2015 JRC Guidelines have already published on 16th of October in 2015. This manuscript tries to explain the way how to arrive at this publication since CPR in Japan after the Second World War. ILCOR is the international organization in resuscitation, leads the world and publishes the international consensus CoSTR. JRC could join official member of ILCOR since 2006 after the establishment of Resuscitation Council of Asia. In 2010 RCA and JRC could contribute in 2010 version. In 2015 JRC Guidelines, the most significant change is the addition of 'First Aid' Chapter. Selecting the evidence will be followed with 'GRADE' method much logistic and easier to determine the evidence estimation than 2010 version. Neuroresuscitation is also the unique chapter in JRC Guidelines.
From the very beginning of the scout organization one of its main trends was the Samaritan service consisting in giving medical help to victims of disasters and acts of God. It became a domain of girls guide mainly. The articles describes a great commitment of the Polish girls guide in the medical assistance offered to their compatriots during the September campaign of 1939 and during the years of occupation from 1939 to 1945. It shows the education and training methods that prepared the girls to work with great dedication. From the first days of the war the girl guides started to work as nurses and orderlies in civil and military hospitals. They organized also their own hospitals and numerous first aid stations in bombed localities and roads frequented by fugitives escaping from the west parts of the country to the eastern territories. Under occupation, the girl guides organized their own underground medical service that collaborated strictly with military organization fighting for independence. Assisted by doctors they organized medical trainings for the members, collected medicines and sanitary materials, preparing themselves for the fights of the last part of the war. The girl guides organized groups of medical assistance of the National Army, which constituted a core of the organization medical service. During the "Storm" action several thousands of girls worked as orderlies that belonged to the combat troops of the National Army. The Warsaw insurrection was the greatest battle of soldiers of the National Army. The girls offered their help to thousands of soldiers and civilian victims.
Gill, G V; Bell, D R; Vandervelde, E M
Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is much more common in tropical than in temperate countries. Visitors to the tropics are thus at risk from HBV, though the degree of risk, and the routes of infection involved are uncertain. We report serological markers of HBV in two groups of 2nd World War soldiers, who served in the Thai/Burma jungles. The groups comprised 100 ex-prisoners of the Japanese (POW), and 100 Burma Campaign Veterans (BCV). Surface antigen to HBV (HbsAg) was positive in 0% of POW and 2% of BCV (P = not significant). Surface antibody (anti-HBs) and core antibody (anti-HBc) were both positive in 40% POW and 13% BCV (P less than 0.001). Quoted UK prevalence rates for these markers are 0.1% for HBsAg, 1.5% for anti-HBs and 0.7% for anti-HBc. Both groups thus show very high rates of past HBV infection. For the POW there were many possible reasons, including contaminated surgical instruments and needles, blood transfusions, and multiple beatings with common weapons. None of these factors operated significantly for BCV. Malarial transmission was, however, intense in both groups, though more so in POW. The data thus again raise the possibility of horizontal transmission of HBV by biting insects in tropical countries.
Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)
This publication provides essential reference data for over 12,000 vascular plants of commercial importance from all parts of the world. It presents up-to-date scientific names for these economically important plants arranged alphabetically. The botanic and economic coverage encompasses plants or ...
Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Poster from the World War II period. During drives to encourage purchase of war bonds, posters featuring female shipyard workers were widely distributed purchasers were allowed one vote for each bond bought. Votes were cast and the woman who got the most votes was named "War Bond Girl." The contest was won by Kay McGinty, 4th row, 2nd column. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.
This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…
World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.
Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine
The 1(st) International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1(st) IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2(nd) IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2(nd) IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1(st) IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2(nd) IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp.
Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine
The 1st International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1st IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2nd IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2nd IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1st IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2nd IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp. PMID:28373973
Adini, Bruria; Laor, Danny; Lev, Boaz; Israeli, Avi
The medical system utilizes a structured culture for learning lessons in order to improve the supply of services. Various tools are utilized to evaluate performance. The aim of the article is to describe the processes for learning lessons which were carried out following the Second Lebanon War and the major lessons that were identified and implemented. Three processes were performed: a process of learning Lessons of the heaLthcare system, initiated and led by the Supreme HeaLth Authority (SHA); After action review (AAR), initiated and led by the military Medical Corps and; at a later stage, a critique, initiated and led by the State Comptroller, that examined the performance of the medical system, as part of a critique on the preparedness of the home front. The following elements were defined as highly prioritized for improvement to elevate the preparedness for a future war: (1) deployment of unified clinics in conflict areas; (2) supply of medical services to the population in shelters; (3) deploying emergency medicine services, including the relationship between the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Home Front Command (HFC); (4) defining the relationships between the MOH and HFC in deploying the community health services in emergencies; (5) protecting medical facilities and personal protection equipment for medical teams and; (6) treating acute stress reactions. The AAR, critique and learning lessons signify three different processes that can sometimes be contradictory. Nevertheless, it is possible to achieve organizational improvement white integrating between these three processes, as was displayed by the SHA.
Winkler, Allan M.
Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)
Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.
These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…
Litoff, Judy Barrett; Smith, David C.
Focuses on women during World War II stating that the events of the war changed the lives of women. Addresses the role of women during wartime by sharing excerpts and information gleaned from letters written by women during World War II. (CMK)
Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)
Gottlieb, Alma; DeLoache, Judy
Should babies sleep alone in cribs, or in bed with parents? Is talking to babies useful, or a waste of time? "A World of Babies" provides different answers to these and countless other child-rearing questions, precisely because diverse communities around the world hold drastically different beliefs about parenting. While celebrating that…
International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Inc., Boston, MA.
This conference was held to alert physicians worldwide of the mortal peril of nuclear war to public health, with the hope that they will help educate their communities about the effects of nuclear war. Summary papers prepared during the conference include: medical consequences of nuclear war with special reference to Europe--immediate problems for…
Surov, Alexey; Thermann, Florian; Behrmann, Curd; Spielmann, Rolf-Peter; Kornhuber, Malte
A number of people injured during the second world war harbour foreign bodies such as grenade splinters or bullets in some part of the body. Most of these metal fragments remain clinically silent. Some of them, however, may cause delayed complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of delayed complications associated with foreign bodies after world war II injuries. 159 patients with retained foreign bodies after world war II injuries were retrospectively identified radiologically in our data bases in the time interval from 1997 to 2009. Diverse delayed complications secondary to the metal objects were diagnosed in 3 cases (2%): one patient with grenade splinter migration into the choledochal duct, one case with pseudotumoural tissue reaction, and one patient with late osteomyelitis. The time from injury to clinical presentation varied from 56 to 61 years. PubMed and Medline were screened for additional cases with delayed sequelae after foreign body acquisition during the 2nd world war. A 30 year search period from 1980 up to date was selected. 15 cases were identified here. Our study demonstrates that health consequences of the 2nd world war extend into the present time, and therefore physicians should be aware of the presence of hidden foreign bodies and their different possible late reactions.
ammunition, and other supplies, was primarily responsible for our failure to inflict a decisive defeat on the Germans before the close of 1944 ...efficiently it might have been operated, it could not have improved the supply situation sufficiently to hove ended the war in 1944 . A Reappraisal...WAR i. Had the war ended in 1944 , the Berlin problem would not today exist and the resulting complications, with which the world is wrestling, would not
wartime evolution of literature and the arts as well as popular culture, I have set those subjects aside and instead focused on war’s principal political...over war’s impact on American society. Decades of debate also stretched the antimilitarists’ argument well be- yond the basic proposition that a powerful...Indian raids on the frontier. British assaults on coastal cities, and sporadic fighting wherever it might occur. What is less well known is that about
Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien
During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.
Provides a description of an upper division college course on nuclear war. The course, which used an interdisciplinary approach and many resource speakers, was divided into three components: the consequences of World War III, the causes of World War III, and the prevention of World War III. Includes a detailed course outline along with required…
Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)
impact on American society. Decades of’ debate also stretched the anti mil itarists’ argzument well be- yond the basic proposition that a powerful...history except b\\ the Confederacy’s economic collapse in the final stages of the Civil War. Although that inflation hurt all Americans on fixed incomes ... on the frontier. British assaults on coastal cities, and sporadic fighting wherever it might occur. What is less well known is that about 20,0X
Hallion, Richard P
On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war.
Cohen, Helen Herz
A girl's camp in Maine during World War II had to deal with food rationing and black-market food dealers. Campers picked beans to raise money for refugees, sewed clothes for refugees, and spotted for enemy planes from Mt. Pleasant. An attempt to use a horse-drawn cart for transportation failed, and good help was hard to find. (TD)
Moulen, Dawn L.; Rooks, Kirsten
Based on H.G. Wells' novel "War of the Worlds" and the reaction to Orson Wells' 1938 adaptation for radio, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that literature originally created in one medium is often adapted to another medium; and that technology can make the unreal seam real and can otherwise confuse…
During World War II, Arsenal workers from Huntsville, Alabama. and surrounding areas responded to the call for civilian defense workers. This February 20, 1945 photo shows workers filling colored smoke grenades that were used for signaling. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)
Kersten, Andrew E.
Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)
Social Education, 1978
Presents a teaching guide to accompany a forthcoming Mobil Showcase television series, "Between the Wars." The series chronicles events between the end of World War I and the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. The guide contains background information, discussion questions, and activities for each of the 16 programs in the series.…
54. VIEW OF MEMORIAL TO SERVICEMEN OF WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II, LOOKING WEST 56/43A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War...
Trimble, Virginia L.
Mention chemistry and the Great "War to End all Wars" in the same sentence, and nearly everybody who ever had a history class will nod sorrowfully and say,"Yes, poison gases." True enough, and Fritz Haber, who led the development of them for the Central Powers, was the one German scientist whom Rutherford never forgave or spoke to again. Such substances (not all really gaseous, and something like 50 have been tried) were used by both sides from 1915 onward, killed about 90,000 people (about 1% of the total), maimed many more, and arguably loosened constraints on future uses of chemical weapons in other wars, prison camps, and terrorist actions. But the war was not determined by them and could have been fought without them. On the other hand, the sudden blockading of ports and termination of most international trade forced Germany (etc) to expand very quickly processes for fixing nitrogen for explosives and for fertilizers in lieu of Chilean guano (yes there is also a Haber process for that). They needed in addition to find domestic replacements for rubber (for tires, hoses, and gas masks) and liquid fuels for tanks and aircraft. The Allies, for their part, had been heavily dependent on German dyestuffs, optical-quality glass for binoculars, and phosphates (fertilizer again). Production facilities for derivatives of coal tars, cottonseed oil, etc. were of necessity scaled up rapidly. And once people have learned to do these things, there is no way to have them be forgotten. The same is, of course, true of the nuclear weapons of World War II and of whatever biological and/or cybernetic entities prove to be essential in the next war.
chal-lenges of the 21st century. This first installment addresses a number of issues centering on the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), including what it...is, how it is being waged, what effect it is having on long-term national defense strategy and force structure planning, and the GWOT requirements for...support of many of these different fascist organizations brings us back to the question of world wars. In order to form a strategy and to develop and
Lord Zuckerman is a world authority on the rivalries and politics of the nuclear age. Few scientists distinguished in their own right have had as much experience as he has of both the national and international corridors of power. During World War Two he was Strategic Planning Adviser to Air Marshal Tedder and General Eisenhower. From 1960 to 1971 he was Chief Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Defence and to the British Government as a whole. He is an unrelenting critic of the Star Wars programme introduced by President Reagan in 1983. He writes, ''Had anyone other than the American President ever invited scientists to try to render 'nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete' the suggestion would probably have attracted no more attention than had they been asked to square the circle or solve the problem of perpetual motion. But it happened to be the President, and he spelled out his vision of a future over which the nuclear bomb no longer casts a shadow in such homely terms that it all sounded real. How could the message fail to appeal.'' Lord Zuckerman is critical not only of Star Wars but also of the futility of the nuclear arms race. ''The arms-race has absorbed enormous resources. The nuclear arsenals of East and West have continued to grow. But, paradoxically, national security seems to have lessened everywhere.
Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history.
Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Connors, James J.
The United States' participation in World War II affected millions of men, women, and children, both at home and around the world. The war effort also affected the Future Farmers of America (FFA). FFA members, agriculture teachers, and national FFA officers all volunteered to serve their country during the war. Local FFA chapters and individual…
Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III
International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World...
Neuhaus, Susan J
The war service of Lilian Violet Cooper, the first female surgeon of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, is well recognized. Not so well known however, are the other pioneering female doctors who also undertook work as military surgeons during World War I. At least four of the 14 Australian female doctors that undertook overseas war service during World War I were engaged as surgeons and treated Australian, British and Allied casualties. These women operated in London, in Egypt and on the frontlines of the Macedonian campaign. While none of these other women became Fellows of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, their war efforts deserve recognition.
Scholz, Joachim; Berdelmann, Kathrin
The outbreak of the First World War had a powerful impact on German schools. Undoubtedly, schools were institutions of socialisation that did offer support to the war. Indeed, research has shown that a specific "war pedagogy" made an aggressive propaganda possible in the classroom. This research usually emphasises the enthusiasm for war…
Maintains that in order to involve all students in learning about World War I in a meaningful way, teachers should broaden their strategies, students activities, and assessment to include Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences. Provides various activities focusing on World War I that coincide with each of the eight multiple intelligences. Offers…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. 404.1343 Section 404.1343 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. The limits...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. 404.1343 Section 404.1343 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. The limits...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. 404.1343 Section 404.1343 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. The limits...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. 404.1343 Section 404.1343 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. The limits...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. 404.1343 Section 404.1343 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When the limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits do not apply. The limits...
Fell, Alison S; Meyer, Jessica
The current centenary of the First World War provides an unrivalled opportunity to uncover some of the social legacies of the war. The four articles which make up this special issue each examine a different facet of the war's impact on British society to explore an as yet untold story. The subjects investigated include logistics, the history of science, the social history of medicine and resistance to war. This article introduces the four which follow, locating them in the wider historiographic debates around the interface between warfare and societies engaged in war.
Clarke, Genevieve, Ed.
This report summarizes the presentations and events of the Second World Summit on Television for Children, to which over 180 speakers from 50 countries contributed, with additional delegates speaking in conference sessions and social events. The report includes the following sections: (1) production, including presentations on the child audience,…
World War I is remembered for the appalling loss of life, but it also heralded major social and political change which included wider opportunities for women and, later, universal suffrage. World War I also formed the context for the emergence of the 1919 Nurses' Registration Act. District nurses (Queen's Nurses) undertook a range of roles during the war, including roles overseas as members of the military nursing services. Like nurses, they had their work supplemented by Voluntary Aid Detachments. This article discusses the war from the perspective of the district nursing profession.
Green, David P; DeLee, Jesse C
On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war on Germany and entered what was then called the Great War. Among the first officers sent to Europe were 21 orthopaedic surgeons in the so-called First Goldthwait Unit. Prior to the war, orthopaedics had been a nonoperative "strap-and-buckle" specialty that dealt primarily with infections, congenital abnormalities, and posttraumatic deformity. The Great War changed all of that forever, creating a new surgical specialty with emphasis on acute treatment, prevention of deformity, restoration of function, and rehabilitation.
Modern Western medicine was introduced into Japan by a Dutch doctor Pompe van Meerdervoort in 1855. A German physician EOE von Balz devoted himself to educating medicine at Tokyo Medical School, the predecessor of the present University of Tokyo for 25 years. Hiroshi Kawahara and Kinnosuke Miura, pioneers of Japan Neurology, received their education by him. Kawahara first described X-linked bulvo-spinal muscular atrophy, and published the first Japanese textbook of clinical neurology in 1897. In 1902, Miura and others founded the Japanese Society of Neuro-Psychiatry, the forerunner of the present " Japanese Society of Neurology ". Both Seizo Katsunuma, Professor of Nagoya University, and Junnjiro Kato, Professor of Tohoku University, succeeded Miura's neurology. Miura investigated into the cause of beriberi, but ended in failure. Hasegawa's proposal at the Diet in 1894 that the Japan Government should found an independent department of neurology in the University of Tokyo was unfortunately rejected. There was no foundation of independent institute, department and clinic of neurology before World War II. Consequently Japanese neurology was on the ebb at that time.
Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen
Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient.
The outbreak of the First World War and the four years of conflict disrupted the activities of the International Council of Nurses (ICN). The results obtained before the war, notably with regard to the improvement of women's working conditions, were thrown into question, and the international spirit which characterised the ICN was threatened. After the war, nurses were nevertheless considered as having a key role to play in public healthcare.
This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end…
Engdahl, Brian E.; And Others
Four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scales were compared in a community sample of 330 former prisoners of war and World War II combat veterans. The Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, and the Impact of Event Scale demonstrated moderate relationships with PTSD. (SLD)
Iakymets', V M
The study was carried out to examine participants of current war conflicts and World War II in order to compare the development of the formation of stereotype of old age. It was established that participants of World War II have higher level of the formation of pessimistic stereotype of old age than participants of current war conflicts have.
Duchovic, Ronald J.; Vilensky, Joel A.
The Meyer-Clarke synthetic method was used in the German process for large scale production of mustard gas during World War I, which clearly shows the historical connection of synthesis of mustard gas.
Hilton describes the team of cryptanalysts who tried to decipher German and Japanese codes during the Second World War. The work of Turing, essentially developing the computer, is reported, as well as inferences about pure and applied mathematics. (MNS)
Shanks, G Dennis
World War 1 was a key transition point towards scientific medicine. Medical officers incorporated Louis Pasteur's discoveries into their understanding of microorganisms as the cause of infectious diseases, which were therefore susceptible to rational control and treatment measures even in the pre-antibiotic era. Typhoid vaccination led to the successful evasion of the disastrous epidemics of previous wars. The incidence of tetanus was probably decreased by giving millions of doses of horse antitoxin to wounded soldiers. Quinine treated but could not control malaria; its use required mass compulsion. Tuberculosis was not a great military problem during World War 1, although mortality in civilian populations increased substantially. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections remained a matter of aversive conditioning, with invasive antiseptics used in the absence of antibiotics. Pandemic influenza in 1918-19 killed more people than died during the entire war, showing how much remained beyond the capability of the scientists and doctors who fought infectious diseases during World War 1.
The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War'' is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details of the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.
... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is a World War II veteran. 404.1310... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1310 Who is a World War II veteran. You are a World War II veteran if you were in the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who is a World War II veteran. 404.1310... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1310 Who is a World War II veteran. You are a World War II veteran if you were in the...
... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who is a World War II veteran. 404.1310... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1310 Who is a World War II veteran. You are a World War II veteran if you were in the...
... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who is a World War II veteran. 404.1310... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1310 Who is a World War II veteran. You are a World War II veteran if you were in the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who is a World War II veteran. 404.1310... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1310 Who is a World War II veteran. You are a World War II veteran if you were in the...
Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien
The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933).
Fitzgerald, Gerard J
The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914-1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist's war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations.
Fitzgerald, Gerard J.
The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914–1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist’s war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations. PMID:18356568
War II, he soft ened them with gift s of magazines, cig- arettes, and chocolates . He broke through their reserve with humor. And he spoke to them in...109. 208 Camp 020, 107. 96 | such as personality, mood , and acting ability.209 Noting that some interroga- tors would necessarily be incompatible with
Irons, Peter; Masugi, Ken
The arguments in favor of and against monetary redress for survivors of America's wartime internment camps are presented. Pro-redress arguments emphasize the injustices done the victims. Anti-redress arguments focus on the duties for citizenship and the reasonable actions politicians might have concluded were necessary to win the war. (PS)
the First World War, and had been Secretary of War under William Howard Taft and Secretary of State under Herbert Hoover. 67 He was also a...One example is a comprehensive 1892 treatise by William E. Birkhimer, entitled Military Government and Martial Law.5 Birkhimer was a soldier as well...Press, 2007), 64. 5 William E. Birkhimer, Military Government and Martial Law (Washington, D.C.: James J. Chapman, 1892). Part I of Birkhimer’s
Silver, Shawn A
Osteopathic physicians were denied the same rights and privileges that were granted to allopathic physicians by the US government regarding voluntary and compulsory service in World War I and World War II. Even after changes to the examination process allowed osteopathic physicians to take the examinations required to obtain commission as a physician in the army, osteopathic physicians' service was still rejected. The US government's decision to ban DOs from serving in the war was a blessing in disguise that led to tremendous changes in osteopathic medicine, education, and public acceptance of osteopathic physicians. Using primary documents from military officials, congressional hearings, and archived publications of the American Osteopathic Association, the author recounts the battle osteopathic physicians fought to serve their country during war and the challenges they faced while obtaining both legal and social equality in the eyes of the government and the public.
Stuckey, Mary E.
Argues that, through his use of specific language choices, George Bush's Gulf War rhetoric embraced and supported the orientational metaphor of the World War II model, while simultaneously rejecting the Vietnam model. Concludes the use of the World War II model legitimated both the military action and Bush's leadership. (NH)
information on individual cases was included in this announcement. Research at the Center for Historical Documentary Collections in Moscow uncovered...Historical Documentary Collections, Moscow, Fond 1, Inventory 10E, File8, p. 210. ’I S22 POW/MIA Issues: Volume 2, World War 11 and the Early Cold War...deal of work in Tambov addressed the issue of American prisoners in February 1992: 4 &The Center for Historical Documentary Collections, Fond 1
The nation recently celebrated the 50th anniversary of World War II (WWII) with a renewed interest in Pearl Harbor and D-Day (ie, the day the Allies invaded Europe.) One group of war heroes--all volunteers--received little attention, although they endured bombings, torpedoes, antiaircraft fire, prison, starvation, and death. They were the nurses of WWII. They served all over the world and left a legacy that today's perioperative nurses are committed to preserving. This article was written to honor the nurses of WWII. It relates only a few stories of thousands that could be told.
one example. Another is Anne Garrels, a reporter on assignment to Baghdad for National Public Radio. She writes in her book Naked in Baghdad how she...6 Ibid., Overview 2. 7 Amanda Lenhart, Mary Madden, and Paul Hitlin, “ Teens and Technology: Youth are Leading the Transition to a Fully Wired and...Garrels, Naked in Bagdad: The Iraq War and the Aftermath as Seen by NPR’s Correspondent (New York, N.Y.: Picador, 2003, 2004), 82. 28 Brian McWilliams
Crawford, Keith A., Ed.; Foster, Stuart J., Ed.
The Second World War stands as the most devastating and destructive global conflict in human history. More than 60 nations representing 1.7 billion people or three quarters of the world's population were consumed by its horror. Not surprisingly, therefore, World War II stands as a landmark episode in history education throughout the world and its…
Sugiura, Yasuo; Ju, Young-Su; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine
Japanese life expectancy increased by about 13.7 years during the first decade after World War II, despite the country's post-war poverty. Although it is known that medical progress explains part of this increase, roles of non-medical factors have not been systematically studied. This study hypothesizes that non-medical factors, in addition to medical factors, are associated with the rapid increase in life expectancy in Japan. We analyzed the time trends of potential explanatory factors and used regression analysis with historical data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications' Historical Statistics of Japan during the period between 1946 and 1983. Time trends analysis revealed that the rapid increase in life expectancy preceded the dramatic growth of per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 10 years. In education, the nearly universal enrollment in elementary schools and increased advancement to upper secondary schools for both sexes were associated with better health. Regarding legislation, 32 health laws were passed in the first decade after the war and these laws were associated with improved health. Using regression analysis, we found that the enrollment rate in elementary schools, the number of health laws, and expansion of community-based activity staff were significantly associated with the increased life expectancy during the first decade after World War II. To conclude, in addition to medical factors, non-medical factors applied across the country, particularly education, community-based activities and legislation were associated with the rapid increase in Japanese life expectancy after World War II.
Nandi, C; Weierstall, R; Huth, S; Knecht, J; Elbert, T
Stressful war experiences can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. To what extent were the soldiers and young women of World War II affected by PTSD symptoms over the course of their lives? Do these men and women differ in the traumatic experiences and PTSD symptom severity? To investigate these questions 52 male and 20 female Germans aged 81-95 years were recruited through newspaper advertisements and notices and interviewed regarding war experiences and PTSD symptoms. Of the men 2% and 7% met the criteria for current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses, respectively, as compared to 10% and 30% of the women, respectively. Using multiple linear regression a dose-response relationship between the number of trauma types experienced and PTSD symptom severity could be demonstrated. The slope of the regression curve was steeper for women than for men. When controlling for the number of different traumatic experiences women reported a significantly higher severity of PTSD symptoms than men. It is presumed that this difference in severity of symptoms can be attributed to qualitative differences in the type of traumatic stress factors during the war. The present study provides evidence that even today people continue to be affected by PTSD symptoms due to events which occurred during World War II; therefore, during patient contact with this age group the war experiences specific to each individual need to be considered as potential moderators of symptoms.
Alabama Dept. of Archives and History, Montgomery.
This teaching unit, "World War II Unit," is the ninth in a series of 10 units about Alabama state history, part of a project designed to help teachers integrate the use of primary source materials into their classrooms. Although the units are designed to augment the study of Alabama, they are useful in the study of U.S. history, world…
Provides a teaching plan which helps students imaginatively take the roles of leaders in the United States during World War II so that they might more completely understand such difficult decisions as allying with the Soviet Union, relocating Japanese-Americans, and dropping the atomic bomb. Provides a statement of goals and objectives, required…
Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…
Jarosik, Kris Maldre; Sweeney, Jenny McMillen
In this article, the authors demonstrate how a series of National Archives documents related to professional baseball players and the military draft can launch a lesson on the American home front during World War I, as the 100th anniversary approaches.
Although some people believed that the end of the Cold War would herald a new age of peace, the 1990s have seen more than five million people die in over 35 deadly conflicts. New technologies have made warfare ever more deadly. There is, however, a breadth of options available to prevent or control deadly conflict in the world. This curriculum…
During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...
