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Sample records for 2nd year medical

  1. Use of prelecture assignment to enhance learning in pharmacology lectures for the 2nd year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Marya; Mallick, Ayaz Khurram

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Majority of teaching hours allotted by the Medical Council of India in pharmacology are utilized in the form of didactic lecture. Although these lectures are an excellent tool to deliver the information to a large group of students, it usually ends up as a one-sided teaching session with most students being the passive listeners. To make these lectures interesting and effective, we introduced the students to prelecture assignment (PLA) in the form of clinical case before the delivery of the lecture. Methods: This prospective educational trial was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology with undergraduate medical students in their 2nd year of their professional course. They were divided into two groups of 75 each. Group A was provided the PLA before the lecture. Group B students directly attended the lecture, sans the PLA. Multiple-choice questions-based test was conducted 2 days after the lecture. Students who failed to complete the assignment and were absent from the lecture and test were excluded from the study. Feedback from the students was obtained after the lecture. The scores in the test and responses were compiled and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results were expressed in percentages and as mean ± standard deviation as applicable. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty-six students from Group A and 42 from Group B appeared for the test. The students who were given PLA scored better. They felt more confident in answering and understood the topic better than the students of other group. Conclusion: PLA is a useful teaching-learning tool. The pharmacology lectures are interactive, interesting, and easy to understand with this tool. PMID:28031612

  2. Medical museum, 2nd surgical hospital.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Alan J

    2013-12-01

    When his unit, the 2nd Surgical Hospital (MA), was established at An Khe in January 1966, MAJ Rich began collecting retrieved foreign bodies along with documentation of the wound. A museum displaying these objects was established at one end of the operating room Quonset hut. During Rich's tour of duty, there were 324 cases where the patient was wounded by a punji stick, representing 38% wounds because of hostile action.

  3. Comparative analysis of 1st, 2nd, and 4th year MD students' attitudes toward Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    PubMed Central

    Riccard, Christopher P; Skelton, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Background To identify and report the attitudes and beliefs of 1st, 2nd, and 4th year medical students toward complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Methods The previously validated and reliability tested CHBQ was administered to medical students attending the University of South Florida School of Medicine. Results Significant changes were found between both 1st (46.0 ± 7.7) and 4th (37.8 ± 15.7) year students and 2nd (48.3 ± 7.8) and 4th (37.8 ± 15.7) year students. No significant difference was found between 1st (46.0 ± 7.7) and 2nd (48.3 ± 7.8) year students. When comparing scores based on gender, a significant difference was present between males (41.2 ± 12.2) and females (46.1 ± 11.0). Conclusion CHBQ scores were significantly more positive in both 1st and 2nd year medical students in comparison with 4th year student's scores. These findings suggest that as student exposure to allopathic techniques and procedures increases during the last year of medical school, their attitudes toward CAM decrease. Females were also significantly more likely to have stronger positive attitudes toward CAM than males, though both genders represented an overall positive attitude toward CAM. PMID:18799010

  4. [Medical support of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front].

    PubMed

    Shelepov, A M; Leonik, S I; Lemeshkin, R N

    2015-02-01

    Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front. An activity of the medical An activity of the medical service of the 65th Army during the East Prussian offensive operation performed by the 2nd Belorussian Front is a typical example of the medical support of troops during the final stages of World War II. Forms and methods of medical support management, which were developed during the war, haven't lost their importance in modern conditions. These methods include the establishment of specialized surgical and therapeutic field hospital, establishment of medical institutions in the Army, which worked on the evacuation directions and reserve of mobile hospitals and transport, timely extension of the first echelons of the hospital base front to change institutions hospital deployed the army base. A research of experience in organizing medical support of the offensive operations performed during the last year of World War II provides the material for the development of the theory of modern medical support operations and ability to provide on this basis, the continuity of the hospitals, the continuity of qualified and specialized medical care, improve the performance of diagnostic and treatment work.

  5. Turkish Ministry of Health, 2nd Turkish Medical General Assembly Clinical Oncology Study Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Özmen, Vahit; Dağoğlu, Nergiz; Dede, İsmet; Akçakaya, Adem; Kerem, Mustafa; Göksel, Fatih; Özgür, Enver; Başkan, Emel; Yaylacı, Mustafa; Ceydeli, Adil; Baykara, Meltem; Kızıltan, Huriye Şenay; Kömürcü, Şeref; Gümüş, Mahmut; Türk, H. Mehmet; Demirhan, Recep; Akgün, Ali; Kadoglou, Naim; Yatman, Emre; Elbi, Cem Cüneyt; Güleç, Seza; Soran, Atilla; Özet, Ahmet; Keleştimur, Fahrettin

    2016-01-01

    research issues were also determined, and policy and project proposals to address these issues were presented. Collaboration with relevant organizations in the implementation of these studies was supported. Conclusion Both the incidence and mortality rates of cancer are increasing in Turkey. The widespread deficiencies in population-based screening and in effective treatment lead to an increase in delay in diagnosis and mortality. Despite improvements in data recording, screening and treatment over the last 10 years, extensive, organized, population-based screening programs and fully equipped early diagnosis and treatment centers are required. Enhancement of basic cancer epidemiologic, translational, genetic and molecular research studies is essential in our country. Improvements on pain treatment and palliative care of patients with chronic and terminal cancer are also required.

  6. Peace Corps. 2nd Annual Report to Congress for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    Projects, operations, and future plans are covered in this annual report for the second year of the Peace Corps. The first section looks at the Peace Corps in action in Africa, Latin America, the Far East, the Near East, and South Asia. Brief descriptions are provided in the second section of programs in eight host countires: El Salvador, Ghana,…

  7. MACHO project 2nd year LMC microlensing results and dark matter implications

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R.A.; Alves, D.

    1996-02-01

    The MACHO Project is searching for galactic dark matter in the form of massive compact halo objects (Machos). Millions of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and Galactic bulge are photometrically monitored in an attempt to detect rare gravitational microlensing events caused by otherwise invisible Machos. Analysis of two years of photometry on 8.5 million stars in the LMC reveals 8 candidate microlensing events, far more than the one event expected from lensing by low-mass stars in known galactic populations. Five these eight events we estimate the optical depth towards the LMC from events with 2 < i < 200 days to be r2 280 about 2.9+1 4/-0.8 X 10-7. This exceeds the optical depth of 0.5 x 10-7 expected for known stars and is to be compared with an optical depth of 4.7 X 10-7 predicted for a `standard` halo composed entirely of Machos. The total mass in this lensing population is 2 +1.2/-0.7 x 10+11 Mo (within 50 kpc from the Galactic center). Event timescales yield a most probable Macho Mass of 0.5 +0.3/-0.2 Mo, although this value is quite model dependent. -0.2

  8. Guidelines for Evaluating...The First-Year Experience at Two-Year Colleges. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John N.; Barefoot, Betsy O.; Swing, Randy L.

    This booklet contains questions that are intended to serve as a starting point for asking meaningful questions about the quality of the first year of college so that a two-year college campus can enhance the learning, satisfaction, and retention of new college students. The previous edition considered the first-year experience for both two-year…

  9. Guidelines for Evaluating...The First-Year Experience at Four-Year Colleges. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John N.; Barefoot, Betsy O.; Swing, Randy L.

    This booklet contains a blueprint of questions that can be used at public and private four-year colleges and universities by an institution-wide task force examining the first-year experience or the broader campus experience. The blueprint can also be used to aid in an overall process of campus self-study or assessment. The questions a task force…

  10. Long-rotation sugarcane in Hawaii sustains high carbon accumulation and radiation use efficiency in 2nd year of growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane has been a major agronomic crop in Hawaii with an unique, high-yield, two-year production system. However,parameters relevant to advanced, cellulosic biofuel production, such as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and radiation use efficiency (RUE), have not been evaluated in Hawaii under com...

  11. Designing Successful Transitions: A Guide for Orienting Students to College. 2nd Edition. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Roof, Jeanine A., Ed.; Hatch, Cathie, Ed.

    This monograph contains 15 papers on aspects of college and university student and family orientation programs. Following a prologue, "Reflections on the Future of Orientation," by M. Lee Upcraft, the papers are: (1) "Today's Students and Their Impact on Orientation and First-Year Programs" (Tony W. Cawthon and Michael Miller);…

  12. FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions: 2-year clinical results with 2nd or newer generation DES

    PubMed Central

    Arvydas, Baranauskas; Vilhelmas, Bajoras; Povilas, Budrys; Aleksandras, Laucevičius; Giedrius, Davidavičius

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite improvements in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology, treatment strategies for long coronary artery lesions remain a controversial issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term clinical results after FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions. Materials and methods. A total of 74 consecutive patients with significant (mean FFR 0.61 ± 0.11) coronary artery lesions ≥30 mm in length were included in the prospective study. All patients were treated with FFR guided PCI implanting newer generation Biolimus, Everolimus or Zotarolimus eluting stents. Clinical endpoints – target vessel revascularization (TVR) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) – were recorded at 1 and 2 years. Results. 100% angiographic procedure success was achieved, the mean post procedural FFR was 0.88 ± 0.06. At 2-year follow-up, 6 (8.1%) patients had ischemia driven TVR, all within the first 12 months. There were no target vessel related acute coronary syndromes and definite stent thromboses in the study group. At 2 years, the total MACE rate was 29.7%. There was a trend towards a higher TVR rate in patients with overlapping DES vs single DES implanted (9.6 vs 4.5%, p = 0.6). On regression analysis, the total stent length had no influence on the TVR rate. Conclusions. At 2 years after stenting long coronary lesions with newer generation DES the TVR rate was 8.1%, which is acceptable in the high cardiovascular risk population with diffuse coronary artery disease. The total stent length did not affect the long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:28356786

  13. 2ND FLOOR HALLWAY LOOKING EAST, NOTE PRESSED TIN CEILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2ND FLOOR HALLWAY LOOKING EAST, NOTE PRESSED TIN CEILING - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Building No. 29, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  14. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  15. Is the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd Edition a Reliable Instrument to Measure Motor Performance in 3 Year Old Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Formal testing of 3 year old children is a new feature in the revised version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC-2). Our study evaluated the reliability and explored the clinical applicability of the Movement ABC-2 Test in this young age group. A total of 50 typically children were given two trials of the test within a…

  16. 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Martinez, Ed; Arcadi, Marla

    2005-01-01

    Included are presentations from the 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop. The purpose of the second workshop was to continue to unite the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers and mission designers and planners; whose expertise, experience and interests are in the areas of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics of planetary entry vehicles. Mars lander missions and the first probe mission to Titan made 2004 an exciting year for planetary exploration. The Workshop addressed entry probe science, engineering challenges, mission design and instruments, along with the challenges of reconstruction of the entry, descent and landing or the aerocapture phases. Topics addressed included methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed; techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder and Mars MER; upcoming missions such as the imminent entry of Huygens and future Mars entry probes; and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.

  17. 2nd International Heliophysical Year - SCIDA Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    planetarium which was installed in the venue throughout the week especially for the workshop. The planetarium , from Rice University, was brought by...the GIFT workshop organizers for a GIFT workshop demonstration. At the end of the workshop the planetarium was donated to the University of Zambia...which makes Zambia the second country, next to Ethiopia, in Africa that has a portable scientific planetarium dome. Several of the scientists and

  18. 2nd Generation ELT Performance Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimson, Chad M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Search And Rescue is supporting RTCA SC-229 with research and recommendations for performance specifications for the 2nd generation of emergency locator transmitters. Areas for improvement and methods for collecting data will be presented.

  19. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Doughty, Christine; Gasperikova, Erika; Peterson, John; Conrad, Mark; Cook, Paul; Tiemi, Onishi

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  20. Longwall mining. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2006-10-15

    The book covers US longwall mining technology that was developed and practiced in the US for the past 30 years. It covers all phases of longwall technology in 14 chapters. Each chapter is devoted to a subsystem of equipment or engineering technology. Each chapter begins with a brief introduction on the historical trends of development of the subsystem equipment or engineering technology, followed by a detailed description of the subsystem and engineering technology as they are practiced in the US today.

  1. Contaminant Hydrogeology, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James E.

    Groundwater is a valuable resource that has received much attention over the last couple of decades. Extremely large sums of money have been and will be spent on groundwater contamination problems and the public has become increasingly sensitive to groundwater issues. Groundwater contamination has even become the subject of a major Hollywood movie with the recent release of A Civil Action starring John Travolta. The high profile of groundwater contaminant problems, the associated relatively strong job market over the last 20 years, and the general shift toward an environmental emphasis in science and engineering have resulted in a sustained high demand for senior undergraduate courses and graduate programs in hydrogeology Many voice the opinion that we have seen the peak demand for hydrogeologists pass, but the placement of graduates from hydrogeology programs into career-oriented positions has remained very high.

  2. PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The "PIRLS 2016 Assessment Framework, 2nd Edition" provides the foundation for the three international assessments planned as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016: PIRLS, PIRLS Literacy, and ePIRLS. PIRLS represents the…

  3. [Military physician Colonel Robert Yout. Twenty years as a paratrooper medical officer].

    PubMed

    Yout, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Robert Yout was born on June 15th, 1930. A rugby player and a member of the French Volleyball team, he was already an outstanding sportsman when he began his studies at the Health Services School in Lyons. His career as an army medical officer among the paratroopers was atypical. He spent many years among the most prestigious elite paratroopers of the French army: the 2nd REP, the 1st CHOC and the CINC (The Army Training School for Combat Swimmers) . When he retired, he was Head Doctor of the Paratroopers parent company: The Airborne School of Pau. For the army medical historian, Robert Yout is the perfect example of a man with an outstanding and remarkable career: A crack soldier, a brave army medical officer, a parachuting and diving pioneer and a sportsman of international class.

  4. High levels of virological failure with major genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected children after 5 years of care according to WHO-recommended 1st-line and 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens in the Central African Republic: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamant; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Mbitikon, Olivia; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Robin, Leman; Matta, Mathieu; Zeitouni, Kamal; Longo, Jean De Dieu; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Grésenguet, Gérard; Touré Kane, Ndèye Coumba; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    A large cohort of 220 HIV-1-infected children (median [range] age: 12 [4-17] years) was cared and followed up in the Central African Republic, including 198 in 1st-line and 22 in 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens. Patients were monitored clinically and biologically for HIV-1 RNA load and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) genotyping. A total of 87 (40%) study children were virological responders and 133 (60%) nonresponders. In children with detectable viral load, the majority (129; 97%) represented a virological failure. In children receiving 1st-line regimens in virological failure for whom genotypic resistance test was available, 45% displayed viruses harboring at least 1 DRM to NNRTI or NRTI, and 26% showed at least 1 major DRM to NNRTI or NRTI; more than half of children in 1st-line regimens were resistant to 1st-generation NNRTI and 24% of the children in 1st-line regimens had a major DRMs to PI. Virological failure and selection of DRMs were both associated with poor adherence. These observations demonstrate high rate of virological failure after 3 to 5 years of 1st-line or 2nd-line antiretroviral treatment, which is generally associated with DRMs and therapeutic failure. Overall, more than half (55%) of children receiving 1st-line antiretroviral treatment for a median of 3.4 years showed virological failure and antiretroviral-resistance and thus eligible to 2nd-line treatment. Furthermore, two-third (64%) of children under 2nd-line therapy were eligible to 3rd-line regimen. Taken together, these observations point the necessity to monitor antiretroviral-treated children by plasma HIV-1 RNA load to diagnose as early as possible the therapeutic failure and operate switch to a new therapeutic line.

  5. High levels of virological failure with major genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected children after 5 years of care according to WHO-recommended 1st-line and 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens in the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamant; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Mbitikon, Olivia; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Robin, Leman; Matta, Mathieu; Zeitouni, Kamal; Longo, Jean De Dieu; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Grésenguet, Gérard; Touré Kane, Ndèye Coumba; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A large cohort of 220 HIV-1-infected children (median [range] age: 12 [4–17] years) was cared and followed up in the Central African Republic, including 198 in 1st-line and 22 in 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens. Patients were monitored clinically and biologically for HIV-1 RNA load and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) genotyping. A total of 87 (40%) study children were virological responders and 133 (60%) nonresponders. In children with detectable viral load, the majority (129; 97%) represented a virological failure. In children receiving 1st-line regimens in virological failure for whom genotypic resistance test was available, 45% displayed viruses harboring at least 1 DRM to NNRTI or NRTI, and 26% showed at least 1 major DRM to NNRTI or NRTI; more than half of children in 1st-line regimens were resistant to 1st-generation NNRTI and 24% of the children in 1st-line regimens had a major DRMs to PI. Virological failure and selection of DRMs were both associated with poor adherence. These observations demonstrate high rate of virological failure after 3 to 5 years of 1st-line or 2nd-line antiretroviral treatment, which is generally associated with DRMs and therapeutic failure. Overall, more than half (55%) of children receiving 1st-line antiretroviral treatment for a median of 3.4 years showed virological failure and antiretroviral-resistance and thus eligible to 2nd-line treatment. Furthermore, two-third (64%) of children under 2nd-line therapy were eligible to 3rd-line regimen. Taken together, these observations point the necessity to monitor antiretroviral-treated children by plasma HIV-1 RNA load to diagnose as early as possible the therapeutic failure and operate switch to a new therapeutic line. PMID:28272247

  6. 2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraph presentation on the "2nd & 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems" project. The objective behind this project is to design, develop and test advanced avionics, power systems, power control and distribution components and subsystems for insertion into a highly reliable and low-cost system for a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The project is divided into two sections: 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems and 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems. The following topics are discussed under the first section, 3rd Generation Vehicle Subsystems: supporting the NASA RLV program; high-performance guidance & control adaptation for future RLVs; Evolvable Hardware (EHW) for 3rd generation avionics description; Scaleable, Fault-tolerant Intelligent Network or X(trans)ducers (SFINIX); advance electric actuation devices and subsystem technology; hybrid power sources and regeneration technology for electric actuators; and intelligent internal thermal control. Topics discussed in the 2nd Generation Vehicle Subsystems program include: design, development and test of a robust, low-maintenance avionics with no active cooling requirements and autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; design and development of a low maintenance, high reliability, intelligent power systems (fuel cells and battery); and design of a low cost, low maintenance high horsepower actuation systems (actuators).

  7. Learning Styles in First Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chessell, Gwen

    1986-01-01

    Reports on a study done at Aberdeen University (England) which assessed the learning styles of first-year medical students. Results indicated that these students scored higher than other students in achievement (including study methods and competitiveness) and prediction for success. Includes the instrument used. (TW)

  8. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Definition Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert M.; Stucker, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Mid-Term Report summarizes the status of Kelly Space & Technology's activities during the first two and one half months of the program. This report was presented to the cognoscente Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) and selected Marshall Space Flight Center staff members on 26 September 2000. The report has been approved and is distributed on CD-ROM (as a PowerPoint file) in accordance with the terms of the subject contract, and contains information and data addressing the following: (1) Launch services demand and requirements; (2) Architecture, alternatives, and requirements; (3) Costs, pricing, and business cases analysis; (4) Commercial financing requirements, plans, and strategy; (5) System engineering processes and derived requirements; and (6) RLV system trade studies and design analysis.

  9. [125 years' of the Serbian Medical Society].

    PubMed

    Sulović, V; Pavlović, B

    1998-01-01

    In the second half of the last century and under the influence of the European civilization, Serbia abandoned the conservative and patriarchal way of life and began to introduce a new, contemporary political, cultural and social spirit into the country. The development of these civilizing features was under the influence of young intelectuals who, as former scholarship holders of the Serbian government, were educated in many European countries. Among them, there was a group of physicians who returned to the country after having completed their education. They were carriers and holders of the contemporary medical science in Serbia and the neighbouring areas. On April 22, 1872 a group of 15 physicians founded the Serbian Medical Society with the intention to offer an organized medical help and care to the population. The first president was Dr. Aćim Medović and the first secretary Dr. Vladan Dordević. At the meeting held on May 15, 1872 the text of the Statute of the Society was accepted and immediately submitted for approval to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In the letter addressed to the minister of internal affairs the following reasons were cited: "... The Belgrade physicians feeling a need for having the main office for their professional and scientific meetings, for which they will find the opportunity and the funds, and in spite of their hard medical labor which requires almost all their time, decided to establish the Serbian Medical Society because they wish to be in trend and follow-up the medical progress and exchange the latest medical information not only among them but also with other graduated doctors living in areas with the Serblan population as well as with all scientists who are willing to contribute to the development of medical science in Serbia...". In the first year of its existence the Serbian Medical Society had 9 regular members, 1 honorary member and 34 corresponding members from Serbia, Slavic and other foreign countries. On August 5

  10. [Medical research ethics 50 years after Nuremberg].

    PubMed

    Ruyter, K W

    1997-12-10

    50 years ago, in Nuremberg, 23 German doctors were accused of crimes against humanity. The anniversary is a solemn reminder of the dark origins of medical research ethics. Many researchers today believe that the medical experiments carried out under Hitler "vaccinated" postwar researchers against abuse. A review of the practices of postwar research shows that the "vaccination" had limited effect and that there is no reason to believe that the events which took place under Hitler were unique and will never happen again. After the war various measures were introduced to protect research subjects: informed consent, self regulation and independent research ethics committees. The measures have undoubtedly limited the abuse of subjects substantially. Nevertheless, in the Armed Forces, where abuse has been most rampant after the war, informed consent is not always practised and independent review is seldom carried out. With the support of grant institutions, journals and industry the protection of research subjects can be improved. It is recommended that medical faculties arrange an annual commemoration of the victims of medical research in order to raise consciousness and awareness among teachers and students.

  11. Nutrition and Hypertension in Blacks and Other Minorities. Proceedings of the Meharry Medical College Annual Nutrition Workshop (2nd, Nashville, Tennessee, October 26-28, 1988). Annual Nutrition Workshop Series, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enwonwu, Cyril O., Ed.

    During this 3-day workshop with 138 registered participants, invited medical experts deliberated extensively on the physiological regulation of blood pressure, the unique biological characteristics and dietary patterns of Blacks and other minorities, the prevalence of hypertension in U.S. Blacks and Native Americans, the roles of specific macro-…

  12. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle NASA Led Propulsion Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Design, development and test of a 2nd generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is presented. This current paper discusses the following: 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project, Overview of NASA Led Tasks in Propulsion, Gen2 Turbo Machinery Technology Demonstrator, and Combustion Devices Test Bed, GRCop-84 Sheet For Combustion Chambers, Nozzles and Large Actively Cooled Structures

  13. Space physiology and medicine, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Nicogossian, A.E.; Huntoon, C.L.; Pool, S.L.; Johnson, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Physiological Adaptation to Space Flight: Overall Adaptation to Space Flight and Implications; The Neurovestibular System; Performance; The Cardiopulmonary System; Nutrition; Bone and Mineral Metabolism; Hematology, Immunology, Endocrinology, and Biochemistry; Microgravity: Stimulations and Analogs; Health Maintenance of Space Crewmemebers: Medical Evaluation for Astronaut Selection and Longitudinal Studies; Biomedical Training of Space Crews; Ground-Based Medical Programs; Countermeasures to Space Deconditioning; Medical Problems of Space Flight: Toxic Hazards in Space Operations; Radiation Exposure Issues and Medical Care and Health Maintenance in Flight.

  14. Refraction data survey: 2nd generation correlation of myopia.

    PubMed

    Greene, Peter R; Medina, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    The objective herein is to provide refraction data, myopia progression rate, prevalence, and 1st and 2nd generation correlations, relevant to whether myopia is random or inherited. First- and second-generation ocular refraction data are assembled from N = 34 families, average of 2.8 children per family. From this group, data are available from N = 165 subjects. Inter-generation regressions are performed on all the data sets, including correlation coefficient r, and myopia prevalence [%]. Prevalence of myopia is [M] = 38.5 %. Prevalence of high myopes with |R| >6 D is [M-] = 20.5 %. Average refraction is  = -1.84 D ± 3.22 (N = 165). For the high myopes, |R| >6 D, prevalence for the parents is [M-] = 25 %, for the 2nd generation [M-] = 16.5 %. Average myopia level for the high myopes, both generations, is  = -7.52 D ± 1.31 D (N = 33). Regression parameters are calculated for all the data sets, yielding correlation coefficients in the range r = 0.48-0.72 for some groups of myopes and high myopes, fathers to daughters, and mothers to sons. Also of interest, some categories show essentially no correlation, -0.20 < r < 0.20, indicating that the refractive errors occur randomly. Time series results show myopia diopter rates = -0.50 D/year.

  15. Two-Year College Chemistry Conference Proceedings: Southern Regional Conference, (2nd, Little Rock, December 9, 1967); Eastern Regional Conference (1st, Philadelphia, February 2-3, 1968); and Annual Conference (8th, San Francisco, March 29-30, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This report on three junior college chemistry conferences includes: (1) new and developing programs in 2-year college chemistry; (2) beginning chemistry offerings--repair of poor backgrounds in chemistry and math; (3) non-science major--chemistry program for non-science students; (4) first-year chemistry course: (a) programmed audio-tutorial…

  16. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  17. The Effect of Using Computer Edutainment on Developing 2nd Primary Graders' Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed Abdel Raheem, Azza Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    The present study attempted to examine the effect of using computer edutainment on developing 2nd graders' writing skills. The study comprised thirty-second year primary stage enrolled in Bani Hamad primary governmental school, Minia governorate. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to one…

  18. Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget, 2nd Edition. An Analysis of Fiscal-Year 2003-04 Appropriations and Recommendations for 2004-05. Revision of the March 2003 Study. A Mackinac Center Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFaive, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    As the debate rages in Lansing over the size and scope of the 2004-2005 Fiscal Year state budget, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy is republishing and updating budget cutting ideas from its March 2003 study, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's Budget." The 2003 study made over 200 recommendations…

  19. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council, Annual Report Fiscal Year 1975-76. Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, 94th Congress, 2nd Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    Presented is the annual report for fiscal year 1975-76 of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), including the annual reports of the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine. Contents include: (1) report of the President; (2) reports on completed studies including food and nutrition, public health, natural resources, space…

  20. Molecular motors and the 2nd law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhisong

    2014-03-01

    Molecular motors from biology and nanotechnology often operate on chemical energy of fuel molecules in an isothermal environment, unlike macroscopic heat engines that draw energy from a heat flow between two temperatures. Nevertheless, isothermal molecular motors are still subject to the 2nd law of thermodynamics in a fundamental way: their directional motion must cost a finite amount of energy other than the environmental heat even though no work is done; otherwise the 2nd law would be violated. Hence the 2nd law requires a finite energy price for pure direction of molecular motors. But what is the lowest price of direction allowed by the 2nd law? And how does the 2nd law-decreed price of direction limit performance of molecular motors? In the talk, I shall present our theoretical study of the 2nd law-molecular motor link on basis of the accumulated biomotor phenomenology, and also introduce our experimental effort to develop biomimetic DNA bipedal nanomotors following the mechanistic guidelines out of the theoretical study. [Main contents of this talk are from references:] This work is partially supported by FRC grants R-144-000-259-112, R-144-000-290-112 and R-144-000-320-112.

  1. Space physiology and medicine (2nd edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E. (Editor); Huntoon, Carolyn Leach (Editor); Pool, Sam L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The fundamental biomedical issues involved in manned space flight are examined in review chapters contributed by leading U.S. experts. Sections are devoted to the history of manned space flight, the space environment, space-flight systems and procedures, physiological adaptation to space flight, health maintenance of space crewmembers, and medical problems of space flight. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  2. Seventy Years of the Journal “Medical Archives”

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    This year journal “Medical Archives” celebrates 70th anniversary of its continuing publication. Medical Archives is oldest biomedical journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of the oldest medical journals in Europe, established in the year 1947, as official scientific and professional journal of Association of Physicians of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Until present Medical Archives has published over 5000 articles. Today Medical Archives is internationally recognized medical peer-reviewed indexed journal, visible in more than 30 international on-line databases. PMID:26980925

  3. [The theta rhythm of the infant EEG and the development of the mechanisms of voluntary control of attention in the 2nd half of the first year of life].

    PubMed

    Stroganova, T A; Orekhova, E V; Posikera, I N

    1998-01-01

    The neurophysiological basis of attention control was studied in infants at the second half-year of life, i.e. in the period when the capability for voluntary control over behavior fundamentally improves. EEG was recorded in 60 infants aed 8-11 months in three experimental conditions: 1) attention to an object in the visual field (externally controlled attention, or the baseline state), 2) anticipation of a person in the peek-a-boo game (internally controlled attention), 3) attention to the reappeared person in the peek-a-boo game (control condition). The spectral analysis of the EEG data revealed a sharp increase in the EEG theta (3.6-6.0 Hz) during internally controlled attention as compared to the baseline and control conditions. The theta1 (3.6-4.8 Hz) increase was maximal in the frontal derivations. The reactivity of the frontal theta1 during internally controlled attention discriminated infants with different abilities to maintain this type of attention. The reactivity of the theta2 (5.2-6.0 Hz) was maximal in the right temporal derivation (T6) and did not depend on stability of the anticipatory attention. The findings point to different functional significance of the theta1 and theta2 rhythms in infants. It is suggested that synchronization of the frontal theta1 rhythm in infants reflects the activity of the anterior attention system which realizes the executive attention control. The ability to maintain anticipatory attention increased with age, whereas the frontal theta1 synchronization decreased and totally disappeared at the age of 11 months. At the age of 8 months there was a positive correlation between the frontal theta1 synchronization and behavioral index of stability of the internally controlled attention. On the contrary, this correlation was negative at the age of 9 and 10 months. It is suggested that the age-dependent dynamics of the relationship between the frontal theta1 reactivity and attention reflects a leap in maturation of the anterior

  4. Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year-Old Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old A A A The toddler months ... Following simple instructions? Saying a few words? Combining two words by age 2? The doctor may ask ...

  5. [Medical civil responsibility in the year 2000].

    PubMed

    Rougé-Maillart, C; Pessaux, P; Gosset, D; Penneau, M

    2001-10-01

    In France, during the last year, important jurisprudence was established by the French Supreme Court of Appeal concerning the physician's civil responsibility. On october 7, 1998, the Court decided that "the physician is not exempted for the obligation to provide information by the simple fact that these risks only materialize exceptionally". This means that from now, the physician must inform the patient of all risks that might influence the patient's decision, particularly information concerning life-threatening or severe consequences, but also, as in the past, concerning frequent even benign consequences. The limits of this jurisprudence and the completeness of the information, as established in 1998, are emergency, patient refusal and impossibility to inform the patient. In the decree of May 23, 2000, the Court gave its definition of impossibility to inform the patient, thus establishing the "therapeutic limits". But the judges recognized that the requirement for information delivery is independent of the necessary or unnecessary nature of the therapeutic act. However, in the decree of June 20, 2000, the Court established the conditions for awarding indemnities for defective information delivery. Defective information delivery is not sufficient in itself to constitute a civil offense. Real damage is also necessary. To be awarded with an indemnity, the patient must prove that the lack of information affected his/her decision to consent. If it appears that even if he/she had been well informed, the patient had consented to the care given, the physician would not be obliged to provide the patient with an indemnity. The judges want to find a compensation and make the proof easier for the patient. They accept the potential fault when an organ was injured in the course of an operation. But, these decisions concern the proof and they don't modify the medical responsibility. The physicians have got a duty to use reasonable skill and care and they don't have any

  6. [Microsurgical 2nd toe transfer for catastrophic hand reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Placer, A; Lozano, Ja

    2007-01-01

    The correct reconstruction of the catastrophic hand requires complex surgical techniques. The microsurgical transference of a toe is indicated when all other reconstructive options are shown to be useless for the reconstruction of the required clamp function. In this clinical note we set out the case of a 32 year old man, who came to our accident and emergency department after suffering a traffic accident. After exploration the diagnosis was that of catastrophic left hand, among other policontusions. Urgent surgery was carried out, saving the maximum possible viable structures. The immediate result of this surgery was a hand with 1st, 4th and 5th functional fingers. As the essential clamp function between the 1st and 4th or 5th fingers was not totally satisfactory, we decided to reconstruct the 3rd finger of his hand with his ipsilateral 2nd toe. All pertinent studies to determine vascularisation of the flap were carried out in planning the surgery, and the microsurgical transfer was then realized, which was successful. Today, after a suitable rehabilitation, the patient has recovered a satisfactory function of heavy and fine clamp in the operated hand. Toe to hand transfer is a good option for finger reconstruction and its function. Rehabilitation is the key to functional recovery.

  7. Performance Plan: Progress Report 2nd Quarter Fiscal Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This document is progress report on the U.S. Department of Education's Student Financial Assistance (SFA) programs. Regarding its customer satisfaction objective, SFA notes that it looks to private sector leaders in e-commerce and promotes electronic services; offers electronic filing of the Free Application For Student Aid (FAFSA); offers most…

  8. Writing II for 2nd Year EFL Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Writing is a very important skill that should be mastered properly by university students, especially pre-service language teachers (e.g. EFL student teachers). In order to present their ideas efficiently in the context of their academic study, they have to be trained well on how to write meaningful pieces (e.g. essays, academic reports,…

  9. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively.

  10. Teaching medical mycology in the year 2000.

    PubMed

    Negroni, R; Ellis, D; Bulmer, G; Graybill, J R; Restrepo, A

    1998-01-01

    Medical mycology is of increasing interest to the basic scientist, pathologist, microbiologist and clinician. This interest has been prompted by the rising number of immunosuppressed patients with opportunistic fungal infections, the expanding boundaries of the so-called endemic mycoses, the recognition of several major new endemic mycoses and a variety of other emerging fungal infections, and the development of potent, non-toxic antifungal drugs to treat these infections. The world of mycology is changing dramatically, especially in developing countries which have only limited resources to cope with the impact of the compromised host and the introduction of costly new antifungal drugs. Consequently, there is an urgent need to increase our effectiveness as teachers of medical mycology at all levels and in all regions of the world.

  11. Gastrointestinal imaging in pediatrics, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Franken, E.A. Jr.; Smith, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    Gastrointestinal imaging in pediatrics is very different from its predecessor, gastrointestinal radiology in pediatrics, which was written eight years ago. The second edition is organized by anatomic area with supplemental chapters on special procedures (i.e., angiography, nuclear medicine, computerized axial tomography and ultrasonography). This volume contains 635 pages in contrast to the first edition which consisted of 323 pages. The arrangement of this volume is by anatomic area and not be clinical problem, therefore, the reader should have some background in pediatric radiology in order to find answers to specific questions.

  12. Astronomy For Dummies, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2005-04-01

    An accessible guide to the wonders of the night sky, now updated From asteroids to black holes, from quasars to white dwarfs, this new edition of Astronomy For Dummies takes backyard stargazers on a grand tour of the universe. Featuring star maps, charts, gorgeous full-color photographs, and easy-to-follow explanations, this fact-filled guide gives readers a leg up on the basic principles of astronomy and shows how to get the most out of binoculars, telescopes, planetarium visits, and other fun astronomical activities. This updated edition includes an updated color signature and covers the many discoveries made in recent years, as well as new astronomy Web sites.

