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Sample records for 2nd world war

  1. [The step toward 2015 JRC Guidelines since the end of the 2nd World War].

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazuo

    2016-02-01

    2015 JRC Guidelines have already published on 16th of October in 2015. This manuscript tries to explain the way how to arrive at this publication since CPR in Japan after the Second World War. ILCOR is the international organization in resuscitation, leads the world and publishes the international consensus CoSTR. JRC could join official member of ILCOR since 2006 after the establishment of Resuscitation Council of Asia. In 2010 RCA and JRC could contribute in 2010 version. In 2015 JRC Guidelines, the most significant change is the addition of 'First Aid' Chapter. Selecting the evidence will be followed with 'GRADE' method much logistic and easier to determine the evidence estimation than 2010 version. Neuroresuscitation is also the unique chapter in JRC Guidelines.

  2. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  3. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Poster from the World War ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Poster from the World War II period. During drives to encourage purchase of war bonds, posters featuring female shipyard workers were widely distributed purchasers were allowed one vote for each bond bought. Votes were cast and the woman who got the most votes was named "War Bond Girl." The contest was won by Kay McGinty, 4th row, 2nd column. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. World Economic Plants: a standard reference, 2nd ed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication provides essential reference data for over 12,000 vascular plants of commercial importance from all parts of the world. It presents up-to-date scientific names for these economically important plants arranged alphabetically. The botanic and economic coverage encompasses plants or ...

  5. Rockets in World War I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  6. The Official Records of the American Civil War: A Researcher's Guide. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aimone, Alan Conrad

    Official reports and correspondence of the American Civil War were printed by the United States Government Printing Office as the "Official Records, Army" (O.R.) in 129 volumes and the "Official Records, Navy" (N.O.R.) in 31 volumes. This corrected and expanded edition of the guide provides a brief historical sketch of the O.R. and N.O.R. and…

  7. Neurosurgical notes: World War II.

    PubMed

    Pool, J L

    2000-03-01

    This concerns my activities as a neurosurgeon in the European Theater of Operations and the North African, Tunisian campaign, during World War II. Action during the Battle of the Bulge came later. Our mobile tent hospital, the 9th Evacuation Hospital, was similar to that depicted in the television show M*A*S*H. To lend flavor to these comments, I have referred to medical and surgical matters in other units as well as our own, mentioned global aspects of the war, and included vignettes of life off-duty. The story begins after induction into the Army Medical Corps as a volunteer in July 1942 and ends with honorable discharge in April 1946. PMID:10719869

  8. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June 1940";…

  9. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  10. World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Suzy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

  11. Summary Proceedings of the Congress of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (2nd, Cambridge, England, April, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Inc., Boston, MA.

    This conference was held to alert physicians worldwide of the mortal peril of nuclear war to public health, with the hope that they will help educate their communities about the effects of nuclear war. Summary papers prepared during the conference include: medical consequences of nuclear war with special reference to Europe--immediate problems for…

  12. Late sequelae of retained foreign bodies after world war II missile injuries.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Thermann, Florian; Behrmann, Curd; Spielmann, Rolf-Peter; Kornhuber, Malte

    2012-09-01

    A number of people injured during the second world war harbour foreign bodies such as grenade splinters or bullets in some part of the body. Most of these metal fragments remain clinically silent. Some of them, however, may cause delayed complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of delayed complications associated with foreign bodies after world war II injuries. 159 patients with retained foreign bodies after world war II injuries were retrospectively identified radiologically in our data bases in the time interval from 1997 to 2009. Diverse delayed complications secondary to the metal objects were diagnosed in 3 cases (2%): one patient with grenade splinter migration into the choledochal duct, one case with pseudotumoural tissue reaction, and one patient with late osteomyelitis. The time from injury to clinical presentation varied from 56 to 61 years. PubMed and Medline were screened for additional cases with delayed sequelae after foreign body acquisition during the 2nd world war. A 30 year search period from 1980 up to date was selected. 15 cases were identified here. Our study demonstrates that health consequences of the 2nd world war extend into the present time, and therefore physicians should be aware of the presence of hidden foreign bodies and their different possible late reactions.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  14. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  15. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  16. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  17. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  18. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    PubMed

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  19. [Order of Malta during First World War].

    PubMed

    Peureux, Laure; Dubourg, Olivier; Rousseau, Fra Emmanuel; Lefort, Hugues

    2014-06-01

    The sovereign Military Order of Malta is one of the oldest humanitarian organizations still existing today The First World War gave it the opportunity to prove its large knowledge of emergency medicine, under exceptional circumstances, from the front to the hospitals at the back of the front. On all parts of the European conflict the Order took care of more than 800 000 victims of the war.

  20. [German nurses during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  1. The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

  2. World War I: an air war of consequence.

    PubMed

    Hallion, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war.

  3. A Camp Director Remembers World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Helen Herz

    2003-01-01

    A girl's camp in Maine during World War II had to deal with food rationing and black-market food dealers. Campers picked beans to raise money for refugees, sewed clothes for refugees, and spotted for enemy planes from Mt. Pleasant. An attempt to use a horse-drawn cart for transportation failed, and good help was hard to find. (TD)

  4. The Amityville Experience During World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Historical Inquiry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    An historical journal compiled by advanced placement American history high school students contains 10 articles about the experiences of residents of Amityville, New York, during World War II. Students used secondary sources, first-hand newspaper accounts, oral interviews, and primary source documents to recreate Amityville as it was during those…

  5. Colleges and Universities in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozier, V. R.

    This book examines the impact of World War II on college campuses and how the large military influence during that period affected such areas as the emergence of new fields of study, the role of the professor, and the social utility of higher education. Specific chapters examine Army, Navy, and Army Air Forces College Training Programs; how…

  6. Teaching about the Period between World War I and World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a teaching guide to accompany a forthcoming Mobil Showcase television series, "Between the Wars." The series chronicles events between the end of World War I and the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. The guide contains background information, discussion questions, and activities for each of the 16 programs in the series. (Author/AV)

  7. How Much War Should Be Included in a Course on World War II?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Donald G.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that end of Cold War increases need for students to understand causes and aftermath of World War II. Recommends spending less time on military aspects of the war and more time on the economic, social, and cultural impact of total war. Provides a selected list of resources to be used in a college level course on the war. (CFR)

  8. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. In determining your entitlement to, and the amount of, your...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. In determining your entitlement to, and the amount of, your...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. In determining your entitlement to, and the amount of, your...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. In determining your entitlement to, and the amount of, your...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. In determining your entitlement to, and the amount of, your...

  13. New Zealand military nurses fight for recognition: World War One-World War Two.

    PubMed

    Clendon, J

    1997-03-01

    This article examines the battle undertaken by New Zealand's military nurses to gain recognition as officers. The fight to win this battle took from just prior to World War One to mid-way through World War Two-twenty seven years. Issues such as male domination of the military and the government, the generally accepted work of women in war and the lack of knowledge concerning nursing's professionalism combined to create a situation whereby practical recognition of the nurses did not take place until visual alterations were made to uniforms in 1941.

  14. 54. VIEW OF MEMORIAL TO SERVICEMEN OF WORLD WAR I ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW OF MEMORIAL TO SERVICEMEN OF WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II, LOOKING WEST 56/43A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  15. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...

  5. [The First World War and French nurses].

    PubMed

    Darrow, Margaret H

    2014-06-01

    The First World War changed the place of women in French society. The major contribution they made in numerous sectors of activity is indisputable. However, the process of professionalisation was not really undertaken and the level of training given to the nurses, most of whom were volunteers, was very sketchy. The nurses seemed to be appreciated as much for their dedication as for their skills.

  6. Impact of World War I on Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2015-01-01

    Mention chemistry and the Great "War to End all Wars" in the same sentence, and nearly everybody who ever had a history class will nod sorrowfully and say,"Yes, poison gases." True enough, and Fritz Haber, who led the development of them for the Central Powers, was the one German scientist whom Rutherford never forgave or spoke to again. Such substances (not all really gaseous, and something like 50 have been tried) were used by both sides from 1915 onward, killed about 90,000 people (about 1% of the total), maimed many more, and arguably loosened constraints on future uses of chemical weapons in other wars, prison camps, and terrorist actions. But the war was not determined by them and could have been fought without them. On the other hand, the sudden blockading of ports and termination of most international trade forced Germany (etc) to expand very quickly processes for fixing nitrogen for explosives and for fertilizers in lieu of Chilean guano (yes there is also a Haber process for that). They needed in addition to find domestic replacements for rubber (for tires, hoses, and gas masks) and liquid fuels for tanks and aircraft. The Allies, for their part, had been heavily dependent on German dyestuffs, optical-quality glass for binoculars, and phosphates (fertilizer again). Production facilities for derivatives of coal tars, cottonseed oil, etc. were of necessity scaled up rapidly. And once people have learned to do these things, there is no way to have them be forgotten. The same is, of course, true of the nuclear weapons of World War II and of whatever biological and/or cybernetic entities prove to be essential in the next war.

  7. Star Wars in a nuclear world

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, L.

    1987-01-01

    Lord Zuckerman is a world authority on the rivalries and politics of the nuclear age. Few scientists distinguished in their own right have had as much experience as he has of both the national and international corridors of power. During World War Two he was Strategic Planning Adviser to Air Marshal Tedder and General Eisenhower. From 1960 to 1971 he was Chief Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Defence and to the British Government as a whole. He is an unrelenting critic of the Star Wars programme introduced by President Reagan in 1983. He writes, ''Had anyone other than the American President ever invited scientists to try to render 'nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete' the suggestion would probably have attracted no more attention than had they been asked to square the circle or solve the problem of perpetual motion. But it happened to be the President, and he spelled out his vision of a future over which the nuclear bomb no longer casts a shadow in such homely terms that it all sounded real. How could the message fail to appeal.'' Lord Zuckerman is critical not only of Star Wars but also of the futility of the nuclear arms race. ''The arms-race has absorbed enormous resources. The nuclear arsenals of East and West have continued to grow. But, paradoxically, national security seems to have lessened everywhere.

  8. Strasbourg Observatory in World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.

    During World War II, the Reichsuniversitat Strassburg was installed by the German authorities and Johannes Hellerich (1888-1963) was appointed director of the Observatory. A review of his life and his astro- nomical career as an assistant and professor in Kiel, Hamburg, Strasbourg, and Muenster is given. His activity in Strasbourg from mid-1941 to mid-1943 was focussed on bringing the Observatory into working operations, and on carrying out the monitoring of solar radiation and atmospheric extinction. After being drafted to the army and spending some time as a prisoner of war, he returned to Hamburg to complete a review on variable-star research in wartime Germany. He was called to Muenster University in 1947 to teach astronomy, and, from 1949 onward, to serve as director of the small Astronomical Institute till his retirement in 1954.

  9. Nurses across borders: displaced Russian and Soviet nurses after World War I and World War II.

    PubMed

    Grant, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history.

  10. Winning the War: A Historical Analysis of the FFA during World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Connors, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States' participation in World War II affected millions of men, women, and children, both at home and around the world. The war effort also affected the Future Farmers of America (FFA). FFA members, agriculture teachers, and national FFA officers all volunteered to serve their country during the war. Local FFA chapters and individual…

  11. World Wars at Home: U.S. Response to World War II Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on how the United States Post Office reacted to the massive influx of political propaganda, primarily from the Soviet Union, immediately prior to and during World War II. Describes how the Post Office played an active role in stopping and burning some 50 tons of incoming material. (RS)

  12. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  13. Australia's female military surgeons of World War I.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Susan J

    2013-10-01

    The war service of Lilian Violet Cooper, the first female surgeon of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, is well recognized. Not so well known however, are the other pioneering female doctors who also undertook work as military surgeons during World War I. At least four of the 14 Australian female doctors that undertook overseas war service during World War I were engaged as surgeons and treated Australian, British and Allied casualties. These women operated in London, in Egypt and on the frontlines of the Macedonian campaign. While none of these other women became Fellows of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, their war efforts deserve recognition.

  14. The Quotidianisation of the War in Everyday Life at German Schools during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholz, Joachim; Berdelmann, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of the First World War had a powerful impact on German schools. Undoubtedly, schools were institutions of socialisation that did offer support to the war. Indeed, research has shown that a specific "war pedagogy" made an aggressive propaganda possible in the classroom. This research usually emphasises the enthusiasm for war…

  15. Studying World War I by Using Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Maintains that in order to involve all students in learning about World War I in a meaningful way, teachers should broaden their strategies, students activities, and assessment to include Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences. Provides various activities focusing on World War I that coincide with each of the eight multiple intelligences. Offers…

  16. All Students Can Write Poetry: World War I Poems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a 10th-grade English teacher brings a historical event such as World War I to life with words and visuals of the time. Discusses World War I poems as products of that era, and helps students realize they have the stream of language inside themselves by journaling, making a "word bank," and writing poems. (SR)

  17. 20 CFR 404.1343 - When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. 404.1343 Section 404.1343 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. The limits...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1343 - When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. 404.1343 Section 404.1343 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. The limits...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1343 - When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. 404.1343 Section 404.1343 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. The limits...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1343 - When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. 404.1343 Section 404.1343 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. The limits...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1343 - When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. 404.1343 Section 404.1343 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. The limits...

  2. World War I remembered with reference to district nurses.

    PubMed

    While, Alison

    2014-05-01

    World War I is remembered for the appalling loss of life, but it also heralded major social and political change which included wider opportunities for women and, later, universal suffrage. World War I also formed the context for the emergence of the 1919 Nurses' Registration Act. District nurses (Queen's Nurses) undertook a range of roles during the war, including roles overseas as members of the military nursing services. Like nurses, they had their work supplemented by Voluntary Aid Detachments. This article discusses the war from the perspective of the district nursing profession.

  3. World War I remembered with reference to district nurses.

    PubMed

    While, Alison

    2014-05-01

    World War I is remembered for the appalling loss of life, but it also heralded major social and political change which included wider opportunities for women and, later, universal suffrage. World War I also formed the context for the emergence of the 1919 Nurses' Registration Act. District nurses (Queen's Nurses) undertook a range of roles during the war, including roles overseas as members of the military nursing services. Like nurses, they had their work supplemented by Voluntary Aid Detachments. This article discusses the war from the perspective of the district nursing profession. PMID:24784560

  4. A TODAY VICTIM OF SECOND WORLD WAR.

    PubMed

    Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient.

  5. World War Two and the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boas, Jacob

    This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end of World…

  6. [War casualty triage during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Lefort, Hugues; Tabbagh, Xavier; Pons, François

    2014-06-01

    Along with the front hospitals (HOE), the action of sorting out the injured was one of the most important innovations of the Great War. Progressively, it was implemented and codified on each level of the evacuating chain, with variations due to the different phases of the conflict, such as in Verdun or in the Somme. From 1917 onwards, specific sorting centers, managed by experimented soldiers, were set up in the evacuating hospitals.

  7. [The International Council of Nurses during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lindsey

    2014-06-01

    The outbreak of the First World War and the four years of conflict disrupted the activities of the International Council of Nurses (ICN). The results obtained before the war, notably with regard to the improvement of women's working conditions, were thrown into question, and the international spirit which characterised the ICN was threatened. After the war, nurses were nevertheless considered as having a key role to play in public healthcare.

  8. [Health problems of combatants during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Lefort, Hugues; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Tabbagh, Xavier; Domanski, Laurent; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2014-06-01

    The First World War because of the use of new weapons, injured more than 3 500 000 people (500 000 in the face), more than diseases (tuberculosis, typhoid fever, etc.) or even weather circumstances. The healing of the war wounds through surgery undertook a significant evolution thanks to the use of asepsis and antiseptics. Mortality go down, opening the way to the physical and psychological rehabilitation of those injured by the war.

  9. The long-term consequences of war: the experience of World War II.

    PubMed

    Hunt, N; Robbins, I

    2001-05-01

    Seven hundred and thirty-one World War II and Korean War veterans completed a questionnaire about their experiences and their current psychological reactions to the war. Nineteen percent scored above the cut-off points for both the General Health Questionnaire and the (war-related) Impact of Event Scale, demonstrating that, even over 50 years after the event, many veterans still experience problems relating to their war experiences. Psychological distress was in part directly related to particular experiences, but intrusion and avoidance both played an important role as mediating variables. Other factors, such as prisoner of war (POW) status, type of service, rank, and illness were also considered. The findings indicate that the effects of a traumatic experience such as war can persist into later life.

  10. Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in World War II Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scales were compared in a community sample of 330 former prisoners of war and World War II combat veterans. The Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, and the Impact of Event Scale demonstrated moderate relationships with PTSD. (SLD)

  11. Soviet School Literature Teaching about World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Beatrice Beach

    1986-01-01

    This issue is a collection of recently written Russian literature commemorating the end of World War II. Included are diary excerpts, poems and photos along with suggestions for how this literature should be used in schools to help celebrate the Soviets' victory in what they term "the Great Patriotic War." (JDH)

  12. How World War 1 changed global attitudes to war and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2014-11-01

    World War 1 was a key transition point towards scientific medicine. Medical officers incorporated Louis Pasteur's discoveries into their understanding of microorganisms as the cause of infectious diseases, which were therefore susceptible to rational control and treatment measures even in the pre-antibiotic era. Typhoid vaccination led to the successful evasion of the disastrous epidemics of previous wars. The incidence of tetanus was probably decreased by giving millions of doses of horse antitoxin to wounded soldiers. Quinine treated but could not control malaria; its use required mass compulsion. Tuberculosis was not a great military problem during World War 1, although mortality in civilian populations increased substantially. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections remained a matter of aversive conditioning, with invasive antiseptics used in the absence of antibiotics. Pandemic influenza in 1918-19 killed more people than died during the entire war, showing how much remained beyond the capability of the scientists and doctors who fought infectious diseases during World War 1.

  13. [Comparative characteristic of the formation of stereotype of aging in participants of current war conflicts and World War II].

    PubMed

    Iakymets', V M

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out to examine participants of current war conflicts and World War II in order to compare the development of the formation of stereotype of old age. It was established that participants of World War II have higher level of the formation of pessimistic stereotype of old age than participants of current war conflicts have.

  14. Introduction: Untold Legacies of the First World War in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Alison S.; Meyer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The current centenary of the First World War provides an unrivalled opportunity to uncover some of the social legacies of the war. The four articles which make up this special issue each examine a different facet of the war’s impact on British society to explore an as yet untold story. The subjects investigated include logistics, the history of science, the social history of medicine and resistance to war. This article introduces the four which follow, locating them in the wider historiographic debates around the interface between warfare and societies engaged in war. PMID:27453628

  15. American military dentists as prisoners-of-war in the Pacific theatre during World War II.

    PubMed

    Bober-Moken, I G

    1994-03-01

    Fifty-three American Military dentists were held by the Japanese as Prisoners-of-War during World War II. Throughout 40 months of captivity these men served their fellow prisoners providing dental treatment in an austere environment with "jury-rigged" equipment and supplies. A brief overview of their experiences is presented in this paper. PMID:8061507

  16. Cryptanalysis in World War II--and Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Hilton describes the team of cryptanalysts who tried to decipher German and Japanese codes during the Second World War. The work of Turing, essentially developing the computer, is reported, as well as inferences about pure and applied mathematics. (MNS)

  17. Mustard Gas: Its Pre-World War I History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchovic, Ronald J.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2007-01-01

    The Meyer-Clarke synthetic method was used in the German process for large scale production of mustard gas during World War I, which clearly shows the historical connection of synthesis of mustard gas.

  18. World War II and the birth of modern recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.; Peterson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The concept of reusing waste materials had been around for many decades before the war, but few municipalities collected recyclables in an organized, controlled fashion. Though today`s thriving recycling industry seems brand new, its roots run far deeper to a time when both industry and citizens were called upon to help save the world. With so many goods rationed during World War II, hundreds of collectors would buy scrap metal and textiles and resell them back to mills.

  19. The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, F.G.

    1990-08-01

    The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War'' is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details of the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  20. French Neurologists during World War I.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933).

  1. French Neurologists during World War I.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933). PMID:27035726

  2. Proceedings of the World Summit on Television for Children. Final Report. (2nd, London, England, March 9-13, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Genevieve, Ed.

    This report summarizes the presentations and events of the Second World Summit on Television for Children, to which over 180 speakers from 50 countries contributed, with additional delegates speaking in conference sessions and social events. The report includes the following sections: (1) production, including presentations on the child audience,…

  3. Nursing during World War II: Finnmark County, Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Immonen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study is part the project “Nursing in Borderland – Finnmark 1939–1950” within nursing history that sheds light on nursing and health care during World War II in Finnmark County, Northern Norway. The study focuses on challenges in nursing care that arose during the war because of war activities in the Barents area. This article focuses on challenges caused by shortage of supplies. The aim of the project is to widen the understanding of development within health care and living conditions in the area. Study design This is a historical study using narratives, government documents and literature. Methods Interviews with nurses and persons active in health care during World War II constitute the main data of the research. Thematic issues that arise from interviews are analysed. Primary and secondary written sources are used in analysing the topics. Because of war activities, deportation and burning of the county, archives were partly destroyed. Central archives can contribute with annual reports, whereas local archives are fragmentary. There are a number of reports written soon after the War, as well as a number of biographical books of newer date. Results Challenges caused by war, which appear in the interviews, are: 1) shortage of supplies, 2) increased workload, 3) multicultural society, 4) ethical dilemmas, 5) deportation of the population. In this paper, focus is on challenges caused by shortage of supplies. Conclusions Both institutions, personnel and patients were marked by the war. This has to be taken in consideration in health care today. PMID:23630668

  4. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1310 - Who is a World War II veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is a World War II veteran. 404.1310... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1310 Who is a World War II veteran. You are a World War II veteran if you were in the......

  6. 20 CFR 404.1310 - Who is a World War II veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who is a World War II veteran. 404.1310... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1310 Who is a World War II veteran. You are a World War II veteran if you were in the......

  7. 20 CFR 404.1310 - Who is a World War II veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who is a World War II veteran. 404.1310... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1310 Who is a World War II veteran. You are a World War II veteran if you were in the......

  8. 20 CFR 404.1310 - Who is a World War II veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who is a World War II veteran. 404.1310... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1310 Who is a World War II veteran. You are a World War II veteran if you were in the......

  9. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1310 - Who is a World War II veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who is a World War II veteran. 404.1310... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1310 Who is a World War II veteran. You are a World War II veteran if you were in the......

  14. Chemical Warfare and Medical Response During World War I

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Gerard J.

    2008-01-01

    The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914–1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist’s war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations. PMID:18356568

  15. Chemical warfare and medical response during World War I.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Gerard J

    2008-04-01

    The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914-1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist's war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations.

  16. World War I Unit. Using Primary Sources in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Dept. of Archives and History, Montgomery.

    This teaching unit, "World War I Unit," is the seventh in a series of 10 units about Alabama state history, part of a project designed to help teachers integrate the use of primary source materials into their classrooms. Although the units are designed to augment the study of Alabama, they are useful in the study of U.S. history, world history,…

  17. Example of human individual identification from World War II gravesite.

    PubMed

    Ossowski, Andrzej; Kuś, Marta; Brzeziński, Piotr; Prüffer, Jakub; Piątek, Jarosław; Zielińska, Grażyna; Bykowska, Milena; Jałowińska, Katarzyna; Torgaszev, Anton; Skoryukov, Antoliy; Parafiniuk, Mirosław

    2013-12-10

    This paper presents the procedure elaborated by our team which was applied to the mode of identification of Red Army soldiers who were taken as prisoners by the German Army during World War II and deceased in captivity. In the course of our search the unmarked burial of ten Soviet prisoners of war was found. Historical, anthropological and genetic research conducted by us led to the personal identification of nine of them, including two by means of DNA analysis.

  18. WORLD WAR III The 1960's Version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklebank, Roy

    2005-09-01

    This article is based on a lecture to the Royal Institute of Navigation History of Air Navigation Group at Tangmere Museum on 12 May 2004. The author served as a navigator-radar or a radar bomb aimer within RAF Bomber Command during the mid-1960s. This article is based on his experience of this time in Bomber Command and describes how the Medium Bomber Force would have carried out their war operations had nuclear deterrence failed. In its day these plans were TOP SECRET.

  19. Thanks, but no thanks: how denial of osteopathic service in World War I and World War II shaped the profession.

    PubMed

    Silver, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Osteopathic physicians were denied the same rights and privileges that were granted to allopathic physicians by the US government regarding voluntary and compulsory service in World War I and World War II. Even after changes to the examination process allowed osteopathic physicians to take the examinations required to obtain commission as a physician in the army, osteopathic physicians' service was still rejected. The US government's decision to ban DOs from serving in the war was a blessing in disguise that led to tremendous changes in osteopathic medicine, education, and public acceptance of osteopathic physicians. Using primary documents from military officials, congressional hearings, and archived publications of the American Osteopathic Association, the author recounts the battle osteopathic physicians fought to serve their country during war and the challenges they faced while obtaining both legal and social equality in the eyes of the government and the public.

  20. Thanks, but no thanks: how denial of osteopathic service in World War I and World War II shaped the profession.

    PubMed

    Silver, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Osteopathic physicians were denied the same rights and privileges that were granted to allopathic physicians by the US government regarding voluntary and compulsory service in World War I and World War II. Even after changes to the examination process allowed osteopathic physicians to take the examinations required to obtain commission as a physician in the army, osteopathic physicians' service was still rejected. The US government's decision to ban DOs from serving in the war was a blessing in disguise that led to tremendous changes in osteopathic medicine, education, and public acceptance of osteopathic physicians. Using primary documents from military officials, congressional hearings, and archived publications of the American Osteopathic Association, the author recounts the battle osteopathic physicians fought to serve their country during war and the challenges they faced while obtaining both legal and social equality in the eyes of the government and the public. PMID:22331804

  1. A salute to the nurses of World War II.

    PubMed

    Breakiron, M

    1995-11-01

    The nation recently celebrated the 50th anniversary of World War II (WWII) with a renewed interest in Pearl Harbor and D-Day (ie, the day the Allies invaded Europe.) One group of war heroes--all volunteers--received little attention, although they endured bombings, torpedoes, antiaircraft fire, prison, starvation, and death. They were the nurses of WWII. They served all over the world and left a legacy that today's perioperative nurses are committed to preserving. This article was written to honor the nurses of WWII. It relates only a few stories of thousands that could be told.

  2. [The First World War and medical school of Petrograd].

    PubMed

    Rostovtsev, E A; Sidorchuk, I V

    2014-09-01

    The article is devoted to the history of higher medical education of the Petrograd just before and during the First World War. The topical issue is the lack of information concerning this period of the history of Russian medicine and medical education, and the history of development of domestic medicine during the First World War, the centenary of which is celebrated this year. On the basis of a wide range of published and archival sources the authors show the basic vectors of development of medical education and exploring the role of St. Petersburg as one of the leading academic medical centres in the country.

  3. War, Nation, Memory: International Perspectives on World War II in School History Textbooks. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Keith A., Ed.; Foster, Stuart J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The Second World War stands as the most devastating and destructive global conflict in human history. More than 60 nations representing 1.7 billion people or three quarters of the world's population were consumed by its horror. Not surprisingly, therefore, World War II stands as a landmark episode in history education throughout the world and its…

  4. [War trauma and PTSD among German war survivors. A comparison of former soldiers and women of World War II].

    PubMed

    Nandi, C; Weierstall, R; Huth, S; Knecht, J; Elbert, T

    2014-03-01

    Stressful war experiences can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. To what extent were the soldiers and young women of World War II affected by PTSD symptoms over the course of their lives? Do these men and women differ in the traumatic experiences and PTSD symptom severity? To investigate these questions 52 male and 20 female Germans aged 81-95 years were recruited through newspaper advertisements and notices and interviewed regarding war experiences and PTSD symptoms. Of the men 2% and 7% met the criteria for current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses, respectively, as compared to 10% and 30% of the women, respectively. Using multiple linear regression a dose-response relationship between the number of trauma types experienced and PTSD symptom severity could be demonstrated. The slope of the regression curve was steeper for women than for men. When controlling for the number of different traumatic experiences women reported a significantly higher severity of PTSD symptoms than men. It is presumed that this difference in severity of symptoms can be attributed to qualitative differences in the type of traumatic stress factors during the war. The present study provides evidence that even today people continue to be affected by PTSD symptoms due to events which occurred during World War II; therefore, during patient contact with this age group the war experiences specific to each individual need to be considered as potential moderators of symptoms.

  5. Rapid increase in Japanese life expectancy after World War II.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yasuo; Ju, Young-Su; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2010-02-01

    Japanese life expectancy increased by about 13.7 years during the first decade after World War II, despite the country's post-war poverty. Although it is known that medical progress explains part of this increase, roles of non-medical factors have not been systematically studied. This study hypothesizes that non-medical factors, in addition to medical factors, are associated with the rapid increase in life expectancy in Japan. We analyzed the time trends of potential explanatory factors and used regression analysis with historical data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications' Historical Statistics of Japan during the period between 1946 and 1983. Time trends analysis revealed that the rapid increase in life expectancy preceded the dramatic growth of per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 10 years. In education, the nearly universal enrollment in elementary schools and increased advancement to upper secondary schools for both sexes were associated with better health. Regarding legislation, 32 health laws were passed in the first decade after the war and these laws were associated with improved health. Using regression analysis, we found that the enrollment rate in elementary schools, the number of health laws, and expansion of community-based activity staff were significantly associated with the increased life expectancy during the first decade after World War II. To conclude, in addition to medical factors, non-medical factors applied across the country, particularly education, community-based activities and legislation were associated with the rapid increase in Japanese life expectancy after World War II.

  6. Is Baseball Essential?: World War I and the National Pastime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosik, Kris Maldre; Sweeney, Jenny McMillen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how a series of National Archives documents related to professional baseball players and the military draft can launch a lesson on the American home front during World War I, as the 100th anniversary approaches.

  7. The Propaganda Analysis Movement since World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproule, J. Michael

    To recount the development of the propaganda analysis movement before and since World War I, this paper reviews the precursors of the movement, traces the propaganda conciousness produced by wartime campaigns and subsequent domestic campaigns, and looks at major obstacles to propaganda analysis produced by social and academic conditions after…

  8. World War II Commemoration Committee: Fact Sheet and Suggested Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This packet suggests activities and events that school districts, schools, classes, and educational organizations can conduct to commemorate World War II. Suggestions are made to include local veterans, including those in veteran's and nursing homes and hospitals, and youth at every possible opportunity. Recognition can take the form of military…

  9. The Rise of Conservatism since World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dan T.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)

  10. REMOTE SENSING IN DETECTING BURIED MUNITIONS FROM WORLD WAR I

    EPA Science Inventory



    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...

  11. Decision-Making under Stress: World War II and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides a teaching plan which helps students imaginatively take the roles of leaders in the United States during World War II so that they might more completely understand such difficult decisions as allying with the Soviet Union, relocating Japanese-Americans, and dropping the atomic bomb. Provides a statement of goals and objectives, required…

  12. World War II Spy Kit: "The Great Nazi Intelligence Coup."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haight, David

    This instructional packet is designed to introduce students to primary source material by having them participate in an historical "what might have been." Students engage in critical thinking and document analysis, and through the process learn about Operation OVERLORD and World War II in general. This spy kit centers on Operation OVERLORD (the…

  13. Aviation pioneers: World War II air evacuation nurses.

    PubMed

    Stevens, S Y

    1994-01-01

    During World War II, nurses pioneered a new role for women in the skies. This study of the 1942-1944 Movietonews, the largest of the U.S. newsreel companies with international syndication, identified the exploits of these nurses, compared personal accounts and highlighted flight nurses' contributions to the profession, society, and aviation.