Sproule, J. Michael
To recount the development of the propaganda analysis movement before and since World War I, this paper reviews the precursors of the movement, traces the propaganda conciousness produced by wartime campaigns and subsequent domestic campaigns, and looks at major obstacles to propaganda analysis produced by social and academic conditions after…
The January 1994 issue of "The Annals" of the American Academy of Political and Social Science provides an overview of thought and discussion concerning the role of colleges and universities during World War II and in the postwar era. Edited by T. R. McConnell and Malcolm Willey, the issue contained articles by educators, most of whom became more…
Nesbitt, William A.
The Alpha Crisis Game, a simulation for secondary students about the outbreak of World War I, is intended as an introduction to a case study of the July 1917 crisis. Playing in teams while deciding among the action choices to solve the crisis situation, students act as heads of state and ministers of five mythical European countries, when an…
Dinnerstein, Leonard; Reimers, David M.
Explores the changing immigration policies after World War II (1945-98) that increased the levels of immigration within the United States. Focuses on policies such as the Displaced Persons Act of 1948 and McCarran-Walter Immigration Act of 1952. Includes questions for discussion. (CMK)
Roussel, L; Thery, I
Major demographic trends and changes in family policy in France since World War II are analyzed, with a focus on fertility and marriage patterns (including divorce). The effects of political and economic factors on family policy and legislation since 1945 are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources.
Machowski, James Stanley; Brown, James William
To examine the role of the animated cartoon in propaganda associated with World War II, 194 of 262 cartoons produced for theatrical release by Warner Brothers, Inc., from 1939 to 1946 were analyzed. Propaganda content was determined by the number and nature of symbols used and the cartoon's "attitudes" toward these symbols. An analysis…
Carter, Dan T.
Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)
Chagowski, W; Madro, R
The results of the exhumation of a mass grave from the time of the World War II are presented. In the course of exhumation it was established that the subjects were 190 individuals (men, women and children) of Jewish origin. All had died a violent death due to gunshot or mechanical injury.
Examines how the First World War prompted British museums to change their educational functions. Discusses museums in pre-war Britain, wartime exhibitions and educational activities, the outcome of the war experience, and First World War's implications for education in museums. (GEA)
The paper presents a fragment of the World War I journal, discovered recently to belong to Vladimir Jelovšek (1879-1934) the physician, writer and one of the most prominent editors of Liječnički vjesnik. The journal was written during his attendance at the eastern front from June 1915 to July 1916 beginning with the fall of Lvov and partly following both Brusilov's invasions. On the territory of Croatia the war journals written by medical representatives are very rare. However, such sources could extend our knowledge on individual war reflexions, soldiers' principles or mindset, as well as to enable the comparison of their content with the body of already published autobiographical and other sources. Recently detected journal of Vladimir Jelovšek exposes the individual perception of war carried out through traumatic war experience of an individual abruptly exposed to war conditions. Furthermore, it adds to our knowledge the Jelovšek's life enlightening in those segments of his life which haven't been explored so far.
Provides discussion questions, activities, and projects to be used with EJ515083, "The Progressive Era and the World War I Draft." Includes three political cartoons and two World War I-era songs of opposing viewpoints. (JDH)
During the First World War, some nurses distinguished themselves by playing a significant role in spy networks, using their activity as a cover. They took an active part in the setting up of escape routes for allied prisoners of war and the gathering of intelligence on the positions of German troops, in particular in Belgium and northern France. Among them Edith Cavell, Gabrielle Petit, Louise de Bettignies, Marie-Léonie Vanhoutte, Marthe Cocknaert and Emilienne-Rose Ducimetière are considered as heroines.
The article describes the measures taken against the threat of typhus epidemic in Finland during the Second World War. Comparisons between countries at war and their different typhus prevention methods are made. The main method of typhus prevention in Finland consisted of regular sauna bathing, which was culturally acceptable and very efficient when combined with heating of the clothing. The Finnish troops remained virtually louse-free by ecological and traditional methods, and thus the spread of typhus fever in the army could be prevented.
World War I is often said to have benefited British women by giving them the vote and by enabling them to take on traditionally male roles, including ones in science, engineering and medicine. In reality, conventional hierarchies were rapidly re-established after the Armistice. Concentrating mainly on a small group of well-qualified scientific and medical women, marginalized at the time and also in the secondary literature, I review the attitudes they experienced and the work they undertook during and immediately after the war. The effects of century-old prejudices are still felt today.
More than 3000 nurses from Australia served with the Australian Army Nursing Service or the British nursing services during World War I. These nurses served in various theatres of war including Egypt, France, India, Greece, Italy and England. They worked in numerous roles including as a surgical team nurse close to the front working under fire; nursing on hospital ships carrying the sick and wounded; or managing hospital wards overrun with patients whilst dealing with a lack of hospital necessities. The skills and roles needed to be a military nurse significantly differed to the skills required to nurse in Australia.
... Surviving American Veteran of World War I By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As... veteran of World War I, and in remembrance of the generation of American veterans of World War I, I...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is a post-World War II veteran. 404.1320... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1320 Who is a post-World War II veteran. You are a post-World War II veteran if...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who is a post-World War II veteran. 404.1320... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1320 Who is a post-World War II veteran. You are a post-World War II veteran if...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who is a post-World War II veteran. 404.1320... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1320 Who is a post-World War II veteran. You are a post-World War II veteran if...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who is a post-World War II veteran. 404.1320... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1320 Who is a post-World War II veteran. You are a post-World War II veteran if...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who is a post-World War II veteran. 404.1320... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1320 Who is a post-World War II veteran. You are a post-World War II veteran if...
Oh! This War! How it is tearing down walls and barriers, and battering in fast shut doors …Women's Liberal Review, 1915World War I is often said to have benefited British women by giving them the vote and by enabling them to take on traditionally male roles, including ones in science, engineering and medicine. In reality, conventional hierarchies were rapidly re-established after the Armistice. Concentrating mainly on a small group of well-qualified scientific and medical women, marginalized at the time and also in the secondary literature, I review the attitudes they experienced and the work they undertook during and immediately after the war. The effects of century-old prejudices are still felt today. PMID:26489180
Linton, Derek S
This article examines major epidemics of bacillary dysentery in the German army as well as among civilians in eastern Europe and in Germany during World War I. These epidemics were all the more surprising in light of prewar advances in understanding the disease and limiting dysentery outbreaks. Three major reasons are adduced for the incapacity of German military hygienists to prevent wartime epidemics. First was the difficulty of bacteriological testing at the front, especially early in the war, with negative consequences for diagnosis, therapy, and disease control. Second was inadequate hygiene including major shortcomings in latrine cleanliness and attempts to grapple with the "fly plague." Third was the lack of a Pasteur-type vaccine until late in the war. Susceptibility to dysentery was also heightened by war-related nutritional deficiencies. Taking off from an article by the English medical historian Roger Cooter, this article shows that the concept of "war dysentery" was socially constructed and served a variety of professional interests but at the same time takes issue with Cooter's arguments against linking "war" and "epidemics" pathogenetically.
... ADMINISTRATION World War One Centennial Commission; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting AGENCY: World War One Centennial Commission. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Notice of this meeting is being... notice provides the schedule and agenda for the November 15, 2013, meeting of the World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are you a World War II veteran? 408.216 Section 408.216 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Military Service § 408.216 Are you a World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service...
Fuchs, David W.
This article describes how the author developed and implemented a course on World War II that has an oral history component. The author describes the format of the World War II course and the oral history component within the course framework. The author uses classroom presentations by veterans to enliven his World War II history class and enhance…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are you a World War II veteran? 408.216 Section 408.216 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Military Service § 408.216 Are you a World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are you a World War II veteran? 408.216 Section 408.216 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Military Service § 408.216 Are you a World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are you a World War II veteran? 408.216 Section 408.216 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Military Service § 408.216 Are you a World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Post-World War II service included. 404.1322... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1322 Post-World War II service included. Your service was in the active service...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are you a World War II veteran? 408.216 Section 408.216 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS SVB Qualification and Entitlement Military Service § 408.216 Are you a World War...
Koehler, Peter J; Jagella, Caroline
The correspondence (1907-1930) between two leading European neurologists, Cornelis Winkler (1855-1941) and Constantin von Monakow (1853-1930), has been preserved in Amsterdam and Zurich. For this paper, letters exchanged during World War I were studied. Professional as well as personal issues were discussed. An international neurology meeting in Berne in September 1914 had to be cancelled due to the war. They hoped that (neuro)scientists would remain politically neutral, continue scientific cooperation, and even be able to influence the course of the war. Winkler and Monakow tried to continue their work on the International Brain Atlas. Although living in neutral countries (The Netherlands and Switzerland), they observed that their practice and scientific work suffered from war conditions. While Winkler continued his activities as a neurologist, Monakow, affected emotionally, experienced a change in scientific interest toward psychoneurology. He used his diaschisis concept, originally an explanation for transient phenomena in stroke, as a metaphor for the social and cultural effects of the war. He directly related cultural development and brain science, bringing in his own emotions, which resulted in the first of several publications on the relations between biology, brain science, and culture.
Studies of the effects of nuclear war are common, and have been often analyzed; they have been seen as contemporary eschatologies or as evidence in the nuclear-arms debate. They are of interest, though, for another reason. Written by students from many fields, they constitute attempts to portray the geographical conditions of a possible, post-nuclear-war world. Explicitly, these accounts express the view that the world is composed of objects and their properties; that it is objectively knowable through the use of the scientific method by neutral observers; and that the results of such studies can and ought to be presented in a thoroughly neutral mode of discourse. Closer observation reveals that these accounts fall short of the Cartesian ideal. Current philosophical scholarship suggests that there is little reason to believe that an adequate account of the human world can be fashioned merely from a set of objects, properties, and relationships. A more adequate account of the effects of nuclear war must rest on a more adequate notion of possible worlds. The contextual and ethnographic approach of philosophers and anthropologists provides a possible basis for such a notion.
William C. Lee.9 Later, Army 6Robert R. Palme, Bell I. Wiley, and William R. Keast, The Procurement...in units larger than a battalion. Kent Roberts Greenfield, Robert R. Palmer, and Bell I. Wiley, United States Army in World War II: The Army Ground...51Training Circular 113, 4. 52Richard Brooks and Graham Turner, Walcheren 1944: Storming Hitler’s Island Fortress (Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2011
States fused the ‘bite and hold’ with the principles of open warfare. Artillery served as the catalyst , problem, and solution that led to operational...between the German and Allied employment of firepower in World War I created the catalyst that 1 Bruce I. Gudmundsson, On Artillery (Westport, CT... catalyst for change. These stimuli led to a lateral deployment extended throughout a theater on an extended front. Georgii Isserson articulated this change
Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II. The first view shows Slayton (on right) beside a Douglas A-26 bomber in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the summer of 1945, probably on Okinawa. The second man is 1st. Lt. Ed Steinman (28359); This view shows Slayton as an eighteen-year-old U.S. Army Air Force cadet at Victoria Field, Vernon, Texas in the autumn of 1942.
Amphibious Landing Operations in World War II: Personal Experience in Applying and Developing Doctrine A Monograph by MAJ Mark Adam Jackson...AMPHIBIOUS LANDING OPERATIONS IN WORLD WAR II: PERSONAL EXPERIENCE IN APPLYING AND DEVELOPING DOCTRINE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...the services, but a divergence in purpose drove them apart prior to World War II. Soon after the United States entered the War, the Army and Navy would
Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy
How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…
Mayall, Berry; Morrow, Virginia
Using a rich collection of archives, school histories, photographs and memoirs, this book charts and discusses the contributions English children made to the war effort during World War II. As men and women were increasingly called up for war work, as the country needed to grow as much food as possible, and as the war effort required ever…
Penicillin is often considered one of the greatest discoveries of 20th century medicine. However, the revolution in therapeutics brought about by sulphonamides also had a profound effect on British medicine, particularly during World War II (WWII). Sulphonamides were used to successfully treat many infections which later yielded to penicillin and so their role deserves wider acknowledgement. The sulphonamides, a pre-war German discovery, were widely used clinically. However, the revolution brought about by the drugs has been either neglected or obscured by penicillin, resulting in less research on their use in Britain during WWII. By examining Medical Research Council records, particularly war memorandums, as well as medical journals, archives and newspaper reports, this paper hopes to highlight the importance of the sulphonamides and demonstrate their critical role in the medical war effort and their importance in both the public and more particularly, the medical, sectors. It will present evidence to show that sulphonamides gained importance due to the increased prevalence of infection which compromised the health of servicemen during WWII. The frequency of these infections led to an increase in demand and production. However, the sulphonamides were soon surpassed by penicillin, which had fewer side-effects and could treat syphilis and sulphonamide-resistant infections. Nevertheless, despite these limitations, the sulphonamides drugs were arguably more important in revolutionising medicine than penicillin, as they achieved the first real success in the war against bacteria.
Davidson, Jonathan Rt
The effect of World War 1 military service on composers has been neglected in comparison with poets and artists. This article describes the wartime service of Arthur Bliss, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Ivor Gurney, EJ Moeran, Gordon Jacob, Patrick Hadley, and Maurice Ravel. The relationship between experiences of combat and the psychological health of these men is examined, with consideration being given to predisposition and possible causative influences of military service on their later careers, examined from individual and societal perspectives.
The pattern of radio astronomy which developed in Europe and Australia followed closely the development of metre wave radar in World War II. The leading pioneers, Ryle, Lovell, Hey and Pawsey, were all in radar research establishments in the UK and Australia. They returned to universities, recruited their colleagues into research groups and immediately started on some basic observations of solar radio waves, meteor echoes, and the galactic background. There was at first little contact with conventional astronomers. This paper traces the influence of the radar scientists and of several types of radar equipment developed during WW II, notably the German Wurzburg, which was adapted for radio research in several countries. The techniques of phased arrays and antenna switching were used in radar and aircraft installations. The influence of WW II radar can be traced at least up to 10 years after the War, when radio astronomy became accepted as a natural discipline within astronomy.
Barker, Anne M.
The field of engineering has been one of the most difficult for women to enter. Even with an increase in the proportion of women in the engineering workforce from 0.3% before the 1970s to 9.5% in 1999, women are still seriously underrepresented. This article examines the history of women in engineering in the United States during World War II. Women were actively recruited as engineering aides by the federal government, which saw them as a temporary substitute for men who were in the military. Yet this crisis did not break down the barriers to and prejudices against women in engineering, nor did it give them a real opportunity to become professional engineers equal to men. After the war, calls for a return to normalcy were used to reestablish social norms, which kept women at home and reserved desirable places in the workforce, including in engineering, for men.
van Bergen, Leo
Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.
Dependent medical care at Army expense or at Army facilities during World War II was offered only on an emergency basis and at the discretion of the facility commanding officer. This had been the practice since 1884 when such care was specifically authorized by Congressional appropriation. Mobilization in 1898 and 1917 had brought a large number of state militiamen or inductees into the army--men who could leave their families behind. When mobilization began again in 1940, it was thought that a similar procedure would be followed. Events, however, overwhelmed the system as commanders of Army bases faced large numbers of young, pregnant wives who had followed their husbands. This had happened, in part, because of the dislocations of the Great Depression and, in part, because the wives of military inductees hoped to find work close to where their husbands were stationed. Although dependent medical care was not increased in proportion to the numbers of new dependents brought in by the war mobilization, medical care was provided for the four lower grades under the Emergency Maternity and Infant Care section of the Social Security Act of 1935. Subsequent to World War II and the experience of the Korean War, Congress saw it fit to specifically authorize medical care for dependents of military personnel as part of the soldiers' terms of employment, as a device to stimulate retention in service of both soldiers and doctors. In 1956 the United States Congress established the right at law of military dependents to medical care as specified in the Dependents' Medical Care Act.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...
... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...
... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War...
During World War II, female students at the University of California, Berkeley--then the most populous undergraduate campus in American higher education--made significant advances in collegiate life. In growing numbers, women enrolled in male-dominated academic programs, including mathematics, chemistry, and engineering, as they prepared for…
Budko, A A; Ivanovskii, Yu V
The First World War was notable for the widespread use of machine military hardware and absolutely new type of weapon--chemical weapon. As a result of the first gas attack by chlorine undertaken by the German army against the Russian armies on May, 31st, 1915, heavy poisonings have received 9100 people, 6000 of them died. Chemical attack of Germany against Russia was limited by the use chemical gases of suffocating action: chlorine, bromine,phosgene and diphosgene. It is not known exactly, how many times Germany attacked Russian positions with use of chemical gases. On available data, in the First World War from application by German of the chemical weapon Russia has suffered more, than any other of the at war countries: from five hundred thousand poisoned have died nearby 66,000 people. In turn, having received in the order the chemical weapon of own manufacture, Russian army itself tried to attack in the German armies. It is authentically known only about several cases of application dy Russian of fighting poison gases, and in all cases of loss of germen were insignificant.
to “Join the Navy and see the world.” Naval regulations, however, prohibited women from going to sea. As a result, nearly all served Stateside.14...as has never before been known in human history. It is an epochal thing. It has never been known in all human annals that women should go to war in...By the time she was eight years old, the family moved to Tomsk in Siberia. They arrived barefoot in 16 tattered clothing and were forced to find
Atenstaedt, R L
Around the 90-year anniversary of the Battle of the Somme, it is important to remember the international effort that went into responding to the new diseases, which appeared during the First World War, such as trench nephritis. This condition arose among soldiers in spring 1915, characterized by breathlessness, swelling of the face or legs, headache, sore throat, and the presence of albumin and renal casts in urine. It was speedily investigated by the military-medical authorities. There was debate over whether it was new condition or streptococcal nephritis, and the experts agreed that it was a new condition. The major etiologies proposed were infection, exposure, and diet (including poisons). Research pointed to the origin of the disease as being infective rather than toxic, but no definite cause was discovered. A number of labels were given to the disease, including war nephritis. However, trench nephritis was the one used most widely. Trench nephritis was a serious problem for the Allies, leading to 35 000 casualties in the British and 2000 in the American forces. There were also hundreds of deaths. The condition was treated in line with pre-war regimens designed for acute nephritis. No significant preventative methods were implemented for trench nephritis, as there was no consensus regarding causation. The medical response to trench nephritis was largely ineffective, with medical commentators recognizing that there had been a lack of medical progress.
In 1996, public outcry over shortened hospital stays for new mothers and their infants led to the passage of a federal law banning "drive-through deliveries." This recent round of brief postpartum stays is not unprecedented. During World War II, a baby boom overwhelmed maternity facilities in American hospitals. Hospital births became more popular and accessible as the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care program subsidized obstetric care for servicemen's wives. Although protocols before the war had called for prolonged bed rest in the puerperium, medical theory was quickly revised as crowded hospitals were forced to discharge mothers after 24 hours. To compensate for short inpatient stays, community-based services such as visiting nursing care, postnatal homes, and prenatal classes evolved to support new mothers. Fueled by rhetoric that identified maternal-child health as a critical factor in military morale, postpartum care during the war years remained comprehensive despite short hospital stays. The wartime experience offers a model of alternatives to legislation for ensuring adequate care of postpartum women. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10191809
This paper investigates the history of the Royal Prussian Phonographic Commission, a body that collected and archived linguistic, ethnographic, and anthropological data from prisoners-of-war (POWs) in Germany during World War I. Recent literature has analyzed the significance of this research for the rise of conservative physical anthropology. Taking a complementary approach, the essay charts new territory in seeking to understand how the prison-camp studies informed philology and linguistics specifically. I argue that recognizing philological commitments of the Phonographic Commission is essential to comprehending the project contextually. My approach reveals that linguists accommodated material and contemporary evidence to older text-based research models, sustaining dynamic theories of language. Through a case study based on the Iranian philologist F. C. Andreas (1846-1930), the paper ultimately argues that linguistics merits greater recognition in the historiography of the behavioral sciences.
Brabin, Bernard J
Malaria in the First World War was an unexpected adversary. In 1914, the scientific community had access to new knowledge on transmission of malaria parasites and their control, but the military were unprepared, and underestimated the nature, magnitude and dispersion of this enemy. In summarizing available information for allied and axis military forces, this review contextualizes the challenge posed by malaria, because although data exist across historical, medical and military documents, descriptions are fragmented, often addressing context specific issues. Military malaria surveillance statistics have, therefore, been summarized for all theatres of the War, where available. These indicated that at least 1.5 million solders were infected, with case fatality ranging from 0.2 -5.0%. As more countries became engaged in the War, the problem grew in size, leading to major epidemics in Macedonia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Italy. Trans-continental passages of parasites and human reservoirs of infection created ideal circumstances for parasite evolution. Details of these epidemics are reviewed, including major epidemics in England and Italy, which developed following home troop evacuations, and disruption of malaria control activities in Italy. Elsewhere, in sub-Saharan Africa many casualties resulted from high malaria exposure combined with minimal control efforts for soldiers considered semi-immune. Prevention activities eventually started but were initially poorly organized and dependent on local enthusiasm and initiative. Nets had to be designed for field use and were fundamental for personal protection. Multiple prevention approaches adopted in different settings and their relative utility are described. Clinical treatment primarily depended on quinine, although efficacy was poor as relapsing Plasmodium vivax and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections were not distinguished and managed appropriately. Reasons for this are discussed and the clinical trial data
Drawing on school histories, published adult recollections, oral interviews and children's letters, this article explores how the lives of young New Zealanders were affected by contemporary attitudes and activities during World War I in a country far removed from the actual theatre of war. Particular emphasis is given to school-related…
The author describes the history of Maribor General Hospital from its foundation in 1799 until the beginning of World War II. In 1799 the magistrate of the town of Maribor issued a memorandum regarding the establishment of a town hospital in the renovated building of the town hospice, providing space for 24 patients. The work of the hospital was carried out in the former hospice building until 1855. In the period between its establishment and eventual relocation 26 beds were added. The last two decades of the hospital's operation at the original location were marked by the assiduous work of the town's physicist, Dr. Anton Kuker. In the first half of the 19th century, the population of Maribor grew rapidly as a consequence of the construction of the Southern Railway. The town authorities therefore purchased the Prosenjak family villa in the Magdalena suburbs and relocated the hospital to it in 1855, providing 28 rooms for 110 patients. For a whole century, the care of patients was taken over by the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul. The hospital was soon admitting over 1000 patients a year, the most common complaints being pulmonary catarrh, gastritis and fever. In 1872, when the Master of Surgery Feliks Ferk joined the hospital, the internal "medical" and the "external" surgical departments were formed. Although medical studies were not easily accessible, there were a number of Slovene physicians working in the hospital and the town in that period. In the last decades of the 19th century, the hospital was often renovated and enlarged. The infrastructure (telephone, water supply system, heating, lighting) had also been modernized before World War I. In 1914, the first X-ray apparatus was purchased. Between the wars, the hospital's development was boosted by recruitment of the Slovene physicians Ivan Matko, Mirko Cernic, Janko Dernovsek and Hugon Robic. The initial external and medical departments split into several departments: internal medicine, surgery
Bianchi, C; Bianchi, T
Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous asbestos industries began operations in various parts of the world. At the time of the First World War there is ample evidence of the use of this mineral in shipbuilding, the aircraft industry and in the construction industry. In the years 1912-17 the writer Franz Kafka was co-proprietor of a small asbestos factory in Prague. Some of the writer's novels and journal pages were inspired by this experience. In this way asbestos entered into the history of 20th century European literature. In 1917 asbestos extraction was started at the quarry in Balangero, near Turin, Italy. Risks related to the use of asbestos were known at the beginning of the 20th century and legislation aimed at preventing the harmful effects of the mineral were approved in Italy.
Arnold, H; Collmann, H
The institution of German neurosurgery as an autonomous surgical specialty, starting in Würzburg in 1934, is closely linked to the names of Fritz König and Wilhelm Tönnis. They were acting at a time when the global economic crisis and a consolidating Nazi dictatorship caused a cascade of alarming changes in political and social life. On the one hand it is fascinating to see how the restless work and energy of Tönnis managed to build up the first independent neurosurgical unit in Germany and to tighten efficient international connections all over the world within a few years. On the other hand-from a present-day perspective-it is difficult to understand how his strive towards a specialist's success, in contrast to that of Otfrid Foerster, was barely affected by the threatening political development, until the Second World War stopped his plans and ideas for many years.
the world depended for its stability after the First World War. ― Robert Boyce, Paths to War: New Essays on the Origins of the Second World War...Versailles to punish Germany, not realizing all of the future economic and political impacts. According to German economist Hjalmar Schacht, the German...how those lessons might be applied to future post-conflict stability efforts. The primary research question is: What were the economic impacts of
Duchovic, Ronald J.; Vilensky, Joel A.
Mustard gas is perhaps the best-known chemical warfare agent and is commonly associated with World War I, both in its first use in warfare and its first synthesis. Although the former is correct, the latter is not. We review here the history of the repeated synthesis of mustard gas by 19th century European chemists. The techniques developed by these chemists were the ones relied upon by both the Central Powers and the Allies to manufacture this agent during World War I. Further, a historical review of mustard gas synthesis highlights the increasing sophistication of the chemical sciences. In particular, during the latter half of the 19th century, the concepts of atomic mass, chemical periodicity, and chemical structure underwent a rapid development that culminated in the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry in the 20th century. A comparison is made of the molecular formula for mustard gas from the 19th century with that of the 21st century, demonstrating that the concept of atomic mass has undergone significant refinement over this period of time.
