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Sample records for 2nd language l2

  1. Language and Society. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, William

    This introduction to sociolinguistics surveys the various ways that language can be studied as a social phenomenon, examining known relationships between language variation and large-scale social factors and showing how this variation runs along "fault lines in social structure," such as divisions between social classes, the sexes, and different…

  2. English L2 Reading: Getting to the Bottom. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Barbara M.

    2007-01-01

    This book remains a comprehensive, myth-debunking examination of how L1 features (orthographic system, phonology, morphology) can influence English L2 reading at the "bottom" of the reading process. It provides a thorough but very accessible linguistic/psycholinguistic examination of the lowest levels of the reading process. It is both theoretical…

  3. Reduced Frontal Activation with Increasing 2nd Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Lehmann, Christoph; Wiest, Roland; Strik, Werner; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The factors influencing the degree of separation or overlap in the neuronal networks responsible for the processing of first and second language are still subject to investigation. This longitudinal study investigates how increasing second language proficiency influences activation differences during lexico-semantic processing of first and second…

  4. Multicompetence in L2 Language Play: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy; Skalicky, Stephen; Salsbury, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Humor and language play have been recognized as important aspects of second language (L2) development. Qualitative studies that have documented the forms and functions of language play for adult and child L2 users have taken place largely in classroom settings. In order to gain a fuller understanding of such creative manipulations by L2 users, it…

  5. Does Measuring L2 Utterance Fluency Equal Measuring Overall L2 Proficiency? Evidence from Five Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between overall second language (L2) proficiency and utterance fluency measures for several L2s in order to determine whether utterance measures can be used to predict L2 proficiency. The study measured the speech rate, number of hesitations, number and length of pauses, number and length of runs, and…

  6. ZPD-Activated Languaging and Collaborative L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Eslami, Zohreh R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent second/foreign language (L2) research has witnessed the application of sociocultural tenets to L2 classrooms. This study aimed to probe whether Iranian L2 learners' engagement in ZPD-activated collaborative dialogue, or "languaging", mediates their learning process and, specifically, their appropriate use of metadiscourse to…

  7. Portraits of the L2 User. Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Vivian, Ed.

    This collection of papers treats second language users in their own right rather than as failed native speakers, reflecting a new shift within the field of second language acquisition research. The 13 papers are: (1) "Background to the L2 User" (Vivian Cook); (2) "Lexical Representation and Lexical Processing in the L2 User" (Anette de Groot); (3)…

  8. Study Abroad, Previous Language Experience, and Spanish L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques-Pascual, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates second language (L2) development of Spanish verbal morphology, subject omissions, and subject-verb (SV) inversions by learners in two different proficiency levels and learning contexts. Oral narratives from 40 L2 learners at the intermediate and advanced levels, both at home and in a study abroad (SA) program, were examined…

  9. L2 Interactional Competence and Development. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Joan Kelly; Hellermann, John; Doehler, Simona Pekarek

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on data from a range of contexts, including classrooms, pharmacy consultations, tutoring sessions, and video-game playing, and a range of languages including English, German, French, Danish and Icelandic, the studies in this volume address challenges suggested by these questions: What kinds of interactional resources do L2 users draw on to…

  10. Relationship of L1 Skills and L2 Aptitude to L2 Anxiety on the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) has been challenged on the grounds that it may also assess language learning skills. In this study, 128 students who had been administered measures of first language (L1) skills in elementary school were followed from 1st to 10th grade. Fifty-three students had completed second language (L2)…

  11. Language Interference and Language Learning Techniques Transfer in L2 and L3 Immersion Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronin, Larissa; Toubkin, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships between the first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) language in immersion programs for Russian-speaking students in Israel. Two parallel and similar immersion programs, which were carried out for the same population, but with different target languages (L2 Hebrew and L3 English), are described. Presents tentative…

  12. A Review of the Literature on Second Language Learning. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, John; Roy, Sylvie; Harmel, Sandra; Jesney, Karen; Dewey, Emily; Moisik, Scott; Lessard, Pascale

    2006-01-01

    A review of the literature on second language learning is an update of the 2004 review (ED491537) of the literature on four aspects of language learning, focusing on the benefits and challenges for language learners. This updated report provides an overview of the current literature relating to the effects of learning a second language on the…

  13. The Diglossic Foreign-Language Classroom: Learners' Views on L1 and L2 Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    This study examined the views of college learners of German regarding desired degrees of first language (L1) versus second language (L2) use, how desired language use related to observed language use for students and teachers, gaps between desired and observed language, tasks for which students expressed strong preference for L1 and for L2, how…

  14. Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) learners: behavioural predictors and neural substrates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaochen; Ackermann, Hermann; Martin, Jason A; Erb, Michael; Winkler, Susanne; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-12-01

    Individual differences in second language (L2) aptitude have been assumed to depend upon a variety of cognitive and personality factors. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. However, strong associations between phonological working memory and L2 aptitude have been previously found in early-stage learners only, not in advanced learners. The current study aimed at investigating the behavioural and neurobiological predictors of advanced L2 learning. Our behavioural results showed that phonetic coding ability and empathy, but not phonological working memory, predict L2 pronunciation aptitude in advanced learners. Second, functional neuroimaging revealed this behavioural trait to be correlated with hemodynamic responses of the cerebral network of speech motor control and auditory-perceptual areas. We suggest that the acquisition of L2 pronunciation aptitude is a dynamic process, requiring a variety of neural resources at different processing stages over time. PMID:23273501

  15. Seeking out Challenges to Develop L2 Self-Confidence: A Language Learner's Journey to Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwads, Emily; Roger, Peter Stewart

    2015-01-01

    As one constituent of second language (L2) motivation, L2 "self-­confidence" has been shown to be a significant predictor of language proficiency. More recently, L2 self-­confidence has been studied as part of the "willingness to communicate" (WTC) construct. Less is known, however, about the processes by which learners develop…

  16. Catalan: The Catalan Language in Education in Spain, 2nd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areny, Maria, Comp.; Mayans, Pere, Comp.; Forniès, David, Comp.

    2013-01-01

    Regional dossiers aim at providing a concise description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  17. Swedish: The Swedish Language in Education in Finland, 2nd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Østern, Anna-Lena, Comp.; Harju-Luukkainen, Heidi, Comp.

    2013-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  18. Asturian: The Asturian Language in Education in Spain, 2nd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Riaño, Xosé Antón, Comp.; Fernández-Costales, Alberto, Comp.

    2014-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  19. Welsh: The Welsh Language in Education in the UK, 2nd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Meirion Prys, Comp.; Jones, Ceinwen, Comp.

    2014-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  20. German: The German Language in Education in Alsace, France. 2nd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Schaaf, Alie, Comp.; Morgen, Daniel, Comp.

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of the European Union-- Alsace, a part of France along the German border. Details about the features of the educational system, recent educational policies, divisions of responsibilities,…

  1. Speaking in Many Tongues: Essays in Foreign-Language Teaching. Expanded 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Wilga M.

    This volume includes the following seventeen essays on foreign language teaching: (1) "Rules, Patterns, and Creativity"; (2) "Talking Off the Tops of Their Heads"; (3) "From Linguistic Competence to Communicative Competence"; (4) "Testing and Student Learning"; (5) "Contrastive Linguistics in Textbook and Classroom"; (6) "From Skill Acquisition to…

  2. Listening in a Multilingual World: The Challenges of Second Language (L2) Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Research into language acquisition and oral language use was examined in order to identify key factors that contribute to the successful acquisition of second language (L2) listening ability. The factors were grouped into three major domains: affective, cognitive, and interpersonal. It is claimed that in each domain, proficient L2 listeners have…

  3. Learning Second Language Suprasegmentals: Effect of L2 Experience on Prosody and Fluency Characteristics of L2 Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Baker, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    This study examines effects of short, medium, and extended second language (L2) experience (3 months, 3 years, and 10 years of United States residence, respectively) on the production of five suprasegmentals (stress timing, peak alignment, speech rate, pause frequency, and pause duration) in six English declarative sentences by 30 adult Korean…

  4. First-Language Longitudinal Predictors of Second-Language Literacy in Young L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Kathy Kar-man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Siegel, Linda S.; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2016-01-01

    Can young students' early reading abilities in their first language (L1) predict later literacy development in a second language (L2)? The cross-language relationships between Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among 87 Hong Kong students were explored in a longitudinal study. Chinese word-reading fluency, Chinese rapid digit naming, and Chinese rhyme…

  5. Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

  6. From Seeing Adverbs to Seeing Verbal Morphology: Language Experience and Adult Acquisition of L2 Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.

    2013-01-01

    Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…

  7. Societal Responses to Adult Difficulties in L2 Acquisition: Toward an Evolutionary Perspective on Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that second language (L2) acquisition becomes more difficult as one grows older and that success in adult L2 acquisition is highly variable. Nevertheless, humans in language contact situations have to cope with intergroup communication. This article examines the ways society has responded to this challenge. It describes…

  8. The Roles of First Language and Proficiency in L2 Processing of Spanish Clitics: Global Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert Hanson, Aroline E.; Carlson, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the roles of first language (L1) and second language (L2) proficiency in the processing of preverbal clitics in L2 Spanish by considering the predictions of four processing theories--the Input Processing Theory, the Unified Competition Model, the Amalgamation Model, and the Associative-Cognitive CREED. We compared the performance of L1…

  9. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning. PMID:25594261

  10. Language Awareness and Its Multiple Possibilities for the L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Daphnee; Wong, Wynne

    2004-01-01

    A movement called Language Awareness has received some attention in L2 acquisition and foreign language pedagogy circles during the past decade. Language Awareness, according to Donmall (1985), refers to "a person's sensitivity to and conscious awareness of the nature of language and its role in human life" (p. 7). The primary goal of this…

  11. Language Experience in L2 Phonological Learning: Effects of Psycholinguistic and Sociolinguistic Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss language experience in second language (L2) phonological learning, with a particular focus on lexical frequency, attention to form, and ethnic identity as factors that influence the role of language experience. First, several difficulties associated with the study of language experience are discussed. Then,…

  12. Recasts, Language Anxiety, Modified Output, and L2 Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheen, Younghee

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigated (a) whether classroom language anxiety affects learners' ability to improve accuracy in their use of English articles when provided with corrective feedback in the form of recasts and (b) whether language anxiety influences the extent to which learners modify output following recasts. Four groups…

  13. Language Play, a Collaborative Resource in Children's L2 learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekaite, Asta; Aronsson, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Within '"communicative language teaching," "natural" language has had a privileged position, and a focus on form has been seen as something inauthentic or as something that is inconsequential for learning (for a critique, see Kramsch and Sullivan 1996; Cook 1997). Yet in the present study of an immersion classroom, it was found that children with…

  14. Empowering L2 Tutoring: A Case Study of a Second Language Writer's Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severino, Carol; Deifell, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Writing center tutors play a key role in advancing L2 writers' language learning because the tutorial interaction involves the introduction of new language and vocabulary at the point of need or interest. This tutor-research case study presents a detailed, complex portrait of how a second language writer in a US writing center learned and used…

  15. Language-Related Computer Use: Focus on Young L2 English Learners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Pia; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N = 76, aged 10-11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners' L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and…

  16. Exploring the Role of Modality: L2-Heritage Learner Interactions in the Spanish Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    In most post-secondary Spanish language programs in the U.S., heritage language (HL) learners and second-language (L2) learners are enrolled together, in the same courses (Ingold, Rivers, Tesser, & Ashby, 2002). Nevertheless, there is scant empirical research on what actually goes on in these classrooms and what the nature of learner-learner…

  17. Language Deficits in Poor L2 Comprehenders: The Simple View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading (SVR) model proposes that reading comprehension is the product of word decoding and language comprehension, and that both components make independent contributions to reading skill (Gough & Tunmer, 1986). The model posits that there are good readers and three types of poor readers--dyslexic, hyperlexic, and garden…

  18. Mediation Strategies in L2 Writing Processes: A Case Study of Two Korean Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yon-Soo; Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent rise of sociocultural theory in second-language acquisition, attempts have been made to understand L2 learners' uses of different resources in writing, based on their cultural, historical, and institutional contexts. In line with L2 writing research within the sociocultural paradigm, this study investigates the writing strategies…

  19. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised.

    PubMed

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  20. Morphosyntactic Processing in Advanced Second Language (L2) Learners: An Event-Related Potential Investigation of the Effects of L1-l2 Similarity and Structural Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemán Bañón, José; Fiorentino, Robert; Gabriele, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Different theoretical accounts of second language (L2) acquisition differ with respect to whether or not advanced learners are predicted to show native-like processing for features not instantiated in the native language (L1). We examined how native speakers of English, a language with number but not gender agreement, process number and gender…

  1. Word Class Distinctions in Second Language Acquisition: An Experimental Study of L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyzik, Eve; Azevedo, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Although the problem of word class has been explored in numerous first language studies, relatively little is known about this process in SLA. The present study measures second language (L2) learners' knowledge of word class distinctions (e.g., noun vs. adjective) in a variety of syntactic contexts. English-speaking learners of Spanish from…

  2. Beginners' Progress in Decoding L2 French: Some Longitudinal Evidence from English Modern Foreign Languages Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woore, Robert

    2009-01-01

    "Decoding"--converting the written symbols (or graphemes) of an alphabetical writing system into the sounds (or phonemes) they represent, using knowledge of the language's symbol/sound correspondences--has been argued to be an important but neglected skill in the teaching of second language (L2) French in English secondary schools. Previous…

  3. Understanding L2 French Teaching Strategies in a Non-Target Language Classroom Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Peijian; Yuan, Rui; Teng, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This research explored the congruence and disparity between teachers' and students' attitudes towards French as a second language (L2) teaching strategies in a non-target language classroom context in the USA. The findings suggest students' and teachers' attitudes towards the direct and indirect teaching strategies were generally consistent, but…

  4. Interpreting Definiteness in a Second Language without Articles: The Case of L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jacee; Slabakova, Roumyana

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of two expressions of the semantic feature [definite] in Russian, a language without articles, by English and Korean native speakers. Within the Feature Reassembly approach (Lardiere, 2009), Slabakova (2009) has argued that reassembling features that are represented overtly in the…

  5. Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

    2014-05-01

    Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation. PMID:24446754

  6. Can Bilinguals See It Coming? Word Anticipation in L2 Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucart, Alice; Martin, Clara D.; Moreno, Eva M.; Costa, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Why is it more difficult to comprehend a 2nd (L2) than a 1st language (L1)? In the present article we investigate whether difficulties during L2 sentence comprehension come from differences in the way L1 and L2 speakers anticipate upcoming words. We recorded the brain activity (event-related potentials) of Spanish monolinguals, French-Spanish late…

  7. How L2 Words Are Stored: The Episodic L2 Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witzel, Naoko Ouchi; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports findings from 3 experiments examining whether 2nd language (L2) words are represented in episodic memory, as originally proposed by Jiang and Forster (2001). Experiment 1 was a direct replication of Jiang and Forster, testing highly proficient Chinese-English bilinguals. Masked translation priming was obtained in an episodic…

  8. The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Christopher; Sprenger, Simone A; Schmid, Monika S

    2015-10-01

    Fluent speech depends on the availability of well-established linguistic knowledge and routines for speech planning and articulation. A lack of speech fluency in late second-language (L2) learners may point to a deficiency of these representations, due to incomplete acquisition. Experiments on bilingual language processing have shown, however, that there are strong reasons to believe that multilingual speakers experience co-activation of the languages they speak. We have studied to what degree language co-activation affects fluency in the speech of bilinguals, comparing a monolingual German control group with two bilingual groups: 1) first-language (L1) attriters, who have fully acquired German before emigrating to an L2 English environment, and 2) immersed L2 learners of German (L1: English). We have analysed the temporal fluency and the incidence of disfluency markers (pauses, repetitions and self-corrections) in spontaneous film retellings. Our findings show that learners to speak more slowly than controls and attriters. Also, on each count, the speech of at least one of the bilingual groups contains more disfluency markers than the retellings of the control group. Generally speaking, both bilingual groups-learners and attriters-are equally (dis)fluent and significantly more disfluent than the monolingual speakers. Given that the L1 attriters are unaffected by incomplete acquisition, we interpret these findings as evidence for language competition during speech production. PMID:26298087

  9. An Analytical Framework of Language Integration in L2 Content-Based Courses: The European Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks into the Content and Language-Integrated Learning (CLIL) approach as one gaining new ground for L2 teaching in compulsory education. It briefly discusses its operationalisation in a seemingly monolingual region--Andalusia, southern Spain--where content-based instruction, drawing on European recommendations, has been adopted in…

  10. Second Language Teachers' Identity Development through Online Collaboration with L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitade, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    The sociocultural perspective of second language teacher education (L2TE) (e.g., Johnson, 2009), unlike the traditional one, values the importance of teacher development through actual teaching practice. Student teachers' (STs) initial beliefs should be challenged and reconstructed by taking into account particular teaching contexts. This…

  11. Language Learner Autonomy and the European Language Portfolio: Two L2 English Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that the Council of Europe's European Language Portfolio is capable of supporting the implementation of language learner autonomy on a large scale. It begins by explaining what the author understands by "language learner autonomy", then introduces the European Language Portfolio and explains how it can stimulate reflective…

  12. Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological and Orthographic Processing Skills from Spanish L1 to English L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun-Alperin, M. Kendra; Wang, Min

    2011-01-01

    Previous cross-language research has focused on L1 phonological processing and its relation to L2 reading. Less extensive is the research on the effect that L1 orthographic processing skill has on L2 reading and spelling. This study was designed to investigate how reading and spelling acquisition in English (L2) is influenced by phonological and…

  13. The Effect of Speed Reading Strategies on Developing Reading Comprehension among the 2nd Secondary Students in English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelrahman, Mahmoud Sulaiman Hamad Bani; Bsharah, Muwafaq Saleem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to find the effect of speed reading strategies on developing reading comprehension among second secondary literary stream students in English language. The sample of the study consists of (42) students assigned into two groups who were chosen randomly from schools, a controlled group (21) students, and an experimental (21)…

  14. Perceptions of Non-Native EFL Teachers' on L1 Use in L2 Classrooms: Implications for Language Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debreli, Emre

    2016-01-01

    The study of L1 (first language) use in L2 (second language) classrooms has long received attention in the literature. Despite the considerable amount of research that has been conducted on the phenomenon, the focus has often been on the advantages and disadvantages. Considerably, less research has been conducted regarding the non-native L2

  15. Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

  16. How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Say Young; Qi, Ting; Feng, Xiaoxia; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Cao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that language distance between first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the assimilation and accommodation pattern in Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals. The distance between English and Korean is smaller than that between Chinese and Korean in terms of orthographic transparency, because both English and Korean are alphabetic, whereas Chinese is logographic. During fMRI, Korean trilingual participants performed a visual rhyming judgment task in three languages (Korean: KK, Chinese: KC, English: KE). Two L1 control groups were native Chinese and English speakers performing the task in their native languages (CC and EE, respectively). The general pattern of brain activation of KC was more similar to that of CC than KK, suggesting accommodation. Higher accuracy in KC was associated with decreased activation in regions of the KK network, suggesting reduced assimilation. In contrast, the brain activation of KE was more similar to that of KK than EE, suggesting assimilation. Higher accuracy in KE was associated with decreased activation in regions of the EE network, suggesting reduced accommodation. Finally, an ROI analysis on the left middle frontal gyrus revealed greater activation for KC than for KE, suggesting its selective involvement in the L2 with more arbitrary mapping between orthography and phonology (i.e., Chinese). Taken together, the brain network involved in L2 reading is similar to the L1 network when L2 and L1 are similar in orthographic transparency, while significant accommodation is expected when L2 is more opaque than L1. PMID:26673115

  17. Second Language Acquisition across Modalities: Production Variability in Adult L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilger, Allison I.; Loucks, Torrey M. J.; Quinto-Pozos, David; Dye, Matthew W. G.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine production variability in American Sign Language (ASL) in order to gain insight into the development of motor control in a language produced in another modality. Production variability was characterized through the spatiotemporal index (STI), which represents production stability in whole utterances and is a…

  18. Motivation and Vision: An Analysis of Future L2 Self Images, Sensory Styles, and Imagery Capacity across Two Target Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dörnyei, Zoltán; Chan, Letty

    2013-01-01

    Recent theorizing on second language (L2) motivation has proposed viewing motivation as a function of the language learners' vision of their desired future language selves. This would suggest that the intensity of motivation is partly dependent on the learners' capability to generate mental imagery. In order to test this hypothesis, this…

  19. An Exploration of Language Anxiety in L2 Academic Context for Chinese International Students in U.S. Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This mix-methods study examined the language anxiety levels that the Chinese international students perceived in second language (L2) academic context at four universities in the northeastern region of the United States of America; it explored the impact of language anxiety that these students perceived on their academic learning; it also…

  20. Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaro, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    Italian has for many years been considered somewhat of a specialist language when studied as a second language (L2) and this is perhaps due to historical and cultural factors. Its footprint worldwide compared to such languages as English, Spanish and French is therefore somewhat limited. Surprisingly, however, there is a considerable body of…

  1. Lexical Access in Bilingual Speech Production: Evidence from Language Switching in Highly Proficient Bilinguals and L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Santesteban, Mikel

    2004-01-01

    Five experiments are reported in which the picture naming performance of bilingual speakers in a language-switching task was explored. In Experiment 1, Spanish learners of Catalan and Korean learners of Spanish were asked to perform a switching task between their first and dominant language (L1, Spanish or Korean) and their second language (L2,…

  2. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  3. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing. PMID:24681402

  4. Endangered Languages: What Role for the Specialist? Proceedings of the Foundation for Endangered Languages (FEL) Conference (2nd, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 25-27, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Nicholas, Ed.

    The papers included here examine issues related to the role outside specialists, such as linguists, educators, or media professionals, can play in the preservation of endangered languages. Language communities must continue to use their mother tongues if the languages are to survive, and this has led to questions about whether outside…

  5. Building Language Blocks in L2 Japanese: Chunk Learning and the Development of Complexity and Fluency in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study examined the development of complexity and fluency of second language (L2) spoken production among L2 learners who received extensive practice on grammatical chunks as constituent units of discourse. Twenty-two students enrolled in an elementary Japanese course at a U.S. university received classroom instruction on 40 grammatical…

  6. Inhibitory control and l2 proficiency modulate bilingual language production: evidence from spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech.