  14. Preventing Deadly Conflict: Toward a World without War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Greg

    Although some people believed that the end of the Cold War would herald a new age of peace, the 1990s have seen more than five million people die in over 35 deadly conflicts. New technologies have made warfare ever more deadly. There is, however, a breadth of options available to prevent or control deadly conflict in the world. This curriculum…

  15. China's Propaganda in the United States during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Kuo-jen

    Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…

  16. [Parisian hospital nurses during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Chevandier, Christian

    2014-06-01

    The stereotypical image of the nurse caring for First World War soldiers is of a Red Cross volunteer tending to a wounded soldier in a field hospital. In reality, the role played by nurses in hospitals far behind the frontline was just as crucial. This massive contribution of volunteer nurses influenced the process of the professionalisation of nurses in France.

  17. Immigration after World War II, 1945-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnerstein, Leonard; Reimers, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the changing immigration policies after World War II (1945-98) that increased the levels of immigration within the United States. Focuses on policies such as the Displaced Persons Act of 1948 and McCarran-Walter Immigration Act of 1952. Includes questions for discussion. (CMK)

  18. [Tracing a journal fragment from the World War I].

    PubMed

    Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a fragment of the World War I journal, discovered recently to belong to Vladimir Jelovšek (1879-1934) the physician, writer and one of the most prominent editors of Liječnički vjesnik. The journal was written during his attendance at the eastern front from June 1915 to July 1916 beginning with the fall of Lvov and partly following both Brusilov's invasions. On the territory of Croatia the war journals written by medical representatives are very rare. However, such sources could extend our knowledge on individual war reflexions, soldiers' principles or mindset, as well as to enable the comparison of their content with the body of already published autobiographical and other sources. Recently detected journal of Vladimir Jelovšek exposes the individual perception of war carried out through traumatic war experience of an individual abruptly exposed to war conditions. Furthermore, it adds to our knowledge the Jelovšek's life enlightening in those segments of his life which haven't been explored so far.

  19. The First World War and Its Implications for Education in British Museums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Gaynor

    1988-01-01

    Examines how the First World War prompted British museums to change their educational functions. Discusses museums in pre-war Britain, wartime exhibitions and educational activities, the outcome of the war experience, and First World War's implications for education in museums. (GEA)

  20. "War dysentery" and the limitations of German military hygiene during World War I.

    PubMed

    Linton, Derek S

    2010-01-01

    This article examines major epidemics of bacillary dysentery in the German army as well as among civilians in eastern Europe and in Germany during World War I. These epidemics were all the more surprising in light of prewar advances in understanding the disease and limiting dysentery outbreaks. Three major reasons are adduced for the incapacity of German military hygienists to prevent wartime epidemics. First was the difficulty of bacteriological testing at the front, especially early in the war, with negative consequences for diagnosis, therapy, and disease control. Second was inadequate hygiene including major shortcomings in latrine cleanliness and attempts to grapple with the "fly plague." Third was the lack of a Pasteur-type vaccine until late in the war. Susceptibility to dysentery was also heightened by war-related nutritional deficiencies. Taking off from an article by the English medical historian Roger Cooter, this article shows that the concept of "war dysentery" was socially constructed and served a variety of professional interests but at the same time takes issue with Cooter's arguments against linking "war" and "epidemics" pathogenetically.

  1. WOMEN, SCIENCE AND SUFFRAGE IN WORLD WAR I.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2015-03-20

    World War I is often said to have benefited British women by giving them the vote and by enabling them to take on traditionally male roles, including ones in science, engineering and medicine. In reality, conventional hierarchies were rapidly re-established after the Armistice. Concentrating mainly on a small group of well-qualified scientific and medical women, marginalized at the time and also in the secondary literature, I review the attitudes they experienced and the work they undertook during and immediately after the war. The effects of century-old prejudices are still felt today.

  2. New horizons: Australian nurses at work in World War I.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kirsty

    2014-06-01

    More than 3000 nurses from Australia served with the Australian Army Nursing Service or the British nursing services during World War I. These nurses served in various theatres of war including Egypt, France, India, Greece, Italy and England. They worked in numerous roles including as a surgical team nurse close to the front working under fire; nursing on hospital ships carrying the sick and wounded; or managing hospital wards overrun with patients whilst dealing with a lack of hospital necessities. The skills and roles needed to be a military nurse significantly differed to the skills required to nurse in Australia.

  3. [Nurses and spies during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Halioua, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    During the First World War, some nurses distinguished themselves by playing a significant role in spy networks, using their activity as a cover. They took an active part in the setting up of escape routes for allied prisoners of war and the gathering of intelligence on the positions of German troops, in particular in Belgium and northern France. Among them Edith Cavell, Gabrielle Petit, Louise de Bettignies, Marie-Léonie Vanhoutte, Marthe Cocknaert and Emilienne-Rose Ducimetière are considered as heroines.

  4. WOMEN, SCIENCE AND SUFFRAGE IN WORLD WAR I.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2015-03-20

    World War I is often said to have benefited British women by giving them the vote and by enabling them to take on traditionally male roles, including ones in science, engineering and medicine. In reality, conventional hierarchies were rapidly re-established after the Armistice. Concentrating mainly on a small group of well-qualified scientific and medical women, marginalized at the time and also in the secondary literature, I review the attitudes they experienced and the work they undertook during and immediately after the war. The effects of century-old prejudices are still felt today. PMID:26489180

  5. Experimentation on prisoners by the Japanese during World War II.

    PubMed

    Girdwood, Ronald H

    1985-08-24

    Girdwood, president of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, recounts his experience in assessing and treating newly released Allied prisoners in the Far East during World War II. Although he had been posted to various locales and had interviewed many prison camp survivors, he had not heard direct accounts of germ warfare experiments allegedly performed by the Japanese on American, British, and Australian prisoners until they were reported on a British television program, Unit 731, on 13 August 1985. While poor medical care, abuse, and malnutrition were known, information about biological warfare disclosed on the television program was evidently not known to British, Indian, or Australian authorities until the war's end.

  6. Clinical presentation of PTSD in World War II combat veterans.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, R; Munson, J; Peabody, C; Rosenberg, J

    1992-08-01

    Clinicians have increasingly recognized posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Vietnam veterans, but the disorder may be easily overlooked among World War II combat veterans. The authors review recent studies of PTSD in older veterans and describe five cases that illustrate the diverse clinical presentations of PTSD in this population. Symptoms included anxiety, cognitive and somatic complaints, depression, alcohol dependence, and amnestic periods. Despite the varied presentations, a fairly consistent patient profile emerged. Patients avoided reminders of war, showed an exaggerated startle response, and experienced restless sleep and chronic anxiety. Factors associated with exacerbations of symptoms were retirement and reminders of war experiences. Although past studies have emphasized resuppression of the trauma, the authors encourage a flexible approach to treatment, including exploratory techniques. PMID:1427683

  7. Women, science and suffrage in World War I

    PubMed Central

    Fara, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Oh! This War! How it is tearing down walls and barriers, and battering in fast shut doors …Women's Liberal Review, 1915World War I is often said to have benefited British women by giving them the vote and by enabling them to take on traditionally male roles, including ones in science, engineering and medicine. In reality, conventional hierarchies were rapidly re-established after the Armistice. Concentrating mainly on a small group of well-qualified scientific and medical women, marginalized at the time and also in the secondary literature, I review the attitudes they experienced and the work they undertook during and immediately after the war. The effects of century-old prejudices are still felt today. PMID:26489180

  8. Classroom Activities for the Progressive Era and the World War I Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Randy

    1986-01-01

    Provides discussion questions, activities, and projects to be used with EJ515083, "The Progressive Era and the World War I Draft." Includes three political cartoons and two World War I-era songs of opposing viewpoints. (JDH)

  9. The correspondence between Winkler and Monakow during World War I.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Peter J; Jagella, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The correspondence (1907-1930) between two leading European neurologists, Cornelis Winkler (1855-1941) and Constantin von Monakow (1853-1930), has been preserved in Amsterdam and Zurich. For this paper, letters exchanged during World War I were studied. Professional as well as personal issues were discussed. An international neurology meeting in Berne in September 1914 had to be cancelled due to the war. They hoped that (neuro)scientists would remain politically neutral, continue scientific cooperation, and even be able to influence the course of the war. Winkler and Monakow tried to continue their work on the International Brain Atlas. Although living in neutral countries (The Netherlands and Switzerland), they observed that their practice and scientific work suffered from war conditions. While Winkler continued his activities as a neurologist, Monakow, affected emotionally, experienced a change in scientific interest toward psychoneurology. He used his diaschisis concept, originally an explanation for transient phenomena in stroke, as a metaphor for the social and cultural effects of the war. He directly related cultural development and brain science, bringing in his own emotions, which resulted in the first of several publications on the relations between biology, brain science, and culture.

  10. The correspondence between Winkler and Monakow during World War I.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Peter J; Jagella, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The correspondence (1907-1930) between two leading European neurologists, Cornelis Winkler (1855-1941) and Constantin von Monakow (1853-1930), has been preserved in Amsterdam and Zurich. For this paper, letters exchanged during World War I were studied. Professional as well as personal issues were discussed. An international neurology meeting in Berne in September 1914 had to be cancelled due to the war. They hoped that (neuro)scientists would remain politically neutral, continue scientific cooperation, and even be able to influence the course of the war. Winkler and Monakow tried to continue their work on the International Brain Atlas. Although living in neutral countries (The Netherlands and Switzerland), they observed that their practice and scientific work suffered from war conditions. While Winkler continued his activities as a neurologist, Monakow, affected emotionally, experienced a change in scientific interest toward psychoneurology. He used his diaschisis concept, originally an explanation for transient phenomena in stroke, as a metaphor for the social and cultural effects of the war. He directly related cultural development and brain science, bringing in his own emotions, which resulted in the first of several publications on the relations between biology, brain science, and culture. PMID:25402843

  11. 20 CFR 404.1320 - Who is a post-World War II veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who is a post-World War II veteran. 404.1320... II Veterans § 404.1320 Who is a post-World War II veteran. You are a post-World War II veteran if you were in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period and, if no......

  12. 20 CFR 404.1320 - Who is a post-World War II veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who is a post-World War II veteran. 404.1320... II Veterans § 404.1320 Who is a post-World War II veteran. You are a post-World War II veteran if you were in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period and, if no......

  13. 20 CFR 404.1320 - Who is a post-World War II veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is a post-World War II veteran. 404.1320... II Veterans § 404.1320 Who is a post-World War II veteran. You are a post-World War II veteran if you were in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period and, if no......

  14. 20 CFR 404.1320 - Who is a post-World War II veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who is a post-World War II veteran. 404.1320... II Veterans § 404.1320 Who is a post-World War II veteran. You are a post-World War II veteran if you were in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period and, if no......

  15. 20 CFR 404.1320 - Who is a post-World War II veteran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who is a post-World War II veteran. 404.1320... II Veterans § 404.1320 Who is a post-World War II veteran. You are a post-World War II veteran if you were in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period and, if no......

  16. 78 FR 64500 - World War One Centennial Commission; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION World War One Centennial Commission; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting AGENCY: World War One Centennial Commission. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Notice of this meeting is being... notice provides the schedule and agenda for the November 15, 2013, meeting of the World War...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1323 - Post-World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period if, for example, you were in the— (a)...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1322 - Post-World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period if you were in the— (a) Air Force, Army,...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1322 - Post-World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period if you were in the— (a) Air Force, Army,...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1323 - Post-World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period if, for example, you were in the— (a)...

  1. 20 CFR 408.216 - Are you a World War II veteran?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are you a World War II veteran? 408.216... II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Military Service § 408.216 Are you a World War II veteran? (a) Service requirements. For SVB purposes, you are a World War II veteran if you: (1) Served...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1323 - Post-World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period if, for example, you were in the— (a)...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1323 - Post-World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period if, for example, you were in the— (a)...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1322 - Post-World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period if you were in the— (a) Air Force, Army,...

  5. An Oral History Project: World War II Veterans Share Memories in My Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, David W.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how the author developed and implemented a course on World War II that has an oral history component. The author describes the format of the World War II course and the oral history component within the course framework. The author uses classroom presentations by veterans to enliven his World War II history class and enhance…

  6. 20 CFR 408.216 - Are you a World War II veteran?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are you a World War II veteran? 408.216... II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Military Service § 408.216 Are you a World War II veteran? (a) Service requirements. For SVB purposes, you are a World War II veteran if you: (1) Served...

  7. 20 CFR 408.216 - Are you a World War II veteran?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are you a World War II veteran? 408.216... II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Military Service § 408.216 Are you a World War II veteran? (a) Service requirements. For SVB purposes, you are a World War II veteran if you: (1) Served...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1323 - Post-World War II service excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period if, for example, you were in the— (a)...

  9. 20 CFR 408.216 - Are you a World War II veteran?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are you a World War II veteran? 408.216... II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Military Service § 408.216 Are you a World War II veteran? (a) Service requirements. For SVB purposes, you are a World War II veteran if you: (1) Served...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1322 - Post-World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period if you were in the— (a) Air Force, Army,...

  11. 20 CFR 408.216 - Are you a World War II veteran?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are you a World War II veteran? 408.216... II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Military Service § 408.216 Are you a World War II veteran? (a) Service requirements. For SVB purposes, you are a World War II veteran if you: (1) Served...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1322 - Post-World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United States during the post-World War II period if you were in the— (a) Air Force, Army,...

  13. The war against bacteria: how were sulphonamide drugs used by Britain during World War II?

    PubMed

    Davenport, Diana

    2012-06-01

    Penicillin is often considered one of the greatest discoveries of 20th century medicine. However, the revolution in therapeutics brought about by sulphonamides also had a profound effect on British medicine, particularly during World War II (WWII). Sulphonamides were used to successfully treat many infections which later yielded to penicillin and so their role deserves wider acknowledgement. The sulphonamides, a pre-war German discovery, were widely used clinically. However, the revolution brought about by the drugs has been either neglected or obscured by penicillin, resulting in less research on their use in Britain during WWII. By examining Medical Research Council records, particularly war memorandums, as well as medical journals, archives and newspaper reports, this paper hopes to highlight the importance of the sulphonamides and demonstrate their critical role in the medical war effort and their importance in both the public and more particularly, the medical, sectors. It will present evidence to show that sulphonamides gained importance due to the increased prevalence of infection which compromised the health of servicemen during WWII. The frequency of these infections led to an increase in demand and production. However, the sulphonamides were soon surpassed by penicillin, which had fewer side-effects and could treat syphilis and sulphonamide-resistant infections. Nevertheless, despite these limitations, the sulphonamides drugs were arguably more important in revolutionising medicine than penicillin, as they achieved the first real success in the war against bacteria. PMID:21969613

  14. The war against bacteria: how were sulphonamide drugs used by Britain during World War II?

    PubMed

    Davenport, Diana

    2012-06-01

    Penicillin is often considered one of the greatest discoveries of 20th century medicine. However, the revolution in therapeutics brought about by sulphonamides also had a profound effect on British medicine, particularly during World War II (WWII). Sulphonamides were used to successfully treat many infections which later yielded to penicillin and so their role deserves wider acknowledgement. The sulphonamides, a pre-war German discovery, were widely used clinically. However, the revolution brought about by the drugs has been either neglected or obscured by penicillin, resulting in less research on their use in Britain during WWII. By examining Medical Research Council records, particularly war memorandums, as well as medical journals, archives and newspaper reports, this paper hopes to highlight the importance of the sulphonamides and demonstrate their critical role in the medical war effort and their importance in both the public and more particularly, the medical, sectors. It will present evidence to show that sulphonamides gained importance due to the increased prevalence of infection which compromised the health of servicemen during WWII. The frequency of these infections led to an increase in demand and production. However, the sulphonamides were soon surpassed by penicillin, which had fewer side-effects and could treat syphilis and sulphonamide-resistant infections. Nevertheless, despite these limitations, the sulphonamides drugs were arguably more important in revolutionising medicine than penicillin, as they achieved the first real success in the war against bacteria.

  15. Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II. The first view shows Slayton (on right) beside a Douglas A-26 bomber in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the summer of 1945, probably on Okinawa. The second man is 1st. Lt. Ed Steinman (28359); This view shows Slayton as an eighteen-year-old U.S. Army Air Force cadet at Victoria Field, Vernon, Texas in the autumn of 1942.

  16. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy

    2014-01-01

    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  17. You Can Help Your Country: English Children's Work during the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayall, Berry; Morrow, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Using a rich collection of archives, school histories, photographs and memoirs, this book charts and discusses the contributions English children made to the war effort during World War II. As men and women were increasingly called up for war work, as the country needed to grow as much food as possible, and as the war effort required ever…

  18. [World war I as seen by Franciscans of Slavonski Brod].

    PubMed

    Balen, Ivica; Jandrić-Balen, Marica

    2015-11-01

    There is a profound and permanent connection between Franciscans and Slavonski Brod (formerly known as Brod na Savi). It has lasted for centuries, as Franciscans were present in the town even during the Turkish occupation. They were the first town pastors after its independence from the Turks in 1691 and are present today with churches, monasteries, and the Franciscan High School, which opened in 1995. Their chronicles describing the events from 1706 to 1932 are an important source of historical information, especially for local historians. This article describes the life of Franciscans in Brod na Savi during the First World War. Initially, they were loyal Austro-Hungarian citizens who passionately believed in the ultimate victory on all fronts. However, war circumstances quickly lead to a disappointment and doubt. Slavic solidarity increased as the war progressed, and in the end Franciscans were delighted with the establishment of the new country of South Slavs, which they perceived as a means to free the nation from the Austrian and Hungarian authorities. Throughout the war, the Convent served as a reserve military hospital with 145 beds for the soldiers and 21 beds for officers.

  19. [World war I as seen by Franciscans of Slavonski Brod].

    PubMed

    Balen, Ivica; Jandrić-Balen, Marica

    2015-11-01

    There is a profound and permanent connection between Franciscans and Slavonski Brod (formerly known as Brod na Savi). It has lasted for centuries, as Franciscans were present in the town even during the Turkish occupation. They were the first town pastors after its independence from the Turks in 1691 and are present today with churches, monasteries, and the Franciscan High School, which opened in 1995. Their chronicles describing the events from 1706 to 1932 are an important source of historical information, especially for local historians. This article describes the life of Franciscans in Brod na Savi during the First World War. Initially, they were loyal Austro-Hungarian citizens who passionately believed in the ultimate victory on all fronts. However, war circumstances quickly lead to a disappointment and doubt. Slavic solidarity increased as the war progressed, and in the end Franciscans were delighted with the establishment of the new country of South Slavs, which they perceived as a means to free the nation from the Austrian and Hungarian authorities. Throughout the war, the Convent served as a reserve military hospital with 145 beds for the soldiers and 21 beds for officers. PMID:27639047

  20. The Effect of World War II on Women in Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Anne M.

    The field of engineering has been one of the most difficult for women to enter. Even with an increase in the proportion of women in the engineering workforce from 0.3% before the 1970s to 9.5% in 1999, women are still seriously underrepresented. This article examines the history of women in engineering in the United States during World War II. Women were actively recruited as engineering aides by the federal government, which saw them as a temporary substitute for men who were in the military. Yet this crisis did not break down the barriers to and prejudices against women in engineering, nor did it give them a real opportunity to become professional engineers equal to men. After the war, calls for a return to normalcy were used to reestablish social norms, which kept women at home and reserved desirable places in the workforce, including in engineering, for men.

  1. Using Historical Statistics To Teach about World War II. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siler, Carl R.

    World War II was a turning point in global history, an event that had a large and lasting impact on many people and places across broad areas of the earth. Compared to other wars, World War II involved the largest armed forces, the longest battle lines, the most destructive weapons, the most casualties, the most destruction of cities and other…

  2. [Use of chemical war gases at the Russian-German front during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Budko, A A; Ivanovskii, Yu V

    2016-02-01

    The First World War was notable for the widespread use of machine military hardware and absolutely new type of weapon--chemical weapon. As a result of the first gas attack by chlorine undertaken by the German army against the Russian armies on May, 31st, 1915, heavy poisonings have received 9100 people, 6000 of them died. Chemical attack of Germany against Russia was limited by the use chemical gases of suffocating action: chlorine, bromine,phosgene and diphosgene. It is not known exactly, how many times Germany attacked Russian positions with use of chemical gases. On available data, in the First World War from application by German of the chemical weapon Russia has suffered more, than any other of the at war countries: from five hundred thousand poisoned have died nearby 66,000 people. In turn, having received in the order the chemical weapon of own manufacture, Russian army itself tried to attack in the German armies. It is authentically known only about several cases of application dy Russian of fighting poison gases, and in all cases of loss of germen were insignificant. PMID:27263214

  3. [Use of chemical war gases at the Russian-German front during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Budko, A A; Ivanovskii, Yu V

    2016-02-01

    The First World War was notable for the widespread use of machine military hardware and absolutely new type of weapon--chemical weapon. As a result of the first gas attack by chlorine undertaken by the German army against the Russian armies on May, 31st, 1915, heavy poisonings have received 9100 people, 6000 of them died. Chemical attack of Germany against Russia was limited by the use chemical gases of suffocating action: chlorine, bromine,phosgene and diphosgene. It is not known exactly, how many times Germany attacked Russian positions with use of chemical gases. On available data, in the First World War from application by German of the chemical weapon Russia has suffered more, than any other of the at war countries: from five hundred thousand poisoned have died nearby 66,000 people. In turn, having received in the order the chemical weapon of own manufacture, Russian army itself tried to attack in the German armies. It is authentically known only about several cases of application dy Russian of fighting poison gases, and in all cases of loss of germen were insignificant.

  4. Chronic strongyloidiasis in World War II Far East ex-prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, L L

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-two of 142 (37%) American ex-prisoners of war that worked on the Burma-Thailand Railroad during World War II were found to have previously unrecognized symptomatic Strongyloides stercoralis infections. A characteristic urticarial creeping skin eruption on the abdomen, buttocks and thighs occurred in 92%. Infection was also associated with pruritus ani, abdominal pain, indigestion, heartburn, and diarrhea. Demonstration of larvae in ether-formalin stool concentrates in these chronic low density infections required 5 hours of microscopy per case to detect 90% of positive cases. Therapy with thiabendazole resulted in a clinical cure in 93% and a microscopic cure in 100%; but was associated with frequent side effects. Chronic strongyloidiasis should be considered in veterans of Far East conflicts and in others with intimate soil contact in rural Strongyloides stercoralis-endemic areas who present with recurrent creeping skin eruption, abdominal pain, and eosinophilia. PMID:6696184

  5. "Voices of the people": linguistic research among Germany's prisoners of war during World War I.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the history of the Royal Prussian Phonographic Commission, a body that collected and archived linguistic, ethnographic, and anthropological data from prisoners-of-war (POWs) in Germany during World War I. Recent literature has analyzed the significance of this research for the rise of conservative physical anthropology. Taking a complementary approach, the essay charts new territory in seeking to understand how the prison-camp studies informed philology and linguistics specifically. I argue that recognizing philological commitments of the Phonographic Commission is essential to comprehending the project contextually. My approach reveals that linguists accommodated material and contemporary evidence to older text-based research models, sustaining dynamic theories of language. Through a case study based on the Iranian philologist F. C. Andreas (1846-1930), the paper ultimately argues that linguistics merits greater recognition in the historiography of the behavioral sciences.

  6. Follow-up studies of World War II and Korean war prisoners. II. Morbidity, disability, and maladjustments.

    PubMed

    Beebe, G W

    1975-05-01

    US Army veterans taken prisoner (POW's) in World War II and in the Korean War are compared with controls as to hospital admissions from 1946 to 1965 (1954-1965 for Korean War POW's), and as to symptoms, disability, and maladjustments in 1966-1967. Sequelae of the POW experience are both somatic and psychiatric, and are of greatest extent and severity among Pacific World War II POW's. Among European World War II POW's only psychiatric sequelae are apparent. Somatic sequelae were most prevalent in the early years after liberation, but for Pacific World War II POW's they persist in the form of higher hospital admission rates for many specific causes in the most recent period. Nevertheless, persistent psychiatric sequelae (especially psychoneurosis but also schizophrenia) are the more notable and pervasive for both Pacific World War II POW's and Korean War POW's as seen not only in elevated hospital admission rates but also in VA disability awards and in symptoms reported on the cornell Medical Index Health Questionnaire. The excess morbidity appears to correlate well with retrospective accounts of weight-loss and nutritional deficiency diseases and symptoms during the POW period. PMID:124131

  7. Happenings in histopathology - a post-World War II perspective.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaratnam, K

    2007-08-01

    There have been several important developments in the practice of histopathology since World War II; those reviewed in this lecture are grouped under 4 headings: new techniques (cytopathology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology), organisational issues (recruitment, training and certification, subspecialties, quality control and consultations), ethical and legal issues (service costs, and the ownership and uses of biopsy tissues) and globalisation (international associations, standardised classification and nomenclature, and telepathology). Advances in the fields of molecular pathology and telepathology are expected to have the greatest impact on the practice of pathology in the next decade. PMID:17767342

  8. US Navy shipyard occupational medicine through World War II.

    PubMed

    Forman, S A

    1988-01-01

    For more than 60 years the US Navy has maintained occupational health programs for its civil service workers in shipyards, arsenals, and aircraft repair facilities. The early history of the organization, people, and professional activities dedicated to the health of this large federal industrial workforce is examined. Early efforts were stimulated by increasingly complex naval technology and worker compensation law. During World War II training, clinical, and preventive programs were pursued vigorously. Navy occupational health paralleled and at times led the development of occupational medicine and industrial hygiene in America. PMID:2965222

  9. Happenings in histopathology - a post-World War II perspective.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaratnam, K

    2007-08-01

    There have been several important developments in the practice of histopathology since World War II; those reviewed in this lecture are grouped under 4 headings: new techniques (cytopathology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology), organisational issues (recruitment, training and certification, subspecialties, quality control and consultations), ethical and legal issues (service costs, and the ownership and uses of biopsy tissues) and globalisation (international associations, standardised classification and nomenclature, and telepathology). Advances in the fields of molecular pathology and telepathology are expected to have the greatest impact on the practice of pathology in the next decade.

  10. Driving through: postpartum care during World War II.

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, E

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, public outcry over shortened hospital stays for new mothers and their infants led to the passage of a federal law banning "drive-through deliveries." This recent round of brief postpartum stays is not unprecedented. During World War II, a baby boom overwhelmed maternity facilities in American hospitals. Hospital births became more popular and accessible as the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care program subsidized obstetric care for servicemen's wives. Although protocols before the war had called for prolonged bed rest in the puerperium, medical theory was quickly revised as crowded hospitals were forced to discharge mothers after 24 hours. To compensate for short inpatient stays, community-based services such as visiting nursing care, postnatal homes, and prenatal classes evolved to support new mothers. Fueled by rhetoric that identified maternal-child health as a critical factor in military morale, postpartum care during the war years remained comprehensive despite short hospital stays. The wartime experience offers a model of alternatives to legislation for ensuring adequate care of postpartum women. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10191809

  11. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...

  16. Malaria's contribution to World War One - the unexpected adversary.

    PubMed

    Brabin, Bernard J

    2014-01-01

    Malaria in the First World War was an unexpected adversary. In 1914, the scientific community had access to new knowledge on transmission of malaria parasites and their control, but the military were unprepared, and underestimated the nature, magnitude and dispersion of this enemy. In summarizing available information for allied and axis military forces, this review contextualizes the challenge posed by malaria, because although data exist across historical, medical and military documents, descriptions are fragmented, often addressing context specific issues. Military malaria surveillance statistics have, therefore, been summarized for all theatres of the War, where available. These indicated that at least 1.5 million solders were infected, with case fatality ranging from 0.2 -5.0%. As more countries became engaged in the War, the problem grew in size, leading to major epidemics in Macedonia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Italy. Trans-continental passages of parasites and human reservoirs of infection created ideal circumstances for parasite evolution. Details of these epidemics are reviewed, including major epidemics in England and Italy, which developed following home troop evacuations, and disruption of malaria control activities in Italy. Elsewhere, in sub-Saharan Africa many casualties resulted from high malaria exposure combined with minimal control efforts for soldiers considered semi-immune. Prevention activities eventually started but were initially poorly organized and dependent on local enthusiasm and initiative. Nets had to be designed for field use and were fundamental for personal protection. Multiple prevention approaches adopted in different settings and their relative utility are described. Clinical treatment primarily depended on quinine, although efficacy was poor as relapsing Plasmodium vivax and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections were not distinguished and managed appropriately. Reasons for this are discussed and the clinical trial data

  17. Malaria's contribution to World War One - the unexpected adversary.

    PubMed

    Brabin, Bernard J

    2014-12-16

    Malaria in the First World War was an unexpected adversary. In 1914, the scientific community had access to new knowledge on transmission of malaria parasites and their control, but the military were unprepared, and underestimated the nature, magnitude and dispersion of this enemy. In summarizing available information for allied and axis military forces, this review contextualizes the challenge posed by malaria, because although data exist across historical, medical and military documents, descriptions are fragmented, often addressing context specific issues. Military malaria surveillance statistics have, therefore, been summarized for all theatres of the War, where available. These indicated that at least 1.5 million solders were infected, with case fatality ranging from 0.2 -5.0%. As more countries became engaged in the War, the problem grew in size, leading to major epidemics in Macedonia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Italy. Trans-continental passages of parasites and human reservoirs of infection created ideal circumstances for parasite evolution. Details of these epidemics are reviewed, including major epidemics in England and Italy, which developed following home troop evacuations, and disruption of malaria control activities in Italy. Elsewhere, in sub-Saharan Africa many casualties resulted from high malaria exposure combined with minimal control efforts for soldiers considered semi-immune. Prevention activities eventually started but were initially poorly organized and dependent on local enthusiasm and initiative. Nets had to be designed for field use and were fundamental for personal protection. Multiple prevention approaches adopted in different settings and their relative utility are described. Clinical treatment primarily depended on quinine, although efficacy was poor as relapsing Plasmodium vivax and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections were not distinguished and managed appropriately. Reasons for this are discussed and the clinical trial data

  18. Young New Zealanders and the Great War: Exploring the Impact and Legacy of the First World War, 1914-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jeanine

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on school histories, published adult recollections, oral interviews and children's letters, this article explores how the lives of young New Zealanders were affected by contemporary attitudes and activities during World War I in a country far removed from the actual theatre of war. Particular emphasis is given to school-related…

  19. [Asbestos at the time of the First World War].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, C; Bianchi, T

    2015-11-22

    Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous asbestos industries began operations in various parts of the world. At the time of the First World War there is ample evidence of the use of this mineral in shipbuilding, the aircraft industry and in the construction industry. In the years 1912-17 the writer Franz Kafka was co-proprietor of a small asbestos factory in Prague. Some of the writer's novels and journal pages were inspired by this experience. In this way asbestos entered into the history of 20th century European literature. In 1917 asbestos extraction was started at the quarry in Balangero, near Turin, Italy. Risks related to the use of asbestos were known at the beginning of the 20th century and legislation aimed at preventing the harmful effects of the mineral were approved in Italy.

  20. Mustard Gas: Its Pre-World War I History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchovic, Ronald J.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2007-06-01

    Mustard gas is perhaps the best-known chemical warfare agent and is commonly associated with World War I, both in its first use in warfare and its first synthesis. Although the former is correct, the latter is not. We review here the history of the repeated synthesis of mustard gas by 19th century European chemists. The techniques developed by these chemists were the ones relied upon by both the Central Powers and the Allies to manufacture this agent during World War I. Further, a historical review of mustard gas synthesis highlights the increasing sophistication of the chemical sciences. In particular, during the latter half of the 19th century, the concepts of atomic mass, chemical periodicity, and chemical structure underwent a rapid development that culminated in the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry in the 20th century. A comparison is made of the molecular formula for mustard gas from the 19th century with that of the 21st century, demonstrating that the concept of atomic mass has undergone significant refinement over this period of time.

