental preparations consisted of granule and liquid formulations made using in vitro produced microsclerotia, which are intended to produce infective conidial spores after application. These formulations were compared against commercial insecticides (imidacloprid and trichlorfon), and commercial formulations of M. brunneum F52 (Met 52) containing only conidia. Field-collected grubs were susceptible to infection in a dosage-dependent relationship when exposed to potting soil treated with experimental microsclerotia granules in the laboratory. The LC(50) for field-collected larvae was 14.2 mg of granules per cup (∼15 g granules/m(2)). Field plots treated with experimental and commercial formulations of M. brunneum F52 after 10 September (targeting second and third instar grubs) had significantly lower grub densities compared with untreated plots, providing 38.6-69.2% control, which sometimes equaled levels of control with chemical insecticides. Fungal treatments made prior to 21 August provided 14.3-69.3% control, although grub densities resulting from these treatments were often not significantly lower than those in untreated control plots. By comparison, chemical insecticide treatments provide 68-100% grub control, often providing better control when applied earlier in the season. In conclusion, P. japonica larvae are susceptible to infection by M. brunneum, and grub densities were reduced most consistently by fall applications targeting later instars. PMID:26470299

  14. Order and disorder in Ca 2ND 0.90H 0.10-A structural and thermal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C.; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T. S.

    2011-08-01

    The structure of calcium nitride hydride and its deuterided form has been re-examined at room temperature and studied at high temperature using neutron powder diffraction and thermal analysis. When synthesised at 600 °C, a mixture of both ordered and disordered Ca 2ND 0.90H 0.10 phases results. The disordered phase is the minor component and has a primitive rocksalt structure (spacegroup Fm3 m) with no ordering of D/N on the anion sites and the ordered phase is best described using the rhombohedral spacegroup R-3 m with D and N arranged in alternate layers in (111) planes. This mixture of ordered and disordered phases exists up to 580 °C, at which the loss of deuterium yields Ca 2ND 0.85 with the disappearance of the disordered phase. In the new ordered phase there exists a similar content of vacancies on both anion sites; to achieve this balance, a little N transfers onto the D site, whereas there is no indication of D transferring onto the N-sites. These observations are thought to indicate that the D/N ordering is difficult to achieve with fully occupied anion sites. It has previously been reported that Ca 2ND has an ordered cubic cell with alternating D and N sites in the [100] directions [1]; however, for the samples studied herein, there were clearly two coexisting phases with apparent broadening/splitting of the primitive peaks but not for the ordered peaks. The rhombohedral phase was in fact metrically cubic; however, all the observed peaks were consistent with the rhombohedral unit cell with no peaks requiring the larger ordered cubic unit cell to be utilised. Furthermore this rhombohedral cell displays the same form of N-D ordering as the Sr and Ba analogues, which are metrically rhombohedral.

  15. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-10-01

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight were studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observation on smooth laboratory surfaces. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that escaped soil, fabric, and paper mulches over a soil or sand substrate ranged from 63 to 83, and 40-53%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that walked through the open interior of 1.52-6.10-m horizontal pipes of 1.5-2.0-cm inner diameter ranged from 57 to 81, and 27-61%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae that escaped through sand depths of 2.5-10.2, and 12.7-20.3 cm, ranged from 68 to 87, and 12-88%; and percentage adult females that escaped ranged from 46 to 58, and 38-70%, respectively. In 15.4-cm-inner-diameter pipes filled with different heights of sand, the highest percentage of the total number of adults that emerged in the control were found from 0 to 20.3 cm, and ranged from 37 to 71%. Ten to 47% of adults were found from 20.3 cm to below the surface, and 6-21% escaped to the top of 20.3-50.8 cm high sand columns. In column heights of 55.9 and 61 cm, pressures at the bottom caused by the weight of the sand above were 91.4 and 99.7 g/cm(2), respectively, and a mean of <1 adult escaped to the top. Before pupation, the late third instars were found to travel continuously for 6.9 h over 23.9 m at a speed of 6.0 cm per min, when placed on a smooth surface, at 22.2°C. Teneral females and males that could not fly, made ≍7 stops totaling 11-13 min, walked at a speed of 57-62 cm per min, and began a rest period of 83-84 min duration, at 85-89 min before flight. Males walked a distance of 13.1 m in 22 min, which was greater than females that walked for 9.6 m in 17 min, at 20-22°C and 35% RH. The

  16. Influence of Dietary Experience on the Induction of Preference of Adult Moths and Larvae for a New Olfactory Cue

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Christophe; Le Ru, Bruno; Dupas, Stéphane; Frérot, Brigitte; Ahuya, Peter; Kaiser-Arnauld, Laure; Harry, Myriam; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2015-01-01

    In Lepidoptera, host plant selection is first conditioned by oviposition site preference of adult females followed by feeding site preference of larvae. Dietary experience to plant volatile cues can induce larval and adult host plant preference. We investigated how the parent’s and self-experience induce host preference in adult females and larvae of three lepidopteran stem borer species with different host plant ranges, namely the polyphagous Sesamia nonagrioides, the oligophagous Busseola fusca and the monophagous Busseola nairobica, and whether this induction can be linked to a neurophysiological phenotypic plasticity. The three species were conditioned to artificial diet enriched with vanillin from the neonate larvae to the adult stage during two generations. Thereafter, two-choice tests on both larvae and adults using a Y-tube olfactometer and electrophysiological (electroantennography [EAG] recordings) experiments on adults were carried out. In the polyphagous species, the induction of preference for a new olfactory cue (vanillin) by females and 3rd instar larvae was determined by parents’ and self-experiences, without any modification of the sensitivity of the females antennae. No preference induction was found in the oligophagous and monophagous species. Our results suggest that lepidopteran stem borers may acquire preferences for new olfactory cues from the larval to the adult stage as described by Hopkins’ host selection principle (HHSP), neo-Hopkins’ principle, and the concept of ‘chemical legacy.’ PMID:26288070

  17. Transmission of a pathogenic virus (Iridoviridae) of Culex pipiens larvae mediated by the mermithid Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda).

    PubMed

    Muttis, Evangelina; Micieli, María Victoria; Urrutia, María Inés; García, Juan José

    2015-07-01

    Little progress been made in elucidating the transmission pathway of the invertebrate iridescent virus (MIV). It has been proposed that the MIV has no active means to enter the mosquito larva. We have previously found that the presence of the mermithid nematode Strelkovimermis spiculatus is associated with MIV infection in Culex pipiens under field conditions. In the present study, we evaluated the transmission of MIV to C. pipiens larvae mediated by S. spiculatus and several factors involved in this pathway (mosquito instars, nematode:mosquito larva ratio, amount of viral inoculum). Our results indicate that S. spiculatus functions as an MIV vector to C. pipiens larvae and seems to be an important pathway of virus entry into this system. Moreover, TEM images of S. spiculatus exposed to the viral suspension showed no infections inside the nematode but showed that viral particles are carried over the cuticle of this mermithid. This explains the correspondence between MIV infection and the factors that affect the parasitism of S. spiculatus in C. pipiens larvae. PMID:26031563

  18. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/ Austria | November 28th - 29th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation. PMID:25713602

  19. [Combined Anterior and Posterior Surgical Approaches for Resection of a 2nd-rib Chondrosarcoma Occupying the Superior Sulcus].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Yoshikazu; Anraku, Masaki; Saito, Noriyuki; Fukumoto, Kento; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yusuke; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Jun

    2016-06-01

    A 77-year-old man with right chest wall chondrosarcoma invading vertebral bodies underwent resection. Computed tomography (CT) showed that the tumor occupied the right superior sulcus, and was close to mediastinal organs including the trachea and esophagus. We adopted a combined anterior and posterior approaches that made safe and curative resection possible. In the anterior approach, we dissected and mobilized the neurovascular structures and neighboring organs from the tumor. A-4 cm gutter on the ventral side of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd thoracic vertebral bodies was created for safe resection. By the subsequent posterior approach, successful resection was achieved without violating tumor margins. PMID:27246126

  20. THE 2nd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 10–14 APRIL 2010, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Baharnoori, Moogeh; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Boucher, Aurelie A.; Buchy, Lisa; Chaddock, Christopher; Chiliza, Bonga; Föcking, Melanie; Fornito, Alex; Gallego, Juan A.; Hori, Hiroaki; Huf, Gisele; Jabbar, Gul A.; Kang, Shi Hyun; El Kissi, Yousri; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Modinos, Gemma; Abdel-Fadeel, Nashaat A.M.; Neubeck, Anna-Karin; Ng, Hsiao Piau; Novak, Gabriela; Owolabi, Olasunmbo.O.; Prata, Diana P.; Rao, Naren P.; Riecansky, Igor; Smith, Darryl C.; Souza, Renan P.; Thienel, Renate; Trotman, Hanan D.; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Woodberry, Kristen A.; O'Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, was held in Florence, Italy, April 10–15, 2010. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs of each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged from each session and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these reviews. It is hoped that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:20934307

  1. Quantitative metabolic profiles of 2nd and 3rd trimester human amniotic fluid using 1H HR-MAS spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Brad R.; Zhao, Shoujun; Kornak, John; Zhang, Vickie Y.; Iman, Rahwa; Kurhanewicz, John; Vahidi, Kiarash; Yu, Jingwei; Caughey, Aaron B.; Swanson, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Object To establish and compare normative metabolite concentrations in 2nd and 3rd trimester human amniotic fluid samples in an effort to reveal metabolic biomarkers of fetal health and development. Materials and methods Twenty-one metabolite concentrations were compared between 2nd (15–27 weeks gestation, N = 23) and 3rd (29–39 weeks gestation, N = 27) trimester amniotic fluid samples using 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy. Data were acquired using the electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations method and quantified using a modified semi-parametric quantum estimation algorithm modified for high-resolution ex vivo data. Results Sixteen of 21 metabolite concentrations differed significantly between 2nd and 3rd trimester groups. Betaine (0.00846±0.00206 mmol/kg vs. 0.0133±0.0058 mmol/kg, P <0.002) and creatinine (0.0124±0.0058 mmol/kg vs. 0.247±0.011 mmol/kg, P <0.001) concentrations increased significantly, while glucose (5.96±1.66 mmol/kg vs. 2.41±1.69 mmol/kg, P <0.001), citrate (0.740±0.217 mmol/kg vs. 0.399±0.137 mmol/kg, P <0.001), pyruvate (0.0659±0.0103 mmol/kg vs. 0.0299±0.286 mmol/kg, P <0.001), and numerous amino acid (e.g. alanine, glutamate, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, and valine) concentrations decreased significantly with advancing gestation. A stepwise multiple linear regression model applied to 50 samples showed that gestational age can be accurately predicted using combinations of alanine, glucose and creatinine concentrations. Conclusion These results provide key normative data for 2nd and 3rd trimester amniotic fluid metabolite concentrations and provide the foundation for future development of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers to evaluate fetal health and development. PMID:19779747

  2. Digestion of Yeasts and Beta-1,3-Glucanases in Mosquito Larvae: Physiological and Biochemical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Raquel Santos; Diaz-Albiter, Hector Manuel; Dillon, Vivian Maureen; Dillon, Rod J.; Genta, Fernando Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti larvae ingest several kinds of microorganisms. In spite of studies regarding mosquito digestion, little is known about the nutritional utilization of ingested cells by larvae. We investigated the effects of using yeasts as the sole nutrient source for A. aegypti larvae. We also assessed the role of beta-1,3-glucanases in digestion of live yeast cells. Beta-1,3-glucanases are enzymes which hydrolyze the cell wall beta-1,3-glucan polyssacharide. Larvae were fed with cat food (controls), live or autoclaved Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and larval weight, time for pupation and adult emergence, larval and pupal mortality were measured. The presence of S. cerevisiae cells inside the larval gut was demonstrated by light microscopy. Beta-1,3-glucanase was measured in dissected larval samples. Viability assays were performed with live yeast cells and larval gut homogenates, with or without addition of competing beta-1,3-glucan. A. aegypti larvae fed with yeast cells were heavier at the 4th instar and showed complete development with normal mortality rates. Yeast cells were efficiently ingested by larvae and quickly killed (10% death in 2h, 100% in 48h). Larvae showed beta-1,3-glucanase in head, gut and rest of body. Gut beta-1,3-glucanase was not derived from ingested yeast cells. Gut and rest of body activity was not affected by the yeast diet, but head homogenates showed a lower activity in animals fed with autoclaved S. cerevisiae cells. The enzymatic lysis of live S. cerevisiae cells was demonstrated using gut homogenates, and this activity was abolished when excess beta-1,3-glucan was added to assays. These results show that live yeast cells are efficiently ingested and hydrolyzed by A. aegypti larvae, which are able to fully-develop on a diet based exclusively on these organisms. Beta-1,3-glucanase seems to be essential for yeast lytic activity of A. aegypti larvae, which possess significant amounts of these enzyme in all parts investigated. PMID

  3. Defensive responses by a social caterpillar are tailored to different predators and change with larval instar and group size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Melanie; Despland, Emma

    2011-05-01

    Gregariousness in animals is widely accepted as a behavioral adaptation for protection from predation. However, predation risk and the effectiveness of a prey's defense can be a function of several other factors, including predator species and prey size or age. The objective of this study was to determine if the gregarious habit of Malacosoma disstria caterpillars is advantageous against invertebrate natural enemies, and whether it is through dilution or cooperative defenses. We also examined the effects of larval growth and group size on the rate and success of attacks. Caterpillars of M. disstria responded with predator-specific behaviors, which led to increased survival. Evasive behaviors were used against stinkbugs, while thrashing by fourth instar caterpillars and holding on to the silk mat by second instar caterpillars was most efficient against spider attacks. Collective head flicking and biting by groups of both second and fourth instar caterpillars were observed when attacked by parasitoids. Increased larval size decreased the average number of attacks by spiders but increased the number of attacks by both stinkbugs and parasitoids. However, increased body size decreased the success rate of attacks by all three natural enemies and increased handling time for both predators. Larger group sizes did not influence the number of attacks from predators but increased the number of attacks and the number of successful attacks from parasitoids. In all cases, individual risk was lower in larger groups. Caterpillars showed collective defenses against parasitoids but not against the walking predators. These results show that caterpillars use different tactics against different natural enemies. Overall, these tactics are both more diverse and more effective in fourth instar than in second instar caterpillars, confirming that growth reduces predation risk. We also show that grouping benefits caterpillars through dilution of risk, and, in the case of parasitoids, through

  4. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS < 0), where the entropy is a degree of uniformity. What is the entropy? Loosely speaking, sand on the beach is more uniform at a higher entropy value than the rocks composing a mountain - the internal binding energy tells the paleontologists the existence of information. To a politician, landside voting results has only the winning information but more entropy, while a non-uniform voting distribution record has more information. For the human's effortless brain at constant temperature, we can solve the minimum of Helmholtz free energy (H = E - TS) by computing BSS, and then their pairwise-entropy source correlation function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (

  5. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  6. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS < 0), where the entropy is a degree of uniformity. What is the entropy? Loosely speaking, sand on the beach is more uniform at a higher entropy value than the rocks composing a mountain - the internal binding energy tells the paleontologists the existence of information. To a politician, landside voting results has only the winning information but more entropy, while a non-uniform voting distribution record has more information. For the human's effortless brain at constant temperature, we can solve the minimum of Helmholtz free energy (H = E - TS) by computing BSS, and then their pairwise-entropy source correlation function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (

  7. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and heat shock proteins (Hsp70) of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae in response to long-term fluoranthene exposure.

    PubMed

    Mrdaković, Marija; Ilijin, Larisa; Vlahović, Milena; Matić, Dragana; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may affect biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms, thus impairing fitness related traits and influencing their populations. This imposes the need for providing early-warning signals of pollution. Our study aimed to examine changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the concentration of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) in homogenates of brain tissues of fifth instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae, exposed to the ubiquitous PAH, fluoranthene, supplemented to the rearing diet. Significantly increased activity of AChE in larvae fed on the diets with high fluoranthene concentrations suggests the necessity for elucidation of the role of AChE in these insects when exposed to PAH pollution. Significant induction of Hsp70 in gypsy moth larvae reared on the diets containing low fluoranthene concentrations, indicate that changes in the level of Hsp70 might be useful as an indicator of pollution in this widespread forest species. PMID:27343862

  8. Time resolved 2nd harmonic generation at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Sanjay; Eom, Chang-Beom; Ryu, Sangwoo; Cen, Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Ultrafast spectroscopy can produce information of carrier/lattice dynamics, which is especially valuable for understanding phase transitions at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) are both associated with wide band gap, which allows deep penetration of commonly used laser wavelengths and therefore usually leads to overwhelming bulk signal background. Here we report a time resolved study of a 2nd harmonic generation (SHG) signal resulting from impulsive below-the-band-gap optical pumping. The nonlinear nature of the signal enables us to probe the interface directly. Output of a home built Ti:Sapphire laser and BBO crystal were used to generate 30fs pulses of two colors (405nm and 810nm). The 405nm pulse was used to pump the LAO/STO interfaces, while 2nd harmonics of the 810nm pulse generated at the interfaces was probed as a function of the time delay. Signals from samples with varying LAO thicknesses clearly correlates to the metal-insulator transition. Distinct time dependent signals were observed at LAO/STO interfaces grown on different substrates. Experiments performed at different optical polarization geometries, interface electric fields and temperatures allow us to paint a clearer picture of the novel oxide heterostructures under investigation.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  10. Influence of Nd dopant amount on microstructure and photoluminescence of TiO2:Nd thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcieszak, Damian; Mazur, Michal; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Morgiel, Jerzy; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Misiewicz, Jan

    2015-10-01

    TiO2 and TiO2:Nd thin films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering process from mosaic Ti-Nd targets with various Nd concentration. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopic techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) in the near infrared obtained upon 514.5 nm excitation was also examined. The relationship between the Nd concentration, structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of prepared thin films was investigated and discussed. XRD and TEM measurements showed that an increase in the Nd concentration in the thin films hinders the crystal growth in the deposited coatings. Depending on the Nd amount in the thin films, TiO2 with the rutile, mixed rutile-amorphous or amorphous phase was obtained. Transmittance measurements revealed that addition of Nd dopant to titania matrix did not deteriorate optical transparency of the coatings, however it influenced on the position of the fundamental absorption edge and therefore on the width of optical band gap energy. All TiO2:Nd thin films exhibited PL emission that occurred at ca. 0.91, 1.09 and 1.38 μm. Finally, results obtained for deposited coatings showed that titania with the rutile structure and 1.0 at.% of Nd was the most efficient in VIS to NIR photon conversion.