Hanigan, W C; King, S C
Therapeutic transfusion was not a common procedure at the turn of the century. Although its safety was enhanced by the discovery of blood groups and preinfusion testing in the decade prior to World War I, techniques and indications remained cumbersome and clinically naive. By 1916, a stable Western Front, an efficient line of transport, and the operative requirements of a large number of wounded demonstrated the futility of pharmacotherapy or saline infusion for traumatic shock. In the same year, Rous and Turner at the Rockefeller Institute developed a preservative solution for whole blood. Rous' student, Dr. O.H. Robertson, arrived in France with Base Hospital 5 in June 1917 during a period of growing recognition by military surgeons that transfused blood was an effective therapy, although a practical delivery system was not available. Over the next 8 months, Robertson clinically tested a transfusion technique using preserved blood in glass jars carried to the front in specially designed cases. The method was accepted immediately, and by the Armistice transfusion was used frequently on the front line or during the perioperative period. The accessibility of preserved blood with an efficient transfusion system reinforced the introduction of "resuscitation teams" attached to Casualty Clearing Hospitals for the specialized management of traumatic shock. Robertson's success at technical innovation during World War I associated with a large clinical population resulted in the development of the indications and procedures for modern transfusion therapy.
Goulston, K J; Dent, O F; Chapuis, P H; Chapman, G; Smith, C I; Tait, A D; Tennant, C C
A study of Australian male World War II veterans was conducted to assess clinically the gastrointestinal ill-effects which were present 40 years after the stress of internment as prisoners of war of the Japanese. A random sample of 170 surviving members of the captured Eighth Army Division resident in Sydney in 1983 (ex-POW) was compared with a similar sample of veterans who fought in Southeast Asia during the War, but were not imprisoned (non-POW). Duodenal ulcers and strongyloidiasis were more prevalent in the ex-POW group than in the non-POW group. The increased rate of duodenal ulcer (24.7%, compared with 10.5%; P = 0.0005) was confirmed by a higher proportion of ex-POWs currently taking cimetidine (9.0%, compared with 2.3%; P = 0.008). Strongyloidiasis had been found in 9.7% of all veterans, but in 15% of ex-POWs and in 19% of those who had worked on the Burma-Thailand railway. No other significant differences in gastrointestinal disease were found.
Lewis, J. M.
Out of the nearly 6000 U.S. military officers who were trained to be weather forecasters during World War II, there wore approximately 100 women. They were recruited into the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) by the U.S. Navy and underwent training with the military men in the so-called cadet program. Letters of reminiscence from six WAVES forecasters are combined with official navy correspondence, archival information from universities, and newspaper articles of the period to reconstruct the recruitment, training, duty assignments, and postwar careers of these women.With limited information, an effort has also been made to document the training of civilian women in the cadet program, and to estimate the number of women who served as forecasters in foreign countries during the war. The status of women in meteorology prior to the United States' entry into the war is examined as a backdrop to the study. Principal results of the study are as follows:1) The recruitment of WAVES forecasters was in response to extreme shortages of weather officers at the Naval Air Stations (NAS) in early 1943 as the war escalated.2) Those recruited to be WAVES forecasters had previous experience as math/science teachers and had a lower than average attrition rate in the demanding cadet program.3) The WAVES were assigned as NAS forecasters stateside, and there is some evidence that they were differentially treated in comparison to the male naval forecasters.4) In addition to the women forecasters in the WAVES, approximately 50 civilian women were trained in the cadet program under the sponsorship of the Civilian Aeronautics Administration and the U.S. Weather Bureau; England also recruited an estimated 50 women into weather forecasting during the latter stages of WWII.5) Of the 200 women who were trained to be forecasters, it is estimated that less than 10% remained in meteorology.
Sutcliffe, Marcella P.
This paper focuses on the reading and educational practices of common soldiers during the First World War. It argues that the question of how war libraries were imagined and constructed by civilians needs to be framed in the larger context of pre-war Edwardian debates surrounding the "value of books" in society. Indeed, it was within…
R.H. Tawney (1880-1962), a leading English economic historian and prominent socialist, was vigorously involved in educational reconstruction during the Second World War. For Tawney, the war was a war for social democracy. His ideals of social democracy formed a basis for his case for Public (independent) School reform and free secondary education…
Lanska, Douglas J
As a result of the wars in the early 20th century, elaboration of the visual pathways was greatly facilitated by the meticulous study of visual defects in soldiers who had suffered focal injuries to the visual cortex. Using relatively crude techniques, often under difficult wartime circumstances, investigators successfully mapped key features of the visual pathways. Studies during the Russo- Japanese War (1904-1905) by Tatsuji Inouye (1881-1976) and during World War I by Gordon Holmes (1876-1965), William Lister (1868-1944), and others produced increasingly refined retinotopic maps of the primary visual cortex, which were later supported and refined by studies during and after World War II. Studies by George Riddoch (1888-1947) during World War I also demonstrated that some patients could still perceive motion despite blindness caused by damage to their visual cortex and helped to establish the concept of functional partitioning of visual processes in the occipital cortex.
This paper draws on evidence from a range of sources to consider the extent to which World War II served as a turning point in the employment opportunities open to women chemists in Britain. It argues that wartime conditions expanded women's access to some areas of employment, but that these opportunities represented, in many ways, an expansion of existing openings rather than wholly new ones, and not all of them proved permanent. Instead, women chemists benefited more permanently from increased state expenditure on higher education and on research and development after the war. This enabled some women to remain in what had originally been temporary wartime posts and others to secure employment in wholly new positions. Women were most successful in securing positions created by the expansion of state welfare and support for agriculture, but also found new employment opportunities as a result of the heavy investment in weapons development that accelerated with the advent of the Cold War. In higher education, an initial expansion of openings was not sustained, and the proportion of women in university chemistry departments actually fell during the second half of the 1950s. Industry presents a rather ambiguous picture, with many firms continuing to refuse to employ women chemists, whereas elsewhere they enjoyed enhanced opportunities and better salaries than those offered before the war. This did not mean, however, that women chemists received equal treatment to their male colleagues, and, despite the changes, they remained concentrated in subordinate positions and were expected to concentrate on routine work. Prospects in the 1950s were certainly better than they had been during the 1930s, but they remained strongly gendered.
Inić, Suzana; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella; Kujundžić, Nikola
This article looks into the autobiography of the Croatian chemist and pharmacognosist Antun Vrgoč (1881-1949) entitled My Memories of the World War 1914-1920 and published in Zagreb in 1937. The author was captured in October 1914 and deported to Siberia, where he remained prisoner of war until 1920. Since there are few memoirs describing the life of Siberian prisoners during the First World War, this work is a precious testimony about the attitude towards the prisoners of war, human relations, and the survival of an AustroHungarian army officer. The book shows a striking lack of civilian or military hostility towards the prisoners and the respect of the Geneva Convention. Antun Vrgoč adopted the culture, customs and language of his formal enemies, took part in their civilian life, and taught at their university. His cathartic experience of survival includes a clear message about the absurdity of war.
Folk, G Edgar
The war contributions of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in Cambridge, MA, were recorded in 169 Technical Reports, most of which were sent to the Office of the Quartermaster General. Earlier reports were sent to the National Research Council and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Many of the reports from 1941 and later dealt with either physical fitness of soldiers or the energetic cost of military tasks in extreme heat and cold. New military emergency rations to be manufactured in large quantities were analyzed in the Fatigue Laboratory and then tested in the field. Newly designed cold weather clothing was tested in the cold chamber at -40 degrees F, and desired improvements were made and tested in the field by staff and soldiers in tents and sleeping bags. Electrically heated clothing was designed for high-altitude flight crews and tested both in laboratory chambers and field tests before being issued. This eye witness account of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory during World War II was recorded by Dr. G. Edgar Folk, who is likely the sole surviving member of that famous laboratory.
Darrach, M. R.; Chutjian, A.; Plett, G. A.
Trace explosives signatures of TNT and DNT have been extracted from multiple sediment samples adjacent to unexploded undersea ordnance at Halifax Harbor, Canada. The ordnance was hurled into the harbor during a massive explosion some 50 years earlier, in 1945 after World War II had ended. Laboratory sediment extractions were made using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method in seawater and detection using the Reversal Electron Attachment Detection (READ) technique and, in the case of DNT, a commercial gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Results show that, after more than 50 years in the environment, ordnance that appeared to be physically intact gave good explosives signatures at the parts per billion level, whereas ordnance that had been cracked open during the explosion gave no signatures at the 10 parts per trillion sensitivity level. These measurements appear to provide the first reported data of explosives signatures from undersea unexploded ordnance.
Summary During the First World War, the horror of facial mutilation was evoked in journalism, poems, memoirs and fiction; but in Britain it was almost never represented visually outside the professional contexts of clinical medicine and medical history. This article asks why, and offers an account of British visual culture in which visual anxiety and aversion are of central importance. By comparing the rhetoric of disfigurement to the parallel treatment of amputees, an asymmetrical picture emerges in which the ‘worst loss of all’—the loss of one's face—is perceived as a loss of humanity. The only hope was surgery or, if that failed, prosthetic repair: innovations that were often wildly exaggerated in the popular press. Francis Derwent Wood was one of several sculptors whose technical skill and artistic ‘wizardry’ played a part in the improvised reconstruction of identity and humanity.
Beins, Bernard C
Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.
West, John B
The history of respiratory mechanics is reviewed over a period of some 2,500 years from the ancient Greeks to World War II. A cardinal early figure was Galen (130-199 AD) who made remarkably perceptive statements on the diaphragm and the anatomy of the phrenic nerves. The polymath Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) contributed observations on pulmonary mechanics including the pleural space and bronchial airflow that still make good reading. Vesalius (1514-1564) produced magnificent illustrations of the lung, ribcage, and diaphragm. In the 17th century, the Oxford School including Boyle, Hooke, Lower, and Mayow were responsible for many contributions on mechanical functions including the intercostal muscles and the pleura. Hales (1677-1761) calculated the size and surface area of the alveoli, the time spent by the blood in the pulmonary capillaries, and intrathoracic pressures. Poiseuille (1799-1869) carried out classical studies of fluid mechanics including one of the first demonstrations of flow limitation in collapsible vessels. The culmination of the pre-World War II period was the outstanding contributions of Rohrer (1888-1926) and his two Swiss countrymen, Wirz (1896-1978) and von Neergaard (1887-1947). Rohrer developed the first comprehensive, quantitative treatment of respiratory mechanics in the space of 10 years including an analysis of flow in airways, and the pressure-volume behavior of the respiratory system. von Neergaard performed landmark studies on the effects of surface tension on pressure-volume behavior. Progress over the 2,500 years was slow and erratic at times, but by 1940 the stage was set for the spectacular developments of the next 70 years.
This study investigated how the use of various teaching methods influenced perspective taking skills of sixth grade middle school students during a unit of instruction on World War II. Three questions directed the study: (1) What do students know about World War II prior to a unit of study on World War II; (2) What do students know about World War…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION World War I Centennial Commission; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting; Sunshine Act... meeting will be held at the National World War 1 Museum at Liberty Memorial, 100 W. 26th Street,...
Schamel, Wynell B.; Blondo, Richard A.
Contends that, although the role of women in the U.S. military and on the homefront during World War II has received increased attention, the service of the civilian women pilots has not been adequately recognized. Presents a classroom lesson on the origins and work of the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP's) during World War II. (CFR)
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a)...
Jones, Lyle V.
Applied research in psychology not only has contributed directly to societal advances but often has fostered basic research as well. Prominent examples are the programs directed by Yerkes in World War I to develop the Army Alpha test and several programs in World War II, including "The American Soldier" that assessed soldiers' attitudes during the…
Percoco, James A.
The Friends of the National World War II Memorial was established in 2007 to serve, in part, as an organization devoted to educating young people and visitors to the memorial in an effort to ensure that the lessons, legacy, and sacrifices of World War II not be forgotten. After 32 years of teaching history at West Springfield High School in…
Presents a summary and sample teaching document from Todd Bennett's "Culture, Power, and 'Mission to Moscow': Film and Soviet-American Relations during World War II" from the Journal of American History. Focuses on the ties between World War II diplomacy and popular culture by focusing on the movie "Mission to Moscow." (CMK)
Air raid precautions prior to and during the Second World War included guidance on the burial of civilians who had been killed by enemy bombardment. The Ministry of Health Circular 1779 was published before the start of the war, on the understanding that 'scheme-making' authorities would need time to prepare for the interment of mass fatalities. As the Blitz got underway, tensions emerged between the state's pragmatic concerns to restrict the cost and resources afforded to burial, and the wish of many local authorities to secure decent burial for their citizens. Key issues on which there was disagreement included the state-proposed use of shrouds instead of coffins, and mass interment. These practices carried overtones of the much-hated pauper funeral and ran counter to the political imperative to present civilian death as 'heroic'. This local study is placed in the wider context of the history of death and burial, and provides an indicator of the strength of attachment to customary funerary ritual during the middle of the twentieth century.
The creation of the Central Laboratory immediately after the United Alkali Company (UAC) was formed in 1890, by amalgamating the Leblanc alkali works in Britain, brought high expectations of repositioning the company by replacing its obsolete Leblanc process plant and expanding its range of chemical products. By 1914, UAC had struggled with few exceptions to adopt new technologies and processes and was still reliant on the Leblanc process. From 1914, the Government would rely heavily on its contribution to the war effort. As a major heavy-chemical manufacturer, UAC produced chemicals for explosives and warfare gases, while also trying to maintain production of many essential chemicals including fertilisers for homeland consumption. UAC's wartime effort was led by the Central Laboratory, working closely with the recently established Engineer's Department to develop new process pathways, build new plant, adapt existing plant, and produce the contracted quantities, all as quickly as possible to meet the changing battlefield demands. This article explores how wartime conditions and demands provided the stimulus for the Central Laboratory's crucial R&D work during World War One.
The dynamics of world terror and the war in Iraq were studied from different aspects. World terror displays a scaling growth while the rate equations of the civilian and the US-soldier casualties in Iraq both display zero-order chemical kinetics. The fractal dimensions of scattering diagrams were evaluated. Animal diagrams were obtained from scattering diagrams. A similarity/dissimilarity ratio was defined to relate any casualty event to a former one. This ratio implies that the dynamics of civilian casualties in Iraq is very complex. The changes of topological indices of animal diagrams were evaluated with respect to time and the area of the blank zones. The topological index changes linearly with time, and there exists a scaling relation between the topological index and the area of the blank zones in the case of world terror. The area of blank zones in the scattering diagram of US-soldiers decreases with the increase of topological index implying that the dynamics is confined to the scattering diagram. The area keeps almost constant for civilian casualties in Iraq with a jump after some time, and it implies that the dynamics has a growing tendency. There are two self-similarity patterns in the scattering diagram of world terror; one is peak-like and expanding, and the other is triangular and controls the growth. There is only a triangular controlling pattern for the scattering diagram of civilian casualties, and there is no significant self-similarity pattern for the scattering diagram of the US-soldier casualties in Iraq.
Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M
Vascular surgery in World War II has long been defined by DeBakey and Simeone's classic 1946 article describing arterial repair as exceedingly rare. They argued ligation was and should be the standard surgical response to arterial trauma in war. We returned to and analyzed the original records of World War II military medical units housed in the National Archives and other repositories in addition to consulting published accounts to determine the American practice of vascular surgery in World War II. This research demonstrates a clear shift from ligation to arterial repair occurring among American military surgeons in the last 6 months of the war in the European Theater of Operations. These conclusions not only highlight the role of war as a catalyst for surgical change but also point to the dangers of inaccurate history in stymieing such advances.
Larsen, Matthew F; McCarthy, T J; Moulton, Jeremy G; Page, Marianne E; Patel, Ankur J
World War II and its subsequent GI Bill have been widely credited with playing a transformative role in American society, but there have been few quantitative analyses of these historical events' broad social effects. We exploit between-cohort variation in the probability of military service to investigate how WWII and the GI Bill altered the structure of marriage, and find that it had important spillover effects beyond its direct effect on men's educational attainment. Our results suggest that the additional education received by returning veterans caused them to "sort" into wives with significantly higher levels of education. This suggests an important mechanism by which socioeconomic status may be passed on to the next generation.
The world tanker industry has managed to maintain the momentum generated during the Persian Gulf War. Freight rates for large vessels have regained the high levels seen during the first 2 months of this year, while the expected postwar decline in use of tankers has not materialized. The health of the tanker industry is linked closely with the volume of long haul crude oil from the Middle East, a spot charter from the gulf to Europe, an owner would only break even on the cost of building and operating a new tanker to the highest environmental standards. Owners currently can expect spot rates of about $40,000/day, excellent by the standards of the late 1980s and early 1990s but still below the level needed to justify new buildings. And there are many in the industry who think $40,000/day will be just a happy memory later in the year. Owners are facing pressure for major changes in the industry. Governments and the public want better operating standards and new environmentally sound tankers to reduce the risk of oil spills. At the same time, the industry has to learn to live with repercussion in the 1990 Oil Pollution Act in the U.S., which has opened the way for unlimited liability against tanker owners involved in spills off the U.S. The search also is on for improved profits to make investments required by the changing world of seaborne oil transportation.
Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.
We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973
Napoleon Bonaparte, Adolph Hitler and Joseph Stalin were tyrants who attained absolute power, and misused it in a gargantuan fashion, leaving in his wake a trail of hatred, devastation and death. All made war on their perceived enemies and on their own countrymen. In "A Brotherhood of Tyrants: Manic Depression and Absolute power" (1994) Amherst, Prometheus Books, D. Jablow Hershman and I expose manic-depressive disorder as the force that drove them to absolute power and the terrible abuse of it. We uncover manic-depressive disorder as a hidden cause of dictatorship, mass killing and war, and show how the psychopathology of the disorder can be a key factor in the political pathology of tyranny. In our earlier "The Key To Genius: Manic-Depression and the Creative Life" (1998) Amherst Prometheus Books we catalog the role of the disorder in the lives and careers of Isaac Newton, Ludwig von Beethoven, Charles Dickens, Vincent van Gogh and other creative geniuses. Thus manic-depressive disorder is variable to the extreme of paradox. Key to the destroyers is an indifference to the suffering of others, a need to control everyone and everything, a resistance to reason, and grandiose and paranoid delusions. The paranoid and grandiose delusions of manic-depressives are as infectious and as virulent as a deadly microbe, and can easily infect those in thrall to the host figure. It is a phenomenon known as "induced psychosis" and its imprint is often to be seen on the world stage. In this article I will add Kaiser Wilhelm to the list of manic-depressive warmongers, and passages from Robert Payne's "The Life and Death of Adolph Hitler" that are not only pathognomonic of manic-depressive disorder, but of the mixed variant.
Batten, Alan H.
Both the beginning and ending of World War I were signalled by total solar eclipses at which attempts were made to measure the deflection, predicted by Albert Einstein, of starlight passing close to the Sun. An American team led by W. W. Campbell and a German team led by E. F. Freundlich travelled to Russia to observe the eclipse of 1914 August 21. The Americans were foiled by the weather, and the Germans were interned as enemy aliens, so no successful measurements were made. British astronomers, led by A. S. Eddington, mounted two expeditions to observe the eclipse of 1919 May 29, one to Brazil, the other, with Eddington personally in charge, to an island off the west coast of Africa. The results, presented with much fanfare, appeared to constitute a spectacular confirmation of general relativity, although much debate surrounded the observations and their interpretation in later decades. The stories of Freundlich and Eddington intertwine not only with controversial questions about how best to make and to reduce the observations, but also with attitudes toward the war, notably the extreme anti-German sentiment that pervaded the countries of the western alliance, contrasted with the Quaker pacifism of Eddington himself; and also with differing attitudes to relativity among European and American astronomers. Eddington later played a role in bringing Freundlich to the United Kingdom after the rise of Hitler and the Nazis. Ironically, in later life, Freundlich became increasingly sceptical of general relativity and proposed a theory of proton-proton interaction to account for the cosmological red-shifts.
Gibson, T Michael; Harrison, Michael H
This is the second of three brief papers that summarize the history of Aviation Medicine in the Royal Air Force. British aviation medicine research was rescued from the doldrums of retrenchment after the end of the First World War by the need to support attempts on world records for height and speed. Despite this, the outbreak of the Second World War still found the British inadequately prepared. This part of the account of British aviation medicine research charts its transition from an organization with three full-time workers into a thriving research institute.
military families. The linchpin of these new social realities of war was the all-volunteer force. The nation moved from a mixed force of conscripts and......fairly presented to the average Roman as wars of survival, self-defense, or expansion of Rome within recognized social and cultural boundaries. The wars
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What evidence of World War II military... SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Military Service § 408.420 What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (a) Kinds of evidence you can give us....
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What evidence of World War II military... SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Military Service § 408.420 What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (a) Kinds of evidence you can give us....
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What evidence of World War II military... SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Military Service § 408.420 What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (a) Kinds of evidence you can give us....
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What evidence of World War II military... SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Military Service § 408.420 What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (a) Kinds of evidence you can give us....
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What evidence of World War II military... SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Military Service § 408.420 What evidence of World War II military service do you need to give us? (a) Kinds of evidence you can give us....
The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.
Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Petaros, Anja; Balažic, Jože; Geršak, Ksenija
The aim of the study was to perform the genetic identification of a human cranium from a Second World War gravesite in Slovenia and find out if it belonged to the mother of a woman used as a family reference. Both genetic and anthropological examinations were carried out. The genetic examination was performed on 2 molars and petrous bone. Prior to DNA isolation 0.5 g of tooth and bone powder was decalcified. The DNA was purified in a Biorobot EZ1 (Qiagen) device. The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified and short tandem repeat (STR) typing performed using two different autosomal and Y-STR kits. Up to 22.4 ng DNA/g of powder was obtained from samples analyzed. We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from the left second molar and from the petrous bone. Full autosomal genetic profile including amelogenin locus revealed the male origin of the cranium that was further confirmed by the analyses of Y-STRs. The same conclusions were adopted after the anthropological analysis which identified the cranium as that of a very young Caucasoid male. The male origin of the cranium rejected the possibility of motherhood for the compared daughter. For traceability in the event of contamination, we created an elimination database including genetic profiles of the nuclear and Y-STRs of all persons that had been in contact with the analyzed cranium and no match was found.
Poddubnyĭ, M V
The article analyses some of illustrations dedicated to the military medical topics on the pages of some Russian magazines and newspapers (magazine "Ogonek" newspaper "Petrograd's paper" and its annexes), its place among the images of the war, formed in the mass consciousness by periodical subjects. It is concluded that with the beginning of the First World War medical illustrations were finally approved as a recognizable symbol of the war. Mass printed media played a significant role in its entrenchment.
Tuttle, William M., Jr.
This paper discusses the impact of World War II on the lives of U.S. home-front children--that is, the boys and girls born between 1933 and 1945 who were children during the war and were still preadolescents when the war ended. The paper proceeds by discussing, first, the topical approach to the subject used in this essay; second, the ways in…
millimeter. What was your experience with it? Maj. Gen. Alison : In the kind of war we were fighting, it came in very handy , simply because we had very...Gen. John R. Alison , USAF, retired ................. 53 Lt. Col. Donald S. Lopez, USAF, retired .......... 58 Maj. Gen. John P. Henebry, USAF, retired...Veterans of World War II Reflections on the Air War in the Pacific Panelists Gen. Bernard A. Schriever, USAF, retired Maj. Gen. John R. Alison , USAF
and, equally important, can be prevented from becoming a lethal agent . I am also glad that, contrary to the usual practice in this historical series...blood, plasma, or both. These agents , in fact, will be needed even more than in World War II and in the Korean War, for future wars will surely involve...however, the Navy found serum albumin equally useful, because the procure- ment of water, which usually had to be administered with this agent , was
Le forze armate (Turin, 1981), pp. 118, 161. 15. Aldo Valori, La condotta politica della guerra (Milan, 1934), 3 p. 245. 16. Cadorna to Boselli, 7...the War Ministry. 33. On the mood in 1914 see Lieven’s analysis In Russia and 61e 3 qrigins, chapter 4, and Leopold Ha.oson’s pessimistic ’The Problem
Evolution,” 35. 41 Wilson, Maneuver and Firepower, 16. 14 In May of 1898, the USS Maine was sunk off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor. This...Secretary of War and the War Department tasked Colonel Chauncey Baker, an expert in transportation , to conduct a board to analyze the force structures
Keene, Jennifer D.
Focuses on the experience of U.S. soldiers during World War I. Addresses topics, such as the difficulties and horrors the soldiers dealt with in the trenches, the problems with untrained soldiers, the sickness and injuries that affected soldiers, and heroes of the war. (CMK)
During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…
Lockard, Craig A.
Asserts that the American-Vietnamese War can be analyzed best in the context of three distinct entities: (1) Vietnam; (2) the United States; and (3) the larger world. Discusses Vietnam's revolutionary tradition, U.S. Cold War foreign policy, and the global context of anticolonialism and antiimperialism. (CFR)
Prior to the First World War, the public's attitude toward sex education was apathetic. With venereal disease posing a threat to America's "military efficiency" during the war, however, military programs in sex education were instituted that then gave rise to similar programs in secondary schools in the 1920s. (JBM)
This essay is based on the author's presentation at the Wachman Center's July 26-27, 2008 history institute, co-sponsored and hosted by the Cantigny First Division Foundation of the McCormick Tribune Foundation. For Europeans, World War I remains the epochal event of the twentieth century. For Americans, the war falls between two much larger and…
As the United States prepared to enter the Second World War and during the early years of the conflict, Music Educators National Conference (MENC) focused attention on how music educators could support the war effort. The association worked with the federal government and other agencies on a number of national programs. Through its publication,…
Chilcoat, George W.
By using propaganda commercial radio broadcasts which occurred during the Second World War as the basis for classroom activities, teachers can help students capture the emotional drama of various topics of the war, as well as certain themes still applicable in contemporary society, and stimulate student curiosity about the past. (RM)
Schlene, Vickie L.