  1. Cold blood and clinical research during World War I.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, W C; King, S C

    1996-07-01

    Therapeutic transfusion was not a common procedure at the turn of the century. Although its safety was enhanced by the discovery of blood groups and preinfusion testing in the decade prior to World War I, techniques and indications remained cumbersome and clinically naive. By 1916, a stable Western Front, an efficient line of transport, and the operative requirements of a large number of wounded demonstrated the futility of pharmacotherapy or saline infusion for traumatic shock. In the same year, Rous and Turner at the Rockefeller Institute developed a preservative solution for whole blood. Rous' student, Dr. O.H. Robertson, arrived in France with Base Hospital 5 in June 1917 during a period of growing recognition by military surgeons that transfused blood was an effective therapy, although a practical delivery system was not available. Over the next 8 months, Robertson clinically tested a transfusion technique using preserved blood in glass jars carried to the front in specially designed cases. The method was accepted immediately, and by the Armistice transfusion was used frequently on the front line or during the perioperative period. The accessibility of preserved blood with an efficient transfusion system reinforced the introduction of "resuscitation teams" attached to Casualty Clearing Hospitals for the specialized management of traumatic shock. Robertson's success at technical innovation during World War I associated with a large clinical population resulted in the development of the indications and procedures for modern transfusion therapy.

  2. World War II, post-war reconstruction and British women chemists.

    PubMed

    Horrocks, Sally

    2011-07-01

    This paper draws on evidence from a range of sources to consider the extent to which World War II served as a turning point in the employment opportunities open to women chemists in Britain. It argues that wartime conditions expanded women's access to some areas of employment, but that these opportunities represented, in many ways, an expansion of existing openings rather than wholly new ones, and not all of them proved permanent. Instead, women chemists benefited more permanently from increased state expenditure on higher education and on research and development after the war. This enabled some women to remain in what had originally been temporary wartime posts and others to secure employment in wholly new positions. Women were most successful in securing positions created by the expansion of state welfare and support for agriculture, but also found new employment opportunities as a result of the heavy investment in weapons development that accelerated with the advent of the Cold War. In higher education, an initial expansion of openings was not sustained, and the proportion of women in university chemistry departments actually fell during the second half of the 1950s. Industry presents a rather ambiguous picture, with many firms continuing to refuse to employ women chemists, whereas elsewhere they enjoyed enhanced opportunities and better salaries than those offered before the war. This did not mean, however, that women chemists received equal treatment to their male colleagues, and, despite the changes, they remained concentrated in subordinate positions and were expected to concentrate on routine work. Prospects in the 1950s were certainly better than they had been during the 1930s, but they remained strongly gendered.

  3. World War II, post-war reconstruction and British women chemists.

    PubMed

    Horrocks, Sally

    2011-07-01

    This paper draws on evidence from a range of sources to consider the extent to which World War II served as a turning point in the employment opportunities open to women chemists in Britain. It argues that wartime conditions expanded women's access to some areas of employment, but that these opportunities represented, in many ways, an expansion of existing openings rather than wholly new ones, and not all of them proved permanent. Instead, women chemists benefited more permanently from increased state expenditure on higher education and on research and development after the war. This enabled some women to remain in what had originally been temporary wartime posts and others to secure employment in wholly new positions. Women were most successful in securing positions created by the expansion of state welfare and support for agriculture, but also found new employment opportunities as a result of the heavy investment in weapons development that accelerated with the advent of the Cold War. In higher education, an initial expansion of openings was not sustained, and the proportion of women in university chemistry departments actually fell during the second half of the 1950s. Industry presents a rather ambiguous picture, with many firms continuing to refuse to employ women chemists, whereas elsewhere they enjoyed enhanced opportunities and better salaries than those offered before the war. This did not mean, however, that women chemists received equal treatment to their male colleagues, and, despite the changes, they remained concentrated in subordinate positions and were expected to concentrate on routine work. Prospects in the 1950s were certainly better than they had been during the 1930s, but they remained strongly gendered. PMID:21936240

  4. Elaboration of the Visual Pathways from the Study of War-Related Cranial Injuries: The Period from the Russo-Japanese War to World War I.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the wars in the early 20th century, elaboration of the visual pathways was greatly facilitated by the meticulous study of visual defects in soldiers who had suffered focal injuries to the visual cortex. Using relatively crude techniques, often under difficult wartime circumstances, investigators successfully mapped key features of the visual pathways. Studies during the Russo- Japanese War (1904-1905) by Tatsuji Inouye (1881-1976) and during World War I by Gordon Holmes (1876-1965), William Lister (1868-1944), and others produced increasingly refined retinotopic maps of the primary visual cortex, which were later supported and refined by studies during and after World War II. Studies by George Riddoch (1888-1947) during World War I also demonstrated that some patients could still perceive motion despite blindness caused by damage to their visual cortex and helped to establish the concept of functional partitioning of visual processes in the occipital cortex. PMID:27035915

  5. Elaboration of the Visual Pathways from the Study of War-Related Cranial Injuries: The Period from the Russo-Japanese War to World War I.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the wars in the early 20th century, elaboration of the visual pathways was greatly facilitated by the meticulous study of visual defects in soldiers who had suffered focal injuries to the visual cortex. Using relatively crude techniques, often under difficult wartime circumstances, investigators successfully mapped key features of the visual pathways. Studies during the Russo- Japanese War (1904-1905) by Tatsuji Inouye (1881-1976) and during World War I by Gordon Holmes (1876-1965), William Lister (1868-1944), and others produced increasingly refined retinotopic maps of the primary visual cortex, which were later supported and refined by studies during and after World War II. Studies by George Riddoch (1888-1947) during World War I also demonstrated that some patients could still perceive motion despite blindness caused by damage to their visual cortex and helped to establish the concept of functional partitioning of visual processes in the occipital cortex.

  6. [Humanities as a means of survival: the testimony of a Siberian prisoner of war in the First World War].

    PubMed

    Inić, Suzana; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella; Kujundžić, Nikola

    2015-11-01

    This article looks into the autobiography of the Croatian chemist and pharmacognosist Antun Vrgoč (1881-1949) entitled My Memories of the World War 1914-1920 and published in Zagreb in 1937. The author was captured in October 1914 and deported to Siberia, where he remained prisoner of war until 1920. Since there are few memoirs describing the life of Siberian prisoners during the First World War, this work is a precious testimony about the attitude towards the prisoners of war, human relations, and the survival of an AustroHungarian army officer. The book shows a striking lack of civilian or military hostility towards the prisoners and the respect of the Geneva Convention. Antun Vrgoč adopted the culture, customs and language of his formal enemies, took part in their civilian life, and taught at their university. His cathartic experience of survival includes a clear message about the absurdity of war. PMID:27639042

  7. [Humanities as a means of survival: the testimony of a Siberian prisoner of war in the First World War].

    PubMed

    Inić, Suzana; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella; Kujundžić, Nikola

    2015-11-01

    This article looks into the autobiography of the Croatian chemist and pharmacognosist Antun Vrgoč (1881-1949) entitled My Memories of the World War 1914-1920 and published in Zagreb in 1937. The author was captured in October 1914 and deported to Siberia, where he remained prisoner of war until 1920. Since there are few memoirs describing the life of Siberian prisoners during the First World War, this work is a precious testimony about the attitude towards the prisoners of war, human relations, and the survival of an AustroHungarian army officer. The book shows a striking lack of civilian or military hostility towards the prisoners and the respect of the Geneva Convention. Antun Vrgoč adopted the culture, customs and language of his formal enemies, took part in their civilian life, and taught at their university. His cathartic experience of survival includes a clear message about the absurdity of war.

  8. Aftermath of a Crusade: World War I and the Enlarged Program of the American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Arthur P.

    1980-01-01

    Considers the objectives, campaign strategy, ideology, and reception of the American Library Association's Enlarged Program to revitalize library services after World War I. Forty references are cited. (FM)

  9. Fighting for Social Democracy: R.H. Tawney and Educational Reconstruction in the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Hsiao-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    R.H. Tawney (1880-1962), a leading English economic historian and prominent socialist, was vigorously involved in educational reconstruction during the Second World War. For Tawney, the war was a war for social democracy. His ideals of social democracy formed a basis for his case for Public (independent) School reform and free secondary education…

  10. [The activities of the Russian Society of Red Cross during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Gorelova, L Ye; Rudoiy, N A

    2013-01-01

    During the First World War, the Russian Society of Red Cross used experience of previous wars expanded its activities. The medical service functioned in the conditions of cruel war. For the first time in history, the weapon of mass destruction was applied The merit of the Russian society of Red Cross was development of specialized medical care.

  11. Reading at the Front: Books and Soldiers in the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, Marcella P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reading and educational practices of common soldiers during the First World War. It argues that the question of how war libraries were imagined and constructed by civilians needs to be framed in the larger context of pre-war Edwardian debates surrounding the "value of books" in society. Indeed, it was within…

  12. The neurological manifestations of trauma: lessons from World War I.

    PubMed

    Linden, Stefanie C; Hess, Volker; Jones, Edgar

    2012-04-01

    Changes in the clinical presentation of functional disorders and the influence of social and cultural factors can be investigated through the historical case notes from mental hospitals. World War I (WWI) was a potent trigger of functional disorders with neurological or psychiatric symptoms. We analysed 100 randomly selected case files of German servicemen admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of the Charité Medical School of Berlin University during WWI and classified them according to contemporaneous and retrospective modern diagnoses. We compared the clinical presentations with accounts in the German and British medical literature of the time. Most patients obtained the contemporaneous diagnosis of 'psychopathic constitution' or hysteria reflecting the general view of German psychiatrists that not the war but an individual predisposition was the basis for the development of symptoms. The clinical picture was dominated by pseudoneurological motor or sensory symptoms as well as pseudoseizures. Some soldiers relived combat experiences in dream-like dissociative states that partly resemble modern-day post-traumatic stress disorder. Most servicemen were classified as unfit for military service but very few of them were granted compensation. Severe functional disorders of a neurological character could develop even without traumatic exposure in combat, which is of interest for the current debate on triggers of stress disorders. The high incidence of pseudoseizures accords with the psychiatric literature of the time and contrasts with accounts of war-related disorders in Britain. The tendency of German psychiatrists not to send traumatised servicemen back to active duty also distinguished between German and British practice. Our data contribute to the debate on the changing patterns of human responses to traumatic experience and their historical and social context.

  13. The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory: contributions to World War II.

    PubMed

    Folk, G Edgar

    2010-09-01

    The war contributions of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in Cambridge, MA, were recorded in 169 Technical Reports, most of which were sent to the Office of the Quartermaster General. Earlier reports were sent to the National Research Council and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Many of the reports from 1941 and later dealt with either physical fitness of soldiers or the energetic cost of military tasks in extreme heat and cold. New military emergency rations to be manufactured in large quantities were analyzed in the Fatigue Laboratory and then tested in the field. Newly designed cold weather clothing was tested in the cold chamber at -40 degrees F, and desired improvements were made and tested in the field by staff and soldiers in tents and sleeping bags. Electrically heated clothing was designed for high-altitude flight crews and tested both in laboratory chambers and field tests before being issued. This eye witness account of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory during World War II was recorded by Dr. G. Edgar Folk, who is likely the sole surviving member of that famous laboratory. PMID:20826765

  14. Some recollections of Porton in World War 1. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Garner, J P

    2003-06-01

    Chemical weapons now regularly feature in news reports and the threat from them has become widely recognised by the public at large. Terrorist actions such as the Tokyo subway incident in 1995, coupled with the persistent use of agents such as sulphur mustard and Sarin by the Iraqi regime over the last 20 years in the Iran/Iraq war and against the Kurds of Northern Iraq, make it easy to think that chemical weapons are a new phenomenon. This paper reminds us that many chemical agents were developed during WWI; indeed the first use of a chemical agent was the release of chlorine gas--a choking agent--by the Germans over the battlefields of Ypres in 1915. Porton Down remains at the very heart of chemicals and biological weapons research, albeit in a purely defensive capacity; few of the old buildings remain and the idyllic lifestyle in the Officer's Mess at Idmiston Manor has long since disappeared. These recollections provide a fascinating insight into scientific research at the time of World War I.

  15. Prevention of tetanus during the First World War.

    PubMed

    Wever, Peter Cornelis; van Bergen, Leo

    2012-12-01

    The emergence of tetanus in wounded soldiers during the first months of the First World War (WWI) resulted from combat on richly manured fields in Belgium and Northern France, the use of modern explosives that produced deep tissue wounds and the intimate contact between the soldier and the soil upon which he fought. In response, routine prophylactic injections with anti-tetanus serum were given to wounded soldiers removed from the firing line. Subsequently, a steep fall in the incidence of tetanus was observed on both sides of the conflict. Because of fatal serum anaphylaxis associated with administration of serum at a time when purification methods still needed to be improved, it must be presumed that tens to hundreds of men might have died as a result of the routine administration of anti-tetanus serum during WWI. Yet anti-tetanus serum undoubtedly prevented life threatening tetanus among several hundred thousands of wounded men, making it one of the most successful preventive interventions in wartime medicine. After the abrupt fall in tetanus incidence in 1914 due to introduction of anti-tetanus serum, the incidence of the disease tended to become even lower as the war went on. This was probably due to earlier and more thorough surgical treatment, consisting of opening, cleaning, excision and drainage of wounds as early as possible. In this overview, recent battlefield findings from the Meuse-Argonne offensive in 1918 are used to illustrate common practices employed in the prevention of tetanus during WWI.

  16. The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory: contributions to World War II.

    PubMed

    Folk, G Edgar

    2010-09-01

    The war contributions of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in Cambridge, MA, were recorded in 169 Technical Reports, most of which were sent to the Office of the Quartermaster General. Earlier reports were sent to the National Research Council and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Many of the reports from 1941 and later dealt with either physical fitness of soldiers or the energetic cost of military tasks in extreme heat and cold. New military emergency rations to be manufactured in large quantities were analyzed in the Fatigue Laboratory and then tested in the field. Newly designed cold weather clothing was tested in the cold chamber at -40 degrees F, and desired improvements were made and tested in the field by staff and soldiers in tents and sleeping bags. Electrically heated clothing was designed for high-altitude flight crews and tested both in laboratory chambers and field tests before being issued. This eye witness account of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory during World War II was recorded by Dr. G. Edgar Folk, who is likely the sole surviving member of that famous laboratory.

  17. The Rhetoric of Disfigurement in First World War Britain

    PubMed Central

    Biernoff, Suzannah

    2011-01-01

    Summary During the First World War, the horror of facial mutilation was evoked in journalism, poems, memoirs and fiction; but in Britain it was almost never represented visually outside the professional contexts of clinical medicine and medical history. This article asks why, and offers an account of British visual culture in which visual anxiety and aversion are of central importance. By comparing the rhetoric of disfigurement to the parallel treatment of amputees, an asymmetrical picture emerges in which the ‘worst loss of all’—the loss of one's face—is perceived as a loss of humanity. The only hope was surgery or, if that failed, prosthetic repair: innovations that were often wildly exaggerated in the popular press. Francis Derwent Wood was one of several sculptors whose technical skill and artistic ‘wizardry’ played a part in the improvised reconstruction of identity and humanity.

  18. Trace Explosives Signatures from World War II Unexploded Undersea Ordnance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darrach, M. R.; Chutjian, A.; Plett, G. A.

    1998-01-01

    Trace explosives signatures of TNT and DNT have been extracted from multiple sediment samples adjacent to unexploded undersea ordnance at Halifax Harbor, Canada. The ordnance was hurled into the harbor during a massive explosion some 50 years earlier, in 1945 after World War II had ended. Laboratory sediment extractions were made using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method in seawater and detection using the Reversal Electron Attachment Detection (READ) technique and, in the case of DNT, a commercial gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Results show that, after more than 50 years in the environment, ordnance that appeared to be physically intact gave good explosives signatures at the parts per billion level, whereas ordnance that had been cracked open during the explosion gave no signatures at the 10 parts per trillion sensitivity level. These measurements appear to provide the first reported data of explosives signatures from undersea unexploded ordnance.

  19. Some autobiographical data (my life before the First World War)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesenkov, V. G.; Fesenkova, L. V.

    The autobiography of the distinguish astronomy academician V. G. Fesenkov consists of two parts. The first one describes the period before 1914, the second one - the next period of academician life. The education in primary school, Harkov's University, his work in Tashkent and Harkov observatories, work at dissertation, work at the observatories in Paris, Medon and Nyssa are under discussion. This part of biography talks about the educational state and astronomy in Russia and Europe before the First World War. Also there are discussion of life of Russian intelligence at the beginning of XX century and intellectual atmosphere of life and work of scientists in Russia and France. The second part is devoted to the development of native astronomy in the Soviet period.

  20. History of respiratory mechanics prior to World War II.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2012-01-01

    The history of respiratory mechanics is reviewed over a period of some 2,500 years from the ancient Greeks to World War II. A cardinal early figure was Galen (130-199 AD) who made remarkably perceptive statements on the diaphragm and the anatomy of the phrenic nerves. The polymath Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) contributed observations on pulmonary mechanics including the pleural space and bronchial airflow that still make good reading. Vesalius (1514-1564) produced magnificent illustrations of the lung, ribcage, and diaphragm. In the 17th century, the Oxford School including Boyle, Hooke, Lower, and Mayow were responsible for many contributions on mechanical functions including the intercostal muscles and the pleura. Hales (1677-1761) calculated the size and surface area of the alveoli, the time spent by the blood in the pulmonary capillaries, and intrathoracic pressures. Poiseuille (1799-1869) carried out classical studies of fluid mechanics including one of the first demonstrations of flow limitation in collapsible vessels. The culmination of the pre-World War II period was the outstanding contributions of Rohrer (1888-1926) and his two Swiss countrymen, Wirz (1896-1978) and von Neergaard (1887-1947). Rohrer developed the first comprehensive, quantitative treatment of respiratory mechanics in the space of 10 years including an analysis of flow in airways, and the pressure-volume behavior of the respiratory system. von Neergaard performed landmark studies on the effects of surface tension on pressure-volume behavior. Progress over the 2,500 years was slow and erratic at times, but by 1940 the stage was set for the spectacular developments of the next 70 years.

  1. Cognitive dysfunctions associated with PTSD: evidence from World War II prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Hart, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Fauver, Peter; Cherry, Barbara J; Pitcock, Jeffery; Booe, Leroy Q; Tillman, Gail; Freeman, Thomas W

    2008-01-01

    The authors aim to delineate cognitive dysfunction associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by evaluating a well-defined cohort of former World War II prisoners of war (POWs) with documented trauma and minimal comorbidities. The authors studied a cross-sectional assessment of neuropsychological performance in former POWs with PTSD, PTSD with other psychiatric comorbidities, and those with no PTSD or psychiatric diagnoses. Participants who developed PTSD had average IQ, while those who did not develop PTSD after similar traumatic experiences had higher IQs than average (approximately 116). Those with PTSD performed significantly less well in tests of selective frontal lobe functions and psychomotor speed. In addition, PTSD patients with co-occurring psychiatric conditions experienced impairment in recognition memory for faces. Higher IQ appears to protect individuals who undergo a traumatic experience from developing long-term PTSD, while cognitive dysfunctions appear to develop with or subsequent to PTSD. These distinctions were supported by the negative and positive correlations of these cognitive dysfunctions with quantitative markers of trauma, respectively. There is a suggestion that some cognitive decrements occur in PTSD patients only when they have comorbid psychiatric diagnoses.

  2. Making War Work for Industry: The United Alkali Company's Central Laboratory During World War One.

    PubMed

    Reed, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The creation of the Central Laboratory immediately after the United Alkali Company (UAC) was formed in 1890, by amalgamating the Leblanc alkali works in Britain, brought high expectations of repositioning the company by replacing its obsolete Leblanc process plant and expanding its range of chemical products. By 1914, UAC had struggled with few exceptions to adopt new technologies and processes and was still reliant on the Leblanc process. From 1914, the Government would rely heavily on its contribution to the war effort. As a major heavy-chemical manufacturer, UAC produced chemicals for explosives and warfare gases, while also trying to maintain production of many essential chemicals including fertilisers for homeland consumption. UAC's wartime effort was led by the Central Laboratory, working closely with the recently established Engineer's Department to develop new process pathways, build new plant, adapt existing plant, and produce the contracted quantities, all as quickly as possible to meet the changing battlefield demands. This article explores how wartime conditions and demands provided the stimulus for the Central Laboratory's crucial R&D work during World War One.

  3. War and Marriage: Assortative Mating and the World War II GI Bill.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Matthew F; McCarthy, T J; Moulton, Jeremy G; Page, Marianne E; Patel, Ankur J

    2015-10-01

    World War II and its subsequent GI Bill have been widely credited with playing a transformative role in American society, but there have been few quantitative analyses of these historical events' broad social effects. We exploit between-cohort variation in the probability of military service to investigate how WWII and the GI Bill altered the structure of marriage, and find that it had important spillover effects beyond its direct effect on men's educational attainment. Our results suggest that the additional education received by returning veterans caused them to "sort" into wives with significantly higher levels of education. This suggests an important mechanism by which socioeconomic status may be passed on to the next generation.

  4. [Russians in Bjelovar hospitals during and after World war I].

    PubMed

    Habek, Dubravko; Čerkez Habek, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    The Great War was the beginning of the settlement of the Russian population in the town of Bjelovar in war conditions, most often as prisoners of war directed to the treatment of the military or civilian hospital. Thus, in Bjelovar during the Great War died 71 members of the Russian people, principally the soldiers, prisoners. Some were later permanently inhabited, founded by his family and worked in Bjelovar longer or shorter time.

  5. [Russians in Bjelovar hospitals during and after World war I].

    PubMed

    Habek, Dubravko; Čerkez Habek, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    The Great War was the beginning of the settlement of the Russian population in the town of Bjelovar in war conditions, most often as prisoners of war directed to the treatment of the military or civilian hospital. Thus, in Bjelovar during the Great War died 71 members of the Russian people, principally the soldiers, prisoners. Some were later permanently inhabited, founded by his family and worked in Bjelovar longer or shorter time. PMID:27598952

  6. 78 FR 51192 - World War I Centennial Commission; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting; Sunshine Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION World War I Centennial Commission; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting; Sunshine Act... meeting will be held at the National World War 1 Museum at Liberty Memorial, 100 W. 26th Street,...

  7. Some Lasting Consequences of US Psychology Programs in World Wars I and II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V.

    2007-01-01

    Applied research in psychology not only has contributed directly to societal advances but often has fostered basic research as well. Prominent examples are the programs directed by Yerkes in World War I to develop the Army Alpha test and several programs in World War II, including "The American Soldier" that assessed soldiers' attitudes during the…

  8. "Teaching the JAH:" World War II Diplomacy and "Mission to Moscow."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Presents a summary and sample teaching document from Todd Bennett's "Culture, Power, and 'Mission to Moscow': Film and Soviet-American Relations during World War II" from the Journal of American History. Focuses on the ties between World War II diplomacy and popular culture by focusing on the movie "Mission to Moscow." (CMK)

  9. Correspondence Concerning Women and the Army Air Forces in World War II. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamel, Wynell B.; Blondo, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, although the role of women in the U.S. military and on the homefront during World War II has received increased attention, the service of the civilian women pilots has not been adequately recognized. Presents a classroom lesson on the origins and work of the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP's) during World War II. (CFR)

  10. Preserving the Memories of World War II: An Intergenerational Interview Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percoco, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the National World War II Memorial was established in 2007 to serve, in part, as an organization devoted to educating young people and visitors to the memorial in an effort to ensure that the lessons, legacy, and sacrifices of World War II not be forgotten. After 32 years of teaching history at West Springfield High School in…

  11. 5 CFR 831.304 - Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II. 831.304 Section 831.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1059 - Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a) In... for each full week during the period of internment; or (ii) The Federal minimum hourly rate in...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1059 - Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a) In... for each full week during the period of internment; or (ii) The Federal minimum hourly rate in...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1059 - Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a) In... for each full week during the period of internment; or (ii) The Federal minimum hourly rate in...

  15. 5 CFR 831.304 - Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II. 831.304 Section 831.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay...

  16. 5 CFR 831.304 - Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II. 831.304 Section 831.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1059 - Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a) In... for each full week during the period of internment; or (ii) The Federal minimum hourly rate in...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1059 - Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a) In... for each full week during the period of internment; or (ii) The Federal minimum hourly rate in...

  19. 5 CFR 831.304 - Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II. 831.304 Section 831.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay...

  20. 5 CFR 831.304 - Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II. 831.304 Section 831.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay...

  1. Sixth Grade Students' Development of Historical Perspective: World War II and the Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Masato

    This study investigated how the use of various teaching methods influenced perspective taking skills of sixth grade middle school students during a unit of instruction on World War II. Three questions directed the study: (1) What do students know about World War II prior to a unit of study on World War II; (2) What do students know about World War…

  2. Two manic-depressives, two tyrants, two world wars.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Napoleon Bonaparte, Adolph Hitler and Joseph Stalin were tyrants who attained absolute power, and misused it in a gargantuan fashion, leaving in his wake a trail of hatred, devastation and death. All made war on their perceived enemies and on their own countrymen. In "A Brotherhood of Tyrants: Manic Depression and Absolute power" (1994) Amherst, Prometheus Books, D. Jablow Hershman and I expose manic-depressive disorder as the force that drove them to absolute power and the terrible abuse of it. We uncover manic-depressive disorder as a hidden cause of dictatorship, mass killing and war, and show how the psychopathology of the disorder can be a key factor in the political pathology of tyranny. In our earlier "The Key To Genius: Manic-Depression and the Creative Life" (1998) Amherst Prometheus Books we catalog the role of the disorder in the lives and careers of Isaac Newton, Ludwig von Beethoven, Charles Dickens, Vincent van Gogh and other creative geniuses. Thus manic-depressive disorder is variable to the extreme of paradox. Key to the destroyers is an indifference to the suffering of others, a need to control everyone and everything, a resistance to reason, and grandiose and paranoid delusions. The paranoid and grandiose delusions of manic-depressives are as infectious and as virulent as a deadly microbe, and can easily infect those in thrall to the host figure. It is a phenomenon known as "induced psychosis" and its imprint is often to be seen on the world stage. In this article I will add Kaiser Wilhelm to the list of manic-depressive warmongers, and passages from Robert Payne's "The Life and Death of Adolph Hitler" that are not only pathognomonic of manic-depressive disorder, but of the mixed variant. PMID:17881137

  3. Two manic-depressives, two tyrants, two world wars.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Napoleon Bonaparte, Adolph Hitler and Joseph Stalin were tyrants who attained absolute power, and misused it in a gargantuan fashion, leaving in his wake a trail of hatred, devastation and death. All made war on their perceived enemies and on their own countrymen. In "A Brotherhood of Tyrants: Manic Depression and Absolute power" (1994) Amherst, Prometheus Books, D. Jablow Hershman and I expose manic-depressive disorder as the force that drove them to absolute power and the terrible abuse of it. We uncover manic-depressive disorder as a hidden cause of dictatorship, mass killing and war, and show how the psychopathology of the disorder can be a key factor in the political pathology of tyranny. In our earlier "The Key To Genius: Manic-Depression and the Creative Life" (1998) Amherst Prometheus Books we catalog the role of the disorder in the lives and careers of Isaac Newton, Ludwig von Beethoven, Charles Dickens, Vincent van Gogh and other creative geniuses. Thus manic-depressive disorder is variable to the extreme of paradox. Key to the destroyers is an indifference to the suffering of others, a need to control everyone and everything, a resistance to reason, and grandiose and paranoid delusions. The paranoid and grandiose delusions of manic-depressives are as infectious and as virulent as a deadly microbe, and can easily infect those in thrall to the host figure. It is a phenomenon known as "induced psychosis" and its imprint is often to be seen on the world stage. In this article I will add Kaiser Wilhelm to the list of manic-depressive warmongers, and passages from Robert Payne's "The Life and Death of Adolph Hitler" that are not only pathognomonic of manic-depressive disorder, but of the mixed variant.

  4. Two Eclipses, a Theory, and a World War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Both the beginning and ending of World War I were signalled by total solar eclipses at which attempts were made to measure the deflection, predicted by Albert Einstein, of starlight passing close to the Sun. An American team led by W. W. Campbell and a German team led by E. F. Freundlich travelled to Russia to observe the eclipse of 1914 August 21. The Americans were foiled by the weather, and the Germans were interned as enemy aliens, so no successful measurements were made. British astronomers, led by A. S. Eddington, mounted two expeditions to observe the eclipse of 1919 May 29, one to Brazil, the other, with Eddington personally in charge, to an island off the west coast of Africa. The results, presented with much fanfare, appeared to constitute a spectacular confirmation of general relativity, although much debate surrounded the observations and their interpretation in later decades. The stories of Freundlich and Eddington intertwine not only with controversial questions about how best to make and to reduce the observations, but also with attitudes toward the war, notably the extreme anti-German sentiment that pervaded the countries of the western alliance, contrasted with the Quaker pacifism of Eddington himself; and also with differing attitudes to relativity among European and American astronomers. Eddington later played a role in bringing Freundlich to the United Kingdom after the rise of Hitler and the Nazis. Ironically, in later life, Freundlich became increasingly sceptical of general relativity and proposed a theory of proton-proton interaction to account for the cosmological red-shifts.

  5. Vascular Surgery in World War II: The Shift to Repairing Arteries.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M

    2016-03-01

    Vascular surgery in World War II has long been defined by DeBakey and Simeone's classic 1946 article describing arterial repair as exceedingly rare. They argued ligation was and should be the standard surgical response to arterial trauma in war. We returned to and analyzed the original records of World War II military medical units housed in the National Archives and other repositories in addition to consulting published accounts to determine the American practice of vascular surgery in World War II. This research demonstrates a clear shift from ligation to arterial repair occurring among American military surgeons in the last 6 months of the war in the European Theater of Operations. These conclusions not only highlight the role of war as a catalyst for surgical change but also point to the dangers of inaccurate history in stymieing such advances.

  6. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  7. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe.

    PubMed

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P; Winter, Joachim K

    2014-03-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure-experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  8. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe.

    PubMed

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P; Winter, Joachim K

    2014-03-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure-experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages.

  9. [Population reproduction and migration in Yugoslavia since World War 2].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y B

    1980-10-01

    Yugoslavia is composed of 6 formerly independent countries. Therefore, the economic development and population growth rates are quite different in different areas. The population growth rate varies from .31% in developed areas to 1.37% in mid-developed areas to 2.78% in underdeveloped areas. In developed areas there are large urban populations and more women with higher education and social involvement. The mortality rate in Yugoslavia has been markedly reduced in the last few decades because of the improvement of their health care system. This is especially obvious in mid- and underdeveloped areas. The mortality rate has increased in developed areas because of the increase in traffic accidents, smoking, drinking, and suicides. Yugoslavia is a multiracial country, and the population growth rate differs among the different races. The nationwide family planning program in Yugoslavia is run on a voluntary basis, and they do not have a unified population policy because of their complicated racial and economic situation. After World War 2 a large portion of the population migrated from the country to the cities because of the mechanization of agriculture. The higher living standard in developed areas also attracted people to migrate from mid- and underdeveloped areas. Yugoslavia has a tradition of emigration--a .1 to .2% annual emigration rate. The government encouraged their people to find jobs abroad in the mid 1960's.