    PubMed

    Pivneva, Irina; Palmer, Caroline; Titone, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual language production requires that speakers recruit inhibitory control (IC) to optimally balance the activation of more than one linguistic system when they produce speech. Moreover, the amount of IC necessary to maintain an optimal balance is likely to vary across individuals as a function of second language (L2) proficiency and inhibitory capacity, as well as the demands of a particular communicative situation. Here, we investigate how these factors relate to bilingual language production across monologue and dialogue spontaneous speech. In these tasks, 42 English-French and French-English bilinguals produced spontaneous speech in their first language (L1) and their L2, with and without a conversational partner. Participants also completed a separate battery that assessed L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. The results showed that L2 vs. L1 production was generally more effortful, as was dialogue vs. monologue speech production although the clarity of what was produced was higher for dialogues vs. monologues. As well, language production effort significantly varied as a function of individual differences in L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings suggests that both increased L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity relate to efficient language production during spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech. PMID:22438846

  7. Inhibitory Control and L2 Proficiency Modulate Bilingual Language Production: Evidence from Spontaneous Monologue and Dialogue Speech

    PubMed Central

    Pivneva, Irina; Palmer, Caroline; Titone, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual language production requires that speakers recruit inhibitory control (IC) to optimally balance the activation of more than one linguistic system when they produce speech. Moreover, the amount of IC necessary to maintain an optimal balance is likely to vary across individuals as a function of second language (L2) proficiency and inhibitory capacity, as well as the demands of a particular communicative situation. Here, we investigate how these factors relate to bilingual language production across monologue and dialogue spontaneous speech. In these tasks, 42 English–French and French–English bilinguals produced spontaneous speech in their first language (L1) and their L2, with and without a conversational partner. Participants also completed a separate battery that assessed L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. The results showed that L2 vs. L1 production was generally more effortful, as was dialogue vs. monologue speech production although the clarity of what was produced was higher for dialogues vs. monologues. As well, language production effort significantly varied as a function of individual differences in L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings suggests that both increased L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity relate to efficient language production during spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech. PMID:22438846

  8. Age of Onset, Length of Residence, Language Aptitude, and Ultimate L2 Attainment in Three Linguistic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granena, Gisela; Long, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the scope and timing of maturational constraints in three linguistic domains within the same individuals, as well as the potential mediating roles of amount of second language (L2) exposure and language aptitude at different ages in different domains. Participants were 65 Chinese learners of Spanish and 12 native…

  9. Does Gender Moderate Dimensional Comparison Effects in L1 and L2 Self-Concepts of Secondary Foreign Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: With regard to the internal/external frame of reference model of academic self-concept development the present study aimed at testing its theoretical assumptions within the verbal domain--namely to analyze the relations between achievement and self-concept in the native language German (L1) and the foreign language English (L2). Due…

  10. Concreteness and Language Effects in the Quality of Written Definitions in L1, L2 and L3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Euch, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Several researchers have suggested that definitional skill explains academic success/failure (Gagne, 2004; Snow, 1987). The words used to investigate definitional skill have all been concrete words given in the first language (L1) and/or the second language (L2) of the participants. This paper reports a study investigating the quality of the…

  11. Exploring Language Learning Strategy Transfer between Greek L2 and English FL in Case of Early Adolescent Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitits, Lydia; Gavriilidou, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    This study compares language learning strategy (LLS) use between Greek L2 and English FL and a possible variation in the frequency and type of LLSs employed in the two languages in order to depict the strategic profiles of the multilingual learners aged 12-15 (n = 307). It also observes the effect of gender in relation to a second vs. foreign…

  12. Longitudinal Prediction of 1st and 2nd Grade English Oral Reading Fluency in English Language Learners: Which Early Reading and Language Skills Are Better Predictors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solari, Emily J.; Aceves, Terese C.; Higareda, Ignacio; Richards-Tutor, Cara; Filippini, Alexis L.; Gerber, Michael M.; Leafstedt, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between Spanish and English early literacy skills in kindergarten and first grade, and English oral reading fluency at the end of first and second grade in a sample of 150 Spanish-speaking English language learners. Students were assessed in kindergarten, first, and second grades on a broad bilingual academic…

  13. New Approaches in the Language Classroom: Coping with Change. Proceedings of the National Modern Languages Convention (2nd, Dublin, Ireland, January 31-February 1, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Ed.; And Others

    These conference proceedings include: (1) opening speeches; (2) "Must Language Teaching Be Communicative?" (Christopher Brumfit); (3) "Recipes for Tired Teachers" (Mario Rinvolucri); (4) "Facing the Challenge of New Technologies: Interactive Video and the AUTOTUTOR Project" (David Little, Eugene Davis); (5) a panel discussion of questions…

  14. Modality-specific processing precedes amodal linguistic processing during L2 sign language acquisition: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    The present study tracked activation pattern differences in response to sign language processing by late hearing second language learners of American Sign Language. Learners were scanned before the start of their language courses. They were scanned again after their first semester of instruction and their second, for a total of 10 months of instruction. The study aimed to characterize modality-specific to modality-general processing throughout the acquisition of sign language. Results indicated that before the acquisition of sign language, neural substrates related to modality-specific processing were present. After approximately 45 h of instruction, the learners transitioned into processing signs on a phonological basis (e.g., supramarginal gyrus, putamen). After one more semester of input, learners transitioned once more to a lexico-semantic processing stage (e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus) at which language control mechanisms (e.g., left caudate, cingulate gyrus) were activated. During these transitional steps right hemispheric recruitment was observed, with increasing left-lateralization, which is similar to other native signers and L2 learners of spoken language; however, specialization for sign language processing with activation in the inferior parietal lobule (i.e., angular gyrus), even for late learners, was observed. As such, the present study is the first to track L2 acquisition of sign language learners in order to characterize modality-independent and modality-specific mechanisms for bilingual language processing. PMID:26720258

  15. Comparing Factors Related to Reading Comprehension in Adolescents Who Speak English as a First (L1) or Second (L2) Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Gottardo, Alexandra; Grant, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors related to reading comprehension in adolescents who spoke English as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Measures of decoding, vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension were administered to 31 L1 and 44 L2 speakers. English L2 adolescents scored significantly lower than their L1 peers on…

  16. Inter-language interference in VOT production by L2-dominant bilinguals: Asymmetries in phonetic code-switching

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.; Kroos, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Speech production research has demonstrated that the first language (L1) often interferes with production in bilinguals’ second language (L2), but it has been suggested that bilinguals who are L2-dominant are the most likely to suppress this L1-interference. While prolonged contextual changes in bilinguals’ language use (e.g., stays overseas) are known to result in L1 and L2 phonetic shifts, code-switching provides the unique opportunity of observing the immediate phonetic effects of L1-L2 interaction. We measured the voice onset times (VOTs) of Greek–English bilinguals’ productions of /b, d, p, t/ in initial and medial contexts, first in either a Greek or English unilingual mode, and in a later session when they produced the same target pseudowords as a code-switch from the opposing language. Compared to a unilingual mode, all English stops produced as code-switches from Greek, regardless of context, had more Greek-like VOTs. In contrast, Greek stops showed no shift toward English VOTs, with the exception of medial voiced stops. Under the specifically interlanguage condition of code-switching we have demonstrated a pervasive influence of the L1 even in L2-dominant individuals. PMID:22787285

  17. Perception of speech rhythm in second language: the case of rhythmically similar L1 and L2.

    PubMed

    Ordin, Mikhail; Polyanskaya, Leona

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the perception of developmental changes in timing patterns that happen in the course of second language (L2) acquisition, provided that the native and the target languages of the learner are rhythmically similar (German and English). It was found that speech rhythm in L2 English produced by German learners becomes increasingly stress-timed as acquisition progresses. This development is captured by the tempo-normalized rhythm measures of durational variability. Advanced learners also deliver speech at a faster rate. However, when native speakers have to classify the timing patterns characteristic of L2 English of German learners at different proficiency levels, they attend to speech rate cues and ignore the differences in speech rhythm. PMID:25859228

  18. Perception of speech rhythm in second language: the case of rhythmically similar L1 and L2

    PubMed Central

    Ordin, Mikhail; Polyanskaya, Leona

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the perception of developmental changes in timing patterns that happen in the course of second language (L2) acquisition, provided that the native and the target languages of the learner are rhythmically similar (German and English). It was found that speech rhythm in L2 English produced by German learners becomes increasingly stress-timed as acquisition progresses. This development is captured by the tempo-normalized rhythm measures of durational variability. Advanced learners also deliver speech at a faster rate. However, when native speakers have to classify the timing patterns characteristic of L2 English of German learners at different proficiency levels, they attend to speech rate cues and ignore the differences in speech rhythm. PMID:25859228

  19. Learning through L2--Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and English as Medium of Instruction (EMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wannagat, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has been promoted by the European Union as a means to achieve multilingualism. While in Germany and other European countries the trend to use the L2 as a medium of instruction is increasing, in Hong Kong, however, we see a converse development. Many schools switched from English as a medium of…

  20. Metanotes (Written Languaging) in a Translation Task: Do L2 Proficiency and Task Outcome Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Languaging has been identified as a contributor to language learning. Yet, compared to oral languaging, such as collaborative dialogs in contextualized settings, little seems to be known about written languaging. In order to fill this gap, this study investigates languaging in the form of "metanotes," that is, metatalk in a written…

  1. ICL at the Micro Level: L2 Speakers Taking on the Role of Language Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynninen, Niina

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the construction of language expertise in international, university-level English-medium courses where English is used as a lingua franca. Even if the courses are not language courses, language sometimes becomes the topic of discussion in the form of language correcting and commentary. This paper looks into these instances,…

  2. Reading and Learning from L2 Text: Effects of Reading Goal, Topic Familiarity, and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horiba, Yukie; Fukaya, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of reading goal, topic-familiarity, and language proficiency on text comprehension and learning. English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students with high and low topic-familiarity read and recalled a text. Some were told in advance to expect a recall task in a particular language--the first language (L1) or second…

  3. Minority Language Abandonment in Welsh-Medium Educated L2 Male Adolescents: Classroom, Not Chatroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Abigail Ruth; Tamburelli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The education system has played a crucial role in Welsh language maintenance, with Welsh-medium education providing a central locus of language transmission. However, language transmission through education is not without pitfalls. This paper discusses the impact of top-down minority language transmission and the growing issue of formal domain…

  4. The Apocalypse of L2 Normative Ideology: Current Sociolinguistic Research in Relation to Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveday, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how current applied and sociolinguistic research and theory, which reveals the naturalness of language variation and productive aspects of error-making, seriously challenges traditional second language learning practices and postulates. (EKN)

  5. An Observation Tool for Effective L2 Pedagogy in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Rick; Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Anikina, Yulia; Westhoff, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is becoming a popular and widespread practice of immersion education. In the Netherlands, for example, over 90 secondary schools offer a CLIL strand. Most CLIL teachers, however, are nonnative speakers of the target language, and do not have a professional background in language pedagogy.…

  6. Two ways to listen: Do L2-dominant bilinguals perceive stop voicing according to language mode?

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Mark; Tyler, Michael D.; Best, Catherine T.

    2012-01-01

    How listeners categorize two phones predicts the success with which they will discriminate the given phonetic distinction. In the case of bilinguals, such perceptual patterns could reveal whether the listener’s two phonological systems are integrated or separate. This is of particular interest when a given contrast is realized differently in each language, as is the case with Greek and English stop-voicing distinctions. We had Greek–English early sequential bilinguals and Greek and English monolinguals (baselines) categorize, rate, and discriminate stop-voicing contrasts in each language. All communication with each group of bilinguals occurred solely in one language mode, Greek or English. The monolingual groups showed the expected native-language constraints, each perceiving their native contrast more accurately than the opposing nonnative contrast. Bilinguals’ category-goodness ratings for the same physical stimuli differed, consistent with their language mode, yet their discrimination performance was unaffected by language mode and biased toward their dominant language (English). We conclude that bilinguals integrate both languages in a common phonetic space that is swayed by their long-term dominant language environment for discrimination, but that they selectively attend to language-specific phonetic information for phonologically motivated judgments (category-goodness ratings). PMID:22844163

  7. The Relations between Word Reading, Oral Language, and Reading Comprehension in Children Who Speak English as a First (L1) and Second Language (L2): A Multigroup Structural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babayigit, Selma

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the reading and oral language skills of children who speak English as a first (L1) and second language (L2), and examined whether the strength of the relationship between word reading, oral language, and reading comprehension was invariant (equivalent) across the two groups. The participants included 183 L1 and L2 children…

  8. Metalinguistic Knowledge and Language Ability in University-Level L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehr, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Existing research indicates that instructed learners' L2 proficiency and their metalinguistic knowledge are moderately correlated. However, the operationalization of the construct of metalinguistic knowledge has varied somewhat across studies. Metalinguistic knowledge has typically been operationalized as learners' ability to correct, describe,…

  9. Second Language Cyber Rhetoric: A Study of Chinese L2 Writers in an Online Usenet Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Joel

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued that the expectations of traditional L2 writing classroom can be problematic for Chinese students, particularly in the area of argumentation and critical thinking. On the other hand, writing on the Internet has been shown to be substantially different in ways that may liberate the students from the constraints of the classroom.…

  10. Linguistic Participation as a Manifestation of Second Language Learning in the Primary L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohashi, Yumi

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to apply the informal learning theory of guided participation to the formal primary L2 classroom. Utilising the concept of guided participation, in which the process of learning is defined as a collaborative interaction between expert and novice leading to a transformation of participation in community activity, the author…

  11. Pragmatic Awareness in a Second Language Setting: The Case of L2 Learners of Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bella, Spyridoula

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the pragmatic awareness of instructed L2 learners of Greek (economic migrants) by examining the extent to which these learners display differences in their recognition and rating of pragmatic and grammatical violations. Methodologically, the study is largely based on the Bardovi-Harlig & Dornyei (1998) study on pragmatic…

  12. Contribution of the Cybernautical Approach to the Teaching and Learning of Second Languages (L2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkabas, Charles; Wooldridge, Russon; Trott, David

    1999-01-01

    Offers a series of reflections on the theoretical bases of language teaching viewed from the perspective of the New Technologies (NT), and proposes a reconfiguration of the pedagogical triangle. In light of the tremendous impact of NT, different ways of treating the four language skills in traditional and virtual environments are considered.…

  13. Contextual learning of L2 word meanings: Second language proficiency modulates behavioural and ERP indicators of learning*

    PubMed Central

    Elgort, Irina; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Ben; Stafura, Joseph Z.

    2014-01-01

    New word learning occurs incidentally through exposure to language. Hypothesizing that effectiveness of contextual word learning in a second language (L2) depends on the quality of existing lexical semantic knowledge, we tested more and less proficient adult bilinguals in an incidental word learning task. One day after being exposed to rare words in an L2 (English) reading task, the bilinguals read sentences with the newly-learned words in the sentence-final position, followed by related or unrelated meaning probes. Both proficiency groups showed some learning through faster responses on related trials and a frontal N400 effect observed during probe word reading. However, word learning was more robust for the higher-proficiency group, who showed a larger semantic relatedness effect in unfamiliar contexts and a canonical N400 (central-parietal). The results suggest that the ability to learn the meanings of new words from context depends on the L2 lexical semantic knowledge of the reader. PMID:25984550

  14. THE ROLE OF NATIVE LANGUAGE PHONOLOGY IN THE PRODUCTION OF L2 CONTRASTS

    PubMed Central

    Eckman, Fred; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2016-01-01

    We present findings of an investigation into the acquisition of the English /s/–/ʃ/ contrast by native speakers of Korean and Japanese. Both of these languages have the phones [s] and [ʃ], and both languages exhibit a pattern—or motivate a rule—whereby /s/ is realized as [ʃ] before the vowel [i] and the glide [j]—that is, high front vocoids. The crucial difference, and the focus of this study, is that in Korean [s] and [ʃ] are allophones of /s/, whereas in Japanese the two sounds arguably instantiate different phonemes. We present production data showing that the differences in the functioning of [s] and [ʃ] in the second language learner’s native language have different consequences for the acquisition patterns and the error types produced in the learning of this contrast.

  15. Proceedings of the National Conference on Individualized Instruction in Foreign Languages (2nd, Ohio State University, October 24-25, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Gerard L., Ed.

    Papers in this volume on individualized instruction in foreign languages include: (1) "Individualized Instruction and 'Back to Basics': Are They Compatible?" by Howard B. Altman; (2) "Individualized Instruction in French at Northwestern University" by Margaret Sinclair Breslin; (3) "An Individualized French Program for Secondary Schools" by…

  16. Age and Its Effect on Language Arts Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of California Standards Tests (CST) for 2nd through 6th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBerry, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Entrance age in kindergarten has been a controversial issue as the range from the youngest to the oldest student spans up to 24 months. This range leaves a heterogeneous gap for teachers who are already differentiating for their English Language Learners, struggling students, and high achieving students. This is compounded by the fact that the…

  17. Language Aptitude and Long-Term Achievement in Early Childhood L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granena, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    Language aptitude comprises cognitive and perceptual abilities that predispose individuals to learn well or rapidly (Carroll 1981; Doughty et al. 2007) and that can interplay with age by moderating its effects on learning outcomes. Although there is agreement regarding the importance of aptitude, findings have been mixed regarding its role in…

  18. Reconceptualising "Identity Slippage": Additional Language Learning and (L2) Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William

    2009-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the theoretical concept of "identity slippage" by considering a detailed exegesis of three model conversations taught to learners of Japanese as an additional language. To inform my analysis of these conversations and how they contribute to identity slippage, I have used the work of the systemic-functional linguist Jay Lemke…

  19. The Effects of Multimedia Task-Based Language Teaching on EFL Learners' Oral L2 Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Gheitanchian, Mehrnaz; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of tasks, with varying levels of complexity, i.e. simple, + complex and ++ complex tasks on EFL learners' oral production in a multimedia task-based language teaching environment. 57 EFL adult learners carried out a total of 12 tasks, in sets of four tasks within three different themes and different levels of…

  20. Academic Language Talk: Significant Features in the Responses of L1/L2 "Effective Communicators."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simich-Dudgeon, Carmen; And Others

    A 3-year study was undertaken to identify the salient features of verbal academic (math and science) language performance of third- and sixth-grade students. The investigation classified both native and nonnative English-speaking students as either effective communicators/responders or unsuccessful communicators/responders. The study examined…

  1. International Students' Attitudes toward L2-English Classroom Activities and Language Skills in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weger, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogical proponents of both communicative language teaching and the postmethod philosophy argue for the importance of considering learners' needs in classroom planning. This requires understanding learners' attitudes toward a variety of classroom realities. The present study reports on the attitudes of 131 adult, international learners of…

  2. A Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This review presents a broad picture of recent work on L2 Spanish in educational contexts. The thematic and geographic scope of the review is wide, in order to capture the diversity of learners and learning contexts of L2 Spanish, just two decades after teaching and learning the language gained impetus worldwide. Traditional second or foreign…

  3. An Alternative to Language Learner Dependence on L2 Caption-Reading Input for Comprehension of Sitcoms in a Multimedia Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, C.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Most second/foreign language (L2) learners have difficulty understanding listening input because of its implicit and ephemeral nature, and they typically have better reading comprehension than listening comprehension skills. This study examines the effects of using an interactive advance-organizer activity on the DVD video comprehension of L2

  4. Across Languages, Space, and Time: A Review of the Role of Cross-Language Similarity in L2 (Morpho)Syntactic Processing as Revealed by fMRI and ERP Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolentino, Leida C.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This review examines whether similarity between the first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the (morpho)syntactic processing of the L2, using both neural location and temporal processing information. Results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) studies show that nonnative speakers can…

  5. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Method: Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to…

  6. The Influence of Cross-Linguistic Input and L2 Proficiency on L2 Reading Comprehension among Spanish-Speaking Adults Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette

    2010-01-01

    Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…

  7. Dimensions of L2 Performance and Proficiency: Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in SLA. Language Learning & Language Teaching. Volume 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housen, Alex, Ed.; Kuiken, Folkert, Ed.; Vedder, Ineke, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Research into complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) as basic dimensions of second language performance, proficiency and development has received increased attention in SLA. However, the larger picture in this field of research is often obscured by the breadth of scope, multiple objectives and lack of clarity as to how complexity, accuracy and…

  8. Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language (L2)…

  9. Korean-English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross-Language Phonological and Orthographic Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min; Park, Yoonjung; Lee, Kyoung Rang

    2006-01-01

    Cross-language phonological and orthographic relationship in the biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read Korean and English was investigated in this study. Forty-five Korean-English bilingual children were tested in first-language (L1; Korean) and 2nd-language (L2; English) reading skills focusing on 2 reading processes--phonological…

  10. Contributions of Word-Level and Verbal Skills to Written Expression: Comparison of Learners Who Speak English as a First (L1) and Second Language (L2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the role of word-level and verbal skills in writing quality of learners who spoke English as a first (L1) and second (L2) language. One hundred and sixty-eight L1 and L2 learners (M = 115.38 months, SD = 3.57 months) participated in the study. All testing was conducted in English. There was a statistically significant L1…

  11. The Effects of Stress on Reading: A Comparison of First-Language versus Intermediate Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Manpreet K.; Loschky, Lester C.; Harris, Richard Jackson

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how resource-demanding reading tasks and stressful conditions affect 1st-language (L1) and intermediate 2nd-language (L2) reading comprehension. Using the attentional control theory framework (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), we investigated the roles of central executive working memory (WM) resources,…

  12. L1/L2 Differences in the Acquisition of Form-Meaning Pairings in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of L1/L2 form-meaning differences in the domain of aspect to investigate whether L2 learners are able to acquire properties of the L2 that are different from the L1. Oral data were collected from English- and German-speaking university learners of French L2 (n = 75) at two different levels of proficiency. The results…

  13. Assessing Differences and Similarities between Instructed Heritage Language Learners and L2 Learners in Their Knowledge of Spanish Tense-Aspect and Mood (TAM) Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Perpinan, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of the aspectual difference between the preterit and imperfect in the past tense and the acquisition of the contrast between subjunctive and indicative mood are classic problem areas in second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish by English-speaking learners (Collentine, 1995, 1998, 2003; Salaberry, 1999; Slabakova & Montrul, 2002;…

  14. Knowledge of Nativelike Selections in a L2. The Influence of Exposure, Memory, Age of Onset, and Motivation in Foreign Language and Immersion Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Pauline; Bolibaugh, Cylcia; Kotula, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that part of native speaker competence resides in knowledge of conventionalized word combinations, or nativelike selections (NLSs). This article reports an investigation into the receptive NLS knowledge of second language (L2) users of English in both the United Kingdom and Poland and the influence of a variety of…

  15. The Use of Native Language in L2 Teaching: A Case Study of English Department and Preparatory Year, Najran University, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dera, Abdullah Saad

    2011-01-01

    Despite many ELT experts' opinions that while teaching a foreign language one should not use the mother tongue in the classroom, new researches show that sparing use of the mother tongue can be effective for the L2 learners. It is true that the 6- year compulsory English education of the school graduates of Saudi Arabia is not quite up to the…

  16. Predicting Language Learners' Grades in the L1, L2, L3 and L4: The Effect of Some Psychological and Sociocognitive Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    This study of 89 Flemish high-school students' grades for L1 (Dutch), L2 (French), L3 (English) and L4 (German) investigates the effects of three higher-level personality dimensions (psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism), one lower-level personality dimension (foreign language anxiety) and sociobiographical variables (gender, social class) on…

  17. The Role of Teachers' Future Self Guides in Creating L2 Development Opportunities in Teacher-Led Classroom Discourse: Reclaiming the Relevance of Language Teacher Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubanyiova, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between teachers' use of language in teacher-led discourse (TLD; Toth, 2008) and opportunities for L2 development is a well-established area of SLA research. This study examines one teacher's role in creating such opportunities in TLD in her EFL classes in a state secondary school by examining the inner resources…

  18. How to Respond to the Demands Set by the Communicative Approach? New Challenges Second-Language (L2) Teachers Face in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amengual-Pizarro, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates prospective teachers' language needs in L2 teacher training programmes. A questionnaire was constructed and administered to a total of 79 first, second and third year students in the teaching training school at the University of the Balearic Islands (UIB). The questionnaire attempted to elicit student teachers' views on the…

  19. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Second Language Research: A Brief Introduction to the Technique, a Selected Review, and an Invitation to Reconsider Critical Periods in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a selective overview of recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in L2 morpho-syntax, demonstrating that the ERP evidence supporting the critical period hypothesis (CPH) may be less compelling than previously thought. The article starts with a general introduction to ERP methodology and language-related ERP profiles…

  20. Processing Tense/Aspect-Agreement Violations On-Line in the Second Language: A Self-Paced Reading Study with French and German L2 Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah; Liszka, Sarah Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of a self-paced reading experiment designed to investigate the question of whether or not advanced French and German learners of English as a second language (L2) are sensitive to tense/aspect mismatches between a fronted temporal adverbial and the inflected verb that follows (e.g. *"Last week, James has…

  1. The Influence of L2 Teachers' Use of CALL Modes on Language Learners' Reactions to Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Kwang Hee; Samimy, Keiko K.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on blended learning (BL) implementation in L2 instructional settings considers L2 teachers' use of the incorporated CALL modes and learners' attitudes toward the CALL modes as critical factors, among other factors, for achieving successful BL implementation. In the literature, these two factors are suggested to be strongly…

  2. Are the Best Language Learners from Mars or from Venus? Gender and Vocabulary Acquisition in the L2 Spanish Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahom, Olga; Farley, Andrew; Ramonda, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of Spanish learners' gender on their rate of recall of abstract and concrete words. The experiment included forty-six learners of Spanish who were taught twentyfour new words via an instructional treatment based on L2-L1 and L1-L2 translations. The results of the immediate and a delayed posttest showed no effect for…

  3. 2nd Generation ELT Performance Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimson, Chad M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Search And Rescue is supporting RTCA SC-229 with research and recommendations for performance specifications for the 2nd generation of emergency locator transmitters. Areas for improvement and methods for collecting data will be presented.