Presents nine documents from the ERIC database dealing with teaching about World War II. Includes articles addressing the lessons of Pearl Harbor, the Holocaust, the wartime internment of Japanese Americans, industry's response to the war, and the moral lessons of Nazism. (SG)
Ericsson, Kjersti; Simonsen, Eva
This article conceptualizes Second World War children of German soldiers and native women in Norway as "border children", who became symbolic bearers of deep societal conflicts. The authors demonstrate that this position had painful consequences in the personal experiences of the children, experiences that were shared with war children…
Shermis, S. Samuel
In honor of the 100th anniversary of "The Social Studies," the journal is reprinting this article, originally published in Vol. 55, No. 6 (November 1964). In this essay, Shermis explains that, while prior to 1914 the social studies did not exist, the field had come into existence within five years after World War I ended. The war, subsequent…
Balsamo, Larry T.
Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…
Op Den Velde, Wybrand; Deeg, Dorly J H; Hovens, Johannes E; Van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Aarts, Petra G H
The mental and physical health of 146 Dutch males exposed to severe war stress during their young adulthood were examined in 1986-1987 when they were at ages 61 to 66 years. The veterans' data were compared with a randomly selected population-based sample of same-aged males. In 2005, 70% of the war stress veterans had died, and only 35% of the comparison group. The baseline quality of life was significantly poorer in the war stress veterans than in the comparison group. Baseline variables explained 42% of the increased risk of mortality among war stress veterans. Smoking was the largest single contributor to mortality.
Taylor, Sharon Estill
Asking the research question, "What is the lived experience of women whose fathers died in World War II?" led to awareness of the unexplored impact of war loss on children. It was hypothesized that this research would show that women who experienced father-loss due to war would share commonality in certain areas. Areas of exploration including…
THE MARINE CORPS SCHOOLS: DRIVING INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE TOWARDS THE SECOND WORLD WAR A Monograph By Major Neil D. Whitney United State Marine...of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering...NUMBER THE MARINE CORPS SCHOOLS: DRIVING INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE TOWARDS THE SECOND WORLD WAR 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6
Reid, Fiona; Van Everbroeck, Christine
During the First World War combatants of all armies were prey to nervous disorders or psychological breakdown. These war neuroses were a response to the highly-industrialised nature of the warfare as well as to the fatigue engendered over four years of intense conflict. Yet while fear and mental breakdown were universal, national responses varied. A comparison of British and Belgian shell shock indicates that men suffered in very similar ways but that symptoms met with rather different responses: in Britain treatment and diagnostic regimes stressed the importance of class difference and shell shock was often linked to cowardice. These issues were not of overriding importance in the Belgian army. In the longer term shell shock became, and remained, a topic of political and social concern in Britain whereas in Belgium men suffering from kloppe (extreme fear) tended to be forgotten and the topic has not excited much popular interest or scholarly attention. Yet despite these differences one overarching theme remains clear, namely that despite the extensive experience of war neuroses during and after the First World War, there still remains a fierce stigma about the mental wounds of war.
Shelepov, A M; Leonik, S I; Lemeshkin, R N
Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front. An activity of the medical An activity of the medical service of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front is a typical example of the medical support of troops during the final stages of World War II. Forms and methods of medical support management, which were developed during the war, haven't lost their importance in modern conditions. These methods include the establishment of specialized surgical and therapeutic field hospital, establishment of medical institutions in the Army, which worked on the evacuation directions and reserve of mobile hospitals and transport, timely extension of the first echelons of the hospital base front to change institutions hospital deployed the army base. A research of experience in organizing medical support of the offensive operations performed during the last year of World War II provides the material for the development of the theory of modern medical support operations and ability to provide on this basis, the continuity of the hospitals, the continuity of qualified and specialized medical care, improve the performance of diagnostic and treatment work.
Engdahl, Brian E.
The Former Prisoners of War Act (1981) mandated complete health examinations for all interested prisoners of war (POWs). This paper reports on examinations of more than two-thirds of the POWs in the Minneapolis Veterans Administration Medical Center catchment area under the established POW protocol and special psychiatric examinations. The…
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II... installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL. Boilers, pressure vessels, machinery, piping, electrical... the termination of title V of the Second War Powers Act, as extended (sec. 501, 56 Stat. 180, 50...
The review of the National Curriculum and the centenary of the First World War have emphasised an orthodox patriotic and nostalgic historical ideal. The British coalition Conservative-Liberal government has aligned itself with the centenary commemorations of the First World War, while the war as social and political history may be in danger of…
... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II... installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL. Boilers, pressure vessels, machinery, piping, electrical... the termination of title V of the Second War Powers Act, as extended (sec. 501, 56 Stat. 180, 50...
... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II... installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL. Boilers, pressure vessels, machinery, piping, electrical... the termination of title V of the Second War Powers Act, as extended (sec. 501, 56 Stat. 180, 50...
... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II... installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL. Boilers, pressure vessels, machinery, piping, electrical... the termination of title V of the Second War Powers Act, as extended (sec. 501, 56 Stat. 180, 50...
... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II... installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL. Boilers, pressure vessels, machinery, piping, electrical... the termination of title V of the Second War Powers Act, as extended (sec. 501, 56 Stat. 180, 50...
The author investigates international migratory movements in Europe between the two world wars, with a focus on the impact of economic and social changes brought about by World War I. "The economic crisis brought out new behavioral patterns. Although the number of foreign migrant workers was decreasing, there appeared xenophobic attitudes....The terrible events that led to the War questioned and upset the efforts towards stabilization made by most foreigners. They were soon considered as would-be enemies....[The] hard times further reinforced the precarious situation of foreigners living in border areas." (EXCERPT)
As German men were conscripted into the armed forces during the Second World War, more and more wives were left to manage their families alone. At the same time more women than ever entered paid employment to fill the gaps in the market left by their soldier husbands. Scholars working in the field have made much of the dislocation to gender roles prompted by the Second World War. This article questions whether women's wartime experiences changed their views on being confined to the home. Ultimately, this article argues, women wanted to return to a sense of normality at the end of the war. In the aftermath of defeat, in which mere survival rather than speculation about potentially improved models of the family set-up were paramount, "normality" was most obviously represented by prewar gender roles. Women were hoping for normalization, not only in the public sphere in the sense of a flourishing economy, but also in the private sphere with the return of the men and a resumption of the old role divisions. It was therefore not only conservative politicians who wished to preserve prewar structures within the home - so too did women themselves. The re-emergence of the traditional family model in the wake of the Second World War was thus as much the result of popular aspirations "from below" as of government policies imposed "from above".
Few charitable organizations have achieved the status of global recognition enjoyed by UNICEF, the United Nations Children's Fund, which embodies the international effort to provide for needy children the world over. Created because of its synchronicity with the United Nations' stated purpose—to maintain peace in the world—UNICEF launched its operations in 1946. Its founding, early operations and eventual restructuring reveal a great deal about concurrent political and economic events, but also provide keen insight into international ideas about who qualified for full citizenship in the post-war world. The consequences of UNICEF's policies, procedures and practices posed challenges to notions of citizenship for both women and children. It challenged citizenship not by questioning sex-specific gender roles, but by judiciously adhering to the United Nations' promise to create equality for men and women alike. UNICEF found itself in the unique position to be able to globalize definitions of what constituted full citizenship in any nation, due to its rapid expansion throughout the world. Through its programs, especially those related to health care, it not only challenged these roles in the West, but began over several decades to complicate the definition of citizenship as it became a forceful presence in Asia and Africa throughout the 1970s.
Roxanas, M G
Part 1 of this article (see Vol 17, pp. 168-172) described the early life of Harvey Cushing and his encounters with Australian doctors, mostly in various military hospitals, in France, in World War 1. As none of the doctors he met at that time became neurosurgeons, and hence did not shape their professional development. When World War 1 ended, HC returned to a heavy schedule of operating at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and to his university obligations. He received the Companion of the Bath from the British Government for his war services and wrote the history of US Base Hospital No. 5, which he directed during the War. Cushing's reputation as a neurosurgeon was now secure and he was ready to play an even greater part as an academic neurosurgeon, teaching students from all parts of the world and continuing his researches into cerebral tumours and the pituitary gland.
World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial to 'Smoky, Yorkie Doodle Dandy and Dogs of All Wars' in the Rocky River Reservation, Lakewood, Ohio. November 11, 2005
Lanska, Douglas J
As a result of the wartime urgency to understand, prevent, and treat patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during World War II (WWII), clinicians and basic scientists in Great Britain collaborated on research projects that included accident investigations, epidemiologic studies, and development of animal and physical models. Very quickly, investigators from different disciplines shared information and ideas that not only led to new insights into the mechanisms of TBI but also provided very practical approaches for preventing or ameliorating at least some forms of TBI. Neurosurgeon Hugh Cairns (1896-1952) conducted a series of influential studies on the prevention and treatment of head injuries that led to recognition of a high rate of fatal TBI among motorcycle riders and subsequently to demonstrations of the utility of helmets in lowering head injury incidence and case fatality. Neurologists Derek Denny-Brown (1901-1981) and (William) Ritchie Russell (1903-1980) developed an animal model of TBI that demonstrated the fundamental importance of sudden acceleration (i.e., jerking) of the head in causing concussion and forced a distinction between head injury associated with sudden acceleration/deceleration and that associated with crush or compression. Physicist A.H.S. Holbourn (1907-1962) used theoretical arguments and simple physical models to illustrate the importance of shear stress in TBI. The work of these British neurological clinicians and scientists during WWII had a strong influence on subsequent clinical and experimental studies of TBI and also eventually resulted in effective (albeit controversial) public health campaigns and legislation in several countries to prevent head injuries among motorcycle riders and others through the use of protective helmets. Collectively, these studies accelerated our understanding of TBI and had subsequent important implications for both military and civilian populations. As a result of the wartime urgency to understand
Havari, Enkelejda; Peracchi, Franco
We document the association between war-related shocks in childhood and adult outcomes for Europeans born during the first half of the twentieth century. Using a variety of data, at both the macro- and the micro-level, we address the following questions: What are the patterns of mortality among Europeans born during this period? Do war-related shocks in childhood and adolescence help predict adult health, human capital and wellbeing of the survivors? Are there differences by sex, socio-economic status in childhood, and age when the shocks occurred? At the macro-level, we show that the secular trend towards lower mortality was interrupted by dramatic increases in mortality during World War I, the Spanish Flu, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II, and we quantify the size of these mortality shocks. Different patterns characterize these high-mortality episodes, with substantial variation by country, sex and age group. At the micro-level, we show that war-related hardship in childhood or adolescence, in particular exposure to war events and experience of hunger, is associated with worse physical and mental health, education, cognitive ability and subjective wellbeing at older ages. The strength of the association differs by sex and type of hardship, with war exposure being more important for females and experience of hunger for males. We also show that hardships matter more if experienced in childhood, and have stronger consequences if they last longer.
During the First World War soldiers suffered from a wide range of debilitating nervous complaints as a result of the stresses and strains of modern warfare. These complaints--widely known as shell shock--were the subject of much medical-military debate during the war and became emblematic of the war and its sufferings afterwards. One hundred years after the war the diagnosis of PTSD has not resolved the issues initially raised by First World War shell shock. The stigma of mental illness remains strong and it is still difficult to commemorate and remember the mental wounds of war in a culture which tend to glory or glamorise military heroes.
With the Nazis' coming to power in Germany in 1933, dental surgery turned to the Nazi ideology which little by little influenced doctors to get ready for a possible military conflict. As soon as war was declared, dental surgeons got involved int he Luftwaffe, in the Kriegsmarine as well as in the Wehrmacht, and contributed significantly to the quick recovery of the injured, and thus to the continuation of war as the latter could soon go back to the front. With the German rout, medical efforts were dedicated to the army only and the civilian population was neglected.
AND SCIENCE Military History by LLOYD B. WOHLSCHLEGEL, MAJOR, U.S. ARMY B.S., Bloomsburg University, Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, 2005...code) (U) (U) (U) (U) 146 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 iii MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL...TABLE OF CONTENTS Page MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE ............ iii ABSTRACT
Carothers, Harry H., Thad L. Erikson , and Gary K. Iversen. Mobilization Studies PormRpr 1 Fa~ rvnir in the Military Services. Research Report...Expeditionary Forces, 1919. Prugh, MG George S. Law At War Vietnam 1964-1973. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 1975. Reckord, Milton A., MG, USA
Baars, Patricia, Ed.
Covers the Victory Garden campaign of the early 1940s begun by the Office of War Information and the Office of Civil Defense. Provides a facsimile of a poster designed to publicize the program in addition to seven teaching activities. (JDH)
Rossiter, Margaret W.
Discusses: material/personnel shortages and surpluses around 1950; federal aid to nonmilitary research; loyalty oaths and security checks; rise of the behavioral sciences; science education, from the Cold War to creationism; antinuclear protests and the limited test ban treaty, 1954-1963; Sputnik and the space program; and health, safety, and…
Alter, Gloria T., Ed.
Reviews a number of videos distributed by The Video Project, an organization that provides media programs on global issues at an affordable price. Specifically, reviews videos that highlight personal experiences/consequences of war and violence. Includes videos concerning Bosnia, Vietnam, Hiroshima, and conflict resolution. (MJP)
Hyson, J M; Whitehorne, J W
In 1917-18, the U.S. Army revived a denture technique first introduced in 1866 by Dr. James Baxter Bean, the Confederate dental surgeon who established the first military maxillofacial hospital trauma ward in Atlanta, Georgia, during the American Civil War--the cast aluminum wartime denture.
Harrington, James J.
In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…
Mayer, Victor J.
Western educators are forgetting the need to impart knowledge about modern warfare's consequences. Science texts contain little about radiation damage. The nuclear bomb's destructiveness to humans and the biosphere should be a teacher responsibility in several curriculum areas. "War is hell" should be educators' main message. (Contains…
Folk, G. Edgar
The war contributions of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in Cambridge, MA, were recorded in 169 Technical Reports, most of which were sent to the Office of the Quartermaster General. Earlier reports were sent to the National Research Council and the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Many of the reports from 1941 and later dealt with…
This activity book is designed for grades 5-8 to look at America at home during World War II. The work examines the efforts of the men, women, and children who supported and supplied one of the greatest mobilizations of people and material that the world has ever witnessed. The activities were planned to compliment the exhibit of the same name,…
Hales, Loyde W.; Shaw, Ian S.
This study sought to investigate the effect of the use of videos about the Holocaust as part of a study of world history on student knowledge and understanding. The research hypothesis was that the mean achievement of 8th grade students who viewed videos about the Holocaust and World War II (WWII) in conjunction with their regular class…
What kind of "war" did Japanese chemists fight during World War I, and what impact did their experiences have on Japanese chemistry in its aftermath? By focusing on the role of Jōji Sakurai (1858-1939), this paper attempts to answer these questions by looking at the drastic changes in the international relationships of the Japanese chemical community caused by the war. It examines how the Japanese National Research Council was established in 1920 as part of the International Research Council, a product of the reconfiguration of international scientific powers triggered by World War I. This paper argues that Sakurai advocated the establishment of the National Research Council after the American model of wartime mobilisation of science, coordinated fractured Japanese chemical communities for international functions, and facilitated Japan's participation and increased influence in international scientific associations such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, established in 1919.
This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland.
Goldstein, G; van Kammen, W; Shelly, C; Miller, D J; van Kammen, D P
Data were obtained from 41 survivors of imprisonment by the Japanese during World War II. Interview data suggested that these individuals, despite the 40 years that had passed since their prisoner of war experiences, showed manifestations of posttraumatic stress disorder, notably a sleep disturbance marked by recurrent nightmares. MMPI data suggested significant pathology, characterized as an anxiety state, in this group. Half of the subjects met the full set of DSM-III criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder.
The First World War of 1914-1918 produced a wealth of disability and death and much has been written of this catastrophe for mankind. Prose is prolific and much poetry has been written too, some of it discussed here; it consists of works by healthcare workers and also about the effects of the war upon those who fought and those who were left behind. Some of the work is by neurologists and some deals with the neurological disorders of those who fought.
The mid-twentieth century in Britain ushered in a new age of anxiety with the development of total war and the aerial bombing of civilians. Rather than trying to chart and quantify levels of anxiety and fear on the British home front during the Blitz, this article's goal is to examine how these emotions were conceptualized by psychological experts immediately prior to and during the war. The essay follows the rising problematization of anxiety and fear as new concepts calling for professional knowledge and management. It emphasizes the contribution of psychoanalysts to this development while pointing to gradual change between the two world wars.
The School of Hard Knocks: The Development of Close Air Support in Burma during the Second World War A Monograph by Major Patrick B...AND SUBTITLE The School of Hard Knocks: The Development of Close Air Support in Burma during the Second World War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...explores the roots of modern CAS in Burma during World War II. By contrasting the efforts of the American Volunteer Group in 1942 with the Eastern Air
THE II ITALIAN CORPS DEPLOYMENT ON THE WESTERN FRONT DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR (APRIL 1918-MAY 1919) A thesis presented to the...2014 – JUN 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The II Italian Corps Deployment on the Western Front during the First World War (April 1918-May 1919) 5a...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This thesis is a case study about little known instance of coalition warfare during the First World War
BRIDGE BUSTERS: THE 397TH BOMBARDMENT GROUP (MEDIUM) AND THE B-26 MARAUDER IN WORLD WAR II BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL DAVID OCH A THESIS...v ABSTRACT This study examines the concept of medium bombardment and the role of the Martin B-26 Marauder in World War II (WWII) through...1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), 239. 2 History, 397th Bombardment Group, June 1944. 2 and capable
Salf, E; Augier, S
A statute of dental surgeon of the Navy and later of the Army was created in February 1916 among the corresponding French military Health Departments. Under the pressure of the military events, after two years of "shifty" acting of the soldier-dental surgeons on the front line and irresolution of the Government, Justin Godart created at last a Corps of military dental surgeons and stomatologists. Problems of bucco-dental health raised as soon as the autumn 1914 by the trench war and the repair of "broken Jaws" (gueules cassées) induced by the new weapons of this war will be brilliantly and economically solved by this Corps suppressed after Armistice. A permanent Corps foreseen in 1945 seems revived in France with the 15 December 1993 decree amid the already provided new European Union.
was in continuous ccrmrunication with the Quartermaster General at the OHL. Additionally there was comunnication between the Chief of Field Railways...French border towards Paris. The OHL managed the supply system well, basically because of the efforts and -ýiUites of the Chief of il A trhe1-Colonel...has also been criticis of the propaganda effort against the war-weary Entente. A well managed program might have magnified the impact of the offensive
of sanitation. The very failure to control disease in that war did much to stimulate the development of preventive medicine in the Army in the years...Carlisle Barracks, one of the oldest Army posts in the country. Its purpose was to provide instruc- tion in Army operation and administration; that is...civilian medical instruction for military purposes stimulated much interest, and undoubtedly enlarged the Nation’s professional readiness in an
This article will examine a little known but long-standing group, the Lisle Fellowship, that endeavored to open the world to college students and foster international understanding--or "world-mindedness," as the organization's founders called it--ultimately with the goal to contribute to the ideal of world peace. It will also, in…
Metcalf, Lawrence, Ed.; And Others
This pamphlet, intended for senior high school students, examines the complexities of applying international law to questions of individual rights and responsibilities in time of war. Case studies of four actual courtroom trials are presented. Events leading up to the trials (relating to Andersonville, Nuremberg, Hiroshima, and My Lai) are…
THE NATIONAL GUARD IN WAR: AN HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE 27TH INFANTRY DIVISION (NEW YORK NATIONAL GUARD) IN WORLD WAR II DIC FILE COpy NA thesis...aster’s Thesis. Aua 1989 to Jun 1990 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS The National Guard in War: An Historical Analysis of the 27th Division...Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. A 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200words) This study is an historical analysis of the 27th Division in
European conflict, the U.S. Navy did little to prepare for this new kind of war. It entered the War in April, 1917 with a “top-heavy” force of battleships...rival theorist, Sir Julian Corbett, better described the character of World War I. Despite the advantage of almost three years of observing the European ...an antisubmarine campaign against Germany in European waters.2 Despite a somewhat flat-footed start, the U.S. Navy significantly contributed to
This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action.
This article suggests how the waging of war in an imperial setting may have reshaped military and civilian relations in India from 1939-45. The number of troops stationed in India had repercussions for society and local politics. The article investigates widespread prostitution as one aspect of the gendered wartime economy. Indian prostitution was closely linked to militarization and to the effects of the 1943 Bengal famine. The article also argues this was symptomatic of a more far-reaching renegotiation of the interactions between men and women in the Indian Empire of the 1940s. Other Indian, European, North American and Anglo-Indian women worked as nurses, with the Red Cross and in a variety of roles towards the war effort. Women were subject to new social and sexual demands due to the increased numbers of troops stationed in India in the 1940s.
The current debate on issuing identity cards to the British population was foreshadowed during the First World War, when the National Registration Act of 1915 provided for a register of all men and women between 15 and 65, later used to aid conscription. The National Register was produced by Bernard Mallet, the Registrar General of England and Wales. The information demands of the war also provided an opportunity for Mallet to press forward his pre-war agenda of reforming the system of routine registration of births, marriages and deaths. His desire for reform was shaped by the pressing eugenic questions of the day - infant mortality and national efficiency - and as the war progressed, he developed his ideas to include a permanent universal register of all individuals. This article examines the fate of Mallet's proposals, and shows how lack of political consensus and lack of support, even from colleagues in the General Register Office for Scotland, prevented his proposals coming to fruition.
The question, "What were the causes of World War I?," has become one of the classic historical debates of which there seem to be endless permutations. In the past 90 years historians, journalists, and politicians have offered many more or less rational explanations for the war. Although at least some of the usual "causes"…
Zimmermann, P; Hahne, H-H; Biesold, K-H; Lanczik, M
In the First and Second World War German soldiers frequently suffered from psychogenic disorders. By comparison a change in the prevalences can be noted: in the First World War dissociative disorders dominated the clinical impression ("shell shock"), in the Second World War they could rarely be seen but were replaced by somatoform and psychosomatic diseases. The discussion about numerous reasons for this development has not been completed yet and is still not free from political attitudes. To achieve a more scientific point of view, the perspective of psychotraumatology might be helpful. According to psychotraumatic research, dissociative and somatoform disorders can emerge in a close relation to a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The choice of symptoms depends on personality traits of the victim, but also on specific factors that characterise the situation in which the trauma appears. The mixture of pathogenetic and protective influences includes e. g. the possibility of flight- or fight reactions, feelings of trauma-associated guilt and group cohesion in the military unit. These factors can be useful to help explain the change of symptoms between both wars. In addition the analysis of situational conditions in former wars can give hints to actual planning and prophylaxis strategies in modern military psychiatry, that has to adjust to very different military operation fields.
Hughes, J T
In World War II, Hugh Cairns, Oxford Nuffield Professor of Surgery and brigadier in the Royal Army Medical Corps, designed and administered the mobile neurosurgical units that treated casualties with head injuries in the various campaigns fought by the British Army. Cairns also created the Combined Services Hospital for Head Injuries at St Hugh's College, Oxford, where the staff of the units were trained and where evacuated casualties were received. The excellent outcome of the head-injured in World War II and the impetus to the expansion of neurosurgery in the UK during and after that war were, in large measure, due to Cairns. Others had knowledge of neurosurgery but Cairns inspired surgeons, neurologists and nursing sisters to perform neurosurgery at the highest level on the battlefield.
gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E
At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.
Elder, Glen H.; Brown, James Scott; Martin, Leslie R.; Friedman, Howard W.
Objective This longitudinal study of American veterans investigated the mortality risks of five World War II military experiences (i.e., combat exposure) and their variation among veterans in the post-war years. Methods The male subjects (N=854) are members of the Stanford-Terman study, and 38 percent served in World War II. Cox models (proportional hazards regressions) compared the relative mortality risk associated with each military experience. Results Overseas duty, service in the Pacific and exposure to combat significantly increased the mortality risks of veterans in the study. Individual differences in education, mental health in 1950, and age at entry into the military, as well as personality factors made no difference in these results. Conclusions A gradient is observable such that active duty on the home front, followed by overseas duty, service in the Pacific, and combat exposure markedly increased the risk of relatively early mortality. Potential linking mechanisms include heavy drinking. PMID:20161074
MccGwire, M. )
Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring to...
Based on his own teaching experiences and findings, the author discusses the experience gap between U.S. and Japanese students' knowledge of World War II. He compares and contrasts how the subject of World War II is taught in the United States versus Japan. While it takes teacher effort to enrich the history experiences of U.S. students, the…
ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD WAR II COMBINED BOMBER OFFENSIVE DTIC :111192-07858 COLONEL GEORGE E. CROWDER 1991 ’ PROEDf PUBLIC AIR UNIVERSITY E; OISIUTIDN...Decision Making Analysis of the World War II Combined Bomber Offensive by George E. Crowder Colonel, USAF A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY IN
Ahern, John; Sandmann, Alexa
Provides an annotated bibliography and suggested teaching activities for units on the Great Depression and World War II. The materials support inquiry into the causes of the Great Depression and World War II and how these events transformed U.S. society. The annotated bibliography includes novels, memoirs, biographies, and political studies. (MJP)
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring...