  11. Surface-emitting quantum cascade laser with 2nd-order metal-semiconductor gratings for single-lobe emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, C.; Sigler, C.; Kirch, J. D.; Lindberg, D.; Earles, T.; Botez, D.; Mawst, L. J.

    2016-03-01

    Grating-coupled, surface-emitting (GCSE) quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are demonstrated with high-power, single-lobe surface emission. A 2nd-order Au-semiconductor distributed-feedback (DFB)/ distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) grating is used for feedback and out-coupling. The DFB and DBR grating regions are 2.55 mm- and 1.28 mm-long, respectively, for a total grating length of 5.1 mm. The lasers are designed to operate in a symmetric longitudinal mode by causing resonant coupling of the guided optical mode to the antisymmetric surface-plasmon modes of the 2nd-order metal/semiconductor grating. In turn, the antisymmetric longitudinal modes are strongly absorbed by the metal in the grating, causing the symmetric longitudinal mode to be favored to lase, which produces a single lobe beam over a grating duty-cycle range of 36-41 %. Simulations indicate that the symmetric mode is always favored to lase, independent of the random phase of residual reflections from the device's cleaved ends. Peak pulsed output powers of ~ 0.4 W were measured with single-lobe, single-mode operation near 4.75 μm.

  12. BMI differences in 1st and 2nd generation immigrants of Asian and European origin to Australia.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Morgan, Lawrie

    2011-01-01

    We estimate assimilation of immigrants' body mass index (BMI) to the host population of Australia over one generation, conducting separate analyses for immigrants from 7 regions of Europe and Asia. We use quantile regressions to allow for differing impact of generational status across 19 quantiles of BMI from under-weight to morbidly obese individuals. We find that 1st generation South European immigrants have higher, and South and East Asian immigrants have lower BMI than Australians, but have assimilated to the BMI of their hosts in the 2nd generation. There are no or only small BMI differences between Australians and 1st and 2nd generation immigrants from East Europe, North-West Europe, Middle East and Pacific regions. We conclude that both upward and downward assimilation in some immigrant groups is most likely caused by factors which can change over one generation (such as acculturation), and not factors which would take longer to change (such as genetics). Our results suggest that public health policies targeting the lifestyles of well educated Asian immigrants may be effective in preventing BMI increase in this subgroup. PMID:20869292

  13. Changes in physicochemical properties of chitin at developmental stages (larvae, pupa and adult) of Vespa crabro (wasp).

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Sofi, Karwan; Sargin, Idris; Mujtaba, Muhammad

    2016-07-10

    It is already known that chitin in a single organism can exhibit huge differences depending on the functions it serves in different body parts, but the alterations in the characteristics of chitin in course of developmental stages of an organism still remain unknown. This study presents findings on how chitin matrix is changing physicochemically through discrete morphological stages - larva, pupa and adult - of an insect (Vespa crabro). Chitin content of the organisms were found to increase gradually as the organism grew; 2.1, 6.2 and 10.3%, with a dramatic increase in chitin deposition (nearly 3 folds) during the instar from larva to pupa. Enzymatic digestion test demonstrated that chitin isolates were close to pure. Chitin isolates were also subjected to thermal pyrolysis and no variations were observed in the thermal stability of the samples. However, it was observed that surface characteristics of chitin changed greatly as the insect grew. PMID:27106152

  14. The skeletomuscular system of the larva of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophilidae, Diptera): a contribution to the morphology of a model organism.

    PubMed

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Schneeberg, Katharina; Löffler, Andreas; Hünefeld, Frank; Meier, Rudolf; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-01-01

    The morphological features of the third instar larva of the most important insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, are documented for the first time using a broad spectrum of modern morphological techniques. External structures of the body wall, the cephaloskeleton, and the musculature are described and illustrated. Additional information about other internal organs is provided. The systematic implications of the findings are discussed briefly. Internal apomorphic features of Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha are confirmed for Drosophila. Despite the intensive investigations of the phylogeny of the megadiverse Diptera, evolutionary reconstructions are still impeded by the scarcity of anatomical data for brachyceran larvae. The available morphological information for the life stages of three insect model organisms -D. melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae), Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) - is addressed briefly. The usefulness of a combination of traditional and innovative techniques for an optimized acquisition of anatomical data for different life stages is highlighted. PMID:23010508

  15. Life history and description of larva and pupa of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910, a scarabaeid feeding on bromeliad tissues in Brazil, to be excluded from Phileurini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae)

    PubMed Central

    Albertoni, Fabiano F.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The third instar larvae and the pupae of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910 (Phileurini), recently synonymized with Surutu jelineki Endrődi, 1975 (Cyclocephalini), are described and illustrated, and some life history information is given. The larvae were collected and reared in bromeliads in rain forests of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. The systematic position of this monotypic genus is reassessed at the tribe level by considering larval and adult morphological characters. Both character sets, being described and illustrated, suggest the placement of Platyphileurus in the tribe Oryctini. PMID:24715774

  16. Life history and description of larva and pupa of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910, a scarabaeid feeding on bromeliad tissues in Brazil, to be excluded from Phileurini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae).

    PubMed

    Albertoni, Fabiano F; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The third instar larvae and the pupae of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910 (Phileurini), recently synonymized with Surutu jelineki Endrődi, 1975 (Cyclocephalini), are described and illustrated, and some life history information is given. The larvae were collected and reared in bromeliads in rain forests of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. The systematic position of this monotypic genus is reassessed at the tribe level by considering larval and adult morphological characters. Both character sets, being described and illustrated, suggest the placement of Platyphileurus in the tribe Oryctini. PMID:24715774

  17. Toxicity studies for indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from Malang city, East Java on Aedes aegypti larvae

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Zulfaidah Penata; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Suharjono; Setyowati, Faridah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxicity of indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis)isolates from Malang City for controlling Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) larvae. Methods Soil samples were taken from Purwantoro and Sawojajar sub-districts. Bacterial isolation was performed using B. thuringiensis selective media. Phenotypic characteristics of the isolates were obtained with the simple matching method. The growth and prevalence of spores were determined by the Total Plate Count method, and toxicity tests were also performed on the third instar larval stage of Ae. aegypti. The percentage of larval mortality was analysed using probit regression. The LC50 was analysed by ANOVA, and the Tukey HSD interval was 95%. Results Among the 33 selected bacterial isolates, six were obtained (PWR4-31, PWR4-32, SWJ4-2b, SWJ4-4b, SWJ-4k and SWJ5-1) that had a similar phenotype to reference B. thuringiensis. Based on the dendrogram, all of the bacterial isolates were 71% similar. Three isolates that had a higher prevalence of reference B. thuringiensis were PWR4-32, SWJ4-4b and SW5-1, of which the spore prevalence was 52.44%, 23.59%, 34.46%, respectively. These three indigenous isolates from Malang City successfully killed Ae. aegypti larvae. The PWR4-32 isolates were the most effective at killing the larvae. Conclusions Six indigenous B. thuringiensis isolates among the 33 bacterial isolates found in the Sawojajar and Purwantoro sub-districts were toxic to the third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti. The PWR4-32 isolates were identical to the reference B. thuringiensis and had 88% phenotype similarity. The PWR4-32 isolates had the highest spore prevalence (52.44%), and the early stationary phase occurred at 36 h. The PWR4-32 isolates were the most effective at killing Ae. aegypti larvae (LC50-72 h=2.3×108 cells/mL). PMID:23593589

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues. PMID:26721288

  19. Screening of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in Mysore

    PubMed Central

    Mohankumar, Thirumalapura Krishnaiah; Shivanna, Kumuda Sathigal; Achuttan, Vijayan Valiakottukal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of death every year. Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Nine different locally available medicinally important plants suspected to posse larvicidal property were screened against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi to a series of concentrations of the methanolic extracts. Methods: Susceptibility tests on Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi were conducted using standard WHO methods. The larvae of two mosquito species were exposed to methanolic extracts and mortality counts were made after 24 hours of exposure as per WHO method. Larvae of Ae. aegypti were more susceptible than that of An. stephensi. Results: Among the nine plant species tested, Annona reticulata leaf extract was more effective against Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 95.24 and 262.64 ppm respectively and against An. stephensi larvae 262.71 and 636.94 ppm respectively. The least efficacy was in Cosmos bipinnatus with LC50 and LC90 values of 442.6 and 1225.93 ppm against Ae. aegypti and LC50 and LC90 values of 840.69 and 1334.01 ppm of Thespesia populnea against An. stephensi. Conclusion: The crude methanolic extract of the An. reticulata with good larvicidal efficacy could be considered for further characterization to control mosquito vectors instead of chemical insecticides. High efficacy found in An. reticulata extract will be considered for further studies to isolate the bioactive compound. PMID:27308289

  20. Spatial distribution and habitat characterization of anopheline mosquito larvae in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, N; Mutero, C M; Githure, J I; Beier, J C; Yan, G

    1999-12-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes and to analyze spatial heterogeneity of mosquito species in the Suba District of western Kenya. A total of 128 aquatic habitats containing mosquito larvae were sampled, and 2,209 anopheline and 10,538 culicine larvae were collected. The habitats were characterized based on size, pH, distance to the nearest house and to the shore of Lake Victoria, coverage of canopy, surface debris, algae and emergent plants, turbidity, substrate, and habitat types. Microscopic identification of third- and fourth-instar anopheline larvae did not yield any Anopheles funestus or other anophelines. A total of 829 An. gambiae s.l. larvae from all habitats were analyzed further by rDNA-polymerase chain reaction to identify individual species within the An. gambiae species complex. Overall, An. arabiensis was the predominant species (63.4%), and An. gambiae was less common (31.4%). The species composition of An. gambiae s.l. varied significantly among the sampling sites throughout Suba District. The larval habitats in the southern area of the district had a higher proportion of An. gambiae than in the northern area. Multiple logistic analysis did not detect any significant association between the occurrence of anopheline larvae and habitat variables, and principal component analysis did not identify key environmental factors associated with the abundance of An. gambiae. However, significant spatial heterogeneity in the relative abundance of An. gambiae within the Suba district was detected. When the effect of larval habitat locality was considered in the analysis, we found that the distance to the nearest house and substrate type were significantly associated with the relative abundance of An. gambiae. Future studies integrating detailed water chemistry analysis, remote sensing technology, and the ecology of predators may be required to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the observed spatial variation

  1. Laboratory evaluation of Novaluron for toxicity to nymphal instars of field collected southern green stink bug on cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of novaluron (Diamond [TM] 0.83 EC) on cotton against nymphs of different instars of field collected southern green stink bug (SGSB), Nezara viridula (L.), was investigated in a spray table using two nozzles, 650033 and 8002E. The nozzles delivered spray rates of 18.7 and 46.7 L/ha, re...

  2. Analysis of growth and development in the final instar of three species of predatory Coccinellidae under varying prey availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For insects like aphidophagous lady beetles, whose preferred food naturally varies in space and time, variation in adult body size is most likely a reflection of food acquired and allocated to growth by the final larval instar. We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the nature of variation in ...

  3. Toxic responses of developing fifth instar milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera), to aflatoxin B/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Llewellyn, G.C.; Gee, C.L.; Sherertz, P.C.

    1988-03-01

    Although studies on the aflatoxins have involved test systems ranging from cell cultures to laboratory animals, there appears to be a general lack of information on the ecological and economic effects of aflatoxins on insects. However, this situation is gradually changing. These studies involved the toxic responses of fifth instar milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus fasciatus) to AFB/sub 1/. Milkweed bugs pass through five distinct nymphal instars. In the fifth instar stage, the insect is marked with lateral spots on all of the abdominal pleurites and median spots on the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth dorsal abdominal tergites. The apex of the ventral abdominal surface is black and the remainder of the body is reddish-orange. Also, the adult is elongate to oval, and it is black and red in color. Because of this insect's ability to live and reproduce normally when provided dried sunflower seeds and water, it is a very desirable model to study through out the year. It is thought that juvenile insect stages are more sensitive to AFT than are adults, thus the instar and its developmental and sexual responses to aflatoxins are of interest.

  4. Differential patterns of insecticide resistance in eggs and first instars of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Argentina and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Germano, Monica; Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Vassena, Claudia; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María Inés

    2008-05-01

    Previous work at our laboratory has indicated high resistance levels to deltamethrin correlated with failures of chemical control in field populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in northern Argentina and southern Bolivia. The aim of the present work was to study the resistance patterns in eggs and first instars of T. infestans in populations from Argentina and Bolivia. At the egg stage, a population from Salvador Mazza, Argentina, showed the highest resistance ratio to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and it was susceptible to fipronil and fenitrothion. A population from Mataral, Bolivia, showed very low resistance ratios to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and it was susceptible to fipronil and fenitrothion. A Sucre population was susceptible to deltamethrin and fenitrothion, and it showed very low resistant ratios to lambdacyhalothrin and fipronil. A Yacuiba population was susceptible to deltamethrin. At the first instar, the Salvador Mazza population was susceptible to fipronil, whereas the Mataral and Sucre populations were susceptible to fenitrothion, and they showed very low resistance ratios to lambda-cyhalothrin but the high resistance to fipronil. The Salvador Mazza population was resistant to deltamethrin at the larval stage. Remarkable differences were found in the resistance profile to fipronil in first instars and eggs from Sucre and Mataral. These indicated that the expression of insecticide resistance in eggs varies between populations and that the pyrethroid resistance diagnosed in T. infestans first instars is not indicative of resistance in the egg stage. PMID:18533435

  5. Similarity analysis of PAH and PCB bioaccumulation patterns in sediment-exposed Chironomus tentans larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.W.; O`Keefe, P.; Bush, B.

    1997-02-01

    Larvae of the aquatic insect Chironomus tentans were exposed at the third or fourth instar stage to sediments collected near the outfalls of two aluminum foundries and an aluminum fabrication plant. Biota and sediment bioaccumulation factors (BFs), based on wet tissue weights and dry sediment weights, ranged from 0.07 to 0.27 for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from 0.22 to 1.42 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A higher rate of metabolism of PAHs compared with PCBs could explain the differences in BF values for the two groups of chemicals. It was found, using community similarity procedures from the field of ecology, that the congener patterns for PAHs and PCBs bioaccumulated by the larvae differed from the pattern of the same compounds in the sediments to which they were exposed. Affinity analysis indicated that the larvae favored the higher molecular weight PAH and PCB congeners. Preferential ingestion of sediments with defined particle size ranges, metabolism, and octanol/water partition coefficients (log K{sub ow}) are factors that may have influenced the bioaccumulation patterns. However, no single factor could adequately account for the differences between the larval and sediment patterns.

  6. Repair Replication and Photorepair of DNA in Larvae of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, James B.; Presley, Jack M.