  4. Distinguishing Sources of L2 Development Problems in K-12: Language Deficit, Cognitive Deficit, and Cognitive Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    K-12 students with limited L2 proficiency who do not progress satisfactorily are often referred to special education and/or speech pathology services. Like the teachers who refer such students, the representatives of each service have a specific expertise (e.g., cognition) with little knowledge of the other types of proficiencies (e.g., L1…

  5. Becoming an L2 Learner (Again): How a Brief Language Learning Experience Sparked Connections with SLA Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Ross

    2015-01-01

    A brief "language learning experience" (LLE) in Thai was integrated into a second language development course as part of postgraduate TESOL study at an Australian university. Sixty primary and secondary teachers from a range of schools evaluated the impact of the LLE by means of a questionnaire; the teachers proved highly affirming of…

  6. Language Learning Motivation within the Context of Globalisation: An L2 Self within an Imagined Global Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper that attempts to re-conceptualize language learning motivation by taking into consideration the effects of globalisation on learners' sense of identity and how this impacts on the motivation to learn the unquestioned language of globalisation, English. I will argue that in EFL contexts it is learners' sense of…

  7. Comparing Language Use in the Writing of Developmental Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 Tertiary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental composition courses serve a sizable and growing number of Generation 1.5 students, or long-term U.S. resident language learners, and it is believed that language challenges may be part of Generation 1.5 writers' difficulty in controlling the academic register. The current study investigates possible similarities and differences…

  8. Enhancement of Automatization through Vocabulary Learning Using CALL: Can Prompt Language Processing Lead to Better Comprehension in L2 Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Takeshi; Matsunuma, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Our study aims to optimize a multimedia application for vocabulary learning for English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Our study is based on the concept that difficulty in reading a text in a second language is due to the need for more working memory for word decoding skills, although the working memory must also be used for text comprehension…

  9. The Effects of L2 Linguistic Competence on L2 Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyesook

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effects of second language (L2) linguistic competence on L2 reading in terms of its accountability for L2 reading comprehension and the relationship with the use of reading strategies. (Author/VWL)

  10. Anatomy of a Good Second Language Teacher: What It Has To Say about L2 Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangubhai, Francis

    Models of teacher training have tended to emphasize development of competencies in teachers that emphasize cognitive aspects of learning, and minimize affective factors. Second language teacher education has adopted this emphasis on learning as cognitive rather than as a strong interaction of cognitive and affective factors. In fact, affective…

  11. Similarity in L2 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Shannon L.

    2013-01-01

    Adult second language (L2) learners often experience difficulty producing and perceiving non-native phonological contrasts. Even highly proficient bilinguals, who have been exposed to an L2 for long periods of time, struggle with difficult contrasts, such as /r/-/l/ for Japanese learners of English. To account for the relative ease or difficulty…

  12. Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate Topics in L2 Acquisition and L2 Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah; Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Second language (L2) researchers are becoming more interested in both L2 learners' knowledge of the target language and how that knowledge is put to use during real-time language processing. Researchers are therefore beginning to see the importance of combining traditional L2 research methods with those that capture the moment-by-moment…

  13. PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The "PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework, 2nd Edition" provides the foundation for the three international assessments planned as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016: PIRLS, PIRLS Literacy, and ePIRLS. PIRLS represents the…

  14. Valutazione del libri di testo per le lingue straniere (Italiano L2) (Evaluation of Foreign Language Textbooks [Italian as a Second Language]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciarone, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    An approach to language textbooks evaluation based on objective criteria and relying on data easily obtained by means of computers, such as word frequency lists, is proposed. The importance of vocabulary acquisition in language learning is emphasized. Accordingly, word selection and rate of repetition are seen as central evaluation criteria. (MES)

  15. Nevada Foreign Language Standards: Content Standards for Grades Kindergarten, 3, 5, 8, 1st Year High School Study, 2nd Year High School Study, and 4th Year High School Study [and] Performance Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    These standards offer a vision of excellence for K-12 foreign language education in Nevada. They are designed to provide guidance for school districts as they develop high quality foreign language programs through Nevada schools. The standards are benchmarked for the following grades: kindergarten, 3rd, 5th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and 12th. For each…

  16. The UG Paradox in L2 Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clahsen, Harald; Muysken, Pieter

    1989-01-01

    Suggests that differences between first- and second-language learners are due to principles of universal grammar (UG) that guide first language (L1), but not second language (L2) acquisition. This view can be reconciled with the idea that L2 learners can use UG principles to some extent in evaluating target sentences. (49 references) (Author/VWL)

  17. Il fattore "eta'" nell'acquisizione linguistica (L1 e L2): dimensioni di un "meta-problema" (The "Age" Factor in Language Acquisition [L1 and L2]: The Dimensions of a "Meta-Problem").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Renzo

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes and comments on two recent books, one by Birgit Harley and the other by David Singleton, that review the language research carried out to determine the importance of age in learning a second language. (CFM)

  18. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  19. Relations among L1 Reading, L2 Knowledge, and L2 Reading: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gi-Pyo

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2) reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1) reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females) Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after…

  20. Reading Attitudes in L1 and L2, and Their Influence on L2 Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Junko

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between both first language (L1) and second language (L2) reading attitudes, and learners' performance in L2 extensive reading. Four reading attitude variables were identified (Comfort, Anxiety, Value, Self-perception), both in L1 and L2, according to learners' responses to a questionnaire. Results of analyses…

  1. Measurements of Development in L2 Written Production: The Case of L2 Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates measures for second language (L2) writing development. A T-unit, which has been found the most satisfactory unit of analysis for measuring L2 development in English, is extended to measure L2 Chinese writing development through a cross-sectional design in this study. Data were collected from three L2 Chinese learner groups…

  2. Contexts of Possibility in Simultaneous Language Learning: Using the L2 Motivational Self System to Assess the Impact of Global English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Motivation in simultaneous L2 learning situations is an area of research largely overlooked and studies from contexts where people are engaged in learning more than one L2 are rare. In their large-scale Hungarian research, Dornyei, Csizer and Nemeth found that pupils' positive attitudes to one L2 could cause interferences with attitudes to others,…

  3. L2 Negation Constructions at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskildsen, Soren W.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the usage- and exemplar-based roots of second language (L2) negation construction learning. Based on two longitudinal case studies involving two adult L2 English learners and a corpus of 63 three-hour sessions of recorded classroom interactions, the study shows that L2 learning follows the predictions of usage-based models of…

  4. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Definition Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert M.; Stucker, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Mid-Term Report summarizes the status of Kelly Space & Technology's activities during the first two and one half months of the program. This report was presented to the cognoscente Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) and selected Marshall Space Flight Center staff members on 26 September 2000. The report has been approved and is distributed on CD-ROM (as a PowerPoint file) in accordance with the terms of the subject contract, and contains information and data addressing the following: (1) Launch services demand and requirements; (2) Architecture, alternatives, and requirements; (3) Costs, pricing, and business cases analysis; (4) Commercial financing requirements, plans, and strategy; (5) System engineering processes and derived requirements; and (6) RLV system trade studies and design analysis.

  5. 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Martinez, Ed; Arcadi, Marla

    2005-01-01

    Included are presentations from the 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop. The purpose of the second workshop was to continue to unite the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers and mission designers and planners; whose expertise, experience and interests are in the areas of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics of planetary entry vehicles. Mars lander missions and the first probe mission to Titan made 2004 an exciting year for planetary exploration. The Workshop addressed entry probe science, engineering challenges, mission design and instruments, along with the challenges of reconstruction of the entry, descent and landing or the aerocapture phases. Topics addressed included methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed; techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder and Mars MER; upcoming missions such as the imminent entry of Huygens and future Mars entry probes; and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.

  6. The Effects of L2 Proficiency Level on the Processing of "Wh"-Questions among Dutch Second Language Speakers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2011-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English "wh"-subject-extractions and "wh"-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject-versus…

  7. Skill-Based L2 Anxieties Revisited: Their Intra-Relations and the Inter-Relations with General Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Tae-IL

    2013-01-01

    Recently, research in foreign language anxiety has extended to the examination of more language-skill-specific anxieties. Existing research findings on the language-skill-specific anxieties indicate a consistent negative relationship between individual skill-based anxieties (e.g. listening anxiety) and more general foreign language classroom…

  8. The effects of L2 proficiency level on the processing of wh-questions among Dutch second language speakers of English

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject- versus object-extractions in English. However, less-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers exhibit greater processing costs on subject-extractions relative to object-extractions, similar to previously reported findings (e.g., Dussias and Piñar, forthcoming; Juffs 2005; Juffs and Harrington 1995). These findings are discussed in light of relevant research surrounding on-line processing among L2 speakers and their ability to adopt native-like processing patterns in the L2. PMID:22888175

  9. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-05-11

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention--the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention--affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer's 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  10. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregrate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention—the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention—affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer’s 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  11. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle NASA Led Propulsion Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Design, development and test of a 2nd generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is presented. This current paper discusses the following: 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project, Overview of NASA Led Tasks in Propulsion, Gen2 Turbo Machinery Technology Demonstrator, and Combustion Devices Test Bed, GRCop-84 Sheet For Combustion Chambers, Nozzles and Large Actively Cooled Structures

  12. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  13. The perception of second language sounds in early bilinguals: new evidence from an implicit measure.

    PubMed

    Navarra, Jordi; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that nonnative (L2) linguistic sounds are accommodated to native language (L1) phonemic categories. However, this conclusion may be compromised by the use of explicit discrimination tests. The present study provides an implicit measure of L2 phoneme discrimination in early bilinguals (Catalan and Spanish). Participants classified the 1st syllable of disyllabic stimuli embedded in lists where the 2nd, task-irrelevant, syllable could contain a Catalan contrastive variation (/epsilon/-/e/) or no variation. Catalan dominants responded more slowly in lists where the 2nd syllable could vary from trial to trial, suggesting an indirect effect of the /epsilon/-/e/ discrimination. Spanish dominants did not suffer this interference, performing indistinguishably from Spanish monolinguals. The present findings provide implicit evidence that even proficient bilinguals categorize L2 sounds according to their L1 representations. PMID:16262488

  14. Gender Bender: Gender Errors in L2 Pronoun Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton-Mendez, Ines

    2010-01-01

    To address questions about information processing at the message level, pronoun errors of second language (L2) speakers of English were studied. Some L2 pronoun errors--"he/she" confusions by Spanish speakers of L2 English--could be due to differences in the informational requirements of the speakers' two languages, providing a window into the…

  15. Evaluating Bilingual and Monolingual Dictionaries for L2 Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Alan

    1997-01-01

    A discussion of dictionaries and their use for second language (L2) learning suggests that lack of computerized modern language corpora can adversely affect bilingual dictionaries, commonly used by L2 learners, and shows how use of such corpora has benefitted two contemporary monolingual L2 learner dictionaries (1995 editions of the Longman…

  16. The Definition and Measurement of L2 Explicit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2004-01-01

    A number of theories of second language L2 acquisition acknowledge a role for explicit L2 knowledge. However, the testing of these theories remains problematic because of the lack of a widely accepted means for measuring L2 explicit knowledge. This article seeks to address this lacuna by examining L2 explicit knowledge from two perspectives.…

  17. The Use of Eye Tracking in Research on Video-Based Second Language (L2) Listening Assessment: A Comparison of Context Videos and Content Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvorov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Investigating how visuals affect test takers' performance on video-based L2 listening tests has been the focus of many recent studies. While most existing research has been based on test scores and self-reported verbal data, few studies have examined test takers' viewing behavior (Ockey, 2007; Wagner, 2007, 2010a). To address this gap, in the…

  18. The Role of the Native Language in the Use of the English Nongeneric Definite Article by L2 Learners: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrabaszcz, Anna; Jiang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    The study uses an elicited imitation (EI) task to examine the effect of the native language on the use of the English nongeneric definite article by highly proficient first-language (L1) Spanish and Russian speakers and to test the hierarchy of article difficulty first proposed by Liu and Gleason (2002). Our findings suggest that there is a clear…

  19. Signalling L2 Centrality, Maintaining L1 Dominance: Teacher Language Choice in an Ethnic Minority Primary Classroom in the Lao PDR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincotta-Segi, Angela Rose

    2011-01-01

    Although the Lao People's Democratic Republic has speakers of up to 230 different languages belonging to four ethnolinguistic families, the Lao Government's policy as stated in its Education Law is that Lao is the official language of education at all levels. This creates a challenging situation for teachers in ethnic minority villages throughout…

  20. Modifying First-Year Textbook Dialogues along a Hymesian Model of Meaning: A Theory of In-Depth Language Processing for the L2 Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rings, Lana

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that foreign language learners will achieve a higher level of language if they are made aware of--and given the opportunity to manipulate--extralinguistic variables with regard to the texts they study. Teaching materials (e.g., textbook dialogues, audiotaped or videotaped texts) should include the context-based information necessary for…

  1. The Motivational Effects of Crosslinguistic Awareness: Developing Third Language Pedagogies to Address the Negative Impact of the L2 on the L3 Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    Learning a third language (TL) brings with it particular pedagogical demands. In the pedagogy of TL learning now emerging, the development of students' metalinguistic and crosslinguistic awareness is of central importance. In particular, emphasis is placed on the benefits of cross-referencing with supporter languages. While comparisons with…

  2. Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Florida Investigates 2nd Possible Local Transmission of Zika Virus If confirmed, cases would be first instances ... investigating a second possible case of locally transmitted Zika infection. On Tuesday, the first possible case of ...

  3. Molecular motors and the 2nd law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhisong

    2014-03-01

    Molecular motors from biology and nanotechnology often operate on chemical energy of fuel molecules in an isothermal environment, unlike macroscopic heat engines that draw energy from a heat flow between two temperatures. Nevertheless, isothermal molecular motors are still subject to the 2nd law of thermodynamics in a fundamental way: their directional motion must cost a finite amount of energy other than the environmental heat even though no work is done; otherwise the 2nd law would be violated. Hence the 2nd law requires a finite energy price for pure direction of molecular motors. But what is the lowest price of direction allowed by the 2nd law? And how does the 2nd law-decreed price of direction limit performance of molecular motors? In the talk, I shall present our theoretical study of the 2nd law-molecular motor link on basis of the accumulated biomotor phenomenology, and also introduce our experimental effort to develop biomimetic DNA bipedal nanomotors following the mechanistic guidelines out of the theoretical study. [Main contents of this talk are from references:] This work is partially supported by FRC grants R-144-000-259-112, R-144-000-290-112 and R-144-000-320-112.

  4. Indici di Frequenza di Errori nella Prova di Comprensione dell'Italiano Come L2 (Frequency of Error Indexes in Testing Comprehension in Italian as a Second Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintori, Adriana

    1995-01-01

    The author discusses the preparation of a test of reading comprehension in Italian as a Second Language for Spanish university students and analyzes the results of the test. The article includes the reading passage and the test. (CFM)

  5. Developmental Sequences of L2 Communication Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Marian J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a study that investigated the development of second language (L2) communication strategies (code-switching, all-purpose words, word coinage, approximation, and circumlocution) over time. In the study, 8 adult learners in a full-time English as a second language program provided oral narrations of an eight-frame picture story at…

  6. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  7. Selective Teaching of L2 Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husby, Olaf; Koreman, Jacques; Martínez-Paricio, Violeta; Abrahamsen, Jardar E.; Albertsen, Egil; Hedayatfar, Keivan; Bech, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    The pronunciation of a second or foreign language is often very challenging for L2 learners. It is difficult to address this topic in the classroom, because learners with different native languages (L1s) can have very different challenges. We have therefore developed a Computer-Assisted Listening and Speaking Tutor (CALST), which selectively…

  8. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  9. The Art of Electronics - 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Paul; Hill, Winfield

    1989-09-01

    This is the thoroughly revised and updated second edition of the hugely successful The Art of Electronics. Widely accepted as the single authoritative text and reference on electronic circuit design, both analog and digital, the original edition sold over 125,000 copies worldwide and was translated into eight languages. The book revolutionized the teaching of electronics by emphasizing the methods actually used by citcuit designers - a combination of some basic laws, rules to thumb, and a large nonmathematical treatment that encourages circuit values and performance. The new Art of Electronics retains the feeling of informality and easy access that helped make the first edition so successful and popular. It is an ideal first textbook on electronics for scientists and engineers and an indispensable reference for anyone, professional or amateur, who works with electronic circuits. The best self-teaching book and reference book in electronics Simply indispensable, packed with essential information for all scientists and engineers who build electronic circuits Totally rewritten chapters on microcomputers and microprocessors The first edition of this book has sold over 100,000 copies in seven years, it has a market in virtually all research centres where electronics is important

  10. The Role of Motivation and Learner Variables in L1 and L2 Vocabulary Development in Japanese Heritage Language Speakers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of motivation and learner variables in bilingual vocabulary development among first language (L1) Japanese students attending hoshuukoo (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. One hundred sixteen high school students ages 15-18 from eight hoshuukoo completed…

  11. Second Language Reading of Adolescent ELLs: A Study of Response to Retrospective Miscue Analysis, Error Coding Methodology and Transfer of L1 Decoding Skills in L2 Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham Keh, Melissa Anne

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that ELLs face significant challenges as they develop literacy skills in their second language (NCES, 2007, 2011). This population is diverse and growing rapidly in Massachusetts and across the nation (Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013; NCELA, 2011; Orosco, De Schonewise, De Onis, Klingner,…

  12. Effects of Variability in Fundamental Frequency on L2 Vocabulary Learning: A Comparison between Learners Who Do and Do Not Speak a Tone Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies (Barcroft & Sommers, 2005; Sommers & Barcroft, 2007) have demonstrated that variability in talker, speaking style, and speaking rate positively affect second language vocabulary learning, whereas variability in overall amplitude and fundamental frequency (F0) do not, at least for native English speakers. Sommers and…

  13. Introducing a Second Foreign Language in Swiss Primary Schools: The Effect of L2 Listening and Reading Skills on L3 Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haenni Hoti, Andrea U.; Heinzmann, Sybille; Muller, Marianne; Oliveira, Marta; Wicki, Werner; Werlen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    In German-speaking Central Switzerland, French used to be the only foreign language (FL) taught in primary schools (from Grade 5 onwards). According to the ongoing school reform, a second FL should be introduced in primary schools. Some cantons have now implemented a programme including English as the first FL to be learnt at school (from Grade 3…

  14. Representation and Embodiment of Meaning in L2 Communication: Motion Events in the Speech and Gesture of Advanced L2 Korean and L2 English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Soojung; Lantolf, James P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the interface between speech and gesture in second language (L2) narration within Slobin's (2003) thinking-for-speaking (TFS) framework as well as with respect to McNeill's (1992, 2005) growth point (GP) hypothesis. Specifically, our interest is in whether speakers shift from a first language (L1) to a L2 TFS pattern as…

  15. Integrating Meaning and Structure in L1-L2 and L2-L1 Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the integration of semantic and morphosyntactic information by Korean learners of English as a second language (L2). In Experiment 1, L2 learners listened to English active or passive sentences that were either plausible or implausible and translated them into Korean. A significant number of Korean translations maintained the…