Journal , March 1990, pp . 12-14. Burns, Ric and Burns, Ken. The Civil War An Ill ustrated History. New York: Al.red A. Knoph, Inc., 1990. Coffman ...stop an attacker at 200 to 250 yards, and kill up to 1,oo0 yards. A trained soldier could fire two or three 5 rounds a minute with deadly accuracy. The...battle, an entrenched stalemate developed . Grant moved his army south to Spottsylvania in an attempt to cut Lee’s lines of
This article explores the Canadian military entertainment units during World War II (WWII), specifically those formed by the Navy, Army and Air Force from talent found amongst their own personnel. These entertainment units toured extensively in Canada, the United Kingdom and Europe with the goal of increasing the morale of combat troops while encouraging the enlistment of Canada's domestic populations in the war effort generally and the armed forces specifically. By focusing on male to female cross-dressing in the performances of these entertainment units and their pre-WWII antecedents, it will become clear that the nature and importance of the representation of femininity within the virtually all-male milieu that existed near the battlefront changed over time in response to the demands of the audiences. Until the second half of WWII, soldier audiences were generally unwilling to form any ideological links between cross-dressing and homosexuality. Female impersonators were the key cast members in troop shows during the Great War, but eventually fell out of favor in the last years of WWII after women were recruited in large numbers into the Canadian military and thus its entertainment infrastructure. With women then on the military stage, men who persisted in female impersonation were decreasingly popular with audiences, ultimately under growing suspicion of being homosexuals and gradually removed from the productions.
Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)
Stevens, John D.
Black newspapers, like the "Chicago Defender,""The Pittsburgh Courier," and the "Baltimore Afro-American," opened the eyes of Americans to the injustices suffered at home as well as in the armed services. The black press attacked the Navy for its Jim Crowism because when World War II began, the only black sailors were…
Washburn, Patrick S.
Holding enormous if controversial power as Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), J. Edgar Hoover was sometimes controlled unexpectedly at the highest reaches of government, as illustrated by his failed attempt to obtain an Espionage Act indictment against the black press during World War II. Following anarchist bombings in 1919,…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay is... the 21st month of study; and $30 per month for any month in excess of 21. (2) Cadet Nurse...
Rudolph, John L.
Considers the curriculum reform movement of the 1950s as an experiment in applying innovative research and development techniques perfected by scientists during World War II, tracing the development of newer methods of scientific analysis and examining how they were imported from military research to the field of education by a select group of…
For years, when the author taught about World War II, she used primary and secondary source readings, she presented Power Points, and had her students watch newsreels and other video clips. Today, her students interact with actual artifacts from history so that they can draw conclusions and gain understanding about what the soldiers' lives were…
As a neutral and multilingual country, Switzerland struggled with major domestic political conflicts during the First World War due to the two cultures of the French-speaking and German-speaking parts of the country. The divided cultural loyalties ("fossé moral", "Röstigraben"), consisting of Swiss-Germans supporting Germany…
Following the end of World War I, the Ontario Department of Education initiated a series of reforms aimed at both elementary and secondary schooling. This article examines the reforms that were made to elementary school curriculum and pedagogy. These were initiated within the context of a call for a general reconstruction of education and society…
Humphreys, Jere T.
Outlines the history of U.S. public school bands and orchestras prior to World War II. Begins with nineteenth century touring orchestras; continuing with military, town, and professional bands. Relates the growth of instrumental music in schools to the expansion of the music curriculum and the progressive education movement. (LS)
Eggleston, Noel C.
Describes how a role playing exercise can be used to teach students in a college level history course about the use of the atomic bomb in World War II. Information is presented on general use of role playing in history courses, objectives, questions to consider about use of the atomic bomb, and course evaluation. For journal availability, see so…
National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.
Guns, tanks, and bombs were the principal weapons of World War II, but there were other, more subtle forms of warfare. Words, posters, and films waged a constant battle for the hearts and minds of the U.S. citizenry as military weapons engaged the enemy. Persuading the U.S. public became a wartime industry, almost as important as the manufacturing…
This article argues that for Parsons and some of his colleagues at Harvard, the Second World War and the post-war period provided a context in which their work contributed to the transformation from totalitarianism to democracy in Central Europe (especially Germany) and Japan. The various agendas of Parsons' work are shown, supplemented by that of three of his colleagues with whom he collaborated (Gordon W. Allport, Carl J. Friedrich, Clyde Kluckhohn). The immediate effect of this work, for Parsons, however, meant frustration rather than fame, and his eventual reputation, I maintain, came unexpectedly with the third of his three attempts in the immediate post-war period to sum up what he believed were crucial insights that the Second World War had yielded concerning the ways in which sociology could contribute to the analytical understanding of democracy. The significance of this work is that it was both political and scientific. Because of the world situation of the 1940s, when the Holocaust in Germany was the nadir of civilization, Parsons believed that social science could contribute to the cause of making the world safe for future democracy. In the 1940s, this future depended on brave citizens, or such might have been Parsons' worldview. Targets envisaged for the 1950s, then, were community and citizenship in the newly democratic societies such as (West) Germany, the land that defeated Nazism.
The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay is... the 21st month of study; and $30 per month for any month in excess of 21. (2) Cadet Nurse...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay is... the 21st month of study; and $30 per month for any month in excess of 21. (2) Cadet Nurse...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay is... the 21st month of study; and $30 per month for any month in excess of 21. (2) Cadet Nurse...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay is... the 21st month of study; and $30 per month for any month in excess of 21. (2) Cadet Nurse...
Abalán, F; Martínez-Gallardo, R; Bourgeois, M
The main neuropsychic sequelae in adults of deportation to World War II nazi concentration camps: KZ syndrome, survivor syndrome-persecution syndrome and psychogenic schizophrenia, are described. Functional, organic and psychogenic etiologic conceptions of these syndromes are presented. An interpretation of these sequelae is proposed.
The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the conceptualisation of a textbook as a site of memory, a discourse and a genre. This paper investigates the semantic and linguistic elements of the discourse of World War II in Ukrainian school history textbooks for the 11th grade, centring on the following distinct key themes: the…
Raynal, Cécile; Lefebvre, Thierry
The authors present in this part the creation of first radioactiv drugs, since the discovery of radium to the first World War. They present the industrial and chemist Emile Armet de Lisle and the pharmacist Alexandre Antonin Jaboin, first manufacturers of those new way of treatment.
Traced is the history of the Muncie (Indiana) police department from the "gas boom" days of the 1890's through the pre-World War I "dry" years, the Klan-haunted twenties, and the depression years. Events in the community that played a major role in charting the development of the police department are chronicled. (RM)
Examines the loss of various collections, especially school libraries and the Ezra Library, in Cracow (Poland) during World War II. Highlights include Nazi policies toward Cracow's Jews; the destruction of libraries, archives, and collections; Jewish book collections in the Staatsbibliotek Krakau (state library); and the removal of books by Jewish…
Nakayama, Don K; Jensen, Gwenn M
Physicians and nurses of Japanese ancestry provided health care to 110000 persons incarcerated by the US government during World War II. They faced immense public health challenges created by overcrowding and inadequate resources. Their extraordinary service to their community reflected their professional devotion to their patients and the values of their Japanese homeland.
During World War I, the American University in Washington, D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitons including chemcial weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of ...
Okuda, Shinjo; Hishimura, Yikihiko
The basic pattern of contemporary secondary education in Japan, laid down immediately after World War II according to the American model of comprehensive high schools with elected school boards, has given way to a structure more in keeping with Japanese needs. However, coeducation has taken firm root in Japanese secondary schools. Major policy…
In this article the author shares a partial biography of Elizabeth Evans, who became a domestic science teacher in Britain during the First World War. This story begins with a small collection of artefacts--professional letters and personal photographs--which infuse our understanding of teaching and learning and Elizabeth's everyday life nearly a…
Social Education, 1995
Presents reviews of three instructional resources on World War II. Includes a multimedia kit based on newspapers and a videotape, an illustrated book on issues surrounding the bombing of Hiroshima, and a diary of a grade school teacher's experiences in the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps. (CFR)
The social upheaval of the Great Depression and the U.S. reaction to World War II are analyzed to demonstrate how country music songs, artists, and composers can help students gain historical insights. Songs appropriate for studying these two topics in U.S. history are listed. (RM)
Reynaud, Daniel; Northcote, Maria
This article explores the experiences of a lecturer and students in a class on the World Wars, where wargaming is used alongside traditional lecturing as a learning experience. It outlines the processes used and then evaluates the various kinds of learning, historical and other, that occur. Drawing on literature associated with history education…
Summarizes the attempts by the Board of Education in England to develop policy in relation to adult education and "further education" as a whole that began in 1909 and ended by World War II. Identifies the emergence of modern adult education stemming from developments in municipal evening schools and the university extension movement.…
Clark, Emily; Hornsby, Laura; Howard, Abigail; Pople, Kathryn
As student teachers, authors Emily Clark, Laura Hornsby, Abigail Howard, and Kathryn Pople were aware of what the class had already covered on World War 2 (WW2). It was unclear to them, however, what knowledge the children actually had acquired from the lessons. In this article these student teachers describe their use of concept mapping as they…
The aim of this thesis is to bring to bear the concepts, tools, and theories of human capital and human resources economics to evaluate the Federal Government's massive involvement in higher education under the World War II GI Bill of Rights. The major findings include estimates of total human capital formation by education, both during and after…
Smith, Susan L
This essay examines the risks of racialized science as revealed in the American mustard gas experiments of World War II. In a climate of contested beliefs over the existence and meanings of racial differences, medical researchers examined the bodies of Japanese American, African American, and Puerto Rican soldiers for evidence of how they differed from whites.
Yates, Carleen; Kuwada, Kali; Potter, Penelope; Cameron, Danielle; Hoshino, Janice
This qualitative study explored the verbal and art making responses of Japanese-American elders who experienced the trauma of internment during World War II. Six Nisei (second generation Japanese-Americans) were asked to recall memories of their experiences during and immediately following internment; 3 of the participants also created art images…
Gallavan, Nancy P.; Roberts, Teresa A.
In 1942, less than four months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent United States entry into World War II , nearly 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living along the west coast of the United States were ordered to evacuate their homes and sent to internment camps. The evacuees, separated from their extended families, former…
Jeter, James Phillip
A study examined contemporary reactions of the Black American press to the relocation and internment of the Japanese and Japanese Americans during World War II. Noting that the Black American press has been an activist press since its inception in 1827, it was hypothesized that Black newspapers would editorialize against the internment of Japanese…
Relates the use of a period "Life" magazine article to teach students about the internment of Japanese-American citizens during World War II. Recounts how the article about local prejudice prompted students to critically examine the policy of internment. Provides excerpts from the article and subsequent letters to the editors. (DSK)
The purpose of this study is to analyze the treatment of Japanese-American internment during World War II in high school United States history textbooks. Four reasons highlight the selection of this topic for study. First, this historical event was selected because a little over a year ago was the 60th anniversary of President Franklin D.…
Ramsey, E. Michele
Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining the rhetorical invention strategies of suffrage rhetoric in the cultural context of World War I. Shows how the political cartoons published in the mainstream Suffrage Movement's "The Woman Citizen" constructed women as strong, competent, and…
This article examines the treatment of madness as a theme in drama, opera and films, concentrating its attention for the most part on the period between World War II and the 1980s. These were the years in which psychoanalysis dominated psychiatry in the USA, and so Freud's influence in the broader culture forms the central though not the sole focus of the analysis.
Friese, Elizabeth E. G.; Nixon, Jenna
Two educators and a classroom of fifth grade students integrated poetry writing into social studies curriculum focusing on World War II. Several strategies and approaches to writing poetry are highlighted including list poems, writing from photographs and artifacts, and two voice poems. The study culminated in a poetry reading and the creation of…
Philpott, Joanne; Guiney, Daniel
Having already reflected on ways of improving their students' understanding of historical diversity at Key Stage 3, Joanne Philpott and Daniel Guiney set themselves the challenge of extending this to post-14 students by means of fieldwork activities at First World War battlefields sites. In addition, they wanted to link the study of past diversity…
In the midst of a curricular debate at Brown University during the Second World War, the faculty's humanists seized the opportunity to pen their views on the nature and purpose of higher education. This investigation reveals humanism as a fragmented force, at once principal and peripheral to the American academy. The central argument of this study…
Although the clinical and electrical diagnoses and treatments of peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) had been described prior to World War I, many reports were fragmented and incomplete. Individual physicians' experiences were not extensive, and in 1914 the patient with a PNI remained a subject of medical curiosity, and was hardly a focus of comprehensive care. World War I altered these conditions; casualties with septic wounds and PNIs swamped the general hospitals. By 1915, specialized hospitals or wards were developed to care for neurological injuries. In the United Kingdom, Sir Robert Jones developed the concept of Military Orthopedic Centres, with coordinated specialized care and rehabilitation. Military appointments of neurologists and electrotherapists sharpened clinical diagnoses and examinations. Surgical techniques were introduced, then discarded or accepted as surgeons developed skills to meet the new conditions. The US Surgeon General, William Gorgas, and his consultant in neurosurgery, Charles Frazier, went a step further, with the organization of a research laboratory as well as the establishment of a Peripheral Nerve Commission and Registry. Despite these developments and good intentions, postwar follow-up for PNIs remained incomplete at best. Records were lost, personnel transferred, and patients discharged from the system. The lack of a standardized grading system seriously impaired the ability to record clinical changes and compare outcomes. Nevertheless, specialized treatment of a large number of PNIs during World War I established a foundation for comprehensive care that influenced military medical services in the next world war.
The Colyer Collection of First World War dental radiographs and casts is a unique teaching resource with a fascinating history. The story of the radiographs illuminates the role of dental surgery and Sir J. Frank Colyer (1866-1954) in the treatment of maxillofacial injuries during this period.
Percoco, James A.
Presents a lesson plan using original documents of the wartime correspondence between President Franklin Roosevelt and baseball commissioner Kenesaw Landis. Explores the status of baseball during World War II to determine the importance of sports in U.S. culture. Includes background information and copies of the correspondence. (DK)
Seller, Maxine Schwartz
Recounts a little known episode of World War II: the imprisonment of 28,000 anti-Nazi Jewish refugees in Great Britain. Explores how the refugees created a rich cultural and educational life out of these circumstances. They ran internment camp education programs, put on theatrical shows, and published a camp newspaper. (MJP)
Explores the efforts of the German public-health authorities to cleanse occupied areas of formerly Russian Poland of pathogenic hazards during the First World War. The program used sanitary measures and educational programs to encourage a more hygienic lifestyle. Originally sympathetic to the Jewish population, it grew increasingly anti-semitic.…
Discusses a neglected area of U.S. history: the impact of World War II on the role and status of women. Shows how women's work in the home and in the community assisted the national defense effort, and examined the way that changes in employment opportunities affected traditional ideas about women's roles and fostered the modern women's movement.…
Garrett, Alan W.
An increased federal role in U.S. mathematics education was influenced by the needs of the armed forces in World War II. For those not in military service, math was stressed as vital for informed citizenship. The legacy of these initiatives was stronger linkage of schools to national aims and broader teaching and learning of math. (Contains 32…
Gross, Michael L.
Data from 174 persons involved in French and Dutch community rescues of Jews during World War II revealed personal motivations based either on material, social, and religious norms or on social justice, each set linked to a distinct cognitive structure. However, organizational and supportive context factors were more significant than personal…
Blondo, Richard A.; Schmael, Wynell Burroughs
Presents a classroom lesson that utilizes primary sources about Auschwitz, the World War II Nazi concentration camp. Two letters confronting the issue of whether or not U.S. planes should bomb the camps are included. Recommends seven teaching strategies for the lesson and identifies additional resources. (CFR)
Ment, David M.
The First World War ended with the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German and Ottoman Empires. In planning for the peace negotiations the allied governments considered not only the European boundaries but especially the national aspirations and future development of the peoples of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Africa and…
King, Lincoln, Ed.; Downing, Cassie, Ed.; McGarity, Fiona, Ed.
Loblolly is a project of the students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas. This volume is a collection of personal narratives told by combat veterans of World War II who were originally from East Texas. The book's introduction (by J. W. Howland) tells the readers about the men. The veterans' oral histories are recorded and profiled separately in the…
After World War II, Dutch psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals articulated ideals of democratic citizenship. Framed in terms of self-development, citizenship took on a broad meaning, not just in terms of political rights and obligations, but also in the context of material, social, psychological and moral conditions that individuals should meet in order to develop themselves and be able to act according to those rights and obligations in a responsible way. In the post-war period of reconstruction (1945-65), as well as between 1965 and 1985, the link between mental health and ideals of citizenship was coloured by the public memory of World War II and the German occupation, albeit in completely different, even opposite ways. The memory of the war, and especially the public consideration of its victims, changed drastically in the mid-1960s, and the mental health sector played a crucial role in bringing this change about. The widespread attention to the mental effects of the war that surfaced in the late 1960s after a period of 20 years of public silence should be seen against the backdrop of the combination of democratization and the emancipation of emotions.
This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945.
Geissler, Erhard; Guillemin, Jeanne
The German army's 1943 flooding of the Pontine Marshes south of Rome, which later caused a sharp rise in malaria cases among Italian civilians, has recently been described by historian Frank Snowden as a unique instance of biological warfare and bioterrorism in the European theater of war and, consequently, as a violation of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting chemical and biological warfare. We argue that archival documents fail to support this allegation, on several counts. As a matter of historical record, Hitler prohibited German biological weapons (BW) development and consistently adhered to the Geneva Protocol. Rather than biological warfare against civilians, the Wehrmacht used flooding, land mines, and the destruction of vital infrastructure to obstruct the Allied advance. To protect its own troops in the area, the German army sought to contain the increased mosquito breeding likely to be caused by the flooding. Italians returning to the Pontine Marshes after the German retreat in 1944 suffered malaria as a result of environmental destruction, which was banned by the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions and by subsequent treaties. In contrast, a state's violation of the Geneva Protocol, whether past or present, involves the use of germ weapons and, by inference, a state-level capability. Any allegation of such a serious violation demands credible evidence that meets high scientific and legal standards of proof.
At the time of the outbreak of World War II the United States had little capacity for science advice to the President or the Organization of American Science for War. The National Academy of Sciences, created by an Act of Congress in 1863, and the National Research Council, created by an Executive Order in 1918, were in the position to be helpful, but they were not government agencies supported by the Congress and reporting directly to the President and were, therefore, not designed to focus attention on such relatively narrow portions of the field of science as those concerned with the instrumentalities of war. A more effective organization was the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), established by Congress in 1915 ''to supervise and direct the scientific study of the problems of flight.'' President Roosevelt, in June 1939, directed the NACA to become a consulting and research agency for the Joint Army and Navy Aeronautical Board at the outbreak of a national emergency. For some years prior to the outbreak of the war, the members of the NACA had become acutely conscious that they were living in a pre-war period. Vannevar Bush became chairman of the NACA in 1939. After the outbreak of war in Europe, Bush's thoughts turned more and more to the need for an overall organization of science for war. It was at his initiative more than anyone else's that an apparatus for science advice to the President and the gearing of science for aid to the war effort took place. 15 figs.
Kim, Jackie H J; Nagata, Donna K; Akiyama, Mark
This study examines second generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans' reactions to government redress for their unjust incarceration during World War II. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the roles of individual difference factors-Belief in a Just World (BJW), Locus of Control (LOC)-and Incarceration-Related Coping in predicting (a) reported redress-related Suffering Relief and (b) Positive Redress Impacts. Findings show that BJW was a stronger predictor of redress reactions than LOC, with higher BJW associated with more affirmative views of redress. In addition, Incarceration-Related Coping mediated a majority of the relationships between the individual difference factors and redress reactions.
Holder, Victoria L
As the United States recovered from the War Between the States, unrest was brewing in Europe. In 1914, the assassination of the Archduke of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand, and his wife set events in motion that eventually would lead to the first World War. During that time, Edith Cavell, a British-born nurse working in Belgium, was drawn into events that would lead to her eventual death. She was tried, convicted, and executed for her role in helping her countrymen escape through the underground.
Holder, Victoria L
By the beginning of World War I, modern innovations and advances in the field of medicine were common. Physicians knew about bacteria, how disease spread, and the importance of antisepsis. To prepare for the war, Great Britain developed elite corps of army nurses, fully-equipped military hospitals, and trained personnel who established field hospitals and base hospitals. Alice Fitzgerald, a nurse from Baltimore, was drawn into the conflict when she was asked to serve as the Edith Cavell Memorial Nurse with the British Army.
The First World War was a turning point in the cultural history of death and bereavement in Australia. The mass deaths of some 60,000 soldiers overseas led to communal rituals of mourning for the war dead and minimal public expressions of private grief. The mass slaughter of so many young men and the interminable grief of so many families devalued the deaths of civilians at home and helped to create a new cultural model of suppressed and privatised grieving which deeply constrained the next two generations. Emotional and expressive grieving became less common, mourning ritual was minimised and sorrow became a private matter.
Jones, Edgar; Wessely, Simon
The 100th anniversary of the outbreak of World War 1 could be viewed as a tempting opportunity to acknowledge the origins of military psychiatry and the start of a journey from psychological ignorance to enlightenment. However, the psychiatric legacy of the war is ambiguous. During World War 1, a new disorder (shellshock) and a new treatment (forward psychiatry) were introduced, but the former should not be thought of as the first recognition of what is now called post-traumatic stress disorder and the latter did not offer the solution to the management of psychiatric casualties, as was subsequently claimed. For this Series paper, we researched contemporary publications, classified military reports, and casualty returns to reassess the conventional narrative about the effect of shellshock on psychiatric practice. We conclude that the expression of distress by soldiers was culturally mediated and that patients with postcombat syndromes presented with symptom clusters and causal interpretations that engaged the attention of doctors but also resonated with popular health concerns. Likewise, claims for the efficacy of forward psychiatry were inflated. The vigorous debates that arose in response to controversy about the nature of psychiatric disorders and the discussions about how these disorders should be managed remain relevant to the trauma experienced by military personnel who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan. The psychiatric history of World War 1 should be thought of as an opportunity for commemoration and in terms of its contemporary relevance-not as an opportunity for self-congratulation.
Stimson, Chad M.
NASA Search And Rescue is supporting RTCA SC-229 with research and recommendations for performance specifications for the 2nd generation of emergency locator transmitters. Areas for improvement and methods for collecting data will be presented.
Sullivan, Jill M
This study is an investigation of the contributions of women's military bands in the United States to the reconditioning of the injured American troops during World War II. Primary and secondary sources revealed that these bands welcomed home hospital ships, performed for convalescing soldiers in hospitals, and provided music for hospital dances. While each of the bands investigated served in similar capacities, only one, the 403rd Women's Army Corps (WAC) Band, was stationed at a hospital. While entertainment by women's bands was an important part of the Army Reconditioning Program for the injured, the study also revealed a working partnership that developed between these musicians and the medical community. Sixty years after the war, band members believe their performances in hospitals were the most important contribution of their service. Some historians have concluded that music used in military hospitals during the war was the impetus for the music therapy profession.
Before World War II, the Army had no African American medical units and no plans on how to utilize African American personnel. A first plan to sideline blacks into menial support positions was implemented but then overruled in the middle of the war. Separate units were formed, which performed some support functions, but also focused on preventive medicine work--mainly, insect control. Other duties included cross-loading litter patients in the evacuation chain, a laborious but morale-boosting job for which some units received commendations. Several ambulance companies were organized, performing solidly. In the face of official disapprobation and disinterest in African Americans serving, the men of these units sought to contribute to the war effort and took pride in doing their best.
Rau, Erik P
World War II became known as the "wizard war" because the cycles of developing countermeasures and counter-countermeasures to the weapons deployed by all sides drove rapid technological change. However, technological innovation was not the only contribution scientists made to the war effort. Through Operational Research (OR)--the scientific scrutiny of new weapons, their deployment and relative efficiency--scientists also influenced how warfare itself was conducted. This new scientific field emerged in the UK, where it helped to tighten the defense against the Luftwaffe. It quickly spread to other aspects of the military machine, improving both antisubmarine campaigns and bombing strategy. But although this analytical approach to warfare offered military commanders a factual basis on which to base difficult decisions and deal with tactical and strategic uncertainty, it was not without controversy. Indeed, several recommendations that came out of OR sparked disputes over the allocation of resources and strategic priorities.
Spearman, M. L.
The World War 2 time period ushered in a new era in aeronautical research and development. The air conflict during the war highlighted the need of aircraft with agility, high speed, long range, large payload capability, and in addition, introduced a new concept in air warfare through the use of guided missiles. Following the war, the influx of foreign technology, primarily German, led to rapid advances in jet propulsion and speed, and a host of new problem areas associated with high-speed flight designs were revealed. The resolution of these problems led to a rash of new design concepts and many of the lessons learned, in principle, are still effective today. In addition to the technical lessons learned related to aircraft development programs, it might also be noted that some lessons involving the political and philosophical nature of aircraft development programs are worth attention.
Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Moulin, Thierry; Chopard, Jean-Luc
The French neurologists and psychiatrists who were mobilized during the Great War were confronted with numerous soldiers with war neuroses, often with novel clinical manifestations such as camptocormia. They addressed hysteria and pithiatism according to concepts that had been formed before the war, and many doctors considered these soldiers to be malingerers. As a result, the use of aggressive therapies to enable their prompt return to the battlefront was advocated. In 1915-1916, Clovis Vincent (1879-1947) developed a method called torpillage, a "persuasive" form of psychotherapy using faradic and galvanic electric currents, to treat soldiers with "intractable" neuroses. However, since the treatment was painful, soldiers began to refuse it and, following a publicized trial, the method was discontinued. Given the influx of soldiers with seemingly incurable neuroses, Gustave Roussy (1874-1948) made an attempt in 1917 to develop a new method of psychoelectric treatment. In January 1918, he too came up against soldiers refusing electric treatment. Following a new trial and an unfavorable press campaign, the psycho-faradic method gradually died out. These extreme medical practices developed to treat psychological trauma during the First World War subsequently led to the delineation of posttraumatic stress disorder in more recent wars.