  13. 2nd Generation QUATARA Flight Computer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falker, Jay; Keys, Andrew; Fraticelli, Jose Molina; Capo-Iugo, Pedro; Peeples, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Single core flight computer boards have been designed, developed, and tested (DD&T) to be flown in small satellites for the last few years. In this project, a prototype flight computer will be designed as a distributed multi-core system containing four microprocessors running code in parallel. This flight computer will be capable of performing multiple computationally intensive tasks such as processing digital and/or analog data, controlling actuator systems, managing cameras, operating robotic manipulators and transmitting/receiving from/to a ground station. In addition, this flight computer will be designed to be fault tolerant by creating both a robust physical hardware connection and by using a software voting scheme to determine the processor's performance. This voting scheme will leverage on the work done for the Space Launch System (SLS) flight software. The prototype flight computer will be constructed with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components which are estimated to survive for two years in a low-Earth orbit.

  14. Student Perceptions of the First Year of Veterinary Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    A brief survey was conducted of nearly 900 first-year students in 14 U.S. veterinary medical schools in order to gather impressions of the first year of veterinary medical education. Although some students reported that conditions were stressful, the majority did not feel that they were inordinately so. Overall, most students were quite positive…

  15. Quantitative Literacy Provision in the First Year of Medical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, V.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a description of and motivation for the quantitative literacy (numeracy) intervention in the first year of medical studies at a South African university. This intervention is a response to the articulation gap between the quantitative literacy of many first-year medical students and the demands of their curriculum.…

  16. [Health and environment: the 2nd public health revolution.].

    PubMed

    Cicolella, André

    2010-01-01

    As of the mid-19th century, most infectious disease epidemics have been fought and slowed down by taking action on the environment (water, housing, waste) and education. This constitutes the 1st public health revolution paradigm. As we face the current epidemic of chronic diseases and the failure of the dominant biomedical model to stop them, a 2nd public health revolution is needed. The vision for this 2nd public health revolution requires a new paradigm built upon an eco-systemic definition of health and the recognition of the legitimacy for citizen participation based on the precautionary principle.

  17. 2nd Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. This report summarizes the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014 in Tables 4 and 5. Tabular summaries are provided which include the following: Sources of and carriers for LLW and MLLW shipments to and from the NNSS; Number and external volume of LLW and MLLW shipments; Highway routes used by carriers; and Incident/accident data applicable to LLW and MLLW shipments. In this report shipments are accounted for upon arrival at the NNSS, while disposal volumes are accounted for upon waste burial. The disposal volumes presented in this report do not include minor volumes of non-radioactive materials that were approved for disposal. Volume reports showing cubic feet (ft3) generated using the Low-Level Waste Information System may vary slightly due to differing rounding conventions.

  18. Educational climate perception by preclinical and clinical medical students in five Spanish medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Gual, Arcadi; Escaneroi, Jesus; Tomás, Inmaculada; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Elorudy, Marta; Virumbrales, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Arce, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate student's perceptions of Educational Climate (EC) in Spanish medical schools, comparing various aspects of EC between the 2nd (preclinical) and the 4th (clinical) years to detect strengths and weaknesses in the on-going curricular reform. Methods This study utilized a cross-sectional design and employed the Spanish version of the "Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure" (DREEM). The survey involved 894 2nd year students and 619 4th year students from five Spanish medical schools. Results The global average score of 2nd year students from the five medical schools was found to be significantly higher (116.2±24.9, 58.2% of maximum score) than that observed in 4th year students (104.8±29.5, 52.4% of maximum score). When the results in each medical school were analysed separately, the scores obtained in the 2nd year were almost always significantly higher than in the 4th year for all medical schools, in both the global scales and the different subscales. Conclusions The perception of the EC by 2nd and 4th year students from five Spanish medical schools is more positive than negative although it is significantly lower in the 4th  year. In both years, although more evident in the 4th year, students point out the existence of several important "problematic educational areas" associated with the persistence of traditional curricula and teaching methodologies. Our findings of this study should lead medical schools to make a serious reflection and drive the implementation of the necessary changes required to improve teaching, especially during the clinical period. PMID:26057355

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Gravity (2nd edn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Viqar

    2008-06-01

    There has been a flurry of books on quantum gravity in the past few years. The first edition of Kiefer's book appeared in 2004, about the same time as Carlo Rovelli's book with the same title. This was soon followed by Thomas Thiemann's 'Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity'. Although the main focus of each of these books is non-perturbative and non-string approaches to the quantization of general relativity, they are quite orthogonal in temperament, style, subject matter and mathematical detail. Rovelli and Thiemann focus primarily on loop quantum gravity (LQG), whereas Kiefer attempts a broader introduction and review of the subject that includes chapters on string theory and decoherence. Kiefer's second edition attempts an even wider and somewhat ambitious sweep with 'new sections on asymptotic safety, dynamical triangulation, primordial black holes, the information-loss problem, loop quantum cosmology, and other topics'. The presentation of these current topics is necessarily brief given the size of the book, but effective in encapsulating the main ideas in some cases. For instance the few pages devoted to loop quantum cosmology describe how the mini-superspace reduction of the quantum Hamiltonian constraint of LQG becomes a difference equation, whereas the discussion of 'dynamical triangulations', an approach to defining a discretized Lorentzian path integral for quantum gravity, is less detailed. The first few chapters of the book provide, in a roughly historical sequence, the covariant and canonical metric variable approach to the subject developed in the 1960s and 70s. The problem(s) of time in quantum gravity are nicely summarized in the chapter on quantum geometrodynamics, followed by a detailed and effective introduction of the WKB approach and the semi-classical approximation. These topics form the traditional core of the subject. The next three chapters cover LQG, quantization of black holes, and quantum cosmology. Of these the chapter on LQG is

  20. Book Review: Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technical book "Bioassays with Arthropods: 2nd Edition" (2007. Jacqueline L. Robertson, Robert M. Russell, Haiganoush K, Preisler and N. E. Nevin, Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 224 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed publication Journal of Economic Entomology. ...

  1. SrF2:Nd3+ laser fluoride ceramics.

    PubMed

    Basiev, T T; Doroshenko, M E; Konyushkin, V A; Osiko, V V

    2010-12-01

    SrF(2):Nd(3+) fluoride ceramics of high optical quality was prepared and its spectroscopic and laser properties investigated. Oscillations of different optical centers depending on the excitation wavelength were obtained with a slope efficiency of up to 19%.

  2. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…

  3. Celebrating 45 years of postgraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Blandy, John; Allen, Mark; Miller, Rob; Linssen, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    We are delighted to be celebrating 45 years of publication of the British Journal of Hospital Medicine. The first issue was published in October 1966 (see right) and its introductory editorial is reproduced on p. 546-7. Here we have some brief thoughts from Professor John Blandy, one of the original members of the editorial board, from Mark Allen, the publisher who took the journal over from its previous publishers Thomson in 1985, and from Professor Rob Miller and Rebecca Linssen, the current Editor-in-Chief and Editor.

  4. Publication trends in the medical informatics literature: 20 years of "Medical Informatics" in MeSH

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify publication output, and research areas, as well as descriptively and quantitatively characterize the field of medical informatics through publication trend analysis over a twenty year period (1987–2006). Methods A bibliometric analysis of medical informatics citations indexed in Medline was performed using publication trends, journal frequency, impact factors, MeSH term frequencies and characteristics of citations. Results There were 77,023 medical informatics articles published during this 20 year period in 4,644 unique journals. The average annual article publication growth rate was 12%. The 50 identified medical informatics MeSH terms are rarely assigned together to the same document and are almost exclusively paired with a non-medical informatics MeSH term, suggesting a strong interdisciplinary trend. Trends in citations, journals, and MeSH categories of medical informatics output for the 20-year period are summarized. Average impact factor scores and weighted average impact factor scores increased over the 20-year period with two notable growth periods. Conclusion There is a steadily growing presence and increasing visibility of medical informatics literature over the years. Patterns in research output that seem to characterize the historic trends and current components of the field of medical informatics suggest it may be a maturing discipline, and highlight specific journals in which the medical informatics literature appears most frequently, including general medical journals as well as informatics-specific journals. PMID:19159472

  5. Perceptions of Mentoring from Fourth Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods research study investigated medical students' perspectives of professional mentoring through a web-based survey/needs assessment. The participants are fourth year medical students from three large urban research institutions and two regional branch campuses. The web-based survey/needs assessment was created, peer reviewed, and…

  6. Secondary preventive medication persistence and adherence 1 year after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Olson, D.M.; Zhao, X.; Pan, W.; Zimmer, L.O.; Goldstein, L.B.; Alberts, M.J.; Fagan, S.C.; Fonarow, G.C.; Johnston, S.C.; Kidwell, C.; LaBresh, K.A.; Ovbiagele, B.; Schwamm, L.; Peterson, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Data on long-term use of secondary prevention medications following stroke are limited. The Adherence eValuation After Ischemic stroke–Longitudinal (AVAIL) Registry assessed patient, provider, and system-level factors influencing continuation of prevention medications for 1 year following stroke hospitalization discharge. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke or TIA discharged from 106 hospitals participating in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines–Stroke program were surveyed to determine their use of warfarin, antiplatelet, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and diabetes medications from discharge to 12 months. Reasons for stopping medications were ascertained. Persistence was defined as continuation of all secondary preventive medications prescribed at hospital discharge, and adherence as continuation of prescribed medications except those stopped according to health care provider instructions. Results: Of the 2,880 patients enrolled in AVAIL, 88.4% (2,457 patients) completed 1-year interviews. Of these, 65.9% were regimen persistent and 86.6% were regimen adherent. Independent predictors of 1-year medication persistence included fewer medications prescribed at discharge, having an adequate income, having an appointment with a primary care provider, and greater understanding of why medications were prescribed and their side effects. Independent predictors of adherence were similar to those for persistence. Conclusions: Although up to one-third of stroke patients discontinued one or more secondary prevention medications within 1 year of hospital discharge, self-discontinuation of these medications is uncommon. Several potentially modifiable patient, provider, and system-level factors associated with persistence and adherence may be targets for future interventions. PMID:21900638

  7. Medical Care and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection Common Medical Problems Young children have an average of 6 to 8 colds a year, and also may have several bouts of diarrhea and vomiting, as well as ear infections. Sleep problems and behavior or discipline concerns are very ...

  8. Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... compared with other kids the same age and gender. The doctor will take a medical and family ... cooperatively with other kids understand the concept of gender identify colors Developmental milestones for 5-year-olds ...

  9. Medical Care and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... compared with other kids the same age and gender. The doctor will take a medical and family ... Talking to Your Child About Puberty Understanding Puberty Communication and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old Contact ...

  10. Research in Medical School: A Survey Evaluating Why Medical Students Take Research Years

    PubMed Central

    Taleghani, Noushafarin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, an increasing number of medical students have taken time off during medical school in order to conduct research. Schools and students have invested millions of dollars and thousands of person-years on research projects, but little is known as to why students choose to take this time off. We aim to characterize why students take research years during medical school. Methods: The authors distributed an online survey about research in medical school to students at five medical schools that have highly regarded research programs. Results: 328 students responded to the survey. The most common reasons students take years off for research are: “increase competitiveness for residency application” (32%), “time to pursue other opportunities” (24%), and “academic interest” (23%). Students who would still take a research year even if they were already assured a position in a residency program of their choice were at 65%, while 35% would not take a research year. Responses varied based on whether students intended to go into a competitive specialty. Discussion: Medical students take research years for multiple reasons, although they frequently are not motivated by an interest in the research itself. Many student projects consume a substantial amount of time and money despite having little educational value. Medical schools, residency programs, and policymakers should rethink incentives to increase value and help students better pursue their academic interests. PMID:27672532

  11. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Baer-Keeley, Melanie; Fortheringham, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development Conference was held in association with Earth Day 1997, five years after the first Interface Conference. Rapid population growth in California has intensified the inevitable conflict between land development and preservation of natural ecosystems. Sustainable development requires wise use of diminishing natural resources and, where possible, restoration of damaged landscapes. These Earth Week Celebrations brought together resource managers, scientists, politicians, environmental consultants, and concerned citizens in an effort to improve the communication necessary to maintain our natural biodiversity, ecosystem processes and general quality of life. As discussed by our keynote speaker, Michael Soule, the best predictor of habitat loss is population growth and nowhere is this better illustrated than in California. As urban perimeters expand, the interface between wildlands and urban areas increases. Few problems are more vexing than how to manage the fire prone ecosystems indigenous to California at this urban interface. Today resource managers face increasing challenges of dealing with this problem and the lead-off section of the proceedings considers both the theoretical basis for making decisions related to prescribed burning and the practical application. Habitat fragmentation is an inevitable consequence of development patterns with significant impacts on animal and plant populations. Managers must be increasingly resourceful in dealing with problems of fragmentation and the often inevitable consequences, including susceptibility to invasive oganisms. One approach to dealing with fragmentation problems is through careful landplanning. California is the national leader in the integration of conservation and economics. On Earth Day 1991, Governor Pete Wilson presented an environmental agenda that promised to create between land owners and environmentalists, agreements that would guarantee the protection of

  12. The Effect of a Class in Medical Ethics on First-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, Andrew F.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study of 110 first-year University of Virginia medical students taking a required course in medical ethics found that the curriculum had little effect on student attitudes toward certain ethical questions or on their factual knowledge regarding particular ethical and legal issues. (Author/MSE)

  13. The Yale Plan of Medical Education: the early years.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the early years of the Yale Plan of Medical Education, which has come to be called the Yale System. It chronicles and analyzes the incremental development of the System and considers evaluations of the plan and modifications introduced over time. Also considered are external factors which influenced design and implementation. The paper covers the period of medical education at Yale from the 1920s to the early 1950s. PMID:3538682

  14. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers - 2nd Pass Correction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers—2nd Pass Correction by John E. Penn ARL-TN-0580 September 2013...September 2013 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers—2nd Pass Correction John E. Penn Sensors and Electron...COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers–2nd Pass Correction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  15. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    PubMed

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  16. Fifty Years of Evolving Partnerships in Veterinary Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Kochevar, Deborah T

    2015-01-01

    The Association of American Veterinary Medical College's (AAVMC's) role in the progression of academic veterinary medical education has been about building successful partnerships in the US and internationally. Membership in the association has evolved over the past 50 years, as have traditions of collaboration that strengthen veterinary medical education and the association. The AAVMC has become a source of information and a place for debate on educational trends, innovative pedagogy, and the value of a diverse learning environment. The AAVMC's relationship with the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education (AVMA COE), the accreditor of veterinary medical education recognized by the United Sates Department of Education (DOE), is highlighted here because of the key role that AAVMC members have played in the evolution of veterinary accreditation. The AAVMC has also been a partner in the expansion of veterinary medical education to include global health and One Health and in the engagement of international partners around shared educational opportunities and challenges. Recently, the association has reinforced its desire to be a truly international organization rather than an American organization with international members. To that end, strategic AAVMC initiatives aim to expand and connect the global community of veterinary educators to the benefit of students and the profession around the world. Tables in this article are intended to provide historical context, chronology, and an accessible way to view highlights.

  17. 2nd Generation RLV: Program Goals and Acquisition Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, J. Bart; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The risk to loss of life for Space Shuttle crewmembers is approximately one in 245 missions. U.S. launch service providers captured nearly 100%, of the commercial launch market revenues in the mid 1980s. Today, the U.S. captures less than 50% of that market. A launch system architecture is needed that will dramatically increase the safety of space flight while significantly reducing the cost. NASA's Space Launch Initiative, which is implemented by the 2nd Generation RLV Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center, seeks to develop technology and reusable launch vehicle concepts which satisfy the commercial launch market needs and the unique needs of NASA. Presented in this paper are the five primary elements of NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan along with the highest level goals and the acquisition strategy of the 2nd Generation RLV Program. Approval of the Space Launch Initiative FY01 budget of $290M is seen as a major commitment by the Agency and the Nation to realize the commercial potential that space offers and to move forward in the exploration of space.

  18. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  19. The formative years: medical ethics comes of age.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2015-01-01

    When the Journal of Medical Ethics first appeared in April 1975, the prospects of success seemed uncertain. There were no scholars specialising in the field, the readership could not be guaranteed, and the medical profession itself seemed, at the very least, ambivalent about a subject thought by many to be the province of doctors alone, to be acquired through an apprenticeship model, and certainly not taught or examined in any formal sense. However, change was afoot, fresh scandals created an awareness that outside help was needed to think through the new challenges facing the profession, and the success of the medical groups revealed a clear way forward through multidisciplinary and critically reflective discussion of the host of emerging ethical and legal issues. In this article the formative years of the journal are recaptured, with a claim that the core principles on which it was founded must endure if it is to continue to 'do good medical ethics' over the next 40 years.

  20. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence.

  1. Prevalence of colour blindness among the first year medical & dental students of Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M I; Nahar, L; Dad, M S; Islam, M F; Uddin, M M

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect the etiology, type and prevalence of colour blindness & to create awareness among the blind personnel. A survey of colour blindness among 239 ( male-87 & female-152) Medical and Dental first year students during their medical checkup before admission into Mymensingh Medical College in the session of 2012-2013 was done. Among them 8(male-7, female-1) were colour blind and prevalence was 3.35 % with a marked male predominance (male 8.04%, female 0.66 %). In view of the potential difficulties faced by such personnel in clinical works, detection during medical admission allowed appropriate counseling regarding subject selection for their future carrier.

  2. The 2nd generation VLTI path to performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woillez, Julien; Alonso, Jaime; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bonnet, Henri; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Egner, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Gonté, Frédéric; Guieu, Sylvain; Haguenauer, Pierre; Mérand, Antoine; Pettazzi, Lorenzo; Poupar, Sébastien; Schöller, Markus; Schuhler, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The upgrade of the VLTI infrastructure for the 2nd generation instruments is now complete with the transformation of the laboratory, and installation of star separators on both the 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) and the 8-m Unit Telescopes (UTs). The Gravity fringe tracker has had a full semester of commissioning on the ATs, and a first look at the UTs. The CIAO infrared wavefront sensor is about to demonstrate its performance relative to the visible wavefront sensor MACAO. First astrometric measurements on the ATs and astrometric qualification of the UTs are on-going. Now is a good time to revisit the performance roadmap for VLTI that was initiated in 2014, which aimed at coherently driving the developments of the interferometer, and especially its performance, in support to the new generation of instruments: Gravity and MATISSE.

  3. Philips' 2nd generation Novallure LED candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Pei, Zhigang; Yuan, Chuan; Jiang, Tan; Lu, Zhengsong; Wang, Yuqian; Duan, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Yan; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Ye

    2010-08-01

    Finding an energy efficient replacement of incandescent candle lamp has been a technical challenge. Compact fluorescent lamps, for example, can be miniaturized to fit the form factor of a candle lamp but they fail to reproduce its "sparkle" effect. Empowered by solid state lighting technology along with original optical design, Philips has successfully developed LED-powered candle lamps "Novallure" with great energy savings (2W power consumption with lumen output of 55 lumen) and the "butterfly" radiation pattern that mimics the sparkle effect from an incandescent candle lamp. With new high performance LED packages, novel under-cut prismatic optics and state-of-the-art electronic driver solution and thermal solution, we have developed a 2nd generation Novallure with breakthrough performance: a dimmable 2700K 136 lumen LED candle lamp with CRI 90.

  4. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  5. Empathy in senior year and first year medical students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of fostering the development of empathy in undergraduate students is continuously emphasized in international recommendations for medical education. Paradoxically, some studies in the North-American context using self-reported measures have found that empathy declines during undergraduate medical training. Empathy is also known to be gender dependent- (highest for female medical students) and related to specialty preference - (higher in patient-oriented than technology-oriented specialties). This factor has not been studied in Portuguese medical schools. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of undergraduate medical students on self-rated measures of empathy collected at entrance and at the conclusion of the medical degree, and on the association of empathy measures with gender and specialty preferences in one medical school in Portugal. Empathy was assessed using the Portuguese adaptation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-students version (JSPE-spv) among three cohorts of undergraduate medical students in the first (N = 356) and last (N = 120) year. The construct validity of JSPE-spv was cross-validated with Principal Component Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach' Alpha. Global JSPE-spv score differences were examined by year of medical school, gender and specialty preferences (people-oriented vs technology-oriented specialties). Results The empathy scores of students in the final year were higher as compared to first year students (F (1,387) = 19.33, p < .001, ɳ2p = 0.48; π = 0.99). Female students had higher empathy scores than male students (F (1,387) = 8.82, p < .01, ɳ 2p = 0.23; π = 0.84). Significant differences in empathy were not found between the students who prefer people-oriented specialties compared to those who favor the technology-oriented specialties (F (1,387) = 2.44, p = .12, ɳ 2p = 0.06; π = 0.06). Conclusions This cross-sectional study in one medical

  6. Physicians Learning Continuing Medical Education from Third-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verby, John E.

    1991-01-01

    The Rural Physician Associate Program places third year medical students with rural Minnesota physicians, giving students practical experience and giving physicians onsite opportunities for continuing education. Library services, microcomputers, and an electronic mail system serve the information needs of the student/mentor pairs. (SK)

  7. [How to read and understand Registries for Evaluating Patient Outcomes: A User's Guide (2nd Edition)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2013-09-01

    Registry studies (RS) get more and more attention in recent years because it can reflect the health care situations of the real world. There are a number of large scale RS for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). RS are observational studies that can complement randomized controlled trials (RCT). RS have an irreplaceable position in real word study (RWS), especially for small probability events. There are some different characters and qualities in RS. Registries for Evaluating Patient Outcomes: A User's Guide (2nd Edition) was published by the agency for healthcare research and quality (AHRQ) in 2010. It described the details of how to establish, maintain, and evaluate RS, and using 38 RS samples to illustrate the possible problems in undertaking such research. The User's Guide (2nd Edition) provides a reliable reference document for RS. TCM injections post-marketing safety surveillance RS is a national program involving multiple centers in China. This program can further improve RS quality their application in China and is a good illustration of how to follow this guide accurately.

  8. A wellness program for first year medical students.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Angele; Brennan, Julie; Lynch, Denis; Whearty, Kary

    2012-12-01

    Entering medical students experience distress symptoms due to the demands of the intensive curriculum, adjustment to new environments and increased responsibilities. The purpose of this controlled, randomized study was to determine the effects of a structured wellness program on measures of anxiety, depression and frequency of acute illness in 449 first year medical students. The effects of eight sessions of stress management were compared to a wait list control group. High risk students were identified based on scores on psychological inventories and number of recent life events (WLE). Results showed that depression, anxiety scores and frequency of acute illness were higher in women than in men, and were higher in students with multiple life events. Significant decreases were observed in depression in the intervention group students when WLE was the covariate (p = .045). Further, the high risk group showed consistently lower depression scores after the intervention compared to high risk wait list controls (p = .003), and these changes were maintained at the end of school year. There were no significant changes in anxiety or frequency of acute illness. Wellness programs can be implemented in medical school and may be particularly useful for entering students with elevated psychological distress.

  9. Michigan Oncology Medical Home Demonstration Project: first-year results.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Gordon; Tozer, Jane M; Snegosky, Jeff; Fox, John; Neumann, Kurt

    2014-09-01

    Launched in May 2012, the Michigan Oncology Medical Home Demonstration Project is an innovative multipractice oncology medical home model supported by payment reform. In the first year of the project, four oncology practices (29 physicians) participated and enrolled 85 patients receiving chemotherapy for a cancer diagnosis (96 new chemotherapy starts). By creating an oncology medical home for patients, the project reduced costs associated with unnecessary emergency room visits and inpatient admissions, with an average estimated cost savings of $550 per patient, while also enhancing payments to providers. The total estimated cost savings for year 1 was $46,228. In addition to the financial savings realized through reductions in emergency room visits and hospitalizations, the program also demonstrated that participating practices had high adherence to national and practice-selected guidelines, instituted advance care planning, and provided effective and standardized symptom management. The results are promising and provide evidence that community oncology practices will embrace the transformation to a patient-centered model with properly aligned incentives and administrative assistance.

  10. Preliminary medical results of the Mir year-long mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Bugrov, S. A.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Egorov, A. D.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Pestov, I. D.; Polyakov, V. V.; Tarasov, I. K.

    The basic goal of medical investigations during and after the 366-day mission was to accumulate data about physiological responses to such a long exposure to microgravity. In flight, cardiovascular and other systems were examined in detail and the efficacy of countermeasures used was assessed. After flight, physiological systems were also followed very carefully. According to the preliminary data, the medical results obtained during and after flight give evidence that man can well adapt to a year-long space flight, maintaining good health and adequate work capacity. The readaptation process was very similar to that observed after shorter flights (6-II months). As compared to former flights, no new or qualitatively different changes in the vital systems of the body were seen. The observations indicate that the duration of manned space missions can be further increased.

  11. What's Up With Mercury's 2nd-Degree Shape?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, E.; Phillips, R. J.; Zhong, S.

    2015-12-01

    The long-wavelength topography and geoid of a planet are basic observations fundamental to understanding the planet's thermal and dynamical history. Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft have significantly reduced the uncertainty in the spherical harmonic 2nd-degree (l2) topography and gravity coefficients. Similar to those of the Moon, the long wavelength shape and geoid of Mercury are significantly out of hydrostatic equilibrium [Perry et al., 2015]. The diversion from equilibrium of the Moon has been attributed to orbital evolution and the "freezing-in" of a fossil bulge. With respect to Mercury, the disequilibrium of the l2 shape and geoid is unlikely to be due to its orbital history [Matsuyama and Nimmo, 2009]. Non-hydrostatic models can explain the gravity and shape of Mercury. Buoyancy from thermal anomalies isostatically supporting the surface falls short of reproducing the observed l2 admittance and topography. We explore three scenarios that can generate high admittances at degree-2: flexural/membrane loading on the surface, buoyant structures within the mantle, or topography on the core-mantle boundary. We discuss both isostatic and dynamic models of compensation, and include variations of viscosity structure and elastic properties. However, typical sources of these mechanisms (e.g. large volcanic provinces that collectively have symmetry about the equator or mantle convection with a strong l2 component) are not obviously present on Mercury.

  12. PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Maria L.; Dolganova, Irina N.; Gevorgyan, Narine; Guzman, Angela; Papoyan, Aram; Sarkisyan, Hayk; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The ICTP smr2633: 2nd International Symposium "Optics and its Applications" (OPTICS-2014) http://indico.ictp.it/event/a13253/ was held in Yerevan and Ashtarak, Armenia, on 1-5 September 2014. The Symposium was organized by the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) with the collaboration of the SPIE Armenian Student Chapter, the Armenian TC of ICO, the Russian-Armenian University (RAU), the Institute for Physical Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (IPR of NAS), the Greek-Armenian industrial company LT-Pyrkal, and the Yerevan State University (YSU). The Symposium was co-organized by the BMSTU SPIE & OSA student chapters. The International Symposium OPTICS-2014 was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics. This symposium "Optics and its Applications" was the First Official ICTP Scientific Event in Armenia. The presentations at OPTICS-2014 were centered on these topics: optical properties of nanostructures; quantum optics & information; singular optics and its applications; laser spectroscopy; strong field optics; nonlinear & ultrafast optics; photonics & fiber optics; optics of liquid crystals; and mathematical methods in optics.

  13. Aging Studies of 2nd Generation BaBar RPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    The BaBar detector, operating at the PEPII B factory of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), installed over 200 2nd generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in 2002. The streamer rates produced by backgrounds and signals from normal BaBar running vary considerably (0.1- >20 Hz/cm2) depending on the layer and position of the chambers, thus providing a broad spectrum test of RPC performance and aging. The lowest rate chambers have performed very well with stable efficiencies averaging 95%. Other chambers had rate-dependant inefficiencies due to Bakelite drying which were reversed by the introduction of humidified gases. RPC inefficiencies in the highest rate regions of the higher rate chambers have been observed and also found to be rate dependant. The inefficient regions grow with time and have not yet been reduced by operation with humidified input gas. Three of these chambers were converted to avalanche mode operation and display significantly improved efficiencies. The rate of production of HF in the RPC exhaust gases was measured in avalanche and streamer mode RPCs and found to be comparable despite the lower current of the avalanche mode RPCs.

  14. Empowering fourth-year medical students: the value of the senior year.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Ellen M; Ryan, Michael J; Wenrich, Marjorie D

    2014-04-01

    In this issue of Academic Medicine, Wolf et al explore the purposes and value of the senior year of medical school as viewed by graduating students at their institution. Using data from student focus groups and questionnaires, they report that students all found there to be significant value in but identified different purposes for the fourth year. The authors of this commentary believe that study adds to the discussion of fourth-year curriculum reform an important voice that has been lacking-that of students.Previous articles focusing on the perceived lack of clarity of educational purpose in the senior year curriculum have reflected a faculty perspective and have led some to call for increasing the structure of, decreasing the elective time in, or even completely eliminating the fourth year. In this commentary, the authors ask for a pause in this debate to consider the implications of the student perspective as well as important trends in the medical education continuum that affect the senior student (e.g., milestones that will set new expectations for first-year residents, increasing pressure associated with matching to a residency). They propose that providing students with time for career exploration and for focusing on areas of interest would allow them to individualize their preparation for residency and to be more sure of their career choices. They share the University of Washington School of Medicine's planned new fourth-year approach as an example of a flexible, individualized senior year curriculum.

  15. Attitudes and awareness of final-year predoctoral dental and medical students to medical problems in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Gill, Yehuda; Scully, Crispian

    2006-09-01

    An increasing proportion of the population is medically compromised. Dental and medical staff need to communicate and cooperate to afford these patients the best possible health care. In this study, the attitude towards and awareness of medical problems were examined in final-year predoctoral (undergraduate) dental and in final-year medical students. The results revealed that most dental students felt their knowledge of and training in medical problems in dentistry to be moderate to good. In contrast, most medical students thought both their knowledge and training in medical problems in dentistry to be only poor to moderate. Dental students rated the importance of medical problems in dentistry higher than did medical students.

  16. Simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge Implantation and 2nd Stage Auricular Reconstruction for Microtia with Aural Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Lynne Hsueh Yee; Xiang, Ling; del Prado, Jocelynne; Ee Chin, Ling; Beltrame, Millo Achille

    2011-01-01

    Aural atresia and severe microtia are associated malformations that result in problems with hearing and cosmesis, associated speech and language difficulties and diminished self-esteem. In cases where middle ear ossiculoplasty and aural atresia canalplasty are expected to give poor hearing outcomes that would eventually require the use of hearing aids, bone anchored hearing aids or active middle ear implants may be better options. This case report describes a simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge implantation and 2nd stage auricular reconstruction with rib graft cartilage for an 11-year-old boy with grade III microtia and aural atresia 8 months after the 1st stage reconstruction. Audiometric results of the Vibrant Soundbridge aided ear were comparable to that of the contralateral hearing aid aided ear. PMID:26557321

  17. Preliminary GPS orbit combination results of the IGS 2nd reprocessing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    International GNSS Service (IGS) has contributed to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame by reprocessing historic GPS network data and submitting Terrestrial Reference Frame solutions and Earth Rotation Parameters. For the 2nd reprocessing campaign, Analysis Centers (ACs) used up to 21 years of GPS observation data with daily integrations. IERS2010 conventions are applied to model the physical effects of the Earth. Total eight ACs have participated (7 Global solutions, and 2 Tide Gauge solutions) by reprocessing entire time series in a consistent way using the latest models and methodology. IGS combined daily SINEX TRF and EOP combinations have already been submitted to the IERS for ITRF2013. This presentation mainly focuses on the preliminary quality assessment of the reprocessed AC orbits. Quality of the orbit products are examined by examining the repeatability between daily AC satellite ephemeris. Power spectral analysis shows the background noise characteristics of each AC products, and its periodic behaviors.

  18. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. H. Kim, T. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source.

  19. Simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge Implantation and 2nd Stage Auricular Reconstruction for Microtia with Aural Atresia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lynne Hsueh Yee; Xiang, Ling; Del Prado, Jocelynne; Ee Chin, Ling; Beltrame, Millo Achille

    2011-07-01

    Aural atresia and severe microtia are associated malformations that result in problems with hearing and cosmesis, associated speech and language difficulties and diminished self-esteem. In cases where middle ear ossiculoplasty and aural atresia canalplasty are expected to give poor hearing outcomes that would eventually require the use of hearing aids, bone anchored hearing aids or active middle ear implants may be better options. This case report describes a simultaneous Vibrant Soundbridge implantation and 2(nd) stage auricular reconstruction with rib graft cartilage for an 11-year-old boy with grade III microtia and aural atresia 8 months after the 1(st) stage reconstruction. Audiometric results of the Vibrant Soundbridge aided ear were comparable to that of the contralateral hearing aid aided ear.

  20. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; Garrett, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  1. PREFACE: 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO 2008'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, P.; Kolodziej, J. J.; Konior, J.; Szymonski, M.

    2009-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers presented at the 2nd National Conference on Nanotechnology 'NANO2008', that was held in Kraków, Poland, 25-28 June 2008. It was organized jointly by the Polish Chemical Society, Polish Physical Society, Polish Vacuum Society, and the Centre for Nanometer-scale Science and Advanced Materials (NANOSAM) of the Jagiellonian University. The meeting presentations were categorized into the following topics: 1. Nanomechanics and nanotribology 2. Characterization and manipulation in nanoscale 3. Quantum effects in nanostructures 4. Nanostructures on surfaces 5. Applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine 6. Nanotechnology in education 7. Industrial applications of nanotechnology, presentations of the companies 8. Nanoengineering and nanomaterials (international sessions shared with the fellows of Maria-Curie Host Fellowships within the 6th FP of the European Community Project 'Nano-Engineering for Expertise and Development, NEED') 9. Nanopowders 10. Carbon nanostructures and nanosystems 11. Nanoelectronics and nanophotonics 12. Nanomaterials in catalysis 13. Nanospintronics 14. Ethical, social, and environmental aspects of nanotechnology The Conference was attended by 334 participants. The presentations were delivered as 7 invited plenary lectures, 25 invited topical lectures, 78 oral and 108 poster contributions. Only 1/6 of the contributions presented during the Conference were submitted for publication in this Proceedings volume. From the submitted material, this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains 37 articles that were positively evaluated by independent referees. The Organizing Committee gratefully acknowledges all these contributions. We also thank all the referees of the papers submitted for the Proceedings for their timely and thorough work. We would like to thank all members of the National Program Committee for their work in the selection process of

  2. Highlights of the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamen; Fatima, Vayani; Fatima, Nazeefa; Das, Sayoni; Rahman, Farzana; Hassan, Mehedi

    2016-01-01

    Following the success of the 1 st Student Symposium by ISCB RSG-UK, a 2 nd Student Symposium took place on 7 th October 2015 at The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich, UK. This short report summarizes the main highlights from the 2 nd Bioinformatics Student Symposium. PMID:27239284

  3. Prejudice and the medical profession: a five-year update.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decades the mortality rate in the United States has decreased, and life expectancy has increased. Yet a number of recent studies have drawn Americans' attention to the fact that racial and ethnic disparities persist in health care. It is clear that the U.S. health care system, which is the envy of the world, is not only flawed by basic injustices, but may be the cause of both injury and death for members of racial and ethnic minorities. Progress has been made in several areas since the original Institute of Medicine 2002 report. However, five years later, the 2007 National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR) reported that overall, disparities in quality and access for minority groups and poor populations have not been reduced since the original report. The three key themes that have emerged from this report are the following: (1) overall, disparities in health care quality and access are not getting smaller; (2) progress is being made, but many of the biggest gaps in quality and access have not been reduced; and (3) the problem of persistent uninsurance is a major barrier to reducing disparities. Unless measures are taken to address this racism, unless a new sense of trust is established between the medical establishment and racial and ethnic minorities, these injustices will continue to deepen and expand, and more lives will be placed in jeopardy. What is needed is a comprehensive, multi-level, culturally relevant strategy that contains interventions that target individuals, communities, and the nation as a whole. This will entail understanding the causes of racism in the medical profession, identifying practical interventions that address racism in individuals, communities, and the nation as a whole, and forming partnerships that will work to develop a new sense of trust between the medical establishment and the minority communities.