  16. Systematic Asymmetries in Perception and Production of L2 Inflections in Mandarin L2 Learners of English: The Effects of Phonotactics, Salience, and Processing Pressure on Inflectional Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    The study of language production by adults who are learning a second language (L2) has received a good deal of attention especially when it comes to omission of inflectional morphemes within L2 utterances. Several explanations have been proposed for these inflectional errors. One explanation is that the L2 learner simply does not have the L2

  17. Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

    2005-04-01

    There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

  18. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  19. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  20. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…

  1. Morphological Congruency and the Acquisition of L2 Morphemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Nan; Novokshanova, Eugenia; Masuda, Kyoko; Wang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the proposal that the presence of a similar morpheme in the learner's first and second languages (L2) facilitates morphological development in the L2. Advanced Russian and Japanese speakers of English as a second language performed a self-paced reading task in which they read English sentences word by word for…

  2. Prosodic and Lexical Marking of Contrast in L2 Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Giuseppina; Dimroth, Christine; Braun, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the second language (L2) acquisition of pragmatic categories that are not as consistently and frequently encoded in the L2 than in the first language (L1). Experiment 1 showed that Italian speakers linguistically highlighted affirmative polarity contrast (e.g. "The child ate the candies" following after "The child…

  3. The Amount of English Use: Effects on L2 Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Son Ca; Vo, Yen Thi Hoang; Vo, Quyen Thanh

    2014-01-01

    The amount of second language (L2) use has significant influence on native speakers' comprehension of L2 learners' speech. Nonetheless, few empirical studies examine how differences in the amount of language use affect the intelligibility and comprehensibility of nonnative speakers' reading and spontaneous speech. This study aims to…

  4. Learning L2 Vocabulary through Extensive Reading: A Measurement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Marlise

    2005-01-01

    Many language courses now offer access to simplified materials graded at various levels of proficiency so that learners can read at length in their new language. An assumed benefit is the development of large and rapidly accessed second language (L2) lexicons. Studies of such extensive reading (ER) programs indicate general language gains, but few…

  5. The Role of Structural Position in L2 Phonological Acquisition: Evidence from English Learners of Spanish as L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vokic, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    In this pilot study, the speech of 12 adult native speakers of English with intermediate to intermediate-high proficiency in Spanish as a second language (L2) was analyzed to determine whether L2 learners rely on distributional information in the process of L2 speech learning and if so, if similar or dissimilar distributional patterns of sounds…

  6. Toward Independent L2 Readers: Effects of Text Adjuncts, Subject Knowledge, L1 Reading, and L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Hammadou Sullivan, JoAnn; Strube, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With 97 learners in an advanced Spanish course, the study examines the effects of textual enhancement adjuncts, prior subject knowledge, first language (L1) reading ability, and second language (L2) Spanish proficiency on L2 comprehension of scientific passages. Readings included two texts with two types of embedded questions: a pause or written…

  7. Threshold to Transfer Writing Skills from L1 to L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Fumihiko

    2009-01-01

    Background: It has been hypothesized that L2 (second language) readers are not able to draw on their L1 (first language) reading skills for the successful development of L2 reading skills until they develop a certain proficiency in L2 because a lack of proficiency blocks transfer of L1 reading skills to the reading of L2 texts. This minimum degree…

  8. Developing L2 Pragmatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article positions research on the acquisition of pragmatics as an inquiry in the greater field of second language acquisition research. Viewing pragmatics from this intersection, I consider five areas of research that are of interest in both fields and have the potential to make significant contributions to second language pragmatics…

  9. L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepens, Job J.; der Slik, Frans; Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    Many people speak more than two languages. How do languages acquired earlier affect the learnability of additional languages? We show that linguistic distances between speakers' first (L1) and second (L2) languages and their third (L3) language play a role. Larger distances from the L1 to the L3 and from the L2 to the L3 correlate with lower…

  10. Your Language or Mine? Or English as a Lingua Franca? Comparing Effectiveness in English as a Lingua Franca and L1-L2 Interactions: Implications for Corporate Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Mulken, Margot; Hendriks, Berna

    2015-01-01

    For multinational corporations, the need for efficiency and control has motivated the choice for a corporate language. However, increasing internationalisation has forced corporations to rethink their language policies to cater to the changing demands of the multicultural and multilingual workplace. This paper explores two related issues. First,…

  11. Repair Negotiation by English L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yujeong

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that L2 learners often face communication problems due to lack of competency in the target language and familiarity with its culture of origin. One way to resolve miscommunication problems is to seek clarification of the utterance; this process is called "repair negotiation" (Nakahama et al. 2001). Repair…

  12. The transient nature of 2nd-order stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Hess, Robert F; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2008-05-01

    There are currently two competing dichotomies used to describe how local stereoscopic information is processed by the human visual system. The first is in terms of the type of the spatial filtering operations used to extract relevant image features prior to stereoscopic analysis (i.e. 1st- vs 2nd-order stereo; [Hess, R. F., & Wilcox, L. M. (1994). Linear and non-linear filtering in stereopsis. Vision Research, 34, 2431-2438]). The second is in terms of the temporal properties of the mechanisms used to process stereoscopic information (i.e. sustained vs transient stereo; [Schor, C. M., Edwards, M., & Pope, D. R. (1998). Spatial-frequency and contrast tuning of the transient-stereopsis system. Vision Research, 38(20), 3057-3068]). Here we compare the dynamics of 1st- and 2nd-order stereopsis using several types of stimuli and find a clear dissociation in which 1st-order stimuli exhibit sustained properties while 2nd-order patterns show more transient properties. Our results and analyses unify and simplify two complimentary bodies of work. PMID:18407312

  13. The L1=L2 Hypotheses: A Reconsideration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the L1=L2 hypothesis which states that, all other things except knowledge of language being equal, first language acquisition is the same as second language acquisition. Reviews the evidence for and against the hypothesis, looks at current research and considers the general distinction between formal and informal learning. (SED)

  14. L2-Accented Speech in L3 Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrembel, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating the sources of cross-linguistic influence in the third language (L3) phonology, and, particularly, the impact of the second language (L2) on the phonological acquisition of another foreign language. The study consisted in foreign accent judgements performed by a group of expert judges who were presented with…

  15. Can Production Precede Comprehension in L2 Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasseva-Kurktchieva, Mila

    2015-01-01

    So far, the comprehension and production language modes have typically been studied separately in generative second language acquisition research, with the focus shifting from one to the other. This article revisits the asymmetric relationship between comprehension and production by examining the second language (L2) acquisition of the noun phrase…

  16. Raising Learners' Awareness through L1-L2 Teacher Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunning, Pamela; White, Joanna; Busque, Christine

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in teacher collaboration across mother tongue and second language curricula. However, cross-curricular collaboration in reading strategy instruction has seldom been investigated. We report a two-year study involving collaboration between the French first language (L1) and English second language (L2) teachers in an…

  17. Syntactic Representations of English in Second Language Learners: An Investigation of the Process of English Sentence Production by Bilingual Speakers Using a Within-Language (L2) Structural Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sunfa

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of within-English structural priming experiments in language production which investigated the syntactic representations of English syntactic structures in three different bilingual groups: Japanese-English, Korean-English, and Mandarin Chinese-English bilinguals. Specifically, my dissertation research…

  18. Two 2nd Circuit decisions represent mixed bag on insurance.

    PubMed

    2000-01-21

    The 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York issued two important rulings within a week on the extent to which the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulates insurance practices. [Name removed] v. Allstate Life Insurance Co. was a plaintiff-friendly decision, finding that the insurance company illegally refused to sell life insurance to a married couple because of their mental disability, major depression. [Name removed]. v. Israel Discount Bank of New York was more defendant friendly and tackled the issue of whether the ADA permits different benefit caps for mental and physical disabilities. PMID:11367226

  19. Young L2 learners' performance on a novel morpheme task.

    PubMed

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Danahy, Kerry

    2007-07-01

    The teaching of an invented language rule has been proposed as a possible non-biased, language-independent assessment technique useful in differentiating young L2 learners with specific language impairment from their typically developing peers. The current study explores these notions by testing typically developing sequential bilingual children's ability to learn an invented language rule in either L1 (Spanish) or L2 (English). Participants were 20 children, age 3:6-5:8, who attended a Head Start programme. For all children, Spanish was the primary language spoken in the home and English was the primary language of instruction. Children were randomly assigned two groups. Group L1 was taught the novel language rule in Spanish; Group L2 was taught the novel language rule in English. Performance was better for the L1 group than for the L2 group. Moreover, not all of these typical language learners were able to learn the new rule, even in their strongest language. These findings suggest that even for typically developing children, specific language proficiency as well as individual differences are closely linked to performance on this novel morpheme learning task. PMID:17564857

  20. Do L2 Writing Courses Affect the Improvement of L1 Writing Skills via Skills Transfer from L2 to L1?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonca, Altmisdort

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship of second language (L2) writing skills proficiency with the first language (L1) writing skills, in light of the language transfer. The study aims to analyze the positive effects of L2 writing proficiency on L1 writing proficiency. Forty native Turkish-speaking university students participated in the study.…

  1. The crystal structure of ^7Li2ND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubota, Masami; Sorby, Magnus H.; Hino, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Hauback, Bjorn C.; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2008-03-01

    Recently much attention has been given to reversible hydrogen storage materials possessing high gravimetric capacity. Lithium amide/imide systems are promising candidates. Chen et al.[1] found that a mixture of lithium amide and lithium hydride can reversibly store hydrogen up to 6.5 mass% forming lithium imide (Li2NH). Among them, the crystal structure of Li2NH is still controversial. Balogh et al.[2] have reported a cubic structure model. However, this model differs significantly from theoretical structure models. In this work, the crystal structure of the isotopically substituted ^7Li2ND has been investigated by powder neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments. In our data some peaks, which should be a single peak for cubic symmetry, were obviously split indicating a lower symmetry than cubic for lithium imide. The structure of ^7Li2ND will be described. [1] P. Chen et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 107 (2003) 10967. [2] M.P. Balogh et al., J. Alloys Compd. 420 (2006) 326.

  2. 2nd Generation RLV: Program Goals and Acquisition Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. Bart; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The risk to loss of life for Space Shuttle crewmembers is approximately one in 245 missions. U.S. launch service providers captured nearly 100%, of the commercial launch market revenues in the mid 1980s. Today, the U.S. captures less than 50% of that market. A launch system architecture is needed that will dramatically increase the safety of space flight while significantly reducing the cost. NASA's Space Launch Initiative, which is implemented by the 2nd Generation RLV Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center, seeks to develop technology and reusable launch vehicle concepts which satisfy the commercial launch market needs and the unique needs of NASA. Presented in this paper are the five primary elements of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan along with the highest level goals and the acquisition strategy of the 2nd Generation RLV Program. Approval of the Space Launch Initiative FY01 budget of $290M is seen as a major commitment by the Agency and the Nation to realize the commercial potential that space offers and to move forward in the exploration of space.

  3. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  4. Pragmatic Development of L2 Spanish Proposals in Planning Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Marda C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines proposals made during planning talk--a speech act that has received little attention in previous literature--to determine the applicability of the stages of second language (L2) pragmatic development posited by Kasper and Rose (2002). Although Kasper and Rose suggest that formulas play a prominent role in L2 pragmatic…

  5. Processability Approach to Arabic L2 Teaching and Syllabus Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Shatter, Ghassan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between the developmental hierarchy in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2) and formal classroom instruction. It provides a general presentation of the current debate on the influence of formal instruction in the acquisition of L2. Special attention is given to the subset of…

  6. Measuring L2 Lexical Growth Using Hypernymic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated second language (L2) lexical development in the spontaneous speech of six adult, L2 English learners in a 1-year longitudinal study. One important aspect of lexical development is lexical organization and depth of knowledge. Hypernymic relations, the hierarchical relationships among related words that vary in relation to…

  7. Sources of Difficulty in L2 Scope Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Eun Seon

    2013-01-01

    Second language (L2) learners have been found to experience difficulty in tasks that require the integration of discourse-pragmatic properties with syntactic and semantic properties (Sorace and Serratrice, 2009; Tsimpli and Sorace, 2006; Valenzuela, 2006). The present article investigates the sources of L2 difficulty in a phenomenon where multiple…

  8. Automated Assessment of Speech Fluency for L2 English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Su-Youn

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides an automated scoring method of speech fluency for second language learners of English (L2 learners) based that uses speech recognition technology. Non-standard pronunciation, frequent disfluencies, faulty grammar, and inappropriate lexical choices are crucial characteristics of L2 learners' speech. Due to the ease of…

  9. On Positive Evidence and Ultimate Attainment in L2 Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Scholten, Martha

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research on the acquisition of second-language (L2) phonology, focusing on whether adult learners have access to the principles and parameters of Universal Grammar (UG). It argues that UG is still accessible in L2 phonological acquisition, and parameters can be reset but that the Subset Principle can impede learning success. (51…

  10. Vocabulary Acquisition in L2: Does CALL Really Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averianova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Language competence in various communicative activities in L2 largely depends on the learners' size of vocabulary. The target vocabulary of adult L2 learners should be between 2,000 high frequency words (a critical threshold) and 10,000 word families (for comprehension of university texts). For a TOEIC test, the threshold is estimated to be…

  11. On the Relationship between Iranian L2 Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs and L2 Learners' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharajabian, Maryam; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    The present study employed a descriptive survey design to investigate L2 learners' attitudes towards language learning, and the possible effects of teachers' beliefs on learners' attitudes. Participants were chosen from among 2 groups: Twenty EFL teachers were asked to take part in this study and 80 from a pool of 213 learners at 2 language…

  12. Language Switching and Language Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  13. The Relationship between L1 Fluency and L2 Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ronald I.; Rossiter, Marian J.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in the study of second language (L2) fluency is the extent to which temporal characteristics of speakers' first language (L1) productions predict the same characteristics in the L2. A close relationship between a speaker's L1 and L2 temporal characteristics would suggest that fluency is governed by an underlying trait. This…

  14. Proficiency and Animacy Effects on L2 Gender Agreement Processes during Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarra, Nuria; Herschensohn, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether adult second language (L2) learners of an ungendered first language (L1) are sensitive to gender congruency (grammatical feature absent in the L1) and noun animacy (semantic feature present in the L1) when processing L2 gender concord and whether L2 proficiency level determines such sensitivity. To address these…

  15. Deep Processing of Long-Distance Dependencies in L2 English: The Case of Anaphora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Alan Juffs, second language (L2) sentence processing has become a central research topic in the field of L2 acquisition. Beyond a general hunger for new data offered by new experimental techniques and designs, intellectual concerns with system-wide understanding of first-language (L1)-L2 differences extended to the…

  16. Grammatical Gender in Adult L2 Acquisition: Relations between Lexical and Syntactic Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the causes of inflectional variability in adult second-language (L2) acquisition, this study investigates lexical and syntactic aspects of gender processing in real-time L2 production and comprehension. Twenty advanced to near-native adult first language (L1) English speakers of L2 German and 20 native controls were tested in…

  17. Pragmatic and Grammatical Competence, Length of Residence, and Overall L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Wei; Case, Rod E.; Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the influence of length of residence in the target language community and overall L2 proficiency on L2 pragmatic competence with a reference to L2 grammatical competence. Participants were 126 international students in the US with two academic levels of English proficiency from 17 countries, speaking 20 languages. A…

  18. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  19. Learners' Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Pronunciation Accuracy: A Sociolinguistic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel; Magid, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between ethnic group affiliation (one's sense of belonging to a primary ethnic group) and second-language (L2) pronunciation accuracy defined here as native-like, nonaccented L2 speech or L2 speech that contains no first language (L1) influences. The study addressed these questions: (a) Is there a…

  20. Willingness to Communicate and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: L2 Communication and Acculturative Stress as Transaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, H. Colin

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the influence of second language (L2) proficiency on L2 use and on outcomes of intercultural adaptation, these two strands have remained largely separate. This study examines the impact of willingness to communicate in the L2 (L2 WTC) on the daily hassles and stress of international students, with the aim of…

  1. Multicultural and Problematic Social Contexts and Their Contribution to L2 Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1995-01-01

    Studies the relationship of attitudes and cultural background to reading comprehension in a second language (L2) of students in three different social contexts: Israeli-Arab students learning Hebrew as their L2, Israeli-Jewish students learning English as their L2, and Canadian-Arab students learning English as their L2. Results showed that the…

  2. Philips' 2nd generation Novallure LED candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Pei, Zhigang; Yuan, Chuan; Jiang, Tan; Lu, Zhengsong; Wang, Yuqian; Duan, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Yan; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Ye

    2010-08-01

    Finding an energy efficient replacement of incandescent candle lamp has been a technical challenge. Compact fluorescent lamps, for example, can be miniaturized to fit the form factor of a candle lamp but they fail to reproduce its "sparkle" effect. Empowered by solid state lighting technology along with original optical design, Philips has successfully developed LED-powered candle lamps "Novallure" with great energy savings (2W power consumption with lumen output of 55 lumen) and the "butterfly" radiation pattern that mimics the sparkle effect from an incandescent candle lamp. With new high performance LED packages, novel under-cut prismatic optics and state-of-the-art electronic driver solution and thermal solution, we have developed a 2nd generation Novallure with breakthrough performance: a dimmable 2700K 136 lumen LED candle lamp with CRI 90.

  3. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Language Awareness and Second Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the publication of Hawkins's (1984) "Awareness of Language," researchers have been investigating the language awareness of second language (L2) learners. Few studies, however, have targeted the relationship between classroom learners' language awareness and L2 production, with fewer still focusing on language awareness and L2

  5. The Role of L1 Conceptual and Linguistic Knowledge and Frequency in the Acquisition of L2 Metaphorical Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türker, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how figurative language is processed by learners of a second language (L2). With an experiment testing L2 comprehension of figurative expressions in three categories, each combining shared and unshared first language (L1) and L2 lexical representations and conceptual representations in a different way, the study…

  6. Gender in Italian-German Bilinguals: A Comparison with German L2 Learners of Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…

  7. Task Interpretation and Task Effectiveness: A Vygotskian Analysis of a French L2 Classroom Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Lindsy L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on second language (L2) learning through task-based interaction as well as the compatibility of the theories of task-based learning and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory. Language tasks encourage L2 learning by using language as a tool to accomplish a goal. This study analyzes the interaction of first-semester French students…

  8. L2 Reading Ability: Further Insight into the Short-Circuit Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taillefer, Gail F.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the notion of a language proficiency threshold that short circuits the transfer of reading ability from the native language (L1) to a second language (L2). This study, in which cognitive complexity of tasks and students' L2 proficiency levels vary, focuses on university students in France reading preprofessional English texts. (39…

  9. Epilogue: Exploring L2 Writing-SLA Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this closing commentary, I first briefly recognize areas that have made the dialogue between the fields of second language (L2) writing and second language acquisition (SLA) difficult in the past. I then offer some comments on the interfaces that are brought to the fore by the contributions gathered in the special issue. The themes explored are…

  10. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  11. Instructors' Attitudes towards CALL and MALL in L2 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagel, James W.; Lambacher, Stephen; Reedy, David W.

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study on learners' and instructors' attitudes toward the use of computers and mobile devices in second-language (L2) learning situations, our purpose here is to identify how language instructors value the use of computers and mobile devices in their teaching. We compare the responses of a survey administered during the past…

  12. L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behney, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

  13. Concept Appropriation and the Emergence of L2 Sociostylistic Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Remi A.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on longitudinal data, this study explores the dynamic relationship between the development of conceptual knowledge of language and the emergence of sociostylistic variation in second language (L2) speech. Participants include eight intermediate-level US university learners of French who participated in a concept-based pedagogical…

  14. The Teaching of L2 Pronunciation through Processing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales-Bueno, Manuela; Quintana-Lara, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to pilot test whether the instructional approach known as Processing Instruction could be adapted to the teaching of second language (L2) pronunciation. The target sounds selected were the Spanish tap and trill. Three groups of high school students of Spanish as a foreign language participated in the study. One group…

  15. Variables Affecting L2 Gains during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    Second language (L2) gains during study abroad have been related to several variables including length of stay (Llanes, 2011), language use (Martinsen, Baker, Dewey, Bown, & Johnson, 2010), and social network development (Isabelli-García, 2006), among others. However, most studies have investigated only a few predictors in single study abroad…

  16. Task-Induced Strategic Processing in L2 Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horiba, Yukie

    2013-01-01

    Strategic text processing was investigated for English as a foreign language learners who processed and recalled a text when they read for expression, for image, and for critique. The results indicated that, although the amount of content recall (i.e., products of comprehension) was similar, the relative contributions of second language (L2)…

  17. Learner Negotiation of L2 Form in Transcription Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Negotiation of language form is thought to engage learning processes by helping learners to notice gaps in their developing L2 and find target-like ways of filling them. Self-transcription, where learners work together to find language errors in recordings of their own oral output, is an awareness raising exercise that encourages such negotiation.…

  18. Implicit Learning of L2 Word Stress Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ricky K. W.; Leung, Janny H. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an experiment on the implicit learning of second language stress regularities, and presents a methodological innovation on awareness measurement. After practising two-syllable Spanish words, native Cantonese speakers with English as a second language (L2) completed a judgement task. Critical items differed only in placement of…

  19. Age Effects on the Process of L2 Acquisition? Evidence from the Acquisition of Negation and Finiteness in L2 German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimroth, Christine

    2008-01-01

    It is widely assumed that ultimate attainment in adult second language (L2) learners often differs quite radically from ultimate attainment in child L2 learners. This article addresses the question of whether learners at different ages also show qualitative differences in the process of L2 acquisition. Longitudinal production data from two…

  20. [Microsurgical 2nd toe transfer for catastrophic hand reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Placer, A; Lozano, Ja

    2007-01-01

    The correct reconstruction of the catastrophic hand requires complex surgical techniques. The microsurgical transference of a toe is indicated when all other reconstructive options are shown to be useless for the reconstruction of the required clamp function. In this clinical note we set out the case of a 32 year old man, who came to our accident and emergency department after suffering a traffic accident. After exploration the diagnosis was that of catastrophic left hand, among other policontusions. Urgent surgery was carried out, saving the maximum possible viable structures. The immediate result of this surgery was a hand with 1st, 4th and 5th functional fingers. As the essential clamp function between the 1st and 4th or 5th fingers was not totally satisfactory, we decided to reconstruct the 3rd finger of his hand with his ipsilateral 2nd toe. All pertinent studies to determine vascularisation of the flap were carried out in planning the surgery, and the microsurgical transfer was then realized, which was successful. Today, after a suitable rehabilitation, the patient has recovered a satisfactory function of heavy and fine clamp in the operated hand. Toe to hand transfer is a good option for finger reconstruction and its function. Rehabilitation is the key to functional recovery. PMID:18227902

  1. 2nd PEGS Annual Symposium on Antibodies for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mitchell; Royston, Ivor; Beck, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The 2nd Annual Antibodies for Cancer Therapy symposium, organized again by Cambridge Healthtech Institute as part of the Protein Engineering Summit, was held in Boston, USA from April 30th to May 1st, 2012. Since the approval of the first cancer antibody therapeutic, rituximab, fifteen years ago, eleven have been approved for cancer therapy, although one, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, was withdrawn from the market.  The first day of the symposium started with a historical review of early work for lymphomas and leukemias and the evolution from murine to human antibodies. The symposium discussed the current status and future perspectives of therapeutic antibodies in the biology of immunoglobulin, emerging research on biosimilars and biobetters, and engineering bispecific antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates. The tumor penetration session was focused on the understanding of antibody therapy using ex vivo tumor spheroids and the development of novel agents targeting epithelial junctions in solid tumors. The second day of the symposium discussed the development of new generation recombinant immunotoxins with low immunogenicity, construction of chimeric antigen receptors, and the proof-of-concept of ‘photoimmunotherapy’. The preclinical and clinical session presented antibodies targeting Notch signaling and chemokine receptors.  Finally, the symposium discussed emerging technologies and platforms for therapeutic antibody discovery. PMID:22864478

  2. Aging Studies of 2nd Generation BaBar RPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    The BaBar detector, operating at the PEPII B factory of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), installed over 200 2nd generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in 2002. The streamer rates produced by backgrounds and signals from normal BaBar running vary considerably (0.1- >20 Hz/cm2) depending on the layer and position of the chambers, thus providing a broad spectrum test of RPC performance and aging. The lowest rate chambers have performed very well with stable efficiencies averaging 95%. Other chambers had rate-dependant inefficiencies due to Bakelite drying which were reversed by the introduction of humidified gases. RPC inefficiencies in the highest rate regions of the higher rate chambers have been observed and also found to be rate dependant. The inefficient regions grow with time and have not yet been reduced by operation with humidified input gas. Three of these chambers were converted to avalanche mode operation and display significantly improved efficiencies. The rate of production of HF in the RPC exhaust gases was measured in avalanche and streamer mode RPCs and found to be comparable despite the lower current of the avalanche mode RPCs.