Clement, Christine; Summers, Jennifer A; Bannister, John; Harper, Glyn
Objective To identify the impact of the first world war on the lifespan of participating military personnel (including in veterans who survived the war). Design Comparison of two cohorts of military personnel, followed to death. Setting Military personnel leaving New Zealand to participate in the first world war. Participants From a dataset of the New Zealand Expeditionary Forces, we randomly selected participants who embarked on troopships in 1914 and a comparison non-combat cohort who departed on troopships in late 1918 (350 in each group). Main outcome measures Lifespan based on dates of birth and death from a range of sources (such as individual military files and an official database of birth and death records). Results A quarter of the 1914 cohort died during the war, with deaths from injury predominating (94%) over deaths from disease (6%). This cohort had a significantly shorter lifespan than the late 1918 “non-combat” cohort, with median ages of death being 65.9 versus 74.2, respectively (a difference of 8.3 years shown also in Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log rank P<0.001). The difference for the lifespan of veterans in the postwar period was more modest, with median ages of death being 72.6 versus 74.3, respectively (a difference of 1.7 years, log rank P=0.043). There was no evidence for differences between the cohorts in terms of occupational class, based on occupation at enlistment. Conclusions Military personnel going to the first world war in 1914 from New Zealand lost around eight years of life (relative to a comparable military cohort). In the postwar period they continued to have an increased risk of premature death. PMID:25516379
Bonfiglioli Stagni, S; Tomba, P; Viganò, A; Zati, A; Benedetti, M G
The First World War produced a huge number of disabled soldiers. During the war, surgeons realized that it was not enough to merely treat the limbs of the wounded soldiers; it was also necessary to train them to use their remaining abilities to their greatest capacity. Governments at the same time realized that such a high number of veterans created a financial burden, by entitling disabled veterans to full healthcare, raising the issues of social welfare. Both in the US and Europe, programs of rehabilitation were instituted, providing injured soldiers with long-term medical care and vocational training aimed at restituting soldier's independence for a speedy return to work. In Italy at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, one of the most renowned Hospitals for the treatment of orthopedic deformities, Putti set up a technologically advanced Orthopedic Workshop, and a Rehabilitation House. The so called "reconstruction programs" addressed all aspects of rehabilitation (including physiotherapy, curative workshops and vocational therapy), seeing disability in terms of function. The experience gained in the treatment of war victims markedly enriched rehabilitation techniques, but overall the First World War helped engender the concept of rehabilitative programs to assist disabled veterans reintegrate in the workplace, thus laying the foundations of the modern concept of participation at a social level. In the centenary of Italy's entry into the First World War, it is worth underlining just how much hindsight affords us a new perspective on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. It reminds us that rehabilitation is not merely the role of medicine, but forms part of a multifaceted approach involving societal roles and expectations, regardless of the psychological and physical impairments suffered by the individuals concerned.
Abstract After the First World War, disabled British veterans returned home to an uncertain future of work. In addition to voluntary efforts, the government’s response to the national employment crisis – the National Scheme for Disabled Ex-Servicemen (commonly known as the King’s Roll) – was established in 1919 to encourage employers to hire a five per cent quota of disabled ex-servicemen. Historians have recently revisited the scheme, noting that in many cases the process was slow and fraught, with many disabled veterans facing the prospect of unemployment, yet few have paid attention to soldiers’ pre-war working backgrounds and the specific requests of British industries. This article focuses on British coalminers returning from war. What role was there in this national situation for an industry known for its own high rate of accident and injury? Although the King’s Roll made some attempt to find veterans specifically targeted jobs above and below ground according to their impairments, it proved unable to incorporate coalmining. Instead, many disabled ex-servicemen returned to the workplace and utilized their existing identities as miners to navigate the process. With the industry beginning to decline, many faced potential regression in job status, exploitation or unemployment. By shifting to an industry-specific focus, this case study explores the contested nature of work for disabled people after the First World War, and highlights the interrelation and importance of workplace identity for the returning disabled veteran. PMID:27134339
The "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie" was the official publication of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris which became later on the French Academy of pharmacy. It is consequently the organ that presented scientific publications and independent position papers from pharmacists being part of this assembly and coming from universities, drugstores or pharmaceutical industries. We have analyzed the content of this journal during the last two world wars in order to evaluate to what extent the members of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris were part of the war efforts, and encouraged or criticized the on-going events. We can observe that, in both cases, pharmacists used their expert opinions to better react and manage consequences of the conflicts, but also to express their disagreement with enemy's opinions or actions, the Society doing everything possible to maintain its activities. One can observe also that both conflicts were an opportunity to reconsider the organization of pharmacy in France, especially during the Second World War where took place discussions on pharmacy reform (1941 law) and creation of the Pharmacists' Order which will ultimately occur after the war end.
After the First World War, disabled British veterans returned home to an uncertain future of work. In addition to voluntary efforts, the government's response to the national employment crisis - the National Scheme for Disabled Ex-Servicemen (commonly known as the King's Roll) - was established in 1919 to encourage employers to hire a five per cent quota of disabled ex-servicemen. Historians have recently revisited the scheme, noting that in many cases the process was slow and fraught, with many disabled veterans facing the prospect of unemployment, yet few have paid attention to soldiers' pre-war working backgrounds and the specific requests of British industries. This article focuses on British coalminers returning from war. What role was there in this national situation for an industry known for its own high rate of accident and injury? Although the King's Roll made some attempt to find veterans specifically targeted jobs above and below ground according to their impairments, it proved unable to incorporate coalmining. Instead, many disabled ex-servicemen returned to the workplace and utilized their existing identities as miners to navigate the process. With the industry beginning to decline, many faced potential regression in job status, exploitation or unemployment. By shifting to an industry-specific focus, this case study explores the contested nature of work for disabled people after the First World War, and highlights the interrelation and importance of workplace identity for the returning disabled veteran.
Throughout the early 1940s, a host of rumors relating to the Second World War began to circulate, leading the government to establish various committees and undertake multiple projects intended to counteract rumors that were believed to threaten civilian morale and compromise national security. Simultaneously, social scientists also began taking measures to study and combat rumor. Such efforts included the institution of several community groups, deemed "rumor clinics," that aimed to decrease the prevalence of wartime rumor by educating the general public. This article outlines the rise and fall of rumor clinics, focusing specifically on the shifting boundaries and the mounting tensions between the United States government and social scientists in the study of rumor during World War II.
The Military Health Institutes established during the World War I. aimed maintenance and recovery of soldiers' fighting value. Establishing an effective sanitary control was rather important, since the Hungarian Royal Honvéd Army attempted to prevent epidemics and diseases, especially venereal diseases and tuberculosis. The sanitary establishments consisted of three parts: they belonged to the operational area, to the provisional zone and to the homeland territory. These institutions were divided into permanent and temporary ones. Permanent sanitary institutions were the garrison hospitals; troop and military ("honvéd") hospitals and houses for invalids, while temporary sanitary establishments worked only in case of mobilization. In their arrangement not the distance was taken into consideration, but the potential for transport of the wounded. The Hungarian sanitary institutions proved to be rather successful in World War I.
Hallett, Christine E
Public perceptions of the work of nurses and VAD-volunteers in the First World War have been heavily influenced by a small number of VAD-writings. The work of trained, professional nurses in supporting and supervised the work of VADs has been largely overlooked. This paper examines several of the writings of both volunteers and professionals, and emphasises the overlooked supervisory, managerial and clinical work of trained nurses. In this centenary year of the First World War's opening months, the paper also explores the ways in which the British mass-media--notably the BBC--have chosen to cling to a romantic image of the untrained nurse, whilst at the same time acknowledging the significance of trained, professional nursing.
avoidance of unauthorized water and food, and any other measure that the soldier is directed to take to preserve his health. Trenchfoot, which was a...the individual of sanitary measures for disposal of waste and purification of water . By World War I the basic rules for personal hygiene and command...States Army Tennessee maneuvers stated: ". . . defecation on the ground was not uncommon. . . Enlisted men obtained food and water from unauthorized
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.
This text was to have been the script for the National Air and Space Museum's exhibition of the Enola Gay, focusing on the end of World War II and the decision of the United States to use of the atomic bomb. The Enola Gay was a B-29 aircraft that carried the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945. The atomic bomb brought a…
Schmeiding, Verna E; Anderson, Mary L; Bradley, Eileen
On December 7, 1941, there were fewer than 1,000 nurses in the Army Nurse Corps. That infamous day, 82 of those brave nurses were stationed in Hawaii. Their bravery, leadership and calmness under extreme duress foreshadowed the amazing role nurses would play in World War II. In the months and years that followed Japan's bombing of Pearl Harbor, over 59,000 American nurses would answer the call and join the Army Nurse Corps. Courageous Nebraskan women were among them.
also referenced by Savkin, is available in Selected Readings in the History of Soviet Operational Art compiled by Harold S. Orenstein for Soviet Army...of Choice: The Troubled German-Finnish Coalition in World War II. Havertown: Casemate, 2011. Mawdsley, Evan . In Thunder in the East:The Nazi-Soviet...Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993. Orenstein , Harold S. Selected Readings in the History of Soviet Operational Art. Fort Leavenworth: United
many references to the Peripheral Nerve Registry set up in the Office of the Surgeon General in November 1944. It is ironical to record that the 5-year...the symptoms and signs of compound wounds of the spinal cord, as well as the pathologic processes in these injuries, was accumulated during World War I...subject of great controversy. For this reason, it was difficult to define and establish a uniform policy of treatment. As experience accumulated during
Enigma . Within the transportation campaign, ULTRA provided indications of the effects that Allied bombing was having on the operational capabilities and...target of ULTRA was the German Enigma machine, used throughout Germany to secure a majority of their communications. “By the beginning of World War...II, each of the branches of the German military, the policy, the railway, civilians, and the Nazi Party were using their own variations of Enigma
commander in World War II and 2 INTRODUCTION Korea. He loved to fly. During his long military career he amassed over 11,000 hours piloting aircraft as diverse...graduating with both honors and a three-year assign- ment as an instructor pilot at Kelly. Teaching in the advanced flying school, he began his long ...at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, he became an instructor in the pursuit section at the Air Corps Tactical School. This long preoccupation with the
This book recounts the many challenges and successes achieved by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) from World War II to 1970. Included are: (1) the development of the National Science Foundation; (2) Cold War concerns about the loyalty and freedom of scientists; (3) efforts to develop an effective science curriculum…
Holbrook, Wendell P.
The military experience of Ghana in World War II is examined through interviews with ex-servicemen, officers, and civilians. Data were collected concerning personal experiences, patterns of entry into military service, occupational change resulting from enlistment, changes in family life, war related migration patterns, postwar resettlement, and…
Okawa, Gail Y.
One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…
In the early years of the Second World War the British had already begun post-war planning for education in Germany. They expressed a need to re-educate Germans and re-establish personal contacts with German people. One tool conceived to achieve these policy objectives was educational exchange. This paper will examine British educational exchange…
Bykov, A. K.; Liuban, T. N.
The Ninth of May 2010 marks the sixty-fifth anniversary of the Day of Victory in the Great War for the Fatherland (World War II). Although so much time has passed, the moral asset of this historical event remains large. The Russian people perceive this victory as a heroic symbol of the whole Fatherland, and its results and consequences are…
Cain, Timothy Reese
Numerous faculty members at the University of Michigan and institutions across the nation found themselves victims of hysteria and anti-German extremism during World War I. Through an examination of restrictions on speech before American entry into the war, investigations into the loyalty of more than a dozen educators, and considerations of the…
Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A
Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline.
McKenzie, A G
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important health risk factor for military personnel deployed in modern warfare. In World War I this condition (then known as shell shock or 'neurasthenia') was such a problem that 'forward psychiatry' was begun by French doctors in 1915. Some British doctors tried general anaesthesia as a treatment (ether and chloroform), while others preferred application of electricity. Four British 'forward psychiatric units' were set up in 1917. Hospitals for shell shocked soldiers were also established in Britain, including (for officers) Craiglockhart War Hospital in Edinburgh; patients diagnosed to have more serious psychiatric conditions were transferred to the Royal Edinburgh Asylum. Towards the end of 1918 anaesthetic and electrical treatments of shell shock were gradually displaced by modified Freudian methods psychodynamic intervention. The efficacy of 'forward psychiatry' was controversial. In 1922 the War Office produced a report on shell shock with recommendations for prevention of war neurosis. However, when World War II broke out in 1939, this seemed to have been ignored. The term 'combat fatigue' was introduced as breakdown rates became alarming, and then the value of pre-selection was recognised. At the Maudsley Hospital in London in 1940 barbiturate abreaction was advocated for quick relief from severe anxiety and hysteria, using i.v. anaesthetics: Somnifaine, paraldehyde, Sodium Amytal. 'Pentothal narcosis' and 'narco-analysis' were adopted by British and American military psychiatrists. However, by 1945 medical thinking gradually settled on the same approaches that had seemed to be effective in 1918. The term PTSD was introduced in 1980. In the UK the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for management (2005) recommend trauma-focussed Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and consideration of antidepressants.
Krane, Kenneth S.
Bring Modern Physics to Life with a Realistic Software Simulation! Enhance the thorough coverage of Krane's Modern Physics 2e with hands-on, real-world experience! Modern Physics Simulations, developed by the Consortium for Upper-Level Physics Software (CUPS), offers complex, realistic calculations of models of various physical systems. Like all of the CUPS simulations, it is remarkably easy to use, yet sophisticated enough for explorations of new ideas. Important Features Include: * Powerful simulations covering Historic Experiments in Electron Diffraction, Laser Cavities & Dynamics, Classical Scattering, Nuclear Properties & Decays, Special Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, and the Hydrogen Atom & the H2+ Molecule. * Pascal source code for all programs and a number of exercises suggesting specific ways the programs can be modified. * Graphical (often animated) displays in most simulations. The entire CUPS simulation series consists of nine books/software simulations which cover Astrophysics, Electricity and Magnetism, Classical Mechanics, Modern Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Solid State Physics, Thermal and Statistical Physics, and Waves and Optics.
After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in
Simpson, Donald A; David, David J
Herbert Moran enlisted in the Royal Army Medical Corps early in World War I. His autobiography captures the impact of contemporary experience of wartime gunshot wounds, seen in vast numbers and with little understanding of the requirements of wartime surgery. Wounds of the face and brain were numerous, especially in trench fighting. In France, Germany, Britain and elsewhere, surgeons and dentists collaborated to repair mutilated faces and special centres were set up to facilitate this. The innovative New Zealand surgeon Harold Gillies developed his famous reconstructive techniques in the Queen's Hospital at Sidcup, with the help of dental surgeons, anaesthetists and medical artists. The treatment of brain wounds was controversial. Many surgeons, especially on the German side, advocated minimal primary operative surgery and delayed closure. Others advocated early exploration and immediate closure; among the first to do so was the Austro-Hungarian otologist Robert Bárány. In 1918, the pioneer American neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing published well-documented proof of the desirability of definitive operative management done as soon as possible. Few World War I surgeons developed their knowledge of plastic surgery, neurosurgery and oral surgery in post-war practice. An exception was Henry Newland, who went on to pioneer the development of these specialties in Australasia. After World War II, the French plastic surgeon Paul Tessier created the multidisciplinary subspecialty of craniomaxillofacial surgery, with the help of his neurosurgical colleague Gérard Guiot, and applied this approach to the correction of facial deformities. It has become evident that the new subspecialty requires appropriate training programs.
Flanigan, Patrick; Kshettry, Varun R; Benzel, Edward C
Cranioplasty is a unique procedure with a rich history. Since ancient times, a diverse array of materials from coconut shells to gold plates has been used for the repair of cranial defects. More recently, World War II greatly increased the demand for cranioplasty procedures and renewed interest in the search for a suitable synthetic material for cranioprostheses. Experimental evidence revealed that tantalum was biologically inert to acid and oxidative stresses. In fact, the observation that tantalum did not absorb acid resulted in the metal being named after Tantalus, the Greek mythological figure who was condemned to a pool of water in the Underworld that would recede when he tried to take a drink. In clinical use, malleability facilitated a single-stage cosmetic repair of cranial defects. Tantalum became the preferred cranioplasty material for more than 1000 procedures performed during World War II. In fact, its use was rapidly adopted in the civilian population. During World War II and the heyday of tantalum cranioplasty, there was a rapid evolution in prosthesis implantation and fixation techniques significantly shaping how cranioplasties are performed today. Several years after the war, acrylic emerged as the cranioplasty material of choice. It had several clear advantages over its metallic counterparts. Titanium, which was less radiopaque and had a more optimal thermal conductivity profile (less thermally conductive), eventually supplanted tantalum as the most common metallic cranioplasty material. While tantalum cranioplasty was popular for only a decade, it represented a significant breakthrough in synthetic cranioplasty. The experiences of wartime neurosurgeons with tantalum cranioplasty played a pivotal role in the evolution of modern cranioplasty techniques and ultimately led to a heightened understanding of the necessary attributes of an ideal synthetic cranioplasty material. Indeed, the history of tantalum cranioplasty serves as a model for innovative
Hospital admission and mortality statistics suggested that peptic ulcer reached a peak prevalence in the mid-1950s. During the Second World War, against this background of serious and common pathology, an epidemic of dyspepsia afflicted both service personnel and civilians alike. In the absence of reliable diagnostic techniques, physicians struggled to distinguish between life-threatening illness and mild, temporary disorders. This article explores the context in which non-ulcer stomach conditions flourished. At a time when fear was considered defeatist and overt psychological disorder attracted stigma, both soldiers and civilians exposed to frightening events may have unconsciously translated their distress into gastrointestinal disorders. While the nature of army food was initially identified as the cause of duodenal ulcer in servicemen, the pre-war idea that conscientious and anxious individuals were at high risk gathered support and fed into post-war beliefs that this was a stress-related illness. Diet continued to be employed as a means of management at a time when the nation was preoccupied by food because of the constraints imposed by rationing. The peptic ulcer phenomenon set much of the medical agenda for the war years and conflicted with the commonly held view that the British people had never been healthier. PMID:27917025
Hallett, Christine E
The trauma-writings of World War I nurses have been identified as an important and influential corpus of early 20th-century works. Not only did the rediscovery of these writings in the later 20th century serve to recognize the importance of women's writings as part of the historical record, and identify certain female writers as some of the most important thinkers of the modernist movement; they also demonstrated the importance of the nursing perspective as one element of wartime experience. This paper considers a number of influential works written by both nurses and members of the Voluntary Aid Detachments (VAD) who assisted with nursing work during the war. The paper identifies how nurses and VADs presented their experiences of war trauma. It also considers how some writers strove to attach meaning to (or in some, cases expressed their sense of the meaninglessness of) the suffering caused by the war. The paper considers further how some nurses themselves experienced trauma as a result of their exposure to wartime work, and how some writers developed what are referred to as "philosophies of suffering," in which they struggled to understand suffering as an element of human experience.
... on World War II active military or naval service. 404.111 Section 404.111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... War II active military or naval service. We consider that a person, who was not otherwise fully... States during World War II; (b) The person died within three years after separation from service...
... on World War II active military or naval service. 404.111 Section 404.111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... War II active military or naval service. We consider that a person, who was not otherwise fully... States during World War II; (b) The person died within three years after separation from service...
... on World War II active military or naval service. 404.111 Section 404.111 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... War II active military or naval service. We consider that a person, who was not otherwise fully... States during World War II; (b) The person died within three years after separation from service...
This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan.
This article discusses how the relationship between parents and their children were affected by the second world war in Germany. With fathers away from home for often as long as a decade, many children grew up without a father being physically present. The current historiography suggests that wartime separation caused a crisis in the family. But did the prolonged periods of time apart and the separate experiences of husbands at the Front and wives and children at home really destabilize family relationships? This article questions such a picture of families in ruin. It argues that family relationships were far more resilient in the face of wartime separation than has previously been credited. Indeed, it reveals the importance of children in keeping mothers and fathers focused on getting through the war. It further contends that, even from afar, fathers continued to play an important role in their children’s lives. And this in turn revises our understanding of the situation facing reuniting families.
Millions of Soviet soldiers were disabled as a direct consequence of their service in the Second World War. Yet despite its expressions of gratitude for their sacrifices, the state evinced a great deal of discomfort regarding their damaged bodies. The countless armless and legless veterans were a constant reminder of the destruction suffered by the country as a whole, an association increasingly incompatible with the postwar agenda of wholesale reconstruction. This article focuses on a key strategy for erasing the scars of war, one with ostensibly unambiguous benefit for the disabled themselves: the development of prostheses. In addition to fostering independence from others and ultimately from the state, artificial limbs would facilitate the veterans' return to the kinds of socially useful labor by which the country defined itself. In so doing, this strategy engendered the establishment of a new model of masculinity: a prosthetic manhood.
Sokolov, Vladimir; Biryukov, Alexey; Chmyrev, Igor; Tarasenko, Mikhail; Kabanov, Pavel
The start of World War II (WWII) led to the deployment of combat troops in several continents. Destruction and many casualties among both the military and civilians became an inevitable consequence. A large amount of people injured were in need of life-saving treatment and a speedy return to duty. Intensive studies of the specific issues of diagnosis and treatment of thermal injury were conducted in the Soviet Union before the war. The first special units for patients with burn injuries were created, and the first specialists received their first clinical experience. The contributions of famous Soviet scientists in the development of the treatment of burns and frostbite in WWII are studied in this article. The structure of thermal injuries among military personnel and the results of their treatment are shown. Treatment, classification and quantity frostbite in the structure of sanitary losses during the WWII are studied in this article.
Guerrero, A L
Adolf Hitler very probably suffered from Parkinson's disease. The first symptoms of it began to appear in 1937/1938. It is likely that its appearance, and the fear that it caused regarding his survival, lead Hitler to advance his initial projects of military expansion of the great Germany beginning in 1943. Thus, the Second World War broke out in 1939, perhaps quite before the time in which Germany would be prepared. Chronic treatment carried out with opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and strychnine may very well be related with a very abnormal judgement of the problems and absence of trust in the advice of his team. With this, he would make military decisions that would end up being ill-fated for his interests and which, after 1942, would lead to a change in the course of the war.
Stahnisch, Frank W
A critical analysis of the historical involvement of neurology and neurosurgery in military emergency care services enables us to better contextualize and appreciate the development of modern neurology at large. Wartime neurosurgery and civil brain science during the German Nazi period tightly coalesced in examining the specific injury types, which military neurosurgeons such as Wilhelm Toennis, Klaus Joachim Zuelch, and Georg Merrem encountered and treated based on their neurophysiological understanding gained from earlier peacetime research. Collaborative associations with Dr. Toennis in particular proved to be highly beneficial to other military neurologists and neurosurgeons during World War II and beyond. This article also discusses the prewar developments and considers the fate of German neurosurgeons and military neurologists after the war. The envisaged dynamic concepts of fast action, reaction, and recycling, which contemporary physicians had intensively studied in the preceding scientific experiments in their neurophysiological laboratories, had already been introduced into neurological surgery during the interwar period. In retrospect, World War II emergency rescue units greatly strengthened military operations through an active process of 'recycling' indispensable army personnel. Neurosurgical emergency chains thereby introduced another decisive step in the modernization of warfare, in that they increased the momentum of military mobility in the field. Notwithstanding the violence of warfare and the often inhumane ways in which such knowledge in the field of emergency neurology was gained, the protagonists among the group of experts in military neurology and neurosurgery strongly contributed to the postwar clinical neuroscience community in Germany. In differing political pretexts, this became visible in both East Germany and West Germany after the war, while the specific military and political conditions under which this knowledge of emergency medicine
Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.
The "PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework, 2nd Edition" provides the foundation for the three international assessments planned as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016: PIRLS, PIRLS Literacy, and ePIRLS. PIRLS represents the…
["At times I had to be an allopathic medical officer and then again I was allowed to be a homoeopathic physician." Homoeopathy and war from the Franco-German War (1870/71) to World War I (1914-1918)].
With its focus on the Franco-German War and World War I the present paper constitutes a first approach to the comprehensive topic of "homoeopathy and war". Sources used include articles from homoeopathic magazines, homoeopathic specialist literature, material from the estate of the homoeopathic lay organization "Hahnemannia" and individual testimonies from non-homoeopaths. The paper begins by examining the importance of the two wars for research into the history of homoeopathy compared to previous conflicts and demonstrates the value of the sources used. A brief outline of homoeopathy and the military forces in the decades before 1870 provides insight into the historical context. This is followed by the investigation of homoeopathic war hospitals at home with an analysis of the attitude of the homoeopathic physicians and lay-healers involved. The paper also describes the difficult relationship between homoeopathy and conventional medicine during the two conflicts.
Procter, N G
In recent years, the world has been subjected to violent ethnic wars for autonomy and secession. Violent conflicts over national and international territorial boundaries are marked by a murderous mistrust, hatred and a perpetual life-and-death struggle in the present. For the mental health nurse, the world-wide persistent global circumstance of international catastrophe and increasing nationalism mediated through war is inextricably linked to practice as well as the significant health and lifestyle concerns of displaced people. Central to the discussion in this paper will be the mechanisms used by the mental health nurse to maintain empathy and clinical excellence during highly sensitive practice issues; in particular, the management of feelings of frustration, anger, guilt, loneliness and sleeplessness, and repeated mental images of suffering and human butchering, because these issues intersect with national and cultural identity. In rising to the challenges these issues present, mental health nursing must co-exist with critical world events and the globalisation of national identity in cultural diversity.
Histories of the First World War have regularly implicated children's literature in boys' eagerness to enlist in the first two years of that conflict. While undoubtedly the majority of children's books, comics and magazines did espouse nationalistic, jingoistic and martial attitudes, there were alternative stories and environments. Looking at the…
Social responsibility in science has a centuries-long history, but it was such a minor thread that most scientists were unaware of the concept. Even toward the conclusion of the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapons, only a handful of its participants had some reservations about use of a weapon of mass destruction. But the explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki not only made society more aware of the importance of science, they made scientists more aware of their responsibility to society. I describe the development of the concept of social responsibility and its appearance among American scientists both before and after the end of World War II.