    1974-01-01

    Repair replication of DNA has been studied in first instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster with isopycnic centrifugation techniques. Larvae were fed BUdR, FUdR, streptomycin, penicillin, and Fungazone for two to four hours prior to exposure to UV, X-rays, MMS, or EMS. Feeding was continued for four hours in the presence of 3HBUdR and DNA was isolated from whole larvae. Repair replication is stimulated by each of these agents. MMS is about 10 times as potent as EMS in stimulating repair synthesis. A dose of 200 ergs/mm2 largely saturates the level of repair replication observed after UV irradiation. Repair replication rises between 0 and 80,000 R of X-rays before falling off. Semiconservative synthesis is seriously inhibited above a dose of 40,000 R of X-rays. Photorepair has been detected as a reduction in repair synthesis resulting from post-irradiation exposure to photoreactivating light. The same treatment has no detectable effect on X-ray-stimulated repair replication. Repair replication is insensitive to the presence of caffeine or hydroxyurea during the final incubation, although semiconservative synthesis is strongly inhibited by these agents. A mixture of BUdR and 3HTdR can be used to replace 3HBUdR in detecting repair replication. PMID:4371150

  7. From the anther to the proctodeum: Pear (Pyrus communis) pollen digestion in Osmia cornuta larvae.

    PubMed

    Nepi, Massimo; Cresti, Laura; Maccagnani, Bettina; Ladurner, Edith; Pacini, Ettore

    2005-07-01

    Modifications of the pollen grains of Pyrus communis Linneaus that occur during the digestion by Osmia cornuta (Latreille) larvae were studied histochemically. We compared the features of the pollen grains found in the anthers, in the larval cell provisions and in the alimentary canal of the 5th instar larvae. Modifications were already evident in the provisions and consisted of protoplast protrusions through the apertures and a decrease in the number of starch-containing pollen grains. After pollen grains were ingested by the larvae, the protoplast appeared retracted from the pollen wall. Pollen digestion began in the anterior part of the midgut, where we observed: (1) disorganised intine at the apertures; (2) disappearance of DAPI staining of nuclear pollen DNA; (3) fewer pollen grains containing starch than in the anthers; (4) some empty pollen grains. Pollen grains in the proctodeum appeared extremely compressed and crushed. Some grains appeared to be unaffected by the digestive process. We hypothesise that the protrusion of the intine and of the protoplast from the apertures in bee provisions could be considered a kind of pre-treatment necessary to initiate the digestion process in the larval alimentary canal. PMID:16105552

  8. Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S; Mittal, P K; Saxena, P N; Singh, R K

    2009-03-01

    Effect of a known synergist piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of steam distillate essential oils of Jamarosa (Cymbopogan nardus), Pacholli (Pogostemon pacholli), Basil (Ocimum basilicum), and Peppermint (Mentha pipreta) plant species against Anopheles stephensi larvae were evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to identify the insecticidal potential of these oils against mosquito larvae. The Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) was used to enhance the activity of these oils with the aim of developing essential oil based formulations. The bioassays of these oils with and without PBO were performed against late 3rd instar larvae of An. stephensi. The LC50 values against An. stephensi were 44.19 ppm for Ocimum basilicum oil, followed by, Mentha pipreta, Cymbopogan nardus, and Pogostemon pacholli oil which gave LC50 values above 250 ppm. Thus in the present study the Ocimum basilicum oil was found to be most effective, whereas Pogostemon pacholli oil was found to least effective against mosquitoes for larvicidal action. The effect of synergist PBO led to the enhancement of toxicity of oils, the LC50 value for Ocimum basilicum were reduced from 44.19 ppm to 23.87 ppm. Similarly the oil of Pogostemon pacholli showed most significant results where the LC50 value was > 250 ppm it was reduced to 50 ppm with PBO. PMID:19886173

  9. Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S; Mittal, P K; Saxena, P N; Singh, R K

    2008-12-01

    Effect of a known synergist piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of steam distillate essential oils of Jamarosa (Cymbopogan nardus), Pacholli (Pogostemon pacholli), Basil (Ocimum basilicum), and Peppermint (Mentha pipreta) plant species against Anopheles stephensi larvae were evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to identify the insecticidal potential of these oils against mosquito larvae. The Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) was used to enhance the activity of these oils with the aim of developing essential oil based formulations. The bioassays of these oils with and without PBO were performed against late 3rd instar larvae of An. stephensi. The LC50 values against An. stephensi were 44.19 ppm for Ocimum basilicum oil, followed by, Mentha pipreta, Cymbopogan nardus, and Pogostemon pacholli oil which gave LC50 values above 250 ppm. Thus in the present study the Ocimum basilicum oil was found to be most effective, whereas Pogostemon pacholli oil was found to least effective against mosquitoes for larvicidal action. The effect of synergist PBO led to the enhancement of toxicity of oils, the LC50 value for Ocimum basilicum were reduced from 44.19 ppm to 23.87 ppm. Similarly the oil of Pogostemon pacholli showed most significant results where the LC50 value was >250 ppm it was reduced to 50 ppm with PBO. PMID:19579718

  10. Bioactivity of selected plant essential oils against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chang, Hui-Ting; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June

    2003-08-01

    The bioactivity of 14 essential oils from five plants has been studied using the brine shrimp lethality test and the Aedes aegypti larvicidal assay. All essential oils screened had LC50 values smaller than 200 microg/ml, showing significant lethality against brine shrimp. In addition, nine of the 14 essential oils tested showed toxicity against the fourth-instar A. aegypti larvae in 24 h (LC50<100 microg/ml). Of these, the leaf and bark essential oils of Cryptomeria japonica demonstrated high larvicidal activity, the most active being the leaf essential oil of C. japonica, with a LC50=37.6 microg/ml (LC90=71.9 microg/ml), followed by the bark essential oil of C. japonica also showing high activity against A. aegypti larvae, with a LC50=48.1 microg/ml (LC90=130.3 microg/ml). The results obtained from this study suggest that the leaf and bark essential oils of C. japonica are promising as larvicides against A. aegypti larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds. PMID:12676507

  11. Are queen Bombus terrestris giant workers or are workers dwarf queens? Solving the 'chicken and egg' problem in a bumblebee species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cnaani, Jonathan; Hefetz, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    In the social bee, Bombus terrestris, the two castes differ in size and physiology, but not in any other morphological and anatomical aspects. The size differences between the castes are the result of longer instar duration in prospective queen larvae. It appears that queen larvae are programmed to have a higher molting weight at the end of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars. Calculation of the growth ratio, the ratio between the logarithm of molting weight at two successive instars, revealed that queen larvae have a linear growth ratio over the entire larval development as predicted by Dyar's rule. In the worker larvae, in contrast, linearity of the growth ratio breaks after the second instar, resulting in larval molting at lower weights than expected by Dyar's rule. We therefore suggest that workers' development is abnormally shortened, either by parental manipulation or by adopting a different growth plan in response to the queen's signal.

  12. Differential Induction of Proteins in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Cullicidae) Larvae in Response to Heavy Metal Selection

    PubMed Central

    Mireji, Paul O.; Keating, Joseph; Kenya, Eucharia; Mbogo, Charles; Nyambaka, Hudson; Osir, Ellie; Githure, John; Beier, John

    2009-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to establish the magnitude and pattern of differential expression of proteins due to generational selection of third instar An. gambiae s.s. larvae by cadmium, copper and lead heavy metals, three possible common urban pollutants. A susceptible strain of An. gambiae s.s. third instar larvae was separately placed under selection pressure with cadmium, copper and lead at LC30 and controls through five generations. First, third and fifth generation selection survivors were screened for differentially expressed proteins relative to non-exposed control by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Distribution patterns of the spots were analysed by Chi Square or Fishers exact test and variations in expressions between and within generation by ANOVA. Most differentially expressed spots were acidic and of low molecular weight among all metals and generations. Type of heavy metals and generation were main indicators of variations in differential expressions. Variation between generations was most significant among cadmium-selected populations of which most number of spots were induced in the fifth generation. Most spots were induced in the copper-selected population in the third generation. The induced protein spots may be products from respective genes that respond to heavy metals and counter their toxicity, thus building An. gambiae s.s. tolerance to these pollutants. The differential pattern and magnitude of expressed spots has potential application as molecular markers for assessment of anopheline adaptation status to heavy metals, and provide insight into the extent of environmental pollution. PMID:20651951

  13. Sediment bioassays with oyster larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.M.; Morgan, J.D.

    1983-10-01

    Tests with naturally-occurring sediments are rare and sediment testing methodology is not standardized. The authors present a simple methodology for undertaking sediment bioassays with oyster larvae, and present data from a recent study to prove the utility of this method.

  14. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  15. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  16. Impact of the Stem Extract of Thevetia neriifolia on the Feeding Potential and Histological Architecture of the Midgut Epithelial Tissue of Early Fourth Instars of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Monika; Gupta, Kamal Kumar; Kumar, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner is one of the most important agricultural crop pests in the world causing heavy crop yield losses. The continued and indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides in agriculture for their control has received wide public apprehension because of multifarious problems, including insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, and toxic hazards to humans and nontarget organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly and biodegradable plant products. In view of this, the efficacy of Thevetia neriifolia methanol stem extract was evaluated against the early fourth instars of H. armigera as an antifeedant and stomach poison agent. Feeding of larvae with the diet containing 0.005%–5.0% extract resulted in 2.06%–37.35% antifeedant index; the diet with 5.0% extract caused 54.3% reduced consumption. The negative impact of extract on larval feeding resulted in 37.5%–77.7% starvation, causing adverse effects on the larval weight. Choice between control and experimental diet resulted in feeding preference of larvae for the control diet, leading to 7.3%–42.9% reduced consumption of extract-containing diet. The only exception was the diet with 0.005% extract, which could not cause any deterrence. The midgut histological architecture of H. armigera larvae fed with 0.005%–0.05% extract-containing diet with negligible antifeedant potential showed significant damage, shrinkage, and distortion and vacuolization of gut tissues and peritrophic membrane, causing the disintegration of epithelial, goblet, and regenerative cells; the damage increased with the increase in concentration. These changes in the gut caused negative impact on the digestion and absorption of food and thus nutritional deficiency in the larvae, which could probably affect their growth and development. This study reveal the appreciable stomach poison potential of T. neriifolia stem

  17. Effect of the nanocrystalline structure type on the optical properties of TiO2:Nd (1 at.%) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Michal; Wojcieszak, Damian; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Misiewicz, Jan; Morgiel, Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films, each doped with the same amount of neodymium (1 at.%) were deposited by Low Pressure Hot Target Reactive Sputtering and High Energy Reactive Magnetron Sputtering processes in order to obtain anatase and rutile thin film structures respectively. The microstructure and phase composition were analyzed using the transmission electron microscopy method including high resolution electron microscopy imaging. The measurements of the optical properties showed, that both prepared thin films were transparent in the visible light range and had a low extinction coefficient of ca. 3 ṡ 10-3. The thin film with the anatase structure had a lower cut-off wavelength and refractive index and a higher value of optical energy band gap as-compared to the TiO2:Nd coating with the rutile structure. Simultaneously, more efficient photoluminescence emission was observed for the rutile thin films.

  18. Morgenröthe or business as usual: a personal account of the 2nd Annual EULAR Congress, Prague

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2001-01-01

    The 2nd Annual European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Congress, held in Prague, 13–16 June 2001, was an impressive event with a record turnout of 8300 delegates. It offered a large variety of first-class state of the art lectures by some 180 invited worldwide speakers. Several new and ongoing therapeutic developments were discussed. The aim to attract the young scientific community was only partly achieved, and the dependence on industry posed some problems. The organization, however, was a big improvement compared with the previous congress in this series. The number of submitted abstracts was relatively low (1200) compared with the number of delegates. Accommodation of satellite symposia and organization of poster sessions remain problem areas of this meeting. The Annual EULAR Congress emerges as one of the two most important annual congresses of rheumatology, the other being the American College of Rheumatology meeting.

  19. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  20. CRACking ion channel targets: 2nd annual Ion Channel Targets Conference. 12-13 September 2006, Boston, MA, USA.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The 2nd Annual Ion Channel Targets (ICT) Conference (by Select Bioscience LLC) was held in Boston on 12-13 September 2006. A healthy mixture of scientists from pharma, biotech and academic sectors attended the meeting. The speaker list reflected this mixture. In general, the conference focused on new ion channel targets and the methods for studying them in detail. Keynote lectures from Professors David Clapham (Harvard Medical School, USA) and Reinhold Penner (University of Hawaii, USA) set the tone by highlighting recent findings with a voltage-gated proton channel (Clapham), cation channel in sperm (Clapham) and the calcium-release-activated calcium channel (Penner). Also described at ICT were voltage-gated sodium, potassium, transmembrane-receptor-potential channels, as well as ligand-gated nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) and GABA type A receptors. PMID:17150038

  1. The influence of neighborhood density and word frequency on phoneme awareness in 2nd and 4th grades

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics – neighborhood density and word frequency – interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation between words' neighborhood density, word frequency, and phoneme awareness performance was examined across grades while covarying type and place of deletion. Results A predicted interaction was revealed: words from dense neighborhoods or those with high frequency were more likely to yield correct phoneme awareness responses across grades. Conclusions Findings support an expansion to the lexical restructuring model to include interactions between neighborhood density and word frequency to account for phoneme awareness. PMID:20691979

  2. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories. PMID:26298195

  3. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically better than open hepatectomy: preparing for the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Go; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Han, Ho-Seong; Kaneko, Hironori; Buell, Joseph F

    2014-10-01

    Six years have passed since the first International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection was held. This comparatively new surgical technique has evolved since then and is rapidly being adopted worldwide. We compared the theoretical differences between open and laparoscopic liver resection, using right hepatectomy as an example. We also searched the Cochrane Library using the keyword "laparoscopic liver resection." The papers retrieved through the search were reviewed, categorized, and applied to the clinical questions that will be discussed at the 2nd Consensus Conference. The laparoscopic hepatectomy procedure is more difficult to master than the open hepatectomy procedure because of the movement restrictions imposed upon us when we operate from outside the body cavity. However, good visibility of the operative field around the liver, which is located beneath the costal arch, and the magnifying provide for neat transection of the hepatic parenchyma. Another theoretical advantage is that pneumoperitoneum pressure reduces hemorrhage from the hepatic vein. The literature search turned up 67 papers, 23 of which we excluded, leaving only 44. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are underway, but their results are yet to be published. Most of the studies (n = 15) concerned short-term results, with some addressing long-term results (n = 7), cost (n = 6), energy devices (n = 4), and so on. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically superior to open hepatectomy in terms of good visibility of the operative field due to the magnifying effect and reduced hemorrhage from the hepatic vein due to pneumoperitoneum pressure. However, there is as yet no evidence from previous studies to back this up in terms of short-term and long-term results. The 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection will arrive at a consensus on the basis of the best available evidence, with video presentations focusing on surgical techniques and the publication

  4. Impact of Insulin Resistance on Neointimal Tissue Proliferation after 2nd-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Isao; Komatsu, Sachiko; Nakahara, Shiro; Kobayashi, Sayuki; Sakai, Yoshihiko; Taguchi, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is established as an effective treatment for patients with ischemic heart disease; in particular, drug-eluting stent implantation is known to suppress in-stent restenosis. Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for restenosis, so reducing insulin resistance is being studied as a new treatment approach. In this prospective study, we sought to clarify the factors associated with in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention, and we evaluated the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index as a predictor of restenosis. We enrolled 136 consecutive patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention at our hospital from February 2010 through April 2013. All were implanted with a 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent. We distributed the patients in accordance with their HOMA-IR index values into insulin-resistant Group P (HOMA-IR, ≥2.5; n=77) and noninsulin-resistant Group N (HOMA-IR, <2.5; n=59). Before and immediately after stenting, we measured reference diameter, minimal lumen diameter, and percentage of stenosis, and after 8 months we measured the last 2 factors and late lumen loss, all by means of quantitative coronary angiography. After 8 months, the mean minimal lumen diameter was smaller in Group P than that in Group N (1.85 ± 1.02 vs 2.37 ± 0.66 mm; P=0.037), and the mean late lumen loss was larger (0.4 ± 0.48 vs 0.16 ± 0.21 mm; P=0.025). These results suggest that insulin resistance affects neointimal tissue proliferation after 2nd-generation drug-eluting stent implantation. PMID:26413014

  5. Culex quinquefasciatus larval microbiomes vary with instar and exposure to common wastewater contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Marcus J.; Prager, Sean M.; Walton, William E.; Trumble, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Like many insects, mosquitoes, rely on endosymbionts to grow and develop. These can be acquired from the environment. We used next generation 454 pyrosequencing to discern the whole-body microbiome of the mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus in various larval stadia and following exposure to common pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) found in wastewater. PPCP treatments included environmentally-relevant concentrations; 1) a combination of common antibiotics, 2) a combination of mammalian hormones, 3) a mixture of the antibiotic and hormone treatments plus acetaminophen and caffeine and, 4) an untreated control. Within control groups, the predominant families of bacterial symbionts change with each larval instar despite consistent diets and rearing conditions. This trend was also seen in hormone treatments but not in the antibiotic or the mixture treatments. Richness and evenness were reduced in both antibiotic and mixture treatments, suggesting that antibiotics remove certain bacteria or inhibit them from increasing to proportions seen in the control treatment. Interestingly, the mixture treatments had greater richness and evenness compared to antibiotic alone treatments, possibly due to the other contaminants facilitating growth of different bacteria. These findings illuminate the complexity of the microbiome of C. quinquefasciatus and may have implications for more effective control strategies. PMID:26912375

  6. Culex quinquefasciatus larval microbiomes vary with instar and exposure to common wastewater contaminants.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Marcus J; Prager, Sean M; Walton, William E; Trumble, John T

    2016-01-01

    Like many insects, mosquitoes, rely on endosymbionts to grow and develop. These can be acquired from the environment. We used next generation 454 pyrosequencing to discern the whole-body microbiome of the mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus in various larval stadia and following exposure to common pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) found in wastewater. PPCP treatments included environmentally-relevant concentrations; 1) a combination of common antibiotics, 2) a combination of mammalian hormones, 3) a mixture of the antibiotic and hormone treatments plus acetaminophen and caffeine and, 4) an untreated control. Within control groups, the predominant families of bacterial symbionts change with each larval instar despite consistent diets and rearing conditions. This trend was also seen in hormone treatments but not in the antibiotic or the mixture treatments. Richness and evenness were reduced in both antibiotic and mixture treatments, suggesting that antibiotics remove certain bacteria or inhibit them from increasing to proportions seen in the control treatment. Interestingly, the mixture treatments had greater richness and evenness compared to antibiotic alone treatments, possibly due to the other contaminants facilitating growth of different bacteria. These findings illuminate the complexity of the microbiome of C. quinquefasciatus and may have implications for more effective control strategies. PMID:26912375

  7. Aerial ultra-low-volume application of naled: impact on nontarget imperiled butterfly larvae (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) and efficacy against adult mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus).