  3. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Maria L.; Dolganova, Irina N.; Gevorgyan, Narine; Guzman, Angela; Papoyan, Aram; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The ICTP smr2633: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications" (OPTICS-2014) http://indico.ictp.it/event/a13253/ was held in Yerevan and Ashtarak, Armenia, on 1-5 September 2014. The Symposium was organized by the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) with the collaboration of the SPIE Armenian Student Chapter, the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-Pyrkal, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the BMSTU SPIE & OSA student chapters. The International Symposium OPTICS-2014 was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics. This symposium "Optics and its Applications" was the First Official ICTP Scientific Event in Armenia. The presentations at OPTICS-2014 were centered on these topics: optical properties of nanostructures; quantum optics & information; singular optics and its applications; laser spectroscopy; strong field optics; nonlinear & ultrafast optics; photonics & fiber optics; optics of liquid crystals; and mathematical methods in optics.

  4. APTWG: 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. Q.; Shi, Y. J.; Tamura, N.; Jhang, Hogun; Watanabe, T.-H.; Ding, X. T.

    2013-02-01

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to and discussions at the 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held in Chengdu, China, from 15 to 18 May 2012. The topics of the meeting were organized under five main headings: momentum transport, non-locality in transport, edge turbulence and L-H transition, three-dimensional effects on transport physics, and particle, momentum and heat pinches. It is found that lower hybrid wave and ion cyclotron wave induce co-current rotation while electron cyclotron wave induces counter-current rotation. A four-stage imaging for low (L) to high (H) confinement transition gradually emerges and a more detailed verification is urgently expected. The new edge-localized modes mitigation technique with supersonic molecular beam injection was approved to be effective to some extent on HL-2A and KSTAR. It is also found that low collisionality, trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient transition (or transition of higher to lower density and temperature gradients), fuelling and lithium coating are in favour of inward pinch of particles in tokamak plasmas.

  5. L2 Reading in Multilingual Eritrea: The Influences of L1 Reading and English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…

  6. Quantifying the Quality Difference between L1 and L2 Essays: A Rating Procedure with Bilingual Raters and L1 and L2 Benchmark Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Marion; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2013-01-01

    It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present…

  7. L1 and L2 Word Recognotion in Finnish. Examining L1 Effects on L2 Processing of Morphological Complexity and Morphophonological Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Seppo; Anneli, Pajunen; Hyona, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the first language (L1) on the visual word recognition of inflected nouns in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Case inflection is common in Russian and in Finnish but nonexistent in Chinese. Several models have been posited to describe L2 morphological processing. The unified…

  8. Highlights of the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamen; Fatima, Vayani; Fatima, Nazeefa; Das, Sayoni; Rahman, Farzana; Hassan, Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    Following the success of the 1 st Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK, a 2 nd Student Symposium took place on 7 th October 2015 at The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich, UK. This short report summarizes the main highlights from the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium. PMID:27239284

  9. Examples to Accompany "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books, 2nd Edition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

    This book is intended to be used with "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books," 2nd edition (DCRB) as an illustrative aid to catalogers and others interested in or needing to interpret rare book cataloging. As such, it is to be used in conjunction with the rules it illustrates, both in DCRB and in "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules," 2nd edition…

  10. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Doughty, Christine; Gasperikova, Erika; Peterson, John; Conrad, Mark; Cook, Paul; Tiemi, Onishi

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  11. Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood: a behavioral and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca; Gili Fivela, Barbara; Invitto, Sara; Resta, Donatella; Alku, Paavo; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by naïve listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naïve listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naïve subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination. Implications for L2 classroom teaching practices are discussed. PMID:24860470

  12. Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood: a behavioral and ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca; Gili Fivela, Barbara; Invitto, Sara; Resta, Donatella; Alku, Paavo; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by naïve listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naïve listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naïve subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination. Implications for L2 classroom teaching practices are discussed. PMID:24860470

  13. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  14. PREFACE: 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO 2008'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, P.; Kolodziej, J. J.; Konior, J.; Szymonski, M.

    2009-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers presented at the 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO2008', that was held in Kraków, Poland, 25-28 June 2008. It was organized jointly by the Polish Chemical Society, Polish Physical Society, Polish Vacuum Society, and the Centre for Nanometer-scale Science and Advanced Materials (NANOSAM) of the Jagiellonian University. The meeting presentations were categorized into the following topics: 1. Nanomechanics and nanotribology 2. Characterization and manipulation in nanoscale 3. Quantum effects in nanostructures 4. Nanostructures on surfaces 5. Applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine 6. Nanotechnology in education 7. Industrial applications of nanotechnology, presentations of the companies 8. Nanoengineering and nanomaterials (international sessions shared with the fellows of Maria-Curie Host Fellowships within the 6th FP of the European Community Project 'Nano-Engineering for Expertise and Development, NEED') 9. Nanopowders 10. Carbon nanostructures and nanosystems 11. Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics 12. Nanomaterials in catalysis 13. Nanospintronics 14. Ethical, social, and environmental aspects of nanotechnology The Conference was attended by 334 participants. The presentations were delivered as 7 invited plenary lectures, 25 invited topical lectures, 78 oral and 108 poster contributions. Only 1/6 of the contributions presented during the Conference were submitted for publication in this Proceedings volume. From the submitted material, this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains 37 articles that were positively evaluated by independent referees. The Organizing Committee gratefully acknowledges all these contributions. We also thank all the referees of the papers submitted for the Proceedings for their timely and thorough work. We would like to thank all members of the National Program Committee for their work in the selection process of

  15. ERP correlates of intramodal and crossmodal L2 acquisition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study compared the neural correlates of an intramodally and a crossmodally acquired second language (L2). Deaf people who had learned their L1, German Sign Language (DGS), and their L2, German, through the visual modality were compared with hearing L2 learners of German and German native speakers. Correct and incorrect German sentences were presented word by word on a computer screen while the electroencephalogram was recorded. At the end of each sentence, the participants judged whether or not the sentence was correct. Two types of violations were realized: Either a semantically implausible noun or a violation of subject-verb number agreement was embedded at a sentence medial position. Results Semantic errors elicited an N400, followed by a late positivity in all groups. In native speakers of German, verb-agreement violations were followed by a left lateralized negativity, which has been associated with an automatic parsing process. We observed a syntax related negativity in both high performing hearing and deaf L2 learners as well. Finally, this negativity was followed by a posteriorly distributed positivity in all three groups. Conclusions Although deaf learners have learned German as an L2 mainly via the visual modality they seem to engage comparable processing mechanisms as hearing L2 learners. Thus, the data underscore the modality transcendence of language. PMID:21612604

  16. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Baer-Keeley, Melanie; Fortheringham, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development Conference was held in association with Earth Day 1997, five years after the first Interface Conference. Rapid population growth in California has intensified the inevitable conflict between land development and preservation of natural ecosystems. Sustainable development requires wise use of diminishing natural resources and, where possible, restoration of damaged landscapes. These Earth Week Celebrations brought together resource managers, scientists, politicians, environmental consultants, and concerned citizens in an effort to improve the communication necessary to maintain our natural biodiversity, ecosystem processes and general quality of life. As discussed by our keynote speaker, Michael Soule, the best predictor of habitat loss is population growth and nowhere is this better illustrated than in California. As urban perimeters expand, the interface between wildlands and urban areas increases. Few problems are more vexing than how to manage the fire prone ecosystems indigenous to California at this urban interface. Today resource managers face increasing challenges of dealing with this problem and the lead-off section of the proceedings considers both the theoretical basis for making decisions related to prescribed burning and the practical application. Habitat fragmentation is an inevitable consequence of development patterns with significant impacts on animal and plant populations. Managers must be increasingly resourceful in dealing with problems of fragmentation and the often inevitable consequences, including susceptibility to invasive oganisms. One approach to dealing with fragmentation problems is through careful landplanning. California is the national leader in the integration of conservation and economics. On Earth Day 1991, Governor Pete Wilson presented an environmental agenda that promised to create between land owners and environmentalists, agreements that would guarantee the protection of

  17. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  18. Writing II for 2nd Year EFL Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Writing is a very important skill that should be mastered properly by university students, especially pre-service language teachers (e.g. EFL student teachers). In order to present their ideas efficiently in the context of their academic study, they have to be trained well on how to write meaningful pieces (e.g. essays, academic reports,…

  19. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Thomas

    This book (second edition) is an adaptation of Howard Gardener's theory on multiple intelligences (MI). The model in this book provides a language for talking about the inner gifts of so-called learning-disabled children. It describes how to bring Gardner's theory--a means of mapping the broad range of human abilities--into the classroom. The MI…

  20. Brain Matters: Translating Research into Classroom Practice. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    While you don't need to be a scientist to understand brain-compatible teaching, you'll be far more effective when you base your teaching practices on the very best scientific information. This expanded and updated ASCD best-seller delivers that essential information in clear, everyday language that any teacher can immediately incorporate into…

  1. 1st- and 2nd-order motion and texture resolution in central and peripheral vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Sperling, G.

    1995-01-01

    STIMULI. The 1st-order stimuli are moving sine gratings. The 2nd-order stimuli are fields of static visual texture, whose contrasts are modulated by moving sine gratings. Neither the spatial slant (orientation) nor the direction of motion of these 2nd-order (microbalanced) stimuli can be detected by a Fourier analysis; they are invisible to Reichardt and motion-energy detectors. METHOD. For these dynamic stimuli, when presented both centrally and in an annular window extending from 8 to 10 deg in eccentricity, we measured the highest spatial frequency for which discrimination between +/- 45 deg texture slants and discrimination between opposite directions of motion were each possible. RESULTS. For sufficiently low spatial frequencies, slant and direction can be discriminated in both central and peripheral vision, for both 1st- and for 2nd-order stimuli. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, at both retinal locations, slant discrimination is possible at higher spatial frequencies than direction discrimination. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, motion resolution decreases 2-3 times more rapidly with eccentricity than does texture resolution. CONCLUSIONS. (1) 1st- and 2nd-order motion scale similarly with eccentricity. (2) 1st- and 2nd-order texture scale similarly with eccentricity. (3) The central/peripheral resolution fall-off is 2-3 times greater for motion than for texture.

  2. CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco

    2009-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

  3. L2 Reading Research and Pedagogical Considerations in the Teaching of French and Francophone Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carole; Taylor, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    Little research on improving second language (L2) reading comprehension of French and francophone theater has been conducted. This study provides insight into enhancing L2 comprehension of drama by combining L2 research with examples from L'accent grave by Jacques Prevert, Ton beau capitaine by Simone Schwarz-Bart (1987), Un Touareg s'est marie a…

  4. Effects of Glosses on Learning of L2 Grammar and Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jookyoung

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how glossing of second language (L2) texts affects L2 learners' reading comprehension as well as their learning of L2 grammar and vocabulary. It employed a pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest design with two treatment sessions. The target features were English unaccusativity and 10 pseudo-word items.…

  5. Factors Affecting Grammatical and Lexical Complexity of Long-Term L2 Speakers' Oral Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahmann, Cornelia; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Schmid, Monika S.

    2016-01-01

    There remains considerable disagreement about which factors drive second language (L2) ultimate attainment. Age of onset (AO) appears to be a robust factor, lending support to theories of maturational constraints on L2 acquisition. The present study is an investigation of factors that influence grammatical and lexical complexity at the stage of L2

  6. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  7. Phonological Memory and the Acquisition of Grammar in Child L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…

  8. Evidence for a "Wild" L2 Grammar: When PPs Rear Their Empty Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Elaine C.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews several studies which suggest that some second-language (L2) learners stumble into rogue or "wild" grammars on the road to the L2. L2 learners who have subcategorization knowledge of verbs for their prepositions often omit those same prepositions in relative clauses and questions requiring pied-piping or preposition stranding. (103…

  9. Distinguishing Features in Scoring L2 Chinese Speaking Performance: How Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley

    2013-01-01

    For Chinese as a second language (L2 Chinese), there has been little research into "distinguishing features" (Fulcher, 1996; Iwashita et al., 2008) used in scoring L2 Chinese speaking performance. The study reported here investigates the relationship between the distinguishing features of L2 Chinese spoken performances and the scores awarded by…

  10. Investigating an Innovative Computer Application to Improve L2 Word Recognition from Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joshua; O'Toole, John Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognise words from the aural modality is a critical aspect of successful second language (L2) listening comprehension. However, little research has been reported on computer-mediated development of L2 word recognition from speech in L2 learning contexts. This report describes the development of an innovative computer application…

  11. Individual Differences in the Acquisition of a Complex L2 Phonology: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanulikova, Adriana; Dediu, Dan; Fang, Zhou; Basnakova, Jana; Huettig, Falk

    2012-01-01

    Many learners of a foreign language (L2) struggle to correctly pronounce newly learned speech sounds, yet many others achieve this with apparent ease. Here we explored how a training study of learning complex consonant clusters at the very onset of L2 acquisition can inform us about L2 learning in general and individual differences in particular.…

  12. Deconstructing Comprehensibility: Identifying the Linguistic Influences on Listeners' L2 Comprehensibility Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Talia; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensibility, a major concept in second language (L2) pronunciation research that denotes listeners' perceptions of how easily they understand L2 speech, is central to interlocutors' communicative success in real-world contexts. Although comprehensibility has been modeled in several L2 oral proficiency scales--for example, the Test of English…

  13. Repetition and Focus on Form in Processing L2 Spanish Words: Implications for Pronunciation Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Situated in the context of learning second language (L2) pronunciation, this article discusses from information-processing and pedagogical perspectives the role of repetitive practice with L2 input and of explicit focus on its form-related (phonological) properties. First, we report the results of an auditory word-priming experiment with 60 L2

  14. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  15. A Glimpse into the Effectiveness of L2-Content Cross-Curricular Collaboration in Content-Based Instruction Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2015-01-01

    In content-based instruction (CBI) programmes, students learn content subjects through a second language (L2), so that they can incidentally learn the language. To further facilitate students' L2 development, the collaboration between L2 and content subject teachers has been strongly advocated. Previous research on such kind of collaboration…

  16. The Implications of Cognitive Models in L1 and L2 Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railey, Kevin; And Others

    A study investigated one dimension of metacognition--the knowledge of cognition--in first language (L1) and second language (L2) writing. Subjects were 20 students (10 L1 and 10 L2) in a first level college writing course. A questionnaire elicited subjects' definitions of good writing, their notions of the constituent features of the writing…

  17. Construction of a Rated Speech Corpus of L2 Learners' Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Su-Youn; Pierce, Lisa; Huensch, Amanda; Juul, Eric; Perkins, Samantha; Sproat, Richard; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the construction of a rated database of spontaneous speech produced by second language (L2) learners of English. Spontaneous speech was collected from 28 L2 speakers representing six language backgrounds and five different proficiency levels. Speech was elicited using formats similar to that of the TOEFL iBT and the Speaking…

  18. Rate of Acquiring and Processing L2 Color Words in Relation to L1 Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of first language (L1) phonological awareness on the rate of learning new second language (L2) color terms and the rate of processing old color terms. Two groups of 37 children participated; they differed on L1 phonological awareness measured at Grade 3. At Grade 5, over multiple trials, the children learned new L2

  19. "Tom Eats Slowly Cooked Eggs": Thematic-Verb Raising in L2 Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubank, Lynn; Bischof, Janine; Huffstutler, April; Leek, Patricia; West, Clint

    1997-01-01

    Employs a truth-value task to reexamine native-language (NL) transfer among Chinese-speaking second-language (L2) learners of English--that is, where NL or mature L2 permits verb raising. Discussion includes a comparison with the earlier findings of Eubank and Grace (1996) and analysis of developmental and transfer-based explanations for the…

  20. Factors Affecting the Processing of Japanese Relative Clauses by L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanno, Kazue

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a crosslinguistic comparative study of the processing of Japanese relative clauses (RCs) by Chinese-, Sinhalese-, Vietnamese-, Thai-, and Indonesian-speaking second language (L2) learners. A robust finding in studies on the acquisition of RCs in L2 English and other European languages is that subject-gap RCs are easier than…

  1. Not so Fast: A Discussion of L2 Morpheme Processing and Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Learning inflectional morphology is a vexing problem for second language (L2) learners. Children acquiring their native language also experience some difficulty, which results in their committing overgeneralization errors. Long after individuals have achieved a high level of proficiency in the L2, they are still plagued by uncertainty when it…

  2. Developmental Trends and L1 Effects in Early L2 Learners' Onset Cluster Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessier, Anne-Michelle; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04-6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2

  3. The Role of Hypercorrection in the Acquisition of L2 Phonemic Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.; Iverson, Gregory K.; Song, Jae Yung

    2013-01-01

    This article reports empirical findings from an ongoing investigation into the acquisition of second-language (L2) phonemic contrasts. Specifically, we consider the status and role of the phenomenon of hypercorrection in the various stages through which L2 learners develop and internalize a target language (TL) contrast. We adopt the prevailing…

  4. L2 Acquisition of Bulgarian Clitic Doubling: A Test Case for the Interface Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Ivan P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the testing ground of the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace, 2006) by investigating the degree to which second language (L2) learners of Bulgarian with English as their first language (L1) had acquired the pragmatic function of clitic doubling as a topicality marker. Advanced and intermediate L2 speakers of…

  5. The Effects of Hypertext Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Jee Hwan

    2010-01-01

    In the field of second language acquisition (SLA), "comprehensible input" (Krashen, 1985) has been considered a critical factor to help learners acquire foreign and second languages (L2). From this perspective, the notion of extensive or free voluntary reading (Day & Bamford, 1998; Krashen, 1993) has emerged that L2 learners should be given more…

  6. L1 Use during L2 Writing: An Empirical Study of a Complex Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2009-01-01

    This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…

  7. Word Boundaries in L2 Speech: Evidence from Polish Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic and perceptual studies investgate B2-level Polish learners' acquisition of second language (L2) English word-boundaries involving word-initial vowels. In production, participants were less likely to produce glottalization of phrase-medial initial vowels in L2 English than in first language (L1) Polish. Perception studies employing word…

  8. L1 Allophones in L2 Speech Production: The Case of English Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vokic, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Although it is broadly accepted that adult second-language (L2) learners focus attention only on those aspects of sounds needed for phonemic contrast, the role that allophony plays in the process of L2 speech learning is less well understood. It is widely assumed that speakers do not have conscious awareness of and access to first-language (L1)…

  9. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  10. Effects of Age of L2 Acquisition on L1 Event Conceptualization Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effects that the age of onset (AO) of second language (L2) acquisition exerts on the attrition of first language (L1) event conceptualization patterns. The subjects studied are L1 Spanish-L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden. The specific research questions addressed in the study concern the role of AO in endpoint…

  11. The Potential Influence of L1 (Chinese) on L2 (English) Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-Shih

    2010-01-01

    A major issue in the field of L2 acquisition is the role that language learners' L1 plays in the acquisition of an L2. This article shows some of the salient linguistic features of Chinese that may present communication challenges for Chinese-speaking learners of English as an additional language. Instructors' awareness of such features will…

  12. Advanced L2 Learners and Reading Placement: Self-Assessment, CBT, and Subsequent Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of research involving advanced second language (L2) learners in the USA [Brantmeier, C., 2001. Second language reading research on passage content and gender: challenges for the intermediate level curriculum, Foreign Language Annals 34, 325-333; Young, D.J., 2003. Workshop on overcoming anxiety in the foreign language classroom.…

  13. Subcomponents of Second-Language Aptitude and Second-Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Humbach, Nancy; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore

    2011-01-01

    A factor analysis of a test battery that included early first-language (L1) achievement, L1 cognitive ability, second-language (L2) aptitude, and L2 affective measures to predict oral and written L2 proficiency was conducted. The analysis yielded 4 factors that were labeled Language Analysis, composed of L1 and L2 language comprehension, grammar,…

  14. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  15. Nonnativeness in Near-Native Child L2 Starters of Japanese: Age and the Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishikawa, Tomomi

    2014-01-01

    Many age-related second language (L2) studies have confirmed that young children have a better chance to become nativelike in L2 acquisition than adults. The current study investigated whether age effects exist in the L2 acquisition of Japanese and whether nativelike proficiency is guaranteed for early child L2 starters after constant target…

  16. VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT CASCADES TOWARDS FILTRATION PLANT AND LOS ANGELES RESERVOIR - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Cascades Structures, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. MAGAZINE E30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE E-30. VIEW FROM BETWEEN 1ST AND 2ND BLAST WALL LOOKING TO THE REAR OF THE MAGAZINE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING MACHINE. LIGHT TABLE USED TO CHECK FOR CLOTH DEFECTS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  19. 12. Bldg #13, 2nd floor, interior stone walls w/windows and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Bldg #13, 2nd floor, interior stone walls w/windows and bent pipe thru wall L and light bulbs in ceiling, to NE - Lawrence Machine Shop, Building No. 13, Union & Canal Streets, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  20. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  1. 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159807.html 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic Scientists concerned it ... the United States who was infected with a bacteria that is resistant to an antibiotic of last ...