  4. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders.

  5. Basic Training Program in Medical Pedagogy: a 1-year program for medical faculty.

    PubMed Central

    Des Marchais, J E; Jean, P; Delorme, P

    1990-01-01

    In 1979 université de Montréal developed the Basic Training Program in Medical Pedagogy; the program has since been offered at two other Canadian medical schools. The learning activities are spread over an academic year so that the teachers are able to continue their clinical or research duties. The program, which follows a model of systematic instruction, comprises 17 self-instructional modules on basic educational topics adapted to medical teaching. The topics are related to four components of an integrated system: student needs and learning objectives, instructional methods, student evaluation and program evaluation. The instructional format is aimed at three levels--understanding, analysis and application--to which assignments and assessments are related. In addition to the modules, the program offers 15 half-day sessions for small groups (five participants and one instructor) to discuss aspects of the program, especially home assignments and the application of personal educational projects. A minimum of 100 hours of personal time is requested. The program's main goal is that students be placed at the centre of the educational process. Of 215 participants since 1979, 171 (80%) have completed the program and reported high satisfaction. Issues related to any faculty development program are discussed. PMID:2317704

  6. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  7. Research on the Present Status of the Five-Year Medical Training Program in Chinese Medical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yan; Dong, Zhe; Miao, Le; Ke, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The five-year program is the main path for undergraduate medical training in China. Studies have shown that during the past eleven years, the scale of medical student enrollment increased annually with a relatively simple entrance exam. The ideas, teaching contents and methods, assessment and evaluation should be updated and improved. In general,…

  8. Medical Student Attitudes Toward Communication Skills Training and Knowledge of Appropriate Provider-Patient Communication: A Comparison of First-Year and Fourth-Year Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Bylund, Carma; Ware, Jennifer; Parker, Patricia; Query, Jim L; Baile, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Drawing upon Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives as a theoretical framework, this study examines attitudes toward communication skills training, knowledge of appropriate provider-patient communication, and confidence communicating with patients between first-year and fourth-year medical students at a large medical school in the southern United States. The study findings indicate that fourth-year medical students do not differ from first-year medical students in terms of attitudes towards communication skills training or knowledge of appropriate provider-patient communication, but they have significantly higher confidence scores about communicating with patients. In addition, positive attitudes towards communication skills training are significantly related to perceived importance of communication skills and confidence when communicating with patients. Finally, female medical students have more positive attitudes towards communication skills training than male medical students. The implications of the study findings and directions for future research are also discussed.

  9. Psychiatry in Medicine: Five Years of Experience with an Innovative Required Fourth-Year Medical School Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The author reports on a required fourth-year course, Psychiatry in Medicine, which was started in 1999 at Stony Brook Medical School. The aim was to address two important concerns in medical education at Stony Brook and throughout the United States: 1) the failure to recognize psychiatric pathology in outpatient medical settings and 2)…

  10. 1st- and 2nd-order motion and texture resolution in central and peripheral vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Sperling, G.

    1995-01-01

    STIMULI. The 1st-order stimuli are moving sine gratings. The 2nd-order stimuli are fields of static visual texture, whose contrasts are modulated by moving sine gratings. Neither the spatial slant (orientation) nor the direction of motion of these 2nd-order (microbalanced) stimuli can be detected by a Fourier analysis; they are invisible to Reichardt and motion-energy detectors. METHOD. For these dynamic stimuli, when presented both centrally and in an annular window extending from 8 to 10 deg in eccentricity, we measured the highest spatial frequency for which discrimination between +/- 45 deg texture slants and discrimination between opposite directions of motion were each possible. RESULTS. For sufficiently low spatial frequencies, slant and direction can be discriminated in both central and peripheral vision, for both 1st- and for 2nd-order stimuli. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, at both retinal locations, slant discrimination is possible at higher spatial frequencies than direction discrimination. For both 1st- and 2nd-order stimuli, motion resolution decreases 2-3 times more rapidly with eccentricity than does texture resolution. CONCLUSIONS. (1) 1st- and 2nd-order motion scale similarly with eccentricity. (2) 1st- and 2nd-order texture scale similarly with eccentricity. (3) The central/peripheral resolution fall-off is 2-3 times greater for motion than for texture.

  11. PREFACE: 2nd Workshop on Germanium Detectors and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Majorovits, B.; Keller, C.; Mei, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, W.

    2015-05-01

    The 2nd workshop on Germanium (Ge) detectors and technology was held at the University of South Dakota on September 14-17th 2014, with more than 113 participants from 8 countries, 22 institutions, 15 national laboratories, and 8 companies. The participants represented the following big projects: (1) GERDA and Majorana for the search of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) (2) SuperCDMS, EDELWEISS, CDEX, and CoGeNT for search of dark matter; (3) TEXONO for sub-keV neutrino physics; (4) AGATA and GRETINA for gamma tracking; (5) AARM and others for low background radiation counting; (5) as well as PNNL and LBNL for applications of Ge detectors in homeland security. All participants have expressed a strong desire on having better understanding of Ge detector performance and advancing Ge technology for large-scale applications. The purpose of this workshop was to leverage the unique aspects of the underground laboratories in the world and the germanium (Ge) crystal growing infrastructure at the University of South Dakota (USD) by brining researchers from several institutions taking part in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) together with key leaders from international laboratories and prestigious universities, working on the forefront of the intensity to advance underground physics focusing on the searches for dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ), and neutrino properties. The goal of the workshop was to develop opportunities for EPSCoR institutions to play key roles in the planned world-class research experiments. The workshop was to integrate individual talents and existing research capabilities, from multiple disciplines and multiple institutions, to develop research collaborations, which includes EPSCor institutions from South Dakota, North Dakota, Alabama, Iowa, and South Carolina to support multi-ton scale experiments for future. The topic areas covered in the workshop were: 1) science related to Ge

  12. Beliefs and attitudes of clinical year students concerning medical specialties: an Ibadan medical school study.

    PubMed

    Akinyinka, O O; Ohaeri, J U; Asuzu, M C

    1992-12-01

    In order to understand their attitudes to 10 medical specialties, a 40-item self-report questionnaire was administered to the first and final year clinical students of the University of Ibadan. One hundred and twenty-one first year and 150 final year students participated, constituting 81% response rates respectively, in the two classes. The findings indicate that many factors influence specialty choice, the principal ones being: expectation of material rewards; societal appreciation of specialty and specialists; response of specialty patients to treatment; and the role of specialty teachers. It seems that specialties viewed positively in these dimentions (such as surgery, paediatrics, internal medicine, and obstetrics and gynaecology) are more highly favoured than the others (such as radiology, pathology, psychiatry, anaesthesia and community medicine), which were viewed rather negatively in this regard. Generally speaking, opinion on specialties was similar, not only between the two classes, but also between this cohort and comparable groups in developed nations. In order to enhance the spread of specialty manpower development to meet the goal of health care for all, suggestions are made about how to improve the positive appreciation of the less favoured specialties among undergraduates.

  13. 75 FR 45641 - Medical Device User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Device User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY... announcing the ] fee rates and payment procedures for medical device user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2011. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Medical Device User Fee Amendments...

  14. Reading Habits of Third-Year Medical Students during an Integrated Endocrinology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Mark; Mahanaimi, David; Lev-Zion, Rafael; Sidi, Aviel; Glick, Shimon

    1998-01-01

    Independent reading by medical students beyond formal classroom activities is considered central to medical education. This study examines self-directed study among third-year students in a six-year medical program. Students averaged 151 minutes daily on independent study using lecture notes, textbooks, and reading articles. Suggests ways to…

  15. The Stresses of the Second-Year Generation Y Medical Student: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivins, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The second year of medical school is widely considered a difficult year. During the second year, the students may experience their first patient interaction as well as working with physicians directly in a hospital or in a clinic. In addition, during the second year of medical school, students may decide that they do not like working with patients…

  16. Cost in Medical Education: One Hundred and Twenty Years Ago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the "BMJ" in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons…

  17. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  18. 37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. MILL NO. 2, 2nd FLOOR, CLOSE SHOT OF 2 CREEL MACHINES, WHICH FEED YARN INTO KNITTING MACHINES. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  19. 42. OVERALL OF 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM OFF MILL NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. OVERALL OF 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM OFF MILL NO. 2. NOTE TRUSSWORK. SPACE TO RIGHT OF COLUMNS IS PART OF 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADDITION. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  20. 22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING MACHINE. LIGHT TABLE USED TO CHECK FOR CLOTH DEFECTS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  1. VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH/SOUTHEAST LOOKING DOWN ON 2ND AQUEDUCT AND 1ST AQUEDUCT CASCADES TOWARDS FILTRATION PLANT AND LOS ANGELES RESERVOIR - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Cascades Structures, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 27. INTERIOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 2ND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER SPACE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 2ND FLOOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER SPACE, LOOKING UP AT CIRCULAR MOTIF AND BANDS IN THE CEILING ABOVE THE ACOUSTICAL TILES - Ford Motor Company Plant, 700 South Union Street, Alexandria, Independent City, VA

  3. Biological Damage Threshold Induced by Ultrashort Fundamental, 2nd, and 4th Harmonic Light Pulses from a Mode-Locked Nd: Glass Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    BY ULTRASHORT FUNDAMENTAL, 2ND, AND 4TH HARMONIC LIGHT PULSES 00 , FROM A MODE-LOCKED Nd:GLASS LASER C Adam P. Bruckner, Ph.D. J. Michael Schurr, Ph.D...Medicine, Aerospace Medical Division, AFSC, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. Dr. Taboada (USAFSAM/RZL) was the Laboratory Project Scientist-in-Charge. When... TABOADA , Ph.D. /AONN E. PICKERING, M.S. Project Scientist Chief, Radiation Sciences Division ROY L. DEHART Colonel, USAF, MC Commander UNCLASSIFIED S

  4. [In search of the ideal surgical treatment for lymphedema. Report of 2nd European Conference on supermicrosurgery (Barcelona - March 2012)].

    PubMed

    Rausky, J; Robert, N; Binder, J-P; Revol, M

    2012-12-01

    Since more than 50 years, many surgeons all around the world try to find the perfect surgical technique to treat limb lymphedemas. Decongestive physiotherapy associated with the use of a compressive garment has been the primary choice for lymphedema treatment. Many different surgical techniques have been developed, however, to date, there is no consensus on surgical procedure. Most surgical experts of lymphedema met in the second European Conference on supermicrosurgery, organized on March 1st and 2nd 2012, in San Pau Hospital, Barcelona. Together they tried to clarify these different options and ideally a strategy for using these techniques.

  5. Production and verification of a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jilun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Si, Fei; Jiang, Xiufeng; Liu, Haijin

    2016-01-01

    Clonal fishes are useful tools in biology and aquaculture studies due to their isogenicity. In Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), a group of homozygous clones was created by inducing meiogynogenesis in eggs from a mitogynogenetic homozygous diploid. As the clones reached sexual maturity, meiogynogenesis was again induced in order to produce a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder. After 3 months, there were 611 healthy, surviving individuals. Twenty-four microsatellite markers, that covered all the linkage groups of Japanese flounder, were used to identify the homozygosity of the 2nd generation clones; no heterozygous locus was detected. This indicates that the production of a 2nd generation clonal group of Japanese flounder was successful. Restriction-site DNA associated sequencing at the genomic level also confirmed the homozygosity and clonality of the 2nd generation clonal group. Furthermore, these 2nd generation clones had a small coefficient of variation for body shape indices at 210 days of age and showed a high degree of similarity in body characteristics among individuals. The successful production of 2nd generation clones has laid the foundation for the large-scale production of clonal Japanese flounder. PMID:27767055

  6. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 41, 2nd Quarter, April 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    article argues that an integrated civil-mili- tary combatant command is the model for the United States to deter and defeat adver - saries and engage...healthy and fit force (for example, vaccinations and dental readiness), prevention of casualties (such as medical intelligence reports and digitized...particular, is well suited to cause the adver - sary to react with fear. Initially, it is fear of an attack, whether a preemptive strike or a response to

  7. Medical Care and Your 13- to 18-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... protective sports gear how to resolve conflicts without violence , including how to avoid the use of weapons learning problems or difficulties at school importance of regular physical activity continue Common Medical ...

  8. A Study to Determine the Evolution of Advances in Medical Technology Expected in the Next 25 Years and Possible Impacts on Coast Guard Operation and Support Programs. Appendix D. Literature Search of Forecasts Relevant to Medical Technologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    inc’emlng 1. tiea the cost of living increase. Helth officalis 2nd physic.: " identify the following trends over next decade pubiic scrutiny and effort... crisis in rural areas is regarded as solved. Subforecasts: Year Forecast Made: 1977 Year of Occurrence: 1987 Assumptions: Probability: Medium Method...Intuitive single individual expert in field Source: Robert D. Graham, M.D. Reference: "Manpower Crisis in Rural Areas to be Over Within Ten Years

  9. Computer Literacy in a First-Year Medical School Class

    PubMed Central

    Magid, Alan D.; Rabold, Jean S.; Stead, William W.

    1988-01-01

    Students entering Duke Medical School in August, 1987 were introduced to several computer-related activities within the context of the Medical Physiology course as part of the Medical Center's effort to test a model for achieving an Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS). A questionnaire was administered that sought to measure the extent of prior computer experience, the perceived impact of two physiological computer simulation laboratories, and the desired content of future computer training. The survey showed that 85% had some prior experience: for example, 50% had studied programming, 79% have used word-processing software, 24% own a personal computer, and an additional 25% had access to one. Many students expressed the desire for further training in standard applications and in simulation programs. After lab, about 40% reported improved physiologic understanding but no objective effect of the computer laboratories on exam performance was found.

  10. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  11. A study on knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among medical students in Puducherry, India.

    PubMed

    Kowsalya, V; Vijayakumar, R; Chidambaram, R; Srikumar, R; Reddy, E Prabhakar; Latha, S; Fathima, I Gayathri; Kumar, C Kishor

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%). About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77%) showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%). In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%), in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year student's showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis.

  12. Two-Year College Chemistry Conference Proceedings: Eastern Regional Conference (2nd, Boston, October 11-12, 1968); Annual Conference (9th, Minneapolis, April 11-12, 1969); and Western Regional Conference (3rd, Salt Lake City, June 13-14, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This document includes contributed short papers and summaries of recorded remarks from four meetings of the 1968-1969 Two-Year College Chemistry Conferences. Topics include the two-year college chemistry teacher, chemistry laboratories, teaching first-year college chemistry, a sophomore level chemistry course for both majors and nonmajors, organic…

  13. Course Offerings in the Fourth Year of Medical School: How U.S. Medical Schools Are Preparing Students for Internship.

    PubMed

    Elnicki, D Michael; Gallagher, Susan; Willett, Laura; Kane, Gregory; Muntz, Martin; Henry, Daniel; Cannarozzi, Maria; Stewart, Emily; Harrell, Heather; Aiyer, Meenakshy; Salvit, Cori; Chudgar, Saumil; Vu, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The fourth year of medical school remains controversial, despite efforts to reform it. A committee from the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine and the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine examined transitions from medical school to internship with the goal of better academic advising for students. In 2013 and 2014, the committee examined published literature and the Web sites of 136 Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited schools for information on current course offerings for the fourth year of medical school. The authors summarized temporal trends and outcomes when available.Subinternships were required by 122 (90%) of the 136 schools and allow students to experience the intern's role. Capstone courses are increasingly used to fill curricular gaps. Revisiting basic sciences in fourth-year rotations helps to reinforce concepts from earlier years. Many schools require rotations in specific settings, like emergency departments, intensive care units, or ambulatory clinics. A growing number of schools require participation in research, including during the fourth year. Students traditionally take fourth-year clinical electives to improve skills, both within their chosen specialties and in other disciplines. Some students work with underserved populations or seek experiences that will be henceforth unavailable, whereas others use electives to "audition" at desired residency sites. Fourth-year requirements vary considerably among medical schools, reflecting different missions and varied student needs. Few objective outcomes data exist to guide students' choices. Nevertheless, both medical students and educators value the fourth year of medical school and feel it can fill diverse functions in preparing for residency.

  14. [Surgical Medical Meetings in the Mexican Social Security Institute: 17 years of existence].

    PubMed

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; Cruz-Vega, Felipe; Loría-Castellanos, Jorge; Franco-Bey, Rubén; Quiroz-Vasquez, Laura; Cruz-Flores, Priscila

    2014-01-01

    The Surgical Medical Meetings Program aims to make highly specialized medical services to the marginalized rural population. Surgical Medical Encounters highlight the experience and results of an innovative strategy characterized by continuous improvement and the desire to continue transcending health for the most vulnerable populations. During 17 years of its inception, it is interesting to describe the evolution and achievements of the program.

  15. Fifty-Year Fate and Impact of General Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P. A.; Belbasis, Lazaros; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    Background Influential medical journals shape medical science and practice and their prestige is usually appraised by citation impact metrics, such as the journal impact factor. However, how permanent are medical journals and how stable is their impact over time? Methods and Results We evaluated what happened to general medical journals that were publishing papers half a century ago, in 1959. Data were retrieved from ISI Web of Science for citations and PubMed (Journals function) for journal history. Of 27 eligible journals publishing in 1959, 4 have stopped circulation (including two of the most prestigious journals in 1959) and another 7 changed name between 1959 and 2009. Only 6 of these 27 journals have been published continuously with their initial name since they started circulation. The citation impact of papers published in 1959 gives a very different picture from the current journal impact factor; the correlation between the two is non-significant and very close to zero. Only 13 of the 5,223 papers published in 1959 received at least 5 citations in 2009. Conclusions Journals are more permanent entities than single papers, but they are also subject to major change and their relative prominence can change markedly over time. PMID:20824146

  16. Connecticut Children's Medical Center multi-year branding campaign.

    PubMed

    Botvin, J

    2000-01-01

    As the only children's hospital in the state, Connecticut Children's Medical Center was challenged by the inherent complacency of parents. It met the challenge through a multi-level marketing effort which included television and radio, community outreach and strong media relations. By emphasizing the unique nature of children, the campaign affirms the need for a specialized children's health center.

  17. Twenty Years of Medicating Youth: Are We Better off?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    One would like to believe that advances in science have resulted in improved outcomes for troubled youth. Trends in treatment have changed dramatically in two decades. Technology to understand the brain and its functions are highly advanced. But the United States is now medicating youth more than any other country. There is growing concern about…

  18. Peer Assessment among First Year Medical Students in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The…

  19. Neato Mosquito: An Elementary Curriculum Guide. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasci, Roger S.; Herrington, James E.

    This curriculum guide was designed with the purpose of developing public awareness of LaCrosse (LAC) encephalitis, which is a mosquito transmitted disease. LAC cases have been increasing in large numbers in the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes regions during recent years. This disease primarily affects children under the age of 15, and this guide…

  20. Safety profile of bilastine: 2nd generation H1-antihistamines.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F

    2012-12-01

    Bilastine is a new H1 antagonist with no sedative side effects, no cardiotoxic effects, and no hepatic metabolism. In addition, bilastine has proved to be effective for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. Pharmacological studies have shown that bilastine is highly selective for the H1 receptor in both in vivo and in vitro studies, and with no apparent affinity for other receptors. The absorption of bilastine is fast, linear and dose-proportional; it appears to be safe and well tolerated at all doses levels in healthy population. Multiple administration of bilastine has confirmed the linearity of the kinetic parameters. The distribution in the brain is undetectable. The safety profile in terms of adverse effects is very similar to placebo in all Phase I, II and III clinical trials. Bilastine (20 mg), unlike cetirizine, does not increase alcohol effects on the CNS. Bilastine 20 mg does not increase the CNS depressant effect of lorazepam. Bilastine 20 mg is similar to placebo in the driving test. Therefore, it meets the current criteria for medication used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

  1. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  2. 2nd Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2007-03-14

    Welcome to the annual 2007 Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PIs) meeting. The purpose of this meeting is to bring together all of the lead PIs and key Co-PIs in the program to share and review the results of funded research from the past year. This meeting allows program managers from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) to gauge the progress and significance of the funded research, and it is also an important venue to showcase ERSP research to interested parties within DOE and other invited federal agency representatives. Additionally, these meetings should serve as an opportunity for funded PIs to view their research in the context of the entire ERSP portfolio. Past ERSP meetings have been very important venues for detailed discussion of research results among PIs, development of new research ideas, fostering new collaborations and discussion with ERSD program managers on future research efforts and/or initiatives within the program. In short, these meetings are an important resource for both program managers and PIs. There will be only one ERSP PI meeting for 2007. In years past, ERSD has sponsored two PI meetings, one in the spring and a separate meeting in the fall that focused primarily on field research. However, this format tends to insulate laboratory-based research from the field research sponsored in the program and is incompatible with the ERSD view that laboratory-based research should progress towards understanding the relevant processes in natural environments at the field scale. Therefore the agenda for this year's PI meeting is well integrated with both lab-based and field-based projects, to allow for detailed discussion between PIs involved in each area. In the agenda, you will notice a more relaxed format than in years past. This year's meeting spans four days, but is less heavily regimented in terms of oral presentations

  3. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 57, 2nd Quarter 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    years and is projected to rise another 1.5 percent annually through 2017 due to greater mechanization, remote expedition- ary conflict, rugged terrain...recent experience shows “a brigade will consume as much as seven tons of batteries in a 72-hour mission at a cost of $700,000.”8 Maxi - mizing the...of Atomflot, which manages the icebreakers, warned that Russia will face a “collapse” of these capacities in 2016– 2017 if a new genera- tion

  4. Defense Mapping Agency Inertial Positioning System Test Results (2nd),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    7APLE 3. -n’yo eletr ’~1 511.5/10 NORMAL ZUPT AVERAGE STANDARD INTERVAL (MIN) DEVIATION (CM) 4 25 8 59 60. S50- z S40- 30- o20 V 01 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ZUPr...College and Rollins College. He served 4 years in the U.S. Air Force , and did field work in Nicaragua and Haiti with the Inter American Geodetic Survey before joining the Geodetic Survey Squadron in 1961. DATE FILMEI

  5. Chemistry, 2nd Edition (by Rob Lewis and Wynne Evans)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, Wheeler

    2002-04-01

    In summary, what American course would be best served with this text? Probably not a GOB course, because it contains too much math. Probably not a general chemistry course, because it contains not enough math--although more math would then make it an ideal text for general chemistry. Maybe a course in applied chemistry for two-year-college students--but it would be a tough sell, given the availability of such books as Zumdahl's Introductory Chemistry or Stoker's Introduction to Chemical Principles for that set. Perhaps we'll develop a course called "Honors Applied Chemistry" and use it there. Until then, it will remain in my collection as a reference.

  6. Program status. 2nd quarter - FY 1995. Confinement systems programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-18

    We conducted physics experiments: record normalized {Beta} = 4.9 achieved in VH-mode, {Beta} limits of ITER-like configurations evaluated, FWCD commissioning. The tokamak vessel was opened to atmosphere for six weeks and a number of key diagnostics for understanding the divertor were installed. The DIII-D Advisory Committee met in January to review the DIII-D program and plan. They commended us for recent progress and supported the vanadium divertor design. The U.S./Japan DIII-D steering committee met and recommended extending the agreement to the year 2000. The field work proposal for FY 96/97 was presented in Washington on March 29, 1995. A review of the DIII-D plan to install vanadium structural components as part of the new radiative divertor modification was held in Washington 31, 1995 and the panel endorsed the plans. Preliminary plans were developed with PPPL for collaborations in FY96,

  7. Ten-Year Experience of Remote Medical Education in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Kuriko; Antoku, Yasuaki; Hu, Min; Okamura, Koji; Nakashima, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Moving images are often essential in medical education, to learn new procedures and advanced skills, but, in the past, high-quality movie transmission was technically much more challenging than transmitting still pictures because of technological limitations and cost. Materials and Methods: We established a new system, taking advantage of two advanced technologies, the digital video transport system (DVTS) and the research and education network (REN), which enabled satisfactory telemedicine on a routine basis. Results: Between 2003 and 2013, we organized 360 programs connecting 221 hospitals or facilities in 34 countries in Asia and beyond. The two main areas were endoscopy and surgery, with 113 (31%) and 106 (29%) events, respectively. Teleconferences made up 76% of the total events, with the remaining 24% being live demonstrations. Multiple connections were more popular (63%) than one-to-one connections (37%). With continuous technological development, new high-definition H.323 and Vidyo® (Hackensack, NJ) systems were used in 47% and 39% of events in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The evaluation by questionnaires was favorable on image and sound quality as well as programs. Conclusions: Remote medical education with moving images was well accepted in Asia with changing needs and developing technologies. PMID:25272006

  8. Mapping medical careers: Questionnaire assessment of career preferences in medical school applicants and final-year students

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, KV; McManus, IC

    2004-01-01

    Background The medical specialities chosen by doctors for their careers play an important part in the workforce planning of health-care services. However, there is little theoretical understanding of how different medical specialities are perceived or how choices are made, despite there being much work in general on this topic in occupational psychology, which is influenced by Holland's RIASEC (Realistic-Investigative-Artistic-Social-Enterprising-Conventional) typology of careers, and Gottfredson's model of circumscription and compromise. In this study, we use three large-scale cohorts of medical students to produce maps of medical careers. Methods Information on between 24 and 28 specialities was collected in three UK cohorts of medical students (1981, 1986 and 1991 entry), in applicants (1981 and 1986 cohorts, N = 1135 and 2032) or entrants (1991 cohort, N = 2973) and in final-year students (N = 330, 376, and 1437). Mapping used Individual Differences Scaling (INDSCAL) on sub-groups broken down by age and sex. The method was validated in a population sample using a full range of careers, and demonstrating that the RIASEC structure could be extracted. Results Medical specialities in each cohort, at application and in the final-year, were well represented by a two-dimensional space. The representations showed a close similarity to Holland's RIASEC typology, with the main orthogonal dimensions appearing similar to Prediger's derived orthogonal dimensions of 'Things-People' and 'Data-Ideas'. Conclusions There are close parallels between Holland's general typology of careers, and the structure we have found in medical careers. Medical specialities typical of Holland's six RIASEC categories are Surgery (Realistic), Hospital Medicine (Investigative), Psychiatry (Artistic), Public Health (Social), Administrative Medicine (Enterprising), and Laboratory Medicine (Conventional). The homology between medical careers and RIASEC may mean that the map can be used as the basis

  9. Medical Care and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... ask their own questions about their health and changing body. At yearly exams, kids are weighed and ...

  10. Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... your doctor if you have concerns about your child's development. When to Call the Doctor By now you ...

  11. Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... varicella) vaccine The flu vaccine , given before flu season each year, also is recommended. Other vaccines might ... disturbances , such as nightmares . Kids also might have growing pains in their calves at night. Your doctor ...

  12. An Introduction to Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics - 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowe, Keith

    2003-03-01

    This introductory textbook for standard undergraduate courses in thermodynamics has been completely rewritten. Starting with an overview of important quantum behaviours, the book teaches students how to calculate probabilities, in order to provide a firm foundation for later chapters. It introduces the ideas of classical thermodynamics and explores them both in general and as they are applied to specific processes and interactions. The remainder of the book deals with statistical mechanics - the study of small systems interacting with huge reservoirs. The changes to this second edition have been made after more than 10 years classroom testing and student feedback. Each topic ends with a boxed summary of ideas and results, and every chapter contains numerous homework problems, covering a broad range of difficulties. Answers are given to odd numbered problems, and solutions to even problems are available to instructors at www.cambridge.org/9780521865579. The entire book has been re-written and now covers more topics It has a greater number of homework problems which range in difficulty from warm-ups to challenges It is concise and has an easy reading style

  13. The 2nd United Kingdom Extracellular Vesicle Forum Meeting Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Aled; Lawson, Charlotte; Gardiner, Chris; Harrison, Paul; Carter, David

    2016-01-01

    The UK Extracellular Vesicles (UKEV) Forum meetings were born of the realization that there were a number of UK laboratories studying extracellular vesicle biology and using similar techniques but without a regular national meeting dedicated to EVs at which to share their findings. This was compounded by the fact that many of these labs were working in different fields and thus networking and sharing of ideas and best practice was sometimes difficult. The first workshop was organized in 2013 by Dr Charlotte Lawson, under the auspices of the Society for Endocrinology, led to the founding of the UKEV Forum and the organization of a British Heart Foundation sponsored 1-day conference held in London in December 2014. Although growing in size every year, the central aims of these workshops have remained the same: to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of ideas, to allow young scientists to present their data in the form of short talks and poster presentations and to discuss their work with more established scientists in the field. Here we include the presented abstracts for the 2015 1-day conference hosted by Cardiff University. This meeting was attended by approximately 130 delegates throughout the United Kingdom, but also attended by delegates from Belgium, Netherlands, France, Ireland and other nations. The day composed of plenary presentations from Prof Matthias Belting, Lund University, Sweden and Dr Guillaume van Niel, Institut Curie, Paris together with 10 short presentations from submitted abstracts. The topics covered were broad, with sessions on Mechanisms of EV production, EVs in Infection, EVs in Cancer and in Blood and Characterizing EVs in Biological fluids. This hopefully gives a reflection of the range of EV-related studies being conducted currently in the UK. There were also 33 poster presentations equally broad in subject matter. The organizers are grateful to the Life Science Research Network Wales – a Welsh government-funding scheme that

  14. [Gender norms and the development of the medical habitus: in the years of medical schooling and residency].

    PubMed

    Castro, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This article documents the gender abuse that Mexican medical students face. The concept of medical socialization is analyzed, with emphasis on the problem of the mistreatment of medical students. The theoretical framework articulates ideas from Foucault and Goffman with the nodal points of Bourdieu using a gender focus. Numerous examples are employed to show that the formal program of study also contains a hidden curriculum which serves to reproduce gender hierarchies. Women face numerous types of socially induced discouragement in choosing and completing their course of study, particularly in certain specialties. Discrimination is present in affectivized as well as in authoritarian interactions. They face sexual harassment in the classroom and in their years of specialization, and are constantly constructed as subordinated subjects. The importance of these findings in the constitution of a medical habitus is discussed.

  15. An improved accrual: reducing medical malpractice year-end adjustments.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Healthcare organizations can improve their year-end malpractice insurance accruals by taking the following steps: Maintain productive communication. Match accrual and accounting policies. Adjust amount of credit to own historical loss experience. Request more frequent analysis. Obtain a second opinion.

  16. 2nd Annual Invited Experts Meeting on Simulation-Based Medical Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Eastern Shore Maryland, Silver Spring, National Capital Area Simulation Ctr Maryland, Towson , Towson University Massachusetts, Boston, Beth Israel...Michigan, Clinton Township, Macomb Community College Michigan, Detroit, Wayne State University, Pharmacy/Health Michigan, Grand Rapids, Grand Valley

  17. 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of China (ESC) and Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME) hosted the 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases in Beijing, China, May 23-27, 2011. The theme of the Forum was “Impact of global climate ch...

  18. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This NERL-Cincinnati publication, “Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition” was prepared as the continuation of an initiative to gather together under a single cover a compendium of standardized laborato...

  19. Stem cells and cancer immunotherapy: Arrowhead’s 2nd annual cancer immunotherapy conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from academia and industry gathered on April 4 and 5, 2013, in Washington DC at the Arrowhead’s 2nd Annual Cancer Immunotherapy Conference. Two complementary concepts were discussed: cancer “stem cells” as targets and therapeutic platforms based on stem cells.

  20. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Maxfield, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. Evaluation of a Hand Washing Program for 2nd-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program.…

  2. Medical implications of obesity. Losing pounds, gaining years.

    PubMed

    Skelton, N K; Skelton, W P

    1992-07-01

    Through thousands of years of starvation and poor nutrition, the human body has become adept at storing scarce nutrients. Today, in the United States and Canada particularly, the combination of sedentary habits and excessive intake of calories is imposing a dual burden on a physiologic system that is ill-equipped to handle it. Unable to rid itself of calories, the body's only defense is to store them all. The end result is obesity, with all its deleterious effects on health and longevity.

  3. Easing the transition: the final year of medical education at Maastricht University.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Marjan; Dornan, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; oude Egbrink, Mirjam G A; Snoeckx, Luc H E H

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes the final year of medical education at Maastricht University as it has been operating since 2006. At the time external drivers for the development of a new structure of the final year were: the desire to prepare medical students for lifelong learning, the CanMEDs that were increasingly acknowledged to state the final attainment level of medical education and an increasing recognition of the importance of learning by participating actively and by taking more responsibility. Internal drivers were students' evaluations and our wish to improve instructional design and quality control. The main aim of this new final year is to better prepare students for the transition from the medical master programme to one of the postgraduate training programmes to become a medical specialist. The final year of the medical master programme consists of two 18-weeks participation electives, one in health care and one in research. Students have a higher level of autonomy and responsibility during this final year compared to the preceding medical clerkships to enhance the transition. Portfolios are the key element in examination of SCIP and HELP. Student evaluations of the final year show high scores on coaching and instructiveness. Despite some differences between departments overall scores are very high. Suggestions to improve include the availability of work places and time for education and coaching.

  4. Macedonian Medical Association – Seventy Years from Its Establishment, 1945-2015

    PubMed Central

    Donev, Doncho

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To present the phases of development and activities over the 70-year period of existence and work of the Macedonian Medical Association, from its establishment in 1945 to 2015. METHODS: A retrospective study based on available archive materials, encyclopaedias and other sources of information and reviews of the relevant literature, and personal experiences and observations of the author. RESULTS: Macedonian Medical Association was established on August 12, 1945, with science and health educational mission and program. Dr Boris Spirov was elected as the first president of the Association, one of the main initiators and facilitators of activities in health care sector, including the establishment of the Faculty of Medicine in Skopje in March 1947. Over the past 70 years, the Association is the main carrier and has a key role and contribution in continuing medical education, vocational and scientific advancement of medical staff and improvement the dignity and reputation of the medical profession. The journal of the Association Macedonian Medical Review has contributed to spreading and advancement of knowledge and skills of modern medicine, as well as presenting professional and scientific achievements of physicians in the past 70 years. Macedonian Medical Association is a member of the World Medical Association and many other international associations and organisations contributing to international collaboration in education and science and promoting the Republic of Macedonia in Europe and worldwide. CONCLUSION: Macedonian Medical Association over the 70-year period of its existence has been one of the pillars and lighthouse in the healthcare system in the Republic of Macedonia with great contribution to the advancement of medical and related sciences and continuing medical education, strengthening of health services and health care for the population and overall socio-economic development of the Republic of Macedonia during the past 70 years.