  10. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  11. War stress and late-life mortality in World War II male civilian resistance veterans.

    PubMed

    Op Den Velde, Wybrand; Deeg, Dorly J H; Hovens, Johannes E; Van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Aarts, Petra G H

    2011-04-01

    The mental and physical health of 146 Dutch males exposed to severe war stress during their young adulthood were examined in 1986-1987 when they were at ages 61 to 66 years. The veterans' data were compared with a randomly selected population-based sample of same-aged males. In 2005, 70% of the war stress veterans had died, and only 35% of the comparison group. The baseline quality of life was significantly poorer in the war stress veterans than in the comparison group. Baseline variables explained 42% of the increased risk of mortality among war stress veterans. Smoking was the largest single contributor to mortality.

  12. 20 CFR 408.420 - What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What evidence of World War II military... SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Military Service § 408.420 What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (a) Kinds of evidence you can give us....

  13. 20 CFR 408.420 - What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What evidence of World War II military... SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Military Service § 408.420 What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (a) Kinds of evidence you can give us....

  14. 20 CFR 408.420 - What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What evidence of World War II military... SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Military Service § 408.420 What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (a) Kinds of evidence you can give us....

  15. 20 CFR 408.420 - What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What evidence of World War II military... SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Military Service § 408.420 What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (a) Kinds of evidence you can give us....

  16. 20 CFR 408.420 - What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What evidence of World War II military... SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Military Service § 408.420 What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (a) Kinds of evidence you can give us....

  17. [Illustration of military medicine on the pages of mass printed media during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2014-12-01

    The article analyses some of illustrations dedicated to the military medical topics on the pages of some Russian magazines and newspapers (magazine "Ogonek" newspaper "Petrograd's paper" and its annexes), its place among the images of the war, formed in the mass consciousness by periodical subjects. It is concluded that with the beginning of the First World War medical illustrations were finally approved as a recognizable symbol of the war. Mass printed media played a significant role in its entrenchment. PMID:25804084

  18. [Illustration of military medicine on the pages of mass printed media during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2014-12-01

    The article analyses some of illustrations dedicated to the military medical topics on the pages of some Russian magazines and newspapers (magazine "Ogonek" newspaper "Petrograd's paper" and its annexes), its place among the images of the war, formed in the mass consciousness by periodical subjects. It is concluded that with the beginning of the First World War medical illustrations were finally approved as a recognizable symbol of the war. Mass printed media played a significant role in its entrenchment.

  19. Children in Wartime: The Second World War in the Lives of America's Home-Front Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, William M., Jr.

    This paper discusses the impact of World War II on the lives of U.S. home-front children--that is, the boys and girls born between 1933 and 1945 who were children during the war and were still preadolescents when the war ended. The paper proceeds by discussing, first, the topical approach to the subject used in this essay; second, the ways in…

  20. Children's Sex-Typing during the Second World War: Girls, Boys, and War Games on the Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, William M., Jr.

    This paper explored the behavior of children of the U.S. homefront during World War II, and found that, in general, girls and boys adopted the sex-typed behavior that their parents, teachers, and peers believed was appropriate to their gender and age. Thus, girls played the roles of mother, teacher, and nurse, while boys played the roles of…

  1. Psychological Consequences of the World War II Prisoner of War Experience: Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian E.

    The Former Prisoners of War Act (1981) mandated complete health examinations for all interested prisoners of war (POWs). This paper reports on examinations of more than two-thirds of the POWs in the Minneapolis Veterans Administration Medical Center catchment area under the established POW protocol and special psychiatric examinations. The…

  2. Americans as Warriors: "Doughboys" in Battle during the First World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Jennifer D.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of U.S. soldiers during World War I. Addresses topics, such as the difficulties and horrors the soldiers dealt with in the trenches, the problems with untrained soldiers, the sickness and injuries that affected soldiers, and heroes of the war. (CMK)

  3. Uncovering the Hidden Histories: Black and Asian People in the Two World Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaze, Rupert

    2005-01-01

    The stories we tell in history are often stories about ourselves. This can lead to tremendous distortion. Rupert Gaze was shocked when a young black student told him that there was no point in his studying the Second World War because it had nothing to do with him or his family. While Gaze has worked for the Imperial War Museum (IWM) North, it has…

  4. Radiography in the United States Army during World War II: Part I.

    PubMed

    Lauer, O G

    1986-01-01

    This is the first of two articles highlighting Army radiography through World War II. Topics concentrate on a few important military and civilian events between wars (1918-1941), such as the Army's contributions in (classifying) radiographic knowledge and escalating x-ray commercialization. Peacetime objectives, the mobilization effort, personnel and training, and how WACs and civilians contributed are discussed also.

  5. On the Border: The Contested Children of the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Kjersti; Simonsen, Eva

    2008-01-01

    This article conceptualizes Second World War children of German soldiers and native women in Norway as "border children", who became symbolic bearers of deep societal conflicts. The authors demonstrate that this position had painful consequences in the personal experiences of the children, experiences that were shared with war children in other…

  6. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system in the…

  7. The Effect of World War I on Black Occupational and Residential Segregation: The Case of Pittsburgh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Joe T.

    1988-01-01

    Study of census figures for Pittsburgh between 1900 and 1920 reveals that World War I had only a small measurable effect on reducing occupational segregation of Black men and White men and residential segregation by race. The war had no effect on reducing occupational segregation of Black women and White women. (BJV)

  8. Teaching about World War II: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents nine documents from the ERIC database dealing with teaching about World War II. Includes articles addressing the lessons of Pearl Harbor, the Holocaust, the wartime internment of Japanese Americans, industry's response to the war, and the moral lessons of Nazism. (SG)

  9. The First World War, Sex Education, and the American Social Hygiene Association's Campaign against Venereal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imber, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the public's attitude toward sex education was apathetic. With venereal disease posing a threat to America's "military efficiency" during the war, however, military programs in sex education were instituted that then gave rise to similar programs in secondary schools in the 1920s. (JBM)

  10. What Students Need to Know about World War l. Footnotes. Volume 13, Number 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberg, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This essay is based on the author's presentation at the Wachman Center's July 26-27, 2008 history institute, co-sponsored and hosted by the Cantigny First Division Foundation of the McCormick Tribune Foundation. For Europeans, World War I remains the epochal event of the twentieth century. For Americans, the war falls between two much larger and…

  11. The Road to United States Involvement in World War I: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to teach students about the events leading to the U.S. entry into World War I. Explains that the students pretend to be U.S. senators and debate whether the United States should enter the war. Includes handouts for use with this lesson. (CMK)

  12. World War I--Catalyst for the Creation of the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, S. Samuel

    2009-01-01

    In honor of the 100th anniversary of "The Social Studies," the journal is reprinting this article, originally published in Vol. 55, No. 6 (November 1964). In this essay, Shermis explains that, while prior to 1914 the social studies did not exist, the field had come into existence within five years after World War I ended. The war, subsequent…

  13. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Larry T.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  14. Shell Shock and the Kloppe: war neuroses amongst British and Belgian troops during and after the First World War.

    PubMed

    Reid, Fiona; Van Everbroeck, Christine

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War combatants of all armies were prey to nervous disorders or psychological breakdown. These war neuroses were a response to the highly-industrialised nature of the warfare as well as to the fatigue engendered over four years of intense conflict. Yet while fear and mental breakdown were universal, national responses varied. A comparison of British and Belgian shell shock indicates that men suffered in very similar ways but that symptoms met with rather different responses: in Britain treatment and diagnostic regimes stressed the importance of class difference and shell shock was often linked to cowardice. These issues were not of overriding importance in the Belgian army. In the longer term shell shock became, and remained, a topic of political and social concern in Britain whereas in Belgium men suffering from kloppe (extreme fear) tended to be forgotten and the topic has not excited much popular interest or scholarly attention. Yet despite these differences one overarching theme remains clear, namely that despite the extensive experience of war neuroses during and after the First World War, there still remains a fierce stigma about the mental wounds of war.

  15. Historical perspective on neurosurgery in Germany after World War II.

    PubMed

    Collmann, Hartmut; Vitzthum, Hans-Ekkehart

    2008-11-01

    AFTER THE COLLAPSE of the Third Reich, the specialty of neurosurgery in Germany, although well developed in the late 1930s, had to start anew, and for decades to come, had to deal with the physical and political consequences of World War II. Because of the division of the country, neurosurgery developed separately in the two independent states. In West Germany, the evolution was promoted by a few personalities who represented different schools according to their own training: these "surgical neurologists" emphasized the neurological basis of neurosurgery and were represented by Traugott Riechert and the students of Otfrid Foerster, such as Arist Stender and Hans Kuhlendahl. In contrast, the "neurological surgeons" stressed their origins in general surgery. Their main proponent was Wilhelm Tönnis, who gained particular merit for promoting neurosurgical teaching, the development of new neurosurgical units, and the recognition of neurosurgery as an autonomous specialty. In East Germany, progress was delayed by a weak economy and a repressive political system. Yet several excellent neurosurgeons won international recognition, predominantly Georg Merrem, who came from the school of Fedor Krause. Following a worldwide trend, the number of neurosurgical units in West Germany increased dramatically from 18 in 1950 to 85 in 1988. In 2006, in the unified nation, 1200 certified neurosurgeons in 138 hospital departments and 75 private practices served 82 million people. Since its founding in 1949, the German Neurosurgical Society has promoted the idea of reconciliation and has focused on international collaboration in both science and education. This idea, shared by other European nations, eventually gave rise to the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies. At present, escalating costs in the health sector pose a problem to neurosurgical services and have led to reconsiderations about their structure and financing.

  16. Why Did They Fight the Great War? A Multi-Level Class Analysis of the Causes of the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    The question, "What were the causes of World War I?," has become one of the classic historical debates of which there seem to be endless permutations. In the past 90 years historians, journalists, and politicians have offered many more or less rational explanations for the war. Although at least some of the usual "causes" assigned to the war offer…

  17. The Childhood Experience of Being a War Orphan: A Study of the Effects of Father Loss on Women Whose Fathers Were Killed in World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon Estill

    2010-01-01

    Asking the research question, "What is the lived experience of women whose fathers died in World War II?" led to awareness of the unexplored impact of war loss on children. It was hypothesized that this research would show that women who experienced father-loss due to war would share commonality in certain areas. Areas of exploration including…

  18. The overlooked heroines: three Silver Star nurses of World War I.

    PubMed

    Prior, Richard M; Marble, William Sanders

    2008-05-01

    As members of forward-deployed combat hospitals, World War I Army nurses Miss Jane Rignel, Miss Linnie Leckrone, and Miss Irene Robar received the Citation Star for gallantry in attending to the wounded while under artillery fire in the month of July 1918. In 1932, they were authorized to exchange their Citation Stars for the new Silver Star Medal. Nursing in the war was difficult and required caring for patients exposed to chemical weapons and trauma while in harsh field conditions. These women were among the many Army nurses decorated for their performance in World War I.

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury Studies in Britain during World War II.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the wartime urgency to understand, prevent, and treat patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during World War II (WWII), clinicians and basic scientists in Great Britain collaborated on research projects that included accident investigations, epidemiologic studies, and development of animal and physical models. Very quickly, investigators from different disciplines shared information and ideas that not only led to new insights into the mechanisms of TBI but also provided very practical approaches for preventing or ameliorating at least some forms of TBI. Neurosurgeon Hugh Cairns (1896-1952) conducted a series of influential studies on the prevention and treatment of head injuries that led to recognition of a high rate of fatal TBI among motorcycle riders and subsequently to demonstrations of the utility of helmets in lowering head injury incidence and case fatality. Neurologists Derek Denny-Brown (1901-1981) and (William) Ritchie Russell (1903-1980) developed an animal model of TBI that demonstrated the fundamental importance of sudden acceleration (i.e., jerking) of the head in causing concussion and forced a distinction between head injury associated with sudden acceleration/deceleration and that associated with crush or compression. Physicist A.H.S. Holbourn (1907-1962) used theoretical arguments and simple physical models to illustrate the importance of shear stress in TBI. The work of these British neurological clinicians and scientists during WWII had a strong influence on subsequent clinical and experimental studies of TBI and also eventually resulted in effective (albeit controversial) public health campaigns and legislation in several countries to prevent head injuries among motorcycle riders and others through the use of protective helmets. Collectively, these studies accelerated our understanding of TBI and had subsequent important implications for both military and civilian populations. As a result of the wartime urgency to understand

  20. Traumatic Brain Injury Studies in Britain during World War II.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the wartime urgency to understand, prevent, and treat patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during World War II (WWII), clinicians and basic scientists in Great Britain collaborated on research projects that included accident investigations, epidemiologic studies, and development of animal and physical models. Very quickly, investigators from different disciplines shared information and ideas that not only led to new insights into the mechanisms of TBI but also provided very practical approaches for preventing or ameliorating at least some forms of TBI. Neurosurgeon Hugh Cairns (1896-1952) conducted a series of influential studies on the prevention and treatment of head injuries that led to recognition of a high rate of fatal TBI among motorcycle riders and subsequently to demonstrations of the utility of helmets in lowering head injury incidence and case fatality. Neurologists Derek Denny-Brown (1901-1981) and (William) Ritchie Russell (1903-1980) developed an animal model of TBI that demonstrated the fundamental importance of sudden acceleration (i.e., jerking) of the head in causing concussion and forced a distinction between head injury associated with sudden acceleration/deceleration and that associated with crush or compression. Physicist A.H.S. Holbourn (1907-1962) used theoretical arguments and simple physical models to illustrate the importance of shear stress in TBI. The work of these British neurological clinicians and scientists during WWII had a strong influence on subsequent clinical and experimental studies of TBI and also eventually resulted in effective (albeit controversial) public health campaigns and legislation in several countries to prevent head injuries among motorcycle riders and others through the use of protective helmets. Collectively, these studies accelerated our understanding of TBI and had subsequent important implications for both military and civilian populations. As a result of the wartime urgency to understand

  1. The Cause of Nowadays and the End of History? School History and the Centenary of the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The review of the National Curriculum and the centenary of the First World War have emphasised an orthodox patriotic and nostalgic historical ideal. The British coalition Conservative-Liberal government has aligned itself with the centenary commemorations of the First World War, while the war as social and political history may be in danger of…

  2. 46 CFR 32.20-1 - Equipment installations on vessels during World War II-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II... installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL. Boilers, pressure vessels, machinery, piping, electrical... the termination of title V of the Second War Powers Act, as extended (sec. 501, 56 Stat. 180, 50...

  3. 46 CFR 32.20-1 - Equipment installations on vessels during World War II-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II... installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL. Boilers, pressure vessels, machinery, piping, electrical... the termination of title V of the Second War Powers Act, as extended (sec. 501, 56 Stat. 180, 50...

  4. 46 CFR 32.20-1 - Equipment installations on vessels during World War II-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II... installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL. Boilers, pressure vessels, machinery, piping, electrical... the termination of title V of the Second War Powers Act, as extended (sec. 501, 56 Stat. 180, 50...

  5. 46 CFR 32.20-1 - Equipment installations on vessels during World War II-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II... installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL. Boilers, pressure vessels, machinery, piping, electrical... the termination of title V of the Second War Powers Act, as extended (sec. 501, 56 Stat. 180, 50...

  6. 46 CFR 32.20-1 - Equipment installations on vessels during World War II-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II... installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL. Boilers, pressure vessels, machinery, piping, electrical... the termination of title V of the Second War Powers Act, as extended (sec. 501, 56 Stat. 180, 50...

  7. Harvey Cushing and some Australian connections: Part 2--post World War 1.

    PubMed

    Roxanas, M G

    2010-03-01

    Part 1 of this article (see Vol 17, pp. 168-172) described the early life of Harvey Cushing and his encounters with Australian doctors, mostly in various military hospitals, in France, in World War 1. As none of the doctors he met at that time became neurosurgeons, and hence did not shape their professional development. When World War 1 ended, HC returned to a heavy schedule of operating at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and to his university obligations. He received the Companion of the Bath from the British Government for his war services and wrote the history of US Base Hospital No. 5, which he directed during the War. Cushing's reputation as a neurosurgeon was now secure and he was ready to play an even greater part as an academic neurosurgeon, teaching students from all parts of the world and continuing his researches into cerebral tumours and the pituitary gland.

  8. Harvey Cushing and some Australian connections: Part 2--post World War 1.

    PubMed

    Roxanas, M G

    2010-03-01

    Part 1 of this article (see Vol 17, pp. 168-172) described the early life of Harvey Cushing and his encounters with Australian doctors, mostly in various military hospitals, in France, in World War 1. As none of the doctors he met at that time became neurosurgeons, and hence did not shape their professional development. When World War 1 ended, HC returned to a heavy schedule of operating at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and to his university obligations. He received the Companion of the Bath from the British Government for his war services and wrote the history of US Base Hospital No. 5, which he directed during the War. Cushing's reputation as a neurosurgeon was now secure and he was ready to play an even greater part as an academic neurosurgeon, teaching students from all parts of the world and continuing his researches into cerebral tumours and the pituitary gland. PMID:20074958

  9. UNICEF, syphilis and the state: negotiating female citizenship in the post-Second World War world.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Few charitable organizations have achieved the status of global recognition enjoyed by UNICEF, the United Nations Children's Fund, which embodies the international effort to provide for needy children the world over. Created because of its synchronicity with the United Nations' stated purpose—to maintain peace in the world—UNICEF launched its operations in 1946. Its founding, early operations and eventual restructuring reveal a great deal about concurrent political and economic events, but also provide keen insight into international ideas about who qualified for full citizenship in the post-war world. The consequences of UNICEF's policies, procedures and practices posed challenges to notions of citizenship for both women and children. It challenged citizenship not by questioning sex-specific gender roles, but by judiciously adhering to the United Nations' promise to create equality for men and women alike. UNICEF found itself in the unique position to be able to globalize definitions of what constituted full citizenship in any nation, due to its rapid expansion throughout the world. Through its programs, especially those related to health care, it not only challenged these roles in the West, but began over several decades to complicate the definition of citizenship as it became a forceful presence in Asia and Africa throughout the 1970s.

  10. UNICEF, syphilis and the state: negotiating female citizenship in the post-Second World War world.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Few charitable organizations have achieved the status of global recognition enjoyed by UNICEF, the United Nations Children's Fund, which embodies the international effort to provide for needy children the world over. Created because of its synchronicity with the United Nations' stated purpose—to maintain peace in the world—UNICEF launched its operations in 1946. Its founding, early operations and eventual restructuring reveal a great deal about concurrent political and economic events, but also provide keen insight into international ideas about who qualified for full citizenship in the post-war world. The consequences of UNICEF's policies, procedures and practices posed challenges to notions of citizenship for both women and children. It challenged citizenship not by questioning sex-specific gender roles, but by judiciously adhering to the United Nations' promise to create equality for men and women alike. UNICEF found itself in the unique position to be able to globalize definitions of what constituted full citizenship in any nation, due to its rapid expansion throughout the world. Through its programs, especially those related to health care, it not only challenged these roles in the West, but began over several decades to complicate the definition of citizenship as it became a forceful presence in Asia and Africa throughout the 1970s. PMID:20939149

  11. The unwanted heroes: war invalids in Poland after World War I.

    PubMed

    Magowska, Anita

    2014-04-01

    This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland. PMID:22790322

  12. The unwanted heroes: war invalids in Poland after World War I.

    PubMed

    Magowska, Anita

    2014-04-01

    This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland.

  13. World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial to 'Smoky, Yorkie Doodle Dandy and Dogs of All Wars' in the Rocky River Reservation, Lakewood, Ohio. November 11, 2005

  14. Science and Public Policy since World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Margaret W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: material/personnel shortages and surpluses around 1950; federal aid to nonmilitary research; loyalty oaths and security checks; rise of the behavioral sciences; science education, from the Cold War to creationism; antinuclear protests and the limited test ban treaty, 1954-1963; Sputnik and the space program; and health, safety, and…

  15. Teaching with Documents: Victory Gardens in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baars, Patricia, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Covers the Victory Garden campaign of the early 1940s begun by the Office of War Information and the Office of Civil Defense. Provides a facsimile of a poster designed to publicize the program in addition to seven teaching activities. (JDH)

  16. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  17. World War II in Social Studies and Science Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J.

    2000-01-01

    Western educators are forgetting the need to impart knowledge about modern warfare's consequences. Science texts contain little about radiation damage. The nuclear bomb's destructiveness to humans and the biosphere should be a teacher responsibility in several curriculum areas. "War is hell" should be educators' main message. (Contains 11…

  18. [Achievements of military surgery during World War II].

    PubMed

    Dolinin, V A

    1985-08-01

    The author analyses achievements of the Soviet military medicine during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 in the development of the system of staged treatment of casualties with evacuation for destination, organization of all kinds of medical aid which resulted in high results of treatment and their return to service.

  19. The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory: Contributions to World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folk, G. Edgar

    2010-01-01

    The war contributions of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in Cambridge, MA, were recorded in 169 Technical Reports, most of which were sent to the Office of the Quartermaster General. Earlier reports were sent to the National Research Council and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Many of the reports from 1941 and later dealt with…

  20. 'His nerves gave way': Shell shock, history and the memory of the First World War in Britain.

    PubMed

    Reid, Fiona

    2014-06-01

    During the First World War soldiers suffered from a wide range of debilitating nervous complaints as a result of the stresses and strains of modern warfare. These complaints--widely known as shell shock--were the subject of much medical-military debate during the war and became emblematic of the war and its sufferings afterwards. One hundred years after the war the diagnosis of PTSD has not resolved the issues initially raised by First World War shell shock. The stigma of mental illness remains strong and it is still difficult to commemorate and remember the mental wounds of war in a culture which tend to glory or glamorise military heroes.

  1. Harvey Cushing, Gordon Holmes, and the neurological lessons of World War I.

    PubMed

    Lepore, F E

    1994-07-01

    As the gunshots that fatally wounded Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Countess Sophie of Austria resounded from Sarajevo across Europe to become the deafening roar of artillery on the Western Front in August 1914, Harvey Williams Cushing was the world's preeminent neurosurgeon and Gordon Morgan Holmes was arguably the foremost neurologist in the world. The 45-year-old Cushing, and Holmes just 38 years old, would strive to respond to the neurological challenges of World War I. They distinguished themselves amidst the redoubtable efforts of workers such as Walter Cannon, George Riddoch, Charles Sherrington, Henry Head, Victor Horsley, Walther Poppelreuter, and Robert Barany. Even the intense martial spirit of the time would be held in abeyance by the contributions of such men of science, as when the intercession of Prince Carl of Sweden secured the release of Barany from a Russian prisoner-of-war camp and allowed him to accept the 1916 Nobel Prize for his exposition of vestibular physiology. Such respite from the brutality of war was all too brief, and if we are to grasp the significance of the different approaches of Holmes and Cushing to the terrible problems of World War I, we must examine some of the harsh medical realities that they confronted in the "war to end all wars."

  2. On the Razor's Edge: The Irish-American Press on the Eve of World War One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcrone, Mick

    A study examined three partisan Irish-American newspapers ("Irish World,""Gaelic-American," and the "Leader") representative of the Irish-American press before the First World War. The newspapers appealed to different constituencies, had contrasting orientations, and enjoyed substantial influence within the Irish-American community. The primary…

  3. World War I, international participation and reorganisation of the Japanese chemical community.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yoshiyuki

    2011-07-01

    What kind of "war" did Japanese chemists fight during World War I, and what impact did their experiences have on Japanese chemistry in its aftermath? By focusing on the role of Jōji Sakurai (1858-1939), this paper attempts to answer these questions by looking at the drastic changes in the international relationships of the Japanese chemical community caused by the war. It examines how the Japanese National Research Council was established in 1920 as part of the International Research Council, a product of the reconfiguration of international scientific powers triggered by World War I. This paper argues that Sakurai advocated the establishment of the National Research Council after the American model of wartime mobilisation of science, coordinated fractured Japanese chemical communities for international functions, and facilitated Japan's participation and increased influence in international scientific associations such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, established in 1919.

  4. Perspectives on history: military dietetics in the Philippines during World War II.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P A

    1992-07-01

    The history of the profession of dietetics is a history of caring, dedicated, and capable individuals. This article examines the experiences of three dietitians during World War II in the Philippines--their pre-war status and their changing environments as the Japanese invaded the Philippines in overwhelming numbers. It recounts the extreme hardships they endured for 3 years as prisoners of war of the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp (formerly Santo Tomas University) in Manila. The article covers the time before Army dietitians had military status and concludes shortly after the former prisoners returned to the United States, when they were commissioned and promoted to the rank of first lieutenant.

  5. The psychological study of anxiety in the era of the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The mid-twentieth century in Britain ushered in a new age of anxiety with the development of total war and the aerial bombing of civilians. Rather than trying to chart and quantify levels of anxiety and fear on the British home front during the Blitz, this article's goal is to examine how these emotions were conceptualized by psychological experts immediately prior to and during the war. The essay follows the rising problematization of anxiety and fear as new concepts calling for professional knowledge and management. It emphasizes the contribution of psychoanalysts to this development while pointing to gradual change between the two world wars.

  6. Survivors of imprisonment in the Pacific theater during World War II.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, G; van Kammen, W; Shelly, C; Miller, D J; van Kammen, D P

    1987-09-01

    Data were obtained from 41 survivors of imprisonment by the Japanese during World War II. Interview data suggested that these individuals, despite the 40 years that had passed since their prisoner of war experiences, showed manifestations of posttraumatic stress disorder, notably a sleep disturbance marked by recurrent nightmares. MMPI data suggested significant pathology, characterized as an anxiety state, in this group. Half of the subjects met the full set of DSM-III criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:3631320

  7. Neurology, poetry and the first world war of 1914-1918.

    PubMed

    Gardner-Thorpe, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The First World War of 1914-1918 produced a wealth of disability and death and much has been written of this catastrophe for mankind. Prose is prolific and much poetry has been written too, some of it discussed here; it consists of works by healthcare workers and also about the effects of the war upon those who fought and those who were left behind. Some of the work is by neurologists and some deals with the neurological disorders of those who fought.

  8. Suicide among Polish officers during World War II in Oflag II-C Woldenberg.

    PubMed

    Czabański, Adam; Lester, David

    2013-06-01

    Although scholars have examined the occurrence of suicide in the concentration camps during World War Two, little has appeared on suicide in prisoner-of-war camps. The present note presents an attempt to document the occurrence of suicide in the Oflag II-C Woldenberg camp in what is now Western Poland, and estimates a suicide rate of between 22.4 to 38.4 per 100,000 per year in the roughly 6,600 prisoners.

  9. "World-Mindedness": The Lisle Fellowship and the Cold War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine a little known but long-standing group, the Lisle Fellowship, that endeavored to open the world to college students and foster international understanding--or "world-mindedness," as the organization's founders called it--ultimately with the goal to contribute to the ideal of world peace. It will also, in particular,…

  10. [Medical support of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Leonik, S I; Lemeshkin, R N

    2015-02-01

    Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front. An activity of the medical An activity of the medical service of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front is a typical example of the medical support of troops during the final stages of World War II. Forms and methods of medical support management, which were developed during the war, haven't lost their importance in modern conditions. These methods include the establishment of specialized surgical and therapeutic field hospital, establishment of medical institutions in the Army, which worked on the evacuation directions and reserve of mobile hospitals and transport, timely extension of the first echelons of the hospital base front to change institutions hospital deployed the army base. A research of experience in organizing medical support of the offensive operations performed during the last year of World War II provides the material for the development of the theory of modern medical support operations and ability to provide on this basis, the continuity of the hospitals, the continuity of qualified and specialized medical care, improve the performance of diagnostic and treatment work.

  11. [Medical support of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Leonik, S I; Lemeshkin, R N

    2015-02-01

    Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front. An activity of the medical An activity of the medical service of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front is a typical example of the medical support of troops during the final stages of World War II. Forms and methods of medical support management, which were developed during the war, haven't lost their importance in modern conditions. These methods include the establishment of specialized surgical and therapeutic field hospital, establishment of medical institutions in the Army, which worked on the evacuation directions and reserve of mobile hospitals and transport, timely extension of the first echelons of the hospital base front to change institutions hospital deployed the army base. A research of experience in organizing medical support of the offensive operations performed during the last year of World War II provides the material for the development of the theory of modern medical support operations and ability to provide on this basis, the continuity of the hospitals, the continuity of qualified and specialized medical care, improve the performance of diagnostic and treatment work. PMID:25920177

  12. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yukari

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action.

  13. About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war

    SciTech Connect

    MccGwire, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.

  14. A lovely war: male to female cross-dressing and Canadian military entertainment in World War II.

    PubMed

    Halladay, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the Canadian military entertainment units during World War II (WWII), specifically those formed by the Navy, Army and Air Force from talent found amongst their own personnel. These entertainment units toured extensively in Canada, the United Kingdom and Europe with the goal of increasing the morale of combat troops while encouraging the enlistment of Canada's domestic populations in the war effort generally and the armed forces specifically. By focusing on male to female cross-dressing in the performances of these entertainment units and their pre-WWII antecedents, it will become clear that the nature and importance of the representation of femininity within the virtually all-male milieu that existed near the battlefront changed over time in response to the demands of the audiences. Until the second half of WWII, soldier audiences were generally unwilling to form any ideological links between cross-dressing and homosexuality. Female impersonators were the key cast members in troop shows during the Great War, but eventually fell out of favor in the last years of WWII after women were recruited in large numbers into the Canadian military and thus its entertainment infrastructure. With women then on the military stage, men who persisted in female impersonation were decreasingly popular with audiences, ultimately under growing suspicion of being homosexuals and gradually removed from the productions.

  15. [Psychogenic Disorders in German soldiers during World War I and II].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, P; Hahne, H-H; Biesold, K-H; Lanczik, M

    2005-02-01

    In the First and Second World War German soldiers frequently suffered from psychogenic disorders. By comparison a change in the prevalences can be noted: in the First World War dissociative disorders dominated the clinical impression ("shell shock"), in the Second World War they could rarely be seen but were replaced by somatoform and psychosomatic diseases. The discussion about numerous reasons for this development has not been completed yet and is still not free from political attitudes. To achieve a more scientific point of view, the perspective of psychotraumatology might be helpful. According to psychotraumatic research, dissociative and somatoform disorders can emerge in a close relation to a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The choice of symptoms depends on personality traits of the victim, but also on specific factors that characterise the situation in which the trauma appears. The mixture of pathogenetic and protective influences includes e. g. the possibility of flight- or fight reactions, feelings of trauma-associated guilt and group cohesion in the military unit. These factors can be useful to help explain the change of symptoms between both wars. In addition the analysis of situational conditions in former wars can give hints to actual planning and prophylaxis strategies in modern military psychiatry, that has to adjust to very different military operation fields.

  16. The Life-Long Mortality Risks Of World War II Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Glen H.; Brown, James Scott; Martin, Leslie R.; Friedman, Howard W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study of American veterans investigated the mortality risks of five World War II military experiences (i.e., combat exposure) and their variation among veterans in the post-war years. Methods The male subjects (N=854) are members of the Stanford-Terman study, and 38 percent served in World War II. Cox models (proportional hazards regressions) compared the relative mortality risk associated with each military experience. Results Overseas duty, service in the Pacific and exposure to combat significantly increased the mortality risks of veterans in the study. Individual differences in education, mental health in 1950, and age at entry into the military, as well as personality factors made no difference in these results. Conclusions A gradient is observable such that active duty on the home front, followed by overseas duty, service in the Pacific, and combat exposure markedly increased the risk of relatively early mortality. Potential linking mechanisms include heavy drinking. PMID:20161074

  17. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    PubMed

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E

    2014-02-01

    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  18. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof. PMID:20812795

  19. German flooding of the Pontine Marshes in World War II.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne

    2010-03-01

    The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof.