  2. Front elevation of Rostrum with 2nd Division American Expeditionary Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation of Rostrum with 2nd Division American Expeditionary Force Monument in foreground, view to northwest - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  3. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  4. 73. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STEPPED PLATFORM, BENCHES, AND LIGHT STANDARDS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 21. VIEW FROM INTERIOR OF 2ND FLOOR ARCHED WINDOW WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW FROM INTERIOR OF 2ND FLOOR ARCHED WINDOW WITH HOLLOW STEEL SASH AND POLISHED PLATE WIRE GLASS. THIS WINDOW IS AT THE FRONT OF THE BUILDING. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. Bilingual Lexical Access during L1 Sentence Reading: The Effects of L2 Knowledge, Semantic Constraint, and L1-L2 Intermixing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function…

  7. The 2nd-order Post-Newtonian Orbit Equation of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yu; Fei, Bao-Jun; Sun, Wei-Jin; Ji, Cheng-Xiang

    2008-10-01

    Based on the 2nd-order post-Newtonian approximation under the DSX frame of the general relativity theory, the 2nd-order post-Newtonian orbital equation of light in the axis-symmetrical stationary spacetime is derived, and from this, the angle of deflection of light propagating in the equatorial plane is derived. The obtained results are consistent with those of the Schwarzchild and Kerr metrics within the limits of measuring precision.

  8. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    PubMed

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands. PMID:21767061

  9. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation

    PubMed Central

    Kartushina, Natalia; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    The speech of late second language (L2) learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine the role of an individual’s L1 productions in the production of L2 vowel contrasts. Fourteen Spanish adolescents studying French at school were assessed on their perception and production of the mid-close/mid-open contrasts, /ø-œ/ and /e-ε/, which are, respectively, acoustically distinct from Spanish sounds, or similar to them. The participants’ native productions were explored to assess (1) the variability in the production of native vowels (i.e., the compactness of vowel categories in F1/F2 acoustic space), and (2) the position of the vowels in the acoustic space. The results revealed that although poorly perceived contrasts were generally produced poorly, there was no correlation between individual performance in perception and production, and no effect of L2 perception on L2 production in mixed-effects regression analyses. This result is consistent with a growing body of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research that suggest partial dissociations between L2 perception and production. In contrast, individual differences in the compactness and position of native vowels predicted L2 production accuracy. These results point to existence of surface transfer of individual L1 phonetic realizations to L2 space and demonstrate that pre-existing features of the native space in production partly determine how new sounds can be accommodated in that space. PMID:25414678

  10. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation.

    PubMed

    Kartushina, Natalia; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H

    2014-01-01

    The speech of late second language (L2) learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine the role of an individual's L1 productions in the production of L2 vowel contrasts. Fourteen Spanish adolescents studying French at school were assessed on their perception and production of the mid-close/mid-open contrasts, /ø-œ/ and /e-ε/, which are, respectively, acoustically distinct from Spanish sounds, or similar to them. The participants' native productions were explored to assess (1) the variability in the production of native vowels (i.e., the compactness of vowel categories in F1/F2 acoustic space), and (2) the position of the vowels in the acoustic space. The results revealed that although poorly perceived contrasts were generally produced poorly, there was no correlation between individual performance in perception and production, and no effect of L2 perception on L2 production in mixed-effects regression analyses. This result is consistent with a growing body of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research that suggest partial dissociations between L2 perception and production. In contrast, individual differences in the compactness and position of native vowels predicted L2 production accuracy. These results point to existence of surface transfer of individual L1 phonetic realizations to L2 space and demonstrate that pre-existing features of the native space in production partly determine how new sounds can be accommodated in that space. PMID:25414678

  11. Written Languaging, Direct Correction, and Second Language Writing Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Wataru

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that languaging plays a crucial role in learning a second language (L2). The effects of languaging, especially oral languaging (e.g., collaborative dialogue, private speech), have been tested on the learning of L2 knowledge domains. This study explored the effects of written languaging by asking 24 Japanese learners of English…

  12. Affective Variables and Japanese L2 Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo-Brown, Kimi

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates how 17 affective factors are related to Japanese second language (L2) reading comprehension and "kanji" knowledge test scores of 43 university students in advanced Japanese courses. Major findings are that: a) reading comprehension ability and "kanji" knowledge have direct associations with self-perception of Japanese…

  13. Ultimate Attainment of Anaphora Resolution in L2 Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Lucy Xia

    2014-01-01

    The current study tests the Interface Hypothesis through forward and backward anaphora in complex sentences with temporal subordinate clauses in highly proficient English-speaking learners' second-language (L2) Chinese. Forward anaphora is involved when the overt pronoun "ta" "he/she" or a null element appears in the…

  14. Phonetics Instruction Improves Learners' Perception of L2 Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Explicit phonetics instruction can help second language (L2) learners to moderately improve their pronunciation, but less is known about how the instruction affects learners' perception, even though there is evidence that perception and pronunciation are related. This study provided phonetics instruction to students (n = 46) studying Spanish as a…

  15. Effect of Alignment on L2 Written Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chuming; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to uncover how L2 writing is affected by alignment, a socio-cognitive process involving dynamic coordination and adaptation. For this, two studies were conducted. Study 1 required two groups of 24 learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to continue in English two stories with their endings removed, both of which had a…

  16. A Dynamic Usage Based Perspective on L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verspoor, Marjolijn; Schmid, Monika S.; Xu, Xiaoyan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the contribution that a dynamic usage based (DUB) perspective can bring to the establishment of objective measures to assess L2 learners' written texts and at the same time to gain insight into the dynamic process of language development. Four hundred and thirty seven texts written by Dutch learners of English…

  17. On Written Corrective Feedback in L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shao, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Truscott (1996) questions the practicability of grammar correction, and he believes that written corrective feedback (WCF) is not only a waste of time, but even harmful to the students as well. This has led to a great deal of discussion and research on WCF in second-language (L2) writing. Ferris (1999) is the representative opponent of Truscott's…

  18. Lexical Aspects of Very Advanced L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Fanny Forsberg; Lindqvist, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the possibilities for adult learners to attain nativelikeness in the domain of lexis. Aspects investigated are general lexical knowledge (C-test), receptive deep knowledge, productive collocation knowledge, and productive lexico-pragmatic knowledge in a group of long-residency Swedish French second language (L2)…

  19. The Effects of Captions in Teenagers' Multimedia L2 Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwo, Laurence; Lin, Michelle Chia-Tzu

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of different captions on second language (L2) learning in a computer-assisted multimedia context. A quasi-experimental design was adopted, and a total of thirty-two eighth graders selected from a junior high school joined the study. They were systematically assigned into four groups based on their proficiency…

  20. Awareness of L1/L2 Differences: Does It Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammar, Ahlem; Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina

    2010-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the extent to which francophone learners of English as a second language (ESL) are aware of the differences between French and English question formation and how such awareness relates to their L2 performance. Three tasks were administered to 58 grades 5 and 6 francophone ESL learners. In a grammaticality…

  1. Strategic Processing and Predictive Inference Generation in L2 Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahatame, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    Predictive inference is the anticipation of the likely consequences of events described in a text. This study investigated predictive inference generation during second language (L2) reading, with a focus on the effects of strategy instructions. In this experiment, Japanese university students read several short narrative passages designed to…

  2. Assessing L2 Knowledge of Spanish Clitic Placement: Converging Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Nigel; White, Lydia

    1999-01-01

    Reports on an experiment investigating adult second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish object clitic placement by native speakers of English and French. Two experimental methodologies are compared: an on-line sentence matching task and an off-line grammaticality judgment task. (Author/VWL)

  3. Appraisal Systems in L2 vs. L3 Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrys-Barker, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a comment on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences at the level of appraisals, that is, variables that "assign value to current stimuli based on past experience". In the theoretical part of the article the concept of appraisals is introduced and briefly outlined from the different…

  4. Attention, Awareness, and Accents in L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    The present research applies the concepts of attention, awareness, and noticing to a previously unresolved strand of inquiry: accent marks in L2 (second language) French. Previous research found that learners who typed accented words had better recall of the accent marks than those who wrote the same words by hand. Sturm suggested that it may have…

  5. Aspects of Working Memory in L2 Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffs, Alan; Harrington, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on working memory (WM) and its use in second language (L2) acquisition research. Recent developments in the model and issues surrounding the operationalization of the construct itself are presented, followed by a discussion of various methods of measuring WM. These methods include word and digit span tasks, reading,…

  6. "I Know the Word, but..." Korean-English Late Bilinguals' Vocabulary Knowledge in the L1 and L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun Hee Ok

    2005-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes report on difficulties in finding words while speaking in the first language (L1) or the second language (L2), which is frequently attributed to the negative influence of one language onto the other. This paper addresses this issue by investigating the relationship between L1 and L2 vocabulary knowledge of Korean-English…

  7. Verbal Inflectional Morphology in L1 and L2 Spanish: A Frequency Effects Study Examining Storage versus Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Harriet Wood; Gelfand, Matthew P.; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the storage versus composition of Spanish inflected verbal forms in first language (L1) and second language (L2) speakers of Spanish. L2 participants were selected to have mid-to-advanced proficiency, high classroom experience, and low immersion experience, typical of medium-to-advanced foreign language learners. Participants…

  8. The Role of First Language Literacy and Second Language Proficiency in Second Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships of first language (L1) literacy, second language (L2) proficiency, and L2 reading comprehension with 246 Chinese college students learning English. L1 literacy and L2 proficiency were measured with college admission exams in Chinese and English. L2 reading comprehension was measured with the reading…

  9. Grammatical Gender Processing in L2: Electrophysiological Evidence of the Effect of L1-L2 Syntactic Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucart, Alice; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency and similarity between the first and the second language on grammatical gender processing in L2. In three experiments, we manipulated gender agreement violations within the determiner phrase (DP), between the determiner and the noun (Experiment 1), the postposed adjective and the noun (Experiment 2)…

  10. Long-Term Relationships among Early First Language Skills, Second Language Aptitude, Second Language Affect, and Later Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-four students were followed over 10 years beginning in first grade to determine best predictors of oral and written second language (L2) proficiency. Predictor variables included measures of first language (L1) skill administered in first through fifth grades, L1 academic aptitude, L2 aptitude (Modern Language Aptitude Test), and L2 affect…

  11. Un Test contrastif oral pour l'evaluation des difficultes lexicales dans l'apprentissage de l'anglais L2 (An Oral Contrastive Test for the Evaluation of Lexical Difficulties in Learning English as a Second Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeusser, Christiane

    1978-01-01

    The test described here is a particular type of diagnostic test; it is part of a series of tests designed to explore systematically areas of potential lexical difficulty in the English language for French-speaking students of English. The lexical units are considered under their formal, morphological, syntactic and semantic aspects. The test has…

  12. On the Syntax-Semantics Interface in Dutch: Adult and Child L2 Acquisition Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Using experimental data from adult and child non-native language acquirers (L2ers), this paper addresses "interface issues" in language acquisition in two different ways. First, it examines the acquisition of direct object scrambling in Dutch, a phenomenon which involves the interaction of at least two different modules of language, i.e., syntax…

  13. Leveling L2 Texts through Readability: Combining Multilevel Linguistic Features with the CEFR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Lin, Wei-Chun; Dyson, Scott Benjamin; Chang, Kuo-En; Chen, Yu-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Selecting appropriate texts for L2 (second/foreign language) learners is an important approach to enhancing motivation and, by extension, learning. There is currently no tool for classifying foreign language texts according to a language proficiency framework, which makes it difficult for students and educators to determine the precise…

  14. Learning Exponents of Number on First Exposure to an L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susanne E.; Widjaja, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Number lends itself to the study of how input interacts with transferred first language (L1) knowledge to facilitate or impede second language (L2) learning. We present data from adult English speakers exposed for the first time to Indonesian, a language that expresses number through bare noun phrases, reduplication and numeral + classifier…

  15. The Multiple Grammars Theory and the Nature of L2 Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liceras, Juana M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammar (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and touches on other second language acquisition research. Topics discussed include the concept of second language (L2) optionality, a hypothesis regarding the acquisition of the…

  16. Comparing Hypertext Reading in L1 and L2: The Case of Filipino Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruspe, Michael Angelo M.; Marinas, Christian Joshua L.; Villasin, Marren Nicole F.; Villanueva, Ariel Josephe Therese R.; Vizconde, Camilla J.

    2015-01-01

    This research probed into the reading experiences of adult readers in their first language (L1) and second language (L2). Qualitative in nature, the investigation focused on twelve (12) adult readers , six (6) males and six (6) females, whose first language is Filipino. Data were gathered through interviews and focus-group discussions. Based on…

  17. Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama "From the Learner's Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Following the trend of computer assisted language learning (CALL), in Taiwan, most language classes now have equivalent media support for language teachers and learners. Implementing videos into classroom activities is one of the choices. The current study explores the process of implementing American TV drama in L2 vocabulary learning from…

  18. Gender Differences in Identity and Acculturation Patterns and L2 Accent Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Nihat; Mahalingappa, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Addressing the influence of sociocultural theory, current views of second language acquisition situate language learning in a much broader context than the isolated box of the classroom. There is need to consider second language (L2) acquisition practices more broadly. This study addresses differences between girls and boys of Kurdish ethnic…

  19. Learnability and Parametric Change in the Nominal System of L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    In this article I provide evidence that despite frequently cited differences between child first language (L1) and adult second language (L2) speakers in overt behavior (performance) during grammatical development, the nature, source, and limits of implicit knowledge (competence) in native and second language grammars are equivalent (i.e., they…

  20. Four-dimensional investigation of the 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, O.; Tzallas, P.; Benis, E. P.; Kruse, J.; Peralta Conde, A.; Kalpouzos, C.; Charalambidis, D.

    2009-10-01

    The 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique, widely utilized in directly measuring ultra-short light pulses durations, is examined in detail via model calculations that include three-dimensional integration over a large ionization volume, temporal delay and spatial displacement of the two beams of the autocorrelator at the focus. The effects of the inherent displacement to the 2nd order autocorrelation technique are demonstrated for short and long pulses, elucidating the appropriate implementation of the technique in tight focusing conditions. Based on the above investigations, a high accuracy 2nd order volume autocorrelation measurement of the duration of the 5th harmonic of a 50 fs long laser pulse, including the measurement of the carrier wavelength oscillation, is presented.

  1. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  2. Regional Observations of North Korea Explosions: 1st and 2nd Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Shin, Jin Soo; Lee, Hee-Il; Park, Jung Ho; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung; Kim, Tea Sung; Che, Il-Young; Lim, In-Seub

    2010-05-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthally full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of the 1st and the 2nd test data showed that the 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly discriminate these events from two nearby natural earthquakes above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion also indicate the 2nd test had a very large isotropic component. But mb-Ms discrimination, which has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of the 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of both 1st and 2nd tests, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. These variations are mainly due to lateral variation of crustal structures surrounding the test site. Remarkably mb(Lg) showed very linear relationship with mb(Pn). By considering attenuation characteristics according to the propagation path, the variations could be effectively reduced. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of both tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of the 2nd test were much larger than that of the 1st one. The ratio of P-wave amplitudes of two tests showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the

  3. Monitoring North Korea Explosions: Status and Result of 1st and 2nd Tests (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H.; Lee, H.; Shin, J.; Park, J.; Sheen, D.; Kim, G.; Che, I.; Lim, I.; Kim, T.

    2009-12-01

    Through data exchanging with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could monitor North Korea explosion tests in near real time with azimuthal full coverage from the test site. Except for the East Sea (Japan Sea) side, the seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries of North Korea and adjacent countries, and only stations with the distance of 200 to 550 Km from the test site were considered. Irrespective of azimuthal directions of stations from the test site, the conventional discrimination, Pn/Lg spectral ratio clearly showed that both tests were explosion. But mb-Ms discrimination did not show apparently the known pattern of explosion for both tests. Body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) of 2nd test, which was evaluated as 4.5 by KIGAM, varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg, mb(Lg), showed narrow variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.5. In the case of 1st test, both mb(Pn) and mb(Lg) showed equivalently large variation with directional station location. The error ellipses of epicentral determination of test site for 1st and 2nd tests showed almost identical pattern if they were separately calculated with the same configuration of stations. But the combined use of 1st and 2nd test data showed that 2nd test site was moved approximately 2 Km westward from 1st site. The cut-off frequencies of P wave of 1st and 2nd tests showed no or negligible difference even though the estimated yield of 2nd test were much larger than that of 1st one. The ratio of 1st and 2nd P-wave amplitudes showed from 2 to 3.1 times. Correspondingly the estimated energy or yield were ranged from 4 to roughly 10 times. KIGAM evaluated the yield of 2nd test were 8 times in the average larger than that of 1st one.

  4. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Maxfield, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This NERL-Cincinnati publication, “Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition” was prepared as the continuation of an initiative to gather together under a single cover a compendium of standardized laborato...

  6. 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of China (ESC) and Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME) hosted the 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases in Beijing, China, May 23-27, 2011. The theme of the Forum was “Impact of global climate ch...

  7. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  8. Stem cells and cancer immunotherapy: Arrowhead’s 2nd annual cancer immunotherapy conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from academia and industry gathered on April 4 and 5, 2013, in Washington DC at the Arrowhead’s 2nd Annual Cancer Immunotherapy Conference. Two complementary concepts were discussed: cancer “stem cells” as targets and therapeutic platforms based on stem cells.

  9. Evaluation of a Hand Washing Program for 2nd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program.…

  10. The Effect of Using Computer Edutainment on Developing 2nd Primary Graders' Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Abdel Raheem, Azza Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempted to examine the effect of using computer edutainment on developing 2nd graders' writing skills. The study comprised thirty-second year primary stage enrolled in Bani Hamad primary governmental school, Minia governorate. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one…

  11. 70. VIEW OF LIFEGUARD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. VIEW OF LIFEGUARD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT) AND NORTHWEST SIDE OF TEE (RIGHT), WITH VIEW OF PILINGS, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 71. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2ND TEE (LEFT), SHOWING VIEW OF PILINGS, LIFEGURD TOWER ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF TEE (RIGHT), LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. L2-cohomology of arithmetic varieties

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Leslie; Stern, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The L2-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L2-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

  14. L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic varieties.

    PubMed

    Saper, L; Stern, M

    1987-08-01

    The L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L(2)-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

  15. The Effect of Phonetics Instruction on Adult Learners' Perception and Production of L2 Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissling, Elizabeth Maria

    2012-01-01

    Traditional pronunciation instruction and instruction in second language (L2) phonetics have been shown to improve learners' L2 accent in some, though certainly not all, cases. Learners in intermediate and advanced Spanish FL courses have shown modest improvement in the pronunciation of some L2 phones after receiving such instruction.…

  16. Switches to English during French Service Encounters: Relationships with L2 French Speakers' Willingness to Communicate and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Stephanie; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated second language (L2) French speakers' service encounters in the multilingual setting of Montreal, specifically whether switches to English during French service encounters were related to L2 speakers' willingness to communicate or motivation. Over a two-week period, 17 French L2 speakers in Montreal submitted…

  17. L2 Learning Opportunities in Different Academic Subjects in Content-Based Instruction -- Evidence in Favour of "Conventional Wisdom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2014-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) adopts a second language (L2) as the medium of instruction for some or all academic subjects to facilitate L2 learning. There seem however, no uniform policies concerning which academic subjects should be taught in L2, in case only some subjects are involved. Conventional wisdom tends to favour Humanities subjects…

  18. L2 English Intonation: Relations between Form-Meaning Associations, Access to Meaning, and L1 Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Colantoni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Although there is consistent evidence that higher levels of processing, such as learning the form-meaning associations specific to the second language (L2), are a source of difficulty in acquiring L2 speech, no study has addressed how these levels interact in shaping L2 perception and production of intonation. We examine the hypothesis of whether…

  19. Shared Features of L2 Writing: Intergroup Homogeneity and Text Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates intergroup homogeneity within high intermediate and advanced L2 writers of English from Czech, Finnish, German, and Spanish first language backgrounds. A variety of linguistic features related to lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and cohesion were used to compare texts written by L1 speakers of English to L2

  20. From Number Agreement to the Subjunctive: Evidence for Processability Theory in L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to typological plausibility of Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998, 2005) by providing empirical data that show that the stages predicted by PT are followed in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish syntax and morphology. In the present article, the PT stages for L2 Spanish morphology and syntax are first…

  1. Acquisition of Article Semantics by Child and Adult L2-English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ionin, Tania; Zubizarreta, Maria Luisa; Philippov, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines article use in the L2-English of adult and child speakers of Russian, an article-less language. In earlier work on articles in adult L2-English, Ionin, Ko and Wexler (2004) proposed that speakers of article-less L1s fluctuate between dividing English articles on the basis of definiteness vs. specificity, as a result of direct…

  2. Conventional Expressions as a Pragmalinguistic Resource: Recognition and Production of Conventional Expressions in L2 Pragmatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the source of second language (L2) learners' low use of conventional expressions--one part of pragmalinguistic competence--by investigating the relationship between recognition and production of conventional expressions in L2 pragmatics. Two tasks--an aural recognition task and an oral production task--were completed by 122…

  3. The Effects of Textual Enhancement Type on L2 Form Recognition and Reading Comprehension in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrozzi, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research investigating the effectiveness of textual enhancement as a tool to draw adult second language (L2) learners' attention to the targeted linguistic form has consistently produced mixed results. This article examines how L2 form recognition and reading comprehension are affected by different types of textual enhancement.…

  4. Writing in an Electronic Age: A Case Study of L2 Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Studies on second language (L2) learners writing in English have found that composing is a recursive process requiring planning, formulating and revising. Of particular note among the many studies that have explored the composing processes of L2 writers are two characteristics: 1) They examine the composing processes of writers in real-time while…

  5. How Involved Are American L2 Learners of Spanish in Lexical Input Processing Tasks during Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulido, Diana