    PubMed

    Zhong, H; Hribar, L J; Daniels, J C; Feken, M A; Brock, C; Trager, M D

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the exposure and acute toxicity of naled, applied aerially as an ultra-low-volume spray for mosquito control, on late instar larvae of the Miami blue (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) (Comstock and Huntington 1943) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), an imperiled South Florida butterfly. We concurrently evaluated the control efficacy against caged adult female salt-marsh mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus) (Wiedemann 1821) (Diptera: Culicidae). This 3-yr study was conducted in north Key Largo (Monroe County, FL) beginning in 2006. The field trials incorporated 15 sampling stations: nine in the target spray zone, three in the spray drift zone at varying distances from the target zone, and three in the control zone not subjected to naled spray drift. A total of six field spray trials were completed, three at an altitude of 30.5 m (100 feet), and three at 45.7 m (150 feet). For all trials, the ultra-low-volume application of Trumpet EC insecticide (78% naled) at a rate of 54.8 ml/ha (0.75 fl. oz/acre) was effective in killing caged adult mosquitoes in the target zone. Butterfly larvae survival was significantly reduced in the spray zone compared with drift and control zones. Analysis of insecticide residue data revealed that the mortality of the late instar butterfly larvae was a result of exposure to excess residues of naled. Additional research is needed to determine mitigation strategies that can limit exposure of sensitive butterflies to naled while maintaining mosquito control efficacy. PMID:22182563

  8. Purification and partial characterization of thermal hysteresis proteins from overwintering larvae of pine needle gall midge, Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera: cecidomiidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Gong, H; Park, H Y

    2000-01-01

    The pine needle gall midge of Thecodiplosis japonensis is a serious forest pest and overwinters as a 3rd instar larva at soil surface in Korea. The time necessary for killing 50% of larvae at -15 degree C is 160 min. During overwintering period, T. japonensis larvae accumulate relatively high content of trehalose as the main cryoprotectant. In this paper, the proteinaceous cryoprotectants were identified. Two thermal hysteresis proteins (THP-1S and 2S) were purified from overwintering larvae by ethanol fractionation, trichloroacetic acid precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-25) and gel permeation chromatography (Sephadex G-100). Their molecular weights are 34.9 and 37.8 kD respectively. T. japonensis THPs cannot be stained by periodic acid-Schiffs' reagent, suggesting no carbohydrate in them. The thermal hysteresis activity of THP-2 at the concentration of 50 mg/ml is 11.02 +/- 0.08 degree C (mean +/- SD, n=10), perhaps the highest active insect THP. It is the first report of purified T. japonensis THPs in Diptera. PMID:12148056

  9. Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  10. Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradníčková, Helena; Simek, Petr

    2014-10-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. It overwinters as a diapausing fifth instar larva. The overwintering is often a critical part of the insect life-cycle in temperate zone. This study brings detailed analysis of seasonal changes in lipid composition and fluidity in overwintering larvae sampled in the field. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol (TG) depots in the fat body and relative proportions of phospholipid (PL) molecular species in biological membranes were analyzed. In addition, temperature of melting (Tm) in TG depots was assessed by using differential scanning calorimetry and the conformational order (fluidity) of PL membranes was analyzed by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene probe in membrane vesicles. We observed a significant increase of relative proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) at the expense of palmitic acid (C16:0) in TG depots during the larval transition to diapause accompanied with decreasing melting temperature of total lipids, which might increase the accessibility of depot fats for enzymatic breakdown during overwintering. The fluidity of membranes was maintained very high irrespective of developmental mode or seasonally changing acclimation status of larvae. The seasonal changes in PL composition were relatively small. We discuss these results in light of alternative survival strategies of codling moth larvae (supercooling vs. freezing), variability and low predictability of environmental conditions, and other cold tolerance mechanisms such as extending the supercooling capacity and massive accumulation of cryoprotective metabolites. PMID:25436961

  11. Opposite Effects on Spodoptera littoralis Larvae of High Expression Level of a Trypsin Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Plants1

    PubMed Central

    De Leo, Francesca; Bonadé-Bottino, Michel A.; Ceci, Luigi R.; Gallerani, Raffaele; Jouanin, Lise

    1998-01-01

    This work illustrates potential adverse effects linked with the expression of proteinase inhibitor (PI) in plants used as a strategy to enhance pest resistance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) and Arabidopsis [Heynh.] ecotype Wassilewskija) transgenic plants expressing the mustard trypsin PI 2 (MTI-2) at different levels were obtained. First-instar larvae of the Egyptian cotton worm (Spodoptera littoralis Boisd.) were fed on detached leaves of these plants. The high level of MTI-2 expression in leaves had deleterious effects on larvae, causing mortality and decreasing mean larval weight, and was correlated with a decrease in the leaf surface eaten. However, larvae fed leaves from plants expressing MTI-2 at the low expression level did not show increased mortality, but a net gain in weight and a faster development compared with control larvae. The low MTI-2 expression level also resulted in increased leaf damage. These observations are correlated with the differential expression of digestive proteinases in the larval gut; overexpression of existing proteinases on low-MTI-2-expression level plants and induction of new proteinases on high-MTI-2-expression level plants. These results emphasize the critical need for the development of a PI-based defense strategy for plants obtaining the appropriate PI-expression level relative to the pest's sensitivity threshold to that PI. PMID:9808744

  12. Bioactivity of non-edible oil seed extracts and purified extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pushpa; Joseph, Mary; Tungikar, Vijay; Joshi, Swati

    2004-01-01

    Extracts and purified extracts of seeds of two plant species, Madhuca latifolia and Calophyllum inophyllum when evaluated against the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera reared on synthetic diet, exhibited high larval mortality, prolongation of developmental period, morphological deformities and highly significant reduction in adult emergence. The reduction in larval weights in the treatments was also highly significant. PMID:15274488

  13. The Nutritive Value of Dying Maize and Setaria Faberi Roots for Western Corn Rootworm Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The timing that senescing root tissues of Setaria faberi R.A.W. Herrm. and maize, Zea mays L., no longer support growth and development of neonate and 2nd instar western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larvae was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Three separate experimen...

  14. A database of expressed genes from the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used an expressed sequence tag and 454 pyrosequencing approach to initiate a study of the genome of the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel). Two normalized cDNA libraries were constructed from RNA isolated from embryos and 2nd instar larvae from the Panama 95 strain. Approxima...

  15. Bioactivity of seagrass against the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M Syed; Ravikumar, S; Beula, J Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the larvicidal activity of the seagrass extracts. Methods Seagrass extracts, Syringodium isoetifolium (S. isoetifolium), Cymodocea serrulata and Halophila beccarii, were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. Batches of 25 early 4th instars larvae of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (0.01 mg – 0.1 mg). After 24 h the mortality rate was identified with the formulae [(% of test mortality – % of control mortality)/(100 – % of control mortality)] × 100. Each experiment was conducted with three replicates and a concurrent control group. A control group consisted of 1 mL of DMSO and 199 mL of distilled water only. Results : The root extract of S. isoetifolium showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum concentration of extract of LC50= 0.0 604 ± 0.0 040)µg/mL with lower confidence limit (LCL) – upper confidence limit (UCL) = (0.051–0.071) and LC90=0.0 972µg/mL followed by leaf extract of S. isoetifolium showed LC50= (0.062 ± 0.005)µg/mL. The regression equation of root and leaf extract of S. isoetifolium for 4th instar larvae were Y= 4.909 + 1.32x (R2= 0.909) and Y= 2.066 + 1.21x (R2 =0.897) respectively. The results of the preliminary phytochemical constituents shows the presence of saponin, steroids, terpenoid, phenols, protein and sugars. Conclusions From the present study the ethanolic extracts of seagrass of S. isoetifolium possesses lead compound for development of larvicidal activity. PMID:23569973

  16. Age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Strain B)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing S.; Gelman, Dale B.; Blackburn, Michael B.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of hostage, the instar of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) parasitized, on the growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Gahan) was studied. E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B), [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bellows and Perring)], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar B. tabaci rather than 3rd or 4th instars were parasitized. Host age influenced the day on which E. formosa nymphs hatching from eggs was first observed. Mean embryonic development was significantly longer when 1st (5.4 days) rather than 2nd, 3rd or 4th instars (4.1, 3.4 and 3.5 days, respectively) were parasitized. The duration of the 1st instar parasitoid and the pupa, but not the 2nd or 3rd instar parasitoid, were also significantly greater when 1st instars were parasitized than when older host instars were parasitized. Interestingly, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid did not molt to the 3rd instar until the 4th instar host had reached a depth of about 0.23 mm (Stage 4–5) and had initiated the nymphal-adult molt and adult development. Histological studies revealed that whitefly eye and wing structures had either disintegrated or were adult in nature whenever a 3rd instar parasitoid was present. It appears, then, that the molt of the parasitoid to its last instar is associated with the host whitefly's nymphal-adult molt. However, the initiation of the host's final molt, while a prerequisite for the parasitoid's 2nd–3rd instar molt, did not necessarily trigger this molt. In contrast to its significant effect on various aspects of parasitoid development, host instar did not significantly influence the mean size of the parasitoid larva, pupa, or adult. Larval and pupal length and adult head width were similar for all parasitoids, regardless of which host instar was parasitized as was adult longevity. Adult parasitoid emergence

  17. Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Caumes, E

    2000-05-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans caused by the larvae of animal hookworms is the most frequent skin disease among travelers returning from tropical countries. Complications (impetigo and allergic reactions), together with the intense pruritus and the significant duration of the disease, make treatment mandatory. Freezing the leading edge of the skin track rarely works. Topical treatment of the affected area with 10%-15% thiabendazole solution or ointment has limited value for multiple lesions and hookworm folliculitis, and requires applications 3 times a day for at least 15 days. Oral thiabendazole is poorly effective when given as a single dose (cure rate, 68%-84%) and is less well tolerated than either albendazole or ivermectin. Treatment with a single 400-mg oral dose of albendazole gives cure rates of 46%-100%; a single 12-mg oral dose of ivermectin gives cure rates of 81%-100%. PMID:10816151

  18. Mechanisms of macroevolution: polyphagous plasticity in butterfly larvae revealed by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    de la Paz Celorio-Mancera, Maria; Wheat, Christopher W; Vogel, Heiko; Söderlind, Lina; Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Sören

    2013-10-01

    Transcriptome studies of insect herbivory are still rare, yet studies in model systems have uncovered patterns of transcript regulation that appear to provide insights into how insect herbivores attain polyphagy, such as a general increase in expression breadth and regulation of ribosomal, digestion- and detoxification-related genes. We investigated the potential generality of these emerging patterns, in the Swedish comma, Polygonia c-album, which is a polyphagous, widely-distributed butterfly. Urtica dioica and Ribes uva-crispa are hosts of P. c-album, but Ribes represents a recent evolutionary shift onto a very divergent host. Utilizing the assembled transcriptome for read mapping, we assessed gene expression finding that caterpillar life-history (i.e. 2nd vs. 4th-instar regulation) had a limited influence on gene expression plasticity. In contrast, differential expression in response to host-plant identified genes encoding serine-type endopeptidases, membrane-associated proteins and transporters. Differential regulation of genes involved in nucleic acid binding was also observed suggesting that polyphagy involves large scale transcriptional changes. Additionally, transcripts coding for structural constituents of the cuticle were differentially expressed in caterpillars in response to their diet indicating that the insect cuticle may be a target for plant defence. Our results state that emerging patterns of transcript regulation from model species appear relevant in species when placed in an evolutionary context. PMID:23952264

  19. How the pilidium larva grows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For animal cells, ciliation and mitosis appear to be mutually exclusive. While uniciliated cells can resorb their cilium to undergo mitosis, multiciliated cells apparently can never divide again. Nevertheless, many multiciliated epithelia in animals must grow or undergo renewal. The larval epidermis in a number of marine invertebrate larvae, such as those of annelids, mollusks and nemerteans, consists wholly or in part of multiciliated epithelial cells, generally organized into a swimming and feeding apparatus. Many of these larvae must grow substantially to reach metamorphosis. Do individual epithelial cells simply expand to accommodate an increase in body size, or are there dividing cells amongst them? If some cells divide, where are they located? Results We show that the nemertean pilidium larva, which is almost entirely composed of multiciliated cells, retains pockets of proliferative cells in certain regions of the body. Most of these are found near the larval ciliated band in the recesses between the larval lobes and lappets, which we refer to as axils. Cells in the axils contribute both to the growing larval body and to the imaginal discs that form the juvenile worm inside the pilidium. Conclusions Our findings not only explain how the almost-entirely multiciliated pilidium can grow, but also demonstrate direct coupling of larval and juvenile growth in a maximally-indirect life history. PMID:24690541

  20. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2012-06-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae cause severe internal feeding damage to apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Research has demonstrated that codling moth neonate first instar larvae are attracted to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE). Reported here are the behavioral activities of neonate codling moth larvae to microencapsulated pear ester (MEC-PE) applied in aqueous solutions to both filter paper and apple leaf surfaces that were evaluated over a period of up to 20 d of aging. In dual-choice tests the MEC-PE treatment elicited attraction to and longer time spent on treated zones of filter papers relative to water-treated control zones for up to 14 d of aging. A higher concentration of MEC-PE caused no preferential response to the treated zone for the first 5 d of aging followed by significant responses through day 20 of aging, suggesting sensory adaptation as an initial concentration factor. Estimated emission levels of PE from treated filter papers were experimentally calculated for the observed behavioral thresholds evident over the aging period. When applied to apple leaves, MEC-PE changed neonate walking behavior by eliciting more frequent and longer time periods of arrestment and affected their ability to find the leaf base and stem or petiole. Effects of MEC-PE on extended walking time and arrestment by codling moth larvae would increase temporal and spatial exposure of neonates while on leaves; thereby potentially disrupting fruit or nut finding and enhancing mortality by increasing the exposure to insecticides, predation, and abiotic factors. PMID:22732619

  1. Acute and chronic effects of atmospheric oxygen on the feeding behavior of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    PubMed

    Farzin, Manoush; Albert, Todd; Pierce, Nicholas; VandenBrooks, John M; Dodge, Tahnee; Harrison, Jon F

    2014-09-01

    All insects studied to date show reduced growth rates in hypoxia. Drosophila melanogaster reared in moderate hypoxia (10 kPa PO2) grow more slowly and form smaller adults, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear, as metabolic rates are not oxygen-limited. It has been shown that individual fruit flies do not grow larger in hyperoxia (40 kPa PO2), but populations of flies evolve larger size. Here we studied the effect of acute and chronic variation in atmospheric PO2 (10, 21, 40 kPa) on feeding behavior of third instar larvae of D.melanogaster to assess whether oxygen effects on growth rate can be explained by effects on feeding behavior. Hypoxic-reared larvae grew and developed more slowly, and hyperoxic-rearing did not affect growth rate, maximal larval mass or developmental time. The effect of acute exposure to varying PO2 on larval bite rates matched the pattern observed for growth rates, with a 22% reduction in 10 kPa PO2 and no effect of 40 kPa PO2. Chronic rearing in hypoxia had few effects on the responses of feeding rates to oxygen, but chronic rearing in hyperoxia caused feeding rates to be strongly oxygen-dependent. Hypoxia produced similar reductions in bite rate and in the volume of tunnels excavated by larvae, supporting bite rate as an index of feeding behavior. Overall, our data show that reductions in feeding rate can explain reduced growth rates in moderate hypoxia for Drosophila, contributing to reduced body size, and that larvae cannot successfully compensate for this level of hypoxia with developmental plasticity. PMID:25008193

  2. Comparison of the transmission of Theileria parva between different instars of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus.

    PubMed

    Ochanda, H; Young, A S; Wells, C; Medley, G F; Perry, B D

    1996-09-01

    The transmission of Theileria parva by nymphal and adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was compared by the assessment of salivary gland infections in tick batches fed on the same group of infected cattle at the same time. When larval and nymphal R. appendiculatus Muguga ticks were fed concurrently on cattle undergoing acute infection with T. parva Muguga, the resultant nymphae developed a slightly lower prevalence of infection than did the adult ticks. The abundance of infection was 5-20 times higher in the adult ticks than in the nymphae. When larval and nymphal R. appendiculatus Muguga and R. appendiculatus McIlwaine were fed to repletion on cattle infected with T. parva Boleni, a parasite causing subacute infection, resultant adult tick batches had a relatively high prevalence of infection, but infection was not detected in resultant nymphal batches. When cattle that were carriers of 2 stocks of T. parva, Marikebuni and Kiambu 5, were used as the source of infection, the infections developing in adult R. appendiculatus Muguga ticks were much higher than those developing in nymphae. The structure of salivary glands differed between nymphal ticks, adult males and adult females, and this is considered to be an important factor affecting the infection levels. The morphology of the type III acini, the target acini for sporogony, was similar, but the mean numbers of type III acini were different, with 87 in nymphae, 1346 in males and 1736 in females. This difference was correlated with the different tick instars and sexes was similar, the rate of sporogony was fastest in feeding nymphae, taking on average 2-3 days. compared to 3-4 days in females and an irregular period in the males. These results are discussed in relation to the epidemiology of T. parva. PMID:8811849

  3. RNAi KNOCKDOWN OF BmRab3 LED TO LARVA AND PUPA LETHALITY IN SILKWORM Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chabungbam Orville; Xin, Hu-hu; Chen, Rui-ting; Wang, Mei-xian; Liang, Shuang; Lu, Yan; Cai, Zi-zheng; Zhang, Deng-pan; Miao, Yun-gen

    2015-06-01

    Rab3 GTPases are known to play key a role in vesicular trafficking, and express highest in brain and endocrine tissues. In mammals, Rab3 GTPases are paralogs unlike in insect. In this study, we cloned Rab3 from the silk gland tissue of silkworm Bombyx mori, and identified it as BmRab3. Our in silico analysis indicated that BmRab3 is an isoform with a theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight of 5.52 and 24.3 kDa, respectively. Further, BmRab3 showed the C-terminal hypervariability for GGT2 site but having two other putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor/GDP dissociation inhibitor interaction sites. Multiple alignment sequence indicated high similarities of BmRab3 with Rab3 isoforms of other species. The phylogeny tree showed BmRab3 clustered between the species of Tribolium castaneum and Aedes aegypti. Meanwhile, the expression analysis of BmRab3 showed the highest expression in middle silk glands (MSGs) than all other tissues in the third day of fifth-instar larva. Simultaneously, we showed the differential expression of BmRab3 in the early instar larva development, followed by higher expression in male than female pupae. In vivo dsRNA interference of BmRab3 reduced the expression of BmRab3 by 75% compared to the control in the MSGs in the first day. But as the worm grew to the third day, the difference of BmRab3 between knockdown and control was only about 10%. The knockdown later witnessed underdevelopment of the larvae and pharate pupae lethality in the overall development of silkworm B. mori L. PMID:25735242

  4. Assessing the impact of Cry1Ab-expressing corn pollen on monarch butterfly larvae in field studies

    PubMed Central

    Stanley-Horn, Diane E.; Dively, Galen P.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Mattila, Heather R.; Sears, Mark K.; Rose, Robyn; Jesse, Laura C. H.; Losey, John E.; Obrycki, John J.; Lewis, Les

    2001-01-01

    Survival and growth of monarch larvae, Danaus plexippus (L.), after exposure to either Cry1Ab-expressing pollen from three Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn (Zea mays L.) events differing in toxin expression or to the insecticide, λ-cyhalothrin, were examined in field studies. First instars exposed to low doses (≈22 grains per cm2) of event-176 pollen gained 18% less weight than those exposed to Bt11 or Mon810 pollen after a 5-day exposure period. Larvae exposed to 67 pollen grains per cm2 on milkweed leaves from within an event-176 field exhibited 60% lower survivorship and 42% less weight gain compared with those exposed to leaves from outside the field. In contrast, Bt11 pollen had no effect on growth to adulthood or survival of first or third instars exposed for 5 days to ≈55 and 97 pollen grains per cm2, respectively. Similarly, no differences in larval survivorship were observed after a 4-day exposure period to leaves with 504–586 (within fields) or 18–22 (outside the field) pollen grains per cm2 collected from Bt11 and non-Bt sweet-corn fields. However, survivorship and weight gain were drastically reduced in non-Bt fields treated with λ-cyhalothrin. The effects of Bt11 and Mon810 pollen on the survivorship of larvae feeding 14 to 22 days on milkweeds in fields were negligible. Further studies should examine the lifetime and reproductive impact of Bt11 and Mon810 pollen on monarchs after long-term exposure to naturally deposited pollen. PMID:11559839

  5. Workshop report on the 2nd Joint ENCCA/EuroSARC European bone sarcoma network meeting: integration of clinical trials with tumour biology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This is the report of the 2nd Joint ENCCA/EuroSARC European Bone Sarcoma Network Meeting held in Leiden, The Netherlands, on 26-27 September 2013, bringing together preclinical and clinical investigators on bone sarcoma. The purpose of this workshop was to present the achievements of biological research and clinical trials in bone sarcomas and to stimulate crosstalk.