  5. [An overview on the collation and revision of medical books by the Bureau for Revising Medical Books in the Northern Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Meng, Yongliang; Liang, Yongxuan

    2014-07-01

    The Bureau for Revising Medical Books was a temporary agency established by the government of the Northern Song Dynasty in 1057, the 2nd year of Jiayou of Emperor Renzong, exclusively for the edition, revision and publishing of ancient medical books. 11 medical books were revised and edited by 13 Bureau members in a period of 12 years until 1069, the 2nd year of Xining of Emperor ShenZong, which eventually became the final versions until today. 8 medical books were initially planned for the revision, but 11 were actually completed in the end. The time for completing a revision varied from over 10 years at most to less than 1 year at least. Instead of working in the office, the officers of the Bureau for Revising Medical Books did their works at home. The members of the said Bureau came from the Tiju officer of the Bureau for Revising Medical Books and the officials of revising medical books, consisting of both Confucian ministers and medical officers. Confucian ministers played an important role in revising medical books. The Bureau had a strict workflow in electing revising officials, making the project, and the determination of the principles and arrangements of the tasks of editing and proofreading.

  6. 78 FR 21631 - Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... BUDGET Fiscal Year 2013 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates Regarding Recovery From Tortiously Liable Third... the cost of inpatient medical services furnished by military treatment facilities through...

  7. 77 FR 69504 - Calendar Year 2012 Cost of Outpatient Medical and Dental Services Furnished by Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... the cost of outpatient medical and dental services furnished by military treatment facilities through... BUDGET Calendar Year 2012 Cost of Outpatient Medical and Dental Services Furnished by Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates Regarding Recovery From Tortiously Liable...

  8. Intelligence and Persisting with Medication for Two Years: Analysis in a Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Stewart, Marlene C. W.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Murray, Gordon D.; Batty, G. David; Price, Jacqueline F.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether verbal intelligence is associated with persisting to take medication for up to two years. The design is a prospective follow-up of compliance with taking medication in high-risk individuals participating in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial set in Central Scotland. Participants were 1993 people aged between 50 and…

  9. Verbal Participation and Outcomes in Medical Education: A Study of Third Year Clinical Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Patricia Joan

    A study of third-year medical school discussion groups was undertaken to determine how much the cognitive level of instructors' questions in small group sessions influenced student responses and whether these responses had any measureable relationship to critical thinking skills, or National Board of Medical Examiner (NBME) scores. The research…

  10. Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…

  11. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

  12. Nuclear Medical Technology. Curriculum for a Two Year Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buatti, A.; Rich, D.

    Objectives of the project briefly described here were (1) to develop curriculum for a two-year nuclear medical technology program based on a working relationship between three institutions (community college, university health center, and hospital) and (2) to develop procedures for the operation of a medical imaging and radiation technology core…

  13. Exploratory Study of Factors Related to Educational Scores of First Preclinical Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Srisuma, Sorachai; Kanavitoon, Sawita; Summachiwakij, Sarawut

    2014-01-01

    The relationships among the scores of major subjects taught in the first preclinical year of a Thai medical school, previous academic achievements, and daily life activities are rarely explored. We therefore performed an exploratory study identifying various factors possibly related to the educational scores of these medical students.…

  14. Substance Use by Fourth-Year Students at 13 U.S. Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conard, Scott; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study investigated drug use by fourth-year medical students in 13 schools and compared drug use patterns with those of an age- and sex-matched cohort. Medical students reported less use of marijuana, cocaine, cigarettes, LSD, barbiturates, and amphetamines, similar use of opiates, and slightly more use of tranquilizers and alcohol. (MSE)

  15. "Pioneers in Physiology": A Project by First-Year Medical Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucharita, S.; Avadhany, Sandhya T.

    2011-01-01

    The medical curriculum is vast, and students are expected to learn many subjects at the same time. Medical students are often stressed and find it difficult to cope with the curriculum. In addition, some first-year students find theory and practical classes to be monotonous. One of the difficulties faced by faculty members is, therefore, to…

  16. First Year Medical Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interest in Geriatric Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…

  17. Stability of Repeated Student Evaluations of Teaching in the Second Preclinical Year of a Medical Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz-Girod, Catherine; Bonvin, Raphael; Lanares, Jacques; Cueanot, Seagoleine; Feihl, Francois; Bosman, Fred; Waeber, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    The second preclinical year of the medical curriculum at the Medical Faculty of the University of Lausanne in Switzerland includes nine multidisciplinary organ-system-oriented modules consisting of lectures and problem-based-learning tutorials. This study reports the experience accumulated with the evaluation of lectures during the academic years…

  18. Predicting Performance during Clinical Years from the New Medical College Admission Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caroline, Jan D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The results of a predictive validity study of the new Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) using criteria from the clinical years of undergraduate medical education are discussed. The criteria included course grades and faculty ratings of clerks in internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, and psychiatry. (Author/MLW)

  19. Surgical Clinical Correlates in Anatomy: Design and Implementation of a First-Year Medical School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubert, Lisa M.; Jones, Kenneth; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    Medical students state the need for a clinically oriented anatomy class so to maximize their learning experience. We hypothesize that the first-year medical students, who take the Surgical Clinical Correlates in Anatomy program, will perform better than their peers in their anatomy course, their surgical clerkships and ultimately choose surgical…

  20. The cost of postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education: re-examining the status fifty years back.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care.

  1. The Cost of Postgraduate Medical Education and Continuing Medical Education: Re-Examining the Status Fifty Years Back

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care. PMID:25802685

  2. A Study of the Competency of Third Year Medical Students to Interpret Biochemically Based Clinical Scenarios Using Knowledge and Skills Gained in Year 1 and 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S.; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS…

  3. PREFACE: 1st-2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome - Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YRMR Organizing Committee; Cannuccia, E.; Mazzaferro, L.; Migliaccio, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Stellato, F.; Veneziani, M.

    2011-03-01

    Students in science, particularly in physics, face a fascinating and challenging future. Scientists have proposed very interesting theories, which describe the microscopic and macroscopic world fairly well, trying to match the quantum regime with cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena in all their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. More and more accurate and complex experiments have been devised and these are now going to test the paradigms of physics. Notable experiments include: the Large Hadronic Collider (LHC), which is going to shed light on the physics of the Standard Model of Particles and its extensions; the Planck-Herschel satellites, which target a very precise measurement of the properties of our Universe; and the Free Electron Lasers facilities, which produce high-brilliance, ultrafast X-ray pulses, allowing the investigation of the fundamental processes of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. These projects are the result of huge collaborations spread across the world, involving scientists belonging to different and complementary research fields: physicists, chemists, biologists and others, keen to make the best of these extraordinary laboratories. Even though each branch of science is experiencing a process of growing specialization, it is very important to keep an eye on the global picture, remaining aware of the deep interconnections between inherent fields. This is even more crucial for students who are beginning their research careers. These considerations motivated PhD students and young post-docs connected to the Roman scientific research area to organize a conference, to establish the background and the network for interactions and collaborations. This resulted in the 1st and 2nd Young Researchers Meetings in Rome (http://ryrm.roma2.infn.it), one day conferences aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics in Italy

  4. The patient/client/consumer/service user and medical ethics 40 years on.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This essay, written from my non-doctor's 'lay' perspective, sketches a gradually improving approach to medical ethics over the 40-year period since this journal was founded. A central feature of this improvement has been the increasing focus of medical ethics on the interests and perspectives of the patients/clients/consumers/service users, whose interests doctors and other healthcare workers serve. Events such as misuse of the end of life 'Liverpool Care Pathway' and the shockingly poor care revealed in National Health Service hospitals in Mid-Staffordshire show that these improvements are by no means universal. Nonetheless, there has been a steady improvement in general terms towards putting patients first and it is not flattery to say that in its consistent support for this concern and in its promotion of non-medical involvement in medical ethics education the Journal of Medical Ethics has itself made a significant contribution to 'doing good medical ethics'.

  5. Thirty-five years of end-of-life issues in US medical schools.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, George E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine US medical school offerings on end-of-life issues between 1975 and 2010. Data were obtained from a mailed survey to the US medical schools in 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Survey response rates for the 8 points in time (in percentages) were 95, 96, 90, 90, 93, 92, 81, and 79, respectively. Between 1975 and 2010, the overall offerings in death and dying increased so that 100% of US medical schools, beginning in 2000, offered something on death and dying. A multidisciplinary-team approach continued over the 35-year period. Palliative care is offered to some extent in 99% of US medical schools today. Numerous end-of-life topics are currently covered in the curriculum. Increased attention to end-of-life issues in medical schools should enhance medical students' relationship with terminally ill patients and their families.

  6. [50 years' of the Institute of Sports Medicine at the Charles University Medical School on the 650th anniversary of its founding].

    PubMed

    Novotný, V

    1999-01-01

    In an agreeable shadow of the great 650th anniversary of Charles University foundation (1348-1998), arising of the first Institute of Sports Medicine round the world on Medical Faculty in Prague (1948-1998) was commemorated by scientific session. Since J. E. Purkynĕ (1850) have gone idea of favourable effect of body training for human health by representatives of Prague Medical Faculty, till Doctor J. Král, who started lectures for medical students in this discipline in 1933. Rise of Institute of Sports Medicine was approved in 1934, but its realization thanks to Professor Král, was performed after 2nd World War in 1948. From the beginning, students have lectures within the framework of daily study of whole wide of the branche, including practical exercises and closing examine. First text book of sports medicine and first book about clinic in sports medicine was written (J. Král). Members of Institute lectured on many foreign universities and scientific congresses and published more than 2,500 scientific works, some of them have world priority. For example first wireless transmission of heart frequency (V. Seliger, V. Kruta), cardiologic observations during big sports load (J. Král, Z. Hornof), discoveries at biochemical laboratory (J. Král, A. Zenísek), at medical functional anthropologic laboratory (V. Novotný), introducing of remedial exercises in clinical practice (L. Schmid, M. Zintlová, J. Chrástek) etc. In the set out choice of literary citation it is put on only fragment of publications which document scientific activity of jubileeing Institute. For period of duration of Institute more than hundred thousand patients were examined--both sportives and non-sportives, young and old. Contemporary trend goes from classic care about sportsmen towards preventive medicine. Attention is focused first of all to testing of middle aged and older patients in sense of prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and indication for specific movement load

  7. Evaluation of Coordinated Cooperative Education Programs in Clearfield, Fulton, Schuylkill Counties (2nd Year). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Frederick G.

    Three county-wide coordinated cooporative programs in Pennsylvania were evaluated to determine their impact upon high youth unemployment and dropout rates, to obtain student and employer attitudes toward the program, and to ascertain bow well they meet their objectives. Current students (335), graduates (193), guidance counselors (25), and…

  8. 2nd-Order CESE Results For C1.4: Vortex Transport by Uniform Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method was used as implemented in the NASA research code ez4d. The CESE method is a time accurate formulation with flux-conservation in both space and time. The method treats the discretized derivatives of space and time identically and while the 2nd-order accurate version was used, high-order versions exist, the 2nd-order accurate version was used. In regards to the ez4d code, it is an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver coded in C++ with serial and parallel versions available. As part of its architecture, ez4d has the capability to utilize multi-thread and Messaging Passage Interface (MPI) for parallel runs.

  9. Three-Year Experience of an Academic Medical Center Ombuds Office.

    PubMed

    Raymond, John R; Layde, Peter M

    2016-03-01

    An ombuds is an individual who informally helps people or groups (visitors) resolve disputes and/or interpersonal conflicts as an alternative to formal dispute resolution mechanisms within an organization. Ombuds are nearly ubiquitous in many governmental, business, and educational settings but only recently have gained visibility at medical schools. Medical schools in the United States are increasingly establishing ombuds offices as part of comprehensive conflict management systems to address concerns of faculty, staff, students, and others. As of 2015, more than 35 medical schools in the United States have active ombuds Web pages. Despite the growing number of medical schools with ombuds offices, the literature on medical school ombuds offices is scant. In this article, the authors review the first three years of experience of the ombuds office at the Medical College of Wisconsin, a freestanding medical and graduate school with a large physician practice. The article is written from the perspective of the inaugural ombuds and the president who initiated the office. The authors discuss the rationale for, costs of, potential advantages of, and initial reactions of faculty, staff, and administration to having an ombuds office in an academic medical center. Important questions relevant to medical schools that are considering an ombuds office are discussed. The authors conclude that an ombuds office can be a useful complement to traditional approaches for conflict management, regulatory compliance, and identification of systemic issues.

  10. Three-Year Experience of an Academic Medical Center Ombuds Office

    PubMed Central

    Layde, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    An ombuds is an individual who informally helps people or groups (visitors) resolve disputes and/or interpersonal conflicts as an alternative to formal dispute resolution mechanisms within an organization. Ombuds are nearly ubiquitous in many governmental, business, and educational settings but only recently have gained visibility at medical schools. Medical schools in the United States are increasingly establishing ombuds offices as part of comprehensive conflict management systems to address concerns of faculty, staff, students, and others. As of 2015, more than 35 medical schools in the United States have active ombuds Web pages. Despite the growing number of medical schools with ombuds offices, the literature on medical school ombuds offices is scant. In this article, the authors review the first three years of experience of the ombuds office at the Medical College of Wisconsin, a freestanding medical and graduate school with a large physician practice. The article is written from the perspective of the inaugural ombuds and the president who initiated the office. The authors discuss the rationale for, costs of, potential advantages of, and initial reactions of faculty, staff, and administration to having an ombuds office in an academic medical center. Important questions relevant to medical schools that are considering an ombuds office are discussed. The authors conclude that an ombuds office can be a useful complement to traditional approaches for conflict management, regulatory compliance, and identification of systemic issues. PMID:26675192

  11. A Communications Guide for Sustainable Development: How Interested Parties Become Partners, 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Hund, Gretchen; Engel-Cox, Jill A.

    2016-03-06

    The 2nd edition is an updated version plus an e-book. This book was developed to assist organizations in designing and managing their communication and stakeholder involvement programs. The guidebook describes a step-by-step approach, provides case studies, and presents tools to consider. The book uses a scenario approach to outline changes an organization may confront, and provides a menu of communication and engagement activities that support organizational decision making.

  12. Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Prague 2004

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P; Johnston, K; Meeuwisse, W; Aubry, M; Cantu, R; Dvorak, J; Graf-Baumann, T; Kelly, J; Lovell, M; Schamasch, P

    2005-01-01

    In November 2001, the 1st International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was held in Vienna, Austria to provide recommendations for the improvement of safety and health of athletes who suffer concussive injuries in ice hockey, football (soccer), and other sports. The 2nd International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was organised by the same group and held in Prague, Czech Republic in November 2004. It resulted in a revision and update of the Vienna consensus recommendations, which are presented here.

  13. Summary and agreement statement of the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Prague 2004

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P; Johnston, K; Meeuwisse, W; Aubry, M; Cantu, R; Dvorak, J; Graf-Baumann, T; Kelly, J; Lovell, M; Schamasch, P

    2005-01-01

    In November 2001, the 1st International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was held in Vienna, Austria to provide recommendations for the improvement of safety and health of athletes who suffer concussive injuries in ice hockey, football (soccer), and other sports. The 2nd International Symposium on Concussion in Sport was organised by the same group and held in Prague, Czech Republic in November 2004. It resulted in a revision and update of the Vienna consensus recommendations, which are presented here. PMID:15793085

  14. Graphical shapes of the 2nd type singularities of a 3-RR̠R planar mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buium, F.; Duca, C.; Doroftei, I.; Leohchi, D.

    2016-08-01

    This paper intends to discuss about singularity curves of 2nd type inside the workspace of a 3R̠RR planar parallel mechanism used as robot structure. In order to attain this goal we will use certain variation of the links dimensional parameters. This characterization of the mechanism singularities located inside mechanism workspace depends on the dimensional parameters and can be useful in mechanism designing accorded to some functional particularities in the sense that it can help in avoiding singular configurations.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  16. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically better than open hepatectomy: preparing for the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Go; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Han, Ho-Seong; Kaneko, Hironori; Buell, Joseph F

    2014-10-01

    Six years have passed since the first International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection was held. This comparatively new surgical technique has evolved since then and is rapidly being adopted worldwide. We compared the theoretical differences between open and laparoscopic liver resection, using right hepatectomy as an example. We also searched the Cochrane Library using the keyword "laparoscopic liver resection." The papers retrieved through the search were reviewed, categorized, and applied to the clinical questions that will be discussed at the 2nd Consensus Conference. The laparoscopic hepatectomy procedure is more difficult to master than the open hepatectomy procedure because of the movement restrictions imposed upon us when we operate from outside the body cavity. However, good visibility of the operative field around the liver, which is located beneath the costal arch, and the magnifying provide for neat transection of the hepatic parenchyma. Another theoretical advantage is that pneumoperitoneum pressure reduces hemorrhage from the hepatic vein. The literature search turned up 67 papers, 23 of which we excluded, leaving only 44. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are underway, but their results are yet to be published. Most of the studies (n = 15) concerned short-term results, with some addressing long-term results (n = 7), cost (n = 6), energy devices (n = 4), and so on. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is theoretically superior to open hepatectomy in terms of good visibility of the operative field due to the magnifying effect and reduced hemorrhage from the hepatic vein due to pneumoperitoneum pressure. However, there is as yet no evidence from previous studies to back this up in terms of short-term and long-term results. The 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection will arrive at a consensus on the basis of the best available evidence, with video presentations focusing on surgical techniques and the publication

  17. Effect of Three-Year and Four-Year Curricula on Physicians' Attitudes and Medical Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzburger, Linda K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The differences between graduates who were in different curricula at Loyola University of Chicago Stritch School of Medicine were identified. Physicians from the four-year curriculum plan indicated they believed they were more adequately taught than those in the subsequent three-year curriculum plan. (Author/MLW)

  18. Oncology Teaching: A Multidisciplinary Approach for Second-Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkort, Richard; Mozden, Peter J.

    1975-01-01

    A Boston University School of Medicine course in oncology is described which covers basic science correlates, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities, and psycho-social aspects. Based on five years experience, the course is considered a successful means of correlating basic and clinical information for second- and third-year medical students.…

  19. Assessing Medical Students' Perceptions of Mistreatment in Their Second and Third Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, David A.; Becker, Marilyn; Frank, Robert R.; Sokol, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Survey of Wayne State University (Michigan) 542 medical students found significantly more third-year than second-year students reporting personal experience of mistreatment or discrimination. Students specializing in family medicine reported the lowest rates of mistreatment, those in obstetrics/gynecology and surgery the highest. Perception also…

  20. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  1. NASA 2nd Generation RLV Program Introduction, Status and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan L.; Smith, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI), managed by the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2ndGen RLV) Program, was established to examine the possibility of revolutionizing space launch capabilities, define conceptual architectures, and concurrently identify the advanced technologies required to support a next-generation system. Initial Program funds have been allocated to design, evaluate, and formulate realistic plans leading to a 2nd Gen RLV full-scale development (FSD) decision by 2006. Program goals are to reduce both risk and cost for accessing the limitless opportunities afforded outside Earth's atmosphere fo civil, defense, and commercial enterprises. A 2nd Gen RLV architecture includes a reusable Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle, an on-orbit transport and return vehicle, ground and flight operations, mission planning, and both on-orbit and on-the-ground support infrastructures All segments of the architecture must advance in step with development of the RLV if a next-generation system is to be fully operational early next decade. However, experience shows that propulsion is the single largest contributor to unreliability during ascent, requires the largest expenditure of time for maintenance, and takes a long time to develop; therefore, propulsion is the key to meeting safety, reliability, and cost goals. For these reasons, propulsion is SLI's top technology investment area.

  2. Development of fetal intestinal length during 2nd-trimester in normal and pathologic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Marnerides, Andreas; Ghazi, Sam; Sundberg, Anders; Papadogiannakis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Linear growth of the human fetal gastrointestinal tract is not often discussed in the literature, and little is known about the effects of chromosomal abnormalities and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on intestinal length, especially during the 2nd trimester. Accurate evaluation of intestinal length and knowledge of normal and reference values are of clinical importance. For example, intestinal resection may be necessary in preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis or mid-gut volvulus, and the surgeon should use data to be judicious in the amount removed. Linear measurements are essential in evaluating fetal development ultrasonographically and are an integral part of the postmortem examination. The intestinal lengths of 203 2nd-trimester fetuses and premature infants were measured. Small intestine length (SIL), colon length (CL), total bowel length (TBL; TBL  =  SIL + CL), and the length of the appendix (AL) increased with gestational age. No differences between the genders were observed. Colon length increased secondary to maceration, but no such effects were shown on SIL, TBL, or AL. No differences were shown in relation to IUGR. Small intestine length, CL, and TBL, but not AL, were shorter in fetuses with trisomy 21. Appendix length was not affected by any of the studied factors. We propose that the measurement of the length of the appendix may be used as an additional parameter for the postmortem evaluation of gestational age. Furthermore, its assessment may have potential as an ultrasonographic indicator of gestational age, particularly for the 2nd trimester.

  3. Healing of rat mouth mucosa after irradiation with CO2, Nd:YAG, and CO2-Nd:YAG combination lasers.

    PubMed

    Luomanen, M; Rauhamaa-Mäkinen, R; Meurman, J H; Kosloff, T; Tiitta, O

    1994-08-01

    The healing process of wounds made by a combination laser was studied in 90 rats. The laser system enabled both separate and combined use of CO2 and Nd:YAG laser irradiations. The laser wounds and the control excision wounds made by alligator forceps appeared on both sides of the tongue. Specimens from the wound sites were taken immediately, 6 h, and 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 21, 28, and 42 days after surgery. The wound-healing process was studied by macroscopic evaluation before preparing the specimens for light microscopy. Some differences were noted in the wound-healing process among the three groups into which the experimental animals were divided. Tissue coagulation damage was most extensive in the Nd:YAG laser sites, where it was observed in its full extent 4 days after surgery. Epithelial cells were seen to begin to proliferate in all the wounds 6 h after surgery. Re-epithelialization was completed by between 7 (CO2) and 21 days (Nd:YAG) at all the wound sites. The inflammatory cell infiltration was more prominent in the Nd:YAG and the CO2-Nd:YAG combination laser wounds than in the CO2 and excision wounds during healing. Tissue regeneration occurred faster with less contraction in the combination CO2-Nd:YAG wounds than in Nd:YAG wounds. The best macroscopic healing result was seen in the CO2 wound sites. The combination laser was effective both at cutting and at coagulating tissue. Combining the CO2 and Nd:YAG laser irradiation into one beam resulted in a greater incision depth than what could have been expected from using the two lasers separately.

  4. Mental Well-Being in First Year Medical Students: A Comparison by Race and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Hardeman, Rachel R.; Przedworski, Julia M.; Burke, Sara E.; Burgess, Diana J.; Phelan, Sean M.; Dovidio, John F.; Nelson, Dave; Rockwood, Todd; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, authors sought to characterize race and gender disparities in mental health in a national sample of first year medical students early in their medical school experience. Method This study used cross-sectional baseline data of Medical Student CHANGES, a large national longitudinal study of a cohort of medical students surveyed in the winter of 2010. Authors ascertained respondents via the American Association of Medical Colleges questionnaire, a third-party vendor-compiled list, and referral sampling. Results A total of 4732 first year medical students completed the baseline survey; of these, 301 were African American and 2890 were White. Compared to White students and after adjusting for relevant covariates, African American students had a greater risk of being classified as having depressive (relative risk (RR)=1.59 [95 % confidence interval, 1.37–2.40]) and anxiety symptoms (RR=1.66 [1.08–2.71]). Women also had a greater risk of being classified as having depressive (RR=1.36 [1.07–1.63]) and anxiety symptoms (RR−1.95 [1.39–2.84]). Conclusions At the start of their first year of medical school, African American and female medical students were at a higher risk for depressive symptoms and anxiety than their White and male counterparts, respectively. The findings of this study have practical implications as poor mental and overall health inhibit learning and success in medical school, and physician distress negatively affects quality of clinical care. PMID:26413458

  5. Appraisal by Year Six French medical students of the teaching of forensic medicine and health law.

    PubMed

    Franchitto, Nicolas; Rougé, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Legal medicine is a cross-sectional specialty in which medico-legal situations very frequently combine with routine medical practice. A total of 132 students in the last year of the second cycle of medical studies (Year 6) replied anonymously and voluntarily to a questionnaire corresponding to the topics in the curriculum for the national ranking examination: law relating to death and the dying, examination of assault victims, medical malpractice liability rules, writing death certificates, respect of medical confidentiality and the principles of medical deontology. The most frequently cited activities of the forensic physician were autopsy (87.9%), writing certificates (75.8%) and consultations with victims of violence (60.6%). Students did not often come into contact with a medico-legal situation during Years 2-6 of medical studies. Assiduity in attending lectures was low. Students preferred the standard textbooks available in specialized bookshops. They were severe in their appraisal of their own competence at the end of the second cycle, and did not feel ready to examine a corpse (95.5%) or to examine victims of assault (92.4%). Knowledge of the law and of the risks of medical practice was felt to be inadequate by 60.5% of students, and of the writing of a medical certificate by 56.8%. Training medical students in this field is a major challenge in view of the limited number of teaching hours and the need to acquire increasingly specialized knowledge. Complementary initiatives appear to be necessary, such as partnership with other clinical specialties which are frequently confronted with medico-legal situations.

  6. [Academy of medical sciences during the Great Patriotic War and first years after war].

    PubMed

    Knopov, M Sh; Taranukha, V K

    2014-06-01

    In the article presented the history of foundation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR and its activities during the World War Two and the early postwar years. According to the authors, the scientific development of many fundamental problems from domestic medicine experience during the war has retained its relevance in solving of the contemporary issues in health and medical science in modern Russia.

  7. Medical assistance at the Brazilian juniors tennis circuit--a one-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Silva, R T; Takahashi, R; Berra, B; Cohen, M; Matsumoto, M H

    2003-03-01

    A prospective study was conducted during one year to evaluate injuries in Brazilian Junior tennis players during the national circuit, in 2001. Male and female athletes in the age categories under 12, under 14, under 16 and under 18 years, all members of The Brazilian Tennis Confederation, participated in the study. Two physiotherapists and/or one physician evaluated the athletes. A total of 280 medical examinations were performed in 151 tennis players who needed medical treatment during the tournaments. The 151 athletes had 1-6 medical treatments during the tournaments and the mean was 1.8 treatment per athlete. The overall incidence was 6.9 medical treatments for every 1,000 games played. Medical assistance tothe athletes was performed on court in 83 (29.6%) occasions, 185 (66.1%) at the medical department and in both in 12 (4.3%) occasions. Retirement of the match was reported in 9 (3.2%) lesions. The most frequent injuries were: muscle contractures (76 - 27.14%), muscle pain/fatigue (36-12.85%), muscle strain (35-12.52%), tendinopathies (20 - 7.14%), cramps (16 -5.71%), ankle sprain (12 -4.28%) and low back pain (10-3.57%). Muscle pathology was the major source of injuries causing the athlete to seek medical assistance. Preventative measures are important to reduce the number of injuries, which may include muscle stretching programs and adequate nutrition and hydration.

  8. Teaching with comics: a course for fourth-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Though graphic narratives (or comics) now permeate popular culture, address every conceivable topic including illness and dying, and are used in educational settings from grade school through university, they have not typically been integrated into the medical school curriculum. This paper describes a popular and innovative course on comics and medicine for 4th-year medical students. In this course, students learn to critically read book length comics as well as create their own stories using the comics format. The rationale for the course, its general content and format, and methods for teaching are described. Finally, the author offers some reflections on why this medium resonates so powerfully with medical student learners.

  9. Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical students in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Masika, Moses Muia; Omondi, Gregory Barnabas; Natembeya, Dennis Simiyu; Mugane, Ephraim Mwatha; Bosire, Kefa Ogonyo; Kibwage, Isaac Ongubo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mobile phone penetration has increased exponentially over the last decade as has its application in nearly all spheres of life including health and medical education. This study aimed at assessing the use of mobile learning technology and its challenges among final year undergraduate students in the College of Health sciences, University of Nairobi. Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among final year undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were issued to all final year students in their lecture rooms after obtaining informed consent. Data on demographics, mobile device ownership and mobile learning technology use and its challenges was collected. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS®. Chi-square and t-test were used for bivariate analysis. Results We had 292 respondents; 62% were medical students, 16% were nursing students, 13% were pharmacy students and 9% were dental surgery students. The majority were female (59%) and the average age was 24 years. Eighty eight percent (88%) of the respondents owned a smart device and nearly all of them used it for learning. 64% of the respondents used medical mobile applications. The main challenges were lack of a smart device, lack of technical know-how in accessing or using apps, sub-optimal internet access, cost of acquiring apps and limited device memory. Conclusion Mobile learning is increasingly popular among medical students and should be leveraged in promoting access and quality of medical education. PMID:26327964

  10. Faculty and second-year medical student perceptions of active learning in an integrated curriculum.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Alexander; Harris, David M

    2016-12-01

    Patients expect physicians to be lifelong learners who are able to interpret and evaluate diagnostic tests, and most medical schools list the development of lifelong learning in their program objectives. However, lecture is the most often utilized form of teaching in the first two years and is considered passive learning. The current generation of medical students has many characteristics that should support active learning pedagogies. The purpose of this study was to analyze student and faculty perceptions of active learning in an integrated medical curriculum at the second-year mark, where students have been exposed to multiple educational pedagogies. The first hypothesis of the study was that faculty would favor active learning methods. The second hypothesis was that Millennial medical students would favor active learning due to their characteristics. Primary faculty for years 1 and 2 and second-year medical students were recruited for an e-mail survey consisting of 12 questions about active learning and lecture. Students perceived that lecture and passive pedagogies were more effective for learning, whereas faculty felt active and collaborative learning was more effective. Students believed that more content should be covered by lecture than faculty. There were also significant differences in perceptions of what makes a good teacher. Students and faculty both felt that lack of time in the curriculum and preparation time were barriers for faculty. The data suggest that students are not familiar with the process of learning and that more time may be needed to help students develop lifelong learning skills.

  11. [Sanitary service of girl guides during the 2nd World War].

    PubMed

    Jezierski, Zdzisław

    2005-01-01

    From the very beginning of the scout organization one of its main trends was the Samaritan service consisting in giving medical help to victims of disasters and acts of God. It became a domain of girls guide mainly. The articles describes a great commitment of the Polish girls guide in the medical assistance offered to their compatriots during the September campaign of 1939 and during the years of occupation from 1939 to 1945. It shows the education and training methods that prepared the girls to work with great dedication. From the first days of the war the girl guides started to work as nurses and orderlies in civil and military hospitals. They organized also their own hospitals and numerous first aid stations in bombed localities and roads frequented by fugitives escaping from the west parts of the country to the eastern territories. Under occupation, the girl guides organized their own underground medical service that collaborated strictly with military organization fighting for independence. Assisted by doctors they organized medical trainings for the members, collected medicines and sanitary materials, preparing themselves for the fights of the last part of the war. The girl guides organized groups of medical assistance of the National Army, which constituted a core of the organization medical service. During the "Storm" action several thousands of girls worked as orderlies that belonged to the combat troops of the National Army. The Warsaw insurrection was the greatest battle of soldiers of the National Army. The girls offered their help to thousands of soldiers and civilian victims.

  12. Adherence to antipsychotic medication among homeless adults in Vancouver, Canada: a 15-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, A.; Fazel, S.; Procyshyn, R.; Somers, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of adherence to antipsychotic prescription medication in a well-defined homeless cohort over a 15-year period. We hypothesized that adherence would be well below the recommended threshold for clinical effectiveness (80 %), and that it would be strongly associated with modifiable risk factors in the social environment in which homeless people live. Method Linked baseline data (including comprehensive population-level administrative prescription records) were examined in a subpopulation of participants from two pragmatic-randomized trials that investigated Housing First for homeless and mentally ill adults. Adherence to antipsychotic medication was operationalized using the medication possession ratio. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate effect sizes between socio-demographic, homelessness-related and illness factors, and medication possession ratio. Results Among the 290 participants who met inclusion criteria for the current analysis, adherence to antipsychotic prescription was significantly associated with: history of psychiatric hospitalization; receipt of primary medical services; long-acting injectable antipsychotic formulations; and duration of homelessness. Mean medication possession ratio in the pre-randomization period was 0.41. Socio-demographic characteristics previously correlated with antipsychotic non-adherence were not significantly related to medication possession ratio. Conclusions This is the first study to quantify the very low level of adherence to antipsychotic medication among homeless people over an extended observation period of 15 years. Each of the four factors found to be significantly associated with adherence presents opportunities for intervention. Strategies to end homelessness for this population may represent the greatest opportunity to improve adherence to antipsychotic medication. PMID:27338740

  13. Using Simulation to Improve First-Year Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Medication Errors Involving the Top 100 Prescription Medications

    PubMed Central

    Awdishu, Linda; Namba, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate first-year pharmacy students’ ability to identify medication errors involving the top 100 prescription medications. Design. In the first quarter of a 3-quarter pharmacy self-care course, a didactic lecture on the most common prescribing and dispensing prescription errors was presented to first-year pharmacy students (P1) in preparation for a prescription review simulation done individually and as a group. In the following quarter, they were given a formal prescription review workshop before a second simulation involving individual and group review of a different set of prescriptions. Students were evaluated based on the number of correctly checked prescriptions and a self-assessment of their confidence in reviewing prescriptions. Assessment. All 63 P1 students completed the prescription review simulations. The individual scores did not significantly change, but group scores improved from 79 (16.2%) in the fall quarter to 98.6 (4.7%) in the winter quarter. Students perceived improvement of their prescription checking skills, specifically in their ability to fill a prescription on their own, identify prescribing and dispensing errors, and perform pharmaceutical calculations. Conclusion. A prescription review module consisting of a didactic lecture, workshop and simulation-based methods to teach prescription analysis was successful at improving first year pharmacy students’ knowledge, confidence, and application of these skills. PMID:27402989

  14. Using Simulation to Improve First-Year Pharmacy Students' Ability to Identify Medication Errors Involving the Top 100 Prescription Medications.

    PubMed

    Atayee, Rabia S; Awdishu, Linda; Namba, Jennifer

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To evaluate first-year pharmacy students' ability to identify medication errors involving the top 100 prescription medications. Design. In the first quarter of a 3-quarter pharmacy self-care course, a didactic lecture on the most common prescribing and dispensing prescription errors was presented to first-year pharmacy students (P1) in preparation for a prescription review simulation done individually and as a group. In the following quarter, they were given a formal prescription review workshop before a second simulation involving individual and group review of a different set of prescriptions. Students were evaluated based on the number of correctly checked prescriptions and a self-assessment of their confidence in reviewing prescriptions. Assessment. All 63 P1 students completed the prescription review simulations. The individual scores did not significantly change, but group scores improved from 79 (16.2%) in the fall quarter to 98.6 (4.7%) in the winter quarter. Students perceived improvement of their prescription checking skills, specifically in their ability to fill a prescription on their own, identify prescribing and dispensing errors, and perform pharmaceutical calculations. Conclusion. A prescription review module consisting of a didactic lecture, workshop and simulation-based methods to teach prescription analysis was successful at improving first year pharmacy students' knowledge, confidence, and application of these skills.