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the involvement load (Laufer & Hulstijn, 2001) in second language (L2) lexical input processing through reading by considering the effects of the reader-based factors of L2 reading proficiency and background knowledge. The lexical input processing aspects investigated were lexical inferencing (search), attentional…

  6. Grammatical Gender in L2: A Production or a Real-Time Processing Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruter, Theres; Lew-Williams, Casey; Fernald, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Mastery of grammatical gender is difficult to achieve in a second language (L2). This study investigates whether persistent difficulty with grammatical gender often observed in the speech of otherwise highly proficient L2 learners is best characterized as a production-specific performance problem, or as difficulty with the retrieval of gender…

  7. Frequency Effects in L2 Multiword Unit Processing: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soo Hyon; Kim, Ji Hyon

    2012-01-01

    Many second language acquisition (SLA) studies have traditionally limited their scope of investigation to the description and analysis of errors in L2 learners' use of multiword units. Recently, researchers have begun to approach this topic from a psycholinguistic perspective, examining the processing of multiword units by L2 learners. However,…

  8. Handling Discourse: Gestures, Reference Tracking, and Communication Strategies in Early L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullberg, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The production of cohesive discourse, especially maintained reference, poses problems for early second language L2 speakers. This paper considers a communicative account of overexplicit L2 discourse by focusing on the interdependence between spoken and gestural cohesion, the latter being expressed by anchoring of referents in gesture space.…

  9. Looking for the Big Picture: Macrostrategies for L2 Teacher Observation and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Spencer; Mercado, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive body of literature in TESOL studies the different paradigms that drive second language (L2) teachers' conceptualizations of their professional identities and practice, there is still a need for more research into how L2 supervisors construct the realities of supervision and how their interpretations of those realities inform…

  10. The Effects of Corrective Feedback on Instructed L2 Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Andrew H.; Lyster, Roy

    2016-01-01

    To what extent do second language (L2) learners benefit from instruction that includes corrective feedback (CF) on L2 speech perception? This article addresses this question by reporting the results of a classroom-based experimental study conducted with 32 young adult Korean learners of English. An instruction-only group and an instruction + CF…

  11. Grapho-Morphological Awareness in Spanish L2 Reading: How Do Learners Use This Metalinguistic Skill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Nausica Marcos

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on the transferability of grapho-morphological awareness (GMA) for second language (L2) learners by analysing L2 learners' knowledge of morphology in reading. GMA helps readers to identify grammatical categories, infer meanings of unfamiliar words, and access stored lexical information. Previous research…

  12. Effects of Web-Based Collaborative Writing on Individual L2 Writing Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bikowski, Dawn; Vithanage, Ramyadarshanie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated in-class web-based collaborative writing tasks on second language writers' (L2) individual writing scores. A pre-test post-test research model was used in addition to participant surveys, class observations, and teacher interviews. Participants included 59 L2 writers in a writing class at a large U.S.…

  13. Isolated and Integrated Form-Focused Instruction: Effects on Different Types of L2 Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina; Jessop, Lorena; Tomita, Yasuyo; Suzuki, Wataru; Valeo, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    In this study we compared the effects of two types of form-focused instruction (FFI) on second language (L2) learning and their potential contributions to the development of different types of L2 knowledge. Both types of instruction were pre-emptive in nature, that is planned and teacher generated. In Integrated FFI attention to form was embedded…

  14. The Use of Conjunctions in Cognitively Simple versus Complex Oral L2 Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Marije C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores the use of conjunctions in simple versus complex argumentative tasks performed by second language (L2) learners as a specific measure for the amount of reasoning involved in task performance. The Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2005) states that an increase in cognitive task complexity promotes improvements in L2

  15. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  16. Perceptual Paths to Accurate Production of L2 Vowels: The Role of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Wendy; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether individual differences in learners' age of arrival (AOA) and length of residence (LOR) in a country where a second language (L2) is spoken determine the relationship between L2 perception and production. In the first experiment, 40 Korean learners of English and 10 native English speakers participated in vowel…

  17. Exploring the Potential Relationship between Eye Gaze and English L2 Speakers' Responses to Recasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Crowther, Dustin; Kielstra, Paula; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether joint attention through eye gaze was predictive of second language (L2) speakers' responses to recasts. L2 English learners (N = 20) carried out communicative tasks with research assistants who provided feedback in response to non-targetlike (non-TL) forms. Their interaction was audio-recorded and their…

  18. L2 Reading Comprehension and Its Correlates: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee; Yamashita, Junko

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examined the overall average correlation (weighted for sample size and corrected for measurement error) between passage-level second language (L2) reading comprehension and 10 key reading component variables investigated in the research domain. Four high-evidence correlates (with 18 or more accumulated effect sizes: L2

  19. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  20. College Students' Possible L2 Self Development in an EFL Context during the Transition Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Ying; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the field of second language learning motivation, the studies on process-oriented nature of possible L2 selves are scarce. In order to address this research gap, this study explored how a group of five Chinese non-English-major undergraduates developed their possible L2 selves during the transition year from high school to university. The…

  1. Simulation-Based L2 Writing Instruction: Enhancement through Genre Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, An

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have highlighted various benefits of the simulation-based approach to second language (L2) writing instruction. In this article, the author argues, with specific pedagogical scenarios, that an explicit focus on genre and genre analysis in simulation-based L2 writing instruction can further enhance learners' reading of content…

  2. Motivation and Persistence of Learning among L2 Learners in Self-Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Chika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between learners' motivation to learn a second language (L2) and persistence in their learning using self-instructional radio (SIR) materials with a sample of Japanese high school students learning English. L2 self-instruction remains under-researched, in spite of the importance of out-of-class learning…

  3. L2 Reading Perceptions of Learners of Japanese: The Influence of the Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabata-Sandom, Mitsue

    2015-01-01

    The nature of learning to read in a second and foreign language (L2) can be more challenging when compared to learning other subjects. Therefore, the influence of instruction given in L2 classrooms cannot be underestimated. A balanced instruction needs to be taken in order to develop learners' reading proficiency and their motivation to read. This…

  4. A Review of Multimedia Glosses and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in CALL Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohsen, Mohammed Ali; Balakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the literature of multimedia glosses in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and their effects on L2 vocabulary acquisition during the past seventeen years. Several studies have touched on this area to examine the potential of multimedia in a CALL environment in aiding L2 vocabulary acquisition. In this review, the…

  5. The Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Proficiency Link: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    With economic globalisation making second language (L2) learning inevitable throughout the world, understanding what factors facilitate success is a socioeconomic necessity. This paper examined the role of social factors, those related to ethnic group affiliation (EGA), in the development of L2 proficiency. Although numerous studies have…

  6. Thinking with Your Hands: Speech-Gesture Activity during an L2 Awareness-Raising Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of second language (L2) French learners' self-generated use of gesture to think through and resolve a metalinguistic awareness-raising task during small-group work with an expert mediator. Although the use of gesture in L2 communication and pedagogy has recently received increasing attention, little research has…

  7. Effects of Synonym Generation on Incidental and Intentional L2 Vocabulary Learning during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effects of synonym generation on second language (L2) vocabulary learning during reading in both incidental and intentional vocabulary learning contexts. Spanish-speaking adult learners of L2 English (N = 114) at low- and high-intermediate proficiency levels read an English passage containing 10 target words translated in the…

  8. Factors Influencing L2 Gender Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In four experiments we explored processes underlying L2 gender retrieval. We focused on L1 interference and on the influence of the L2 noun's termination. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tried to manipulate the intensity of L1 interference. We found that L2 speakers cannot eliminate or substantially reduce the interlingual interference neither when they…

  9. Review Article: A Tree in the Wood--A Review of Research on L2 Chinese Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable research in Chinese as a second language (L2) in recent years, particularly in its morphological and syntactic aspects. This article reviews research in these aspects with reference to the broader discipline of second language acquisition (SLA) and suggests that L2 Chinese research has contributed to SLA through…

  10. A Case Study on the Effects of an L2 Writing Instructional Model for Blended Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Lee; Lee, Chung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This case study explores EFL (English as a foreign language) students' perceptions toward a prototype of an instructional model for second language (L2) writing in blended learning and the effects of the model on the development of L2 writing skills in higher education. This model is primarily founded on the process-oriented writing approach…

  11. How Different Are They? A Comparison of Generation 1.5 and International L2 Learners' Writing Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Gennaro, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of literature in second-language writing suggests that the writing ability of international second language (L2) learners, who attend post-secondary education abroad after having completed high school in their home countries, and the so-called Generation 1.5 population, that is, L2 learners who enter post-secondary education after…

  12. Influence of L2 Proficiency on Speech Movement Variability: Production of Prosodic Contrasts by Bengali-English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of age of immersion and proficiency in a second language on speech movement consistency in both a first and a second language. Ten monolingual speakers of English and 20 Bengali-English bilinguals (10 with low L2 proficiency and 10 with high L2 proficiency) participated. Lip movement variability was assessed based…

  13. Comments on Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2012-01-01

    Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?" (2011) offers some constructive criticism regarding the conventional terminology used in second language (L2) acquisition research and language pedagogy. Although the author finds much of their evidence reasonable and is…

  14. Word Association in L1 and L2: An Exploratory Study of Response Types, Response Times, and Interlingual Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Tess; Izura, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Word association responses in first-language (L1) Spanish and second-language (L2) English were investigated by means of response latencies and types of associative response produced. The primary aims were to establish whether (a) some response types are produced more often or faster than others, (b) participants' L2 response time profiles mirror…

  15. Issues in the Assessment of Bilingually Educated Students: Expressing Subject Knowledge through L1 and L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gablasova, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses issues related to oral assessment of school knowledge of L2-educated students. In particular, it examines benefits and disadvantages of students being tested in their L1 (their dominant language) and in their L2 (their language of instruction). The study draws on the data from 37 high school students studying in a content…

  16. Exploring Utterance and Cognitive Fluency of L1 and L2 English Speakers: Temporal Measures and Stimulated Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    Although fluency constitutes an essential component of second language (L2) proficiency, there are mixed results and gaps in the literature on how L2 speakers' fluency differs from fluent speech production in a first language (L1). The research reported in this article investigated utterance fluency and cognitive fluency of L1 English…

  17. Self-Consciousness and Assertiveness as Explanatory Variables of L2 Oral Ability: A Latent Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on current theories in personality, second-language (L2) oral ability, and psychometrics, this study investigates the extent to which self-consciousness and assertiveness are explanatory variables of L2 oral ability. Three hundred sixty first-year Japanese university students who were studying English as a foreign language participated in…

  18. L1 Transfer in Article Selection for Generic Reference by Spanish, Turkish and Japanese L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snape, Neal; García-Mayo, Maria Del Pilar; Gurel, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    This study examines second language (L2) acquisition of English generic noun phrases (NPs) by Spanish, Turkish and Japanese learners. The aim is to identify the role of the first language (L1) in the L2 acquisition of definite NP-level generics and indefinite sentence-level generics with singular, bare plural, and mass generic nouns. The four…

  19. L2 Acquisition of Prosodic Properties of Speech Rhythm: Evidence from L1 Mandarin and German Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Aike; Post, Brechtje

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) learners of typologically different first languages (L1s) at different levels of proficiency. An empirical investigation of durational variation in L2 English productions by L1 Mandarin learners and L1 German learners compared to native control values in English and the…

  20. A Frequency-Based Approach to L2 Phonological Learning: Teacher Input and Student Output in an Intensive ESL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Collins, Laura; Cardoso, Walcir; White, Joanna; Horst, Marlise

    2012-01-01

    Most second language (L2) researchers and teachers would agree that input, often defined as the language a learner hears or reads, plays an important role in L2 learning. There is a great deal of research investigating which types of input are most beneficial for learning, how learners process and internalize input (e.g., Schmidt, 2001), and how…

  1. Parsing Strategies in L1 and L2 Sentence Processing: A Study of Relative Clause Attachment in Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Despina; Clahsen, Harald

    2003-01-01

    To contribute to a better understanding of second language (L2) sentence processing, the present study examines how L2 learners parse temporarily ambiguous sentences containing relative clauses. Results are reported from both off-line and on-line experiments with three groups of advanced learners of Greek whose native languages (L1s) were Spanish,…

  2. The Interrelationship among First Language Writing Skills, Second Language Writing Skills, and Second Language Proficiency of EFL University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Fumihiko

    2004-01-01

    Background: Over the past twenty years, many investigations have been carried out to identify factors influencing second language (L2) learning. Specifically, investigations of the relationship among first language (L1) reading skills, L2 reading skills, and L2 proficiency have been variously conducted, to contribute to the overall growth of L1-L2

  3. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  4. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  5. Roles of General versus Second Language (L2) Knowledge in L2 Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the roles of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies, syntactic awareness in English, and English vocabulary knowledge in the English reading comprehension of Chinese-speaking university students (n = 278). Results suggested a two-factor model of a General Reading Knowledge factor (metacognitive awareness employed during the…

  6. Affecting Factors in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, G.; Vlachos, F.; Andreou, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…

  7. Individual Differences In The School Performance of 2nd-Grade Children Born to Low-Income Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apiwattanalunggarn, Kunlakarn Lekskul; Luster, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that contribute to individual differences in the school performance of 2nd-grade children born to adolescent mothers. The sample of this study was 90 low-income adolescent mothers and their children. Data were collected from the adolescent mothers and their first-born children, now in 2nd grade,…

  8. Second Language Reading Research: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelrigg, Amy C.

    2008-01-01

    Second language research and classroom practice have tended to sideline reading in favor of an emphasis on the oral language development of the English Language Learner (ELL). First-language (L1) reading research is well developed but has limited usefulness to the teacher or researcher interested in second-language (L2) reading. Developing L2

  9. Context affects L1 but not L2 during bilingual word recognition: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Pellikka, Janne; Helenius, Päivi; Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Lehtonen, Minna

    2015-03-01

    How do bilinguals manage the activation levels of the two languages and prevent interference from the irrelevant language? Using magnetoencephalography, we studied the effect of context on the activation levels of languages by manipulating the composition of word lists (the probability of the languages) presented auditorily to late Finnish-English bilinguals. We first determined the upper limit time-window for semantic access, and then focused on the preceding responses during which the actual word recognition processes were assumedly ongoing. Between 300 and 500 ms in the temporal cortices (in the N400 m response) we found an asymmetric language switching effect: the responses to L1 Finnish words were affected by the presentation context unlike the responses to L2 English words. This finding suggests that the stronger language is suppressed in an L2 context, supporting models that allow auditory word recognition to be affected by contextual factors and the language system to be subject to inhibitory influence. PMID:25656318

  10. Vocabulary Size Matters: The Assimilation of Second-Language Australian English Vowels to First-Language Japanese Vowel Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Rikke L.; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Adult second-language (L2) learners' perception of L2 phonetic segments is influenced by first-language phonological and phonetic properties. It was recently proposed that L2 vocabulary size in adult learners is related to changes in L2 perception (perceptual assimilation model), analogous to the emergence of first-language phonological function…

  11. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.4: Vortex Transport by Uniform Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d. The CESE method is a time accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist, the 2nd-order accurate version was used. In regards to the ez4d code, it is an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available. As part of its architecture, ez4d has the capability to utilize multi-thread and Messaging Passage Interface (MPI) for parallel runs.

  12. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.1: Transonic Ringleb Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d (an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available.) The CESE method is a time-accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist.

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  14. Wh-Questions in Child L2 French: Derivational Complexity and Its Interactions with L1 Properties, Length of Exposure, Age of Exposure, and the Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prévost, Philippe; Strik, Nelleke; Tuller, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how derivational complexity interacts with first language (L1) properties, second language (L2) input, age of first exposure to the target language, and length of exposure in child L2 acquisition. We compared elicited production of "wh"-questions in French in two groups of 15 participants each, one with L1 English…

  15. [Employment and education in the 2nd economic and social development plan of Togo].

    PubMed

    Dovi-sodemekou, F B

    1985-01-01

    Togo is a developing country whose population is increasing at the rapid rate of 2.7%/year. Economic development is therefore a necessity to ensure at least an average standard of living. Plans of development include objectives of structural societal changes, including improvements in education and employment. This study analyzes the evolution of population activities. It identifies obstacles to the improvement of education and employment. The investigation examines the employment and education situation before adoption of the 2nd plan of Togo and predicts the probable evolution of the situation. Despite the priority accorded to agriculture, the 2nd plan appears to give greater importance to industry. The industrial and commercial sector has witnessed a 65.2% investment increase, whereas the rural sector had an investment increase of 11.8%. The 2nd plan, in view of its relation to the evolution of economic activities, took into account the demand for manual labor. In the private sector, industries should occupy an important position. The dualism of a modern and a traditional sector is considered a cause of underdevelopment. The modern sector should be developed in order to suppress the traditional sector and allow progress in society. As a result of this approach, agriculture is given a 2ndary role. PMID:12267415

  16. Very large millimeter/submillimeter array toward search for 2nd Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Saito, Masao

    2012-09-01

    ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) is a revolutionary radio telescope and its early scientific operation has just started. It is expected that ALMA will resolve several cosmic questions and will give us a new cosmic view. Our passion for astronomy naturally goes beyond ALMA because we believe that the 21st-century astronomy should pursue the new scientific frontier. In this conference, we propose a project of the future radio telescope to search for habitable planets and finally detect 2nd Earth as a migratable planet. Detection of 2nd Earth is one of the ultimate dreams not only for astronomers but also for every human being. To directly detect 2nd Earth, we have to carefully design the sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope by conducting trade-off analysis between the confusion limit and the minimum detectable temperature. The result of the sensitivity analysis is derived assuming an array that has sixty-four (64) 50-m antennas with 25-μm surface accuracy mainly located within the area of 300 km (up to 3000 km), dual-polarization SSB receivers with the best noise temperature performance achieved by ALMA or better, and IF bandwidth of 128 or 256 GHz.. We temporarily name this telescope "Very Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (VLMSA)". Since this sensitivity is extremely high, we can have a lot of chances to study the galaxy, star formation, cosmology and of course the new scientific frontier.

  17. NASA 2nd Generation RLV Program Introduction, Status and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan L.; Smith, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI), managed by the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2ndGen RLV) Program, was established to examine the possibility of revolutionizing space launch capabilities, define conceptual architectures, and concurrently identify the advanced technologies required to support a next-generation system. Initial Program funds have been allocated to design, evaluate, and formulate realistic plans leading to a 2nd Gen RLV full-scale development (FSD) decision by 2006. Program goals are to reduce both risk and cost for accessing the limitless opportunities afforded outside Earth's atmosphere fo civil, defense, and commercial enterprises. A 2nd Gen RLV architecture includes a reusable Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle, an on-orbit transport and return vehicle, ground and flight operations, mission planning, and both on-orbit and on-the-ground support infrastructures All segments of the architecture must advance in step with development of the RLV if a next-generation system is to be fully operational early next decade. However, experience shows that propulsion is the single largest contributor to unreliability during ascent, requires the largest expenditure of time for maintenance, and takes a long time to develop; therefore, propulsion is the key to meeting safety, reliability, and cost goals. For these reasons, propulsion is SLI's top technology investment area.

  18. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  19. FL/L2 Reading, Grammatical Information, and the Input-to-Intake Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, David J.

    1994-01-01

    This study focused on the input-to-intake phenomenon: Can foreign language/second language (L2) learner-readers process grammatical information presented via written input as intake? Multiple tasks were designed to assess the processing of input into intake by first- and second-year students of Spanish. (JL)

  20. Does the Medium Really Matter in L2 Development? The Validity of Call Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo, Luis; Baralt, Melissa; Suh, Bo-Ram; Leow, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, an increasing number of educational institutions are redefining second/foreign language (L2) classrooms by enhancing--or even replacing--traditional face-to-face (FTF) instruction with computer-assisted language learning (CALL). However, are these curricular decisions supported by research? Overall, a cursory review of empirical studies…

  1. Questioning English Standards: Learner Attitudes and L2 Choices in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindal, Ulrikke

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes towards varieties of English among Norwegian adolescent learners and assesses the role of social evaluation for second language (L2) pronunciation choices by combining a verbal guise test with speaker commentary and reports of language choices. The results suggest that while American English is the most accessible…

  2. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  3. Aspectual Knowledge of High Proficiency L2 and Heritage Speakers of Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of an interpretation task that captures whether high proficiency heritage language (HL) learners of Russian converge with monolingual (L1) speakers or proficiency-matched foreign language (L2) learners in their interpretation of aspectual pairs and whether the absence of convergence arises in the lexical component of…

  4. Frequency of Input and L2 Collocational Processing: A Comparison of Congruent and Incongruent Collocations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Brent; Gyllstad, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of frequency effects on the processing of congruent (i.e., having an equivalent first language [L1] construction) collocations and incongruent (i.e., not having an equivalent L1 construction) collocations in a second language (L2). An acceptability judgment task was administered to native and advanced…

  5. An Investigation of Experience in L2 Phonology: Does Quality Matter More than Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Alene

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the significance of language use for second language (L2) accent and tests it against factors such as length of residence (LOR) and age of onset (AO). Participants include 42 non-native speakers of English and 8 native speaker controls. Read-aloud items and guided free-speaking tasks are rated on a 5-point scale. Correlation…

  6. Use of L1 in L2 Reading Comprehension among Tertiary ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Goh Hock; Hashim, Fatimah

    2006-01-01

    This study is an attempt to provide insights into the extent of first language (L1) use while reading second language (L2) texts in a collaborative situation among tertiary ESL learners. Through the identification of reading strategies utilized by the subjects, the study is also aimed at discovering possible reasons for the use of L1 while…

  7. Developmental Word Recognition: A Study of L1 English Readers of L2 Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikamatsu, Nobuko

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on developmental word recognition strategies used by first language (L1) English readers of second language (L2) Japanese. There were two proficiency groups of Japanese learners. The study considered whether or not word recognition strategies are developmental and whether or not L1 orthographic interference (i.e., involvement of…

  8. Learning to Do Concept-Based Pragmatics Instruction: Teacher Development and L2 Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Henery, Ashlie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the development of pedagogical content knowledge in relation to one teacher's experience in learning to engage in a Vygotskian approach to teaching second language (L2) pragmatics known as "concept-based pragmatics instruction" (CBPI). The teacher, Mrs. Hanks, was a PhD candidate in second language acquisition at…

  9. Benefits of Visual Feedback on Segmental Production in the L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    While a growing body of research has established the benefits of pronunciation training on second language (L2) production, these benefits have yet to be incorporated into the general skills language classroom in a systematic manner. Furthermore, although relatively new speech analysis software has been shown to be useful in providing visual…

  10. Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

  11. The Acquisition of the Korean Honorific Affix "(u)si" by Advanced L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jeansue; Jiang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    An experiment investigated adult language learners' ability to develop fully integrated cognitive representations of a difficult second language (L2) morphosyntactic feature: the Korean honorific verbal affix "(u)si." Native speaker (NS) and nonnative speaker (NNS) latencies during a word-by-word self-paced reading comprehension…

  12. Cross-Linguistic Differences and Their Impact on L2 Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carrie N.; Dussias, Paola E.