  20. World War II Activity Day: Through the Eyes of Trainee Treachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Emily; Hornsby, Laura; Howard, Abigail; Pople, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    As student teachers, authors Emily Clark, Laura Hornsby, Abigail Howard, and Kathryn Pople were aware of what the class had already covered on World War 2 (WW2). It was unclear to them, however, what knowledge the children actually had acquired from the lessons. In this article these student teachers describe their use of concept mapping as they…

  1. Powers of Persuasion--Poster Art of World War II. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Guns, tanks, and bombs were the principal weapons of World War II, but there were other, more subtle forms of warfare. Words, posters, and films waged a constant battle for the hearts and minds of the U.S. citizenry as military weapons engaged the enemy. Persuading the U.S. public became a wartime industry, almost as important as the manufacturing…

  2. The First Amendment: The Finished Mystery Case and World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Introduces the censorship, and imprisonment of Jehovah's Witnesses who distributed, "The Finished Mystery," which contained antiwar statements deemed seditious during World War I. Asks students to examine a Justice Department document pertaining to the case. Helps students decide whether national security needs should override First Amendment…

  3. [Radium in pharmacies! First Part : Pharmaceutical used of radium before the first World War].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile; Lefebvre, Thierry

    2012-02-01

    The authors present in this part the creation of first radioactiv drugs, since the discovery of radium to the first World War. They present the industrial and chemist Emile Armet de Lisle and the pharmacist Alexandre Antonin Jaboin, first manufacturers of those new way of treatment.

  4. J. Edgar Hoover and the Black Press in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Patrick S.

    Holding enormous if controversial power as Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), J. Edgar Hoover was sometimes controlled unexpectedly at the highest reaches of government, as illustrated by his failed attempt to obtain an Espionage Act indictment against the black press during World War II. Following anarchist bombings in 1919,…

  5. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  6. Marianne Wahnschaff Ballester's Personal Experiences: United States, World War Two, Soviet Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Paula Popow

    This family history recounts the life and personal experiences of Marianne Wahnschaff Ballester who was born in the United States in 1929 to German parents. Marianne and her mother spent the World War II years in Stassfurt, Germany, and returned to the United States in 1946. The overview of her life includes a reunion with her father, attendance…

  7. German Eagle vs. Russian Bear: A World War II Russian Front Boardgame Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Louis R.

    This board game encourages junior and senior high school student analysis of the German campaign against the USSR and gauges student decision-making skills. The World War II Russo-German Front is simulated in a standard board game format. A key element of the game is its analysis and results form. Using this form compels students to analyze and…

  8. The World Wars through Tabletop Wargaming: An Innovative Approach to University History Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynaud, Daniel; Northcote, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a lecturer and students in a class on the World Wars, where wargaming is used alongside traditional lecturing as a learning experience. It outlines the processes used and then evaluates the various kinds of learning, historical and other, that occur. Drawing on literature associated with history education…

  9. The Board of Education and Policy for Adult Education up to the Second World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Stuart

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes the attempts by the Board of Education in England to develop policy in relation to adult education and "further education" as a whole that began in 1909 and ended by World War II. Identifies the emergence of modern adult education stemming from developments in municipal evening schools and the university extension movement. (CMK)

  10. Technology through a Retrospective Eye: Imaging Practices between the World Wars and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1995-01-01

    Introduces a symposium in this journal issue: "Technology through a Retrospective Eye: Imaging Practices between the World Wars and Beyond." Notes that each article of the symposium keys into a central moment of expansion of imaging practice and focuses on the debates that accompanied that expansion. (SR)

  11. The Development of Secondary Education in Japan after World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okuda, Shinjo; Hishimura, Yukihiko

    Under Allied influence following World War II, the Japanese educational system was reorganized on a 6-3-3 basis, with the first 9 years compulsory. The lower secondary curriculum established in 1947 included many compulsory subjects--Japanese, Social Studies, Mathematics, Science, Music, Drawing and Fine Arts, Physical Education, and Vocational…

  12. The Shift to Specialism in Medicine: The U.S. Army in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzberg, Eli

    1999-01-01

    World War II brought a significant rise in the number of medical specialists because they were in great demand for treating battle casualties for returning veterans, and many recently discharged medical officers took advantage of the G.I. Bill to train in specialty and subspecialty medicine. A participant chronicles this process. (Author/MSE)

  13. Correspondence Urging Bombing of Auschwitz during World War II. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondo, Richard A.; Schmael, Wynell Burroughs

    1993-01-01

    Presents a classroom lesson that utilizes primary sources about Auschwitz, the World War II Nazi concentration camp. Two letters confronting the issue of whether or not U.S. planes should bomb the camps are included. Recommends seven teaching strategies for the lesson and identifies additional resources. (CFR)

  14. LOCATING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS WITH REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War I, the American University in Washington, D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitons including chemcial weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of ...

  15. The Muncie Police Department; Origins to World War II (1839-1940).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    Traced is the history of the Muncie (Indiana) police department from the "gas boom" days of the 1890's through the pre-World War I "dry" years, the Klan-haunted twenties, and the depression years. Events in the community that played a major role in charting the development of the police department are chronicled. (RM)

  16. Role Playing: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Noel C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a role playing exercise can be used to teach students in a college level history course about the use of the atomic bomb in World War II. Information is presented on general use of role playing in history courses, objectives, questions to consider about use of the atomic bomb, and course evaluation. For journal availability, see so…

  17. The Destruction of Jewish Libraries and Archives in Cracow during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroka, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Examines the loss of various collections, especially school libraries and the Ezra Library, in Cracow (Poland) during World War II. Highlights include Nazi policies toward Cracow's Jews; the destruction of libraries, archives, and collections; Jewish book collections in the Staatsbibliotek Krakau (state library); and the removal of books by Jewish…

  18. The Swiss "Willensnation" at Risk: Teachers in the Cultural Gap during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brühwiler, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    As a neutral and multilingual country, Switzerland struggled with major domestic political conflicts during the First World War due to the two cultures of the French-speaking and German-speaking parts of the country. The divided cultural loyalties ("fossé moral", "Röstigraben"), consisting of Swiss-Germans supporting Germany…

  19. Using Artifacts to Understand the Life of a Soldier in World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, Staci

    2009-01-01

    For years, when the author taught about World War II, she used primary and secondary source readings, she presented Power Points, and had her students watch newsreels and other video clips. Today, her students interact with actual artifacts from history so that they can draw conclusions and gain understanding about what the soldiers' lives were…

  20. Television's Take-Off: Electronics, the United States and World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeanne Thomas

    The tremendous surge of investment capital and research development enjoyed by television under the strong incentives provided by World War II probably resulted in the development of a commercially exploitable television system much earlier than would have been possible otherwise. Cooperation between government and industry in this research and…

  1. From the Back of the Foxhole: Black Correspondents in World War II. Journalism Monographs, No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John D.

    Black newspapers, like the "Chicago Defender,""The Pittsburgh Courier," and the "Baltimore Afro-American," opened the eyes of Americans to the injustices suffered at home as well as in the armed services. The black press attacked the Navy for its Jim Crowism because when World War II began, the only black sailors were messmen. It attacked the Red…

  2. World War II in Ukrainian School History Textbooks: Mapping the Discourse of the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klymenko, Lina

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the conceptualisation of a textbook as a site of memory, a discourse and a genre. This paper investigates the semantic and linguistic elements of the discourse of World War II in Ukrainian school history textbooks for the 11th grade, centring on the following distinct key themes: the…

  3. The Impact of the Second World War on British Colonial Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Clive

    1989-01-01

    Traces changing attitudes in the British Colonial Office toward education in the colonies during and after World War II. Argues that the loose consensus of agreement concerning education that existed between the government and the colonial officials was radically changed by the appointment of Andrew Cohen, Assistant Under-Secretary of State. (KO)

  4. Receiving and Discovering Information: Two Role-Playing Simulations of the World War I Conscription Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, John

    1999-01-01

    Proposes two approaches to using role-playing in the history classroom: (1) providing factual information to the students; and (2) allowing them to discover the experiences of historical actors. Expounds that the recommended role-playing simulations help students discover why Canadians were divided over the conscription issue in World War I. (CMK)

  5. Inventing Citizens During World War I: Suffrage Cartoons in "The Woman Citizen."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, E. Michele

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining the rhetorical invention strategies of suffrage rhetoric in the cultural context of World War I. Shows how the political cartoons published in the mainstream Suffrage Movement's "The Woman Citizen" constructed women as strong, competent, and essential to the…

  6. Treatment of Japanese-American Internment During World War II in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Masato

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the treatment of Japanese-American internment during World War II in high school United States history textbooks. Four reasons highlight the selection of this topic for study. First, this historical event was selected because a little over a year ago was the 60th anniversary of President Franklin D.…

  7. Black Press Commentary on the Japanese Internment during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeter, James Phillip

    A study examined contemporary reactions of the Black American press to the relocation and internment of the Japanese and Japanese Americans during World War II. Noting that the Black American press has been an activist press since its inception in 1827, it was hypothesized that Black newspapers would editorialize against the internment of Japanese…

  8. Enduring Lessons of Justice from the World War II Japanese American Internment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Roberts, Teresa A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1942, less than four months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent United States entry into World War II , nearly 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living along the west coast of the United States were ordered to evacuate their homes and sent to internment camps. The evacuees, separated from their extended families, former…

  9. Promoting the "Public Welfare" in Wartime: Stanford University during World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Charles

    2005-01-01

    As with many U.S. colleges and universities during World War II, Stanford University responded to the demands of mobilization by increasing its commitment to technical training and adopting a defense research agenda. In a striking departure from this national trend, however, Stanford also established its School of Humanities in 1942. By examining…

  10. The Methodist Recruiting Officer Myth: Sir Sam Hughes and World War I Recruitment in French Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Desmond

    1986-01-01

    During World War I, so the story goes, recruiting in French Canada went slowly because the Minister of Militia, Sir Sam Hughes, was a bigoted Ontario Orangeman with the gall to appoint a Methodist minister as recruiting officer for Quebec. Secondary students analyze primary source materials regarding this matter. (RM)

  11. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War].

    PubMed

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.

  12. The british military hospitals in macedonia during the first world war.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovski, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The paper focusses its attention to the medical work of the British Military hospitals stationed in Macedonia during the First World War, the surgical work carried out under very heavy conditions in improvised operating theatres as well as the treatment of the wounded and sick solders brought from the battlefields on the Macedonian Front.

  13. [Organization of stomatological care in Russian army during first World War 1914-1917 y].

    PubMed

    Pavlovskiĭ, L N

    2006-01-01

    The article presents issues on organization of stomatological care in Russian army during First World War. The author showed reasons of low efficiency of the treatment of soldiers with maxillofacial region. Injuries beginning of a new stage in the treatment of maxillofacial region fire wounds and origin of a new specialty developed a military maxillofacial surgery.

  14. The Colyer Collection of First World War dental radiographs and casts at the Hunterian Museum.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Kristin

    2014-07-01

    The Colyer Collection of First World War dental radiographs and casts is a unique teaching resource with a fascinating history. The story of the radiographs illuminates the role of dental surgery and Sir J. Frank Colyer (1866-1954) in the treatment of maxillofacial injuries during this period.

  15. Exploring Diversity at GCSE: Making a First World War Battlefields Visit Meaningful to All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Joanne; Guiney, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Having already reflected on ways of improving their students' understanding of historical diversity at Key Stage 3, Joanne Philpott and Daniel Guiney set themselves the challenge of extending this to post-14 students by means of fieldwork activities at First World War battlefields sites. In addition, they wanted to link the study of past diversity…

  16. Purity and Epidemic Danger in German Occupied Poland during the First World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weindling, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Explores the efforts of the German public-health authorities to cleanse occupied areas of formerly Russian Poland of pathogenic hazards during the First World War. The program used sanitary measures and educational programs to encourage a more hygienic lifestyle. Originally sympathetic to the Jewish population, it grew increasingly anti-semitic.…

  17. Women in the University during the First World War--An Autobiographical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flitner, Elisabeth

    1988-01-01

    The author describes her experiences as one of the first females in secondary schools and universities in three German cities in the early 1900s. These experiences illustrate the development of educational opportunities for female students during the First World War. (Author/BSR)

  18. Sewing Seams of Stories: Becoming a Teacher during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinner, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this article the author shares a partial biography of Elizabeth Evans, who became a domestic science teacher in Britain during the First World War. This story begins with a small collection of artefacts--professional letters and personal photographs--which infuse our understanding of teaching and learning and Elizabeth's everyday life nearly a…

  19. Positivism and Post-World War I Elementary School Reform in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Following the end of World War I, the Ontario Department of Education initiated a series of reforms aimed at both elementary and secondary schooling. This article examines the reforms that were made to elementary school curriculum and pedagogy. These were initiated within the context of a call for a general reconstruction of education and society…

  20. Everything I know about health care I learned in the Pentagon in World War II.

    PubMed

    Ginzberg, E

    1991-08-01

    This is a brief autobiographical account by the chief logistical adviser to the surgeon general of the army of his experiences during World War II, when at peak army hospitals had 600,000 patients in bed on one day and used 40,000 physicians, 100,000 nurses, and 600,000 medical corpsmen to care for them. The recapitulation of that experience calls attention to the fragility of hospital planning, the dangers that underemployed physicians will overtreat patients, the advantages of using nurses as patient care managers in hospitals, and the desirability of not operating too close to the margin. These events of World War II also provide background for understanding the origins of three major post-World War II transformations of U.S. medicine, specifically the much-enhanced demand by the American public for access to a much higher level of medical care than that to which they had earlier been accustomed; the greatly enlarged expenditures of the federal government for basic biomedical research, which derived momentum from the success of research during World War II; and the victory of specialism that captured U.S. medical education and treatment.

  1. A world from brave to new: Talcott Parsons and the war effort at Harvard University.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, U

    1999-01-01

    This article argues that for Parsons and some of his colleagues at Harvard, the Second World War and the post-war period provided a context in which their work contributed to the transformation from totalitarianism to democracy in Central Europe (especially Germany) and Japan. The various agendas of Parsons' work are shown, supplemented by that of three of his colleagues with whom he collaborated (Gordon W. Allport, Carl J. Friedrich, Clyde Kluckhohn). The immediate effect of this work, for Parsons, however, meant frustration rather than fame, and his eventual reputation, I maintain, came unexpectedly with the third of his three attempts in the immediate post-war period to sum up what he believed were crucial insights that the Second World War had yielded concerning the ways in which sociology could contribute to the analytical understanding of democracy. The significance of this work is that it was both political and scientific. Because of the world situation of the 1940s, when the Holocaust in Germany was the nadir of civilization, Parsons believed that social science could contribute to the cause of making the world safe for future democracy. In the 1940s, this future depended on brave citizens, or such might have been Parsons' worldview. Targets envisaged for the 1950s, then, were community and citizenship in the newly democratic societies such as (West) Germany, the land that defeated Nazism.

  2. The Forgotten People: The Relocation and Internment of Aleuts during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Ryan

    1992-01-01

    In a "forgotten" episode of World War II, the Native residents (but not white residents) of the Aleutian Islands were evacuated to southeastern Alaska and were compelled to live for three years in internment camps unfit for human habitation without proper medical treatment, adequate food, or basic human rights. (SV)

  3. Loblolly Salutes "Their Finest Hour": Combat Veterans of World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lincoln, Ed.; Downing, Cassie, Ed.; McGarity, Fiona, Ed.

    Loblolly is a project of the students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas. This volume is a collection of personal narratives told by combat veterans of World War II who were originally from East Texas. The book's introduction (by J. W. Howland) tells the readers about the men. The veterans' oral histories are recorded and profiled separately in the…

  4. Humanism's Sisyphean Task: Curricular Reform at Brown University during the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porwancher, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In the midst of a curricular debate at Brown University during the Second World War, the faculty's humanists seized the opportunity to pen their views on the nature and purpose of higher education. This investigation reveals humanism as a fragmented force, at once principal and peripheral to the American academy. The central argument of this study…

  5. A world from brave to new: Talcott Parsons and the war effort at Harvard University.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, U

    1999-01-01

    This article argues that for Parsons and some of his colleagues at Harvard, the Second World War and the post-war period provided a context in which their work contributed to the transformation from totalitarianism to democracy in Central Europe (especially Germany) and Japan. The various agendas of Parsons' work are shown, supplemented by that of three of his colleagues with whom he collaborated (Gordon W. Allport, Carl J. Friedrich, Clyde Kluckhohn). The immediate effect of this work, for Parsons, however, meant frustration rather than fame, and his eventual reputation, I maintain, came unexpectedly with the third of his three attempts in the immediate post-war period to sum up what he believed were crucial insights that the Second World War had yielded concerning the ways in which sociology could contribute to the analytical understanding of democracy. The significance of this work is that it was both political and scientific. Because of the world situation of the 1940s, when the Holocaust in Germany was the nadir of civilization, Parsons believed that social science could contribute to the cause of making the world safe for future democracy. In the 1940s, this future depended on brave citizens, or such might have been Parsons' worldview. Targets envisaged for the 1950s, then, were community and citizenship in the newly democratic societies such as (West) Germany, the land that defeated Nazism. PMID:10398174

  6. Poetry and World War II: Creating Community through Content-Area Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Elizabeth E. G.; Nixon, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    Two educators and a classroom of fifth grade students integrated poetry writing into social studies curriculum focusing on World War II. Several strategies and approaches to writing poetry are highlighted including list poems, writing from photographs and artifacts, and two voice poems. The study culminated in a poetry reading and the creation of…

  7. Image Making and Personal Narratives with Japanese-American Survivors of World War II Internment Camps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Carleen; Kuwada, Kali; Potter, Penelope; Cameron, Danielle; Hoshino, Janice

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the verbal and art making responses of Japanese-American elders who experienced the trauma of internment during World War II. Six Nisei (second generation Japanese-Americans) were asked to recall memories of their experiences during and immediately following internment; 3 of the participants also created art images…

  8. Memories from the edge of the abyss: evaluating the oral accounts of World War II veterans.

    PubMed

    Walton, Rodney Earl

    2010-01-01

    Since the "greatest generation" is rapidly passing from the scene, this article maintains that the time is ripe for the oral history community to engage in a serious examination of the strengths and weaknesses of World War II veteran interviews. Using a small case study about the battle of Okinawa (April-June 1945), the essay examines some aspects of the memory quality of World War II veterans interviewed late in life. It presents three arguments. First, American veterans of World War II were frequently reticent about recounting their memories. They often waited until late in life to do so. Second, the American World War II veterans' interviews were generally reliable and accurate even when given late in life. Nonetheless, some problems were encountered in interviewing veterans long after a battle. Third, the veterans could provide greater detail about their initial experiences during a campaign. Recollections about their later experiences during the same campaign were foggier. The author concedes, however, that the small size of his case study means that the conclusions can only have validity if confirmed by the experience of other oral history interviewers. Hence the author's goal is to initiate this important conversation rather than to conclude it.

  9. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War].

    PubMed

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home. PMID:27386620

  10. Learning To Read with Private Pete & Sailor Sam in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.

    Since thousands of the men who entered military service during World War II were illiterate, the Army developed an "Army Reader," a four-part series featuring Private Pete, that led learners through literacy levels 1-4. Part 1 introduced Private Pete and talked about the things the men experienced when they entered the Army. Part 2 taught men how…

  11. Mustard gas and American race-based human experimentation in World War II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines the risks of racialized science as revealed in the American mustard gas experiments of World War II. In a climate of contested beliefs over the existence and meanings of racial differences, medical researchers examined the bodies of Japanese American, African American, and Puerto Rican soldiers for evidence of how they differed from whites. PMID:18840244

  12. Baseball and World War II: A Study of the Landis-Roosevelt Correspondence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percoco, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan using original documents of the wartime correspondence between President Franklin Roosevelt and baseball commissioner Kenesaw Landis. Explores the status of baseball during World War II to determine the importance of sports in U.S. culture. Includes background information and copies of the correspondence. (DK)

  13. Some Resources on the End of World War II. Resource Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents reviews of three instructional resources on World War II. Includes a multimedia kit based on newspapers and a videotape, an illustrated book on issues surrounding the bombing of Hiroshima, and a diary of a grade school teacher's experiences in the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps. (CFR)

  14. The World War II Homefront: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)

  15. The development of military medical care for peripheral nerve injuries during World War I.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, William

    2010-05-01

    Although the clinical and electrical diagnoses and treatments of peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) had been described prior to World War I, many reports were fragmented and incomplete. Individual physicians' experiences were not extensive, and in 1914 the patient with a PNI remained a subject of medical curiosity, and was hardly a focus of comprehensive care. World War I altered these conditions; casualties with septic wounds and PNIs swamped the general hospitals. By 1915, specialized hospitals or wards were developed to care for neurological injuries. In the United Kingdom, Sir Robert Jones developed the concept of Military Orthopedic Centres, with coordinated specialized care and rehabilitation. Military appointments of neurologists and electrotherapists sharpened clinical diagnoses and examinations. Surgical techniques were introduced, then discarded or accepted as surgeons developed skills to meet the new conditions. The US Surgeon General, William Gorgas, and his consultant in neurosurgery, Charles Frazier, went a step further, with the organization of a research laboratory as well as the establishment of a Peripheral Nerve Commission and Registry. Despite these developments and good intentions, postwar follow-up for PNIs remained incomplete at best. Records were lost, personnel transferred, and patients discharged from the system. The lack of a standardized grading system seriously impaired the ability to record clinical changes and compare outcomes. Nevertheless, specialized treatment of a large number of PNIs during World War I established a foundation for comprehensive care that influenced military medical services in the next world war.

  16. Education, Nation-Building and Modernization after World War I: American Ideas for the Peace Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ment, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The First World War ended with the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German and Ottoman Empires. In planning for the peace negotiations the allied governments considered not only the European boundaries but especially the national aspirations and future development of the peoples of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Africa and…

  17. The "Chugakuryoko" and Hogan's Heroes: The Experience Gap between U.S. and Japanese Students' Knowledge of World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olwell, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Based on his own teaching experiences and findings, the author discusses the experience gap between U.S. and Japanese students' knowledge of World War II. He compares and contrasts how the subject of World War II is taught in the United States versus Japan. While it takes teacher effort to enrich the history experiences of U.S. students, the…

  18. 8 CFR 329.5 - Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring to... Armed Forces in the Far East, or (ii) Within the Commonwealth Army of the Philippines, the...

  19. 8 CFR 329.5 - Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring to naturalize... Armed Forces in the Far East, or (ii) Within the Commonwealth Army of the Philippines, the...

  20. Socioeconomic background of hysteria's metamorphosis from the 18th Century to World War I.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Nicole; Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The many changes in the etiopathogenic theories of hysteria, developed from the end of the 18th century to the end of World War I, can only be understood by studying the social, political, economic, and cultural transformations of the Western world during the same period. These transformations, presented below along with concurrent medical discoveries, make it possible to explain the ongoing metamorphosis of both hysteria and the image of the hysteric patient.

  1. Mental health, citizenship, and the memory of World War II in the Netherlands (1945-85).

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Harry

    2014-03-01

    After World War II, Dutch psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals articulated ideals of democratic citizenship. Framed in terms of self-development, citizenship took on a broad meaning, not just in terms of political rights and obligations, but also in the context of material, social, psychological and moral conditions that individuals should meet in order to develop themselves and be able to act according to those rights and obligations in a responsible way. In the post-war period of reconstruction (1945-65), as well as between 1965 and 1985, the link between mental health and ideals of citizenship was coloured by the public memory of World War II and the German occupation, albeit in completely different, even opposite ways. The memory of the war, and especially the public consideration of its victims, changed drastically in the mid-1960s, and the mental health sector played a crucial role in bringing this change about. The widespread attention to the mental effects of the war that surfaced in the late 1960s after a period of 20 years of public silence should be seen against the backdrop of the combination of democratization and the emancipation of emotions. PMID:24594819

  2. Mental health, citizenship, and the memory of World War II in the Netherlands (1945-85).

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Harry

    2014-03-01

    After World War II, Dutch psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals articulated ideals of democratic citizenship. Framed in terms of self-development, citizenship took on a broad meaning, not just in terms of political rights and obligations, but also in the context of material, social, psychological and moral conditions that individuals should meet in order to develop themselves and be able to act according to those rights and obligations in a responsible way. In the post-war period of reconstruction (1945-65), as well as between 1965 and 1985, the link between mental health and ideals of citizenship was coloured by the public memory of World War II and the German occupation, albeit in completely different, even opposite ways. The memory of the war, and especially the public consideration of its victims, changed drastically in the mid-1960s, and the mental health sector played a crucial role in bringing this change about. The widespread attention to the mental effects of the war that surfaced in the late 1960s after a period of 20 years of public silence should be seen against the backdrop of the combination of democratization and the emancipation of emotions.

  3. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945. PMID:24673277

  4. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945.

  5. Death and bereavement in the First World War: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Jalland, Pat

    2014-06-01

    The First World War was a turning point in the cultural history of death and bereavement in Australia. The mass deaths of some 60,000 soldiers overseas led to communal rituals of mourning for the war dead and minimal public expressions of private grief. The mass slaughter of so many young men and the interminable grief of so many families devalued the deaths of civilians at home and helped to create a new cultural model of suppressed and privatised grieving which deeply constrained the next two generations. Emotional and expressive grieving became less common, mourning ritual was minimised and sorrow became a private matter.

  6. Battle for the mind: World War 1 and the birth of military psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edgar; Wessely, Simon

    2014-11-01

    The 100th anniversary of the outbreak of World War 1 could be viewed as a tempting opportunity to acknowledge the origins of military psychiatry and the start of a journey from psychological ignorance to enlightenment. However, the psychiatric legacy of the war is ambiguous. During World War 1, a new disorder (shellshock) and a new treatment (forward psychiatry) were introduced, but the former should not be thought of as the first recognition of what is now called post-traumatic stress disorder and the latter did not offer the solution to the management of psychiatric casualties, as was subsequently claimed. For this Series paper, we researched contemporary publications, classified military reports, and casualty returns to reassess the conventional narrative about the effect of shellshock on psychiatric practice. We conclude that the expression of distress by soldiers was culturally mediated and that patients with postcombat syndromes presented with symptom clusters and causal interpretations that engaged the attention of doctors but also resonated with popular health concerns. Likewise, claims for the efficacy of forward psychiatry were inflated. The vigorous debates that arose in response to controversy about the nature of psychiatric disorders and the discussions about how these disorders should be managed remain relevant to the trauma experienced by military personnel who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan. The psychiatric history of World War 1 should be thought of as an opportunity for commemoration and in terms of its contemporary relevance-not as an opportunity for self-congratulation. PMID:25441201

  7. Battle for the mind: World War 1 and the birth of military psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edgar; Wessely, Simon

    2014-11-01

    The 100th anniversary of the outbreak of World War 1 could be viewed as a tempting opportunity to acknowledge the origins of military psychiatry and the start of a journey from psychological ignorance to enlightenment. However, the psychiatric legacy of the war is ambiguous. During World War 1, a new disorder (shellshock) and a new treatment (forward psychiatry) were introduced, but the former should not be thought of as the first recognition of what is now called post-traumatic stress disorder and the latter did not offer the solution to the management of psychiatric casualties, as was subsequently claimed. For this Series paper, we researched contemporary publications, classified military reports, and casualty returns to reassess the conventional narrative about the effect of shellshock on psychiatric practice. We conclude that the expression of distress by soldiers was culturally mediated and that patients with postcombat syndromes presented with symptom clusters and causal interpretations that engaged the attention of doctors but also resonated with popular health concerns. Likewise, claims for the efficacy of forward psychiatry were inflated. The vigorous debates that arose in response to controversy about the nature of psychiatric disorders and the discussions about how these disorders should be managed remain relevant to the trauma experienced by military personnel who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan. The psychiatric history of World War 1 should be thought of as an opportunity for commemoration and in terms of its contemporary relevance-not as an opportunity for self-congratulation.

  8. Waking up to shell shock: psychiatry in the US military during World War II.

    PubMed

    Pols, Hans

    2006-12-01

    During World War I, military officers encountered a new and puzzling phenomenon: soldiers emerged from the trenches stuttering, crying, trembling and at times were even paralysed and blind. Those in charge were convinced these soldiers were cowards or malingerers who deserved stern discipline or to be court-martialled. A number of physicians, by contrast, initially assumed that these alarming symptoms resulted from close exposure to explosions and called it shell shock. Later, they realized that it was a psychological reaction and came up with psychotherapeutic treatments. But it was only in World War II that military psychiatrists, particularly those in the USA, began to implement treatment methods for this phenomenon in a systematic way. Their thinking and the treatments they devised had significant consequences for the future of American psychiatry, which in turn influenced the development of psychiatry and military psychiatry world-wide.

  9. Japanese American reactions to World War II incarceration redress: Just world belief, locus of control, and coping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jackie H J; Nagata, Donna K; Akiyama, Mark

    2015-07-01

    This study examines second generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans' reactions to government redress for their unjust incarceration during World War II. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the roles of individual difference factors-Belief in a Just World (BJW), Locus of Control (LOC)-and Incarceration-Related Coping in predicting (a) reported redress-related Suffering Relief and (b) Positive Redress Impacts. Findings show that BJW was a stronger predictor of redress reactions than LOC, with higher BJW associated with more affirmative views of redress. In addition, Incarceration-Related Coping mediated a majority of the relationships between the individual difference factors and redress reactions.

  10. Perspectives on history: military dietetics in the Philippines during World War II.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P A

    1992-07-01

    The history of the profession of dietetics is a history of caring, dedicated, and capable individuals. This article examines the experiences of three dietitians during World War II in the Philippines--their pre-war status and their changing environments as the Japanese invaded the Philippines in overwhelming numbers. It recounts the extreme hardships they endured for 3 years as prisoners of war of the Japanese at Santo Tomas Internment Camp (formerly Santo Tomas University) in Manila. The article covers the time before Army dietitians had military status and concludes shortly after the former prisoners returned to the United States, when they were commissioned and promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. PMID:1624653

  11. Some aerodynamic discoveries and related NACA/NASA research programs following World War 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The World War 2 time period ushered in a new era in aeronautical research and development. The air conflict during the war highlighted the need of aircraft with agility, high speed, long range, large payload capability, and in addition, introduced a new concept in air warfare through the use of guided missiles. Following the war, the influx of foreign technology, primarily German, led to rapid advances in jet propulsion and speed, and a host of new problem areas associated with high-speed flight designs were revealed. The resolution of these problems led to a rash of new design concepts and many of the lessons learned, in principle, are still effective today. In addition to the technical lessons learned related to aircraft development programs, it might also be noted that some lessons involving the political and philosophical nature of aircraft development programs are worth attention.

  12. "Separate, but almost equal": the Army's Negro medical field units in World War II.