  15. Medication errors in a paediatric teaching hospital in the UK: five years operational experience

    PubMed Central

    Ross, L; Wallace, J; Paton, J; STEPHENSON, T.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In the past 10 years, medication errors have come to be recognised as an important cause of iatrogenic disease in hospital patients.
AIMS—To determine the incidence and type of medication errors in a large UK paediatric hospital over a five year period, and to ascertain whether any error prevention programmes had influenced error occurrence.
METHODS—Retrospective review of medication errors documented in standard reporting forms completed prospectively from April 1994 to August 1999. Main outcome measure was incidence of error reporting, including pre- and post-interventions.
RESULTS—Medication errors occurred in 0.15% of admissions (195 errors; one per 662 admissions). While the highest rate occurred in neonatal intensive care (0.98%), most errors occurred in medical wards. Nurses were responsible for most reported errors (59%). Errors involving the intravenous route were commonest (56%), with antibiotics being the most frequent drug involved (44%). Fifteen (8%) involved a tenfold medication error. Although 18 (9.2%) required active patient intervention, 96% of errors were classified as minor at the time of reporting. Forty eight per cent of parents were not told an error had occurred. The introduction of a policy of double checking all drugs dispensed by pharmacy staff led to a reduction in errors from 9.8 to 6 per year. Changing the error reporting form to make it less punitive increased the error reporting rate from 32.7 to 38 per year.
CONCLUSION—The overall medication error rate was low. Despite this there are clear opportunities to make system changes to reduce error rates further.
 PMID:11087283

  16. 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (IC-RMM2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of materials and their rheological behaviors during their manufacturing processes and in their applications in many cases can help to increase the efficiency and competitiveness not only of the finished goods and products but the organizations and societies also. The more scientific supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive products with better thermal, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (ic-rmm2) and the parallel organized symposiums of the 1st International Symposium on Powder Injection Molding (is-pim1) and the 1st International Symposium on Rheology and Fracture of Solids (is-rfs1) are the followings: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of modeling and measurements of rheological properties and behavior of materials under processing and applications; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different disciplines, different nations, countries and continents. The international conference ic-rmm2 and symposiums of is-pim1 and is-rfs1 provide a platform among the leading international scientists, researchers, PhD students and engineers for discussing recent achievements in measurement, modeling and application of rheology in materials technology and materials science of liquids, melts, solids, crystals and amorphous structures. Among thr major fields of interest are the influence of materials structures, mechanical stresses, temperatures, deformation speeds and shear rates on rheological and physical properties, phase transformation of foams, foods, polymers, plastics and other competitive materials like ceramics

  17. Impact of e-resources on learning in biochemistry: first-year medical students’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background E-learning resources (e-resources) have been widely used to facilitate self-directed learning among medical students. The Department of Biochemistry at Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore, India, has made available e-resources to first-year medical students to supplement conventional lecture-based teaching in the subject. This study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of the impact of these e-resources on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. Methods Sixty first-year medical students were the subjects of this study. At the end of the one-year course in biochemistry, the students were administered a questionnaire that asked them to assess the impact of the e-resources on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. Results Ninety-eight percent of students had used the e-resources provided to varying extents. Most of them found the e-resources provided useful and of a high quality. The majority of them used these resources to prepare for periodic formative and final summative assessments in the course. The use of these resources increased steadily as the academic year progressed. Students said that the extent to which they understood the subject (83%) and their ability to answer questions in assessments (86%) had improved as a result of using these resources. They also said that they found biochemistry interesting (73%) and felt motivated to study the subject (59%). Conclusions We found that first-year medical students extensively used the e-resources in biochemistry that were provided. They perceived that these resources had made a positive impact on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. We conclude that e-resources are a useful supplement to conventional lecture-based teaching in the medical curriculum. PMID:22510159

  18. [A bibliometrics study of literature on medical image processing for the past ten years].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Yanbin; Ouyang, Zhaolian; Guo, Wenjiao; Chi, Hui

    2014-02-01

    We searched and retrieved literature on the topic of medical image processing published on SCI journals in the past 10 years. We then imported the retrieved literature into TDA for data cleanup before data analysis and pro cessing by EXCLE and UCINET to generate tables and figures that could indicate disciplinary correlation and research hotspots from the perspective of bibliometrics. The results indicated that people in Europe and USA were leading researchers on medical image processing with close international cooperation. Many disciplines contributed to the fast development of medical image processing with intense interdisciplinary researches. The papers that we found show recent research hotspots of the algorithm, system, model, image and segmentation in the field of medical image processing. Cluster analysis on key words of high frequency demonstrated complicated clustering relationship.

  19. Learning the ropes together: assimilation and friendship development among first-year male medical students.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Theodore E; Gregory, Kimberly Weller

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the mutual influences of friendship development and organizational assimilation processes among first-year male medical students. Interviews and observations were used to examine the ways students constructed and enacted their friendships with male classmates during the process of assimilating into medical school. The study also examined how the male friends viewed the influence of their friendships on their assimilation into medical school and how the assimilation process simultaneously influenced their developing friendships. Thematic analysis revealed that although the men perceived their medical school friendships as "not yet close," the friendships provided them with valuable tangible and socio-emotional support during the rigorous assimilation process and that the assimilation process paradoxically facilitated as well as hindered the development of friendships. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  20. Medical student career choice: a qualitative study of fourth-year medical students at Memorial University, Newfoundland

    PubMed Central

    Pianosi, Kiersten; Bethune, Cheri; Hurley, Katrina F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specialty career choice is a critical decision for medical students, and research has examined factors influencing particular specialties or assessed it from a demographic perspective. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe influential factors in students' decision-making, irrespective of their particular specialty in a Canadian medical school. Methods: Study participants were recruited from fourth-year medical classes at the Memorial University of Newfoundland in 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Sixteen focus groups (n = 70) were led by a nonfaculty facilitator to uncover factors affecting medical student career choice. The analysis was guided by principles of grounded theory methodology. The focus group transcripts were sequentially coded based on recurring topics and themes that arose in the students' discussions. A set of key themes emerged and representative quotations for each theme were tracked. Results: Twenty themes were identified from the focus group discussions: 7 major, 3 intermediate and 10 minor themes. The major themes were undergraduate experience, exposure, public perception and recruitment, teacher influence, family/outside influences, residency issues and personal philosophy. Intermediate themes included lifestyle, bad-mouthing/negative perceptions and context. Minor themes included critical incidents/experiences, information gaps, uncertainty, nature of the work, extracurricular programs, timing of decision-making, financial issues, prestige, fit with colleagues and gender issues. Interpretation: Exposure to specialties and the timing of this exposure appears to be crucial to career choice, as does the context (who, what, when, where) of any particular rotation. Given the influence of personal philosophy, future research examining students' level of self-assessment and self-reflection in their decision-making processes and level of certainty about their selected specialty would be useful. PMID:27398357

  1. Three-Year MD Programs: Perspectives From the Consortium of Accelerated Medical Pathway Programs (CAMPP).

    PubMed

    Cangiarella, Joan; Fancher, Tonya; Jones, Betsy; Dodson, Lisa; Leong, Shou Ling; Hunsaker, Matthew; Pallay, Robert; Whyte, Robert; Holthouser, Amy; Abramson, Steven B

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, there has been renewed interest in three-year MD pathway programs. In 2015, with support from the Josiah Macy Jr., Foundation, eight North American medical schools with three-year accelerated medical pathway programs formed the Consortium of Accelerated Medical Pathway Programs (CAMPP). The schools are two campuses of the Medical College of Wisconsin; McMaster University Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine; Mercer University School of Medicine; New York University School of Medicine; Penn State College of Medicine; Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine; University of California, Davis School of Medicine; and University of Louisville School of Medicine. These programs vary in size and medical specialty focus but all include the reduction of student debt from savings in tuition costs. Each school's mission to create a three-year pathway program differs; common themes include the ability to train physicians to practice in underserved areas or to allow students for whom the choice of specialty is known to progress more quickly. Compared with McMaster, these programs are small, but most capitalize on training and assessing competency across the undergraduate medical education-graduate medical education continuum and include conditional acceptance into an affiliated residency program. This article includes an overview of each CAMPP school with attention to admissions, curriculum, financial support, and regulatory challenges associated with the design of an accelerated pathway program. These programs are relatively new, with a small number of graduates; this article outlines opportunities and challenges for schools considering the development of accelerated programs.

  2. Perceptions of acne vulgaris in final year medical student written examination answers.

    PubMed

    Green, J; Sinclair, R D

    2001-05-01

    Misconceptions exist in the community regarding factors that exacerbate acne vulgaris. In particular stress, diet, lifestyle and personal hygiene are often erroneously claimed to be important factors. In order to investigate whether these common misconceptions persist in medical graduates, we analysed the answers of 215 sixth year medical students, who all subsequently graduated from The University of Melbourne, to a short-answer question on acne management and exacerbating factors in one of their final year examination papers. With respect to exacerbating factors, 67% of students identified stress, 10% identified lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption), and 25% claimed poor facial hygiene exacerbated acne. Diet was stated to be an important factor by 41% of students, of whom 12% specifically mentioned chocolate. Persistence of these misconceptions among medical graduates is likely to perpetuate misinformation in the community.

  3. Difficulties facing first-year medical students at Umm Alqura University in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almoallim, H; Aldahlawi, S; Alqahtani, E; Alqurashi, S; Munshi, A

    2012-12-04

    This study investigated medical students' study habits and perceptions of learning difficulties during their first year of study. A specially-designed questionnaire was answered by 165 second-year medical and medical science students at Umm Alqura University in Saudi Arabia. Out of the 7 difficulties listed in the questionnaire, students ranked peer competition first, followed by poor English language skills. Male students ranked peer competition as the top difficulty whereas females ranked it fourth. A majority of students were dissatisfied with the passive, lecture-based method of teaching and wanted the English language curriculum to be improved by more emphasis on conversation skills. Early introduction of the concept of active learning and effective studying habits is needed.

  4. Mars Curriculum for K-12 Science Education, 2nd Edition, Making Tracks on Mars Teacher Resource and Activity Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubele, J. C.; Stanley, J.; Grochowski, A.; Jones, K.; Aragon, J.

    2012-03-01

    A Mars K-12 curriculum, created by the New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, is now in 2nd edition DVD, approved by NASA educational review, 508 compliant to ensure accessibility for people with disabilities, and applicable to MSL.

  5. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  6. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  7. Systems Engineering Approach to Technology Integration for NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Thomas, Leann; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd-generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1-in-10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. To best direct technology development decisions, analytical models are employed to accurately predict the benefits of each technology toward potential space transportation architectures as well as the risks associated with each technology. Rigorous systems analysis provides the foundation for assessing progress toward safety and cost goals. The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and identify where Defense and commercial requirements overlap those of civil missions.

  8. Life Cycle Systems Engineering Approach to NASA's 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Dale; Smith, Charles; Safie, Fayssal; Kittredge, Sheryl

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of the 2nd Generation RLV Program is to substantially reduce technical and business risks associated with developing a new class of reusable launch vehicles. NASA's specific goals are to improve the safety of a 2nd- generation system by 2 orders of magnitude - equivalent to a crew risk of 1 -in- 10,000 missions - and decrease the cost tenfold, to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched. Architecture definition is being conducted in parallel with the maturating of key technologies specifically identified to improve safety and reliability, while reducing operational costs. An architecture broadly includes an Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, on-orbit transfer vehicles and upper stages, mission planning, ground and flight operations, and support infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. The systems engineering approach ensures that the technologies developed - such as lightweight structures, long-life rocket engines, reliable crew escape, and robust thermal protection systems - will synergistically integrate into the optimum vehicle. Given a candidate architecture that possesses credible physical processes and realistic technology assumptions, the next set of analyses address the system's functionality across the spread of operational scenarios characterized by the design reference missions. The safety/reliability and cost/economics associated with operating the system will also be modeled and analyzed to answer the questions "How safe is it?" and "How much will it cost to acquire and operate?" The systems engineering review process factors in comprehensive budget estimates, detailed project schedules, and business and performance plans, against the goals of safety, reliability, and cost, in addition to overall technical feasibility. This approach forms the basis for investment decisions in the 2nd Generation RLV Program's risk-reduction activities. Through this process, NASA will continually refine its specialized needs and

  9. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  10. A 12-year comparison of students’ perspectives on diversity at a Jesuit Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Mujawar, Imran; Sabatino, Matt; Mitchell, Stephen Ray; Walker, Benjamin; Weissinger, Peggy; Plankey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have assessed perspectives of medical students toward institutional diversity, but few of them have attempted to map changes in diversity climate over time. Objective This study aims to investigate changes in diversity climate at a Jesuit medical institution over a 12-year period. Methods In 1999, 334 medical students completed an anonymous self-administered online survey, and 12 years later, 406 students completed a comparable survey in 2011. Chi-square tests assessed the differences in percent responses to questions of the two surveys, related to three identities: gender, race, and sexual orientation. Results The 1999 versus 2011 samples were 46% versus 49% female, 61% versus 61% Caucasian, and 41% vs. 39% aged 25 years or older. Findings suggested improvements in medical students’ perceptions surrounding equality ‘in general’ across the three identities (p<0.001); ‘in the practice of medicine’ based on gender (p<0.001), race/ethnicity (p=0.60), and sexual orientation (p=0.43); as well as in the medical school curriculum, including course text content, professor’s delivery and student–faculty interaction (p<0.001) across the three identities. There was a statistically significant decrease in experienced or witnessed events related to gender bias (p<0.001) from 1999 to 2011; however, reported events of bias based on race/ethnicity (p=0.69) and sexual orientation (p=0.58) only showed small decreases. Conclusions It may be postulated that the improvement in students’ self-perceptions of equality and diversity over the past 12 years may have been influenced by a generational acceptance of cultural diversity and, the inclusion of diversity training courses within the medical curriculum. Diversity training related to race and sexual orientation should be expanded, including a follow-up survey to assess the effectiveness of any intervention. PMID:24581334

  11. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones -- Phase I, 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Black, Bill; Biraud, Sebastien

    2009-03-31

    This is the year-end report of the 2nd year of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix 3. Literature survey of published information on the relationship between geologic and hydrologic characteristics of faults was conducted. The survey concluded that it may be possible to classify faults by indicators based on various geometric and geologic attributes that may indirectly relate to the hydrologic property of faults. Analysis of existing information on the Wildcat Fault and its surrounding geology was performed. The Wildcat Fault is thought to be a strike-slip fault with a thrust component that runs along the eastern boundary of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is believed to be part of the Hayward Fault system but is considered inactive. Three trenches were excavated at carefully selected locations mainly based on the information from the past investigative work inside the LBNL property. At least one fault was encountered in all three trenches. Detailed trench mapping was conducted by CRIEPI (Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industries) and LBNL scientists. Some intriguing and puzzling discoveries were made that may contradict with the published work in the past. Predictions are made regarding the hydrologic property of the Wildcat Fault based on the analysis of fault structure. Preliminary conceptual models of the Wildcat Fault were proposed. The Wildcat Fault appears to have multiple splays and some low angled faults may be part of the flower structure. In parallel, surface geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity survey and seismic reflection profiling along three lines on the north and south of the LBNL site. Because of the steep terrain, it was difficult to find optimum locations for survey lines as it is desirable for them to be as

  12. A clinical procedures curriculum for undergraduate medical students: the eight-year history of a third-year immersive experience.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Laura; Exline, Matthew; Leung, Cynthia G; Way, David P; Clinchot, Daniel; Bahner, David P; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2016-01-01

    Background Procedural skills training is a critical component of medical education, but is often lacking in standard clinical curricula. We describe a unique immersive procedural skills curriculum for medical students, designed and taught primarily by emergency medicine faculty at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Objectives The primary educational objective of this program was to formally introduce medical students to clinical procedures thought to be important for success in residency. The immersion strategy (teaching numerous procedures over a 7-day period) was intended to complement the student's education on third-year core clinical clerkships. Program design The course introduced 27 skills over 7 days. Teaching and learning methods included lecture, prereading, videos, task trainers, peer teaching, and procedures practice on cadavers. In year 4 of the program, a peer-team teaching model was adopted. We analyzed program evaluation data over time. Impact Students valued the selection of procedures covered by the course and felt that it helped prepare them for residency (97%). The highest rated activities were the cadaver lab and the advanced cardiac life support (97 and 93% positive endorsement, respectively). Lectures were less well received (73% positive endorsement), but improved over time. The transition to peer-team teaching resulted in improved student ratings of course activities (p<0.001). Conclusion A dedicated procedural skills curriculum successfully supplemented the training medical students received in the clinical setting. Students appreciated hands-on activities and practice. The peer-teaching model improved course evaluations by students, which implies that this was an effective teaching method for adult learners. This course was recently expanded and restructured to place the learning closer to the clinical settings in which skills are applied.

  13. A clinical procedures curriculum for undergraduate medical students: the eight-year history of a third-year immersive experience

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura; Exline, Matthew; Leung, Cynthia G.; Way, David P.; Clinchot, Daniel; Bahner, David P.; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2016-01-01

    Background Procedural skills training is a critical component of medical education, but is often lacking in standard clinical curricula. We describe a unique immersive procedural skills curriculum for medical students, designed and taught primarily by emergency medicine faculty at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Objectives The primary educational objective of this program was to formally introduce medical students to clinical procedures thought to be important for success in residency. The immersion strategy (teaching numerous procedures over a 7-day period) was intended to complement the student's education on third-year core clinical clerkships. Program design The course introduced 27 skills over 7 days. Teaching and learning methods included lecture, prereading, videos, task trainers, peer teaching, and procedures practice on cadavers. In year 4 of the program, a peer-team teaching model was adopted. We analyzed program evaluation data over time. Impact Students valued the selection of procedures covered by the course and felt that it helped prepare them for residency (97%). The highest rated activities were the cadaver lab and the advanced cardiac life support (97 and 93% positive endorsement, respectively). Lectures were less well received (73% positive endorsement), but improved over time. The transition to peer-team teaching resulted in improved student ratings of course activities (p<0.001). Conclusion A dedicated procedural skills curriculum successfully supplemented the training medical students received in the clinical setting. Students appreciated hands-on activities and practice. The peer-teaching model improved course evaluations by students, which implies that this was an effective teaching method for adult learners. This course was recently expanded and restructured to place the learning closer to the clinical settings in which skills are applied. PMID:27222103

  14. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  15. 2ND EF Conference in Turbulent Heat Transfer, Manchester, UK 1998. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    1WB.7C 1W1UC •v*ataj «vnlMlai i-V 1 iBriMHI MWBlaj fprriatfa ■ HSV Of»U» Ia»fUC T-4UC : BBIW OIJIHIIM 1 *>IMC T»«MC (g) (h) Figure 7 Local...t’ k THE UNIVERSITY y MANCHESTER UMIST 2nd EF Conference in TURBULENT HEAT TRANSFER Manchester, UK 1 998 Approved /or public vil...QXTALTTY INSPECTED 1 CONTENTS VOLUME I Session 1 : Heat Transfer Under Simple Shearing (Chairmen: B. E. Launder and T. J. Hanratty) Y. Na, D. V

  16. Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of a Coarse-Grained Mg-2Zn-2Nd Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Jonas, John J.; Yue, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Compression tests were performed on samples of Mg-2Zn-2Nd at 673 K (400 °C) and at three different strain rates. At 0.1/s, three mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) were observed to operate: discontinuous DRX (DDRX), twinning DRX (TDRX), and continuous DRX (CDRX). At 0.01/s, DDRX took place as a result of grain boundary bulging, followed by CDRX on further straining. At 0.001/s, only CDRX was observed. At a strain of 0.3, the activation of multiple DRX mechanisms in the 0.1/s samples produced the weakest deformation textures.

  17. Secular Motion in a 2nd Degree and Order-Gravity Field with no Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Hu, W.

    2001-03-01

    The motion of a particle about a non-rotating 2nd degree and order-gravity field is investigated. Averaging conditions are applied to the particle motion and a qualitative analysis which reveals the general character of motion in this system is given. It is shown that the orbit plane will either be stationary or precess about the body's axis of minimum or maximum moment of inertia. It is also shown that the secular equations for this system can be integrated in terms of trigonometric, hyperbolic or elliptic functions. The explicit solutions are derived in all cases of interest.

  18. Effects of Thermal Cycling on Control and Irradiated EPC 2nd Generation GaN FETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Results of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  19. VLT interferometer upgrade for the 2nd generation of interferometric instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonté, Frederic; Woillez, Julien; Schuhler, Nicolas; Egner, Sebastian; Merand, Antoine; Abad, José Antonio; Abadie, Sergio; Abuter, Roberto; Acuña, Margarita; Allouche, Fatmé; Alonso, Jaime; Andolfalto, Luigi; Antonelli, Pierre; Avila, Gerardo; Barriga, Pablo José; Beltran, Juan; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bolados, Carlos; Bonnet, Henri; Bourget, Pierre; Brast, Roland; Bristow, Paul; Caniguante, Luis; Castillo, Roberto; Conzelmann, Ralf; Cortes, Angela; Delplancke, Françoise; Del Valle, Diego; Derie, Frederic; Diaz, Alvaro; Donoso, Reinaldo; Dorn, Reinhold; Duhoux, Philippe; Dupuy, Christophe; Eisenhauer, Frank; Elao, Christian; Fuenteseca, Eloy; Fernandez, Ruben; Gaytan, Daniel; Glindemann, Andreas; Gonzales, Jaime; Guieu, Sylvain; Guisard, Stephane; Haguenauer, Pierre; Haimerl, Andreas; Heinz, Volker; Henriquez, Juan Pablo; van der Heyden, P.; Hubin, Norbert; Huerta, Rodrigo; Jochum, Lieselotte; Leiva, Alfredo; Lévêque, Samuel; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Luco, Fernando; Mardones, Pedro; Mellado, Angel; Osorio, Juan; Ott, Jürgen; Pallanca, Laurent; Pavez, Marcus; Pasquini, Luca; Percheron, Isabelle; Pirard, Jean-Francois; Than Phan, Duc; Pineda, Juan Carlos; Pino, Andres; Poupar, Sebastien; Ramírez, Andres; Reinero, Claudio; Riquelme, Miguel; Romero, Juan; Rivinius, Thomas; Rojas, Chester; Rozas, Felix; Salgado, Fernando; Scheithauer, Silvia; Schmid, Christian; Schöller, Markus; Siclari, Waldo; Stephan, Christian; Tamblay, Richard; Tapia, Mario; Tristram, Konrad; Valdes, Guillermo; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Wright, Andrew; Zins, Gerard

    2016-08-01

    ESO is undertaking a large upgrade of the infrastructure on Cerro Paranal in order to integrate the 2nd generation of interferometric instruments Gravity and MATISSE, and increase its performance. This upgrade started mid 2014 with the construction of a service station for the Auxiliary Telescopes and will end with the implementation of the adaptive optics system for the Auxiliary telescope (NAOMI) in 2018. This upgrade has an impact on the infrastructure of the VLTI, as well as its sub-systems and scientific instruments.

  20. Anatomy as the Backbone of an Integrated First Year Medical Curriculum: Design and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klement, Brenda J.; Paulsen, Douglas F.; Wineski, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine chose to restructure its first year medical curriculum in 2005. The anatomy faculty had prior experience in integrating courses, stemming from the successful integration of individual anatomical sciences courses into a single course called Human Morphology. The integration process was expanded to include the other…

  1. Impact of a Preventive Cardiology Curriculum on Knowledge and Attitudes of First-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veitia, Marie C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)

  2. The Relationship between Stress and Substance Use among First-Year Medical Students: An Exploratory Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forney, Mary Ann; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed 937 first-year medical students to determine whether variables related to personal and academic stress, propensity for risk, and physical condition could increase predictability of substance use characteristics. Results indicated drug and alcohol use were significantly correlated as was relationship between frequency and quantity of…

  3. Faculty and Second-Year Medical Student Perceptions of Active Learning in an Integrated Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Alexander; Harris, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Patients expect physicians to be lifelong learners who are able to interpret and evaluate diagnostic tests, and most medical schools list the development of lifelong learning in their program objectives. However, lecture is the most often utilized form of teaching in the first two years and is considered passive learning. The current generation of…

  4. Personal and Behavioral Variables Related to Perceived Stress of Second-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Kent J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 555 second-year medical students from 7 schools found academic stress related to general satisfaction with life, gender, physical activity, alcohol use, sleep patterns, and recent losses and misfortunes. Personal stress was related to general satisfaction with life, gender, drug use, sensation-seeking sports, and recent losses and…

  5. Communication Skills in Standardized-Patient Assessment of Final-Year Medical Students: A Psychometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiton, Gretchen; Hodgson, Carol S.; Delandshere, Ginett; Wilkerson, Luann

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the content-specificity of communication skills. It investigates the reliability and dimensionality of standardized patient (SP) ratings of communication skills in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination(OSCE) for final year medical students. An OSCE consisting of seven standardized patient(SP)…

  6. Enhancing Third-Year Medical Clerkships: Using Mobile Technology for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janette R.; Nuss, Michelle A.; Cervero, Ronald M.; Gaines, Julie K.; Middendorf, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The third year clerkship is one of the most exciting and challenging times for medical students (Cooke, Irby, & O'Brien, 2010) when students spend significant time in clinical settings (e.g., hospitals) assisting in the care of patients on a daily basis. Getting information and resources just-in-time and at point-of-care (Author, 2009) is one…

  7. Metropolitan Detroit's Network Detroit Medical Library Group: Five Year Progress Report *†

    PubMed Central

    Cruzat, Gwendolyn S.

    1968-01-01

    Over a five-year period, much progress has been made in meeting the needs of health care personnel in the Detroit metropolitan area through library cooperation. These cooperative relationships have stimulated implementation of the following projects: (1) publications, (2) research on medical library problems, and (3) library programs at both the city and state levels. PMID:5665973

  8. [Medical research travel 100 years ago: the 14th German Medical Study Trip to North America and Canada in the year 1912].

    PubMed

    Neid, T; Helm, J

    2012-12-01

    Already before the First World War the North American medicine had developed within less years so far that it had an excellent reputation and that famous scientists and medicines from Europe came in the country for extensive study trips and congressional visits. Exactly 100 years ago the delegation biggest till then of German doctors visited in the course of the 14th German Medical Study Trip the United States of America. The very amicable relation between the doctors of both nations made easier the scientific exchange during this study trip and allowed a deep insight into the medicine of the USA to the participants. Even though the German doctors were very impressed with the developement in the USA and reported partly in their native country in detail about that, it didn't succeed in keeping pace with the rapid developement of the USA into the leading research nation in the following decades.

  9. Twenty Years of Society of Medical Informatics of B&H and the Journal Acta Informatica Medica

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina. PMID:23322947

  10. Twenty years of society of medical informatics of b&h and the journal acta informatica medica.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-03-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina "Acta Informatica Medica"; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of "Distance learning" in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina.

  11. Thinking about thinking: changes in first-year medical students' metacognition and its relation to performance.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei Han; Vadivelu, Jamunarani; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Sim, Joong Hiong

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown the importance of metacognition in medical education. Metacognitive skills consist of two dimensions: knowledge of metacognition and regulation of metacognition. Aim This study hypothesizes that the knowledge and regulation of metacognition is significantly different at the beginning and end of the academic year, and a correlation exists between the two dimensions of metacognitive skills with academic performance. Methods The Metacognitive Skills Inventory comprising 52 Likert-scale items was administered to 159 first-year medical students at the University of Malaya. Students' year-end results were used to measure their academic performance. Results A paired sample t-test indicated no significant difference for knowledge of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A paired sample t-test revealed significant difference for regulation of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A very strong correlation was found between the two dimensions of metacognition. The correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with students' academic result was moderate. Conclusions The improvement in students' metacognitive regulation and the moderate correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with academic performance at the end of the academic year indicate the probable positive influence of the teaching and learning activities in the medical program.

  12. How well do final year undergraduate medical students master practical clinical skills?

    PubMed Central

    Störmann, Sylvère; Stankiewicz, Melanie; Raes, Patricia; Berchtold, Christina; Kosanke, Yvonne; Illes, Gabrielle; Loose, Peter; Angstwurm, Matthias W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The clinical examination and other practical clinical skills are fundamental to guide diagnosis and therapy. The teaching of such practical skills has gained significance through legislative changes and adjustments of the curricula of medical schools in Germany. We sought to find out how well final year undergraduate medical students master practical clinical skills. Methods: We conducted a formative 4-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) focused on practical clinical skills during the final year of undergraduate medical education. Participation was voluntary. Besides the examination of heart, lungs, abdomen, vascular system, lymphatic system as well as the neurological, endocrinological or orthopaedic examination we assessed other basic clinical skills (e.g. interpretation of an ECG, reading a chest X-ray). Participants filled-out a questionnaire prior to the exam, inter alia to give an estimate of their performance. Results: 214 final year students participated in our study and achieved a mean score of 72.8% of the total score obtainable. 9.3% of participants (n=20) scored insufficiently (<60%). We found no influence of sex, prior training in healthcare or place of study on performance. Only one third of the students correctly estimated their performance (35.3%), whereas 30.0% and 18.8% over-estimated their performance by 10% and 20% respectively. Discussion: Final year undergraduate medical students demonstrate considerable deficits performing practical clinical skills in the context of a formative assessment. Half of the students over-estimate their own performance. We recommend an institutionalised and frequent assessment of practical clinical skills during undergraduate medical education, especially in the final year. PMID:27579358

  13. Health care providers and facilities: medical malpractice and tort reform--2005. End of Year Issue Brief.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Andrew

    2005-12-31

    As health care professionals continue to feel the crunch of rising malpractice insurance rates and increased jury awards, medical malpractice remains a priority for acute care professionals. Medical associations claim that rapidly increasing premiums and the declining number of insurers often lead physicians to stop practicing medicine or to relocate. This may lead to a shortage of physicians, particularly physicians who practice high-risk specialties such as neurology. The pressure to retain an adequate supply of health care professionals is particularly acute in rural areas. It is difficult to pinpoint the origins of the escalating cost of medical malpractice coverage. Insurers and physicians claim excessive litigation and overly generous jury awards have hardened the market. Trial lawyers and consumer advocacy groups assert insurance premium rates have not reflected increasing medical inflation or the payouts of jury awards during the last 30 years. The majority of states have some form of basic coverage requirement that medical malpractice insurers must offer. However, because of the complexities and variety of coverage plans, physicians often are unaware that gaps in coverage exist. As of May 2005, the American Medical Association (AMA) has declared a state

  14. Government Medical College Trivandrum - Fifty years of Neurosurgery in Kerala state.

    PubMed

    Peethambaran, Anil Kumar; Chandran, Raj S

    2017-01-01

    The Department of Neurosurgery founded in the Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala, the first teaching hospital in Kerala state, is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The history of Neurosurgery in this Institute is synonymous with the history of Neurosurgery in the state as this was the first medical college to start a Neurosurgery department within the state.The students after undergoing their rigorous training in the department, went on to establish advanced neurosurgical centres throughout Kerala and in several other parts of the country. This article traces the illustrious history of the Department of Neurosurgery, Trivandrum Medical College and also of the eminent faculty members and residents, who helped in advancing the standards of Neurosurgery in the region as well as the rest of India. The Department of Neurosurgery was founded in the Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala, the first teaching hospital in Kerala state, in the year 1951, and is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The history of Neurosurgery in this Institute is synonymous with the history of Neurosurgery in the state as this was the first medical college to start a Neurosurgery department within the state.The students after undergoing their rigorous training in the department, went on to establish advanced neurosurgical centres throughout Kerala and in several other parts of the country. This article traces the illustrious history of the Department of Neurosurgery, Trivandrum Medical College and also of the eminent faculty members and residents, who helped in advancing the standards of Neurosurgery in the region as well as the rest of India.

  15. Teaching hematology to second year medical students: results of a national survey of hematology course directors.

    PubMed

    Broudy, Virginia C; Hickman, Scot

    2007-04-01

    Increasing clinical productivity expectations at academic medical centers and new faculty effort reporting requirements for NIH-supported investigators challenge the tradition of faculty volunteerism for medical student teaching. To better define the structure, content, and financial support of second year medical school hematology courses nationwide, we mailed a survey to the hematology course directors at 85 of the 125 accredited US medical schools. The 58 course directors who returned the survey represent all regions of the US and both public and private medical schools. Median class size was 150 students (range 40-200), and some courses included a substantial proportion (up to 33%) of other types of students. The median number of hours per course was 33 h (range 8 to 74). Approximately 50% of the total teaching time was devoted to lecture (range 5 to 100%). Web-based teaching was used by 62% of course directors. The median number of faculty responsible for teaching the second year hematology course was 12 (range 1-36). The hematology course directors identified a number of obstacles, including difficulty in recruiting teachers, the lack of well-defined content, and the very modest budget (less than $1,500 for most courses). Only three of the course directors indicated that they received salary support for this role. These findings suggest that a national effort to define learning objectives for the hematology courses and to share teaching materials among medical schools is warranted. Little financial support is provided for the hematology course, and these findings compel the identification of resources to pay faculty for teaching medical student required courses.

  16. The evolution of an integrated ultrasound curriculum (iUSC) for medical students: 9-year experience.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Richard A; Rao, Victor V; Bell, Floyd; Poston, Mary Beth; Howe, Duncan B; Riffle, Shaun; Harris, Stephen; Riley, Ruth; McMahon, Carol; Wilson, L Britt; Blanck, Erika; Richeson, Nancy A; Thomas, Lynn K; Hartman, Celia; Neuffer, Francis H; Keisler, Brian D; Sims, Kerry M; Garber, Matthew D; Shuler, C Osborne; Blaivas, Michael; Chillag, Shawn A; Wagner, Michael; Barron, Keith; Davis, Danielle; Wells, James R; Kenney, Donald J; Hall, Jeffrey W; Bornemann, Paul H; Schrift, David; Hunt, Patrick S; Owens, William B; Smith, R Stephen; Jackson, Allison G; Hagon, Kelsey; Wilson, Steven P; Fowler, Stanley D; Catroppo, James F; Rizvi, Ali A; Powell, Caroline K; Cook, Thomas; Brown, Eric; Navarro, Fernando A; Thornhill, Joshua; Burgis, Judith; Jennings, William R; McCallum, James B; Nottingham, James M; Kreiner, James; Haddad, Robert; Augustine, James R; Pedigo, Norman W; Catalana, Paul V

    2015-12-01

    Interest in ultrasound education in medical schools has increased dramatically in recent years as reflected in a marked increase in publications on the topic and growing attendance at international meetings on ultrasound education. In 2006, the University of South Carolina School of Medicine introduced an integrated ultrasound curriculum (iUSC) across all years of medical school. That curriculum has evolved significantly over the 9 years. A review of the curriculum is presented, including curricular content, methods of delivery of the content, student assessment, and program assessment. Lessons learned in implementing and expanding an integrated ultrasound curriculum are also presented as are thoughts on future directions of undergraduate ultrasound education. Ultrasound has proven to be a valuable active learning tool that can serve as a platform for integrating the medical student curriculum across many disciplines and clinical settings. It is also well-suited for a competency-based model of medical education. Students learn ultrasound well and have embraced it as an important component of their education and future practice of medicine. An international consensus conference on ultrasound education is recommended to help define the essential elements of ultrasound education globally to ensure ultrasound is taught and ultimately practiced to its full potential. Ultrasound has the potential to fundamentally change how we teach and practice medicine to the benefit of learners and patients across the globe.