    2009-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the present study investigates how highly proficient second language (L2) speakers of German with English as their native language process unambiguous "wh"-subject-extractions and "wh"-object-extractions in German. Previous monolingual research has shown that English and German exhibit different processing…

  13. The Effect of Online Translators on L2 Writing in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Errol Marinus

    2012-01-01

    Online translation (OT) sites such as Free Translation and Babel Fish are freely available to the general public and purport to convert inputted text, from single words to entire paragraphs, instantly from one language to another. Discussion in the literature about OT for second-language (L2) acquisition has generally focused either on the…

  14. Responding to L2 Students in College Writing Classes: Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Dana; Brown, Jeffrey; Liu, Hsiang Sean; Stine, Maria Eugenia Arnaudo

    2011-01-01

    Response to student writing has been a research concern for composition specialists for the past several decades. However, most research to date has utilized student opinions or researcher judgments about teacher feedback, with researchers rarely consulting teachers themselves as informants. Also, first language (L1) and second language (L2)…

  15. A Case Study of Extensive Reading with an Unmotivated L2 Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ro, Eunseok

    2013-01-01

    Extensive reading is gaining credibility as an effective way of boosting students' affect especially in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context where access to a second language (L2) input is minimal. This study uses a pattern-matching, single case study research design to examine an adult reader's motivation and anxiety shifts…

  16. Effects of Textual Enhancement and Input Enrichment on L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassaei, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Research on second language (L2) acquisition has recently sought to include formal instruction into second and foreign language classrooms in a more unobtrusive and implicit manner. Textual enhancement and input enrichment are two techniques which are aimed at drawing learners' attention to specific linguistic features in input and at the same…

  17. The Role of Statistical Learning and Working Memory in L2 Speakers' Pattern Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether second language (L2) speakers' morphosyntactic pattern learning was predicted by their statistical learning and working memory abilities. Across three experiments, Thai English as a Foreign Language (EFL) university students (N = 140) were exposed to either the transitive construction in Esperanto (e.g., "tauro…

  18. Teaching and Testing L2 Spanish Listening Using Scripted vs. Unscripted Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elvis; Toth, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Even after years of study, many second language (L2) learners have difficulty comprehending proficient speakers in real-world settings. This difficulty stems partly from the inauthentic nature of the spoken texts learners are exposed to in foreign language (FL) classrooms--scripted, simplified, and overenunciated "textbook texts." This…

  19. A Dynamic Look at L2 Phonological Learning: Seeking Processing Explanations for Implicational Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Segalowitz, Norman

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether second language (L2) phonological learning can be characterized as a gradual and systematically patterned replacement of nonnative segments by native segments in learners' speech, conforming to a two-stage implicational scale. We adopt a dynamic approach to language variation based on Gatbonton's (1975, 1978)…

  20. On the Impact of L2 Speech Rhythm on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Heine, Angela; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    In an event-related potential (ERP) study we investigated the role of age of acquisition (AoA) on the use of second language rhythmic properties during syntactic ambiguity resolution. Syntactically ambiguous sentences embedded in rhythmically regular and irregular contexts were presented to Turkish early and late second language (L2) learners of…

  1. Interaction and Syntactic Priming: English L2 Speakers' Production of Dative Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Interaction research about the role of language production in second language (L2) development has focused largely on modified output, specifically learners' responses to negative feedback (Iwashita, 2001; Loewen & Philp, in press; Mackey & Philp, 1998; McDonough, 2005; McDonough & Mackey, in press; Nobuyoshi & Ellis, 1993; Pica, 1988; Shehadeh,…

  2. Discourse Markers in Italian as L2 in Face to Face vs. Computer Mediated Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Marco, Anna; Leone, Paola

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study aims to highlight a) differences in pragmatic function and distribution of discourse markers (DMs) in computer mediated and face to face (FtF) settings and b) any correlation of DM uses and language competence. The data have been collected by video-recording and analysing three speakers of Italian L2 (language level competence:…

  3. Language Socialization in Korean-as-a-Foreign-Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byon, Andrew Sangpil

    2006-01-01

    Within the language socialization framework, the second language (L2) classroom would constitute a powerful context of secondary socialization, particularly when it exists outside the learners' culture of origin. In this paper, first year Korean-as-a-Foreign-Language (KFL) classrooms are viewed as L2 socializing environments in which students are…

  4. Direction Asymmetries in Spoken and Signed Language Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…

  5. Defining and Operationalising L2 Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulte, Bram; Housen, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This chapter takes a critical look at complexity in L2 research. We demonstrate several problems in the L2 literature in terms of how complexity has been defined and operationalised as a construct. In the first part of the chapter we try to unravel its highly complex, multidimensional nature by presenting a taxonomic model that identifies major…

  6. Phantom Word Activation in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2008-01-01

    L2 listening can involve the phantom activation of words which are not actually in the input. All spoken-word recognition involves multiple concurrent activation of word candidates, with selection of the correct words achieved by a process of competition between them. L2 listening involves more such activation than L1 listening, and we report two…

  7. The Effects of L2 Reading Skills on L1 Reading Skills through Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether transfer from L2 to L1 in reading occurs, and if so, which reading sub-skills are transferred into L1 reading. The aim is to identify the role of second language reading skills in L1 reading skills by means of transfer. In addition, the positive effects of the second language transfer to the first language in the…

  8. Peso Bilingual Language Development Project. Project Evaluation, June 30, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peso Education Service Center Region 16, Amarillo, TX.

    The "PESO" Bilingual Language Development Project was a 1-year pilot study in 4 West Texas county school districts involving 451 Anglo and Mexican American 1st- and 2nd-grade students. The project contained 3 components: (1) the development of bilingual oral and written language skills--instruction in the Spanish language, and the concomitant…

  9. Second Language Learners' Vocabulary Expansion Is Associated with Improved Second Language Vowel Intelligibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Rikke L.; Best, Catherine T.; Kroos, Christian; Tyler, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests the predictions of the vocabulary-tuning model of second language (L2) rephonologization in the domain of L2 segmental production. This model proposes a facilitating effect of adults' L2 vocabulary expansion on L2 perception and production and suggests that early improvements in L2 segmental production may be positively associated…

  10. An Examination of the Validity of English-Language Achievement Test Scores in an English Language Learner Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abella, Rodolfo; Urrutia, Joanne; Shneyderman, Aleksandr

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 1,700 English language learners (ELLs) and former ELL students, in Grades 4 and 10, were tested using both an English-language (Stanford Achievement Test, 9th ed.) and a Spanish-language (Aprenda, 2nd ed.) achievement test. Their performances on the two tests were contrasted. The results showed that ELL students, for the most part,…

  11. Locatives and Existentials in L2 Spanish: The Acquisition of the Semantic Contrasts among "Ser", "Estar" and "Haber"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perpiñán, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses the expression of locative and existential predicates elicited through an oral production task in the speech of two groups of learners of Spanish as a second language (L2) (first language English, n = 18; first language Moroccan Arabic, n = 14), and a native control group (n = 18). A total of 25,000 words were analysed, with…

  12. Processing Modifier-Head Agreement in L1 and L2 Finnish: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Seppo; Pajunen, Anneli; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of first language (L1) on the reading of modifier-head case agreement in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Russian is similar to Finnish in that both languages use case endings to mark grammatical roles, whereas such markings are absent in Chinese. The critical nouns were…

  13. L1 Influence on the Acquisition of L2 Collocations: Japanese ESL Users and EFL Learners Acquiring English Collocations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Junko; Jiang, Nan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated first language (L1) influence on the acquisition of second language (L2) collocations using a framework based on Kroll and Stewart (1994) and Jiang (2000), by comparing the performance on a phrase-acceptability judgment task among native speakers of English, Japanese English as a second language (ESL) users, and Japanese…

  14. Selective Attention and Transfer Phenomena in L2 Acquisition: Contingency, Cue Competition, Salience, Interference, Overshadowing, Blocking, and Perceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.

    2006-01-01

    If first language is rational in the sense that acquisition produces an end-state model of language that is a proper reflection of input and that optimally prepares speakers for comprehension and production, second language is usually not. This paper considers the apparent irrationalities of L2 acquisition, that is the shortcomings where input…

  15. Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsky, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

  16. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  17. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  18. Life Cycle Systems Engineering Approach to NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Safie, Fayssal; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd- generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1 -in- 10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. Given a candidate architecture that possesses credible physical processes and realistic technology assumptions, the next set of analyses address the system's functionality across the spread of operational scenarios characterized by the design reference missions. The safety/reliability and cost/economics associated with operating the system will also be modeled and analyzed to answer the questions "How safe is it?" and "How much will it cost to acquire and operate?" The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and

  19. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd-generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  20. Individual Differences in L2 Learning and Long-Term L1-L2 Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe studies conducted over 25 years with secondary and post-secondary L2 learners in the United States. The evidence from these studies shows that there are important connections between students' early L1 skills and their L2 aptitude and L2 proficiency and that individual differences in students' L1 skills in elementary…

  1. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  2. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:27426066

  3. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  4. Easy Glide in a Coarse-Grained Mg-2Zn-2Nd Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Jonas, John J.; Yue, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Compression tests were performed at 673 K (400 °C) on a Mg-2Zn-2Nd alloy at the strain rates of 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001/s. The 0.1 and 0.01/s flow curves displayed work hardening to a peak stress at around 0.2 true strain. However, testing at 0.001/s led to steady-state flow at about 22 MPa from 0.03 true strain onwards. Such a steady-state flow is attributed to the predominance of basal slip under these conditions.

  5. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Control and Irradiated EPC 2nd Generation GaN FETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Results of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  6. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition?

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Bundred, P E

    2000-05-01

    The ratio between the length of the 2nd and 4th digits is: (a) fixed in utero; (b) lower in men than in women; (c) negatively related to testosterone and sperm counts; and (d) positively related to oestrogen concentrations. Prenatal levels of testosterone and oestrogen have been implicated in infertility, autism, dyslexia, migraine, stammering, immune dysfunction, myocardial infarction and breast cancer. We suggest that 2D:4D ratio is predictive of these diseases and may be used in diagnosis, prognosis and in early life-style interventions which may delay the onset of disease or facilitate its early detection. PMID:10859702

  7. [Infected chorionic hematoma as a cause of infection in the 2nd trimester].

    PubMed

    Weigel, M; Friese, K; Schmitt, W; Strittmatter, H J; Melchert, F

    1992-12-01

    Superinfected subchorionic haematomas are a rare septic focus in the 2nd trimenon. Symptoms being unspecific, the diagnosis has to be made by exclusion, in most cases. As the changes of a successful treatment of the manifest infection is poor, antibiotic prophylaxis as well as close laboratory controls and early antibiotic therapy should be discussed after sonographic diagnosis of an intrauterine haematoma. Two of our three patients reported on having suffered a miscarriage; only one pregnancy could be maintained after spontaneous depletion of the infected haemorrhage. PMID:1490559

  8. L2 Cohomology of the Bergman metric

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Harold; Fefferman, Charles

    1983-01-01

    The L2 cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

  9. L(2) Cohomology of the Bergman metric.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, H; Fefferman, C

    1983-05-01

    The L(2) cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

  10. Counterexamples concerning a weighted L^2 projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinchao

    1991-10-01

    Counterexamples are given to show that some results concerning a weighted {L^2} projection presented earlier by Bramble and the author are sharp, i.e., that certain error and stability estimates are impossible in some cases.

  11. The Benefits of Living in Foreign Language Housing: The Effect of Language Use and Second-Language Type on Oral Proficiency Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Rob A.; Baker, Wendy; Bown, Jennifer; Johnson, Cary

    2011-01-01

    Many colleges and universities in North America employ foreign language housing (FLH) as a means of exposing students to a second language (L2). However, little research examines the effectiveness of these houses on L2 use and gains. The purpose of this study was to examine whether L2 learners living in FLH use the L2 more and whether they make…

  12. Fast Image Reconstruction with L2-Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Berkin; Chatnuntawech, Itthi; Fan, Audrey P.; Setsompop, Kawin; Cauley, Stephen F.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We introduce L2-regularized reconstruction algorithms with closed-form solutions that achieve dramatic computational speed-up relative to state of the art L1- and L2-based iterative algorithms while maintaining similar image quality for various applications in MRI reconstruction. Materials and Methods We compare fast L2-based methods to state of the art algorithms employing iterative L1- and L2-regularization in numerical phantom and in vivo data in three applications; 1) Fast Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSD), 2) Lipid artifact suppression in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI), and 3) Diffusion Spectrum Imaging (DSI). In all cases, proposed L2-based methods are compared with the state of the art algorithms, and two to three orders of magnitude speed up is demonstrated with similar reconstruction quality. Results The closed-form solution developed for regularized QSM allows processing of a 3D volume under 5 seconds, the proposed lipid suppression algorithm takes under 1 second to reconstruct single-slice MRSI data, while the PCA based DSI algorithm estimates diffusion propagators from undersampled q-space for a single slice under 30 seconds, all running in Matlab using a standard workstation. Conclusion For the applications considered herein, closed-form L2-regularization can be a faster alternative to its iterative counterpart or L1-based iterative algorithms, without compromising image quality. PMID:24395184

  13. The Sociocognitive Imperative of L2 Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Paul D.; Davin, Kristin J.

    2016-01-01

    As a new century begins for "The Modern Language Journal," we argue that highly effective pedagogy requires viewing language and language learning as both cognitive and social phenomena, and that teachers who seek to truly understand the nature of their responsibilities do not have the luxury of choosing one perspective over the other.…

  14. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policy makers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  15. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-Jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-Kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-Qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-Wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  16. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence. PMID:26334946

  17. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  18. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, E.; Smith, M.

    2012-07-26

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  19. Cross-language treatment generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Kastl, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent investigations of language gains following treatment in bilingual individuals with chronic aphasia appear to confirm early reports that not only the treated language but also the non-treated language(s) benefit from treatment. The evidence, however, is still suggestive, and the variables that may mitigate generalisation across languages warrant further investigation. Aims We set out to examine cross-language generalisation of language treatment in a trilingual speaker with mild chronic aphasia. Methods & Procedures Language treatment was administered in English, the participant’s second language (L2). The first treatment block focused on morphosyntactic skills and the second on language production rate. Measurements were collected in the treated language (English, L2) as well as the two non-treated languages: Hebrew (the participant’s first language, L1) and French (the participant’s third language, L3). Outcomes & Results The participant showed improvement in his production of selected morphosyntactic elements, such as pronoun gender agreement, in the treated language (L2) as well as in the non-treated French (L3) following the treatment block that focused on morphosyntactic skills. Speech rate also improved in English (L2) and French (L3) following that treatment block. No changes were observed in Hebrew, the participant’s L1. Conclusions Selective cross-language generalisation of treatment benefit was found for morphosyntactic abilities from the participant’s second language to his third language. PMID:20221311

  20. The Internet as a Glocal Discourse Environment: A Commentary on "Second Language Socialization in a Bilingual Chat Room" by Wan Shun Eva Lam and "Second Language Cyberhetoric: A Study of Chinese L2 Writers in an Online Usenet Group" by Joel Bloch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogiannis, Dimitris; Mitsikopoulou, Bessie

    2004-01-01

    The Internet as a worldwide literacy practice environment has created a new situation in communication, providing a new dynamic field for research. On the basis of the two articles under discussion, this commentary develops three main aspects of the Internet: as an informal learning environment for English as a second/foreign language; as a…

  1. Domain-Wide or Variable-Dependent Vulnerability of the Semantics-Syntax Interface in L2 Acquisition? Evidence from "Wh"-Words Used as Existential Polarity Words in L2 Chinese Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Boping

    2010-01-01

    Most studies in the second language (L2) literature that deal with interface issues do so in holistic terms. On the one hand, researchers have suggested that interface relations between the syntax and other domains are particularly difficult for adult L2 learners. On the other, it has been argued that such relations can be established in a…

  2. Learning More, Perceiving More? A Comparison of L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French Speakers and L1 Cantonese--L2 English Speakers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Wai Lan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study examining the relationship between language learning and perceived language differences. Two groups of native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong, L1 Cantonese--L2 English (CE) and L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French (CEF), were asked to complete two tasks: a placement test in English (as well as in French for the CEF…

  3. Spanish-English Writing Structure Interferences in Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López Urdaneta, Julio Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have drawn some results concerning the way in which second language (L2) students use their first language (L1) when producing texts in their L2. Therefore, this study examines the influence L1 written structure has on L2 written structure when students are asked to carry out assignments in the L2. To answer this question, twenty…

  4. On the (Un)-Ambiguity of Adjectival Modification in Spanish Determiner Phrases: Informing Debates on the Mental Representations of L2 Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason; Judy, Tiffany; Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Pires, Acrisio

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to a central debate within contemporary generative second language (L2) theorizing: the extent to which adult learners are (un)able to acquire new functional features that result in a L2 grammar that is mentally structured like the native target (see White, 2003). The adult acquisition of L2 nominal phi-features is explored,…

  5. Primary or "Specific" Language Impairment and Children Learning a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Windsor, Jennifer; Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2009-01-01

    We review empirical findings from children with primary or "specific" language impairment (PLI) and children who learn a single language from birth (L1) and a second language (L2) beginning in childhood. The PLI profile is presented in terms of both language and nonlinguistic features. The discussion of L2 learners emphasizes variable patterns of…

  6. Second Language Acquisition and First Language Loss in Adult Early Bilinguals: Exploring Some Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the linguistic knowledge of adult second language (L2) learners, who learned the L2 after puberty, with the potentially "eroded" first language (L1) grammars of adult early bilinguals who were exposed to the target language since birth and learned the other language simultaneously, or early in childhood (before age 5). I make…

  7. Exploring Motivational Profiles through Language Learning Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Vásquez, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the language learning narratives of 3 NNS foreign language teachers. It uses as a theoretical framework the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2009) but adds the dimension of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966). Our findings indicate that the L2MSS underestimates the relationship between "I" and…

  8. Language Nonselective Lexical Access in Bilingual Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Holzen, Katie; Mani, Nivedita

    2012-01-01

    We examined how words from bilingual toddlers' second language (L2) primed recognition of related target words in their first language (L1). On critical trials, prime-target word pairs were either (a) phonologically related, with L2 primes overlapped phonologically with L1 target words [e.g., "slide" (L2 prime)-"Kleid" (L1 target, "dress")], or…

  9. Second Language Reading Research: Problems and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koda, Keiko

    1994-01-01

    First-language (L1) reading theories are examined from second- language (L2) perspectives to identify significant research voids related to L2 problems. Unique aspects of L2 reading are considered and three distinct areas are discussed: consequences of prior reading experience, effects of cross-linguistic processing, and compensatory devices for…

  10. Individual Differences in Second Language Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in traditional second language (L2) acquisition research, a major question in the field of L2 real-time sentence processing is the extent to which L2 learners process the input like native speakers. Where differences are observed, the underlying causes could be the influence of the learner's first language and/or differences…

  11. Operationalizing Multilingualism: Language Learning Motivation in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    This study is an examination of language learning motivation and multilingual status in the Turkish English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Using Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) framework, specifically the ideal and ought-to L2 selves, this study examines the relationship between motivation and two operationalizations of…

  12. Explicit Knowledge and Processes from a Usage-Based Perspective: The Developmental Trajectory of an Instructed L2 Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehr-Brackin, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article considers explicit knowledge and processes in second language (L2) learning from a usage-based theoretical perspective. It reports on the long-term development of a single instructed adult learner's use of two L2 constructions, the German Perfekt of "gehen" ("go," "walk") and "fahren"…

  13. Teacher- and Learner-Led Discourse in Task-Based Grammar Instruction: Providing Procedural Assistance for L2 Morphosyntactic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares quantitative and qualitative results for task-based second language (L2) grammar instruction conducted as whole-class, teacher-led discourse (TLD) versus small-group, learner-led discourse (LLD). Participants included 78 English-speaking adults from six university classes of beginning L2 Spanish, with two assigned to each…

  14. The Development of Requests by L2 Learners of Modern Standard Arabic: A Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Gahtani, Saad; Roever, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the development of requests made by second language (L2) learners of Modern Standard Arabic at four levels of L2 ability. The study used longitudinal and cross-sectional data collection to investigate how learners' performance of requests developed over a five-month period and differed as a function of ability level. The…

  15. Where from, Who, Why and How? A Study of the Use of Sources by First Year L2 University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Celia; Morton, Janne; Storch, Neomy

    2013-01-01

    Knowing how to use sources effectively often poses considerable challenges for first year undergraduate students for whom English is a second language (L2). In this longitudinal case study we investigated the selection and self-reported use of source materials by thirteen first year L2 undergraduate students from a range of disciplines enrolled at…

  16. An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2) self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the…

  17. Assisting Your Child's Learning in L2 Is Like Teaching Them to Ride a Bike: A Study on Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Rigoberto; Camelo Gámez, Linda Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with parental involvement as a strategy to assist young learners in their efforts to learn an L2. It discusses an 18-month experience involving ten young learners, their parents, and teachers, in the development of another language (L2). The parents had expressed that they were unable to support their children's development in…

  18. When EFL Teachers Perform L2 and L1 in the Classroom, What Happens to Their Sense of Self?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Ross

    2015-01-01

    We often hear from speakers of L2 that they "feel different" when communicating through the medium of an additional language. While there has been much exploration of L2-­mediated identity development in naturalistic settings, there is very little conducted within the instructed learning environment of EFL. The present study explores how…

  19. The Contribution of L1 Phonemic Awareness into L2 Reading: The Case of Arab EFL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshaboul, Yousef; Asassfeh, Sahail; Alshboul, Sabri; Alodwan, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language transfer is the extent, if any, to which phonological awareness in L1 facilitates learning to read in L2. This has been an area of investigation wherein researchers looked into the orthographic and phonological component processing skills L2 learners develop and utilize to facilitate word recognition. Given the difference between…

  20. The Effect of Syntactic Complexity on Fluency: Comparing Actives and Passives in L1 and L2 Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadri Mirdamadi, Farhad; De Jong, Nivja H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how syntactic complexity affects speaking performance in first (L1) and second language (L2) in terms of speaking fluency. Participants (30 Dutch native speakers with an average to advanced level of English) performed two speaking experiments, one in Dutch (L1) and one in English (L2). Syntactic complexity was…