    PubMed

    Marble, Sanders

    2012-01-01

    Before World War II, the Army had no African American medical units and no plans on how to utilize African American personnel. A first plan to sideline blacks into menial support positions was implemented but then overruled in the middle of the war. Separate units were formed, which performed some support functions, but also focused on preventive medicine work--mainly, insect control. Other duties included cross-loading litter patients in the evacuation chain, a laborious but morale-boosting job for which some units received commendations. Several ambulance companies were organized, performing solidly. In the face of official disapprobation and disinterest in African Americans serving, the men of these units sought to contribute to the war effort and took pride in doing their best. PMID:22708253

  13. Surgical advances during the First World War: the birth of modern orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Arul; Eardley, W G P; Edwards, D S; Clasper, J C; Stewart, M P M

    2016-02-01

    The First World War (1914-1918) was the first truly industrial conflict in human history. Never before had rifle fire and artillery barrage been employed on a global scale. It was a conflict that over 4 years would leave over 750,000 British troops dead with a further 1.6 million injured, the majority with orthopaedic injuries. Against this backdrop, the skills of the orthopaedic surgeon were brought to the fore. Many of those techniques and systems form the foundation of modern orthopaedic trauma management. On the centenary of 'the War to end all Wars', we review the significant advances in wound management, fracture treatment, nerve injury and rehabilitation that were developed during that conflict.

  14. "Separate, but almost equal": the Army's Negro medical field units in World War II.

    PubMed

    Marble, Sanders

    2012-01-01

    Before World War II, the Army had no African American medical units and no plans on how to utilize African American personnel. A first plan to sideline blacks into menial support positions was implemented but then overruled in the middle of the war. Separate units were formed, which performed some support functions, but also focused on preventive medicine work--mainly, insect control. Other duties included cross-loading litter patients in the evacuation chain, a laborious but morale-boosting job for which some units received commendations. Several ambulance companies were organized, performing solidly. In the face of official disapprobation and disinterest in African Americans serving, the men of these units sought to contribute to the war effort and took pride in doing their best.

  15. The first world war drives rehabilitation toward the modern concepts of disability and participation.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglioli Stagni, S; Tomba, P; Viganò, A; Zati, A; Benedetti, M G

    2015-06-01

    The First World War produced a huge number of disabled soldiers. During the war, surgeons realized that it was not enough to merely treat the limbs of the wounded soldiers; it was also necessary to train them to use their remaining abilities to their greatest capacity. Governments at the same time realized that such a high number of veterans created a financial burden, by entitling disabled veterans to full healthcare, raising the issues of social welfare. Both in the US and Europe, programs of rehabilitation were instituted, providing injured soldiers with long-term medical care and vocational training aimed at restituting soldier's independence for a speedy return to work. In Italy at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, one of the most renowned Hospitals for the treatment of orthopedic deformities, Putti set up a technologically advanced Orthopedic Workshop, and a Rehabilitation House. The so called "reconstruction programs" addressed all aspects of rehabilitation (including physiotherapy, curative workshops and vocational therapy), seeing disability in terms of function. The experience gained in the treatment of war victims markedly enriched rehabilitation techniques, but overall the First World War helped engender the concept of rehabilitative programs to assist disabled veterans reintegrate in the workplace, thus laying the foundations of the modern concept of participation at a social level. In the centenary of Italy's entry into the First World War, it is worth underlining just how much hindsight affords us a new perspective on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. It reminds us that rehabilitation is not merely the role of medicine, but forms part of a multifaceted approach involving societal roles and expectations, regardless of the psychological and physical impairments suffered by the individuals concerned. PMID:25941048

  16. The first world war drives rehabilitation toward the modern concepts of disability and participation.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglioli Stagni, S; Tomba, P; Viganò, A; Zati, A; Benedetti, M G

    2015-06-01

    The First World War produced a huge number of disabled soldiers. During the war, surgeons realized that it was not enough to merely treat the limbs of the wounded soldiers; it was also necessary to train them to use their remaining abilities to their greatest capacity. Governments at the same time realized that such a high number of veterans created a financial burden, by entitling disabled veterans to full healthcare, raising the issues of social welfare. Both in the US and Europe, programs of rehabilitation were instituted, providing injured soldiers with long-term medical care and vocational training aimed at restituting soldier's independence for a speedy return to work. In Italy at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, one of the most renowned Hospitals for the treatment of orthopedic deformities, Putti set up a technologically advanced Orthopedic Workshop, and a Rehabilitation House. The so called "reconstruction programs" addressed all aspects of rehabilitation (including physiotherapy, curative workshops and vocational therapy), seeing disability in terms of function. The experience gained in the treatment of war victims markedly enriched rehabilitation techniques, but overall the First World War helped engender the concept of rehabilitative programs to assist disabled veterans reintegrate in the workplace, thus laying the foundations of the modern concept of participation at a social level. In the centenary of Italy's entry into the First World War, it is worth underlining just how much hindsight affords us a new perspective on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. It reminds us that rehabilitation is not merely the role of medicine, but forms part of a multifaceted approach involving societal roles and expectations, regardless of the psychological and physical impairments suffered by the individuals concerned.

  17. Coalmining and the National Scheme for Disabled Ex-Servicemen after the First World War

    PubMed Central

    Mantin, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After the First World War, disabled British veterans returned home to an uncertain future of work. In addition to voluntary efforts, the government’s response to the national employment crisis – the National Scheme for Disabled Ex-Servicemen (commonly known as the King’s Roll) – was established in 1919 to encourage employers to hire a five per cent quota of disabled ex-servicemen. Historians have recently revisited the scheme, noting that in many cases the process was slow and fraught, with many disabled veterans facing the prospect of unemployment, yet few have paid attention to soldiers’ pre-war working backgrounds and the specific requests of British industries. This article focuses on British coalminers returning from war. What role was there in this national situation for an industry known for its own high rate of accident and injury? Although the King’s Roll made some attempt to find veterans specifically targeted jobs above and below ground according to their impairments, it proved unable to incorporate coalmining. Instead, many disabled ex-servicemen returned to the workplace and utilized their existing identities as miners to navigate the process. With the industry beginning to decline, many faced potential regression in job status, exploitation or unemployment. By shifting to an industry-specific focus, this case study explores the contested nature of work for disabled people after the First World War, and highlights the interrelation and importance of workplace identity for the returning disabled veteran. PMID:27134339

  18. [The "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie" and the two world wars].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2011-02-01

    The "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie" was the official publication of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris which became later on the French Academy of pharmacy. It is consequently the organ that presented scientific publications and independent position papers from pharmacists being part of this assembly and coming from universities, drugstores or pharmaceutical industries. We have analyzed the content of this journal during the last two world wars in order to evaluate to what extent the members of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris were part of the war efforts, and encouraged or criticized the on-going events. We can observe that, in both cases, pharmacists used their expert opinions to better react and manage consequences of the conflicts, but also to express their disagreement with enemy's opinions or actions, the Society doing everything possible to maintain its activities. One can observe also that both conflicts were an opportunity to reconsider the organization of pharmacy in France, especially during the Second World War where took place discussions on pharmacy reform (1941 law) and creation of the Pharmacists' Order which will ultimately occur after the war end.

  19. [Red Cross hospital in Krapina, during the First world war from 1914 to 1918].

    PubMed

    Fures, Rajko; Habek, Dubravko; Kozina, Drago

    2016-08-01

    Red Cross Hospital in Krapina, during the First World War, was active from 1914 to 1918. Hospital led by Dr. Mirko Crkvenac, oriented humanist. The hospital is operated thanks to the help of municipalities and citizens. The hospital staff concern is for civilian and military victims of the First World War. Dr. Crkvenac, with the support of the City of Krapina and Mayor Vilibald Sluga, he succeeds to the organization and operation of the hospital to an enviable level. Across the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Croatian, Hospitals Red Cross, had a significant role in caring for the wounded, injured and sick soldiers and civilians. Red Cross Hospital in Krapina, is an example of a well-organized hospital in the toughest conditions. Such an organization was not simple in its implementation, and left the valuable lessons and experience. PMID:27598958

  20. Historical generations and psychology. The case of the Great Depression and World War II.

    PubMed

    Rogler, Lloyd H

    2002-12-01

    The author assembles a theory of historical generations from dispersed sources in the social and behavioral sciences and in the humanities, differentiates the theory from formulations of other generation concepts, and applies it to central features in the lives of persons in the generation of the Great Depression and World War II. The application of the theory to historical materials explains how a commitment to social interdependence emerged as the signature orientation of the generation of the Great Depression and World War II. Challenges to the perspective of contextualism stem from the theory's hypotheses about linkages that mediate between cataclysmic events and psychological processes, the influence of historical generations on many of psychology's everyday concerns, and instructive comparisons with a body of growing research on processes involving adaptations to different cultures. PMID:12613154

  1. 'A very valuable fusion of classes': British professional and volunteer nurses of the First World War.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Christine E

    2014-06-01

    Public perceptions of the work of nurses and VAD-volunteers in the First World War have been heavily influenced by a small number of VAD-writings. The work of trained, professional nurses in supporting and supervised the work of VADs has been largely overlooked. This paper examines several of the writings of both volunteers and professionals, and emphasises the overlooked supervisory, managerial and clinical work of trained nurses. In this centenary year of the First World War's opening months, the paper also explores the ways in which the British mass-media--notably the BBC--have chosen to cling to a romantic image of the untrained nurse, whilst at the same time acknowledging the significance of trained, professional nursing. PMID:24929997

  2. [Red Cross hospital in Krapina, during the First world war from 1914 to 1918].

    PubMed

    Fures, Rajko; Habek, Dubravko; Kozina, Drago

    2016-08-01

    Red Cross Hospital in Krapina, during the First World War, was active from 1914 to 1918. Hospital led by Dr. Mirko Crkvenac, oriented humanist. The hospital is operated thanks to the help of municipalities and citizens. The hospital staff concern is for civilian and military victims of the First World War. Dr. Crkvenac, with the support of the City of Krapina and Mayor Vilibald Sluga, he succeeds to the organization and operation of the hospital to an enviable level. Across the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Croatian, Hospitals Red Cross, had a significant role in caring for the wounded, injured and sick soldiers and civilians. Red Cross Hospital in Krapina, is an example of a well-organized hospital in the toughest conditions. Such an organization was not simple in its implementation, and left the valuable lessons and experience.

  3. 'A very valuable fusion of classes': British professional and volunteer nurses of the First World War.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Christine E

    2014-06-01

    Public perceptions of the work of nurses and VAD-volunteers in the First World War have been heavily influenced by a small number of VAD-writings. The work of trained, professional nurses in supporting and supervised the work of VADs has been largely overlooked. This paper examines several of the writings of both volunteers and professionals, and emphasises the overlooked supervisory, managerial and clinical work of trained nurses. In this centenary year of the First World War's opening months, the paper also explores the ways in which the British mass-media--notably the BBC--have chosen to cling to a romantic image of the untrained nurse, whilst at the same time acknowledging the significance of trained, professional nursing.

  4. Intestinal parasites in First World War German soldiers from "Kilianstollen", Carspach, France.

    PubMed

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach.

  5. Governing the grapevine: the study of rumor during World War II.

    PubMed

    Faye, Cathy

    2007-02-01

    Throughout the early 1940s, a host of rumors relating to the Second World War began to circulate, leading the government to establish various committees and undertake multiple projects intended to counteract rumors that were believed to threaten civilian morale and compromise national security. Simultaneously, social scientists also began taking measures to study and combat rumor. Such efforts included the institution of several community groups, deemed "rumor clinics," that aimed to decrease the prevalence of wartime rumor by educating the general public. This article outlines the rise and fall of rumor clinics, focusing specifically on the shifting boundaries and the mounting tensions between the United States government and social scientists in the study of rumor during World War II.

  6. Intestinal Parasites in First World War German Soldiers from “Kilianstollen”, Carspach, France

    PubMed Central

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named “Kilianstollen” in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach. PMID:25333988

  7. Follow-up studies of world war II and Korean conflict prisoners. III. Mortality to January 1, 1976.

    PubMed

    Keehn, R J

    1980-02-01

    Mortality through 1975 in US Army veterans released from prisoner-of-war camps following World War II (Europe, Pacific) and the Korean conflict and in several non-prisoner groups is compared using death rates and standard mortality ratios. The World War II Pacific and Korean conflict experience reveal increased risk of dying among former prisoners which, though diminishing with time, persist for 9 and 13 years, respectively. Mortality from tuberculosis and from trauma contributes to the increase among Pacific ex-prisoners, while for Korea the increase is limited to trauma. An excess of deaths due to cirrhosis of the liver in all three former prisoner groups appeared from about the 10th follow-up year. While the reported mortality experience for World War II spans 30 calendar years and for Korea 22 years, no evidence of increased aging among former prisoners of war is seen in mortality from the chronic and degenerative diseases. PMID:7355882

  8. Some reflections on madness and culture in the post-war world.

    PubMed

    Scull, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    This article examines the treatment of madness as a theme in drama, opera and films, concentrating its attention for the most part on the period between World War II and the 1980s. These were the years in which psychoanalysis dominated psychiatry in the USA, and so Freud's influence in the broader culture forms the central though not the sole focus of the analysis. PMID:25395437

  9. The Last Act: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    This text was to have been the script for the National Air and Space Museum's exhibition of the Enola Gay, focusing on the end of World War II and the decision of the United States to use of the atomic bomb. The Enola Gay was a B-29 aircraft that carried the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945. The atomic bomb brought a…

  10. They answered the call: Nebraska nurses join the ranks in World War II.

    PubMed

    Schmeiding, Verna E; Anderson, Mary L; Bradley, Eileen

    On December 7, 1941, there were fewer than 1,000 nurses in the Army Nurse Corps. That infamous day, 82 of those brave nurses were stationed in Hawaii. Their bravery, leadership and calmness under extreme duress foreshadowed the amazing role nurses would play in World War II. In the months and years that followed Japan's bombing of Pearl Harbor, over 59,000 American nurses would answer the call and join the Army Nurse Corps. Courageous Nebraskan women were among them.

  11. French school and World War First: neurological consequences of a frightening time.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2015-05-01

    Some aspects of a dark period in the history of the modern neurology, that of the World War I (WWI), are here remembered, mainly by the neurological French School participation . Some personalities and their works related to the WWI are presented such as Joseph Babinski, Jules Froment, Clovis Vincent, Jules Joseph Dejerine, Augusta Déjérine-Klumpke, Jules Tinel, Pierre Marie, Achille Alexandre Souques, Charles Foix, and Georges Guillain.

  12. [The establishment of Medical school in Zagreb in World War I].

    PubMed

    Dugački, Vlatka; Regan, Krešimir

    2015-11-01

    World War I irrevocably changed the face of the world, including Croatia and its capital Zagreb. While between 1880 and 1910 Zagreb became a modern European city, World War I (1914-1918) was marked by new municipal regulations that overturned the everyday life of the city. Social conditions reached catastrophic proportions, especially in the later years of the war. Soldiers and refugees swarmed the city, and famine and the Spanish flu epidemic hit it hard. In such harsh social and economic circumstances Milan Rojc, head of the Theology and Education Department and three doctors from the Sisters of Mercy Hospital, namely, Theodor Wikerhauser, Miroslav Čačković pl. Vrhovinski, and Dragutin Mašek, finally started the School of Medicine in December 1917. The School had formally been founded 43 years before, on January 5th, 1874., when the Croatian Parliament, passed the law concerning the establishment of the University, which was to have four faculties: Theology, Philosophy, Law, and Medicine.

  13. Understanding the Influence of Parkinson Disease on Adolf Hitler's Decision-Making during World War II.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline. PMID:26093359

  14. [The establishment of Medical school in Zagreb in World War I].

    PubMed

    Dugački, Vlatka; Regan, Krešimir

    2015-11-01

    World War I irrevocably changed the face of the world, including Croatia and its capital Zagreb. While between 1880 and 1910 Zagreb became a modern European city, World War I (1914-1918) was marked by new municipal regulations that overturned the everyday life of the city. Social conditions reached catastrophic proportions, especially in the later years of the war. Soldiers and refugees swarmed the city, and famine and the Spanish flu epidemic hit it hard. In such harsh social and economic circumstances Milan Rojc, head of the Theology and Education Department and three doctors from the Sisters of Mercy Hospital, namely, Theodor Wikerhauser, Miroslav Čačković pl. Vrhovinski, and Dragutin Mašek, finally started the School of Medicine in December 1917. The School had formally been founded 43 years before, on January 5th, 1874., when the Croatian Parliament, passed the law concerning the establishment of the University, which was to have four faculties: Theology, Philosophy, Law, and Medicine. PMID:27639046

  15. Understanding the Influence of Parkinson Disease on Adolf Hitler's Decision-Making during World War II.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline.

  16. Anaesthetic and other treatments of shell shock: World War I and beyond.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, A G

    2012-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important health risk factor for military personnel deployed in modern warfare. In World War I this condition (then known as shell shock or 'neurasthenia') was such a problem that 'forward psychiatry' was begun by French doctors in 1915. Some British doctors tried general anaesthesia as a treatment (ether and chloroform), while others preferred application of electricity. Four British 'forward psychiatric units' were set up in 1917. Hospitals for shell shocked soldiers were also established in Britain, including (for officers) Craiglockhart War Hospital in Edinburgh; patients diagnosed to have more serious psychiatric conditions were transferred to the Royal Edinburgh Asylum. Towards the end of 1918 anaesthetic and electrical treatments of shell shock were gradually displaced by modified Freudian methods psychodynamic intervention. The efficacy of 'forward psychiatry' was controversial. In 1922 the War Office produced a report on shell shock with recommendations for prevention of war neurosis. However, when World War II broke out in 1939, this seemed to have been ignored. The term 'combat fatigue' was introduced as breakdown rates became alarming, and then the value of pre-selection was recognised. At the Maudsley Hospital in London in 1940 barbiturate abreaction was advocated for quick relief from severe anxiety and hysteria, using i.v. anaesthetics: Somnifaine, paraldehyde, Sodium Amytal. 'Pentothal narcosis' and 'narco-analysis' were adopted by British and American military psychiatrists. However, by 1945 medical thinking gradually settled on the same approaches that had seemed to be effective in 1918. The term PTSD was introduced in 1980. In the UK the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for management (2005) recommend trauma-focussed Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and consideration of antidepressants.

  17. La Asociacion Hispano-Americana de Madres y Esposas: Tucson's Mexican American Women in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Christine

    The contributions made during World War II by Mexican-American women on the home front have not been recognized in their proper historical perspective. Like their Anglo counterparts, these women took up the responsibilities left by their men and worked to support the war effort. In 1944 the Mexican-American women of Tucson formed La Asociacion…

  18. "Silence and Cowardice" at the University of Michigan: World War I and the Pursuit of Un-American Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2011-01-01

    Numerous faculty members at the University of Michigan and institutions across the nation found themselves victims of hysteria and anti-German extremism during World War I. Through an examination of restrictions on speech before American entry into the war, investigations into the loyalty of more than a dozen educators, and considerations of the…

  19. Renewing a Scientific Society: The American Association for the Advancement of Science from World War II to 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Dael

    This book recounts the many challenges and successes achieved by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) from World War II to 1970. Included are: (1) the development of the National Science Foundation; (2) Cold War concerns about the loyalty and freedom of scientists; (3) efforts to develop an effective science curriculum…

  20. Teaching about the Moral Lessons of World War II and How to Integrate This into the Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bykov, A. K.; Liuban, T. N.

    2011-01-01

    The Ninth of May 2010 marks the sixty-fifth anniversary of the Day of Victory in the Great War for the Fatherland (World War II). Although so much time has passed, the moral asset of this historical event remains large. The Russian people perceive this victory as a heroic symbol of the whole Fatherland, and its results and consequences are…

  1. Putting Their Lives on the Line: Personal Narrative as Political Discourse among Japanese Petitioners in American World War II Internment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2011-01-01

    One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…

  2. Portrayals of suffering: perceptions of trauma in the writings of First World War nurses and volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Christine E

    2010-01-01

    The trauma-writings of World War I nurses have been identified as an important and influential corpus of early 20th-century works. Not only did the rediscovery of these writings in the later 20th century serve to recognize the importance of women's writings as part of the historical record, and identify certain female writers as some of the most important thinkers of the modernist movement; they also demonstrated the importance of the nursing perspective as one element of wartime experience. This paper considers a number of influential works written by both nurses and members of the Voluntary Aid Detachments (VAD) who assisted with nursing work during the war. The paper identifies how nurses and VADs presented their experiences of war trauma. It also considers how some writers strove to attach meaning to (or in some, cases expressed their sense of the meaninglessness of) the suffering caused by the war. The paper considers further how some nurses themselves experienced trauma as a result of their exposure to wartime work, and how some writers developed what are referred to as "philosophies of suffering," in which they struggled to understand suffering as an element of human experience.

  3. Herbert Moran Memorial Lecture. World War I: the genesis of craniomaxillofacial surgery?

    PubMed

    Simpson, Donald A; David, David J

    2004-01-01

    Herbert Moran enlisted in the Royal Army Medical Corps early in World War I. His autobiography captures the impact of contemporary experience of wartime gunshot wounds, seen in vast numbers and with little understanding of the requirements of wartime surgery. Wounds of the face and brain were numerous, especially in trench fighting. In France, Germany, Britain and elsewhere, surgeons and dentists collaborated to repair mutilated faces and special centres were set up to facilitate this. The innovative New Zealand surgeon Harold Gillies developed his famous reconstructive techniques in the Queen's Hospital at Sidcup, with the help of dental surgeons, anaesthetists and medical artists. The treatment of brain wounds was controversial. Many surgeons, especially on the German side, advocated minimal primary operative surgery and delayed closure. Others advocated early exploration and immediate closure; among the first to do so was the Austro-Hungarian otologist Robert Bárány. In 1918, the pioneer American neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing published well-documented proof of the desirability of definitive operative management done as soon as possible. Few World War I surgeons developed their knowledge of plastic surgery, neurosurgery and oral surgery in post-war practice. An exception was Henry Newland, who went on to pioneer the development of these specialties in Australasia. After World War II, the French plastic surgeon Paul Tessier created the multidisciplinary subspecialty of craniomaxillofacial surgery, with the help of his neurosurgical colleague Gérard Guiot, and applied this approach to the correction of facial deformities. It has become evident that the new subspecialty requires appropriate training programs.

  4. World War II, tantalum, and the evolution of modern cranioplasty technique.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, Patrick; Kshettry, Varun R; Benzel, Edward C

    2014-04-01

    Cranioplasty is a unique procedure with a rich history. Since ancient times, a diverse array of materials from coconut shells to gold plates has been used for the repair of cranial defects. More recently, World War II greatly increased the demand for cranioplasty procedures and renewed interest in the search for a suitable synthetic material for cranioprostheses. Experimental evidence revealed that tantalum was biologically inert to acid and oxidative stresses. In fact, the observation that tantalum did not absorb acid resulted in the metal being named after Tantalus, the Greek mythological figure who was condemned to a pool of water in the Underworld that would recede when he tried to take a drink. In clinical use, malleability facilitated a single-stage cosmetic repair of cranial defects. Tantalum became the preferred cranioplasty material for more than 1000 procedures performed during World War II. In fact, its use was rapidly adopted in the civilian population. During World War II and the heyday of tantalum cranioplasty, there was a rapid evolution in prosthesis implantation and fixation techniques significantly shaping how cranioplasties are performed today. Several years after the war, acrylic emerged as the cranioplasty material of choice. It had several clear advantages over its metallic counterparts. Titanium, which was less radiopaque and had a more optimal thermal conductivity profile (less thermally conductive), eventually supplanted tantalum as the most common metallic cranioplasty material. While tantalum cranioplasty was popular for only a decade, it represented a significant breakthrough in synthetic cranioplasty. The experiences of wartime neurosurgeons with tantalum cranioplasty played a pivotal role in the evolution of modern cranioplasty techniques and ultimately led to a heightened understanding of the necessary attributes of an ideal synthetic cranioplasty material. Indeed, the history of tantalum cranioplasty serves as a model for innovative

  5. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    PubMed

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  6. Shell shock, trauma, and the First World War: the making of a diagnosis and its histories.

    PubMed

    Loughran, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    During the First World War, thousands of soldiers were treated for "shell shock," a condition which encompassed a range of physical and psychological symptoms. Shell shock has most often been located within a "genealogy of trauma," and identified as an important marker in the gradual recognition of the psychological afflictions caused by combat. In recent years, shell shock has increasingly been viewed as a powerful emblem of the suffering of war. This article, which focuses on Britain, extends scholarly analyses which question characterizations of shell shock as an early form of post-traumatic stress disorder. It also considers some of the methodological problems raised by recasting shell shock as a wartime medical construction rather than an essentially timeless manifestation of trauma. It argues that shell shock must be analyzed as a diagnosis shaped by a specific set of contemporary concerns, knowledges, and practices. Such an analysis challenges accepted understandings of what shell shock "meant" in the First World War, and also offers new perspectives on the role of shell shock in shaping the emergence of psychology and psychiatry in the early part of the twentieth century. The article also considers what relation, if any, might exist between intellectual and other histories, literary approaches, and perceptions of trauma as timeless and unchanging.

  7. Men's Appraisals of Their Military Experiences in World War II: A 40-Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Settersten, Richard A; Day, Jack; Elder, Glen H; Waldinger, Robert J

    2012-07-01

    Using data on veterans from the longitudinal Harvard Study of Adult Development (N=241), we focused on subjective aspects of military service. We examined how veterans of World War II appraised specific dimensions of military service directly after the war and over 40 years later, as well as the role of military service in their life course. In addition to examining change in appraisals, we examined how postwar appraisals of service mediated the effects of objective aspects of service, and how postwar psychological adjustment and health mediated the effects of postwar appraisals, on later-life appraisals. Men's appraisals at both time points were generally, but not highly, positive, and revealed remarkable consistency over four decades. Postwar appraisals strongly predicted later-life appraisals and mediated the effects of objective service variables. The effects of postwar appraisals were not carried forward through psychological adjustment or midlife health. Better adjustment, however, was negatively related to later-life appraisals. Results reinforce the idea that how men perceive their military experiences may be more important in predicting outcomes than the experiences themselves. Results are discussed in light of the sample characteristics, the historical context of World War II, and the complexities of appraisal and retrospection.

  8. Perspectives on history: Army dietitians in the European, North African, and Mediterranean theaters of operation in World War II.

    PubMed

    Hodges, P A

    1996-06-01

    World War II necessitated the mobilization of hundreds of dietitians to serve in military hospitals in the United States and in theaters of war all over the globe. Although initially military dietitians had civilian status, on December 22, 1942, Congress passed Public Law 828, which authorized military status for Army dietitians with relative rank in the Medical Department for the duration of the war and 6 months thereafter. This article chronicles the role of Army dietitians who supported the allied troops in military hospitals in England, Europe, and North Africa during World War II. Recollections of military dietitians who served in the war are included to illustrate the circumstances under which these professionals lived and the dedication with which they worked. PMID:8655909

  9. 2nd Generation ELT Performance Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimson, Chad M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Search And Rescue is supporting RTCA SC-229 with research and recommendations for performance specifications for the 2nd generation of emergency locator transmitters. Areas for improvement and methods for collecting data will be presented.

  10. Publications on Peripheral Nerve Injuries during World War I: A Dramatic Increase in Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Publications from French (Jules Tinel and Chiriachitza Athanassio-Bénisty), English (James Purves-Stewart, Arthur Henry Evans and Hartley Sidney Carter), German (Otfrid Foerster and Hermann Oppenheim) and American (Charles Harrison Frazier and Byron Stookey) physicians from both sides of the front during World War I (WWI) contributed to a dramatic increase in knowledge about peripheral nerve injuries. Silas Weir Mitchell's original experience with respect to these injuries, and particularly causalgia, during the American Civil War was further expanded in Europe during WWI. Following the translation of one of his books, he was referred to mainly by French physicians. During WWI, several French books were in turn translated into English, which influenced American physicians, as was observed in the case of Byron Stookey. The establishment of neurological centres played an important role in the concentration of experience and knowledge. Several eponyms originated during this period (including the Hoffmann-Tinel sign and the Froment sign). Electrodiagnostic tools were increasingly used.

  11. The chief seat of mischief: soldier's heart in the First World War.

    PubMed

    Dyde, Sean

    2011-04-01

    Soldier's heart was a medico-psychiatric condition that was first documented during the American Civil War. This condition affected British and American soldiers during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries; doctors recorded patients experiencing palpitations, breathlessness, headaches, and praecordial pain among other symptoms. While the number of cases of this disorder reached its peak in the First World War, it disappeared shortly afterwards. Based on an analysis of experimental results published in generalist and specialized medical journals as well as the correspondence between physicians and researchers that these journals maintained, this study challenges the view that soldier's heart disappeared because doctors realized that the disorder was, in fact, psychosomatic. Instead, this article shows that this notion was an unintentional by-product of the research conducted into the condition, the results of which opposed the somaticist philosophy that many of the researchers had tried to uphold.

  12. [Parkinson's disease of Adolf Hitler and its influence in the development of World War Second].

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A L

    2003-03-01

    Adolf Hitler very probably suffered from Parkinson's disease. The first symptoms of it began to appear in 1937/1938. It is likely that its appearance, and the fear that it caused regarding his survival, lead Hitler to advance his initial projects of military expansion of the great Germany beginning in 1943. Thus, the Second World War broke out in 1939, perhaps quite before the time in which Germany would be prepared. Chronic treatment carried out with opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and strychnine may very well be related with a very abnormal judgement of the problems and absence of trust in the advice of his team. With this, he would make military decisions that would end up being ill-fated for his interests and which, after 1942, would lead to a change in the course of the war. PMID:12610755

  13. [Parkinson's disease of Adolf Hitler and its influence in the development of World War Second].

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A L

    2003-03-01

    Adolf Hitler very probably suffered from Parkinson's disease. The first symptoms of it began to appear in 1937/1938. It is likely that its appearance, and the fear that it caused regarding his survival, lead Hitler to advance his initial projects of military expansion of the great Germany beginning in 1943. Thus, the Second World War broke out in 1939, perhaps quite before the time in which Germany would be prepared. Chronic treatment carried out with opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and strychnine may very well be related with a very abnormal judgement of the problems and absence of trust in the advice of his team. With this, he would make military decisions that would end up being ill-fated for his interests and which, after 1942, would lead to a change in the course of the war.

  14. Prosthetic Manhood in the Soviet Union at the End of World War II.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Millions of Soviet soldiers were disabled as a direct consequence of their service in the Second World War. Yet despite its expressions of gratitude for their sacrifices, the state evinced a great deal of discomfort regarding their damaged bodies. The countless armless and legless veterans were a constant reminder of the destruction suffered by the country as a whole, an association increasingly incompatible with the postwar agenda of wholesale reconstruction. This article focuses on a key strategy for erasing the scars of war, one with ostensibly unambiguous benefit for the disabled themselves: the development of prostheses. In addition to fostering independence from others and ultimately from the state, artificial limbs would facilitate the veterans' return to the kinds of socially useful labor by which the country defined itself. In so doing, this strategy engendered the establishment of a new model of masculinity: a prosthetic manhood.

  15. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan. PMID:24573258

  16. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan.