Stevens, S Y
Images of nursing in televised news have been problematic at a time when recruitment of nurses is a critical need. During the World War II years, a massive campaign successfully recruited nurses, and newsreels were a major source of news information. An analysis of two years, 1942 to 1944, of the Movietonews, the largest US newsreel company, identifies images presented during the times, considers those images in a historical context, and proposes successful recruitment strategies that could be useful today. Nursing's scientific base, the great demand for nurses, and a link between public needs and nurses' skill and intelligence are powerful images that should be promulgated in today's news media.
IN WORLD WAR II Advisory Editorial Board MICHAEL E. DEBAKEY, M.D., Chairman FRANK B. BERRY, M.D. JOHN B. FuCK , M.D. BRIAN B. BLADES, M.D. FRANK GLENN...painful un-united fracture of clavicle by resection ............ 493 126 Fractures of right and left scapulae in young soldier crushed under overturned...possibly meet the needs of the Army (3). Additional ortho- pedic surgeons, it was apparent, must be found among younger general surgeons and "the many young
Katter, I; Kunitz, O; Deller, A
The discovery of an aircraft bomb from World War II made the complete evacuation of a tertiary care hospital with 629 beds and 17 specialist departments including a neonatal intensive care unit necessary. Some months before an alarm plan had been issued and a fire practice had been carried out which made it obvious to all concerned how important such measures are. Nevertheless, more room for improvement could be learned from the evacuation, in particular the rapid classification of the patients into categories and the fact that 20-30% of the patients needed stretcher-based transport for evacuation.
Leggat, Peter A; Melrose, Wayne
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is the second most common parasitic disease worldwide, after malaria. It should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for military personnel returning from disease-endemic areas. Numerous outbreaks of LF have been reported in military deployments from World War II. In contrast to the presentation of LF in indigenous populations, which often involves such uncommon complications as elephantiasis and hydrocele, the clinical presentation of LF in military personnel can vary widely and is often vague and nondescript. Common symptoms are pain and swelling of the genitalia, closely followed by lymphangitis of the arms and legs. All three species produce similar disease.
Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira
This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded.
Patriarca, Carlo; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo
Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) is known as the founder of the Catholic University in Italy. Franciscan monk and doctor he had a central role in promoting studies on human behavior, thanks to his solid scientific training as a student of Camillo Golgi at the University of Pavia. His research activities during the years of the First World War involved studying the motivation, courage and psychological adaptation of the soldiers, engaged in trench warfare, laying the foundations of modern studies of behavior and trauma.
Todd, Nicolas; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Bougnères, Pierre
Although early-life stress is known to alter health, its long-term consequences on mortality remain largely unknown. Thanks to unique French legislation established in 1917 for war orphans and children of disabled soldiers, we were able to study the adult mortality of individuals born in 1914-1916 whose fathers were killed during World War 1. Vital information and socio-demographic characteristics were extracted manually from historical civil registers for 5,671 children born between 1 August 1914 and 31 December 1916 who were granted the status of "pupille de la Nation" (orphan of the Nation). We used a database comprising 1.4 million deceased soldiers to identify war orphans and collect information on their fathers and then paired each orphan with a nonorphan from the same birth register matched for date of birth, sex, and mother's age at the infant's birth. Mortality between ages 31 and 99 y was analyzed for 2,365 orphan/nonorphan pairs. The mean loss of adult lifespan of orphans who had lost their father before birth was 2.4 y (95% CI: 0.7, 3.9 y) and was the result of increased mortality before age 65 y. Adult lifespan was not reduced when the father's death occurred after the infant's birth. These results support the notion that intrauterine exposure to a major psychological maternal stress can affect human longevity.
This essay sketches the rise of a Popular Front-inflected vision of the U.S. city neighborhood's meaning and worth, a communitarian ideal that reached its zenith during World War II before receding in the face of cold-war anxieties, postwar suburbanization, and trepidation over creeping blight. During the war years, numerous progressives interpreted the ethnic-accented urban neighborhood as place where national values became most concrete, casting it as a uniquely American rebuff to the fascist drive for purity. Elaborations appeared in the popular press's celebratory cadences, in writings by educators and social scientists such as Rachel DuBois and Louis Wirth, and in novels, plays, and musicals by Sholem Asch, Louis Hazam, Kurt Weill, Langston Hughes, and others. Each offered new ways for making sense of urban space, yet their works reveal contradictions and uncertainties, particularly in an inability to meld competing impulses toward assimilation and particularism. Building on the volume's theme "The Arts in Place," this essay examines these texts as a collective form of imaginative "placemaking." It explores the conflicted mode of liberal nationalism that took the polyglot city neighborhood as emblem. And it outlines the fissures embedded in that vision, which emerged more fully as the provisional wartime consensus dissolved.
Concern about the infection of servicemen and essential war workers with venereal disease led the U.S. Public Health Service, with the cooperation of state and local health officials, to set up a national program of venereal disease quarantine hospitals during World War II. Although some of the hospitals eventually accepted men, the initial purpose of these facilities was to detain and treat venereally affected prostitutes and "promiscuous women" who were considered a threat to the war effort. Using quarantine powers, officials forcibly detained venereally infected women and treated them for their disease. The hospitals were generally known as "rapid treatment centers" because of the methods employed to treat venereal disease. Health officials were especially concerned that prostitutes (and other women of "loose morals") would not comply with the traditional lengthy and arduous treatment for syphilis, which involved weekly injections of arsenical drugs for a year or more and unpleasant side effects. Therefore, the newly established quarantine hospitals used recently developed rapid treatment methods based on the administration of multiple injections or intravenous drips of arsenicals over a period of days. Although some objections were raised against these policies, which obviously discriminated against women, on the whole the rapid treatment centers were accepted as a necessary measure in the defense of national security. Some of the issues raised by these centers are still relevant to public health policy today.
The historiography of penicillin has tended to overlook the importance of developing and disseminating know-how in fermentation technology. A focus on this directs attention to work before the war of a network in the US and Europe concerned with the production of organic acids, particularly gluconic and citric acids. At the heart of this network was the German-Czech Konrad Bernhauer. Other members of the network were a group of chemists at the US Department of Agriculture who first recognized the production possibilities of penicillin. The Pfizer Corporation, which had recruited a leading Department of Agriculture scientist at the end of the First World War, was also an important centre of development as well as of production. However, in wartime Bernhauer was an active member of the SS and his work was not commemorated after his death in 1975. After the war new processes of fermentation were disseminated by penicillin pioneers such as Jackson Foster and Ernst Chain. Because of its commercial context his work was not well known. The conclusion of this paper is that the commercial context, on the one hand, and the Nazi associations of Bernhauer, on the other, have submerged the significance of know-how development in the history of penicillin.
Richards, Erin E
Since the Civil War, a proportion of U.S. service members continues to return from war with new health problems and continues to reference battlefield exposures as the cause. Hence, one of the most pressing public health debates in military policy, the determination of causality and linking of battlefield exposures to health outcomes in veterans, continues. The advances in military environmental and occupational epidemiologic research and Department of Defense policy concerning battlefield exposures are summarized and examples from World War II through the first Gulf War are provided. The limitations associated with the unique battlefield environment, multiple environmental exposures, and the inherent stresses of war, beget challenges for researchers responsible for determining causality. In light of these difficulties, six strategies for addressing environmental exposures and their possible impact on veterans were recommended by the Institute of Medicine post Operation Desert Storm. These strategies, along with their respective progress and remaining gaps, are addressed.
Kokebayeva, Gulzhaukhar; Smagulov, Kadyrzhan; Mussabalina, Gulnara
This article attempts to address the issue of prisoners of war through the prism of international law. The object of research is the work of the Commission to investigate the Entente's complaints of violation of Hague Convention on Treatment of Prisoners of War by German authorities. After the armistice, the governments of the Entente sent notes…
Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien
Between 1914 and 1918, war strain appeared under a number of guises and affected, to varying extents, the majority of French soldiers. The most frequent form of war strain was war psychoneurosis, but war strain also induced more paroxystic disorders, such as acute episodes of terror, self-mutilation, induced illnesses and even suicide. Fear was the constant companion of soldiers of the Great War: soldiers were either able to tame it or overwhelmed by an uncontrollable fear. Nonetheless, over the course of the war, some aspects of fear were recognised as syndromes. The French health service poorly anticipated the major consequences of war strain, as with many other types of injuries. After the establishment of wartime neuropsychiatric centres, two main medical stances emerged: listening to soldiers empathetically on the one hand and applying more repressive management on the other. For many physicians, the psychological consequences of this first modern war were synonymous with malingering or cowardice in the face of duty. The stance of French military physicians in relation to their command was not unequivocal and remained ambivalent, swaying between medico-military collusion and empathy towards soldiers experiencing psychological distress. The ubiquity of suspected malingering modified the already porous borders between neuropsychiatric disorders and disobedience. Several war psychoneurotic soldiers were sentenced by councils of war for deserting their posts in the face of the enemy and were shot. Many soldiers suspected of self-mutilation or suffering from induced illnesses were also sentenced and executed without an expert assessment of their wound or their psychological state.
Boulton, F; Roberts, D J
The centenary of the start of the First World War has stirred considerable interest in the political, social, military and human factors of the time and how they interacted to produce and sustain the material and human destruction in the 4 years of the war and beyond. Medical practice may appear distant and static and perhaps seems to have been somewhat ineffectual in the face of so much trauma and in the light of the enormous advances in medicine and surgery over the last century. However, this is an illusion of time and of course medical, surgical and psychiatric knowledge and procedures were developing rapidly at the time and the war years accelerated implementation of many important advances. Transfusion practice lay at the heart of resuscitation, and although direct transfusion from donor to recipient was still used, Geoffrey Keynes from Britain, Oswald Robertson from America and his namesake Lawrence Bruce Robertson from Canada, developed methods for indirect transfusion from donor to recipient by storing blood in bottles and also blood-banking that laid the foundation of modern transfusion medicine. This review explores the historical setting behind the development of blood transfusion up to the start of the First World War and on how they progressed during the war and afterwards. A fresh look may renew interest in how a novel medical speciality responded to the needs of war and of post-war society.
Hawk, Alan J
When his unit, the 2nd Surgical Hospital (MA), was established at An Khe in January 1966, MAJ Rich began collecting retrieved foreign bodies along with documentation of the wound. A museum displaying these objects was established at one end of the operating room Quonset hut. During Rich's tour of duty, there were 324 cases where the patient was wounded by a punji stick, representing 38% wounds because of hostile action.
Morelli, Carlo; Tomlinson, Jim
This article examines the attempts by the Dundee jute industry to recruit women workers in the years circa 1945-1954. It locates its discussion of these attempts in the literature on the impact of the Second World War on the participation of women in the British labour market more generally, and the forces determining that participation. It stresses the peculiarities of jute as a traditional major employer of women operating in very specific market conditions, but suggests that this case study throws light on the broader argument about the impact of war and early post-war conditions on women's participation in paid work.
The rapid growth of post-World War II psychology in the United States led to intradisciplinary tensions and opportunities. In this article, I examine these tensions and opportunities in the context of social change from the 1950s through the present, attending specifically to the broad impact of federal funding on psychology. I argue that as psychology became a resource-rich field, it was forced to move from a narrow, parochial stance to a position as a national-level professional player that had to deal with the challenges of mixing science and practice, as well as meeting the demands of non-White psychologists at the national level. The impetus to create a more inclusive psychology has grown in the last three decades of the 20th century and has helped create possibilities for greater richness in American psychology and movement toward a truly international role vis-a-vis emergent psychologies around the world.
This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).
Marjanović, Damir; Durmić-Pašić, Adaleta; Bakal, Narcisa; Haverić, Sanin; Kalamujić, Belma; Kovačević, Lejla; Ramić, Jasmin; Pojskić, Naris; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Bajrović, Kasim; Hadžiselimović, Rifat; Drobnič, Katja; Huffine, Ed; Davoren, Jon; Primorac, Dragan
Aim To present the joint effort of three institutions in the identification of human remains from the World War II found in two mass graves in the area of Škofja Loka, Slovenia. Methods The remains of 27 individuals were found in two small and closely located mass graves. The DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using either standard phenol/chloroform alcohol extraction or optimized Qiagen DNA extraction procedure. Some recovered samples required the employment of additional DNA purification methods, such as N-buthanol treatment. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex 16 kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using the DNA View program. Results Out of all processed samples, 15 remains were fully profiled at all 15 STR loci. The other 12 profiles were partial. The least successful profile included 13 loci. Also, 69 referent samples (buccal swabs) from potential living relatives were collected and profiled. Comparison of victims' profile against referent samples database resulted in 4 strong matches. In addition, 5 other profiles were matched to certain referent samples with lower probability. Conclusion Our results show that more than 6 decades after the end of the World War II, DNA analysis may significantly contribute to the identification of the remains from that period. Additional analysis of Y-STRs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers will be performed in the second phase of the identification project. PMID:17696306
Linker, Beth; Laemmli, Whitney
At the conclusion of the Second World War, more than 600,000 men returned to the United States with long-term disabilities, profoundly destabilizing the definitions, representations, and experiences of male sexuality in America. By examining an oft-neglected 1950 film, The Men, along with medical, personal, and popular accounts of impotence in paralyzed World War II veterans, this essay excavates the contours of that change and its attendant anxieties. While previous scholarship on film and sexuality in the postwar period has focused on women's experiences, we broaden the analytical lens to provide a fuller picture of the various meanings of male sexuality, especially disabled heterosexuality. In postwar America, the paralyzed veteran created a temporary fissure in conventional discussions of the gendered body, a moment when the "normality" and performative features of the male body could not be assumed but rather had to be actively defined. To many veterans, and to the medical men who treated them, sexual reproduction--not function-became the ultimate signifier of remasculinization.
After World War II, the confidence of American psychiatrists was at an all-time high as a result of their successful participation in the war. When the incidence of mental breakdown in the American armed forces rose to unprecedented heights, new and effective psychotherapeutic methods were developed to treat the traumatic effects of the extraordinary stresses of warfare. At the same time, social scientists concluded that breakdown incidence was inversely related to morale, which led to the development of preventive measures aimed at specific groups. Both initiatives stimulated a number of psychiatrists to plan projects of social engineering after the war. They first focused on aiding the reintegration of returning veterans. Later, they addressed the poor mental health of the American population as a whole, which they considered to be the consequence of faulty child-rearing methods.
feat was achieved for actions in the Banana Wars in Central America, in World War II (WWII) and in the Korean War. To receive the Navy Cross the... shelling , had more casualties due to explosives such as artillery, land mines, and grenades than to small-arms fire according to the Office of the
Turner, Solveig M., Ed.
This issue--an international overview of cooperative/work experience education--contains ten case studies and four student viewpoints. It begins with an article discussing types of cooperative/work experience programs, including those focused on in the case studies. A second article previews the Second World Conference on Cooperative Education.…
Carey, Michael E
This historical review explores Harvey Cushing's difficulties with both the British and American armies during his World War I service to definitively examine the rumor of his possible court martial. It also provides a further understanding of Cushing the man. While in France during World War I, Cushing was initially assigned to British hospital units. This service began in May 1917 and ended abruptly in May 1918 when the British cashiered him for repeated censorship violations. Returning to American command, he feared court martial. The army file on this matter (retrieved from the United States National Archives) indicates that US Army authorities recommended that Cushing be reprimanded and returned to the US for his violations. The army carried out neither recommendation, and no evidence exists that a court martial was considered. Cushing's army career and possible future academic life were protected by the actions of his surgical peers and Merritte Ireland, Chief Surgeon of the US Army in France. After this censorship episode, Cushing was made a neurosurgical consultant but was also sternly warned that further rule violations would not be tolerated by the US Army. Thereafter, despite the onset of a severe peripheral neuropathy, probably Guillian Barré's syndrome, Cushing was indefatigable in ministering to neurosurgical needs in the US sector in France. Cushing's repeated defying of censorship regulations reveals poor judgment plus an initial inability to be a "team player." The explanations he offered for his censorship violations showed an ability to bend the truth. Cushing's war journal is unclear as to exactly what transpired between him and the British and US armies. It also shows no recognition of the help he received from others who were instrumental in preventing his ignominious removal from service in France. Had that happened, his academic future and ability to train future neurosurgical leaders may have been seriously threatened. Cushing's foibles
This is an investigation of the impact of superpower arms transfers on interstate rivalry in the Third World during the Cold War. The study is anchored in a theoretical framework which conceives of interstate rivalry as the basis for the development of security complexes in the international system. In the case of Third World rivalries, these security complexes tend to be local in scope. The superpower security complex was global. The theoretical framework emphasizes the tendency of one security complex to encroach upon another. This study focuses on the extent to which the Cold War was externalized through the process of superpower arms transfers to local rivals. The empirical investigation consists of statistical analysis of four enduring rivalries in the Third World: those between the Arab states and Israel, Iran and Iraq, India and Pakistan, and Ethiopia and Somalia. The author employs a time-series methodology - vector autoregression - which permits a rather rigorous discrimination between cause and effect. A rigorous methodology is essential to decipher the relationship between arms transfer and interstate conflict since there is reason to suspect that causality may be mutual. Historical narratives for each of of the four rivalries facilitate an interpretation of the statistical results, but also serve to highlight anomalies. The results suggest that the impact of superpower arms transfers was most pronounced in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf. Soviet arms transfers to Egypt and Syria tended to exacerbate the Arab-Israeli rivalry. In the case of the Iran-Iraq rivalry, it was American arms transfers to Iran that were influential, but the effect appears to have been a restraining one. An action-reaction dynamic in superpower arms transfers is evident in both these cases. The statistical results are not enlightening for either the India-Pakistan or Ethiopia-Somalia rivalries. Some theoretical refinements to the security-complexes framework are suggested.
Mikić, Želimir; Lešić, Aleksandar
At the beginning of 1915, several months after the World War I started, Serbia was in an extremely difficult situation.The country was war-ravaged, full of sick and wounded soldiers, there was a desperate shortage of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel, and the epidemic of typhus fever exploded and violently attacked the entire country. At that time, however, a number of both foreign allied medical missions and individual volunteers, from various countries, mostly from Great Britain, came to Serbia to help. Among them mostly were women, and they were of enormous support to Serbia in that grave situation. It is estimated that there were more than 600 foreign women volunteers in Serbia at that time and that 22 of them died there. Dr. Elizabeth Ross was one of those brave volunteers who came to Serbia early in 1915. That noble Scottish lady doctor was born in 1878 and finished her medical studies at the University of Glasgow in 1901. After graduation she worked in various places in Great Britain until 1909, when she went to Persia (Iran), where she worked until the beginning of the so called Great War. When she heard of the urgent need in Serbia she left Persia as soon as she could and volunteered to serve in Serbia. She came to Kragujevac at the beginning of January 1915, where she worked at the First Military Reserve Hospital, which at that time was actually a typhus hospital. Working there intensively and devotedly for several weeks under shocking conditions she contracted typhus herself and died there on her 37th birthday on February 14th, 1915. She was buried in Kragujevac, next to two British ladies who also died in Serbia of typhus. Her grave was restored in 1980 when the town of Kragujevac started holding commemorations at the graveside every February 14th at noon to honor her and all other brave and noble women who lost their lives helping Serbia at that unfortunate time.
In the nationalistic atmosphere of the early twentieth century, a nurturing medium for sports practising martial manliness abounded throughout Europe. This framework supported the invention of a new multi-disciplinary sport, aided by Baron Pierre de Coubertin himself: modern pentathlon. Though the idea of a new form of pentathlon was already born in 1894, it took 30 years, until Paris 1924, to establish modern pentathlon within the Olympic Games. This study is concerned with the reasons for that delay. It will be assessed whether the active military preparations around the First World War and the contemporary image of masculinity had a decisive influence on the early history of modern pentathlon. By including historical documents from the IOC archives in Lausanne, Switzerland, the research office for military history in Potsdam, Germany, and the LA84 Foundation in Los Angeles, USA, as well as literature on gender, military sport and Olympic history, this study offers an entirely new view on the early history of a sport that was born in an atmosphere of glorifying manliness and apparent militarism. The history of modern pentathlon thereby provides a particularly appropriate area for the analysis of connections between sport, militarism and masculinity. It was not by chance that the implementation of a combined sport, which included besides swimming and running the three military disciplines of shooting, fencing and horse riding, arose in a pre-war context. Though in 1912 the Great War had not yet begun, the awareness of an upcoming battle was rising and led to a higher attention to Coubertin's almost forgotten assumption of a new sport. In 1924 the advantages were finally admitted on two sides: the army recruited modern pentathletes as future military officers; the sports community appointed skilled officers as successful competitors. Thus the lobby for an Olympic recognition of modern pentathlon was found.
Penicillin's trajectory towards becoming an effective antibacterial chemotherapeutic agent took place during World War II. Its strategic military value was immediately recognised by the Allies, and mass production was undertaken with the prime objective of meeting the needs of the armed forces. News of its development came to be widely reported on in the media and is examined here. These reports frequently combined accounts of penicillin's prodigious clinical effectiveness with the fact that it was to remain unavailable to the civilian population essentially until the war had ended. More penicillin was to be made available to the civilian population in the United States than in Britain, but the sense that it was severely rationed remained as high. It was in response to this that the idea of "homemade penicillin" was hatched. News of this was also widely promulgated by both the British and American media. Although the numbers treated with penicillin produced in this way was never to be significant, knowledge of the existence of such endeavours may have served to assuage in some measure the feelings of frustration felt by the civilian population at penicillin's non-availability.
Anstead, Gregory M
In 1915, a British medical officer on the Western Front reported on a soldier with relapsing fever, headache, dizziness, lumbago, and shin pain. Within months, additional cases were described, mostly in frontline troops, and the new disease was called trench fever. More than 1 million troops were infected with trench fever during World War 1, with each affected soldier unfit for duty for more than 60 days. Diagnosis was challenging, because there were no pathognomonic signs and symptoms and the causative organism could not be cultured. For 3 years, the transmission and cause of trench fever were hotly debated. In 1918, two commissions identified that the disease was louse-borne. The bacterium Rickettsia quintana was consistently found in the gut and faeces of lice that had fed on patients with trench fever and its causative role was accepted in the 1920s. The organism was cultured in the 1960s and reclassified as Bartonella quintana; it was also found to cause endocarditis, peliosis hepatis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Subsequently, B quintana infection has been identified in new populations in the Andes, in homeless people in urban areas, and in individuals with HIV. The story of trench fever shows how war can lead to the recrudescence of an infectious disease and how medicine approached an emerging infection a century ago.
Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.
This article challenges conventional theories about the role of medical photography in the early twentieth century. Some scholars argue that the camera intensified the Foucauldian medical gaze, reducing patients to mere pathologies. Others maintain that with the rise of the new modern hospital and its state-of-the-art technologies, the patient fell from view entirely, with apertures pointing toward streamlined operating rooms rather than the human subjects who would go under the knife. The Army Surgeon General's World War I rehabilitation journal, Carry On: A Magazine on the Reconstruction of Disabled Soldiers and Sailors, problematizes these assumptions. Hoping to persuade a skeptical public that the Army's new programs in medical rehabilitation for disabled soldiers provided the best means of veteran welfare, the editorial officials at Carry On photographed patients fully clothed, wounds hidden, engaged in everyday activities in order to give the impression that the medical sciences of the day could cure permanent disabilities. In the end, Carry On shows us that medical doctors could, and did, use photography to conceal as well as reveal the reality faced by injured soldiers. In doing so, they (like other Progressive reformers at the time) hoped to persuade the public that rehabilitation had the power to make the wounds of war disappear.
Telford, Jennifer Casavant
This article explores the history of the creation of the Army and Navy Female Nurse Corps and the debate that ensued between American nursing leaders Jane Delano, director of the Red Cross Nursing Service, M. Adelaide Nutting, president of the American Federation of Nurses, and Annie Goodrich, dean of the Army School of Nursing, over the use of untrained nurses' aids to offset the nursing shortage that resulted from the United States entry into the Great War in 1917. The recruitment of minimally or untrained nurses' aids to offset the nursing shortage of the World War I era was a logical solution for American nursing leaders who had to meet the needs for nursing personnel. The exclusion of trained African American nurses, however, was a gross oversight on the part of these leaders. Whether or not this action compromised the status of nursing as a profession is still a matter of interest. Moreover, the debate about the delivery of care by unlicensed personnel continues.
Devorkin, David H.
The exploration of the upper atmosphere was given a jump start in the United States by German V-2 rockets - Hitler's "vengeance weapon" - captured at the end of World War II. The science performed with these missiles was largely determined by the missile itself, such as learning more about the medium through which a ballistic missile travels. Groups rapidly formed within the military and military-funded university laboratories to build instruments to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere, the nature of cosmic radiation, and the ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun. Few, if any, members of these research groups had prior experience or demonstrated interests in atmospheric, cosmic-ray, or solar physics. Although scientific agendas were at first centered on what could be done with missiles and how to make ballistic missile systems work, reports on techniques and results were widely publicized as the research groups and their patrons sought scientific legitimacy and learned how to make their science an integral part of the national security state. The process by which these groups gained scientific and institutional authority was far from straightforward and offers useful insight both for the historian and for the scientist concerned with how specialties born within the military services became part of post-war American science.
Lewis, John M.
The emigration of 11 young Japanese meteorologists to the United States following World War II is investigated. Their move is examined with the benefit of a historical backdrop that includes a study of the socioeconomic conditions in Japan and the education that they received at the University of Tokyo. Oral histories and letters of reminiscence from these scientists are used with standard source material to reconstruct the conditions of postwar Japan. The principal results of the study are that 1) these scientists were among the intellectual elite, because of the rigorous screening process in the Japanese educational system; 2) their scientific education was fundamentally grounded in traditional physics and a wide range of geophysical sciences; 3) they all experienced austere living conditions and poor job prospects in the war-torn Japanese economy; and 4) they made a strong scientific connection with U.S. researchers in the areas of numerical experimentation and numerical weather prediction, which facilitated their move to the United States.