  6. Research and Prediction of the Application of Multimedia Teaching Aid in Teaching Technical Education on the 2nd Level of Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebila, Ján

    2011-01-01

    The purpose and the main aim of the pedagogic experiment were to practically verify the success of Multimedia Teaching Aid (MTA) in conditions of primary schools. We assumed that the use of our multimedia teaching aid in teaching technical education on the 2nd level of primary schools would significantly affect the level of knowledge of pupils…

  7. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  8. Growth, structure, and optical properties of a self-activated crystal: Na2Nd2O(BO3)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Faxian; Zhang, Guochun; Yao, Jiyong; Xu, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xinyuan; Fu, Ying; Wu, Yicheng

    2015-08-01

    A self-activated crystal Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 has been grown from the Na2O-Nd2O3-B2O3-NaF system. Its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and verified by infrared spectrum and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, space group P21/c with unit-cell parameters a = 10.804 Å, b = 6.421 Å, c = 10.450 Å, β = 117.95°, Z = 4, and V = 640.4 Å3. Its absorption and emission spectra were measured at room temperature. Based on the absorption spectrum, the spontaneous transition probabilities, fluorescence branch ratio, and the radiation lifetime of 4F3/2 state were calculated. The emission properties under the 355 nm excitation were also evaluated. The electronic structure of Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 was calculated by the first-principles method. The obtained results show that Na2Nd2O(BO3)2 may be a promising microchip laser material.

  9. Host plant pubescence: effect on silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, fourth instar and pharate adult dimensions and ecdysteroid titer fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Dale B; Gerling, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The ability to generate physiologically synchronous groups of insects is vital to the performance of investigations designed to test insect responses to intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. During a given instar, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, increase in depth but not in length or width. A staging system to identify physiologically synchronous 4th instar and pharate adult silverleaf whiteflies based on increasing body depth and the development of the adult eye has been described previously. This study determined the effect of host plant identity on ecdysteroid fluctuations during the 4th instar and pharate adult stages, and on the depth, length and width dimensions of 4th instar/pharate adult whiteflies. When grown on the pubescent-leafed green bean, tomato and poinsettia plants, these stages were significantly shorter and narrower, but attained greater depth than when grown on the glabrous-leafed cotton, collard and sweet potato plants. Thus, leaf pubescence is associated with reduced length and width dimensions, but increased depth dimensions in 4(th) instars and pharate adults. For all host plants, nymphal ecdysteroid titers peaked just prior to the initiation of adult development. However, when reared on pubescent-leafed plants, the initiation of adult development typically occurred in nymphs that had attained a depth of 0.2 to 0.25 mm (Stage 3 - 4). When reared on glabrous-leafed plants, the initiation of adult development typically occurred earlier, in nymphs that had attained a depth of only 0.15-0.18 mm (Stage 2 Old - early 3). Therefore, based on ecdysteroid concentration, it appears that Stage-2, -3 and -4/5 nymphs reared on pubescent-leafed plants are physiologically equivalent to Stage-1, -2 Young and -2 Old/3, respectively, nymphs reared on glabrous-leafed plants. The host plant affected the width but not the height of the nymphal-adult premolt ecdysteroid peak. However, leaf pubescence was not the determining factor. Thus, host plant

  10. The development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birch foliage grown in ambient and elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Traw, M.B.B.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1993-06-01

    This study addresses insect-host plant interactions in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere. Gypsy moth larvae (Lynmtria dispar) were raised on two of their natural host species of New England's temperate forest, yellow and gray birch (Betula alleganiensis and B. populifolia). Birch seedlings were germinated and grown at either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] in light and temperature controlled chambers. After four months, we added newly hatched L dispar larvae. Twenty-four mesh cages, each containing one caterpillar and one plant, were set up for each treatment (2 host species x 2 CO[sub 2] levels). Over the next two months, we tracked larval weights and behavior. A sub sample of birch were harvested to measure characteristics that might affect herbivores. A separate group of second and third instar larvae were given the choice of two different, detached leaves in a petri dish. Two preference tests were performed; between species (Yb vs Gb), CO[sub 2] levels (350 vs 700). Our results show that larvae grew significantly larger and reach maturity more rapidly at 350 ppm CO[sub 2] and on gray birch. In preference tests, larvae preferred yellow birch over gray at 350 ppm, and in yellow birch, preferred 350 ppm foliage over 700 ppm foliage. These results suggest that the impact of a generatist insect herbivore on different host plant species may change in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere.

  11. Development of respiratory structures in embryos and first and second instars of the bark scorpion, Centruroides gracilis (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Farley, Roger D

    2008-09-01

    The SEM was used to study the development of respiratory structures in successive stages in relation to the overall changes occurring in the scorpions. Book lung development is a slow process, starting with spiracles and a sac-like atrium in the early embryo and continuing lamellar formation to 150 or more in the adult. In the embryo, the primordial epithelial cells become aligned in a planar pattern as they secrete granules of material that aggregate spontaneously to form the cuticular walls of the lamellae. A blade-like structure is formed consisting of cells sandwiched within the two cuticle walls they secreted. These cells are in the primordial air channel. The adjacent hemolymph channel is nearly devoid of cells, but cross-bridges develop and help stabilize the cuticle walls and maintain the width of the channel. The cells in the primordial air channel undergo cytolysis, leaving it open for air except for cuticular cross-bridges. Development continues in the newborn (first instars); the air channels of some lamellae still contain cells and are not yet functional for gas exchange. The first instars are weak and relatively inactive. They climb up on the mother's dorsum until the first molt (about 8 days). With the cuticular walls of the lamellae in place, cells adhering to the wall in the hemolymph channel produce a thin, new tissue layer (epithelium) on the lamellar wall facing the hemolymph channel. This layer has many discontinuities as though it is slowly developing. Formation of the tissue layer and cytolysis of the cells in the air channels continue through the first molt in which little book lung cuticle is shed as exuvium. The air channels of the second instars (foraging nymphs) are now cell free and open for air passage except for the cross-bridges. The tissue layer is still incomplete and continues to be formed. It may provide the hypodermal primordium for cuticle replacement in later molts, but development was not studied beyond the second instar

  12. Summary of the 2nd International Symposium on Arthrogryposis, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 17-19, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith G; Agranovich, Olga; Ogranovich, Alga; Pontén, Eva; Pontén, Ava; van Bosse, Harold J P

    2015-06-01

    Enormous progress has been made in understanding the etiology and therapies for arthrogryposis (multiple congenital contractures). A 2nd International Symposium on Arthrogryposis was sponsored by the Turner Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. Olga Agranovich, Head of the Arthrogryposis Department of the Turner Institute, organized this special meeting. Care providers from multiple disciplines from all over the world representing 18 nations attended. Participants included: Pediatric orthopedic specialists, rehabilitation physicians, occupational therapists, physical therapists, medical geneticists, neurologists, craniofacial physicians, psychologists, developmental biologists, as well as representatives from parent support groups. The 1st symposium established the need for a collaborative and interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of arthrogryposis, engagement of parent support organizations, and the aim for more research. The Second Symposium highlighted the continuing need for more research on various therapies, identification of different types of arthrogryposis, standardized descriptions of severity, development of new orthotics, improved prenatal diagnosis, and studying adult outcome. Major progress has been made on both upper and lower limb treatments. PMID:25847824

  13. Long-term monitoring of the human intestinal microbiota from the 2nd week to 13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Pӓrtty, Anna; Kalliomӓki, Marko; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2014-08-01

    Microbial contact begins prior to birth and continues rapidly thereafter. Few long term follow-up studies have been reported and we therefore characterized the development of intestinal microbiota of ten subjects from the 2nd week of life to 13 years of age. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with several bacterial group-specific primer sets demonstrated the colonization steps of defined bacterial groups in the microbiota. Bifidobacterium species were seen throughout the test period in all subjects. Bacteroides fragilis group and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group species were not detected in several subjects during the first 6 months of life but were commonly seen after 12 months of life. Streptococcus group appeared during early life but was not seen in several subjects at the age of 13 years. Although a few species were linked with the increasing age, major bacterial species in the groups did not change dramatically. Rather considerable changes were found in the relative abundances of each bacterial species. Clustering analysis of total bacterial flora indicated that the microbiota changed considerably between 6 months and 12 months of life, and, at the age of 12 months, the intestinal microbiota was already converted toward a profile characteristic of an adult microbiota. Probiotic supplementation in the beginning of life did not have major impacts on later microbiota development. PMID:24933584

  14. Study on microstructure and properties of extruded Mg-2Nd-0.2Zn alloy as potential biodegradable implant material.

    PubMed

    Li, Junlei; Tan, Lili; Wan, Peng; Yu, Xiaoming; Yang, Ke

    2015-04-01

    Mg-2Nd-0.2Zn (NZ20) alloy was prepared for the application as biodegradable implant material in this study. The effects of the extrusion process on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of the alloy were investigated. The as-cast alloy was composed of α-Mg matrix and Mg12Nd eutectic compound. The solution treatment could lead to the Mg12Nd phase dissolution and the grain coarsening. The alloy (E1) preheated at 380°C for 1h and extruded at 390°C presents fine grains with amounts of tiny Mg12Nd particles uniformly dispersed throughout the boundaries and the interior of the grains. The alloy (E2) preheated at 480°C for 1h and extruded at 500°C exhibits relatively larger grains with few nano-scale Mg12Nd phase particles dispersed. The alloy of E1, compared with E2, showed relatively lower corrosion rate, higher yield strength and slightly lower elongation. PMID:25686968

  15. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine. PMID:26455002

  16. Explicit formulas for 2nd-order driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C-X. )

    2012-04-25

    Optimization of nonlinear driving terms have become a useful tool for designing storage rings, especially modern light sources where the strong nonlinearity is dominated by the large chromatic effects of quadrupoles and strong sextupoles for chromaticity control. The Lie algebraic method is well known for computing such driving terms. However, it appears that there was a lack of explicit formulas in the public domain for such computation, resulting in uncertainty and/or inconsistency in widely used codes. This note presents explicit formulas for driving terms due to sextupoles and chromatic effects of quadrupoles, which can be considered as thin elements. The computation is accurate to the 4th-order Hamiltonian and 2nd-order in terms of magnet parameters. The results given here are the same as the APS internal note AOP-TN-2009-020. This internal nte has been revised and published here as a Light Source Note in order to get this information into the public domain, since both ELEGANT and OPA are using these formulas.

  17. Increasing the water temperature of a 2nd order stream reach: Hydraulic aspects of a whole-stream manipulative experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.; Canhoto, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    What will happen when water temperatures of streams increases, due to climate changes or in connection with rapidly changing human systems? Trying to answer to this question a whole-stream manipulative experiment was undertaken, where an increase in water temperature was artificially induced on a 2nd order stream reach. The main objective of this poster is to describe this experiment focusing on the design of the hydraulic system. The system maintained a steady flow while allowing natural variation in abiotic factors and was successfully used to evaluate the effects of warming on a stream ecosystem at several levels of biological organization. A constant flow of stream water was controlled by a hydraulic setup (~22m long; ~1.5m width) subdivided into two independent channels. One channel of the study reach received heated water (~3°C above the other), while the other received water at stream ambient temperature. The warming system maintained a steady gravity controlled flow making use of weirs and valves.

  18. Enhanced Deficits in Long-Term Potentiation in the Adult Dentate Gyrus with 2nd Trimester Ethanol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Jennifer L.; White, Emily R.; Christie, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during pregnancy can cause structural and functional changes in the brain that can impair cognitive capacity. The hippocampal formation, an area of the brain strongly linked with learning and memory, is particularly vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present experiments we sought to determine if the functional effects of developmental ethanol exposure could be linked to ethanol exposure during any single trimester-equivalent. Ethanol exposure during the 1st or 3rd trimester-equivalent produced only minor changes in synaptic plasticity in adult offspring. In contrast, ethanol exposure during the 2nd trimester equivalent resulted in a pronounced decrease in long-term potentiation, indicating that the timing of exposure influences the severity of the deficit. Together, the results from these experiments demonstrate long-lasting alterations in synaptic plasticity as the result of developmental ethanol exposure and dependent on the timing of exposure. Furthermore, these results allude to neural circuit malfunction within the hippocampal formation, perhaps relating to the learning and memory deficits observed in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:23227262

  19. A neutron powder diffraction study of ND 3 intercalated titanium disulfide, 3 R-TiS 2ND 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwmeester, H. J. M.; Wiegers, G. A.

    1988-10-01

    Neutron powder diffraction of rhombohedral 3 R-TiS 2ND 3 ( a = 3.419 Å, c = 27.03 Å at 300 K, space group R overline3m ) has shown that ND 3 molecules and ND +4 ions, present in a ratio of about 5 to 1 from chemical and physical evidence, occupy statistically the trigonal-prismatic holes between TiS 2 sandwiches. One cannot distinguish between ND 3 and ND +4. Powder intensities calculated for a model with spherically symmetric ND 3 molecules (corresponding to isotropically rotating ND 3 and ND +4) in the trigonal-prismatic holes were in reasonable agreement with the observed intensities. Attempts to obtain information on the precise orientation of ND 3 and ND +4 in the TiS 2 lattice using refinements with structure factors were not successful; the reliability R factor was 0.093 for spherical symmetric ND 3 molecules with nitrogen in the center of the trigonal-prismatic holes.

  20. Near infrared emission and energy transfer in Eu2+ - Nd3+ co-doped Ca2BO3Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talewar, R. A.; Joshi, C. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Novel near infrared (NIR) emitting phosphor, Ca2BO3Cl:Eu2+, Nd3+ was synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction and characterized with X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence emission, photoluminescence excitation spectra and fluorescence decay measurements. When excited with 400 nm, the phosphor gives broadband emission at 560 nm, which corresponds to the allowed 5d → 4f transition of Eu2+ and an intense NIR emissions in the range 800-1400 nm, which are assigned to the characteristic 4I9/2,11/2,13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ions. The dependence of visible and NIR emissions, decay lifetime and the energy transfer efficiency (ηETE) were investigated in detail. The luminescence spectra, both in visible (VIS) and NIR regions, and decay lifetime curves of Eu2+ have been measured to prove energy transfer (ET) from Eu2+ to Nd3+. These results demonstrate the possibility for enhancing the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of silicon solar cell by modifying the absorption and utilizing the UV to blue part of the solar spectrum where the efficiency of c-Silicon solar cell is low.

  1. InAs/GaSb type II superlattices for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Rehm, Robert; Schmitz, Johannes; Fleissner, Joachim; Rutz, Frank; Kirste, Lutz; Scheibner, Ralf; Wendler, Joachim; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-01-01

    InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices (SL) based on GaSb, InAs and AlSb have proven their great potential for high performance infrared detectors. Lots of interest is currently focused on the development of short-period InAs/GaSb SLs for advanced 2nd and 3rd generation infrared detectors between 3 - 30 μm. For the fabrication of mono- and bispectral thermal imaging systems in the mid-wavelength infrared region (MWIR) a manufacturable technology for high responsivity thermal imaging systems has been developed. InAs/GaSb short-period superlattices can be fabricated with up to 1000 periods in the intrinsic region without revealing diffusion limited behavior. This enables the fabrication of InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high responsivity comparable to state of the art CdHgTe and InSb detectors. The material system is also ideally suited for the fabrication of dual-color MWIR/MWIR InAs/GaSb SL camera systems with high quantum efficiency for missile approach warning systems with simultaneous and spatially coincident detection in both spectral channels.

  2. Effect of benserazid and 6-hydroxydopamine on the development of the last larval instar of the house cricket, Acheta domestica L.