  17. German Emergency Care in Neurosurgery and Military Neurology during World War II, 1939-1945.

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    A critical analysis of the historical involvement of neurology and neurosurgery in military emergency care services enables us to better contextualize and appreciate the development of modern neurology at large. Wartime neurosurgery and civil brain science during the German Nazi period tightly coalesced in examining the specific injury types, which military neurosurgeons such as Wilhelm Toennis, Klaus Joachim Zuelch, and Georg Merrem encountered and treated based on their neurophysiological understanding gained from earlier peacetime research. Collaborative associations with Dr. Toennis in particular proved to be highly beneficial to other military neurologists and neurosurgeons during World War II and beyond. This article also discusses the prewar developments and considers the fate of German neurosurgeons and military neurologists after the war. The envisaged dynamic concepts of fast action, reaction, and recycling, which contemporary physicians had intensively studied in the preceding scientific experiments in their neurophysiological laboratories, had already been introduced into neurological surgery during the interwar period. In retrospect, World War II emergency rescue units greatly strengthened military operations through an active process of 'recycling' indispensable army personnel. Neurosurgical emergency chains thereby introduced another decisive step in the modernization of warfare, in that they increased the momentum of military mobility in the field. Notwithstanding the violence of warfare and the often inhumane ways in which such knowledge in the field of emergency neurology was gained, the protagonists among the group of experts in military neurology and neurosurgery strongly contributed to the postwar clinical neuroscience community in Germany. In differing political pretexts, this became visible in both East Germany and West Germany after the war, while the specific military and political conditions under which this knowledge of emergency medicine

  18. German Emergency Care in Neurosurgery and Military Neurology during World War II, 1939-1945.

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    A critical analysis of the historical involvement of neurology and neurosurgery in military emergency care services enables us to better contextualize and appreciate the development of modern neurology at large. Wartime neurosurgery and civil brain science during the German Nazi period tightly coalesced in examining the specific injury types, which military neurosurgeons such as Wilhelm Toennis, Klaus Joachim Zuelch, and Georg Merrem encountered and treated based on their neurophysiological understanding gained from earlier peacetime research. Collaborative associations with Dr. Toennis in particular proved to be highly beneficial to other military neurologists and neurosurgeons during World War II and beyond. This article also discusses the prewar developments and considers the fate of German neurosurgeons and military neurologists after the war. The envisaged dynamic concepts of fast action, reaction, and recycling, which contemporary physicians had intensively studied in the preceding scientific experiments in their neurophysiological laboratories, had already been introduced into neurological surgery during the interwar period. In retrospect, World War II emergency rescue units greatly strengthened military operations through an active process of 'recycling' indispensable army personnel. Neurosurgical emergency chains thereby introduced another decisive step in the modernization of warfare, in that they increased the momentum of military mobility in the field. Notwithstanding the violence of warfare and the often inhumane ways in which such knowledge in the field of emergency neurology was gained, the protagonists among the group of experts in military neurology and neurosurgery strongly contributed to the postwar clinical neuroscience community in Germany. In differing political pretexts, this became visible in both East Germany and West Germany after the war, while the specific military and political conditions under which this knowledge of emergency medicine

  19. 20 CFR 404.111 - When we consider a person fully insured based on World War II active military or naval service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... on World War II active military or naval service. 404.111 Section 404.111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... States during World War II; (b) The person died within three years after separation from service and... War II active military or naval service. We consider that a person, who was not otherwise...

  20. 20 CFR 404.111 - When we consider a person fully insured based on World War II active military or naval service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... on World War II active military or naval service. 404.111 Section 404.111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... States during World War II; (b) The person died within three years after separation from service and... War II active military or naval service. We consider that a person, who was not otherwise...

  1. 20 CFR 404.111 - When we consider a person fully insured based on World War II active military or naval service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on World War II active military or naval service. 404.111 Section 404.111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... States during World War II; (b) The person died within three years after separation from service and... War II active military or naval service. We consider that a person, who was not otherwise...

  2. 20 CFR 404.111 - When we consider a person fully insured based on World War II active military or naval service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... on World War II active military or naval service. 404.111 Section 404.111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... States during World War II; (b) The person died within three years after separation from service and... War II active military or naval service. We consider that a person, who was not otherwise...

  3. 20 CFR 404.111 - When we consider a person fully insured based on World War II active military or naval service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... on World War II active military or naval service. 404.111 Section 404.111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... States during World War II; (b) The person died within three years after separation from service and... War II active military or naval service. We consider that a person, who was not otherwise...

  4. Cirrhosis mortality among former American prisoners of war of World War II and the Korean conflict: results of a 50-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Page, W F; Miller, R N

    2000-10-01

    In our earlier, 30-year follow-up of American prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean conflict, we found evidence of increased cirrhosis mortality. Using federal records, we have now extended our follow-up to 50 years (42 years for Korean conflict veterans) and have used proportional hazards analysis to compare the mortality experience of POWs with that of controls. Compared with their controls, World War II POWs had a 32% higher risk of cirrhosis mortality (statistically significant), and mortality risk was higher in the first 30 years of follow-up and also among those aged 51 years and older. Korean POWs had roughly the same risk of cirrhosis mortality as their controls. Neither self-reported data on alcohol consumption nor supplemental morbidity data satisfactorily explained the differences in risk between POWs and controls, although there was evidence that POWs tended to have higher rates of hepatitis, helminthiasis, and nutritional deprivation. PMID:11050876

  5. ["At times I had to be an allopathic medical officer and then again I was allowed to be a homoeopathic physician." Homoeopathy and war from the Franco-German War (1870/71) to World War I (1914-1918)].

    PubMed

    Eisele, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    With its focus on the Franco-German War and World War I the present paper constitutes a first approach to the comprehensive topic of "homoeopathy and war". Sources used include articles from homoeopathic magazines, homoeopathic specialist literature, material from the estate of the homoeopathic lay organization "Hahnemannia" and individual testimonies from non-homoeopaths. The paper begins by examining the importance of the two wars for research into the history of homoeopathy compared to previous conflicts and demonstrates the value of the sources used. A brief outline of homoeopathy and the military forces in the decades before 1870 provides insight into the historical context. This is followed by the investigation of homoeopathic war hospitals at home with an analysis of the attitude of the homoeopathic physicians and lay-healers involved. The paper also describes the difficult relationship between homoeopathy and conventional medicine during the two conflicts.

  6. "Daddy's Gone to War": Father Absence and Its Differential Effects on America's Homefront Girls and Boys during the Second World War--and After.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, William M., Jr.

    The absence of fathers during World War II had differing effects on the development of identity in boys and girls. Articles and research of the era discussed boys' separation from their fathers but largely failed to address daughters' loss of paternal influence. Evidence suggests that for both boys and girls, the problem was not primarily the…

  7. "A Prostitution Alike of Matter and Spirit": Anti-War Discourses in Children's Literature and Childhood Culture before and during World War I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Kimberley

    2013-01-01

    Histories of the First World War have regularly implicated children's literature in boys' eagerness to enlist in the first two years of that conflict. While undoubtedly the majority of children's books, comics and magazines did espouse nationalistic, jingoistic and martial attitudes, there were alternative stories and environments. Looking at the…

  8. Violation of International Conventions Relatively to the Treatment of Prisoners of War during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokebayeva, Gulzhaukhar; Smagulov, Kadyrzhan; Mussabalina, Gulnara

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to address the issue of prisoners of war through the prism of international law. The object of research is the work of the Commission to investigate the Entente's complaints of violation of Hague Convention on Treatment of Prisoners of War by German authorities. After the armistice, the governments of the Entente sent notes…

  9. Neuropsychiatric Disturbances, Self-Mutilation and Malingering in the French Armies during World War I: War Strain or Cowardice?

    PubMed

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Between 1914 and 1918, war strain appeared under a number of guises and affected, to varying extents, the majority of French soldiers. The most frequent form of war strain was war psychoneurosis, but war strain also induced more paroxystic disorders, such as acute episodes of terror, self-mutilation, induced illnesses and even suicide. Fear was the constant companion of soldiers of the Great War: soldiers were either able to tame it or overwhelmed by an uncontrollable fear. Nonetheless, over the course of the war, some aspects of fear were recognised as syndromes. The French health service poorly anticipated the major consequences of war strain, as with many other types of injuries. After the establishment of wartime neuropsychiatric centres, two main medical stances emerged: listening to soldiers empathetically on the one hand and applying more repressive management on the other. For many physicians, the psychological consequences of this first modern war were synonymous with malingering or cowardice in the face of duty. The stance of French military physicians in relation to their command was not unequivocal and remained ambivalent, swaying between medico-military collusion and empathy towards soldiers experiencing psychological distress. The ubiquity of suspected malingering modified the already porous borders between neuropsychiatric disorders and disobedience. Several war psychoneurotic soldiers were sentenced by councils of war for deserting their posts in the face of the enemy and were shot. Many soldiers suspected of self-mutilation or suffering from induced illnesses were also sentenced and executed without an expert assessment of their wound or their psychological state. PMID:27035133

  10. Neuropsychiatric Disturbances, Self-Mutilation and Malingering in the French Armies during World War I: War Strain or Cowardice?

    PubMed

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Between 1914 and 1918, war strain appeared under a number of guises and affected, to varying extents, the majority of French soldiers. The most frequent form of war strain was war psychoneurosis, but war strain also induced more paroxystic disorders, such as acute episodes of terror, self-mutilation, induced illnesses and even suicide. Fear was the constant companion of soldiers of the Great War: soldiers were either able to tame it or overwhelmed by an uncontrollable fear. Nonetheless, over the course of the war, some aspects of fear were recognised as syndromes. The French health service poorly anticipated the major consequences of war strain, as with many other types of injuries. After the establishment of wartime neuropsychiatric centres, two main medical stances emerged: listening to soldiers empathetically on the one hand and applying more repressive management on the other. For many physicians, the psychological consequences of this first modern war were synonymous with malingering or cowardice in the face of duty. The stance of French military physicians in relation to their command was not unequivocal and remained ambivalent, swaying between medico-military collusion and empathy towards soldiers experiencing psychological distress. The ubiquity of suspected malingering modified the already porous borders between neuropsychiatric disorders and disobedience. Several war psychoneurotic soldiers were sentenced by councils of war for deserting their posts in the face of the enemy and were shot. Many soldiers suspected of self-mutilation or suffering from induced illnesses were also sentenced and executed without an expert assessment of their wound or their psychological state.

  11. Violent ethnic wars and world-wide people movement: implications for mental health nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Procter, N G

    1998-09-01

    In recent years, the world has been subjected to violent ethnic wars for autonomy and secession. Violent conflicts over national and international territorial boundaries are marked by a murderous mistrust, hatred and a perpetual life-and-death struggle in the present. For the mental health nurse, the world-wide persistent global circumstance of international catastrophe and increasing nationalism mediated through war is inextricably linked to practice as well as the significant health and lifestyle concerns of displaced people. Central to the discussion in this paper will be the mechanisms used by the mental health nurse to maintain empathy and clinical excellence during highly sensitive practice issues; in particular, the management of feelings of frustration, anger, guilt, loneliness and sleeplessness, and repeated mental images of suffering and human butchering, because these issues intersect with national and cultural identity. In rising to the challenges these issues present, mental health nursing must co-exist with critical world events and the globalisation of national identity in cultural diversity.

  12. The extant World War 1 dysentery bacillus NCTC1: a genomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate S; Mather, Alison E; McGregor, Hannah; Coupland, Paul; Langridge, Gemma C; Day, Martin; Deheer-Graham, Ana; Parkhill, Julian; Russell, Julie E; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Shigellosis (previously bacillary dysentery) was the primary diarrhoeal disease of World War 1, but outbreaks still occur in military operations, and shigellosis causes hundreds of thousands of deaths per year in developing nations. We aimed to generate a high-quality reference genome of the historical Shigella flexneri isolate NCTC1 and to examine the isolate for resistance to antimicrobials. Methods In this genomic analysis, we sequenced the oldest extant Shigella flexneri serotype 2a isolate using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. Isolated from a soldier with dysentery from the British forces fighting on the Western Front in World War 1, this bacterium, NCTC1, was the first isolate accessioned into the National Collection of Type Cultures. We created a reference sequence for NCTC1, investigated the isolate for antimicrobial resistance, and undertook comparative genetics with S flexneri reference strains isolated during the 100 years since World War 1. Findings We discovered that NCTC1 belonged to a 2a lineage of S flexneri, with which it shares common characteristics and a large core genome. NCTC1 was resistant to penicillin and erythromycin, and contained a complement of chromosomal antimicrobial resistance genes similar to that of more recent isolates. Genomic islands gained in the S flexneri 2a lineage over time were predominately associated with additional antimicrobial resistances, virulence, and serotype conversion. Interpretation This S flexneri 2a lineage is a well adapted pathogen that has continued to respond to selective pressures. We have created a valuable historical benchmark for shigellae in the form of a high-quality reference sequence for a publicly available isolate. Funding The Wellcome Trust. PMID:25441199

  13. Poisson regression analysis of the mortality among a cohort of World War II nuclear industry workers

    SciTech Connect

    Frome, E.L.; Cragle, D.L.; McLain, R.W. )

    1990-08-01

    A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 28,008 white male employees who had worked for at least 1 month in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during World War II. The workers were employed at two plants that were producing enriched uranium and a research and development laboratory. Vital status was ascertained through 1980 for 98.1% of the cohort members and death certificates were obtained for 96.8% of the 11,671 decedents. A modified version of the traditional standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis was used to compare the cause-specific mortality experience of the World War II workers with the U.S. white male population. An SMR and a trend statistic were computed for each cause-of-death category for the 30-year interval from 1950 to 1980. The SMR for all causes was 1.11, and there was a significant upward trend of 0.74% per year. The excess mortality was primarily due to lung cancer and diseases of the respiratory system. Poisson regression methods were used to evaluate the influence of duration of employment, facility of employment, socioeconomic status, birth year, period of follow-up, and radiation exposure on cause-specific mortality. Maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in a main-effects model were obtained to describe the joint effects of these six factors on cause-specific mortality of the World War II workers. We show that these multivariate regression techniques provide a useful extension of conventional SMR analysis and illustrate their effective use in a large occupational cohort study.

  14. Lymphatic filariasis: disease outbreaks in military deployments from World War II.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Melrose, Wayne

    2005-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is the second most common parasitic disease worldwide, after malaria. It should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for military personnel returning from disease-endemic areas. Numerous outbreaks of LF have been reported in military deployments from World War II. In contrast to the presentation of LF in indigenous populations, which often involves such uncommon complications as elephantiasis and hydrocele, the clinical presentation of LF in military personnel can vary widely and is often vague and nondescript. Common symptoms are pain and swelling of the genitalia, closely followed by lymphangitis of the arms and legs. All three species produce similar disease.

  15. American Physicists, Nuclear Weapons in World War II, and Social Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2005-06-01

    Social responsibility in science has a centuries-long history, but it was such a minor thread that most scientists were unaware of the concept. Even toward the conclusion of the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapons, only a handful of its participants had some reservations about use of a weapon of mass destruction. But the explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki not only made society more aware of the importance of science, they made scientists more aware of their responsibility to society. I describe the development of the concept of social responsibility and its appearance among American scientists both before and after the end of World War II.

  16. [Brazilian Army nurses and transportation of the wounded: a challenge faced during World War II].

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded.

  17. [The Bulletin du cancer: the years before the First World War].

    PubMed

    Bernaudin, Jean-François

    2013-12-01

    Three years after its founding in 1909, the Association française pour l'étude du cancer is a major scientific society developing transdisciplinary debates particularly on innovative therapeutics in cancer, such as the developing use of radium. The Association at that time assembles together all the French medical elite. Reading the Bulletin offers a clear view of the brilliant monthly debates. First World War stopped the life of the Association for four years. After this break, the set up of dedicated centers for cancer treatment was responsible for a major turn in the Association's life.

  18. Venous envy: the post-World War II debate over IV nursing.

    PubMed

    Sandelowski, M

    1999-09-01

    After World War II, a debate ensued over whether nurses should perform intravenous (IV) therapy. The debate was resolved by permitting nurses to do venipunctures as physicians' agents and by recirculating the familiar tautology: if nurses were already doing venipunctures, they must be simple enough for nurses to do. The vein was a portal of entry for nurses, but one with limited access. What was ultimately ceded to nurses was not full jurisdiction over a domain of nursing practice, but rather a limited settlement in a domain of medical practice. The debate over IV therapy demonstrated how technology, in combination with ideology, can both create and destroy nursing jurisdictions.

  19. Meurice Sinclair CMG: a great benefactor of the wounded of the First World War.

    PubMed

    Austin, R T

    2009-05-01

    Major Meurice Sinclair was a Regular Army Medical Officer who revolutionised the management and treatment of gunshot fractures during the First World War, particularly those of the femur which carried the highest mortality. Not only did his methods reduce mortality but they increased the ease of nursing and hence the comfort of the wounded to a marked degree. His system of traction on the Thomas splint, in suspension, gained general acceptance such that he gave lectures and demonstrations to the medical officers of the allied forces, for which he was thrice mentioned in despatches and subsequently appointed CMG. Central to his method was the concentration of the fracture cases within certain hospitals to standardise and improve their management. This he was able to achieve through the good offices of Sir Almroth Wright who was Consultant Physician to the British Expeditionary Force. His methods reduced the death rate in open fractures of the femur from 80% generally, to 7.3% in his own hospital. He left a legacy that bore fruit both in the treatment of civilian fractures after the war but also in the second war of 1939-1945.

  20. Innovators, deep fermentation and antibiotics: promoting applied science before and after the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Bud, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The historiography of penicillin has tended to overlook the importance of developing and disseminating know-how in fermentation technology. A focus on this directs attention to work before the war of a network in the US and Europe concerned with the production of organic acids, particularly gluconic and citric acids. At the heart of this network was the German-Czech Konrad Bernhauer. Other members of the network were a group of chemists at the US Department of Agriculture who first recognized the production possibilities of penicillin. The Pfizer Corporation, which had recruited a leading Department of Agriculture scientist at the end of the First World War, was also an important centre of development as well as of production. However, in wartime Bernhauer was an active member of the SS and his work was not commemorated after his death in 1975. After the war new processes of fermentation were disseminated by penicillin pioneers such as Jackson Foster and Ernst Chain. Because of its commercial context his work was not well known. The conclusion of this paper is that the commercial context, on the one hand, and the Nazi associations of Bernhauer, on the other, have submerged the significance of know-how development in the history of penicillin.

  1. Microcosms of democracy: imagining the city neighborhood in World War II-era America.

    PubMed

    Looker, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches the rise of a Popular Front-inflected vision of the U.S. city neighborhood's meaning and worth, a communitarian ideal that reached its zenith during World War II before receding in the face of cold-war anxieties, postwar suburbanization, and trepidation over creeping blight. During the war years, numerous progressives interpreted the ethnic-accented urban neighborhood as place where national values became most concrete, casting it as a uniquely American rebuff to the fascist drive for purity. Elaborations appeared in the popular press's celebratory cadences, in writings by educators and social scientists such as Rachel DuBois and Louis Wirth, and in novels, plays, and musicals by Sholem Asch, Louis Hazam, Kurt Weill, Langston Hughes, and others. Each offered new ways for making sense of urban space, yet their works reveal contradictions and uncertainties, particularly in an inability to meld competing impulses toward assimilation and particularism. Building on the volume's theme "The Arts in Place," this essay examines these texts as a collective form of imaginative "placemaking." It explores the conflicted mode of liberal nationalism that took the polyglot city neighborhood as emblem. And it outlines the fissures embedded in that vision, which emerged more fully as the provisional wartime consensus dissolved.

  2. Microcosms of democracy: imagining the city neighborhood in World War II-era America.

    PubMed

    Looker, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches the rise of a Popular Front-inflected vision of the U.S. city neighborhood's meaning and worth, a communitarian ideal that reached its zenith during World War II before receding in the face of cold-war anxieties, postwar suburbanization, and trepidation over creeping blight. During the war years, numerous progressives interpreted the ethnic-accented urban neighborhood as place where national values became most concrete, casting it as a uniquely American rebuff to the fascist drive for purity. Elaborations appeared in the popular press's celebratory cadences, in writings by educators and social scientists such as Rachel DuBois and Louis Wirth, and in novels, plays, and musicals by Sholem Asch, Louis Hazam, Kurt Weill, Langston Hughes, and others. Each offered new ways for making sense of urban space, yet their works reveal contradictions and uncertainties, particularly in an inability to meld competing impulses toward assimilation and particularism. Building on the volume's theme "The Arts in Place," this essay examines these texts as a collective form of imaginative "placemaking." It explores the conflicted mode of liberal nationalism that took the polyglot city neighborhood as emblem. And it outlines the fissures embedded in that vision, which emerged more fully as the provisional wartime consensus dissolved. PMID:21197806

  3. Modern Physics, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Kenneth S.

    1995-08-01

    Bring Modern Physics to Life with a Realistic Software Simulation! Enhance the thorough coverage of Krane's Modern Physics 2e with hands-on, real-world experience! Modern Physics Simulations, developed by the Consortium for Upper-Level Physics Software (CUPS), offers complex, realistic calculations of models of various physical systems. Like all of the CUPS simulations, it is remarkably easy to use, yet sophisticated enough for explorations of new ideas. Important Features Include: * Powerful simulations covering Historic Experiments in Electron Diffraction, Laser Cavities & Dynamics, Classical Scattering, Nuclear Properties & Decays, Special Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, and the Hydrogen Atom & the H2+ Molecule. * Pascal source code for all programs and a number of exercises suggesting specific ways the programs can be modified. * Graphical (often animated) displays in most simulations. The entire CUPS simulation series consists of nine books/software simulations which cover Astrophysics, Electricity and Magnetism, Classical Mechanics, Modern Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Solid State Physics, Thermal and Statistical Physics, and Waves and Optics.

  4. Responses to occupational and environmental exposures in the U.S. military--World War II to the present.

    PubMed

    Richards, Erin E

    2011-07-01

    Since the Civil War, a proportion of U.S. service members continues to return from war with new health problems and continues to reference battlefield exposures as the cause. Hence, one of the most pressing public health debates in military policy, the determination of causality and linking of battlefield exposures to health outcomes in veterans, continues. The advances in military environmental and occupational epidemiologic research and Department of Defense policy concerning battlefield exposures are summarized and examples from World War II through the first Gulf War are provided. The limitations associated with the unique battlefield environment, multiple environmental exposures, and the inherent stresses of war, beget challenges for researchers responsible for determining causality. In light of these difficulties, six strategies for addressing environmental exposures and their possible impact on veterans were recommended by the Institute of Medicine post Operation Desert Storm. These strategies, along with their respective progress and remaining gaps, are addressed.

  5. Post-Cold War Social Studies: Some Ideas for Changing the Way Students Think about the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the end of the Cold War and new world realities present challenges to social studies teachers. Presents suggestions for helping students change their way of thinking about the world and the place of the United States within it. Encourages teachers to examine the existing social studies curriculum for relevance. (CFR)

  6. The ten most important changes in psychiatry since World War II.

    PubMed

    Micale, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Writing the recent history of a subject is notoriously difficult because of the lack of perspective and impartiality. One way to gain insight and understanding into the recent past of a discipline of knowledge is to consult directly the living practitioners who actually experienced first-hand the major changing circumstances in the discipline during the period under study. This article seeks to explore the most significant changes occurring in Western, and especially American, psychiatry from the end of World War II up to the present by interrogating a representative selection of psychiatrists and psychologists about the subject. Over a three-year period, the author surveyed approximately 200 mental health experts on their perceptions of change in the world of psychiatric theory and practice during this enormously eventful 70-year period. After presenting the survey results, the article then attempts to analyse the answers that the author did (and did not) obtain from his poll-taking subjects. PMID:25395447

  7. The ten most important changes in psychiatry since World War II.

    PubMed

    Micale, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Writing the recent history of a subject is notoriously difficult because of the lack of perspective and impartiality. One way to gain insight and understanding into the recent past of a discipline of knowledge is to consult directly the living practitioners who actually experienced first-hand the major changing circumstances in the discipline during the period under study. This article seeks to explore the most significant changes occurring in Western, and especially American, psychiatry from the end of World War II up to the present by interrogating a representative selection of psychiatrists and psychologists about the subject. Over a three-year period, the author surveyed approximately 200 mental health experts on their perceptions of change in the world of psychiatric theory and practice during this enormously eventful 70-year period. After presenting the survey results, the article then attempts to analyse the answers that the author did (and did not) obtain from his poll-taking subjects.

  8. [The flu epidemic after World War I and homeopathy--an international comparison].

    PubMed

    Jahn, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    The "Spanish Flu" began in 1918 and was the most devastating pandemic in human history that had ever been, claiming more lives than World War I. The flu virus had not yet been discovered, and the usual therapy measures were merely symptomatic. In many parts of the world the pandemic was treated by homeopaths. At the time, homeopathic medical practices, out-patient clinics and hospitals existed in various countries. To this day homeopaths refer to the successful homeopathic treatment of the "Spanish Flu". The following paper looks at what this treatment consisted in and whether it was based on a particular concept. It also examines contemporary evaluations and figures, as well as the question as to whether homeopathy experienced a rise in demand as a consequence of its success during the pandemic.

  9. First World War German soldier intestinal worms: an original study of a trench latrine in France.

    PubMed

    Le Bailly, M; Landolt, M; Bouchet, F

    2012-12-01

    For the first time in the study of ancient parasites, analyses were carried out on samples taken from a First World War settlement in France (Geispolsheim, region of Alsace). Microscopic examination of sediment samples revealed the presence of 3 common human parasites, i.e., Trichuris trichiura , Ascaris lumbricoides , and Taenia sp. A review of paleoparasitological studies in Europe shows that these 3 parasites have infected humanity for centuries. Despite this recurrence, literature shows that knowledge regarding many helminths was limited, and their life cycles were only relatively recently elucidated. Finally, the present study provides additional information about the health of the German soldiers and the sanitary conditions in the trenches during the first modern world conflict.

  10. Exploring the city of Rubble: botanical fieldwork in bombed cities in Germany after World War II.

    PubMed

    Lachmund, Jens

    2003-01-01

    In recent decades, the flora and fuana of cities have become the objects of the inter-disciplinary research field of urban ecology and related policies of urban nature conservation. Although the term "urban ecology" is quite recent, it is argued in this paper that the formation of urban nature as an object of ecological knowledge has a much longer history. For example, in Germany, after World War II, the large rubble areas that existed in all bombed cities soon became important research fields for botanists studying plant migration and vegetation development in the context of the city. This paper uses the case of these botanical research activities to shed light on the historical origins of ecological thinking about nature in the city. Drawing upon a socio-spatial approach to science and practice, the paper explores the interaction between the social and material order of the city and the formation of ecological knowledge. As will be shown, botanists studying the rubble areas created various representations (e.g., lists, statistical tabulations, maps) of urban space that contributed to the transformation of the cultural and political meaning of urban wastelands. At the same time, it will be argued, urban wastelands were practically appropriated as scientific workplaces in which these representations were locally crafted. What later became the science and politics of urban ecology is to a large extent the outcome of this mutual shaping of knowledge and urban space in the post-Second World War period. PMID:12966933

  11. DNA Identification of Skeletal Remains from World War II Mass Graves Uncovered in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Damir; Durmić-Pašić, Adaleta; Bakal, Narcisa; Haverić, Sanin; Kalamujić, Belma; Kovačević, Lejla; Ramić, Jasmin; Pojskić, Naris; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Bajrović, Kasim; Hadžiselimović, Rifat; Drobnič, Katja; Huffine, Ed; Davoren, Jon; Primorac, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present the joint effort of three institutions in the identification of human remains from the World War II found in two mass graves in the area of Škofja Loka, Slovenia. Methods The remains of 27 individuals were found in two small and closely located mass graves. The DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using either standard phenol/chloroform alcohol extraction or optimized Qiagen DNA extraction procedure. Some recovered samples required the employment of additional DNA purification methods, such as N-buthanol treatment. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex 16 kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using the DNA View program. Results Out of all processed samples, 15 remains were fully profiled at all 15 STR loci. The other 12 profiles were partial. The least successful profile included 13 loci. Also, 69 referent samples (buccal swabs) from potential living relatives were collected and profiled. Comparison of victims' profile against referent samples database resulted in 4 strong matches. In addition, 5 other profiles were matched to certain referent samples with lower probability. Conclusion Our results show that more than 6 decades after the end of the World War II, DNA analysis may significantly contribute to the identification of the remains from that period. Additional analysis of Y-STRs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers will be performed in the second phase of the identification project. PMID:17696306

  12. Half a Man: The Symbolism and Science of Paraplegic Impotence in World War II America.

    PubMed

    Linker, Beth; Laemmli, Whitney

    2015-01-01

    At the conclusion of the Second World War, more than 600,000 men returned to the United States with long-term disabilities, profoundly destabilizing the definitions, representations, and experiences of male sexuality in America. By examining an oft-neglected 1950 film, The Men, along with medical, personal, and popular accounts of impotence in paralyzed World War II veterans, this essay excavates the contours of that change and its attendant anxieties. While previous scholarship on film and sexuality in the postwar period has focused on women's experiences, we broaden the analytical lens to provide a fuller picture of the various meanings of male sexuality, especially disabled heterosexuality. In postwar America, the paralyzed veteran created a temporary fissure in conventional discussions of the gendered body, a moment when the "normality" and performative features of the male body could not be assumed but rather had to be actively defined. To many veterans, and to the medical men who treated them, sexual reproduction--not function-became the ultimate signifier of remasculinization.

  13. [The struggle against malaria in the Ottoman Empire during World War I and the legal regulations made to this end].

    PubMed

    Koylu, Zafer; Doğan, Nihal

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important disadvantages of war environmental is infectious diseases. The Ottoman Empire combated infectious diseases in addition to the war because of Balkan wars and afterwards first world war. Because of increasing migrations to Anatolia after Balkan wars spread some epidemic diseases, such as cholera, typhoid fever, plaque, dysentery, syphilis. With the start of the First World War, malaria began to spread within civilian population as well as the military. The population fell from power because of illness and therefore could not process the land tax failed to pay taxes. Founded in 1914 with the fight against epidemic diseases was initiated by the Sıhhiye ministry. Quinine was formed as tablets which was imported from Germany by legal regulation and was distributed to the public by Ziraat Bank. However, malaria epidemic could not be prevented because of long war years, lack of population, insufficiency of the preventive methods and lack of quinine, and about three quarters of the population caught malaria and in four years 412.000 soldiers had malaria and 20.000 of them died despite of measures.

  14. Blood transfusion at the time of the First World War--practice and promise at the birth of transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Boulton, F; Roberts, D J

    2014-12-01

    The centenary of the start of the First World War has stirred considerable interest in the political, social, military and human factors of the time and how they interacted to produce and sustain the material and human destruction in the 4 years of the war and beyond. Medical practice may appear distant and static and perhaps seems to have been somewhat ineffectual in the face of so much trauma and in the light of the enormous advances in medicine and surgery over the last century. However, this is an illusion of time and of course medical, surgical and psychiatric knowledge and procedures were developing rapidly at the time and the war years accelerated implementation of many important advances. Transfusion practice lay at the heart of resuscitation, and although direct transfusion from donor to recipient was still used, Geoffrey Keynes from Britain, Oswald Robertson from America and his namesake Lawrence Bruce Robertson from Canada, developed methods for indirect transfusion from donor to recipient by storing blood in bottles and also blood-banking that laid the foundation of modern transfusion medicine. This review explores the historical setting behind the development of blood transfusion up to the start of the First World War and on how they progressed during the war and afterwards. A fresh look may renew interest in how a novel medical speciality responded to the needs of war and of post-war society.

  15. Women and work after the Second World War: a case study of the jute industry, circa 1945-1954.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Carlo; Tomlinson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the attempts by the Dundee jute industry to recruit women workers in the years circa 1945-1954. It locates its discussion of these attempts in the literature on the impact of the Second World War on the participation of women in the British labour market more generally, and the forces determining that participation. It stresses the peculiarities of jute as a traditional major employer of women operating in very specific market conditions, but suggests that this case study throws light on the broader argument about the impact of war and early post-war conditions on women's participation in paid work.