  17. A novel 2nd-order bandpass MFSS filter with miniaturized structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, C. Y.; Gao, J. S.; Feng, X. G.

    2015-08-01

    In order to effectively obtain a miniaturized structure and good filtering properties, we propose a novel 2nd-order bandpass metamaterial frequency selective surface (MFSS) filter which contains two capacitive layers and one inductive layer, where there are multi-loop metallic patches as shunt capacitor C and planar wire grids as series inductor L respectively. Unlike the traditional operation way—the tuned elements used in resonant surface approximately equal to one wavelength in circumference and the structure thickness with a spacing of a quarter wavelength apart, by changing the value of L and C and matching multilayer dielectric to adjust the LC coupling resonance and the resonance impedance respectively, the proposed MFSS filter can achieves a miniatured structure with ideal bandpass properties. Measurement results of the fabricated prototype of the bandpass filter (BPF) indicate that the dimension of the tuned element on resonant surface is approximately 0.025 wavelength, i.e., 0.025λ. At the same time, the filter has the stable center frequency of f0 = 1.53GHz and the transmittance of T ⩾ 96.3% and high Q-value for the TE/TM wave polarization at various incidence angles. The novel 2nd-order bandpass MFSS filter with miniaturized structure not only can decrease structure dimension, but also has a wide range of applications to microwave and infrared band.

  18. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  19. When Contact Is Not Enough: Affecting First Year Medical Students’ Image towards Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    van Fenema, Esther; Polman-van Stratum, Eugenie C. F.; Achterberg, Wilco; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2017-01-01

    Context Many medical schools have initiated care internships to familiarize their students with older persons and to instil a professional attitude. Objective To examine the impact of care internships on the image that first-year medical students have of older persons and to explore the underlying concepts that may play a role in shaping this image. Design Survey before and after a two-week compulsory care internship using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD; 32 adjectives) and the Attitudes toward Old People (AOP; 34 positions) questionnaires. Participants Before and after a care internship involving interpersonal contact, 252 and 244 first-year medical students at the Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC) in the academic year 2012–2013 participated. Method Descriptive statistics, analyses of variance, and principal component analysis were used; clusters of adjectives and positions were reduced into concepts to examine dominant patterns of views. Changes in image were investigated as mean differences of the total and concept scores. Results Both the ASD and the AOP questionnaires showed a poor general image of older persons that significantly worsened after the care internship (p < 0.01). The percentage of students considering over 75 years as being old increased from 17.2% to 31.2% (p < 0.01) and those who thought they would find as much satisfaction in care for older as for younger patients decreased from 78.5% to 62.1% (p < 0.001). Exploratory principal component analysis showed particularly low scores on ‘comportment’ and ‘pleasurable interaction’ whereas the scores on ‘personality traits’ and ‘habitual behaviour’ significantly deteriorated (both p < 0.001). These patterns were irrespective of the student’s gender and previous contact experience. Conclusion Medical schools should carefully consider care internships to ensure that students do not worsen their views on older patients, which may occur due to inadequate contact depth and

  20. Scoping analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor using SN2ND

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, E.; Smith, M.

    2012-07-26

    A detailed set of calculations was carried out for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) using the SN2ND solver of the UNIC code which is part of the SHARP multi-physics code being developed under the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program in DOE-NE. The primary motivation of this work is to assess whether high fidelity deterministic transport codes can tackle coupled dynamics simulations of the ATR. The successful use of such codes in a coupled dynamics simulation can impact what experiments are performed and what power levels are permitted during those experiments at the ATR. The advantages of the SN2ND solver over comparable neutronics tools are its superior parallel performance and demonstrated accuracy on large scale homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor geometries. However, it should be noted that virtually no effort from this project was spent constructing a proper cross section generation methodology for the ATR usable in the SN2ND solver. While attempts were made to use cross section data derived from SCALE, the minimal number of compositional cross section sets were generated to be consistent with the reference Monte Carlo input specification. The accuracy of any deterministic transport solver is impacted by such an approach and clearly it causes substantial errors in this work. The reasoning behind this decision is justified given the overall funding dedicated to the task (two months) and the real focus of the work: can modern deterministic tools actually treat complex facilities like the ATR with heterogeneous geometry modeling. SN2ND has been demonstrated to solve problems with upwards of one trillion degrees of freedom which translates to tens of millions of finite elements, hundreds of angles, and hundreds of energy groups, resulting in a very high-fidelity model of the system unachievable by most deterministic transport codes today. A space-angle convergence study was conducted to determine the meshing and angular cubature

  1. FOREWORD: 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 2nd International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, (NCMIP 2012). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, in Cachan, France, on 15 May 2012, at the initiative of Institut Farman. The first edition of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, within the scope of the ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/). The NCMIP Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finance. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, kernel methods, learning methods, convex optimization, free discontinuity problems, metamodels, proper orthogonal decomposition

  2. [Assessment of communication skills with an OSCE among first year medical students].

    PubMed

    Fischbeck, Sabine; Mauch, Marianne; Leschnik, Elisabeth; Beutel, Manfred E; Laubach, Wilfried

    2011-11-01

    In order to determine if first year medical students of a Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology course have adopted basic physician patient communication skills, we developed an appropriate Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The parcours took place in a pretest condition (n=182) and in the following semester under test condition, now relevant for passing the course (n=181). Reliability of the OSCE reached a medium degree (α=0.55/0.50). Results of written examinations and OSCE scores were weakly correlated. The correlation between task competence and patient-centeredness was higher in the pretest than under test condition. Female students mostly achieved higher scores than male students. Nearly all of the students (92%/97%) were in favor of continuing this examination. Physician-patient communication is a process of high complexity, but it can be tested by OSCE. Relevance for passing the course seems to enhance the learning behaviour.

  3. Medical aspects of drug misuse during one year in a rehabilitation unit

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The medical work in a voluntary drug rehabilitation unit near Glasgow was examined. During one year 174 residents were admitted of whom 103 (59%) developed illnesses which required medical treatment. The need for drug misusers to receive general medical services during and after drug misuse was confirmed. Although withdrawal from barbiturate misuse required the prescription of controlled drugs, opiate and other withdrawals were satisfactorily managed with psychological support and general care; substances which could be abused were not prescribed. Blood testing of 129 residents showed that 114 (88%) had evidence of previous hepatitis B infection, while only two had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody. The low prevalence of HIV antibody compared with the high prevalence that has been reported in Edinburgh suggests that the opportunity exists at the moment to limit the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome among Glasgow drug misusers. PMID:3656269

  4. Attitude of Medical and Dental First Year Students Towards Teaching Methods in a Medical College of Northern India.

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Singh, KD; Kumar, Avnish

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teaching in most Asian countries is still dominated by teacher-centered classrooms in which students passively receive information from the teacher. Studies have shown that students’ inactivity in traditional teacher-centered classes makes them bored that consequently decrease their concentration and learning. To counter these problems active learning methods are being promoted to enhance their interest in studying. This present study was done to explore effective teaching system from a student’s perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the attitude of medical and dental first year students towards teaching methods. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken at on 150 Medical and Dental first year students. The study was conducted using general questionnaires along with feedback form to know their opinion about different teaching methodology. Results: A 94.67% of the students were unsatisfied with traditional Lecture teaching. 89.33% favoured combination of traditional lectures and active learning techniques, 74.67% students find active learning methods to be interesting, 77.33% found them as attention seekers, 89.33% are motivated for in-depth study and 85.33% students are motivated for independents learning. 100% students agreed that active learning methods provide opportunities of student interaction while 86.67% students are happy with the teacher–student interaction it provides. Audio-visual aids are the most favoured (94.67%) and test questions are most criticized active teaching method. Conclusion: Our study disclosed that the majority of student’s positively believe in using different active learning techniques for classroom activities. PMID:25654017

  5. 78 FR 62709 - Calendar Year 2013 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military treatment... BUDGET Calendar Year 2013 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery rates referenced are effective upon publication of...

  6. 76 FR 72003 - Calendar Year 2011 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... the cost of outpatient medical, dental, and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military treatment... BUDGET Calendar Year 2011 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... outpatient medical, dental, and cosmetic surgery services rates referenced are effective upon publication...

  7. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military treatment... BUDGET Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates Regarding Recovery From Tortiously...

  8. International Survey on Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver Resection: a web-based study on the global diffusion of laparoscopic liver surgery prior to the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Iwate, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Taizo; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Go

    2014-10-01

    The technique of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been greatly improved since the first international consensus conference. Our aim was to evaluate the worldwide spread of LLR prior to the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Iwate, Japan (4-6 October 2014). The International Survey on Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver resection was designed to assess dissemination of LLR, indications, and the surgical techniques. The anonymous questionnaire was e-mailed to liver surgeons worldwide. A total of 448 liver surgeons responded to the survey. The peak age range of surgeons performing LLR was 41-50 years. Japan had by far the largest number of respondents (n = 223), followed by the US (n = 38) and France (n = 20). In Japan, the majority of surgeons performing LLR belonged to community hospitals, where LLR has been increasingly used since its implementation in 2009 or later, comprising up to 40% of all liver resection cases. In contrast, in North America and Europe, LLR was mostly performed at academic medical centers. LLR has undergone global dissemination after the first international consensus conference in 2008. Japan has experienced unparalleled, explosive diffusion characterized by the adoption of LLR at middle-tier, regional institutions.

  9. Establishment of the World Health Organization 2(nd) International Standard for Factor XI, Plasma, Human.

    PubMed

    Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The 1(st) International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1(st) IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2(nd) IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2(nd) IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1(st) IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2(nd) IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp.

  10. Establishment of the World Health Organization 2nd International Standard for Factor XI, Plasma, Human

    PubMed Central

    Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The 1st International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1st IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2nd IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2nd IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1st IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2nd IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp. PMID:28373973

  11. The Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS): The First 10 Years and a Look at Public Perception of Emergency Medical Services (EMS).

    PubMed

    Crowe, Remle P; Bentley, Melissa A; Levine, Roger

    2016-12-01

    Crowe RP , Bentley MA , Levine R . The Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS): the first 10 years and a look at public perception of Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s1-s6.

  12. Prescribing knowledge and skills of final year medical students in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oshikoya, K.A.; Bello, J.A.; Ayorinde, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge of final year medical students in Nigeria, about good prescribing and the application of this knowledge to their prescribing skills. Materials and Methods: Thirty four final year medical students of the Lagos State University College of Medicine (LASUCOM), Ikeja, were interviewed with a structured questionnaire that assessed their knowledge on the principles of good prescribing. They were also requested to write a prescription, based on a paediatric clinical scenario of malaria and upper respiratory tract infection. The prescription was used to assess their prescribing skills. Results: Thirty one (91.18%) students knew that rational prescribing involved prescribing correct dosage of an appropriate medicine formulation. Factors considered important by the students to prescribe rationally were: Potential benefit: risk ratio of a medicine - 33 (97.06%); good knowledge of pharmacology - 29 (85.29%) and pathophysiology of the disease to be treated - 24 (70.59%); and safety of an alternative medicine to be used - 24 (70.59%). An average of 3.71 medicines was prescribed for a child suspected to have malaria. Antimalarials (38.24%) and paracetamol (20%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines. The name and signature of the prescriber were available in 51.61% and 58.06% prescriptions, respectively. Less than 50% prescriptions had the name, case file number, age and gender of the patient. Conclusion: The final year medical students of LASUCOM would require theoretical and practical teaching of principles of rational prescribing to improve their prescribing knowledge and skills. PMID:21279180

  13. Impact of a 3-Day Introductory Oncology Course on First-Year International Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Granek, Leeat; Mizrakli, Yuval; Ariad, Samuel; Jotkowitz, Alan; Geffen, David B

    2016-02-05

    Although only some medical students will choose cancer as their specialty, it is essential that all students have a basic understanding of cancer and its treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an introductory clinical oncology course on first-year international medical students. Evaluation of the course involved a quantitative survey designed for this study that was given pre- and post-course completion. Participants included 29 first-year international medical students. Students reported that the course affected them emotionally more than they anticipated it would prior to beginning the course. By the end of the course, students felt more comfortable focusing on how to live with cancer, felt less afraid of dealing with death, and were better able to cope with uncomfortable emotional situations. The course had no significant effect on students' interest in specializing in oncology in the future. Our study provides evidence that an introductory oncology course can increase student comfort with issues related to living with cancer, with confronting and dealing with death and dying, and with coping with uncomfortable emotional situations as related to cancer care. In anticipation of growing shortages in oncology specialists in the coming years, the ability of an early course in oncology to attract more students to the field is of interest. Future research should examine ethnic and cultural differences in uptake of the clinical oncology courses across continents and should use direct observation in addition to self-report in evaluating outcomes.

  14. Stress among First and Third Year Medical Students at University Kebangsaan Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Abdus; Mahadevan, Raynuha; Abdul Rahman, Amir; Abdullah, Norsyafiqah; Abd Harith, Aimi Aqilah; Shan, Chu Pei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the stress-prevalence and coping-strategies among University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) medical students. Methods: This was an observational study conducted among 234 UKM first and third year medical students. Standardized questionnaire on stress and coping strategies was used. Stress data was related to subjective experiences on some positive and negative adjectives such as tense, relaxed etc. Positive adjectives were measured by sign “++” and “+” scoring “1” while stress-negative adjectives were measured by sign “?” and “–“ scoring “0”. Forty-eight coping items under task, emotion and avoidance strategies were measured using 5-point Likert-scale. Results: Overall stress-prevalence was 49%. Female and Malay respondents were more stressed. Significant differences of stress-level was observed between Malays and non Malays in first year (p=0.04) and in third year (p=0.01). Most common strategies used to cope stress was task-oriented while emotion oriented was least. Conclusion: Stress-prevalence and stress-level in UKM medical students was high. Most of the respondents coped stress using task-oriented strategies. Stressor and its effective management must be ensured. Educational institutions should act as a creative designer of learning environment to get relieve from educational stressor. PMID:25878637

  15. Toledo Public Schools School Utilization Study, 1980-81 School Year. 2nd Year Study. Elementary School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo Public Schools, OH.

    In response to declining student enrollment, the Toledo, Ohio public school system conducted a school utilization study involving the evaluation of eight categories of achievement. These categories were: (1) educational adequacy as determined by the ability of the facility to meet the requirements of a good instructional program; (2) an overview…

  16. A Perpendicular Biased 2nd Harmonic Cavity for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C. Y.; Dey, J.; Madrak, R. L.; Pellico, W.; Romanov, G.; Sun, D.; Terechkine, I.

    2015-07-13

    A perpendicular biased 2nd harmonic cavity is currently being designed for the Fermilab Booster. Its purpose cavity is to flatten the bucket at injection and thus change the longitudinal beam distribution so that space charge effects are decreased. It can also with transition crossing. The reason for the choice of perpendicular biasing over parallel biasing is that the Q of the cavity is much higher and thus allows the accelerating voltage to be a factor of two higher than a similar parallel biased cavity. This cavity will also provide a higher accelerating voltage per meter than the present folded transmission line cavity. However, this type of cavity presents technical challenges that need to be addressed. The two major issues are cooling of the garnet material from the effects of the RF and the cavity itself from eddy current heating because of the 15 Hz bias field ramp. This paper will address the technical challenge of preventing the garnet from overheating.

  17. Automated CFD Database Generation for a 2nd Generation Glide-Back-Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Pandya, Shishir A.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Tejmil, Edward

    2003-01-01

    A new software tool, AeroDB, is used to compute thousands of Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions for a 2nd generation glide-back booster in one week. The solution process exploits a common job-submission grid environment using 13 computers located at 4 different geographical sites. Process automation and web-based access to the database greatly reduces the user workload, removing much of the tedium and tendency for user input errors. The database consists of forces, moments, and solution files obtained by varying the Mach number, angle of attack, and sideslip angle. The forces and moments compare well with experimental data. Stability derivatives are also computed using a monotone cubic spline procedure. Flow visualization and three-dimensional surface plots are used to interpret and characterize the nature of computed flow fields.

  18. Computation of equivalent poles placement for class of 2nd order discrete bilinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadek, Lukasz; Koszalka, Leszek; Burnham, Keith

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces an adaptation of the classical linear control theory representation of zeros, poles and gain into a bilinear approach. The placement of poles at the complex plane is a complete description of plants dynamics; hence it is a convenient form from which calculation of various properties, e.g. rise time, settling time, is plausible. Such technique can be adjusted into the bilinear structure if poles of a quasi-linear representation (linear with respect to input) are concerned. The research outcomes with conclusion on the equivalent poles displacement and generalized rules for a 2nd order bilinear system equivalent poles input dependent loci. The proposed approach seems to be promising, as simplification of design and identification of a bilinear system increases transparency during modelling and control in practical applications and hence it may be followed by applicability of such structure in common industrial problems.

  19. The New 2nd-Generation SRF R&D Facility at Jefferson Lab: TEDF

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Reilly, Anthony V.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy has funded a near-complete renovation of the SRF-based accelerator research and development facilities at Jefferson Lab. The project to accomplish this, the Technical and Engineering Development Facility (TEDF) Project has completed the first of two phases. An entirely new 3,100 m{sup 2} purpose-built SRF technical work facility has been constructed and was occupied in summer of 2012. All SRF work processes with the exception of cryogenic testing have been relocated into the new building. All cavity fabrication, processing, thermal treatment, chemistry, cleaning, and assembly work is collected conveniently into a new LEED-certified building. An innovatively designed 800 m2 cleanroom/chemroom suite provides long-term flexibility for support of multiple R&D and construction projects as well as continued process evolution. The characteristics of this first 2nd-generation SRF facility are described.

  20. Instruction and Curriculum in Veterinary Medical Education: A 50-Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Oscar J; Hooper, Billy E; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of veterinary medicine has expanded greatly over the past 50 years. To keep pace with these changes and produce competent professionals ready to meet evolving societal needs, instruction within veterinary medical curricula has undergone a parallel evolution. The curriculum of 1966 has given way, shifting away from lecture-laboratory model with few visual aids to a program of active learning, significant increases in case- or problem-based activities, and applications of technology, including computers, that were unimaginable 50 years ago. Curricula in veterinary colleges no longer keep all students in lockstep or limit clinical experiences to the fourth year, and instead have moved towards core electives with clinical activities provided from year 1. Provided here are examples of change within veterinary medical education that, in the view of the authors, had positive impacts on the evolution of instruction and curriculum. These improvements in both how and what we teach are now being made at a more rapid pace than at any other time in history and are based on the work of many faculty and administrators over the past 50 years.

  1. Enabling the 2nd Generation in Space: Building Blocks for Large Scale Space Endeavours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhardt, D.; Garretson, P.; Will, P.

    Today the world operates within a "first generation" space industrial enterprise, i.e. all industry is on Earth, all value from space is from bits (data essentially), and the focus is Earth-centric, with very limited parts of our population and industry participating in space. We are limited in access, manoeuvring, on-orbit servicing, in-space power, in-space manufacturing and assembly. The transition to a "Starship culture" requires the Earth to progress to a "second generation" space industrial base, which implies the need to expand the economic sphere of activity of mankind outside of an Earth-centric zone and into CIS-lunar space and beyond, with an equal ability to tap the indigenous resources in space (energy, location, materials) that will contribute to an expanding space economy. Right now, there is no comfortable place for space applications that are not discovery science, exploration, military, or established earth bound services. For the most part, space applications leave out -- or at least leave nebulous, unconsolidated, and without a critical mass -- programs and development efforts for infrastructure, industrialization, space resources (survey and process maturation), non-traditional and persistent security situational awareness, and global utilities -- all of which, to a far greater extent than a discovery and exploration program, may help determine the elements of a 2nd generation space capability. We propose a focus to seed the pre-competitive research that will enable global industry to develop the necessary competencies that we currently lack to build large scale space structures on-orbit, that in turn would lay the foundation for long duration spacecraft travel (i.e. key technologies in access, manoeuvrability, etc.). This paper will posit a vision-to-reality for a step wise approach to the types of activities the US and global space providers could embark upon to lay the foundation for the 2nd generation of Earth in space.

  2. Implementation of a four-year multimedia computer curriculum in cardiology at six medical schools.

    PubMed

    Petrusa, E R; Issenberg, S B; Mayer, J W; Felner, J M; Brown, D D; Waugh, R A; Kondos, G T; Gessner, I H; McGaghie, W C

    1999-02-01

    The pressures of a changing health care system are making inroads on the commitment and effort that both basic science and clinical faculty can give to medical education. A tool that has the potential to compensate for decreased faculty time and thereby to improve medical education is multimedia computer instruction that is applicable at all levels of medical education, developed according to instructional design principles, and supported by evidence of effectiveness. The authors describe the experiences of six medical schools in implementing a comprehensive computer-based four-year curriculum in bedside cardiology developed by a consortium of university cardiologists and educational professionals. The curriculum consisted of ten interactive, patient-centered, case-based modules focused on the history, physical examination, laboratory data, diagnosis, and treatment. While an optimal implementation plan was recommended, each institution determined its own strategy. Major goals of the project, which took place from July 1996 to June 1997, were to identify and solve problems of implementation and to assess learners' and instructors' acceptance of the system and their views of its value. A total of 1,586 students used individual modules of the curriculum 6,131 times. Over 80% of students rated all aspects of the system highly, especially its clarity and educational value compared with traditional lectures. The authors discuss the aspects of the curriculum that worked, problems that occurred (such as difficulties in scheduling use of the modules in the third year), barriers to change and ways to overcome them (such as the type of team needed to win acceptance for and oversee implementation of this type of curriculum), and the need in succeeding years to formally assess the educational effectiveness of this and similar kinds of computer-based curricula.

  3. Accuracy of script concordance tests in fourth-year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Elkalioubie, Ahmed; Deruelle, Philippe; Lacroix, Dominique; Gosset, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This investigation aimed to determine the validity of script concordance test (SCT), compared with clinical-case-related short-answer management problems (SAMP), in fourth-year medical students. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at the Medical School of Lille University. Cardiology and gynecology examinations both included 3 SCT and 2 clinical-case-related SAMP.  Final score did not include SCT results, and was out of 20 points. The passing score was ≥10/20. Wilcoxon and McNemar tests were used to compare quantitative and qualitative variables, respectively. Correlation between scores was also analyzed. Results A total of 519 and 521 students completed SAMP and SCT in cardiology and gynecology, respectively. Cardiology score was significantly higher in SCT than SAMP (mean ± SD 13.5±2.4 versus 11.4±2.6, Wilcoxon test, p<0.001). In gynecology, SCT score was significantly lower than SAMP score (10.8±2.6 versus 11.4±2.7, Wilcoxon test, p=0.001). SCT and SAMP scores were significantly correlated (p <0.05, Pearson’s correlation). However, percentage of students with SCT score ≥ 10/20 was similar among those who passed or failed cardiology (327 of 359 (91%) vs 146 of 160 (91%), χ2=0.004, df =1, p=0.952), or gynecology (274 of 379 (65%) vs 84 of 142 (59%), χ2=1.614, df=1, p=0.204) SAMP test. Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.31 and 0.92 for all SCT and SAMP, respectively. Conclusions  Although significantly correlated, the scores obtained in SCT and SAMP were significantly different in fourth-year medical students. These findings suggest that SCT should not be used for summative purposes in fourth-year medical students. PMID:28237977

  4. Fourth year medical students’ reflective writing on “death of Ivan Ilych: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    ZOHOURI, MAHSHID; AMINI, MITRA; SAGHEB, MOHAMMAD MEHDI

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students should be familiar with the end of life ethical issues and its considerations. For teaching end of life care to medical students, literature is a source of excellent narratives of patients with experiences of terminally ill condition in their journey through suffering and one of the most favourite bioethics literature readings has been the death of Ivan Ilych by Tolstoy. We used this novel to show medical students end of life events and suffering and asked them to write a reflective essay on it. We aimed to find what students think about terminally ill patients and their journey to death. Methods: In an inductive qualitative content analysis model, 350 essays, collected by homogenous sampling, were analyzed. The fourth year medical students were provided with the Death of Ivan Ilych novel to read. They were asked to write a reflection essay based on the reflective stages defined by Sandars. These essays served as the unit of analysis, each being read several times and a coding model was formed according to main topics. The related concepts in each unit were named as themes and each theme was abstracted to a code and the related codes were compared and developed as categories. Results: Qualitative content analysis of 350 essays of fourth year medical students revealed three major categories in students’ reflection on reading Death of Ivan Ilych as an end of life human body. These included: 1) Emotional experience, 2) Empathy and effective communication, 3) Spirituality and dignity. Analysis of essays showed that this reflection activity may help medical students have a deeper idea of the end of life situation and feelings. Conclusion: This project suggests that literature can be used as an example to introduce new ethical concepts to less experienced medical trainees. The students acquired the concept of the story and reflected the major aspects of the suffering of a human being in their essays. Having used and evaluated the effect

  5. Diversity, trust, and patient care: affirmative action in medical education 25 years after Bakke.

    PubMed

    DeVille, Kenneth; Kopelman, Loretta M

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's seminal 1978 Bakke decision, now 25 years old, has an ambiguous and endangered legacy. Justice Lewis Powell's opinion provided a justification that allowed leaders in medical education to pursue some affirmative action policies while at the same time undermining many other potential defenses. Powell asserted that medical schools might have a "compelling interest" in the creation of a diverse student body. But Powell's compromise jeopardized affirmative action since it blocked many justifications for responding to increases in political opposition and legal challenges. The Bakke decision and its moral background and legal legacy are traced and analyzed. Despite recent legal setbacks, the framework sketched by Powell can be used to defend diversity in medical education both morally and legally as a "compelling state interest." Because trust is a central component of the physician-patient relationship and a prerequisite to the profession's ability to provide effective medical care, the state has a compelling interest in training physicians with whom patients can feel comfortable and safe if the population is (1) distrustful; (2) underserved; (3) faces significant discrimination in the allocation of benefits, goods and services and (4) affirmative action programs would be likely to promote their trust in the system. Similar narrowly-tailored arguments could be used in other professions and for other groups. Bakke is an important background for the pending Grutter case.

  6. Thirty year celebration of journal publications on radiation oncology medical physics.

    PubMed

    Oliver, L D

    2007-03-01

    The Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine Journal (APESM) is an avenue for the profession to report scientific work in medicine; provide a facility for the publication of current work, new research and new techniques developed or reviewed; report on professional news from elsewhere and; publish the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) policies and protocols. The journal is a vital instrument within the ACPSEM organisation with a worldwide circulation. This review of APESM on medical physics in radiation oncology is meant to be a progress summary of work in that specialty. Even so, it has become a lengthy appraisal due to the many years involved. In considering publications related to medical physics in radiation oncology, this review has shown the progression of the College journal to an international journal. There is an increase in the number of papers contributed from Asia and other countries world wide for this discipline. Growth in the number of contributions should continue to rise. In order to provide some appreciation of where the present medical physics activity arose from, this article commences its discussion in 1959 and progresses towards the present, describing along the way, from radiation oncology papers published in APESM, the use of linear accelerators, brachytherapy, the medical physics workforce, the formation of the ACPSEM, and the more modern developments in radiotherapy such as 3-D treatment planning and IMRT.

  7. Seven years' experience in medical care at Mexico City International Airport.

    PubMed

    Antuñano, M J; Aquino, A A

    1989-06-01

    This paper describes our experience in the medical care of patients at Mexico City International Airport during the period 1981-87. Our medical staff treated 39,320 of the 84,359,212 passengers who used the airport during this 7-year period, an average of 5,617 patients per year. The most frequently observed medical disorders included: traumatic (8,852 cases; 22.5%), gastrointestinal (8,622; 22%), respiratory (5,503; 14%), cardiovascular (4,410; 11%), neurologic (3,876; 10%), toxicologic (1,273; 3%), gynecologic (833; 2%), urologic (773; 2%), endocrinologic (592; 1.5%) and others (4,586; 12%). There were 62 deaths, 244 false alarms, and 67 patients transported by air ambulance and 1,955 by ground ambulance. The main causes of death included extensive traumatic injuries and burns, acute myocardial infarctions, cerebrovascular accidents, and severe cases of intoxication. The annual trends with respect to morbidity, patient population and passenger population are discussed.

  8. A 40-Year History of End-of-Life Offerings in US Medical Schools: 1975-2015.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, George E

    2016-03-10

    The purpose of this longitudinal study of US medical schools over a 40-year period was to ascertain their offerings on end-of-life (EOL) issues. At 5-year intervals, beginning in 1975, US medical schools were surveyed via a questionnaire to determine their EOL offerings. Data were reported with frequency distributions. The Institute of Medicine has encouraged more emphasis on EOL issues over the past 2 decades. Findings revealed that undergraduate medical students in the United States are now exposed to death and dying, palliative care, and geriatric medicine. The inclusion of EOL topics has definitely expanded over the 40-year period as findings reveal that US undergraduate medical students are currently exposed in over 90% of programs to death and dying, palliative care, and geriatric medicine, with the emphasis on these topics varying with the medical programs. Such inclusion should produce future favorable outcomes for undergraduate medical students, patients, and their families.

  9. Dissociative fugue symptoms in a 28-year-old male Nigerian medical student: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dissociative fugue is a psychiatric disorder characterized by amnesia coupled with sudden unexpected travel away from the individual’s usual surroundings and denial of all memory of his or her whereabouts during the period of wandering. Dissociative fugue is a rare disorder that is infrequently reported. Before now, no case of it had been reported in a medical student. Case presentation This article focuses on the report of a case of dissociative fugue symptoms in a 28-year-old male Nigerian medical student. Conclusion The observation in this case report brings to the fore that dissociative fugue is often related to stressful life events and can comorbid with a depressive disorder. PMID:23724873

  10. Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

  11. [Morally incorrect incidents perceived by third year medical students in 2009 and 2015].

    PubMed

    Rancich, Ana María; Fernanda-Merino, Sabrina; Valicenti, María Cecilia; López-Prieto, María Belén; Donato, Martín; Gelpi, Ricardo Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The teacher-student relationship in medicine is affected by incidents performed by teachers and perceived by students as morally incorrect. The objectives were to analyze these incidents perceived by third year medical students in 2009 and 2015, according to gender, position, career year, and instance, and to compare categories and motives. This is quantitative-qualitative research, based on a survey with closed and open items: to narrate incidents and motives. The relationship between variables was established with χ2 (p ≤ 0.05). The survey was administered to third year students: 218 in 2009 and 224 in 2015; mean age: 23.4 and 24.8 years old; feminine: 63.7% and 74.3%; and 199 and 209 incidents, respectively. In 2015 the incidents increased with: female students (p = 0.005), female teachers, classmates, first year, and oral tests. In 2009 most incidents were performed by teachers, followed by assistants, reversing in 2015 (p = 0.05). Psychological mistreatment was perceived greater in both years (+40%), followed by unfair evaluation (p = 0.001). The teacher's motives prevailed (+60%). Differences between the years could be due to: increasing female population among students and teachers, changes in the teaching positions, delegation of responsibilities of teachers, subjectivity in oral tests, and increase in social violence translated to the academic environment.

  12. Turkish Final Year Medical Students’ Exposure to and Attitudes Concerning Drug Company Interactions: A Perspective from a Minimally Regulated Environment for Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Beyhun, Nazim Ercument; Kolayli, Cevriye Ceyda; Can, Gamze; Topbas, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between drug companies and medical students may affect evidence-based medical practice and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess drug company–medical student interactions in a medical faculty where limited specific national or institutional regulations apply between drug companies and medical students. The objectives of the study were to determine the exposure and attitudes of final year medical students in terms of drug company–medical student and physician interactions, to identify factors affecting those attitudes and to provide data for policymakers working on the regulation of interactions between drug companies and medical students. This anonymous questionnaire-based study of 154 medical final year medical students at the Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey, in April and May 2015 attracted a response rate of 92.2% (n/N, 154/164). Exposure to interaction with a pharmaceutical representative was reported by 90.3% (139/154) of students, and 68.8% (106/154) reported experiencing such interaction alongside a resident. In addition, 83.7% (128/153) of students reported an interaction during internship. Furthermore, 69.9% (107/153) of students agreed that interactions influence physicians’ prescription preferences, while 33.1% (51/154) thought that a medical student should never accept a gift from a drug company and 24.7% (38/154) agreed with the proposition that “drug companies should not hold activities in medical faculties”. Students with rational prescription training expressed greater agreement with the statement “I am skeptical concerning the information provided by drug companies during interactions” than those who had not received such training, and this finding was supported by logistic regression [O.R.(C.I), p -3.7(1.2–11.5), p = 0.022]. Acceptance of advertisement brochures was found to significantly reduce the level of agreement with the proposition that “A physician should not

  13. Turkish Final Year Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes Concerning Drug Company Interactions: A Perspective from a Minimally Regulated Environment for Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Beyhun, Nazim Ercument; Kolayli, Cevriye Ceyda; Can, Gamze; Topbas, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between drug companies and medical students may affect evidence-based medical practice and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess drug company-medical student interactions in a medical faculty where limited specific national or institutional regulations apply between drug companies and medical students. The objectives of the study were to determine the exposure and attitudes of final year medical students in terms of drug company-medical student and physician interactions, to identify factors affecting those attitudes and to provide data for policymakers working on the regulation of interactions between drug companies and medical students. This anonymous questionnaire-based study of 154 medical final year medical students at the Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey, in April and May 2015 attracted a response rate of 92.2% (n/N, 154/164). Exposure to interaction with a pharmaceutical representative was reported by 90.3% (139/154) of students, and 68.8% (106/154) reported experiencing such interaction alongside a resident. In addition, 83.7% (128/153) of students reported an interaction during internship. Furthermore, 69.9% (107/153) of students agreed that interactions influence physicians' prescription preferences, while 33.1% (51/154) thought that a medical student should never accept a gift from a drug company and 24.7% (38/154) agreed with the proposition that "drug companies should not hold activities in medical faculties". Students with rational prescription training expressed greater agreement with the statement "I am skeptical concerning the information provided by drug companies during interactions" than those who had not received such training, and this finding was supported by logistic regression [O.R.(C.I), p -3.7(1.2-11.5), p = 0.022]. Acceptance of advertisement brochures was found to significantly reduce the level of agreement with the proposition that "A physician should not accept any gift from a

  14. Two-year performance study of porous, thermoset, shape memory polyurethanes intended for vascular medical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weems, Andrew C.; Boyle, Anthony J.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2017-03-01

    The long-term shape-recovery behavior of shape memory polymers has often been shown to be dependent on the length of time the material has been stored in the secondary shape. Typically, recovery performance and shape fixity will decrease with increased time in the secondary shape. In medical materials, a shelf-life is crucial to establish as it sets the upper threshold for device performance in a clinical setting, and a reduction in shape recovery would limit the development of SMP medical devices. Here, we present a two-year study of strain recovery, strain fixity, and shape recovery kinetics for passively and actively actuated SMPs intended for vascular devices. While kinetic experiments using immersion DMA indicate slight material relaxation and a decrease in the time to recovery, these changes are not found for bulk recovery experiments. The results indicate that a two-year shelf-life for these SMPs is very reasonable, as there is no change in the recovery kinetics, strain recovery, or strain fixity associated with this aging time. Further, a thermal accelerated aging test is presented for more rapid testing of the shape memory behavior of these SMPs and is compared with the real time aging results, indicating that this test is a reasonable indicator of the two-year behavior.