    PubMed

    Rózsa, K S; Chudakova, I V; Hiripi, L

    1986-01-01

    The effect of benserazid and 6-OHDA on the duration of the last larval instar and development of wings with intact corpora allata and following allatectomy on Acheta domestica L. was studied. 6-OHDA failed to alter the duration of the last larval instar in the nymphs with intact corpora allata but prolonged it in the allatectomized crickets. Introduction of 6-OHDA in the second phase of the last larval instar caused a deformation of the wings both in allatectomized and intact crickets. Injection of benserazid to the nymphs of the last larval instar prolonged the duration of this phase only in the presence of the corpora allata. The effect of benserazid can be connected to elimination of central inhibition of the corpora allata involving dopaminergic neurons of the brain. PMID:2869911

  3. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spodek, Malkie; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thefirst-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated. This species is compared with Kermes vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region. PMID:23275748

  4. Biology of Paenibacillus larvae, a deadly pathogen of honey bee larvae.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Julia; Knispel, Henriette; Hertlein, Gillian; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke

    2016-09-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees, a notifiable disease in many countries. Hence, P. larvae can be considered as an entomopathogen of considerable relevance in veterinary medicine. P. larvae is a highly specialized pathogen with only one established host, the honey bee larva. No other natural environment supporting germination and proliferation of P. larvae is known. Over the last decade, tremendous progress in the understanding of P. larvae and its interactions with honey bee larvae at a molecular level has been made. In this review, we will present the recent highlights and developments in P. larvae research and discuss the impact of some of the findings in a broader context to demonstrate what we can learn from studying "exotic" pathogens. PMID:27394713

  5. Universe (2nd edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, W.J. III

    1988-01-01

    A general text on astronomy is presented. The foundations of the science are reviewed, including descriptions of naked-eye observatons of eclipses and planetary motions and such basic tools as Kepler's laws, the fundamental properties of light, and the optics of telescopes. The formation of the solar system is addressed, and the planets and their satellites are discussed individually. Solar science is treated in detail. Stellar evolution is described chronologically from birth to death. Molecular clouds, star clusters, nebulae, neutron stars, black holes, and various other phenomena that occur in the life of a star are examined in the sequence in which they naturally occur. A survey of the Milky Way introduces galactic astronomy. Quasars and cosmology are addressed, including the most recent developments in research. 156 references.

  6. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  7. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Rist, Anna; Thum, Andreas S.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances. PMID:26528147

  8. Single stimulus learning in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    O'Neale, Ashley; Ellis, Joseph; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M

    2014-02-01

    Learning about a moving visual stimulus was examined in zebrafish larvae using an automated imaging system and a t1-t2 design. In three experiments, zebrafish larvae were exposed to one of two inputs at t1 (either a gray bouncing disk or an identical but stationary disk) followed by a common test at t2 (the gray bouncing disk). Using 7days post-fertilization (dpf) larvae and 12 stimulus exposures, Experiment 1 established that these different treatments produced differential responding to the moving disk during testing. Larvae familiar with the moving test stimulus were significantly less likely to be still in its presence than larvae that had been exposed to the identical but stationary stimulus. Experiment 2 confirmed this result in 7dpf larvae and extended the finding to 5 and 6dpf larvae. Experiment 3 found differential responding to the moving test stimulus with 4 or 8 stimulus exposures but not with just one exposure in 7dpf larvae. These results provide evidence for learning in very young zebrafish larvae. The merits and challenges of the t1-t2 framework to study learning are discussed. PMID:24012906

  9. A Trypsin Inhibitor from Clitoria fairchildiana Cotyledons is Active Against Digestive Enzymes of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lucilene O; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Pádua, Dayanni de Souza; Carvalho, André de O; Lemos, Francisco J A; Gomes, Valdirene M; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Ferreira, André T da Silva; Perales, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal mosquito vector of yellow fever, dengue fever and chikungunya fever virus-transmitted diseases, is an insect closely associated with humans and their housing habitats. As there is no commercially available vaccine, prevention is the most suggested form of avoiding disease spreading and a number of studies are being developed in order to give support to vector control operations. The present study reports on the identification of a trypsin inhibitor isolated from cotyledons of the Clitoria fairchildiana amazonic tree seeds, which was able to reduce by 87.93 % the activity of digestive enzymes of fourth instar A. aegypti larva. A partial amino acid sequence showed strong similarity with sequences from several trypsin inhibitors already reported in the literature. The 13,000 Da isolated inhibitor was seen to be active solely against trypsin-like enzymes, neither acting on papain, α-amylase nor on other serine proteases, such as elastase, chymotrypsin or subtilisin. At least six from seven active digestive proteases from A. aegypti larvae, visualized by zymography, were severely affected soon after exposed to the inhibitor. The strong and specific action of the isolated inhibitor against trypsin digestive enzymes of this insect vector led us to believe that this protein may be a good candidate for a prospective alternative biocontrol method. PMID:26156641

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2014-04-01

    Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  11. Bacterial Communities Associated with Culex Mosquito Larvae and Two Emergent Aquatic Plants of Bioremediation Importance

    PubMed Central

    Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G.; Hall, Michael W.; Neufeld, Josh D.; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species. PMID:23967314

  12. Bacterial communities associated with culex mosquito larvae and two emergent aquatic plants of bioremediation importance.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G; Hall, Michael W; Neufeld, Josh D; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species. PMID:23967314

  13. THE SALIVARY TRANSCRIPTOME OF Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) LARVAE: A MICROARRAY-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Neira Oviedo, M.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Heyland, A.; VanEkeris, L.; Moroz, T.; Linser, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the many recent developments in the field of vector sialomics, the salivary glands of larval mosquitoes have been largely unexplored. We used whole-transcriptome microarray analysis to create a gene-expression profile of the salivary gland tissue of fourth-instar Anopheles gambiae larvae, and compare it to the gene-expression profile of a matching group of whole larvae. We identified a total of 221 probes with expression values that were (a) significantly enriched in the salivary glands, and (b) sufficiently annotated as to allow the prediction of the presence/absence of signal peptides in their corresponding gene products. Based on available annotation of the protein sequences associated with these probes, we propose that the main roles of larval salivary secretions include: (a) immune response, (b) mouthpart lubrication, (c) nutrient metabolism, and (d) xenobiotic detoxification. Other highlights of the study include the cloning of a transcript encoding a previously unknown salivary defensin (AgDef5), the confirmation of mucus secretion by the larval salivary glands, and the first report of salivary lipocalins in the Culicidae. PMID:19328852

  14. Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to pecan weevil larvae, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, D I

    2001-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans in the Southeast. Entomopathogenic nematodes have been shown to be pathogenic toward the larval stage of this pest. Before this research, only three species of nematodes had been tested against pecan weevil larvae. In this study, the virulence of the following nine species and 15 strains of nematodes toward fourth-instar pecan weevil was tested: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Baine, HP88, Oswego, NJ1, and Tf strains), H. indica Poinar, Karunakar & David (original and Homl strains), H. marelatus Liu & Berry (IN and Point Reyes strains), H. megidis Poinar, Jackson & Klein (UK211 strain), H. zealandica Poinar (NZH3 strain), Steinernema riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar & Raulston (355 strain), S. carpocapsae (Weiser) (All strain), S. feltiae (Filipjev) (SN strain), and S. glaseri (Steiner) (NJ43 strain). No significant difference in virulence was detected among nematode species or strains. Nematode-induced mortality was not significantly greater than control mortality (in any of the experiments conducted) for the following nematodes: H. bacteriophora (Baine), H. zealandica (NZH3), S. carpocapsae (All), S. feltiae (SN), S. glaseri (NJ43), and S. riobrave (355). All other nematodes caused greater mortality than the control in at least one experiment. Heterorhabditis megidis (UK211) but not H. indica (original) displayed a positive linear relationship between nematode concentration and larval mortality. Results suggested that, as pecan weevil larvae age, they may have become more resistant to infection with entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:11233136

  15. Genotoxic effects of sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate after chronic exposure of Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Morales, P.; Ordaz, M.G.; Munoz, A.

    1995-11-01

    Two arsenic compounds, namely: NaAsO{sub 2} (Sodium Arsenite) and Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4} (Sodium Arsenate) were tested for its chronic effect in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. In a previous study in Drosophila we found that both compounds induced SLRL mutations, but failed to induce sex chromosome loss. In the SMART, after acute exposure, only sodium arsenite was positive when cells of the wings were used; however, both were positives in cells of the eyes of Drosophila. The genotoxicity of both compounds localized mainly on somatic cells, in agreement with reports on the carcinogenicity potential of arsenical compounds. The Somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) was run employing cells of the wing imaginal discs from flr{sup 3}/mwh larvae. First instar larvae (24 {plus_minus} 4 h) were treated during 96 hours with sodium arsenite [0.015-4.0 ppm], and sodium arsenate [0.2-10 ppm], negative control was treated with distilled water. The frequency of spots by wing induced by the two arsenic salts were compared with control according with Frei and Wuergler procedure. Data show that sodium arsenite tested negative at all concentrations, but sodium arsenate tested positive at 0.8, 2 and 10 ppm (P<0.05). This results were consistent with the co-mutagenic role of sodium arsenite, but show that sodium arsenate was mutagenic in Drosophila test system under chronic exposure.

  16. Behavioral and life-history evidence for interspecific competition in the larvae of two heliconian butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, Carolina; Borges, Simone Silva; Rodrigues, Daniela; Moreira, Gilson Rudinei Pires

    2013-10-01

    Interspecific competition in herbivorous insects remains a controversial issue. To date, many studied systems have not met assumptions of the traditional competition theory, and a new paradigm has been emerging. We examined the behavioral and life-history consequences of common host plant use of Heliconius erato and Dryas iulia (Nymphalidae) in relation to Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae). Larvae of the former use the apical portion of this host; the latter is presumably able to explore all plant parts. We assessed host use pattern in relation to leaf age, when reared either alone ( D. iulia) or together ( D. iulia and H. erato). Larval feeding choice tests with respect to leaf age were performed, and performance was recorded. Observations were made to assess antagonistic behavior of H. erato and D. iulia towards each other, if any. Similarly to H. erato, D. iulia fed on the young leaves significantly more than the mature ones; larvae were not induced to prefer mature leaves. First instars of H. erato used only the apical parts of P. suberosa and displayed aggressive behavior towards D. iulia, which moved to the lower shoot portions. Larval mortality and development time of both species significantly increased when reared together; such performance costs were more pronounced in D. iulia than H. erato. Our study gathers evidences that use of P. suberosa by these heliconian butterflies represent a case of competitive exclusion resulting in niche differentiation, where costs are higher for D. iulia than H. erato.

  17. External morphology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the external morphology of first-, second-, and third-instar stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)). In the cephalic region, the antennae, labial lobe, and maxillary palpi are morphologically similar among instars. Antennae comprise a prominent ante...

  18. Metalloprotease production by Paenibacillus larvae during the infection of honeybee larvae.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Arredondo, Daniela; Anido, Matilde; Zunino, Pablo

    2011-05-01

    American foulbrood is a bacterial disease of worldwide distribution that affects larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The causative agent is the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Several authors have proposed that P. larvae secretes metalloproteases that are involved in the larval degradation that occurs after infection. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of a metalloprotease by P. larvae during larval infection. First, the complete gene encoding a metalloprotease was identified in the P. larvae genome and its distribution was evaluated by PCR in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographical regions. Then, the complete gene was amplified, cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant metalloprotease was purified and used to generate anti-metalloprotease antibodies. Metalloprotease production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene encoding a P. larvae metalloprotease was widely distributed in isolates from different geographical origins in Uruguay and Argentina. Metalloprotease was detected inside P. larvae vegetative cells, on the surface of P. larvae spores and secreted to the external growth medium. Its production was also confirmed in vivo, during the infection of honeybee larvae. This protein was able to hydrolyse milk proteins as described for P. larvae, suggesting that could be involved in larval degradation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the pathogenicity mechanisms of a bacterium of great economic significance and is one step in the characterization of potential P. larvae virulence factors. PMID:21330433

  19. Ganzfeld ERG in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Mathias W; Rilk, Albrecht; Neuhauss, Stephan C F

    2002-01-01

    In developmental biology, zebrafish are widely used to study the impact of mutations. The fast pace of development allows for a definitive morphological evaluation of the phenotype usually 5 days post fertilization (dpf). At that age, a functional analysis is already feasible using electroretinographic (ERG) methods. Corneal Ganzfeld ERGs were recorded with a glass microelectrode in anaesthetized, dark-adapted larvae aged 5 dpf, using a platinum wire beneath a moist paper towel as reference. ERG protocols included flash, flicker, and ON/OFF stimuli, both under scotopic and photopic conditions. Repetitive, isoluminant stimuli were used to assess the dynamic effect of pharmacological agents on the ERG. Single flash, flicker, and ON/OFF responses had adequately matured at this point to be informative. Typical signs of the cone dominance were the small scotopic a-wave and the large OFF responses. The analysis of consecutive single traces was possible because of the lack of EKG, breathing, and blink artefacts. After application of APB, which selectively blocks the ON channel via the mGluR6 receptor, the successive loss of the b-wave could be observed, which was quite different from the deterioration of the ERG after a circulatory arrest. The above techniques allowed to reliably obtain Ganzfeld ERGs in larvae aged 5 dpf. This underlines the important role of the zebrafish as a model for the functional analysis of mutations disrupting the visual system. PMID:11949809

  20. Comparative evaluation of phenoloxidase activity in different larval stages of four lepidopteran pests after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Valadez-Lira, J A; Alcocer-Gonzalez, J M; Damas, G; Nuñez-Mejía, G; Oppert, B; Rodriguez-Padilla, C; Tamez-Guerra, P

    2012-01-01

    Microbial entomopathogen-based bioinsecticides are recognized as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Insects defend themselves against microbial pathogens by innate mechanisms, including increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but its relationship with microbial bioinsecticides efficacy is little known. This study evaluated the differences in PO activity at different developmental stages of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Pyralidae), beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Noctuidae), and cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Noctuidae). Additionally, 2(nd)- and 4(th)-instars were exposed to the LC(50) value of the commercial Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spray, Biobit(®). The percentage of insecticidal activity (IA%) on 2(nd)-instar Biobit-exposed larvae was approximately the predicted 50 % mortality for all species except S. exigua. With all 4(th) instar Biobit-exposed larvae, mortality was not significantly different from that of unexposed larvae. Unexposed insects had a significantly higher PO activity in pre-pupae and pupae than early-instar larvae and adults, whereas PO activity was higher in adult females than in males. Correlation analysis between IA% and PO activity revealed significant r-values (p < 0.01) in 2(nd) instar H. virescens (r = 0.979) and P. interpunctella (r = 0.930). Second instar Biobit-exposed P. interpunctella had 10 times more PO activity than unexposed larvae. Similarly, the amount of total protein was lower in 4(th) instar Biobit-exposed H. virescens and higher in S. exigua. Therefore, the results indicated a relationship between Biobit susceptibility and PO activity in some cases. This information may be useful if the Biobit application period is timed for a developmental stage with low PO activity. However, more studies are needed to determine the correlation of each insect with a particular bioinsecticide. PMID:23414117

  1. Long-Term Cold Acclimation Extends Survival Time at 0°C and Modifies the Metabolomic Profiles of the Larvae of the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Koštál, Vladimír; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Rozsypal, Jan; Zahradníčková, Helena; Cimlová, Jana; Tomčala, Aleš; Šimek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Background Drosophila melanogaster is a chill-susceptible insect. Previous studies on this fly focused on acute direct chilling injury during cold shock and showed that lower lethal temperature (LLT, approximately −5°C) exhibits relatively low plasticity and that acclimations, both rapid cold hardening (RCH) and long-term cold acclimation, shift the LLT by only a few degrees at the maximum. Principal Findings We found that long-term cold acclimation considerably improved cold tolerance in fully grown third-instar larvae of D. melanogaster. A comparison of the larvae acclimated at constant 25°C with those acclimated at constant 15°C followed by constant 6°C for 2 d (15°C→6°C) showed that long-term cold acclimation extended the lethal time for 50% of the population (Lt50) during exposure to constant 0°C as much as 630-fold (from 0.137 h to 86.658 h). Such marked physiological plasticity in Lt50 (in contrast to LLT) suggested that chronic indirect chilling injury at 0°C differs from that caused by cold shock. Long-term cold acclimation modified the metabolomic profiles of the larvae. Accumulations of proline (up to 17.7 mM) and trehalose (up to 36.5 mM) were the two most prominent responses. In addition, restructuring of the glycerophospholipid composition of biological membranes was observed. The relative proportion of glycerophosphoethanolamines (especially those with linoleic acid at the sn-2 position) increased at the expense of glycerophosphocholines. Conclusion Third-instar larvae of D. melanogaster improved their cold tolerance in response to long-term cold acclimation and showed metabolic potential for the accumulation of proline and trehalose and for membrane restructuring. PMID:21957472

  2. Electrocradiographic Qrs Axis, Q Wave and T-wave Changes in 2nd and 3rd Trimester of Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    S., Chandrasekharappa; Brid, S.V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy although a physiological phenomena affects all the functions of the maternal body and brings about remarkable changes in the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular changes and many of the physiological adaptations of normal pregnancy alter the physical findings thus, sometimes misleading the diagnosis of heart disease. Pregnancy also brings about various changes in the electrocardiogram, further confusing with that of heart disease. This study is undertaken to highlight the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave of the Electrocardiogram and thereby helps us to distinguish it from that of pathological changes. Objectives: To study the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave in the electrocardiogram and to compare with that of normal non pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Fifty normal pregnant women in 2nd and 3rd trimester each between 20– 35 y of age and 50 normal non pregnant women of the same age group were selected for the study. A 12 lead ECG was recorded by using ECG machine with special emphasis on QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave changes and all the parameters were analysed. Results: The ECG changes observed in our study include, deviation of QRS axis towards left as pregnancy advanced, significant increased incidence of occurrence of prominent Q waves in lead II, III and avF in pregnant group (p < 0.05 ) and, T-wave abnormalities like flat and inverted T-waves in lead III, V1 – V3 were more frequent in pregnant group ( p<0.05 ) than in non pregnant group. Conclusion:Normal pregnancy brings about various changes in ECG. These changes during pregnancy should be interpretated with caution by the physicians. It is necessary to understand the normal physiological changes which in turn help us in better management of those with cardiac disease. PMID:25386425

  3. ENABLE -- A systolic 2nd level trigger processor for track finding and e/[pi] discrimination for ATLAS/LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Klefenz, F.; Noffz, K.H.; Zoz, R. . Lehrstuhl fuer Informatik V); Maenner, R. . Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen)

    1994-08-01

    The Enable Machine is a systolic 2nd level trigger processor for the transition radiation detector (TRD) of ATLAS/LHC. It is developed within the EAST/RD-11 collaboration at CERN. The task of the processor is to find electron tracks and to reject pion tracks according to the EAST benchmark algorithm in less than 10[mu]s. Track are identified by template matching in a ([psi],z) region of interest (RoI) selected by a 1st level trigger. In the ([psi],z) plane tracks of constant curvature are straight lines. The relevant lines form mask templates. Track identification is done by histogramming the coincidences of the templates and the RoI data for each possible track. The Enable Machine is an array processor that handles tracks of the same slope in parallel, and tracks of different slope in a pipeline. It is composed of two units, the Enable histogrammer unit and the Enable z/[psi]-board. The interface daughter board is equipped with a HIPPI-interface developed at JINR/-Dubna, and Xilinx 'corner turning' data converter chips. Enable uses programmable gate arrays (XILINX) for histogramming and synchronous SRAMs for pattern storage. With a clock rate of 40 MHz the trigger decision time is 6.5 [mu]s and the latency 7.0 [mu]s. The Enable machine is scalable in the RoI size as well as in the number of tracks processed. It can be adapted to different recognition tasks and detector setups. The prototype of the Enable Machine has been tested in a beam time of the RD6 collaboration at CERN in October 1993.