Gribovskaia, G A
At the beginning of the First World War professor and surgeon S.R. Mitotvortsev was appointed as a Chief Expert - Surgeon of the Western Front, there in Lyublyana he faced with difficulties such as organization of health care delivery and treatment of wounded soldiers. In the following, organized by Mirotvortsev team served in Novaya Aleksandriya, Ivan-Gorod, Radom and other towns of the Western Front. This team was named as "Collecting dressing station of professor S.R.Mirotvortsev".
determine how the commander, and the organizational structure of the numbered air forces, adapted the application of airpower to the fit the...world-wide hostilities on V- J Day, Twining was one of few American commanders that went straight through the war commanding three Numbered Air Forces...all-purpose model .”36 In the early 1930’ s , the interest in bombardment aviation began to accelerate and pursuit aviation went into a decline. The
Spearman, M. L.
An historical account is presented of the new departures in aerodynamic research conducted by NACA, and subsequently NASA, as a result of novel aircraft technologies and operational regimes encountered in the course of the Second World War. The invention and initial development of the turbojet engine furnished the basis for a new speed/altitude regime in which numerous aerodynamic design problems arose. These included compressibility effects near the speed of sound, with attendant lift/drag efficiency reductions and longitudinal stability enhancements that were accompanied by a directional stability reduction. Major research initiatives were mounted in the investigation of swept, delta, trapezoidal and variable sweep wing configurations, sometimes conducted through flight testing of the 'X-series' aircraft. Attention is also given to the development of the first generation of supersonic fighter aircraft.
Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin
Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War II with homogamy and intermarriage with Whites for the prewar (1930–1940) and resettlement (1946–1966) marriage cohorts. The authors applied log-linear models to census microsamples (N = 1,590,416) to estimate the odds ratios of homogamy versus intermarriage. The unadjusted odds ratios of Japanese Americans declined between cohorts and appeared to be consistent with the assimilation hypothesis. Once compositional influences and educational pairing patterns were adjusted, however, the odds ratios increased and supported the heightened exclusion hypothesis. PMID:21116449
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Carey, Michael E
Harvey Cushing, perhaps the most important founder of American neurosurgery, was an Army neurosurgeon in France from 1917 to 1918. Over a 3-month period in 1917 he and his team operated on 133 soldiers with a brain wound. The operative mortality rate for their last 45 patients was 29%, considerably lower than the usual postoperative mortality rate of approximately 50% for those with a brain wound. This accomplishment was lauded at the time and eventually, for some, it was Cushing who was responsible for lowering the postoperative mortality rate of brain wounds during World War I. As the decades passed he was eventually credited as the "originator of brain wound care." This report shows that these attributions are misplaced. Cushing merely followed the enlightened surgical precepts of the time developed by Continental (European) surgeons. It also examines Cushing's writings to ascertain how these misperceptions concerning his originality might have been generated.
Oxford, J S; Sefton, A; Jackson, R; Innes, W; Daniels, R S; Johnson, N P A S
The 1918 influenza pandemic caused 40 million deaths, and so dwarfed in mortality and morbidity the preceding pandemic of 1889 and the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. In retrospect, much can be learnt about the source, the possible subterranean spread of virus, and the genetic basis of virulence. The World Health Organization has urged every nation to prepare a pandemic plan for the first global outbreak of the 21st century. We present an appraisal of epidemiological and mortality evidence of early outbreaks of respiratory disease in France and the UK in the years 1915 to 1917. Certain of these earlier focal outbreaks--called epidemic bronchitis rather than influenza--occurred during the winter months when influenza was known to be in circulation, and presented with a particular heliotrope cyanosis that was so prominent in the clinical diagnosis in the world pandemic outbreak of 1918-1919 (the Great Pandemic). The outbreaks in army camps at Etaples in France and Aldershot in the UK in 1916-1917 caused very high mortality in 25-35 year olds. Increased deaths from bronchopneumonia and influenza were also recorded in England. We deduce that early focal outbreaks of influenza-like disease occurred in Europe and on the balance of probability the Great Pandemic was not initiated in Spain in 1918 but in another European country in the winter of 1916 or 1917. We suggest that the pandemic had its origins on the Western Front, and that World War I was a contributor.
Pollock, Richard A.
A system of orderly triage of the injured in World War I and a protocol for early wound management of war injuries were introduced by Antoine De Page in 1914 at the beginning of World War I. The five steps of the De Page protocol (coined by the author as Ordre de Triage) were to be followed in detail by the French and Belgian armies. A younger Belgian colleague, Robert Danis, was recruited to aid in the management of the ambulance corps to transport the injured from dressing (“clearing”) stations to centers of more advanced care, away from the Franco-Belgian front. Danis, also from Brussels, introduced the principles of osteosynthesis of bone a little over a decade later. De Page and Danis, both surgeons, tendered immense carry-forwards for future generations. PMID:22110790
During the Second World War the two largest women's services, the Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) and the Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS), responded pragmatically to the presence of lesbians in their ranks. Such disinterest arguably stemmed from the need to retain valuable personnel in a time of great instability. This article seeks to illuminate the responses of both services within the context of wider understandings of lesbianism in Britain during the inter-war period and during the Second World War. It argues that the responses of senior officials were rooted in received understandings of lesbianism as both an acquired vice and as an innate psychopathic infirmity. Overwhelmingly, however, classification fell in the former category, underpinned as it was by notions of middle-class boarding school desire.
Watkins, PeterJ; Watkins, Valerie J
The contribution of nurses to the morale of wounded and dying young men during World War 1 was immense. Alice Welford came from the small North Yorkshire village of Crathorne, joined the Queen Alexandra Imperial Military Nursing Service in 1915 and spent the following two and one half years in nursing casualties from some of the fiercest battles of the war including Gallipoli and Salonika. She kept an autograph book inscribed by wounded and dying soldiers, with poignant verses and humorous drawings showing love, wit and tragedy. Despite the dreadful conditions, kindness and compassion brought them comfort and raised their morale - a critical message for today, and Alice's gift to us from World War I.
forms and methods of political and military leadership." 1 0 I And the political and the military leadershlp could rely on the Infallible guidance of... extended the outlook of 3 the Civil War Into the indeflnite future. The ring of enemies that no longer existed In Russia became a more dangerous one...assume.d, the war would follow a pattern of’ successive offensives and would "Inevitably take on a character of extended attrition, with battles being
In this article, the author discusses the experiences of Marian Sauer as one of the teachers during World War II. Marian Sauer, began teaching at Woodrow Wilson Elementary School in Richmond, California, in 1942. During World War II, Richmond's population skyrocketed, as a direct result of homefront mobilization and school enrollments grew six…
Barth, James L.
Compares questionnaire results sent to elementary and secondary school teachers in Indiana and Japan. Surveys how and what is taught about World War II. Reports teachers in the United States concentrate more on Europe, Pearl Harbor, and fascism, whereas Japanese teachers are more concerned with Pacific theater. Concludes Japanese teach peace…
Foster, Stuart; Nicholls, Jason
This study examined how textbooks from England, Japan, Sweden, and the United States portray America's role in World War II. Analysis of the central story lines revealed that historical information purveyed to students in different nations varies considerably. Accordingly, U.S. textbooks emphasize the significant and pre-eminent role that the…
During World War II, a close friendship and excellent working relations developed between President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) and Prime Minister Winston Churchill that were crucial in the establishment of a unified effort to deal with the Axis powers. In early 1941, FDR began the long-term correspondence that developed into a close working…
A typology of crises is developed to be used with critical aspects of the social system to predict both crisis and postcrisis period role changes. The crisis framework is then applied to macro-changes in family structure in response to an archetypal crisis, World War II. Census data generally support the hypotheses. (Author)
Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Nov. 26, 2002. NASA Dryden is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert.
During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...
During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...
During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...
Mitchell, William I.
This study describes the patriotic public rituals, the propaganda materials, and the censorship activities that were part of the school experience in Missouri during World War I. It also examines the apparent responses of two rural Benton County communities to those rituals, materials and activities. Benton County is a rural area of central…
"Every boy and every girl...should be a producer. The growing of plants...should therefore become an integral part of the school program." With these words, the federal Bureau of Education launched the United States School Garden Army (USSGA) during World War I, targeting urban and suburban youth. It represented one of the earliest federal efforts…
JEICAN, IONUŢ ISAIA; BOTIŞ, FLORIN OVIDIU; GHEBAN, DAN
This article provides a picture of exanthematic Typhus in Romania during the Second World War: epidemiological aspects of this disease in the inner zone and in the zone of military operations, as well as information about the diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of the Typhus in our country during this period. PMID:26528054
This article examines how progressive education was introduced to South Korea after the Second World War and takes a closer look at critical studies of this history. It argues that the America-led progressive education policies, which focused on art education, were an uncritical adaptation of the superpower's educational ideology and did not…
In post-World War II United States, women were caught between competing patriotic, economic, cultural, and psychological ideologies dictating their behavior. Differences between these expectations and challenges to behavioral norms provoked tensions in women's education that lasted until the women's movement of the 1960s. (Contains 25 references.)…
Milić, Petar; Milić, Slavica
From the historical point of view, there are three time periods when the process of modernization of Serbian society took place. First period includes the interval from the beginning of the 19th century until the end of World War I, when the Serbian country was reestablished as Serbian Knezevina (princedom) and in 1882 as Serbian Kingdom. Second period includes an interval from the unity of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians, which was established at the end of World War I (1918) and in 1929 changed the name into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which lasted until the end of World War II. The third period includes time after World War II. In this paper, the social-economical conditions in the Leskovac area during the first two periods of modernization were described, as well as the pharmacy development emphasizing the characteristic of the pharmaceutics. The Leskovac area belongs to most recently liberated areas in Serbia, i.e. Leskovac was liberated at the end of 1877. Nevertheless, the first pharmacy was opened in Leskovac in 1862, during the reign of the Turks. The authors being the people from Leskovac as well as the pharmacists believe that they contributed to better overview of the activities of people from modernization period, paying them well-deserved recognition.
Wegner, Kathryn L.
The birth of formal citizenship education in the United States emerged in the context of mass immigration, the Progressive Movement, and the First World War. Wartime citizenship education has been chastised for its emphasis on patriotism and loyalty, and while this is a trend, historians have minimised the ways in which the democratic goals of the…
Mifflin Co., 1972. Buchanan, A. Russell. Black Americans in World War II. Santa Barbara, CA: Clio Press, 1977 Cartwright , Dorwin and Alvin Zander. Group...Army, FM 22-100 Leadership (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 1990), 9. 2Dorwin Cartwright and Alvin Zander, Group Dynamics: Research and Theory
Cornfield, Daniel B.
Develops an organizational explanation of declining union membership, termed the "replenishment thesis." Reviews established theories of unionization and analyzes causes of the decline of union membership in the United States since World War II. Presents case study data on the United Furniture Workers's Union. (JDH)
Lord, Alexandra M.
This history of the U.S. Public Health Service's efforts to educate Americans about sex makes clear why federally funded sex education has been haphazard, ad hoc, and often ineffectual. Since launching its first sex ed program during World War I, the Public Health Service has dominated federal sex education efforts. Alexandra M. Lord draws on…
McCleary, George F., Jr.; And Others
Presents a map indicating the path of the "Einsatzgruppen" (mobile killing units of the German SS) military assault through Poland into the Soviet Union in 1941. Provides a map of the six extermination camps in Poland. Offers two maps illustrating the Jewish population of Europe before and after World War II. (CFR)
Griffin, Michael; Lee, Jongsoo
Reports on a visual content analysis of 1,104 Gulf War-related pictures. Finds that a narrowly limited range of images (with a special emphasis on cataloging military weaponry and technology) dominated the pictorial coverage. Suggests that the scarcity of pictures depicting ongoing events in the Gulf contradicts the impression of first-hand media…
Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Martinez, Ed; Arcadi, Marla
Included are presentations from the 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop. The purpose of the second workshop was to continue to unite the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers and mission designers and planners; whose expertise, experience and interests are in the areas of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics of planetary entry vehicles. Mars lander missions and the first probe mission to Titan made 2004 an exciting year for planetary exploration. The Workshop addressed entry probe science, engineering challenges, mission design and instruments, along with the challenges of reconstruction of the entry, descent and landing or the aerocapture phases. Topics addressed included methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed; techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder and Mars MER; upcoming missions such as the imminent entry of Huygens and future Mars entry probes; and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.
Davis, Robert M.; Stucker, Mark (Technical Monitor)
The 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Mid-Term Report summarizes the status of Kelly Space & Technology's activities during the first two and one half months of the program. This report was presented to the cognoscente Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) and selected Marshall Space Flight Center staff members on 26 September 2000. The report has been approved and is distributed on CD-ROM (as a PowerPoint file) in accordance with the terms of the subject contract, and contains information and data addressing the following: (1) Launch services demand and requirements; (2) Architecture, alternatives, and requirements; (3) Costs, pricing, and business cases analysis; (4) Commercial financing requirements, plans, and strategy; (5) System engineering processes and derived requirements; and (6) RLV system trade studies and design analysis.
Snyder’s Historical Guide to World War Two (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1982), p. 736; and the World Almanac of World War II, ed. Brigadier Peter Young...his historic broadcast to the Japanese people telling of Japan’s surrender, is cited as V-J Day in The World Almanac of World War II, p. 353. World
During World War II, the US Public Health Service (USPHS) administered health care to 19 000 enemy aliens and Axis merchant seamen interned by the Justice Department through its branch, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The Geneva Prisoners of War Convention of 1929, which the United States applied to civilian internees, provided guidelines for belligerent nations regarding humanitarian treatment of prisoners of war, including for their health. The INS forged an agreement with the USPHS to meet these guidelines for the German, Italian, and Japanese internees and, in some cases, their families. Chronic shortages and crowded camps continuously challenged USPHS administrators. Nevertheless, the USPHS offered universal access to care and provided treatment often exceeding care received by many American citizens.
During World War II, the amount of camphor production did not decrease, since it was used for munitions. At that time, camphor was not use for moth repellents, are not a life supporting necessity. The factory that took charge of camphor production was busy producing medicine for military use. Due to the war, an abnormal situation in the factory arose when the procurement department requested supplementation because of reinforcement of a lack of materials. Additionally, in the home, the use of moth repellent for clothing was not a concern. Of importance where was ensuring sufficient food to survive. The supply of "Fujisawa Camphor" for home use started in the post-war days, 1947.
During World War II, the US Public Health Service (USPHS) administered health care to 19 000 enemy aliens and Axis merchant seamen interned by the Justice Department through its branch, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The Geneva Prisoners of War Convention of 1929, which the United States applied to civilian internees, provided guidelines for belligerent nations regarding humanitarian treatment of prisoners of war, including for their health. The INS forged an agreement with the USPHS to meet these guidelines for the German, Italian, and Japanese internees and, in some cases, their families. Chronic shortages and crowded camps continuously challenged USPHS administrators. Nevertheless, the USPHS offered universal access to care and provided treatment often exceeding care received by many American citizens. PMID:14534217
Dechter, Aimée R.; Elder, Glen H.
The labor needs of World War II fueled a growing demand for both military and war industry personnel. This longitudinal study investigates mobilization into these competing activities and their work life effects among men from the middle class. Hazard estimates show significant differences in wartime activities across occupations, apart from other deferment criteria. By war’s end, critical employment, in contrast to military service, is positively associated with supervisory responsibility for younger men and with occupation change. This empoloyment does not predict postwar career advancement up to the 1970s. By comparison, men who were officers had a “pipeline” to advancement after the war, whereas other service men fared worse than nonveterans. PMID:27656001
Marine Air Ground Task Force-Experimental . During his 1 5 years of active duty, he has served as a platoon and company commander with 2nd Battalion...key participants, Marine Corps activities , and interested individu- als . MICHAEL E MONIGAN Colonel, U .S . Marine Corps Director of Marine Corps...forces turned their full fury on the parachute battalion’s initial objective . San Juan poured 280 five-inch shells onto Gavutu in four minutes, then a
textbooks and by government officials visiting Yasukuni Shrine, where Japan’s war dead are commemorated. The Japanese counter that they have offered...officials visiting Yasukuni Shrine, where Japan’s war dead are commemorated. The Japanese counter that they have offered sincere apologies...officials, including prime ministers, have paid visits to the Yasukuni Shrine, a memorial dedicated to Japanese war dead. Since the Shrine also houses
contributed to the present war college curriculum . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report...each of which has contributed to the present war college curriculum . This Professional Studies Paper advocates for the beginning of a “Fifth... curriculum and the “Carlisle Experience.” 4 In support of that endeavor, this research paper advocates for a “Fifth” Army War College Era that
Drawing on women's visual responses to the First World War, this article examines female mourning in wartime Germany. The unprecedented death toll on the battlefronts, military burial practices and the physical distance from the remains of the war dead disrupted traditional rituals of bereavement, hindered closure and compounded women's grief on the home front. In response to these novel circumstances, a number of female artists used their images to reimagine funerary customs, overcome the separation from the fallen and express acute emotional distress. This article analyses three images produced during the conflict by the artists Katharina Heise, Martha Schrag and Sella Hasse, and places their work within the civilian experience of bereavement in war. By depicting the pain of loss, female artists contested the historical tradition of proud female mourning in German society and countered wartime codes of conduct that prohibited the public display of emotional pain in response to soldiers’ deaths. As a largely overlooked body of sources, women's art adds to our understanding of the tensions in wartime cultures of mourning that emerged between 1914 and 1918.
Flaherty, J A
Did exposure to non ionising electromagnetic radiation during World War II in the short term have a stimulating effect on the anterior pituitary gland, and in turn on the gonads of both sexes, since the figures obtained appeared to affect the sexes equally? Is it that the long-term effect of microwave radiation on personnel is to cause adenoma and carcinoma? Is this long-term effect similar to the long-term effect of X-rays on infants, children and adolescents? According to Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 1980 (page 1710): "X-rays to the head and neck in infancy, childhood or adolescence is associated with a high incidence of thyroid disease later in life. Nodular disease is found to be particularly common on 20% of patients at risk, and may not be apparent until 30 years or more after exposure. One-third of the nodular type are found to be carcinomatous." The effect of non ionising electromagnetic and microwave radiation on those who work in these fields certainly needs much more investigation. What will be the long-term effect of using micro-ovens on the rising generation?
Atenstaedt, R L
The recent 90-year anniversary of the Battle of the Somme presents an opportunity to examine the public health response to the trench diseases, new conditions which arose in the trenches of World War I. Throughout history, there have been two views of epidemic disease: the configurationist and contagionist perspectives. Most doctors responding to the trench diseases, 'contingent-contagionists', combined these two conceptions of disease. Because of the difficulty of finding a causative organism and the absence of effective treatment, the majority view became that these conditions were a product of the trench environment. Configurationism, with its emphasis on environmental and social determinants, seemed to provide the most obvious approaches for tackling the trench diseases. The diseases were effectively controlled using the tools of public health science: sanitary discipline and a battery of measures, such as improving trench construction, improving the diet, providing protective kit, regular bathing and treating lice infestation. The response demonstrates the triumph of public health science over new medical technologies. It also illustrates the importance of considering all the many determinants of health and of close surveillance, discipline and partnership working to counter ill-health. Although technology, training, doctrine and health beliefs change over time, the interaction between disease and environment remains the core challenge to public health practitioners.
Today, our understanding of and approach to the exogenous causes of cancer are dominated by epidemiological practices that came into widespread use after World War II. This paper examines the forces, considerations, and controversies that shaped postwar risk factor epidemiology in the United States. It is argued that, for all of the new capabilities it brought, this risk factor epidemiology has left us with less of a clinical eye for unrecognized cancer hazards, especially from limited and localized exposures in the work-place. The focus here is on Wilhelm Hueper, author of the first textbook on occupational cancer (1942). Hueper became the foremost spokesman for earlier identification practices centering on occupational exposures. The new epidemiological methods and associated institutions that arose in the 1940s and 1950s bore an unsettled relation to earlier claims and methods that some, Hueper among them, interpreted as a challenge. Hueper's critique of the new epidemiology identified some of its limitations and potentially debilitating consequences that remain with us today. Images p1825-a p1827-a p1829-a PMID:9366640
Chemical weapons accounted for only 1 per cent of the 750,000 British troops killed in the First World War and yet caused disproportionate casualties (estimated at 180,100). The considerable investment in the development of new toxins and methods of delivery was designed to maintain the elements of surprise and uncertainty as these accentuated their psychological effect. Soldiers were continually challenged on the battlefield by combinations of different types of agent designed to undermine their confidence in respirators, disorientate them, and erode their morale. At first, army doctors practised defensive medicine, invaliding their patients for protracted periods to the UK or base hospitals. By 1917, progressive study of the physical and psychological effects of different types of toxin allowed physicians to design new management strategies. Borrowing ideas from shell shock, specialist units were set up closer to the front line and medical officers taught to identify crucial points in the course of illness to accelerate recovery times and forestall the accretion of psychosomatic symptoms. PMID:27917027
Linden, Stefanie Caroline; Jones, Edgar
World War I witnessed the admission of large numbers of German soldiers with neurological symptoms for which there was no obvious organic cause. This posed a considerable challenge for the military and medical authorities and resulted in an active discussion on the etiology and treatment of these disorders. Current historiography is reliant on published physician accounts, and this represents the first study of treatment approaches based on original case notes. We analyzed patient records from two leading departments of academic psychiatry in Germany, those at Berlin and Jena, in conjunction with the contemporaneous medical literature. Treatment, which can be broadly classified into reward and punishment, suggestion, affective shock, cognitive learning, and physiological methods, was developed in the context of the emerging fields of animal learning and neurophysiology. A further innovative feature was the use of quantitative methods to assess outcomes. These measures showed good response rates, though most cured patients were not sent back to battle because of their presumed psychopathic constitution. While some treatments appear unnecessarily harsh from today's perspective and were also criticized by leading psychiatrists of the time, the concentration of effort and involvement of so many senior doctors led to the development of psychotherapeutic methods that were to influence the field of psychiatric therapy for decades to come. PMID:22492735
Pakala Venkata, Devi Prasada Reddy
Foulkes, Julia L
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan and the revitalization of the Brooklyn Academy of Music in Brooklyn offer insights into the intersection of arts and urbanization after World War II. This intra-city comparison shows the aggrandizing pull of the international arena in the shaping of Lincoln Center and the arts it featured in contrast to the local focus and debate that transformed how BAM fit into its Brooklyn neighborhood. The performing arts, bound as they are to a moment fused in space and time, reveal the making of place within grandiose formal buildings as well as outside on the streets that surround them—and it is, perhaps, that tensile connection between stages and streets that informs the relevancy of both the institution and the arts it features. At a time when the suburbs pulled more and more people, the arts provided a counterforce in cities, as magnet and stimulus. The arts were used as compensation for the demolition and re-building of a neighborhood in urban renewal, but they also exposed the more complex social dynamics that underpinned the transformation of the mid-20th century American city from a segregated to a multi-faceted place.
Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ciesielska, Maria
Professor Ludwik Fleck was a famous scientist and a prominent philosopher. Although his life and work were studied extensively, the Second World War period was a subject of some discussion and controversy. On account of his Jewish origin, he was first arrested and moved from the Lwów ghetto to the 'Laokoon' factory and then imprisoned in KL Auschwitz-Birkenau and in KL Buchenwald. Fleck produced the anti-typhus vaccine in the chemo-bacteriological laboratory in the Jewish Hospital at Kuszewicza Street and in the 'Laokoon' factory in Lwów. During his incarceration in KL Auschwitz-Birkenau, Fleck worked in the camp laboratory in Block 10 carrying out bacteriological studies for the inmates and then was assigned to work in the Wasserman station in Rajsko. From January 1944 Fleck performed routine laboratory tests in Block 50 in KL Buchenwald. Though Fleck had a privileged life in the camp, he participated in the sabotage activities organized by the camp resistance.
Hagen, Joel B
During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the development of an area of research variously referred to as physiological ecology, environmental physiology, or ecophysiology. This area of research was distinctive in its self-conscious blend of field and laboratory practices and its explicit integration with other areas of biology such as ecology, animal behavior, and evolution in order to study adaptation. Comparing the intersecting careers of Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew highlights two strikingly different approaches to physiological ecology. These alternative approaches to studying the interactions of organisms and environments also differed in important ways from the organismal biology championed by leading figures in the modern synthesis.
Linden, Stefanie Caroline; Jones, Edgar
World War I witnessed the admission of large numbers of German soldiers with neurological symptoms for which there was no obvious organic cause. This posed a considerable challenge for the military and medical authorities and resulted in an active discussion on the etiology and treatment of these disorders. Current historiography is reliant on published physician accounts, and this represents the first study of treatment approaches based on original case notes. We analyzed patient records from two leading departments of academic psychiatry in Germany, those at Berlin and Jena, in conjunction with the contemporaneous medical literature. Treatment, which can be broadly classified into reward and punishment, suggestion, affective shock, cognitive learning, and physiological methods, was developed in the context of the emerging fields of animal learning and neurophysiology. A further innovative feature was the use of quantitative methods to assess outcomes. These measures showed good response rates, though most cured patients were not sent back to battle because of their presumed psychopathic constitution. While some treatments appear unnecessarily harsh from today's perspective and were also criticized by leading psychiatrists of the time, the concentration of effort and involvement of so many senior doctors led to the development of psychotherapeutic methods that were to influence the field of psychiatric therapy for decades to come.