  15. Five year report on the medical follow up of Marshallese receiving special medical care related to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation (January 1992--1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Vaswani, A.N.; Howard, J.E.

    1999-06-01

    This is the 17th and final report of the Marshall Islands Medical Program as carried out by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The purpose of these publications has been to provide information on the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to radiation fallout in 1954. The medical program fulfills a commitment to disclose unique medical information relevant to public health. Details of the Bravo thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published. A 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, which described the acute medical effects on the population that required special medical care, remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Marshallese participation in this Congressionally mandated program is voluntary. Throughout the 44 years of the program, each participating individual`s relevant medical findings, laboratory data, disease morbidity, and mortality have been published in the BNL reports in a manner preserving patient confidentiality. In each report, there has been an attempt to interpret these findings and to infer the role of radiation exposure in their development. An equally important aspect of the reports has been the presentation of data that allows for analyses of the medical consequences of the Marshallese exposure.

  16. Relationships between Drug Company Representatives and Medical Students: Medical School Policies and Attitudes of Student Affairs Deans and Third-Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierles, Frederick; Brodkey, Amy; Cleary, Lynn; McCurdy, Frederick A.; Mintz, Matthew; Frank, Julia; Lynn, Deborah Joanne; Chao, Jason; Morgenstern, Bruce; Shore, William; Woodard, John

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors sought to ascertain the details of medical school policies about relationships between drug companies and medical students as well as student affairs deans' attitudes about these interactions. Methods: In 2005, the authors surveyed deans and student affairs deans at all U.S. medical schools and asked whether their schools…

  17. One Year Medical Outcomes and ED Recidivism Following ED Observation for Cocaine-Associated Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen A.; Weber, Jim Edward; O'Broin, Samantha; Tripathi, Shanti P; Maio, Ronald F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Chest pain is the most common complaint among cocaine users who present to the ED seeking care and many hospital resources are applied to stratify cocaine users in regard to future cardiac morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the longitudinal cardiac and non cardiac medical outcomes of cocaine users who have been stratified to an ED observation period following their ED visit. Objectives to examine one-year cardiac outcomes in a low-intermediate risk sample of patients with cocaine- associated chest pain in an urban ED, as well as to examine ED recidivism one year for cardiac and non-cardiac complaints. Methods Prospective consecutive cohort study of patients (18–60 years) who presented to an urban Level 1 ED with cocaine-associated chest pain and were risk stratified to low-intermediate cardiac risk. Exclusion criteria: EKG suggestive of AMI, elevated serum cardiac markers, history of AMI or CABG, hemodynamic instability, unstable angina. Baseline interviews using validated measures of health functioning, and substance use were conducted during CPOU stay, and 3, 6, and 12 months. ED utilization during the study year was abstracted from medical chart. Zero-Inflated Poisson regression analyses were conducted to predict recurrent ED visits. Results 219 participants (73% participation) were enrolled, 65% returned to the ED post index visit; 23% returned for chest pain, of these 66% had a positive cocaine urine screen. No patient had an AMI within the one year follow up period. Patients with continued cocaine use were more likely to have a recurrent ED visit (p<0.001) but these repeat visits were most often related to musculoskeletal pain (21%), and injury (30%) rather than potential cardiac complaints. Conclusions Patients with cocaine-associated chest pain who are low to intermediate cardiac risk and complete a CPOU protocol have less then 1% rate of MI in the subsequent 12-months. PMID:18824277

  18. Colon Ischemia After Weight-Loss Medication in a 36-Year-Old Woman.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prabin; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram

    2016-04-01

    Weight-loss medications have been associated with many conditions, including valvular heart disease, ischemic colitis, and pulmonary hypertension. There is a constant increase in the use of these drugs, especially new medications with better efficacy. Phentermine is one such drug, approved for short-term use to lose weight. We report a case of ischemic colitis in a female patient linked to inappropriate phentermine intake. The patient presented with symptoms of severe abdominal pain and repeated bowel movement associated with rectal bleeding for two weeks. Initial blood work was unremarkable for infectious and inflammatory causes. A CT scan was performed which revealed findings of ischemic colitis extending from transverse to descending colon. A biopsy study confirmed the same. Upon further questioning, the patient admitted to taking 37.5 mg of phentermine for two years beyond her prescribed period of 12 weeks. Hence, we propose that inappropriate use of phentermine caused ischemic colitis. With the widespread use of these medications, there is a need for heightened awareness among clinicians regarding adverse effects of phentermine.

  19. Medical and biological engineering in the next 20 years: the promise and the challenges.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    In 2011, the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE) (www.aimbe.org) celebrated its 20th anniversary by undertaking to identify major societal challenges to which medical and biological engineers can contribute solutions in the next 20 years. This report is a summary of the six major challenges that were identified. The report also discusses some specific areas within these high-level challenges that can form the basis for policy action, provides a brief rationale for pursuing those areas, and discusses roadblocks to progress. The six overarching challenges are: 1) engineering safe and sustainable water and food supply, 2) engineering personalized health care, 3) engineering solutions to injury and chronic diseases, 4) engineering global health through infectious disease prevention and therapy, 5) engineering sustainable bioenergy production, and 6) engineering the 21st century US economy. While arrived at independently by AIMBE, many of the elements overlap with similar challenges identified by other bodies. The similarities highlight the central mission of medical and biological engineers, working with other experts, which is to solve important problems central to human health and welfare.

  20. Medical student in the family health strategy on the first years of college: perception of graduates.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Maria Paula Ferreira; Marin, Maria José Sanches; Otani, Marcia Aparecida Padovan; Marin, Marina Sanches

    2014-12-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about the effective value of the experience gained by medical students who participate in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF)) during the early stages of their medical training. This teaching strategy is based on learning by experiencing the problems that exist in real life. This study proposed to understand the value of this teaching strategy from the viewpoint of the students who had participated, after their graduation. The method adopted was a qualitative study conducted through interviews with students who graduated in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. The data analysis used the hermeneutic dialectic technique as its model. The graduates considered that this experience enabled them to understand the organization and functioning of the health service and the context of the daily life of the users. This experience facilitated the doctor patient relationship, the development of clinical reasoning and the bond with the user. However the students emphasized that a lack of maturity prevented them gaining a higher level of benefit from the experience. Therefore, although the structure of the course is permeated by advances and challenges, it was concluded that this experience contributed to the student's learning of certain essential elements of medical training.

  1. Two thousand years of medical advice on breastfeeding: comparison of Chinese and western texts.

    PubMed

    Gartner, L M; Stone, C

    1994-12-01

    This discussion introduces only a few aspects of the historical writings on breastfeeding in the two cultures. Chinese writings seem to be closer in orientation to modern worldwide medical advice, approaching breastfeeding from a more natural and supportive perspective. Ancient and not-so-ancient western medical advice on breastfeeding often implies the inadequacy of the mother to breastfeed her own infant, especially in the early weeks of life. One can only speculate as to what the historical basis for this may be. European medicine emphasizes the testing of milk for its adequacy. Again, the scientific basis for this is not evident. Modern clinical science finds that the milk of virtually all mothers, even those suffering from significant malnutrition, is adequate for the growth and development of the infant. This focus on the "testing" of milk may represent an early example of the reliance on laboratory diagnosis that has so heavily dominated western medicine in recent years. Finally, western medicine seems more managerial with regard to breastfeeding than Chinese medicine, and has perhaps "medicalized" breastfeeding, a compliant often voiced even now in late 20th century America. Nonetheless, both literatures demonstrate that throughout the history of recorded medicine, physicians have been concerned with promoting optimal breastfeeding and have understood the importance of human milk for the survival, growth, and development of the infant.

  2. An eight-year study of internet-based remote medical counselling.

    PubMed

    Labiris, G; Coertzen, I; Katsikas, A; Karydis, A; Petounis, A

    2002-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study of an Internet-based remote counselling service. A total of 15456 Internet users visited the Website over eight years. From these, 1500 users were randomly selected for analysis. Medical counselling had been granted to 901 of the people requesting it (60%). One hundred and sixty-four physicians formed project groups to process the requests and responded using email. The distribution of patients using the service was similar to the availability of the Internet: 78% were from the European Union, North America and Australia. Sixty-seven per cent of the patients lived in urban areas and the remainder were residents of remote rural areas with limited local medical coverage. Sixty-five per cent of the requests were about problems of internal medicine and 30% of the requests concerned surgical issues. The remaining 5% of the patients sought information about recent developments, such molecular medicine or aviation medicine. During the project, our portal became inaccessible five times, and counselling was not possible on 44 days. There was no hacking of the Website. Internet-based medical counselling is a helpful addition to conventional practice.

  3. Comparing gender awareness in Dutch and Swedish first-year medical students - results from a questionaire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To ascertain good and appropriate healthcare for both women and men implementation of gender perspectives in medical education is needed. For a successful implementation, knowledge about students' attitudes and beliefs about men, women, and gender is crucial. The aim of this study was to compare attitudes to gender and gender stereotyping among Dutch and Swedish male and female medical students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured the attitudes and assumptions about gender among 1096 first year medical students (616 Dutch and 480 Swedish) with the validated Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale (N-GAMS). The response rate was 94% in the Netherlands and 93% in Sweden. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the scores between Dutch and Swedish male and female students. Linear regressions were used to analyze the importance of the background variables. Results There were significant differences in attitudes to gender between Dutch and Swedish students. The Swedish students expressed less stereotypical thinking about patients and doctors and the Dutch were more sensitive to gender differences. The students' sex mattered for gender stereotyping, with male students in both countries agreeing more with stereotypical statements. Students' age, father's birth country and mother's education level had some impact on the outcome. Conclusions There are differences between cultures as well as between men and women in gender awareness that need to be considered when implementing gender in medical education. This study suggests that to arouse the students' interest in gender issues and make them aware of the significance of gender in medical work, the examples used in discussions need to be relevant and challenging in the context of the specific country. Due to different levels of knowledge and different attitudes within the student population it is important to create a climate for dialogue where students feel permitted to

  4. A levels and intelligence as predictors of medical careers in UK doctors: 20 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    McManus, I C; Smithers, Eleni; Partridge, Philippa; Keeling, A; Fleming, Peter R

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess whether A level grades (achievement) and intelligence (ability) predict doctors' careers. Design Prospective cohort study with follow up after 20 years by postal questionnaire. Setting A UK medical school in London. Participants 511 doctors who had entered Westminster Medical School as clinical students between 1975 and 1982 were followed up in January 2002. Main outcome measures Time taken to reach different career grades in hospital or general practice, postgraduate qualifications obtained (membership/fellowships, diplomas, higher academic degrees), number of research publications, and measures of stress and burnout related to A level grades and intelligence (result of AH5 intelligence test) at entry to clinical school. General health questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory, and questionnaire on satisfaction with career at follow up. Results 47 (9%) doctors were no longer on the Medical Register. They had lower A level grades than those who were still on the register (P < 0.001). A levels also predicted performance in undergraduate training, performance in postregistration house officer posts, and time to achieve membership qualifications (Cox regression, P < 0.001; b=0.376, SE=0.098, exp(b)=1.457). Intelligence did not independently predict dropping off the register, career outcome, or other measures. A levels did not predict diploma or higher academic qualifications, research publications, or stress or burnout. Diplomas, higher academic degrees, and research publications did, however, significantly correlate with personality measures. Conclusions Results of achievement tests, in this case A level grades, which are particularly used for selection of students in the United Kingdom, have long term predictive validity for undergraduate and postgraduate careers. In contrast, a test of ability or aptitude (AH5) was of little predictive validity for subsequent medical careers. PMID:12869457

  5. A study of the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained in year 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS students at AIMST University, Malaysia. Clinical scenarios (25) were constructed and administered to student volunteers, making sure at least one question from each system of year 2 was represented. Feedback was obtained on a five-point Likert scale regarding perception of learning biochemistry in MBBS year 1 versus 2. Mean score of test was 18 (72.11%). Performance was comparatively better in questions related to topics learnt in year 1 and reinforced in year 2 compared to those learnt for first time in year 2. In the feedback obtained, 31% strongly agreed and 56% agreed understanding the subject was helped more by learning biochemistry in year 2 than in year 1. Likewise, 36% strongly agreed and 56% agreed appreciating the importance of biochemistry in patient diagnosis was helped more by learning biochemistry in year 2 than year 1. Thirty one percent strongly agreed and 54% agreed that year 1 biochemistry would have been more relevant if case discussions were done simultaneously. Students retain basic science subjects better and appreciate the importance of basic sciences in patient diagnosis if they are reinforced in the context of clinical situations.

  6. Conference Proceedings: 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International; Disability in the Family. (Brighton, England, September 18-21, 1978)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Association for Disability and Rehabilitation, London (England).

    The conference proceedings of the 2nd European Conference of Rehabilitation International (1978) on the theme disability in the family contains the agenda and approximately 80 papers. National presentations consider the theme in papers by representatives of Finland, Hungary, Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal, Hong Kong, India, The German…

  7. Curriculum on the Edge of Survival: How Schools Fail to Prepare Students for Membership in a Democracy. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Typically, school curriculum has been viewed through the lens of preparation for the workplace or higher education, both worthy objectives. However, this is not the only lens, and perhaps not even the most powerful one to use, if the goal is to optimize the educational system. "Curriculum on the Edge of Survival, 2nd Edition," attempts to define…

  8. The Hyphen as a Syllabification Cue in Reading Bisyllabic and Multisyllabic Words among Finnish 1st and 2nd Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häikiö, Tuomo; Bertram, Raymond; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Finnish ABC books present words with hyphens inserted at syllable boundaries. Syllabification by hyphens is abandoned in the 2nd grade for bisyllabic words, but continues for words with three or more syllables. The current eye movement study investigated how and to what extent syllable hyphens in bisyllabic ("kah-vi" "cof-fee")…

  9. Give It a Shot! Toolkit for Nurses and Other Immunization Champions Working with Secondary Schools. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Chu, Lynda; Wooley, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent immunization saves lives--but promoting immunization takes time and thought, and today's nurses and other health advocates are faced with a host of ever-expanding responsibilities in a time of reduced budgets and staff. This toolkit is thus structured as an easy and reliable resource. This 2nd edition contains: (1) a 64-page manual;…

  10. International Conference on Hyperbolic Problems (2nd). Theory, Numerical Methods and Applications, 14-18 March 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    SOlution of’ th icai Ele quations. Proceedings of (lie 2nd European Conference on Multigrid 3. - --- AND B. KoRSN (1997). A Non-linear Afiultq,’rid...of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, India A new upwind scheme called Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS) method has been

  11. Perspectives on Art Therapy: The Proceedings of the Pittsburgh Conference on Art Therapy (2nd, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 20, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ellen A., Ed.; Rubin, Judith A., Ed.

    The proceedings of the 2nd annual Pittsburgh Conference on Art Therapy (with handicapped persons) consists of 44 items including full length papers, summaries of previously published papers, descriptions of workshops, and a limited number of abstracts (submitted by those who chose not to present a paper or workshop description). The papers are…

  12. Observation in a School without Walls: Peer Observation of Teaching in a 2nd-12th Grade Independent School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    What happens when teachers start to observe each other's classes? How do teachers make meaning of observing and being observed? What effects, if any, does requiring peer observation have on the teaching community? This research explores these questions in a qualitative study of peer observation of teaching (POT) in the 2nd-12th grades of an…

  13. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  14. Personal journal writing in a communication skills course for first-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Ashbury, J E; Fletcher, B M; Birtwhistle, R V

    1993-05-01

    Student journals are used at all levels of education to facilitate academic and personal learning. This paper describes the experience of journal writing from both a student and teacher perspective, in a communication skills course for first-year medical students at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. As one of the requirements of the course, students described their individual reactions to each weekly session in a journal. Teachers responded to each journal entry. Guidelines for journal usage in this course are described. The content of the journals includes topic-related information, comments concerning the student's individual experience of the course, and personal thoughts related to life experiences and becoming a doctor. A summary of evaluations of journal writing by teachers and students is presented. We have observed that journal writing facilitates a personal and reflective perspective to the first-year medical curriculum for both students and teachers. Journal writing appears to initiate and encourage self-awareness by providing a safe place for students to describe their experiences and relationships and to question their own values and beliefs. In the journal, through a mutual sharing of thoughts and feelings, barriers between students and teachers are diminished, leading to enhanced rapport and communication.

  15. Hepatitis C infection awareness among fourth year medical students at University of Dammam

    PubMed Central

    Almansour, Abdulelah H.; Darwish, Magdy A.; Abdel Wahab, Moataza M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine awareness about hepatitis C among 4th -year medical students at Dammam University, on hepatitis C and possible associated factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire comprising questions on awareness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, screening of the population, symptoms, complications, prevention, and treatment. RESULTS: A total of 201 students participated, with a response rate of 79.8%. About 75% of students had a poor grasp of HCV transmission while the awareness of <25% of students was fair. More than half of students had fair knowledge about screening, prevention, and treatment of HCV. The majority of students were familiar with the clinical presentation and complications of HCV. The overall awareness of the 4th -year medical students on HCV infection was fair, with no significant difference between males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Overall grasp of hepatitis C by the studied group was fair. However, there were serious gaps in their knowledge, which need to be filled or modified, especially knowledge about transmission which was poor. PMID:28163576

  16. Early Clinical Experiences for Second-Year Student Pharmacists at an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Amerine, Lindsey B.; Chen, Sheh-Li; Luter, David N.; Arnall, Justin; Smith, Shayna; Roth, Mary T.; Rodgers, Philip T.; Williams, Dennis M.; Pinelli, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine student outcomes associated with the Student Medication and Reconciliation Team (SMART) program, which was designed to provide second-year student pharmacists at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Eshelman School of Pharmacy direct patient care experience at UNC Medical Center. Design. Twenty-two second-year student pharmacists were randomly selected from volunteers, given program training, and scheduled for three 5-hour evening shifts in 2013-2014. Pre/post surveys and reflection statements were collected from 19 students. Data were analyzed with a mixed methods approach. Assessment. Survey results revealed an increase in student self-efficacy (p<0.05) and positive perceptions of SMART. Qualitative findings suggest the program provided opportunities for students to develop strategies for practice, promoted an appreciation for the various roles pharmacists play in health care, and fostered an appreciation for the complexity of real-world practice. Conclusion. Early clinical experiences can enhance student learning and development while fostering an appreciation for pharmacy practice. PMID:26839428

  17. Efficient Simulation of Wing Modal Response: Application of 2nd Order Shape Sensitivities and Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Liu, Youhua

    2000-01-01

    At the preliminary design stage of a wing structure, an efficient simulation, one needing little computation but yielding adequately accurate results for various response quantities, is essential in the search of optimal design in a vast design space. In the present paper, methods of using sensitivities up to 2nd order, and direct application of neural networks are explored. The example problem is how to decide the natural frequencies of a wing given the shape variables of the structure. It is shown that when sensitivities cannot be obtained analytically, the finite difference approach is usually more reliable than a semi-analytical approach provided an appropriate step size is used. The use of second order sensitivities is proved of being able to yield much better results than the case where only the first order sensitivities are used. When neural networks are trained to relate the wing natural frequencies to the shape variables, a negligible computation effort is needed to accurately determine the natural frequencies of a new design.

  18. Wind-US Results for the AIAA 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance III; Foster, Lancert; Mankbadi, Mina

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains Wind-US results presented at the 2nd Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. The workshop was organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Breathing Propulsion Systems Integration Technical Committee with the purpose of assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics for air breathing propulsion applications. Attendees included representatives from government, industry, academia, and commercial software companies. Participants were encouraged to explore and discuss all aspects of the simulation process including the effects of mesh type and refinement, solver numerical schemes, and turbulence modeling. The first set of challenge cases involved computing the thrust and discharge coefficients for a 25deg conical nozzle for a range of nozzle pressure ratios between 1.4 and 7.0. Participants were also asked to simulate two cases in which the 25deg conical nozzle was bifurcated by a solid plate, resulting in vortex shedding (NPR=1.6) and shifted plume shock (NPR=4.0). A second set of nozzle cases involved computing the discharge and thrust coefficients for a convergent dual stream nozzle for a range of subsonic nozzle pressure ratios. The workshop committee also compared the plume mixing of these cases across various codes and models. The final test case was a serpentine inlet diffuser with an outlet to inlet area ratio of 1.52 and an offset of 1.34 times the inlet diameter. Boundary layer profiles, wall static pressure, and total pressure at downstream rake locations were examined.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 1(st)-2(nd) century CE southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Stephanie; Prowse, Tracy L; Herring, D Ann; Klunk, Jennifer; Kuch, Melanie; Duggan, Ana T; Bondioli, Luca; Holmes, Edward C; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-12-05

    The historical record attests to the devastation malaria exacted on ancient civilizations, particularly the Roman Empire [1]. However, evidence for the presence of malaria during the Imperial period in Italy (1st-5th century CE) is based on indirect sources, such as historical, epigraphic, or skeletal evidence. Although these sources are crucial for revealing the context of this disease, they cannot establish the causative species of Plasmodium. Importantly, definitive evidence for the presence of malaria is now possible through the implementation of ancient DNA technology. As malaria is presumed to have been at its zenith during the Imperial period [1], we selected first or second molars from 58 adults from three cemeteries from this time: Isola Sacra (associated with Portus Romae, 1st-3rd century CE), Velia (1st-2nd century CE), and Vagnari (1st-4th century CE). We performed hybridization capture using baits designed from the mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes of Plasmodium spp. on a prioritized subset of 11 adults (informed by metagenomic sequencing). The mtDNA sequences generated provided compelling phylogenetic evidence for the presence of P. falciparum in two individuals. This is the first genomic data directly implicating P. falciparum in Imperial period southern Italy in adults.

  20. Minimal Clinically Important Difference on Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd Version

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Deli, Gabriella; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Márton; Makkos, Attila; Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the estimates of minimal clinically important difference for Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) total score and dimensions. Methods. The subject population consisted of 413 PD patients. At baseline, MDS-UPDRS, Hoehn-Yahr Scale, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and PDSS-2 were assessed. Nine months later the PDSS-2 was reevaluated with the Patient-Reported Global Impression Improvement Scale. Both anchor-based techniques (within patients' score change method and sensitivity- and specificity-based method by receiver operating characteristic analysis) and distribution-based approaches (effect size calculations) were utilized to determine the magnitude of minimal clinically important difference. Results. According to our results, any improvements larger than −3.44 points or worsening larger than 2.07 points can represent clinically important changes for the patients. These thresholds have the effect size of 0.21 and −0.21, respectively. Conclusions. Minimal clinically important differences are the smallest change of scores that are subjectively meaningful to patients. Studies using the PDSS-2 as outcome measure should utilize the threshold of −3.44 points for detecting improvement or the threshold of 2.07 points for observing worsening. PMID:26539303

  1. Evaluation of a hand washing program for 2nd-graders.

    PubMed

    Tousman, Stuart; Arnold, Dani; Helland, Wealtha; Roth, Ruth; Heshelman, Nannatte; Castaneda, Oralia; Fischer, Emily; O'Neil, Kristen; Bileto, Stephanie

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a multiple-week learner-centered hand washing program could improve hand hygiene behaviors of 2nd-graders in a northern Illinois public school system. Volunteers from the Rockford Hand Washing Coalition went into 19 different classrooms for 4 consecutive weeks and taught a learner-centered program. The program consisted of interactive class discussions and activities using GlitterBug training devices and agar plate materials. A one-factor repeated measure analysis of variance indicated a statistically significant 34% decrease in the absenteeism rate for students in the intervention group. Chi-square analyses on agar plate data indicated that students had cleaner hands after washing. Qualitative data from parents and teachers indicated that a majority of the students were engaging in hand-washing behavior. These results indicate that integrating a learner-centered interactive program in a multiple-week structure can lead to improvement in hand hygiene behavior.

  2. Introduction of the 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollet, Stefan; Maxwell, Reed; Dages, Cecile; Mouche, Emmanuel; Mugler, Claude; Paniconi, Claudio; Park, Young-Jin; Putti, Mario; Shen, Chaopeng; Stisen, Simon; Sudicky, Edward; Sulis, Mauro; Ji, Xinye

    2015-04-01

    The 2nd Phase of the Integrated Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project commenced in June 2013 with a workshop at Bonn University funded by the German Science Foundation and US National Science Foundation. Three test cases were defined and compared that are available online at www.hpsc-terrsys.de including a tilted v-catchment case; a case called superslab based on multiple slab-heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity along a hillslope; and the Borden site case, based on a published field experiment. The goal of this phase is to further interrogate the coupling of surface-subsurface flow implemented in various integrated hydrologic models; and to understand and quantify the impact of differences in the conceptual and technical implementations on the simulation results, which may constitute an additional source of uncertainty. The focus has been broadened considerably including e.g. saturated and unsaturated subsurface storages, saturated surface area, ponded surface storage in addition to discharge, and pressure/saturation profiles and cross-sections. Here, first results are presented and discussed demonstrating the conceptual and technical challenges in implementing essentially the same governing equations describing highly non-linear moisture redistribution processes and surface-groundwater interactions.

  3. Studies with Ferrous Sulfamate and Alternate Reductants for 2nd Uranium Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.L.

    2003-01-15

    A wide range of miniature mixer-settler tests were conducted to determine the source of iron and sulfur contamination in the uranium product stream (''1EU'') of H Canyon's 2nd Uranium Cycle. The problem was reproduced on the laboratory scale mixer-settlers by changing the feed location of ferrous sulfamate from stage D4 to stage D1. Other process variables effected no change. It was later determined that ferrous sulfamate (FS) solids had plugged the FS line to stage D4, causing FS to backup a ventline and enter the Canyon process at stage D1. Pluggage was almost certainly due to precipitation of FS solids during extended process downtime. During the search for the root cause, tests showed that FS solids were quite small (1-10 mm), and a portion of them could bypass the current Canyon prefilter (3-mm). Also, additional tests were done to find an alternate means of reducing and thereby removing plutonium and neptunium from the uranium product. These tests showed that FS was a more effective reductant than either ascorbic acid or a hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) / dilute FS combination.

  4. Relationship between Students' Reading Ability and Their Success in Medical Terminology at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Mary Gene

    2011-01-01

    Health sciences faculty members at a two-year college were concerned about the poor pass rates in medical terminology, a gateway course for all students planning to major in health-related fields. Faculty suspected that students coming out of developmental reading might not have adequate reading skills to do well in medical terminology.…

  5. A Multivariate Analysis of Personality, Values and Expectations as Correlates of Career Aspirations of Final Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Searle, Judy; Creed, Peter A.; Ng, Shu-Kay

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the career intentions of 179 final year medical students who completed an online survey that included measures of personality, values, professional and lifestyle expectations, and well-being. Logistic regression analyses identified the determinants of preferred medical specialty, practice location and hours of work.…

  6. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... BUDGET Fiscal Year 2011 Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates Regarding Recovery From Tortiously Liable Third... furnished by military treatment facilities through the Department of Defense (DoD). The rates have...

  7. Invasive medical procedure skills amongst Foundation Year Doctors – a questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Victoria; Lim, Chung Sim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Competency in practical skills is an important aspect of training for medical doctors. This questionnaire survey aimed to investigate if the current Foundation Year trainees have performed several practical procedures of importance and their level of confidence in carrying them out unsupervised. Design Questionnaire study. Setting Five National Health Service hospitals in England. Participants A total of 103 Foundation Year trainees responded to the survey (73 FY1s; 30 FY2s). Main outcome measures Percentage of trainees who have performed these skills and their average level of confidence. Results The percentage of trainees who have performed these skills and their average level of confidence (scale of 1 to 5) are as follows: intubation (32%, 1); chest drain (33%, 1); central line (26%, 1); femoral line (23%, 1); peripheral line (28%, 1); lumbar puncture (64%, 3); ascitic tap (57%, 3). Only 25% of the trainees have attended certified training courses on these skills during their Foundation Year training. More than half of these trainees (73%) found the courses very useful. Ninety-two per cent of trainees who did not attend practical skill courses are very interested to attend them. All the trainees agreed that these courses should be available for all the Foundation Year doctors, and 92% believe that these courses are most beneficial during the Foundation Year 1 training. Conclusion Most Foundation Year trainees have low confidence and exposure to these important practical skills. Certified practical skills courses should be made available to the Foundation Year doctors for the benefit of their training. This will also increase the quality of patient care. PMID:25057395

  8. OnabotulinumtoxinA 155 U in medication overuse headache: a two years prospective study.

    PubMed

    Negro, Andrea; Curto, Martina; Lionetto, Luana; Crialesi, Dorotea; Martelletti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of OnabotulinumtoxinA 155-195 U (BOTOX(®)) in adults with chronic migraine (CM) were demonstrated in both the Phase III Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy (PREEMPT) studies. However, data about its long-term efficacy and safety in clinical settings are scanty. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate OnabotulinumtoxinA 155 U treatment in patients affected with CM and co-morbid medication overuse headache (MOH) over 2-year analysis. We prospectively evaluated 155 CM and MOH affected patients started on OnabotulinumtoxinA 155U (PREEMPT injection paradigm) between October 2010 and November 2011 and followed-up for 2 years. All patients failed to positively respond to previous multiple preventive therapies that were withdrawn before starting OnabotulinumtoxinA. Headache days, migraine days, acute pain medication intake days and Headache Impact Test (HIT)-6 score were used as efficacy measures, whereas safety was evaluated with side effects occurrence during the treatment phase. Baseline data were collected from patients headache diary referred to the previous month, and patients were evaluated every 3 months at the time of each injection. OnabotulinumtoxinA 155U significantly reduced the number of headache and migraine days (p < 0.001), acute pain medication intake days (p < 0.001) and HIT-6 score (p < 0.001) when compared with the baseline data. The reduction was significant after the first injection (p < 0.001), and gradually increased during the 2 years of treatment. Treatment related adverse events were transient and mild-moderate (e.g. headache, injection-site pain, eyelid ptosis, musculoskeletal weakness). This prospective 2-years analysis of efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with OnabotulinumtoxinA 155 U in patients affected with CM and MOH confirms the efficacy data from previous Randomized Clinical Trials for CM prophylaxis. Moreover, here we demonstrate that OnabotulinumtoxinA can be

  9. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Smoking Among Final Year Medical Students: A Multicentric Survey From Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Zuhaib Y; Lodhi, Sameed K; Malik, Hamza; Jan, Mohsin M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer around the world. In a developing country like Pakistan with low levels of literacy and general awareness about adverse effects of smoking, doctors play a pivotal role in educating the masses about its harmful consequences and providing support for smoking cessation. However, their efficacy is affected if they smoke themselves, and oftentimes the habits cultivated during educational recourse are carried into the professional careers. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of smoking among final year medical students of Lahore, Pakistan, and the factors associated with it. Methodology Study approval was obtained from Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore Medical College, Ethics Review Committee. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in four medical colleges and hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A questionnaire consisting of 14 questions related to basic demographics and smoking was used after being pilot tested on 20 students of CMH. The overall response rate was 74.89%. Data was collected from 337 respondents, of which 38 forms were discarded and 299 forms were analyzed by SPSS V21. Results Among the 299 respondents, there were 128 males (42.81%) and 171 females (57.19%) with 32 (10.70%) smokers. Male students reported smoking (n = 27, 21.09%) more than their female counterparts (n = 5, 0.02%). The mean age of participants was 23.01 years. Students having an active smoker at home had statistically significant positive correlations with current smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Students with household smoking contacts were also more likely to smoke if they belonged to the male gender. Conclusion Prevalence of smoking in medical students is lower than in the general population but still considerable in the male students. There is a need to target this particular population with interactive counseling sessions, education campaigns, and anti-smoking rules to decrease

  10. The impacts of blended learning design in first year medical studies.

    PubMed

    Gillois, Pierre; Bosson, Jean Luc; Genty, Celine; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe; Romanet, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    In the first year of medical studies in France, students prepare for a highly selective entrance exam limited by numerus clausus into the second year. We have discontinued live lectures, made maximum use of new information and communication technologies and introduced tutorials in an attempt to make the first year more equitable and to personalise teaching. The reform is based on blended learning with flipped classroom organized into a four-week cycles of different activities. Each cycle corresponds to a learning module. The teachers' and students' opinions were analysed to evaluate the reforms and allow teaching methods to be adapted accordingly. The student profiles at registration and success in the exams following the reform are described. The tutorial's notes are correlated to the final scores at the entrance exam. The keys to success seem to be modified by the reform providing greater equality of opportunity between students. The factors associated to success are baccalaureate highest grades, high School Specialisation (maths, physics or earth and life sciences) and repeating the first year class. The use of blended learning allows us to face the increase of student enrolment, and to facilitate the acceptance of these pedagogical methods for both students and teachers.

  11. Anatomy as the backbone of an integrated first year medical curriculum: design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Klement, Brenda J; Paulsen, Douglas F; Wineski, Lawrence E

    2011-01-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine chose to restructure its first year medical curriculum in 2005. The anatomy faculty had prior experience in integrating courses, stemming from the successful integration of individual anatomical sciences courses into a single course called Human Morphology. The integration process was expanded to include the other first year basic science courses (Biochemistry, Physiology, and Neurobiology) as we progressed toward an integrated curriculum. A team, consisting of the course directors, a curriculum coordinator, and the Associate Dean for Educational and Faculty Affairs, was assembled to build the new curriculum. For the initial phase, the original course titles were retained but the lecture order was reorganized around the Human Morphology topic sequence. The material from all four courses was organized into four sequential units. Other curricular changes included placing laboratories and lectures more consistently in the daily routine, reducing lecture time from 120 to 90 minute blocks, eliminating unnecessary duplication of content, and increasing the amount of independent study time. Examinations were constructed to include questions from all courses on a single test, reducing the number of examination days in each block from three to one. The entire restructuring process took two years to complete, and the revised curriculum was implemented for the students entering in 2007. The outcomes of the restructured curriculum include a reduction in the number of contact hours by 28%, higher or equivalent subject examination average scores, enhanced student satisfaction, and a first year curriculum team better prepared to move forward with future integration.