  4. The effect of Mirabilis jalapa leaves biopesticide treatment on the mycelium growth of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana inside the larvae body Crocidolomia binotalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramita, Mia; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Pest control with biological method (biopesticide and entomopathogenic fungi) is an alternative program to reduce application of chemical insecticide. Biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa leaves has been discovered rich in secondary metabolites which has antifeedant activity that can provide physiological interference in insect larvae and the generation numbers[1]. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana has potential to control pest populations[2]. The growth of mycelium B. bassiana may interfere metabolism process inside the host body. Otherwise, B. bassiana produce toxins such as beauvericin that can increase mortality of pest. Combination of M. jalapa and B. bassiana reduce LT50 on C. binotalis larvae[3]. Thus, this study aims to determine influence of provision of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside larvae body C. binotalis and to detect the presence of beauvericin in vivo. Third instar larvae of C. binotalis were divided into a control, fungal and combination group. The combination group was given biopesticide and fungi. The concentration of biopesticide was 0.8% (w/v) and concentration of fungi spores was 107 spores/ml. Spores (vol. 5µl) done topically to larvae in interval 6 hours after treatment of biopesticide on non-pesticide cabbage leaves. Afterwards, histological observations performed at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours after treatment. The result show of emergence hyphae and mycelium growth inside lumen of larvae midgut on combination group faster than fungal group. This is thought to be caused by the influence of secondary metabolites of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves. In addition, beauviricin is detectable both of fungal and combination group. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment of biopesticide from M. jalapa leaves can accelerate on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside the larvae body C. binotalis and toxic of B. bassiana such as beauvericin was detected on fungal and

  5. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (var. kurstaki) Against Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.) Eggs and Larvae on Cabbage Under Semi-Controlled Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Legwaila, Mitch M.; Munthali, David C.; Kwerepe, Baone C.; Obopile, Motshwari

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (var. kurstaki) (Btk) against the diamondback moth (DBM) on cabbage was studied at Botswana College of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana. Using five concentrations of Btk: 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/L, bioassays were conducted against DBM eggs and second instar larvae at 30°C ± 5°C. Each treatment was replicated three times. Probit analysis was used to determine the LD50 and LD90 values for the treatments against eggs and larvae. When the treatments were assessed at 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours, LD90 values against larvae were 11.02, 10.22, 5.92, and 4.01 g/L, whereas they were 7.71, 6.94, and 6.24 g/L against eggs when assessed 48, 72, and 96 hours after the expected time of hatching. This indicated that Btk was effective against both eggs and larvae when exposed for long periods. The slopes of the probit lines for larvae assessed at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours after application were 0.250, 1.064, 0.910, 0.383, 0.453, and 0.414, while those against eggs were 1.153, 1.246, and 0.933 when assessed 48, 72, and 96 hours after the expected time of hatching. This indicates a smaller change in mortality with increase in pesticide dosage for both eggs and larvae. Btk treatments achieved 85.7%–94.6% reduction in DBM damage on cabbage. Therefore, Btk can be used to achieve effective control of DBM eggs and larvae and reduce damage on cabbage under greenhouse conditions. PMID:26816488

  6. The Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) in the Biochemistry and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Activity of Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lilian N D; Ribeiro-Neto, José A; Valadares, Jéssica M M; Costa, Mariana M; Lima, Luciana A R S; Grillo, Luciano A M; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Alves, Stênio N; Barbosa, Leandro A

    2016-08-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is the main vector of lymphatic filariasis and combating this insect is of great importance to public health. There are reports of insects that are resistant to the products currently used to control this vector, and therefore, the search for new products has increased. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) that showed larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, on glucose, total protein, and triacylglycerol contents and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in mosquito larvae. The exposure of the fourth instar larvae to the compounds caused a decrease in the total protein content and an increase in the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, the direct effect of FAMEs on cell membrane was assessed on purified pig kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase membranes, erythrocyte ghost membranes, and larvae membrane preparation. No modifications on total phospholipids and cholesterol content were found after FAMEs 20 min treatment on larvae membrane preparation, but only 360 µg/mL FAME 2 was able to decrease total phospholipid of erythrocyte ghost membrane. Moreover, only 60 and 360 µg/mL FAME 3 caused an activation of purified Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, that was an opposite effect of FAMEs treatment in larvae membrane preparation, and caused an inhibition of the pump activity. These data together suggest that maybe FAMEs can modulate the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase on intact larvae for such mechanisms and not for a direct effect, one time that the direct effect of FAMEs in membrane preparation decreased the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The biochemical changes caused by the compounds were significant and may negatively influence the development and survival of C. quinquefasciatus larvae. PMID:26993642

  7. Perception of aspen and sun/shade sugar maple leaf soluble extracts by larvae of Malacosoma disstria.

    PubMed

    Panzuto, M; Lorenzetti, F; Mauffette, Y; Albert, P J

    2001-10-01

    We investigated the behavioral feeding preference and the chemoreception of leaf polar extracts from trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides, and from sun and shade sugar maple, Acer saccharum, by larvae of the polyphagous forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, a defoliator of deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Three polar extracts were obtained from each tree species: a total extract, a water fraction, and a methanol fraction. M. disstria larvae were allowed ad libitum access to an artificial diet from eclosion to the fifth instar. Two-choice cafeteria tests were performed comparing the mean (+/-SE) surface area eaten of the total extracts, and the following order of preference was obtained: aspen > sun maple > shade maple. Tests with the other fractions showed that M. disstria larvae preferred the total aspen extract to its water fraction, and the latter to its methanol fraction. The response to sun maple was similar to aspen. However, for the shade maple experiment, there was no difference between the total extract and its water fraction. Electrophysiological recordings for aspen showed that the sugar-sensitive cell elicited more spikes to the water fraction, followed by the total extract, and finally the methanol fraction. Spike activity to stimulations of sun and shade maple extracts revealed a similar trend, where methanol fraction > water fraction > total extract. Our findings are discussed in light of previously known information about this insect's performance on these host plants. PMID:11710605

  8. Spinosad toxicity to Simulium spp. larvae and associated aquatic biota in a coffee-growing region of Veracruz State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Infante-Rodríguez, Dennis A; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Mercado, Gabriel; Williams, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    Spinosad is a naturally derived insecticide that has shown potential as a mosquito larvicide. To determine the activity of spinosad against blackflies, late-instar larvae from a community comprising Simulium triittatum (63.6%) and seven other species, including three known vectors of onchocerciasis in Mexico (S. metallicum, S. ochraceum, and S. callidum), were subjected to concentration-mortality laboratory bioassays following World Health Organization guidelines. Cephalic capsule measurements confirmed the relatively homogeneous distribution of experimental larvae. The 50% lethal concentration of spinosad was estimated at 1.48 ppm spinosad (95% confidence interval: 1.07-2.33) for a 10-min exposure period, whereas larvae treated with 0.05 ppm of the organophosphate temephos experienced 61% mortality. Immature aquatic insects were identified to genus and tested for their susceptibility to spinosad in the laboratory. After exposure to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min, ephemeropterans, odonates, trichopterans, and hemipterans did not experience significantly increased mortality over that of untreated controls, whereas a significant increase in mortality was observed in spinosad-treated Plecoptera (P < 0.001). Tilapia and trout fry exposed to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min did not experience increased mortality at 24-h postexposure over that of the controls. We conclude that spinosad is less toxic than temephos to these blackfly species, but is likely to have a low impact on nontarget members of the aquatic community. PMID:21661318

  9. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  10. MicroRNA of the fifth-instar posterior silk gland of silkworm identified by Solexa sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Jisheng; Ye, Lupeng; Wang, Shaohua; Che, Jiaqian; You, Zhengying; Zhong, Boxiong

    2014-12-01

    No special studies have been focused on the microRNA (miRNA) in the fifth-instar posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori. Here, using next-generation sequencing, we acquired 93.2 million processed reads from 10 small RNA libraries. In this paper, we tried to thoroughly describe how our dataset generated from deep sequencing which was recently published in BMC genomics. Results showed that our findings are largely enriched silkworm miRNA depository and may benefit us to reveal the miRNA functions in the process of silk production. PMID:26484119

  11. MicroRNA of the fifth-instar posterior silk gland of silkworm identified by Solexa sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jisheng; Ye, Lupeng; Wang, Shaohua; Che, Jiaqian; You, Zhengying; Zhong, Boxiong

    2014-01-01

    No special studies have been focused on the microRNA (miRNA) in the fifth-instar posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori. Here, using next-generation sequencing, we acquired 93.2 million processed reads from 10 small RNA libraries. In this paper, we tried to thoroughly describe how our dataset generated from deep sequencing which was recently published in BMC genomics. Results showed that our findings are largely enriched silkworm miRNA depository and may benefit us to reveal the miRNA functions in the process of silk production. PMID:26484119

  12. Effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles from filtrate of Trichoderma harzianum against larvae and pupa of dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Sundaravadivelan, Chandran; Padmanabhan, Madanagopal Nalini

    2014-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Therefore, screening for larvicidal and pupicidal activity of microbial extracts attributes could lead to development of new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and safe for nontarget organisms and are ecofriendly. Synthetic chemical insecticides occupy predominant position in control strategies. These hazardous chemicals exert unwarranted toxicity and lethal effects on nontarget organisms, develop physiological resistance in target, and cause adverse environmental effect. For vector control, fungal-mediated natural products have been a priority in this area at present. In the current study, effective larvicidal and pupicidal effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an entomopathogenic fungi Trichoderma harzianum against developmental stages of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti was investigated. An attractive possibility of green nanotechnology is to use microorganisms in the synthesis of nanosilver especially Ag NPs. The mycosynthesized Ag NPs were characterized to find their unique properties through UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared, and surface characteristics by scanning electron microscopy. To analyze the bioefficacy, different test concentrations for extracellular filtrate (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 %) and Ag NPs (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 %) were prepared to a final volume of 200 mL using deionized water; 20 larvae of each instars (I-IV) and pupa were exposed to each test concentration separately which included a set of control (distilled water) group with five replicates. Characterization of the synthesized Ag NPs were about 10-20 nm without aggregation. Susceptibility of larval instars to synthesized Ag NPs was higher than the extracellular filtrate of T. harzianum alone after 24-h exposure, where the highest mortality was recorded as 92 and 96 % for first and second instars and

  13. Topical toxicity of two acetonic fractions of Trichilia havanensis Jacq. and four insecticides to larvae and adults of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Huerta, A; Medina, P; Smagghe, G; Castañera, P; Viñuela, E

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of botanical origin compounds such as two acetonic fractions of the seed kernels of the Meliacea Trichilia havanensis Jacq with insecticide properties (azadirone (F12) and the mixture F18 [1,7+3,7-di-O-acethylhavanensin (4:1)], three insecticides commercially available (imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins+PBO, triflumuron) and phloxine B, were tested in the laboratory. Topical bioassays using third instar and newly emerged adults of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain for commercials and at 1,000 ppm of active ingredient for T. havanensis acetone fractions and phloxine-B, were carried out. Imidacloprid and triflumuron were very toxic to third instar larvae inhibiting adult emergence, being the rest of insecticides harmless. Fecundity and fertility were not affected by the non-toxic compounds. Concerning adults, only imidacloprid and natural pyrethrins killed them significantly 24 hours after treatment. Phloxine B, triflumuron and T. havanensis fractions were harmless and did not cause any effect on fecundity and fertility with the exception of triflumuron, which reduced considerably the egg hatch. It can be concluded that T. havanensis acetonic fractions and phloxine B were non-toxic to larvae and adults of C. carnea when treated topically, whereas triflumuron, natural pyrethrins and imidacloprid affected one or more of the evaluated parameters under our conditions. PMID:15149120

  14. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils on the morphology and mortality of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus larvae.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2016-04-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils were evaluated to determine mortality rates, morphological aberrations, and persistence when used against third and fourth larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The oils were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 % concentrations in mixtures with soybean oil. Persistence of higher concentrations was measured over a period of 10 days. For Ae. aegypti, both plant oils caused various morphological aberrations to include deformed larvae, incomplete eclosion, white pupae, deformed pupae, dead normal pupae, and incomplete pupal eclosion. All of these aberrations led to larval mortality. In Ae. aegypti larvae, there were no significant differences in mortality at days 1, 5, and 10 or between third and fourth larval instar exposure. In An. dirus, morphological aberrations were rare and S. aromaticum oil was more effective in causing mortality among all larval stages. Both oils were equally effective at producing mortality on days 1, 5, and 10. Both oils had slightly increased LT50 rates from day 1 to day 10. In conclusion, both lemongrass and clove oils have significant effects on the immature stages of Ae. aegypti and An. dirus and could potentially be developed for use as larvicides. PMID:26796022

  15. Studies of Nondefective Adenovirus 2-Simian Virus 40 Hybrid Viruses III. Base Composition, Molecular Weight, and Conformation of the Ad2+ND1 Genome

    PubMed Central

    Crumpacker, Clyde S.; Henry, Patrick H.; Kakefuda, Tuyoski; Rowe, Wallace P.; Levin, Myron J.; Lewis, Andrew M.

    1971-01-01

    The nondefective adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid virus, Ad2+ND1, differs from the defective Ad-SV40 hybrid populations previously described, in that this hybrid virus can replicate without the aid of nonhybrid adenovirus helper. Consequently, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from this virus, which can be obtained free of nonhybrid adenovirus DNA, is well suited for biophysical studies on Ad-SV40 hybrid DNA. Such studies have been performed and demonstrate Ad2+ND1 DNA to have a buoyant density (1.715 g/cm3) and thermal denaturation profile (Tm = 75.1 C) almost identical with nonhybrid Ad2 DNA. Furthermore, its molecular weight, as determined by analytical zone sedimentation and electron microscopy, was 22 × 106 to 25 × 106 daltons, which is also very similar to that determined for Ad2. Electron micrographs showed all of the hybrid molecules to be double-stranded and linear. By using this determination of the molecular weight of Ad2+ND1 DNA and assuming that 1% of this molecule consists of covalently linked SV40 DNA (see companion paper), we calculate that the hybrid DNA molecule contains 220 × 103 to 250 × 103 daltons of SV40 DNA, or the equivalent of one-tenth of the SV40 genome. PMID:4323710

  16. Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the Drosophila first instar larval brain.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Lovick, Jennifer K; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison J; Ngo, Kathy T; Viktorin, Gudrun

    2015-10-01

    Fixed lineages derived from unique, genetically specified neuroblasts form the anatomical building blocks of the Drosophila brain. Neurons belonging to the same lineage project their axons in a common tract, which is labeled by neuronal markers. In this paper, we present a detailed atlas of the lineage-associated tracts forming the brain of the early Drosophila larva, based on the use of global markers (anti-Neuroglian, anti-Neurotactin, inscuteable-Gal4>UAS-chRFP-Tub) and lineage-specific reporters. We describe 68 discrete fiber bundles that contain axons of one lineage or pairs/small sets of adjacent lineages. Bundles enter the neuropil at invariant locations, the lineage tract entry portals. Within the neuropil, these fiber bundles form larger fascicles that can be classified, by their main orientation, into longitudinal, transverse, and vertical (ascending/descending) fascicles. We present 3D digital models of lineage tract entry portals and neuropil fascicles, set into relationship to commonly used, easily recognizable reference structures such as the mushroom body, the antennal lobe, the optic lobe, and the Fasciclin II-positive fiber bundles that connect the brain and ventral nerve cord. Correspondences and differences between early larval tract anatomy and the previously described late larval and adult lineage patterns are highlighted. Our L1 neuro-anatomical atlas of lineages constitutes an essential step towards following morphologically defined lineages to the neuroblasts of the early embryo, which will ultimately make it possible to link the structure and connectivity of a lineage to the expression of genes in the particular neuroblast that gives rise to that lineage. Furthermore, the L1 atlas will be important for a host of ongoing work that attempts to reconstruct neuronal connectivity at the level of resolution of single neurons and their synapses. PMID:26141956

  17. EDITORIAL: Selected Papers from OMS'07, the 2nd Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2008-06-01

    OMS'07 was the 2nd Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society (EOS) on Optical Microsystems (OMS). It was organized by the EOS in the frame of its international topical meeting activity, and after the success of the inaugural meeting was once again held in Italy, 30 September to 3 October 2007, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. The local organizing committee was composed of researchers from `La Sapienza' University in Rome and the National Council of Research (CNR) in Naples, Italy. A selected group of leading scientists in the field formed the international scientific committee. The conference was fully dedicated to the most recent advancements carried out in the field of optical microsystems. More then 150 scientists coming from five continents attended the conference and more than 100 papers were presented, organized into the following sessions: Photonic cystals and metamaterials Optofluidic microsystems and devices Optical microsystems and devices New characterization methods for materials and devices Application of optical systems Optical sources and photodetectors Optical resonators Nonlinear optic devices Micro-optical devices. Four keynote lecturers were invited for the Plenary sessions: Federico Capasso, Harvard University, USA; Bahram Javidi, University of Connecticut, USA (Distinguished Lecturer, Emeritus of LEOS--IEEE Society); Demetri Psaltis, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ammon Yariv, California Institute of Technology, USA. Furthermore, 21 invited speakers opened each session of the conference with their talks. In addition a special session was organized to celebrate eighty years of the Isituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata (INOA) of CNR. The special invited speaker for this session was Professor Theodor W Hänsch (Nobel Prize in Physics, 2005), who gave a lecture entitled `What can we do with optical frequency combs?' In this special issue of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, a selection of the most interesting