  16. Major Harvey Cushing's difficulties with the British and American armies during World War I.

    PubMed

    Carey, Michael E

    2014-08-01

    This historical review explores Harvey Cushing's difficulties with both the British and American armies during his World War I service to definitively examine the rumor of his possible court martial. It also provides a further understanding of Cushing the man. While in France during World War I, Cushing was initially assigned to British hospital units. This service began in May 1917 and ended abruptly in May 1918 when the British cashiered him for repeated censorship violations. Returning to American command, he feared court martial. The army file on this matter (retrieved from the United States National Archives) indicates that US Army authorities recommended that Cushing be reprimanded and returned to the US for his violations. The army carried out neither recommendation, and no evidence exists that a court martial was considered. Cushing's army career and possible future academic life were protected by the actions of his surgical peers and Merritte Ireland, Chief Surgeon of the US Army in France. After this censorship episode, Cushing was made a neurosurgical consultant but was also sternly warned that further rule violations would not be tolerated by the US Army. Thereafter, despite the onset of a severe peripheral neuropathy, probably Guillian Barré's syndrome, Cushing was indefatigable in ministering to neurosurgical needs in the US sector in France. Cushing's repeated defying of censorship regulations reveals poor judgment plus an initial inability to be a "team player." The explanations he offered for his censorship violations showed an ability to bend the truth. Cushing's war journal is unclear as to exactly what transpired between him and the British and US armies. It also shows no recognition of the help he received from others who were instrumental in preventing his ignominious removal from service in France. Had that happened, his academic future and ability to train future neurosurgical leaders may have been seriously threatened. Cushing's foibles

  17. Major Harvey Cushing's difficulties with the British and American armies during World War I.

    PubMed

    Carey, Michael E

    2014-08-01

    This historical review explores Harvey Cushing's difficulties with both the British and American armies during his World War I service to definitively examine the rumor of his possible court martial. It also provides a further understanding of Cushing the man. While in France during World War I, Cushing was initially assigned to British hospital units. This service began in May 1917 and ended abruptly in May 1918 when the British cashiered him for repeated censorship violations. Returning to American command, he feared court martial. The army file on this matter (retrieved from the United States National Archives) indicates that US Army authorities recommended that Cushing be reprimanded and returned to the US for his violations. The army carried out neither recommendation, and no evidence exists that a court martial was considered. Cushing's army career and possible future academic life were protected by the actions of his surgical peers and Merritte Ireland, Chief Surgeon of the US Army in France. After this censorship episode, Cushing was made a neurosurgical consultant but was also sternly warned that further rule violations would not be tolerated by the US Army. Thereafter, despite the onset of a severe peripheral neuropathy, probably Guillian Barré's syndrome, Cushing was indefatigable in ministering to neurosurgical needs in the US sector in France. Cushing's repeated defying of censorship regulations reveals poor judgment plus an initial inability to be a "team player." The explanations he offered for his censorship violations showed an ability to bend the truth. Cushing's war journal is unclear as to exactly what transpired between him and the British and US armies. It also shows no recognition of the help he received from others who were instrumental in preventing his ignominious removal from service in France. Had that happened, his academic future and ability to train future neurosurgical leaders may have been seriously threatened. Cushing's foibles

  18. PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The "PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework, 2nd Edition" provides the foundation for the three international assessments planned as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016: PIRLS, PIRLS Literacy, and ePIRLS. PIRLS represents the…

  19. Domestic residence to multi-storey building. The lived experience of hospital grounds in Melbourne before World War II.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Anne

    2012-09-01

    Hospital grounds in Melbourne, Australia, before World War I resembled imposing residential sites with grand mansions surrounded by shrubberies, circular drives and tennis courts. By World War II hospitals had become multi-storey buildings surrounded by car parks and grass. Although there have been numerous studies that link the changing built environment of hospitals to social, medical and architectural narratives, there has been little emphasis on the impact of these changes on the experience of the hospital as a place, and its identity as an institution. The broader meanings for staff and patients are not explored. This paper then investigates the outdoor grounds of hospitals as places before World War II in Melbourne, Australia. This analysis illuminates a hitherto neglected aspect of hospital history that not only enriches an understanding of this period but provides insights into the role of outdoor grounds that has implications for twenty-first century hospitals. PMID:22796371

  20. Domestic residence to multi-storey building. The lived experience of hospital grounds in Melbourne before World War II.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Anne

    2012-09-01

    Hospital grounds in Melbourne, Australia, before World War I resembled imposing residential sites with grand mansions surrounded by shrubberies, circular drives and tennis courts. By World War II hospitals had become multi-storey buildings surrounded by car parks and grass. Although there have been numerous studies that link the changing built environment of hospitals to social, medical and architectural narratives, there has been little emphasis on the impact of these changes on the experience of the hospital as a place, and its identity as an institution. The broader meanings for staff and patients are not explored. This paper then investigates the outdoor grounds of hospitals as places before World War II in Melbourne, Australia. This analysis illuminates a hitherto neglected aspect of hospital history that not only enriches an understanding of this period but provides insights into the role of outdoor grounds that has implications for twenty-first century hospitals.

  1. In the shadow of giants: Superpower arms transfers and Third World conflict during the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    This is an investigation of the impact of superpower arms transfers on interstate rivalry in the Third World during the Cold War. The study is anchored in a theoretical framework which conceives of interstate rivalry as the basis for the development of security complexes in the international system. In the case of Third World rivalries, these security complexes tend to be local in scope. The superpower security complex was global. The theoretical framework emphasizes the tendency of one security complex to encroach upon another. This study focuses on the extent to which the Cold War was externalized through the process of superpower arms transfers to local rivals. The empirical investigation consists of statistical analysis of four enduring rivalries in the Third World: those between the Arab states and Israel, Iran and Iraq, India and Pakistan, and Ethiopia and Somalia. The author employs a time-series methodology - vector autoregression - which permits a rather rigorous discrimination between cause and effect. A rigorous methodology is essential to decipher the relationship between arms transfer and interstate conflict since there is reason to suspect that causality may be mutual. Historical narratives for each of of the four rivalries facilitate an interpretation of the statistical results, but also serve to highlight anomalies. The results suggest that the impact of superpower arms transfers was most pronounced in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf. Soviet arms transfers to Egypt and Syria tended to exacerbate the Arab-Israeli rivalry. In the case of the Iran-Iraq rivalry, it was American arms transfers to Iran that were influential, but the effect appears to have been a restraining one. An action-reaction dynamic in superpower arms transfers is evident in both these cases. The statistical results are not enlightening for either the India-Pakistan or Ethiopia-Somalia rivalries. Some theoretical refinements to the security-complexes framework are suggested.

  2. [Dr. Elizabeth Ross: heroine and victim of the World War I in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Mikić, Želimir; Lešić, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of 1915, several months after the World War I started, Serbia was in an extremely difficult situation.The country was war-ravaged, full of sick and wounded soldiers, there was a desperate shortage of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel, and the epidemic of typhus fever exploded and violently attacked the entire country. At that time, however, a number of both foreign allied medical missions and individual volunteers, from various countries, mostly from Great Britain, came to Serbia to help. Among them mostly were women, and they were of enormous support to Serbia in that grave situation. It is estimated that there were more than 600 foreign women volunteers in Serbia at that time and that 22 of them died there. Dr. Elizabeth Ross was one of those brave volunteers who came to Serbia early in 1915. That noble Scottish lady doctor was born in 1878 and finished her medical studies at the University of Glasgow in 1901. After graduation she worked in various places in Great Britain until 1909, when she went to Persia (Iran), where she worked until the beginning of the so called Great War. When she heard of the urgent need in Serbia she left Persia as soon as she could and volunteered to serve in Serbia. She came to Kragujevac at the beginning of January 1915, where she worked at the First Military Reserve Hospital, which at that time was actually a typhus hospital. Working there intensively and devotedly for several weeks under shocking conditions she contracted typhus herself and died there on her 37th birthday on February 14th, 1915. She was buried in Kragujevac, next to two British ladies who also died in Serbia of typhus. Her grave was restored in 1980 when the town of Kragujevac started holding commemorations at the graveside every February 14th at noon to honor her and all other brave and noble women who lost their lives helping Serbia at that unfortunate time.

  3. Modern pentathlon and the First World War: when athletes and soldiers met to practise martial manliness.

    PubMed

    Heck, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    In the nationalistic atmosphere of the early twentieth century, a nurturing medium for sports practising martial manliness abounded throughout Europe. This framework supported the invention of a new multi-disciplinary sport, aided by Baron Pierre de Coubertin himself: modern pentathlon. Though the idea of a new form of pentathlon was already born in 1894, it took 30 years, until Paris 1924, to establish modern pentathlon within the Olympic Games. This study is concerned with the reasons for that delay. It will be assessed whether the active military preparations around the First World War and the contemporary image of masculinity had a decisive influence on the early history of modern pentathlon. By including historical documents from the IOC archives in Lausanne, Switzerland, the research office for military history in Potsdam, Germany, and the LA84 Foundation in Los Angeles, USA, as well as literature on gender, military sport and Olympic history, this study offers an entirely new view on the early history of a sport that was born in an atmosphere of glorifying manliness and apparent militarism. The history of modern pentathlon thereby provides a particularly appropriate area for the analysis of connections between sport, militarism and masculinity. It was not by chance that the implementation of a combined sport, which included besides swimming and running the three military disciplines of shooting, fencing and horse riding, arose in a pre-war context. Though in 1912 the Great War had not yet begun, the awareness of an upcoming battle was rising and led to a higher attention to Coubertin's almost forgotten assumption of a new sport. In 1924 the advantages were finally admitted on two sides: the army recruited modern pentathletes as future military officers; the sports community appointed skilled officers as successful competitors. Thus the lobby for an Olympic recognition of modern pentathlon was found.

  4. [Russian physicians during first months of the Great War (to 100th anniversary of the beginning of the First World War)].

    PubMed

    Gribovskaia, G A

    2014-08-01

    At the beginning of the First World War professor and surgeon S.R. Mitotvortsev was appointed as a Chief Expert - Surgeon of the Western Front, there in Lyublyana he faced with difficulties such as organization of health care delivery and treatment of wounded soldiers. In the following, organized by Mirotvortsev team served in Novaya Aleksandriya, Ivan-Gorod, Radom and other towns of the Western Front. This team was named as "Collecting dressing station of professor S.R.Mirotvortsev".

  5. World War II and other historical influences on the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society.

    PubMed

    Waterson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.

  6. The role of the media in influencing public attitudes to penicillin during World War II.

    PubMed

    Shama, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Penicillin's trajectory towards becoming an effective antibacterial chemotherapeutic agent took place during World War II. Its strategic military value was immediately recognised by the Allies, and mass production was undertaken with the prime objective of meeting the needs of the armed forces. News of its development came to be widely reported on in the media and is examined here. These reports frequently combined accounts of penicillin's prodigious clinical effectiveness with the fact that it was to remain unavailable to the civilian population essentially until the war had ended. More penicillin was to be made available to the civilian population in the United States than in Britain, but the sense that it was severely rationed remained as high. It was in response to this that the idea of "homemade penicillin" was hatched. News of this was also widely promulgated by both the British and American media. Although the numbers treated with penicillin produced in this way was never to be significant, knowledge of the existence of such endeavours may have served to assuage in some measure the feelings of frustration felt by the civilian population at penicillin's non-availability. PMID:26012339

  7. Ultrasound and computed tomography: spin-offs of the world wars.

    PubMed

    Van Tiggelen, R; Pouders, E

    2003-01-01

    Important losses to the ships of the allied troops by the attacks of the German submarines during World War I led researchers to find specific detecting devices as a means of defence. In 1880 Pierre Curie and his brother, discovered the production of ultrasound waves. Langevin, their student, applied this invention to the localisation of boats. At the end of WWI, research and results ended up being forgotten, but gained attention again with the sonar when WWII loomed on the horizon. At the end of the war, a former military medical doctor, G. Ludwig (US Navy), tried to localize gallstones with a left-over sonar apparatus. This definitely led to firm conclusions. Other researchers in several countries contributed to refining this new imaging technique which is nowadays widely applied. During WWII, the American and British army developed considerable research in the field of the calculator (computer) to speed up deciphering the secret codes. Coupling the principles of tomography discovered during WWI with the computing capability of the calculators developed during WWII, computerized axial tomography could be obtained. This new technology, which is used daily, probably is one of the greatest acquisitions of the 20th century in the field of medical imaging.

  8. Use of medical and mental health care by World War II survivors in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bramsen, I; van der Ploeg, H M

    1999-04-01

    This study examined the mental and medical health care utilization of World War II (WW II) survivors and the characteristics of survivors seeking professional health care. Forty seven years after the end of WW II, a random sample of 4,057 Dutch WW II survivors answered a four-page questionnaire; 1,461 persons subsequently answered an extensive follow-up questionnaire. Twenty-two percent had sought some form of health care for war-related complaints at some time since WW II. Most consultations were made in the 1940s. More consultations were made to general practitioners or to medical specialists as opposed to mental health specialists. Although the level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was most important for discriminating between help-seeking and non-help-seeking respondents, 59% of the highly-exposed respondents with PTSD had not sought professional help in the years 1990-1992. The results show the importance of primary health care in recognizing PTSD symptoms and referring survivors to the appropriate professional helper.

  9. The centenary of the discovery of trench fever, an emerging infectious disease of World War 1.

    PubMed

    Anstead, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    In 1915, a British medical officer on the Western Front reported on a soldier with relapsing fever, headache, dizziness, lumbago, and shin pain. Within months, additional cases were described, mostly in frontline troops, and the new disease was called trench fever. More than 1 million troops were infected with trench fever during World War 1, with each affected soldier unfit for duty for more than 60 days. Diagnosis was challenging, because there were no pathognomonic signs and symptoms and the causative organism could not be cultured. For 3 years, the transmission and cause of trench fever were hotly debated. In 1918, two commissions identified that the disease was louse-borne. The bacterium Rickettsia quintana was consistently found in the gut and faeces of lice that had fed on patients with trench fever and its causative role was accepted in the 1920s. The organism was cultured in the 1960s and reclassified as Bartonella quintana; it was also found to cause endocarditis, peliosis hepatis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Subsequently, B quintana infection has been identified in new populations in the Andes, in homeless people in urban areas, and in individuals with HIV. The story of trench fever shows how war can lead to the recrudescence of an infectious disease and how medicine approached an emerging infection a century ago.

  10. Publications on Peripheral Nerve Injuries during World War I: A Dramatic Increase in Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Publications from French (Jules Tinel and Chiriachitza Athanassio-Bénisty), English (James Purves-Stewart, Arthur Henry Evans and Hartley Sidney Carter), German (Otfrid Foerster and Hermann Oppenheim) and American (Charles Harrison Frazier and Byron Stookey) physicians from both sides of the front during World War I (WWI) contributed to a dramatic increase in knowledge about peripheral nerve injuries. Silas Weir Mitchell's original experience with respect to these injuries, and particularly causalgia, during the American Civil War was further expanded in Europe during WWI. Following the translation of one of his books, he was referred to mainly by French physicians. During WWI, several French books were in turn translated into English, which influenced American physicians, as was observed in the case of Byron Stookey. The establishment of neurological centres played an important role in the concentration of experience and knowledge. Several eponyms originated during this period (including the Hoffmann-Tinel sign and the Froment sign). Electrodiagnostic tools were increasingly used. PMID:27035152

  11. Meteorologists from the University of Tokyo: Their Exodus to the United States Following World War II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, John M.

    1993-07-01

    The emigration of 11 young Japanese meteorologists to the United States following World War II is investigated. Their move is examined with the benefit of a historical backdrop that includes a study of the socioeconomic conditions in Japan and the education that they received at the University of Tokyo. Oral histories and letters of reminiscence from these scientists are used with standard source material to reconstruct the conditions of postwar Japan. The principal results of the study are that 1) these scientists were among the intellectual elite, because of the rigorous screening process in the Japanese educational system; 2) their scientific education was fundamentally grounded in traditional physics and a wide range of geophysical sciences; 3) they all experienced austere living conditions and poor job prospects in the war-torn Japanese economy; and 4) they made a strong scientific connection with U.S. researchers in the areas of numerical experimentation and numerical weather prediction, which facilitated their move to the United States.

  12. Shooting disabled soldiers: medicine and photography in World War I America.

    PubMed

    Linker, Beth

    2011-07-01

    This article challenges conventional theories about the role of medical photography in the early twentieth century. Some scholars argue that the camera intensified the Foucauldian medical gaze, reducing patients to mere pathologies. Others maintain that with the rise of the new modern hospital and its state-of-the-art technologies, the patient fell from view entirely, with apertures pointing toward streamlined operating rooms rather than the human subjects who would go under the knife. The Army Surgeon General's World War I rehabilitation journal, Carry On: A Magazine on the Reconstruction of Disabled Soldiers and Sailors, problematizes these assumptions. Hoping to persuade a skeptical public that the Army's new programs in medical rehabilitation for disabled soldiers provided the best means of veteran welfare, the editorial officials at Carry On photographed patients fully clothed, wounds hidden, engaged in everyday activities in order to give the impression that the medical sciences of the day could cure permanent disabilities. In the end, Carry On shows us that medical doctors could, and did, use photography to conceal as well as reveal the reality faced by injured soldiers. In doing so, they (like other Progressive reformers at the time) hoped to persuade the public that rehabilitation had the power to make the wounds of war disappear.

  13. Science with a vengeance: How the Military created the US Space Sciences after World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devorkin, David H.

    The exploration of the upper atmosphere was given a jump start in the United States by German V-2 rockets - Hitler's "vengeance weapon" - captured at the end of World War II. The science performed with these missiles was largely determined by the missile itself, such as learning more about the medium through which a ballistic missile travels. Groups rapidly formed within the military and military-funded university laboratories to build instruments to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere, the nature of cosmic radiation, and the ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun. Few, if any, members of these research groups had prior experience or demonstrated interests in atmospheric, cosmic-ray, or solar physics. Although scientific agendas were at first centered on what could be done with missiles and how to make ballistic missile systems work, reports on techniques and results were widely publicized as the research groups and their patrons sought scientific legitimacy and learned how to make their science an integral part of the national security state. The process by which these groups gained scientific and institutional authority was far from straightforward and offers useful insight both for the historian and for the scientist concerned with how specialties born within the military services became part of post-war American science.

  14. The role of the media in influencing public attitudes to penicillin during World War II.

    PubMed

    Shama, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Penicillin's trajectory towards becoming an effective antibacterial chemotherapeutic agent took place during World War II. Its strategic military value was immediately recognised by the Allies, and mass production was undertaken with the prime objective of meeting the needs of the armed forces. News of its development came to be widely reported on in the media and is examined here. These reports frequently combined accounts of penicillin's prodigious clinical effectiveness with the fact that it was to remain unavailable to the civilian population essentially until the war had ended. More penicillin was to be made available to the civilian population in the United States than in Britain, but the sense that it was severely rationed remained as high. It was in response to this that the idea of "homemade penicillin" was hatched. News of this was also widely promulgated by both the British and American media. Although the numbers treated with penicillin produced in this way was never to be significant, knowledge of the existence of such endeavours may have served to assuage in some measure the feelings of frustration felt by the civilian population at penicillin's non-availability.

  15. The American nursing shortage during World War I: the debate over the use of nurses' aids.

    PubMed

    Telford, Jennifer Casavant

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the history of the creation of the Army and Navy Female Nurse Corps and the debate that ensued between American nursing leaders Jane Delano, director of the Red Cross Nursing Service, M. Adelaide Nutting, president of the American Federation of Nurses, and Annie Goodrich, dean of the Army School of Nursing, over the use of untrained nurses' aids to offset the nursing shortage that resulted from the United States entry into the Great War in 1917. The recruitment of minimally or untrained nurses' aids to offset the nursing shortage of the World War I era was a logical solution for American nursing leaders who had to meet the needs for nursing personnel. The exclusion of trained African American nurses, however, was a gross oversight on the part of these leaders. Whether or not this action compromised the status of nursing as a profession is still a matter of interest. Moreover, the debate about the delivery of care by unlicensed personnel continues.

  16. How the field of thyroid endocrinology developed in France after World War II.

    PubMed

    Fragu, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    This microhistory analyzes the transformation of French medical practice after World War II. Before the 1940s, coordinated clinical and experimental studies on a patient with thyroid disease were nonexistent. Starting in 1945, thyroid endocrinology was pushed forward by the use of radioiodine, which led pediatricians to rethink the hereditary transmission of thyroid diseases, stimulated by the school of biochemistry headed by Jean Roche, who participated in the elucidation of thyroid-hormone metabolism. Roche knew how to listen to hospital clinicians, who, in return, gave him free access to patients to conduct investigations on thyroid metabolism. Radioiodine proved to be sufficiently flexible to respond to the respective information needs of clinicians and biochemists, and was also responsible for the profound transformation of scientific reasoning: the chemical framework that had dominated thyroid studies since the discovery of thyroid iodine (1896) was replaced by the hormone paradigm. PMID:12955965

  17. [Chronic CO poisoning. Use of generator gas during the second world war and recent research].

    PubMed

    Tvedt, B; Kjuus, H

    1997-06-30

    The consequences of long-lasting and low-grade exposure to carbon monoxide are a matter of debate. During the second world war, lack of petrol led to widespread use of wood as fuel (generator gas vehicles), especially in the Nordic countries. This caused many cases of "acute" or "chronic" carbon monoxide poisoning. Typical symptoms of "chronic poisoning" were headache, dizziness and tiredness. Usually the symptoms disappeared after some weeks or month, but in some patients probably became permanent. The experiences from the generator gas era are now almost forgotten, and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning is easily overlooked. The authors describe two cases of such poisoning. A crane driver at a smelting works developed permanent symptoms after twenty years of exposure. A faulty oil-fired central heating system caused long-lasting symptoms in four members of a family.

  18. Some lessons from NACA/NASA aerodynamic studies following World War II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    An historical account is presented of the new departures in aerodynamic research conducted by NACA, and subsequently NASA, as a result of novel aircraft technologies and operational regimes encountered in the course of the Second World War. The invention and initial development of the turbojet engine furnished the basis for a new speed/altitude regime in which numerous aerodynamic design problems arose. These included compressibility effects near the speed of sound, with attendant lift/drag efficiency reductions and longitudinal stability enhancements that were accompanied by a directional stability reduction. Major research initiatives were mounted in the investigation of swept, delta, trapezoidal and variable sweep wing configurations, sometimes conducted through flight testing of the 'X-series' aircraft. Attention is also given to the development of the first generation of supersonic fighter aircraft.

  19. Rethinking antibiotic research and development: World War II and the penicillin collaborative.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Roswell

    2013-03-01

    Policy leaders and public health experts may be overlooking effective ways to stimulate innovative antibiotic research and development. I analyzed archival resources concerning the US government's efforts to produce penicillin during World War II, which demonstrate how much science policy can differ from present approaches. By contrast to current attempts to invigorate commercial participation in antibiotic development, the effort to develop the first commercially produced antibiotic did not rely on economic enticements or the further privatization of scientific resources. Rather, this extremely successful scientific and, ultimately, commercial endeavor was rooted in government stewardship, intraindustry cooperation, and the open exchange of scientific information. For policymakers facing the problem of stimulating antibiotic research and development, the origins of the antibiotic era offer a template for effective policy solutions that concentrate primarily on scientific rather than commercial goals.

  20. Cushing and the treatment of brain wounds during World War I.

    PubMed

    Carey, Michael E

    2011-06-01

    Harvey Cushing, perhaps the most important founder of American neurosurgery, was an Army neurosurgeon in France from 1917 to 1918. Over a 3-month period in 1917 he and his team operated on 133 soldiers with a brain wound. The operative mortality rate for their last 45 patients was 29%, considerably lower than the usual postoperative mortality rate of approximately 50% for those with a brain wound. This accomplishment was lauded at the time and eventually, for some, it was Cushing who was responsible for lowering the postoperative mortality rate of brain wounds during World War I. As the decades passed he was eventually credited as the "originator of brain wound care." This report shows that these attributions are misplaced. Cushing merely followed the enlightened surgical precepts of the time developed by Continental (European) surgeons. It also examines Cushing's writings to ascertain how these misperceptions concerning his originality might have been generated.

  1. Cushing and the treatment of brain wounds during World War I.

    PubMed

    Carey, Michael E

    2011-06-01

    Harvey Cushing, perhaps the most important founder of American neurosurgery, was an Army neurosurgeon in France from 1917 to 1918. Over a 3-month period in 1917 he and his team operated on 133 soldiers with a brain wound. The operative mortality rate for their last 45 patients was 29%, considerably lower than the usual postoperative mortality rate of approximately 50% for those with a brain wound. This accomplishment was lauded at the time and eventually, for some, it was Cushing who was responsible for lowering the postoperative mortality rate of brain wounds during World War I. As the decades passed he was eventually credited as the "originator of brain wound care." This report shows that these attributions are misplaced. Cushing merely followed the enlightened surgical precepts of the time developed by Continental (European) surgeons. It also examines Cushing's writings to ascertain how these misperceptions concerning his originality might have been generated. PMID:21351834

  2. Rethinking Antibiotic Research and Development: World War II and the Penicillin Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Policy leaders and public health experts may be overlooking effective ways to stimulate innovative antibiotic research and development. I analyzed archival resources concerning the US government’s efforts to produce penicillin during World War II, which demonstrate how much science policy can differ from present approaches. By contrast to current attempts to invigorate commercial participation in antibiotic development, the effort to develop the first commercially produced antibiotic did not rely on economic enticements or the further privatization of scientific resources. Rather, this extremely successful scientific and, ultimately, commercial endeavor was rooted in government stewardship, intraindustry cooperation, and the open exchange of scientific information. For policymakers facing the problem of stimulating antibiotic research and development, the origins of the antibiotic era offer a template for effective policy solutions that concentrate primarily on scientific rather than commercial goals. PMID:22698031

  3. [Public health in Poland before World War II--lesson learned].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the most important legal acts regulating the activities of the institutions of public health in interwar period in Poland. Particular attention was paid to the Ministry of Public Health, municipal boards, the Office of the Extraordinary Commissioner for Combating Epidemics and the National Institute of Hygiene. The substantive scope of the Basic Sanitary Act of 19 July 1919 was presented. The scope of the Act was compared with 10 essential public health services as defined in 1994 in the U.S.A. A significant compatibility of views on public health in the past and present-day was reported. It was recalled that after World War II in Poland public health issues have been scattered into numerous acts. It was proposed to regard the Basic Sanitary Act as a hint when creating a present, a comprehensive law on the public health system.

  4. From Technical Assistants to Critical Thinkers: The Journey to World War II.

    PubMed

    Butina, Michelle; Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2014-01-01

    A review of professional literature was conducted to examine the history of the education of medical laboratory practitioners. This comprehensive review included historical educational milestones from the birth of medical technology to the advent of World War II. During this time period standards were developed by clinical pathologists for laboratory personnel and training programs. In addition, a formal educational model began to form and by the 1940's two years of college was required for matriculation into a medical technology program. Intertwined within the educational milestones are imprints of the evolution of critical thinking requirements and skills within the profession. For the first laboratory practitioners, critical thinking was not developed, discussed, or encouraged as duties were primarily repetitive promoting psychomotor skills.

  5. From Technical Assistants to Critical Thinkers: The Journey to World War II.

    PubMed

    Butina, Michelle; Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2014-01-01

    A review of professional literature was conducted to examine the history of the education of medical laboratory practitioners. This comprehensive review included historical educational milestones from the birth of medical technology to the advent of World War II. During this time period standards were developed by clinical pathologists for laboratory personnel and training programs. In addition, a formal educational model began to form and by the 1940's two years of college was required for matriculation into a medical technology program. Intertwined within the educational milestones are imprints of the evolution of critical thinking requirements and skills within the profession. For the first laboratory practitioners, critical thinking was not developed, discussed, or encouraged as duties were primarily repetitive promoting psychomotor skills. PMID:26084148

  6. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  7. Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Nov. 26, 2002. NASA Dryden is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert.

  8. [History of the management of medical supply system of the Soviet army during the World War II 1941-1945].

    PubMed

    Radysh, Ia F

    2004-01-01

    The article considers the management of medical care in the soviet army during the World War II 1941-1945. One of the main reasons of an ineffective management of medical care in the soviet army, after the author's opinion, was heavy tolls among medical care staff as well as medical military personnel hadn't any protection from the International Genevan Convention.

  9. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR 1 MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  10. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  11. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  12. Progressive Reformers and the Democratic Origins of Citizenship Education in the United States during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Kathryn L.

    2013-01-01

    The birth of formal citizenship education in the United States emerged in the context of mass immigration, the Progressive Movement, and the First World War. Wartime citizenship education has been chastised for its emphasis on patriotism and loyalty, and while this is a trend, historians have minimised the ways in which the democratic goals of the…

  13. Educating the Female Citizen in a Post-war World: Competing Ideologies for American Women, 1945-1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2002-01-01

    In post-World War II United States, women were caught between competing patriotic, economic, cultural, and psychological ideologies dictating their behavior. Differences between these expectations and challenges to behavioral norms provoked tensions in women's education that lasted until the women's movement of the 1960s. (Contains 25 references.)…

  14. A Crisis Framework Applied to Macrosociological Family Changes: Marriage, Divorce, and Occupational Trends Associated with World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman-Blumen, Jean

    1975-01-01

    A typology of crises is developed to be used with critical aspects of the social system to predict both crisis and postcrisis period role changes. The crisis framework is then applied to macro-changes in family structure in response to an archetypal crisis, World War II. Census data generally support the hypotheses. (Author)

  15. Education through Art after the Second World War: A Critical Review of Art Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyungsook

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how progressive education was introduced to South Korea after the Second World War and takes a closer look at critical studies of this history. It argues that the America-led progressive education policies, which focused on art education, were an uncritical adaptation of the superpower's educational ideology and did not…

  16. A Comparative Study of the Current Situation on Teaching about World War II in Japanese and American Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, James L.

    1992-01-01

    Compares questionnaire results sent to elementary and secondary school teachers in Indiana and Japan. Surveys how and what is taught about World War II. Reports teachers in the United States concentrate more on Europe, Pearl Harbor, and fascism, whereas Japanese teachers are more concerned with Pacific theater. Concludes Japanese teach peace…

  17. Personal Memories for Remote Historical Events: Accuracy and Clarity of Flashbulb Memories Related to World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Thomsen, Dorthe K.

    2005-01-01

    One hundred forty-five Danes between 72 and 89 years of age were asked for their memories of their reception of the news of the Danish occupation (April 1940) and liberation (May 1945) and for their most negative and most positive personal memories from World War II. Almost all reported memories for the invasion and liberation. Their answers to…

  18. Typhus Exanthematicus in Romania During the Second World War (1940-1945) Reflected by Romanian Medical Journals of the Time.

    PubMed

    Jeican, Ionuţ Isaia; Botiş, Florin Ovidiu; Gheban, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a picture of exanthematic Typhus in Romania during the Second World War: epidemiological aspects of this disease in the inner zone and in the zone of military operations, as well as information about the diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of the Typhus in our country during this period.

  19. Typhus Exanthematicus in Romania During the Second World War (1940–1945) Reflected by Romanian Medical Journals of the Time

    PubMed Central

    JEICAN, IONUŢ ISAIA; BOTIŞ, FLORIN OVIDIU; GHEBAN, DAN

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a picture of exanthematic Typhus in Romania during the Second World War: epidemiological aspects of this disease in the inner zone and in the zone of military operations, as well as information about the diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of the Typhus in our country during this period. PMID:26528054

  20. Condom Nation: The U.S. Government's Sex Education Campaign from World War I to the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Alexandra M.

    2009-01-01

    This history of the U.S. Public Health Service's efforts to educate Americans about sex makes clear why federally funded sex education has been haphazard, ad hoc, and often ineffectual. Since launching its first sex ed program during World War I, the Public Health Service has dominated federal sex education efforts. Alexandra M. Lord draws on…