  18. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  19. Thermochemistry of glasses along the 2NdAlO3 3SiO2 join

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yahong; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Tangeman, Jean A.; Weber, J. K. Richard

    2003-08-01

    Five Nd-aluminosilicate glasses along the 2NdAlO3-3SiO2 join were synthesized using conventional drop-quench techniques. A sixth glass, with the end-member NdAlO3 composition, required synthesis by containerless liquid-phase processing methods to avoid crystallization. Enthalpies of drop solution (DeltaHds) and formation (DeltaHf) for the Nd-aluminosilicate glasses and the NdAlO3-composition end-member glass were measured in molten 2PbO-B2O3 at 1078 K in a twin Calvet type calorimeter. Values for DeltaHds for the Nd-aluminosilicate glasses increase with decreasing silica content from 130.7 +/- 1.5 to 149.6 +/- 0.6 kJ mol-1. Similarly, values of DeltaHf increase with decreasing silica content from 41.0 +/- 2.0 to 59.0 +/- 1.6 kJ mol-1. Values of DeltaHds and DeltaHf for NdAlO3-composition glass were measured as 99.3 +/- 0.9 and 139.2 +/- 2.1 kJ mol-1, respectively. Using transposed temperature drop calorimetry, the enthalpy of vitrification for NdAlO3-composition glass was measured as 69.5 +/- 0.9 kJ mol-1 relative to the stable crystalline neodymium aluminium perovskite (NdAlO3) phase. Enthalpies of mixing were calculated based on amorphous end members; the strongly negative values support the absence of immiscibility in this system. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine glass transition (Tg) and crystallization (Tx) temperatures, as well as values for the configurational heat capacity (DeltaCP(Tg)) and the temperature range of the supercooled liquid interval (DeltaT(SCL)). The NdAlO3-composition glass showed no evidence of a glass transition prior to crystallization; only a single exotherm was observed, the onset of which occurred at 1045 K. For the Nd-aluminosilicates, values of Tg and DeltaT(SCL) increase with increasing silica content, from 1128 to 1139 K and from ~95 to ~175 K, respectively. Values of (DeltaCP(Tg)) increase with decreasing silica content, from ~27 to ~75 J/g fw lowastK, reflecting the increasing fragility and decreasing

  20. Effects of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) larvae on the degranulation of dermal mast cells in mice; an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Yusuf; Kalender, Suna; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Ogutcu, Ayşe; Açikgoz, Fatma

    2004-01-01

    The pine caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) is found in pine woods. Hairs of the T. pityocampa caterpillar cause a cutaneous reaction in humans and animals. Mast cells are responsible for allergic reactions in mammals. In this study male swiss albino mice were divided into two groups: 5 mice in the control group and 25 mice in the experimental group. The dorsal skin of mice was shaved. The mice in the experimental group and T. pityocampa larvae (fifth instar, approximately n=100) were put in the same cage. Dermal mast cells of mice exposed to T. pityocampa were examined with a transmission electron microscope and compared to the control group 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours after exposure. Dermal mast cell degranulation in mice was observed 12 and 24 hours after exposure. PMID:15521642

  1. Directional flow sensing by passively stable larvae.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Heidi L; Christman, Adam J; Gerbi, Gregory P; Hunter, Elias J; Diez, F Javier

    2015-09-01

    Mollusk larvae have a stable, velum-up orientation that may influence how they sense and react to hydrodynamic signals applied in different directions. Directional sensing abilities and responses could affect how a larva interacts with anisotropic fluid motions, including those in feeding currents and in boundary layers encountered during settlement. Oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica) were exposed to simple shear in a Couette device and to solid-body rotation in a single rotating cylinder. Both devices were operated in two different orientations, one with the axis of rotation parallel to the gravity vector, and one with the axis perpendicular. Larvae and flow were observed simultaneously with near-infrared particle-image velocimetry, and behavior was quantified as a response to strain rate, vorticity and centripetal acceleration. Only flows rotating about a horizontal axis elicited the diving response observed previously for oyster larvae in turbulence. The results provide strong evidence that the turbulence-sensing mechanism relies on gravity-detecting organs (statocysts) rather than mechanosensors (cilia). Flow sensing with statocysts sets oyster larvae apart from zooplankters such as copepods and protists that use external mechanosensors in sensing spatial velocity gradients generated by prey or predators. Sensing flow-induced changes in orientation, rather than flow deformation, would enable more efficient control of vertical movements. Statocysts provide larvae with a mechanism of maintaining their upward swimming when rotated by vortices and initiating dives toward the seabed in response to the strong turbulence associated with adult habitats. PMID:26333930

  2. Behavior of Settling Marine Larvae in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J.; Koehl, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many bottom-dwelling marine animals produce microscopic larvae that are dispersed by ambient water currents. These larvae can only recruit to habitats on which they have landed if they can resist being washed away by ambient water flow. We found that larvae on marine surfaces do not experience steady water flow, but rather are exposed to brief pulses of water movement as turbulent eddies sweep across them. We made video recordings of larvae of the tube worm, Hydroides elegans, (important members of the community of organisms growing on docks and ships) on surfaces subjected to measured realistic flow pulses to study factors that might affect their dislodgement from surfaces in nature. We found that the response of a larva of H. elegans to a realistic pulse of water flow depended on its behavior at the time of the pulse and on its recent history of exposure to flow pulses, and that stationary larvae were less likely than locomoting larvae to be blown away when hit by the first pulse of water flow.; ;

  3. Effect of larvae treated with mixed biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis-abamectin on sex pheromone communication system in cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis-abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of "orientation" than control males but lower percentages of "approaching" and "landing" in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11-16:Ald and Z9-16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H. armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  4. Variation in C:N:S Stoichiometry and Nutrient Storage Related to Body Size in a Holometabolous Insect (Curculio davidi) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larva

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao; Small, Gaston E.; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Donger; Li, Hongwang; Liu, Chunjiang

    2015-01-01

    Body size can be an important factor controlling consumer stoichiometry. In holometabolous insects, body size is typically associated with nutrient storage. Consumer stoichiometry is known to vary within species across a range of body sizes; however, the contribution of nutrient storage to this variation is not well understood. We used the fifth-instar larvae of the oak weevil (Coleoptera: Curculio davidi Fairmaire), which is characterized by a high capacity for nutrient storage, to investigate the effect of shifts in nutrient storage with body mass on variations in larva stoichiometry. Our results showed that weevil larvae with larger body mass had a lower carbon (C) content, reflecting decreases in the sequestration rate of C-rich lipids. Larger larvae had elevated concentrations of nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and protein. The similar patterns of variation in elemental composition and macromolecule storage with body weight indicate that the shift in nutrient storage is the main factor causing the variation in larval stoichiometry with body weight. This finding was further supported by the low variation in residual larval biomass C, N, and S concentrations after lipid extraction. These results help decipher the physiological mechanism of stoichiometric regulation in growing organisms. PMID:25843579

  5. Reprint of: Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2015-12-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. It overwinters as a diapausing fifth instar larva. The overwintering is often a critical part of the insect life-cycle in temperate zone. This study brings detailed analysis of seasonal changes in lipid composition and fluidity in overwintering larvae sampled in the field. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol (TG) depots in the fat body and relative proportions of phospholipid (PL) molecular species in biological membranes were analyzed. In addition, temperature of melting (Tm) in TG depots was assessed by using differential scanning calorimetry and the conformational order (fluidity) of PL membranes was analyzed by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene probe in membrane vesicles. We observed a significant increase of relative proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) at the expense of palmitic acid (C16:0) in TG depots during the larval transition to diapause accompanied with decreasing melting temperature of total lipids, which might increase the accessibility of depot fats for enzymatic breakdown during overwintering. The fluidity of membranes was maintained very high irrespective of developmental mode or seasonally changing acclimation status of larvae. The seasonal changes in PL composition were relatively small. We discuss these results in light of alternative survival strategies of codling moth larvae (supercooling vs. freezing), variability and low predictability of environmental conditions, and other cold tolerance mechanisms such as extending the supercooling capacity and massive accumulation of cryoprotective metabolites. PMID:26615723

  6. Evaluating the Effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae-Derived Haemolymph and Fat Body Extracts on Chronic Wounds in Diabetic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Góngora, Jennifher; Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A.; Gaona, María A.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue) was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies' larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species' fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds. PMID:25866825

  7. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy.

    PubMed

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  8. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  9. TIME management by medicinal larvae.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, David I; Čeřovský, Václav; Nigam, Yamni; Pickles, Samantha F; Cazander, Gwendolyn; Nibbering, Peter H; Bültemann, Anke; Jung, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is an integral part of the care programme for chronic wounds. The acronym TIME is used in the context of WBP and describes four barriers to healing in chronic wounds; namely, dead Tissue, Infection and inflammation, Moisture imbalance and a non-migrating Edge. Larval debridement therapy (LDT) stems from observations that larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata clean wounds of debris. Subsequent clinical studies have proven debriding efficacy, which is likely to occur as a result of enzymatically active alimentary products released by the insect. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of LDT have also been investigated, predominantly in a pre-clinical context. This review summarises the findings of investigations into the molecular mechanisms of LDT and places these in context with the clinical concept of WBP and TIME. It is clear from these findings that biotherapy with L. sericata conforms with TIME, through the enzymatic removal of dead tissue and its associated biofilm, coupled with the secretion of defined antimicrobial peptides. This biotherapeutic impact on the wound serves to reduce inflammation, with an associated capacity for an indirect effect on moisture imbalance. Furthermore, larval serine proteinases have the capacity to alter fibroblast behaviour in a manner conducive to the formation of granulation tissue. PMID:26179750

  10. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  11. What's eating you? Cutaneous larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Kyle A; Ferringer, Tammie C

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a focused update and clinical review on cutaneous larva migrans (CLM), including atypical clinical presentations and newer management recommendations. The results and recommendations are subject to modification based on future studies. PMID:25844779

  12. First evidence of fish larvae producing sounds

    PubMed Central

    Staaterman, Erica; Paris, Claire B.; Kough, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic ecology of marine fishes has traditionally focused on adults, while overlooking the early life-history stages. Here, we document the first acoustic recordings of pre-settlement stage grey snapper larvae (Lutjanus griseus). Through a combination of in situ and unprovoked laboratory recordings, we found that L. griseus larvae are acoustically active during the night, producing ‘knock’ and ‘growl’ sounds that are spectrally and temporally similar to those of adults. While the exact function and physiological mechanisms of sound production in fish larvae are unknown, we suggest that these sounds may enable snapper larvae to maintain group cohesion at night when visual cues are reduced. PMID:25274018

  13. Digestive enzymes activity in subsequent generations of Cameraria ohridella larvae harvested from horse chestnut trees after treatment with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Stygar, Dominika; Michalczyk, Katarzyna; Dolezych, Bogdan; Nakonieczny, Miroslaw; Migula, Pawel; Zaak, Maria; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Karcz-Socha, Iwona; Kukla, Michal; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Buldak, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we describe the effect of chloronicotinoid pesticide (imidacloprid) on the digestive enzymes activity of the Cameraria ohridella larvae after lasting 1 year sublethal exposure to imidacloprid pesticide. Caterpillars - L4 stage (fourth instar, hyperphagic tissue-feeding phase) - were collected from chemically protected white horse chestnut trees 1 year after imidacloprid treatment, and compared with caterpillars collected from non-treated trees in a previous study. Enzymes activity of α-amylase, disaccharidases, glycosidases and proteases was assayed. The presence of pesticide in ingested food changed the digestive enzymes profile of caterpillars. The analysis of correlations between different digestive enzymes showed many significant correlations (P<0.05) among glycolytic activities like β-glucosidase and α-galactosidase activities. Statistically significant correlations for proteolytic activity were found between trypsin and chymotrypsin activity and aminopeptidase activity that occurred only in the 1st generation. PCA distinguished five primary components with eigenvalues higher than 1, from which the first two explain almost 59% of analyzed results. Surprisingly, in the pesticide treated groups significantly higher activities of sucrase and lactase in relation to control were found. In general, glycosidase (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase) activities showed a similar pattern of activity in different generations. These results contrast with those obtained with control larvae, where significant differences in activities of α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase may result from the different quantity and quality food intake by subsequent generations of larvae. No inter-generation differences in total proteolytic activity were observed in treated larvae. The absolute value of total proteolytic activity was higher than that in the control group. The pesticide present in the vascular system of the horse chestnut

  14. Thermal stress induces HSP70 proteins synthesis in larvae of the cold stream non-biting midge Diamesa cinerella Meigen.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Valeria; Bernabò, Paola; Cesari, Michele; Rebecchi, Lorena; Cesari, Michele

    2013-05-01

    Laboratory experiments on the cold stenothermal midge Diamesa cinerella (Diptera, Chironomidae) were performed to study the relationship between increasing temperature and heat shock proteins (HSP70) expression at translational level (Western blotting). Thermotolerance of IV instar larvae collected in nature at 1.5-4.3°C during seasons was analyzed through short-term (1 h at ten different temperatures from 26°C to 35°C) and long-term (1-14 h at 26°C and 1-4 h at 32°C) heat shocks. A high thermotolerance was detected (LT50=30.9-32.8°C and LT100=34.0-37.8°C). However, survival decreased consistently with increasing exposure time, especially at higher temperature (LTime50=7.64 h at 26°C and LTime50=1.73 h at 32°C). The relationship between such heat resistance and HSP70 expression appeared evident because a relationship between HSP70 level and larval survival rate was generally found. A heat shock response (HSR) was consistent only in the summer larvae. The absence of HSR in the other populations coupled with even higher amounts of HSP70 than in summer, led us to hypothesize that other macromolecules and other adaptive mechanisms, apart from biochemical ones, are involved in the response of D. cinerella larvae to high temperature. Altogether these results stressed how in this midge the HSP70 protein family confers resistance against cold, being detected under natural conditions in control larvae collected in all seasons, but also against warm under experimental heat shocks. These results give new insights into possible responses to climate changes in freshwater insects within the context of global warming. PMID:23404797

  15. Coral Larvae Move toward Reef Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Marhaver, Kristen L.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency. PMID:20498831

  16. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Mark J A; Marhaver, Kristen L; Huijbers, Chantal M; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency. PMID:20498831

  17. Automated analysis of behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Creton, Robbert

    2009-10-12

    Zebrafish larvae have become a popular model system to examine genetic and environmental factors that affect behavior. However, studying complex behavior in large numbers of fish larvae can be challenging. The present study describes a novel high-resolution imaging system that is unique in its ability to automatically analyze the location and orientation of zebrafish larvae in multiwell plates. The system revealed behaviors in zebrafish larvae that would have been missed by more manual approaches, including a preference to face a threatening stimulus from a distance and a clockwise orientation in a two-fish assay. The clockwise orientation of the larvae correlates with a clockwise orientation of molecular structures during early development. Larvae with reversed embryonic asymmetries display a counter-clockwise orientation in the two-fish assay, suggesting that embryonic asymmetry and chiral behavior are regulated by the same developmental mechanisms. The developed imaging techniques may be used in large-scale screens to identify genes, pharmaceuticals, and environmental toxicants that influence complex behaviors. PMID:19409932

  18. Novel Isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis That Produces a Quasicuboidal Crystal of Cry1Ab21 Toxic to Larvae of Trichoplusia ni▿

    PubMed Central

    Swiecicka, Izabela; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Federici, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    A new isolate (IS5056) of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis that produces a novel variant of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ab21, was isolated from soil collected in northeastern Poland. Cry1Ab21 was composed of 1,155 amino acids and had a molecular mass of 130.5 kDa, and a single copy of the gene coding for this endotoxin was located on a ∼75-kbp plasmid. When synthesized by the wild-type strain, Cry1Ab21 produced a unique, irregular, bipyramidal crystal whose long and short axes were both approximately 1 μm long, which gave it a cuboidal appearance in wet mount preparations. In diet incorporation bioassays, the 50% lethal concentrations of the crystal-spore complex were 16.9 and 29.7 μg ml−1 for second- and fourth-instar larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, respectively, but the isolate was essentially nontoxic to larvae of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. A bioassay of autoclaved spore-crystal preparations showed no evidence of β-exotoxin activity, indicating that toxicity was due primarily to Cry1Ab21. Studies of the pathogenesis of isolate IS5056 in second-instar larvae of T. ni showed that after larval death the bacterium colonized and subsequently sporulated extensively throughout the cadaver, suggesting that other bacteria inhabiting the midgut lumen played little if any role in mortality. As T. ni is among the most destructive pests of vegetable crops in North America and has developed resistance to B. thuringiensis, this new isolate may have applied value. PMID:18083867

  19. [Influence of hypocaloric diet with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex on status of patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Sokol'nikov, A A; Kaganov, B S

    2011-01-01

    Addition of a vitamin-mineral complex (VMC) to a standard hypocaloric diet leads to a positive dynamics of antropometric characteristics in patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees which is comparable to effectiveness of standard dietotherapy (dietary treatment) traditionally used in complex treatment of obesity. Addition of 1,8 mg of vitamin B2 as part of VMC to a hypocaloric diet is shown to be inadequate in eradication of marginal provision of riboflavin when using diets reduced in calories. PMID:22232885

  20. Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and...