  12. The adenovirus type 2-simian virus 40 hybrid virus Ad2+ND4 requires deletion variants to grow in monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, A M; Westphal, H

    1983-01-01

    The Ad2+ND4 virus is an adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) recombination. The Ad2 genome of this recombinant has a rearrangement within early region 3; Ad2 DNA sequences between map positions 81.3 and 85.5 have been deleted, and the SV40 DNA sequences between map positions 0.11 and 0.626 have been inserted into the deletion in an 81.3-0.626 orientation. Nonhybrid Ad2 is defective in monkey cells; however, the Ad2+ND4 virus can replicate in monkey cells due to the expression of the SV40-enhancing function encoded by the DNA insert. Stocks of the Ad2+ND4 hybrid were produced in primary monkey cells by using the progeny of a three-step plaque purification procedure and were considered to be homogeneous populations of Ad2+ND4 virions because they induced plaques in primary monkey cells by first-order kinetics. By studying the kinetics of plaque induction in continuous lines (BSC-1 and CV-1) of monkey cells, we have found that stocks (prepared with virions before and after plaque purification) of Ad2+ND4 are actually heterogeneous populations of Ad2+ND4 virions and Ad2+ND4 deletion variants that lack SV40 and frequently Ad2 DNA sequences at the left Ad2-SV40 junction. Due to the defectiveness of the Ad2+ND4 virus, the production of progeny in BSC-1 and CV-1 cells requires complementation between the Ad2+ND4 genome and the genome of an Ad2+ND4 deletion variant. Since the deletion variants that have been obtained from Ad2+ND4 stocks do not express the SV40-enhancing function in that they cannot produce progeny in monkey cells, we conclude that they are providing an Ad2 component that is essential for the production of Ad2+ND4 progeny. These data imply that the Ad2+ND4 virus is incapable of replicating in singly infected primary monkey cells without generating deletion variants that are missing various amounts of DNA around the left Ad2-SV40 junction in the hybrid genome. As the deletion variants that arise from the Ad2+ND4 virus are created by nonhomologous

  13. Thinking outside the classroom: providing student-centered informatics instruction to first- and second-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Shurtz, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    With the increasing amount of health information available, the Association of American Medical Colleges recommends that medical students be proficient in information management. Librarians can and should play a role in teaching students these skills. Medical information management instruction is most effective if integrated into the curriculum. However, if options are limited for librarians to teach within courses, there are ways to reach students outside the classroom. This article describes strategies librarians are implementing, outside the curriculum, to teach Texas A & M Health Science Center's first- and second-year medical students how to use library resources.

  14. Can Medical Students Teach? A Near-Peer-Led Teaching Program for "Year 1" Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, T. A.; Evans, D. J. R.

    2012-01-01

    The General Medical Council states that United Kingdom graduates must function effectively as educators. There is a growing body of evidence showing that medical students can be included as teachers within a medical curriculum. Our aim was to design and implement a near-peer-led teaching program in an undergraduate medical curriculum and assess…

  15. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. Results: A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P <0.001) and the oral exam (P = −0.003) parts respectively of the medical examination. Significant correlation with the English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. Conclusion: English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level. PMID:26629471

  16. Diagnostic imaging over the last 50 years: research and development in medical imaging science and technology.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kunio

    2006-07-07

    Over the last 50 years, diagnostic imaging has grown from a state of infancy to a high level of maturity. Many new imaging modalities have been developed. However, modern medical imaging includes not only image production but also image processing, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), image recording and storage, and image transmission, most of which are included in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The content of this paper includes a short review of research and development in medical imaging science and technology, which covers (a) diagnostic imaging in the 1950s, (b) the importance of image quality and diagnostic performance, (c) MTF, Wiener spectrum, NEQ and DQE, (d) ROC analysis, (e) analogue imaging systems, (f) digital imaging systems, (g) image processing, (h) computer-aided diagnosis, (i) PACS, (j) 3D imaging and (k) future directions. Although some of the modalities are already very sophisticated, further improvements will be made in image quality for MRI, ultrasound and molecular imaging. The infrastructure of PACS is likely to be improved further in terms of its reliability, speed and capacity. However, CAD is currently still in its infancy, and is likely to be a subject of research for a long time.

  17. Overview of the 2nd Gen 3.7m HIAD Static Load Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. T.; Kazemba, C. D.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Cassell, A. M.; Anderson, P.; Lowery, A.

    2015-01-01

    To support NASAs long term goal of landing humans on Mars, technologies which enable the landing of heavy payloads are being developed. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for human class payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current launch vehicle fairing limitations. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being explored to provide a mass and volume efficient solution to atmospheric entry, including Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). In October of 2014, a 3.7m HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection sys-tem (F-TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify the designs structural performance. The 3.7m HIAD structure was constructed in a 70 deg sphere-cone stacked-toroid configuration using eight inflatable tori, which were joined together using adhesives and high strength textile webbing to help distribute the loads throughout the inflatable structure. The inflatable structure was fabricated using 2nd generation structural materials that permit an increase in use temperature to 400 C+ as compared to the 250 C limitation of the 1st generation materials. In addition to the temperature benefit, these materials also offer a 40 reduction in structure mass. The 3.7m F-TPS was fabricated using high performance materials to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen during atmospheric entry. The F-TPS was constructed of 2nd generation TPS materials increasing its heating capability from 35W sq cm to over 100W sq cm. This test article is the first stacked-torus HIAD to be fabricated and tested with a 70 deg sphere-cone. All previous stacked-torus HIADs have employed a 60o sphere-cone. To perform the static load test series, a custom test fixture was constructed. The fixture consisted of a structural tub rim with enough height to allow for dis-placement of the inflatable structure as loads were applied. The tub rim was attached to the

  18. Madeira Extreme Floods: 2009/2010 Winter. Case study - 2nd and 20th of February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, V.; Marques, J.; Silva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Floods are at world scale the natural disaster that affects a larger fraction of the population. It is a phenomenon that extends it's effects to the surrounding areas of the hydrographic network (basins, rivers, dams) and the coast line. Accordingly to USA FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) flood can be defined as:"A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties from: Overflow of inland or tidal waters; Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; Mudflow; Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined above." A flash flood is the result of intense and long duration of continuous precipitation and can result in dead casualties (i.e. floods in mainland Portugal in 1967, 1983 and 1997). The speed and strength of the floods either localized or over large areas, results in enormous social impacts either by the loss of human lives and or the devastating damage to the landscape and human infrastructures. The winter of 2009/2010 in Madeira Island was characterized by several episodes of very intense precipitation (specially in December 2009 and February 2010) adding to a new record of accumulated precipitation since there are records in the island. In February two days are especially rainy with absolute records for the month of February (daily records since 1949): 111mm and 97mm on the 2nd and 20th respectively. The accumulated precipitation ended up with the terrible floods on the 20th of February causing the lost of dozens of human lives and hundreds of millions of Euros of losses The large precipitation occurrences either more intense precipitation in a short period or less intense precipitation during a larger period are sometimes the precursor of

  19. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  20. Conference Report on the 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Mazzitelli, G.; Menard, J. E.; Mirnov, S. V.; Shimada, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Tabares, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    The 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices (ISLA-2011) was held on 27-29 April 2011 at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) with broad participation from the community working on aspects of lithium research for fusion energy development. This community is expanding rapidly in many areas including experiments in magnetic confinement devices and a variety of lithium test stands, theory and modeling and developing innovative approaches. Overall, 53 presentations were given representing 26 institutions from 10 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were given in 24 presentations, from NSTX (PPPL, USA), LTX (PPPL, USA), FT-U (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (TRINITY, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST (ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), and RFX (Padova, Italy). Sessions were devoted to: I. Lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), II. Lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), III. Special session on liquid lithium technology, IV. Lithium laboratory test stands, V. Lithium theory/modeling/comments, VI. Innovative lithium applications and VII. Panel discussion on lithium PFC viability in magnetic fusion reactors. There was notable participation from the fusion technology communities, including the IFE, IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchanges with the physics oriented magnetic confinement lithium research groups. It was agreed to continue future exchanges of ideas and data to help develop attractive liquid lithium solutions for very challenging magnetic fusion issues, such as development of a high heat flux steady-state divertor concept and acceptable plasma disruption mitigation techniques while improving plasma performance with lithium. The next workshop will be held at ENEA, Frascati, Italy in 2013.

  1. A convective divertor utilizing a 2nd-order magnetic field null

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognlien, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    New results motivate a detailed study of a magnetic divertor concept characterized by strong plasma convection near a poloidal magnetic field (Bp) null region. The configuration is that of a near-2nd-order Bp null (Bp ~ Δ r2) , as in a snowflake divertor. The concept has 2 key features: (A) Convection spreads the heat flux between multiple divertor legs and further broadens the heat-flux profile within each leg, thereby greatly reducing target-plate heat loads. (B) The heat flux is further reduced by line radiation in each leg in detachment-like ionization zones. Theory indicates that convective turbulence arises when the poloidal plasma beta, βp = 2μ0nT/B p 2 >> 1 . Measurements in TCV now more fully quantify earlier NSTX and TCV observations of plasma mixing, and related modeling of TCV indicates that strongly enhanced null-region transport is present. Convective mixing provides a stabilizing mechanism to prevent the ionization fronts (hydrogenic and impurity) from collapsing to a highly radiating core MARFE. Also, the radiating zone maps to a very small region at the midplane owing to the very weak Bp in the convective region, thus minimizing its impact on the core plasma. Detailed calculations are reported that combine features A and B noted above. The plasma mixing mechanisms are described together with the corresponding transport model implemented in the 2D UEDGE edge transport code. UEDGE calculations are presented that quantify the roles of mixing, impurity radiation, and detachment stability for a realistic snowflake configuration. Work in collaboration with D.D. Ryutov, S.I. Krasheninnikov, and M.V. Umansky. Performed for the U.S. DoE by LLNS, LLC, LLNL, under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. 5 years of experience with a large-scale mentoring program for medical students

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla, Severin; Pander, Tanja; von der Borch, Philip; Fischer, Martin R.; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present our 5-year-experience with a large-scale mentoring program for undergraduate medical students at the Ludwig Maximilians-Universität Munich (LMU). We implemented a two-tiered program with a peer-mentoring concept for preclinical students and a 1:1-mentoring concept for clinical students aided by a fully automated online-based matching algorithm. Approximately 20-30% of each student cohort participates in our voluntary mentoring program. Defining ideal program evaluation strategies, recruiting mentors from beyond the academic environment and accounting for the mentoring network reality remain challenging. We conclude that a two-tiered program is well accepted by students and faculty. In addition the online-based matching seems to be effective for large-scale mentoring programs. PMID:25699108

  3. Asking a Great Question: A Librarian Teaches Questioning Skills to First-Year Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    In a single one-hour session, first-year medical students were taught a framework for differentiating between lower-order questions that lead to knowledge of facts and higher-order questions that lead to integration of concepts and deeper learning, thereby preparing them for problem-based learning (PBL). Students generated lists of questions in response to an assertion prompt and categorized them according to Bloom's Taxonomy. These data were analyzed in addition to data from the course exam, which asked them to formulate a higher-level question in response to a prompt. Categorizing questions according to Bloom's Taxonomy was a more difficult task for students than was formulating higher-order questions. Students reported that the skills that they learned were used in subsequent PBL sessions to formulate higher-order learning objectives that integrated new and previously-learned concepts.

  4. Adoption of a Nationwide Shared Medical Record in France: Lessons Learnt after 5 Years of Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Séroussi, Brigitte; Bouaud, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Information sharing among health practitioners, either for coordinated or unscheduled care, is necessary to guarantee care quality and patient safety. In most countries, nationwide programs have provided tools to support information sharing, from centralized care records to health information exchange between electronic health records (EHRs). The French personal medical record (DMP) is a centralized patient-controlled record, created according to the opt-in consent model. It contains the documents health practitioners voluntarily push into the DMP from their EHRs. Five years after the launching of the program in December 2010, there were nearly 570,000 DMPs covering only 1.5% of the target population in December 2015. Reasons for this poor level of adoption are discussed in the perspective of other countries’ initiatives. The new French governmental strategy for the DMP deployment in 2016 is outlined, with the implementation of measures similar to the US Meaningful Use. PMID:28269907

  5. 5 years of experience with a large-scale mentoring program for medical students.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Severin; Pander, Tanja; von der Borch, Philip; Fischer, Martin R; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present our 5-year-experience with a large-scale mentoring program for undergraduate medical students at the Ludwig Maximilians-Universität Munich (LMU). We implemented a two-tiered program with a peer-mentoring concept for preclinical students and a 1:1-mentoring concept for clinical students aided by a fully automated online-based matching algorithm. Approximately 20-30% of each student cohort participates in our voluntary mentoring program. Defining ideal program evaluation strategies, recruiting mentors from beyond the academic environment and accounting for the mentoring network reality remain challenging. We conclude that a two-tiered program is well accepted by students and faculty. In addition the online-based matching seems to be effective for large-scale mentoring programs.

  6. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  7. Evaluation of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test for Use in States' Child Outcomes Measurement Systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaum, Batya; Gattamorta, Karina A.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test (BDI-2 ST) for use in states' child outcomes accountability systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Complete Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-2), assessment data were obtained for 142 children, ages 2 to 62 months, who…

  8. Perceived stress at transition to workplace: a qualitative interview study exploring final-year medical students’ needs

    PubMed Central

    Moczko, Tobias R; Bugaj, Till J; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to explore final-year medical students’ stressors and coping strategies at the transition to the clinical workplace. Methods In this qualitative study, semi-standardized interviews with eight final-year medical students (five male, three female; aged 25.9±1.4 years) were conducted during their internal medicine rotation. After verbatim transcription, a qualitative content analysis of students’ impressions of stress provoking and easing factors during final-year education was performed. Results Students’ statements regarding burdens and dealing with stress were classified into four main categories: A) perceived stressors and provoking factors, B) stress-induced consequences, C) personal and external resources for preventing and dealing with stress, and D) final-year students’ suggestions for workplace improvement. Conclusion Final-year medical students perceived different types of stress during their transition to medical wards, and reported both negative consequences and coping resources concerning perceived stress. As supervision, feedback, and coping strategies played an important role in the students’ perception of stress, final-year medical education curricula development should focus on these specifically. PMID:26834503

  9. Understanding the current anatomical competence landscape: Comparing perceptions of program directors, residents, and fourth-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, Erin P; Brokaw, James J; Kochhar, Komal; Nalin, Peter M

    2016-07-08

    A mixed methods survey of fourth-year medical students, resident physicians, and residency program directors at the Indiana University School of Medicine gathered perceptions of anatomical competence-defined as the anatomical education necessary for effective clinical practice. The survey items explored numerous aspects of anatomical competence, including the most effective modes of instruction, perceptions of readiness for clinical practice, and specific suggestions for improving anatomical education during medical school and residency. The response rate was 46% for fourth-year medical students, 47% for residents (as graduates from 137 medical schools), and 71% for program directors. A majority of students and residents reported that their course in Gross Anatomy prepared them well for clinical practice; that cadaveric dissection was important in the early development of their anatomical competence; and that placing a greater emphasis on clinical relevance in medical school would have improved their anatomical competence even further. However, in terms of anatomical preparedness upon entering residency, the program directors rated their residents less prepared than the residents rated themselves. All three groups agreed that there is need for additional opportunities for anatomical educational during medical school and residency. Suggestions for improving anatomical education included the following: providing more opportunities for cadaveric dissection during medical school and residency; more consistent teaching of anatomy for clinical practice; more workshops that review anatomy; and better integration of anatomy with the teaching of other subjects during medical school. Anat Sci Educ 9: 307-318. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. "I'm too used to it": a longitudinal qualitative study of third year female medical students' experiences of gendered encounters in medical education.

    PubMed

    Babaria, Palav; Abedin, Sakena; Berg, David; Nunez-Smith, Marcella

    2012-04-01

    Although the number of women entering medical school has been steadily rising in the U.S.A., female medical students continue to report instances of sexual harassment and gender discrimination. The full spectrum of such experiences and their effect on the professional identity formation of female students over time remains largely unknown. To investigate these experiences, we interviewed 12 third year female medical students at a private New England medical school over several points during the 2006-2007 academic year. Using theoretical frameworks of gender performance and the centrality of student-patient and student-supervisor relationships, we were better able to understand how female medical students interpret the role of 'woman doctor' and the effect of negative and positive gendered interactions on the evolution of their professional identity. We found that participants quickly learned how to confront and respond to inappropriate behavior from male patients and found interactions with female patients and supervisors particularly rewarding. However, they did not feel equipped to respond to the unprofessional behavior of male supervisors, resulting in feelings of guilt and resignation over time that such events would be a part of their professional identity. The rapid acculturation to unprofessional behavior and resignation described by participants has implications for not only professional identity formation of female students but specialty choices and issues of future physician workforce.

  11. Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematics achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M L; Salimpoor, V N; Wu, S S; Geary, D C; Menon, V

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of the three core components of working memory (WM) to the development of mathematical skills in young children is poorly understood. The relation between specific WM components and Numerical Operations, which emphasize computation and fact retrieval, and Mathematical Reasoning, which emphasizes verbal problem solving abilities in 48 2nd and 50 3rd graders was assessed using standardized WM and mathematical achievement measures. For 2nd graders, the central executive and phonological components predicted Mathematical Reasoning skills; whereas the visuo-spatial component predicted both Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations skills in 3rd graders. This pattern suggests that the central executive and phonological loop facilitate performance during early stages of mathematical learning whereas visuo-spatial representations play an increasingly important role during later stages. We propose that these changes reflect a shift from prefrontal to parietal cortical functions during mathematical skill acquisition. Implications for learning and individual differences are discussed.

  12. [Re-operations for 2nd primary lung cancer detected during follow-up after lung cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Masanori

    2013-07-01

    Re-operations for 2nd primary lung cancers are one of the most challenging modality for thoracic surgeons. Surgeons should have knowledge of indication of re-operations as well as surgical techniques and perioperative management of patients with 2nd primary lung cancers. When performing repeated pulmonary resection on the same side of the 1st surgery, following points are important for accomplishment of a safe re-operation:1.Wide thoracotomy with muscle dissections is recommended. 2.Throughout adhesion lysis between lung parenchyma and surrounding structures are required before manipulating pulmonary vessels. 3.The main pulmonary artery is encircled before dissection of the pulmonary artery. 4.Surgeons should be familiar with intrapericardial exposure of the main pulmonary artery. The techniques consist of division of the ligament of arteriosum, incision of the pericardium, and encircle of the origin of the mail pulmonary. Re-operations for metachronous lung cancers provided favorable survival in patients with adequate physiologic pulmonary reserve.

  13. Urologic Diseases in Korean Military Population: a 6-year Epidemiological Review of Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We sought to describe the incidence rate of the urologic disease in the Korean military by reviewing diagnoses made in active duty soldiers from 2008 to 2013. A total of 72,248 first visits were generated in the Defense Medical Statistics Information System (DMSIS) with its gradually increasing trend over 6 years. A sharp increase of first visit was observed after implementation of the regular health check-up for all conscripted soldiers since 2013. Urolithiasis, prostatitis, epididymoorchitis, urethritis, and varicocele were prevalent. Prostatitis was the highest diagnosis made in the outpatient service, while varicocele was ranked the highest in the inpatient service. The incidence rates of urologic disease varied from 12.3 to 34.2 cases per 1,000 person-years. The urologic disease in conscripted men showed different distribution when we separated the population into conscripted and professional soldiers. Epididymoorchitis was the highest disease followed by urolithiasis, dysuresia, and balanoposthitis in 2013. This study underscores that the urologic disease has spent significant amount of health care resources in the Korean military. This calls for further study to find any significant difference and contributing factors of the urologic disease in the military and the civilian population. PMID:27914143

  14. MSU Medical Colleges Blended Learning for First Year Science Courses: Uniting Pedagogy to Maximize Experience and Real World Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Kathryn; Vignare, Karen

    2009-01-01

    At Michigan State University the two medical schools, College of Human Medicine (CHM; M.D. degree) and College of Osteopathic Medicine (COM; D.O. degree), have offered the same science courses to first year students for many years. Science departments report to both colleges, and the same faculty can effectively teach the content required in the…

  15. Community of Learners: Charting Learning in First Year Graduate Entry Medical Students during Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Paul; Zvauya, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers social learning practices within and outside the overt curriculum. A thematic approach was used to analyse data from six focus group interviews with 11 graduate entry medical students from a UK university over a year of study. The results indicate that: (1) during their first year of study students form a community of learning…

  16. Effects of Stimulant Medication on Growth Rates across 3 Years in the MTA Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, James M.; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Wigal, Timothy; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hechtman, Lily; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pelham, William E.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Wells, Karen C.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Stehli, Annamarie; Davies, Mark; March, John S.; Conners, C. Keith; Caron, Mark; Volkow, Nora D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypothesis of stimulant medication effect on physical growth in the follow-up phase of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD. Method: Naturalistic subgroups were established based on patterns of treatment with stimulant medication at baseline, 14-, 24-, and 36-month assessments: not medicated (n = 65),…

  17. Physical properties of double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ohoyama, Kenji

    2013-01-15

    The crystal, magnetic structures and physical properties of the double perovskite-type barium neodymium osmate Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are investigated through powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. The Rietveld analysis reveals that the Nd and Os ions are arranged with regularity over the six-coordinate B sites in a distorted perovskite ABO{sub 3} framework. The monoclinic crystal structure described by space group P2{sub 1}/n (tilt system a{sup -}a{sup -}c{sup +}) becomes more distorted with decreasing temperature from 300 K down to 2.5 K. This compound shows a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} below 65 K. An antiferromagnetic ordering of Nd{sup 3+} also occurs at lower temperatures ({approx}20 K). The magnetic structure is of Type I and the magnetic moments of Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. - Graphical Abstract: The Magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is of Type I, and the magnetic moments of the Nd{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are in the same direction in the ab-plane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structures of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} are determined to be monoclinic below 300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its electrical resistivity shows a Mott variable-range hopping behavior with localized carriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An antiferromagnetic ordering of the Os{sup 5+}moment occurs at 65 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic structure of Ba{sub 2}NdOsO{sub 6} is determined to be of Type I.

  18. Teachers' Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders' Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students' learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers' spatial anxiety…

  19. Exploring first-year undergraduate medical students' self-directed learning readiness to physiology.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Fisher, Murray; Kamath, Asha; Izzati, T Aizan; Nabila, Saidatul; Atikah, Nik Nur

    2011-12-01

    Medical students are expected to possess self-directed learning skills to pursue lifelong learning. Previous studies have reported that the readiness for self-directed learning depends on personal attributes as well as the curriculum followed in institutions. Melaka Manipal Medical College of Manipal University (Karnataka, India) offers a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) twinning program that is of 5 yr in duration. Keeping in mind the amount of time that the curriculum has devoted for self-directed learning, we explored the self-directed learning readiness of first-year MBBS students (n = 130) using a self-directed learning readiness scale (SDLRS) and explored the correlation between SDLRS scores of high achievers, medium achievers, and low achievers with their academic performance in physiology examinations. Students were requested to respond to each item of the SDLRS on a Likert scale. Median scores of the three scales of the SDLRS were compared across the three groups of students using a Kruskall-Wallis test. SDLRS scores of the students (n = 130) were correlated with their marks in theory papers of first, second, and third block-end examinations using Spearmann's correlation coefficient. The mean item score for desire for learning was found to be higher followed by self-control and self-management. Data analyses showed significantly high (P < 0.03) median scores for self-control for high achievers compared with medium and low achievers. Between the groups, high achievers had a higher score for all the three scales of the SDLRS followed by low and medium achievers. SDLRS scores and academic performance of the three groups of students were found to exhibit a weak correlation. This study threw light on the fact that despite having a high desire for learning and ability of self-control, students need to be supported in their self-management skills.

  20. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  1. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  2. The Deaf Strong Hospital Program: A Model of Diversity and Inclusion Training for First-Year Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Thew, Denise; Smith, Scott R.; Chang, Christopher; Starr, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the cultural competence training students receive during medical school might not adequately address the issues that arise when caring for patients of different cultures. Because of their unique communication, linguistic, and cultural issues, incorporating deaf people who use sign language into cultural competence education at medical schools might help to bridge this gap in cross-cultural education. The Deaf Strong Hospital (DSH) program at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, started in 1998, exposes first-year medical students to the issues that are relevant to providing effective patient care and to establishing multicultural sensitivity early in their medical education. Because medical students better acquire cross-cultural competence through hands on experience rather than through lectures, the DSH program, which includes a role-reversal exercise in which medical students play the role of the patients, provides such a model for other medical schools and health care training centers to use in teaching future health care providers how to address the relevant cultural, linguistic, and communication needs of both their deaf patients and their non-English-speaking patients. This article describes the DSH program curriculum, shares findings from both medical students’ short-term and long-term post-program evaluations, and provides a framework for the implementation of a broader cultural and linguistic sensitivity training program specific to working with and improving the quality of health care among deaf people. PMID:23018327

  3. Computing and information technology skills of final year medical and dental students at the College of Medicine University of Lagos.

    PubMed

    Odusanya, O O; Bamgbala, O A

    2002-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine awareness, level of use of computers and the use of the Internet for medical research amongst final year medical and dental students at the University of Lagos. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data. A response rate of 88% was achieved (136/155). Eighty per cent had used the computer before. Use of software applications was poor with computer games being the most frequently used (19%) followed by word processing softwares (18%). The Internet and electronic mail had been used by 58% but only 23% had used the Internet for medical research. Twenty-one percent classified themselves as proficient on the computer, 59% had little skills and 20% had no skills. Younger students (age less than 26 years) were found to have significantly better skills than older colleagues (p = 004). Majority of final year students at College of Medicine, University of Lagos have little computing skills.

  4. Essential competencies in prescribing: A first european cross‐sectional study among 895 final‐year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Tichelaar, J; Schutte, T; Benemei, S; Böttiger, Y; Chamontin, B; Christiaens, T; Likic, R; Maˇiulaitis, R; Marandi, T; Monteiro, EC; Papaioannidou, P; Pers, YM; Pontes, C; Raskovic, A; Regenthal, R; Sanz, EJ; Tamba, BI; Wilson, K; de Vries, TP; Richir, MC; van Agtmael, MA

    2016-01-01

    European medical students should have acquired adequate prescribing competencies before graduation, but it is not known whether this is the case. In this international multicenter study, we evaluated the essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) of final‐year medical students across Europe. In a cross‐sectional design, 26 medical schools from 17 European countries were asked to administer a standardized assessment and questionnaire to 50 final‐year students. Although there were differences between schools, our results show an overall lack of essential prescribing competencies among final‐year students in Europe. Students had a poor knowledge of drug interactions and contraindications, and chose inappropriate therapies for common diseases or made prescribing errors. Our results suggest that undergraduate teaching in CPT is inadequate in many European schools, leading to incompetent prescribers and potentially unsafe patient care. A European core curriculum with clear learning outcomes and assessments should be urgently developed. PMID:27648725

  5. Perspective: PhD scientists completing medical school in two years: looking at the Miami PhD-to-MD program alumni twenty years later.

    PubMed

    Koniaris, Leonidas G; Cheung, Michael C; Garrison, Gwen; Awad, William M; Zimmers, Teresa A

    2010-04-01

    Producing and retaining physician-scientists remains a major challenge in advancing innovation, knowledge, and patient care across all medical disciplines. Various programs during medical school, including MD-PhD programs, have been instituted to address the need for continued production of physician-scientists. From 1971 through 1989, 508 students with a prior PhD in the sciences, mathematics, or engineering graduated in two years from an accelerated MD program at the University of Miami School of Medicine. The program, designed to address potential clinical physician shortages rather than physician-scientist shortages, quickly attracted many top-notch scientists to medicine. Many program graduates went to top-tier residencies, pursued research careers in academic medicine, and became academic leaders in their respective fields. A retrospective examination of graduates conducted in 2008-2009 demonstrated that approximately 59% took positions in academic university medical departments, 3% worked for governmental agencies, 5% entered industry as researchers or executives, and 33% opted for private practice. Graduates' positions included 85 full professors, 11 university directors or division heads, 14 academic chairs, 2 medical school deans, and 1 astronaut. Overall, 30% of graduates had obtained National Institutes of Health funding after completing the program. These results suggest that accelerated medical training for accomplished scientists can produce a large number of successful physician-scientists and other leaders in medicine. Furthermore, these results suggest that shortening the medical portion of combined MD-PhD programs might also be considered.

  6. [Looking back but facing ahead: implementing lessons learned from the 2nd Lebanon War].

    PubMed

    Adini, Bruria; Laor, Danny; Lev, Boaz; Israeli, Avi

    2010-07-01

    The medical system utilizes a structured culture for learning lessons in order to improve the supply of services. Various tools are utilized to evaluate performance. The aim of the article is to describe the processes for learning lessons which were carried out following the Second Lebanon War and the major lessons that were identified and implemented. Three processes were performed: a process of learning Lessons of the heaLthcare system, initiated and led by the Supreme HeaLth Authority (SHA); After action review (AAR), initiated and led by the military Medical Corps and; at a later stage, a critique, initiated and led by the State Comptroller, that examined the performance of the medical system, as part of a critique on the preparedness of the home front. The following elements were defined as highly prioritized for improvement to elevate the preparedness for a future war: (1) deployment of unified clinics in conflict areas; (2) supply of medical services to the population in shelters; (3) deploying emergency medicine services, including the relationship between the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Home Front Command (HFC); (4) defining the relationships between the MOH and HFC in deploying the community health services in emergencies; (5) protecting medical facilities and personal protection equipment for medical teams and; (6) treating acute stress reactions. The AAR, critique and learning lessons signify three different processes that can sometimes be contradictory. Nevertheless, it is possible to achieve organizational improvement white integrating between these three processes, as was displayed by the SHA.

  7. Forty years of litigation involving medical students and their education: II. Issues of finance.

    PubMed

    Helms, L B; Helms, C M

    1991-02-01

    An analysis of reported state and federal adjudication from 1950 through 1989 was undertaken to identify trends in litigation involving medical students and undergraduate medical education. Of the 110 cited judicial decisions during that time, 59 (54%) involved disputes over financing medical education; 43 (73%) were litigated since 1985. This dramatic increase arises primarily from challenges to National Health Service Corps obligations and from attempts to discharge or reorganize debt under the Bankruptcy Code. Medical school graduates enjoyed very little success in these cases. Analysis of court decisions points to a need for informed counseling for medical students, particularly as to the consequences of timing in default on service obligations and of incurring loans under the Health Education Assistance Loan (HEAL) program as opposed to other loan sources. The growing educational debt of today's medical students foreshadows continued litigation in this area.

  8. Reminders to physicians from an introspective computer medical record. A two-year randomized trial.

    PubMed

    McDonald, C J; Hui, S L; Smith, D M; Tierney, W M; Cohen, S J; Weinberger, M; McCabe, G P

    1984-01-01

    We developed a computer-stored medical record system containing a limited set of the total clinical data base--primarily diagnostic studies and treatments. This system responds to its own content according to physician-authored reminder rules. To determine the effect of the reminder messages generated by 1490 rules on physician behavior, we randomly assigned practitioners in a general medicine clinic to study or control groups. The computer found indications for six different actions per patient in 12 467 patients during a 2-year study: 61 study group residents who received computer reminders responded to 49% of these indications; 54 control group residents, to only 29% (p less than 0.0001). Preventive care (occult blood testing, mammographic screening, weight reduction diets, influenza and pneumococcal vaccines) was affected. The intentions of the study group to use a given action for an indication predicted their response to the indications (p less than 0.03, r2 = 0.33). The intentions of the control residents did not.

  9. A global health elective for US medical students: the 35 year experience of the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, School of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Denise Marie; Imperato, Pascal James

    2015-04-01

    The School of Public Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center has sponsored a 6-8 week global health elective for fourth year medical students since 1980. The purpose of this elective is to provide students with an opportunity to observe the health care and public health delivery systems in low-income countries, provide medical service and have a cross-cultural experience. Over the course of the past 35 years, 388 students have participated in this global health elective in more than 41 low-income countries. The most popular sites include the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, India, Kenya and Thailand. Overall, interest in this elective has persisted throughout the course of time, sometimes temporarily increasing or decreasing with outside factors, such as the events of 11 September 2001 and the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Asia. Recent annual applications for this elective have been as high as 44 out of a class of 200 students. Over the past 10 years, annual acceptance rates have varied, ranging from a low of 32 % in 2007-2008 to a high of 74 % in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. Careful screening, including a written application, review of academic records and personal interviews has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable and dedicated students who have performed well at overseas sites. Student rated satisfaction levels with this elective are almost universally high, with most rating it the best experience of their medical school years. Students undergo extensive preparation prior to their travel overseas, including a review of individual health and safety issues, travel and lodging, and the nature of the host country culture, health care system and assignment site. Downstate medical students are especially experienced in cross-cultural understanding because of the unusual diversity of the patient population in Brooklyn, and the diversity of local hospital staff and the medical school class. The Alumni Fund of

  10. Proceedings of the Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium (2nd) Held in Cocoa Beach, Florida on December 2-4, 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    PROCEEDINGS 2ND BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 Cocoa Beach, Florida Sponsored by the Directorate of Research Defense Equal...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 298-102 USAPPC V1.00 PROCEEDINGS 2nd BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA...Proceedings Editor Published April 1998 Preface PROCEEDINGS 2nd BIENNIAL EO/EEO RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM December 2-4, 1997 COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA The EO/EEO

  11. 2nd Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    It was an honor and a great pleasure for all those involved in its organization to welcome the participants to the ''Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean'' (RADIO 2014) international conference that was held from 7th to 10th April 2014 at the Sugar Beach Resort, Wolmar, Flic-en-Flac, Mauritius. RADIO 2014 is the second of a series of conferences organized in the Indian Ocean region. The aim of the conference is to discuss recent developments, theories and practical applications covering the whole scope of radio-frequency engineering, including radio waves, antennas, propagation, and electromagnetic compatibility. The RADIO international conference emerged following discussions with engineers and scientists from the countries of the Indian Ocean as well as from other parts of the world and a need was felt for the organization of such an event in this region. Following numerous requests, the Island of Mauritius, worldwide known for its white sandy beaches and pleasant tropical atmosphere, was again chosen for the organization of the 2nd RADIO international conference. The conference was organized by the Radio Society, Mauritius and the Local Organizing Committee consisted of scientists from SUPELEC, France, the University of Mauritius, and the University of Technology, Mauritius. We would like to take the opportunity to thank all people, institutions and companies that made the event such a success. We are grateful to our gold sponsors CST and FEKO as well as URSI for their generous support which enabled us to partially support one PhD student and two scientists to attend the conference. We would also like to thank IEEE-APS and URSI for providing technical co-sponsorship. More than hundred and thirty abstracts were submitted to the conference. They were peer-reviewed by an international scientific committee and, based on the reviews, either accepted, eventually after revision, or rejected. RADIO 2014 brought together participants from twenty countries spanning

  12. Too Old for This, Too Young for That! Your Survival Guide for the Middle School Years. Updated 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosatche, Harriet S.; Unger, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The transition to middle school can be difficult. Most teens are excited about getting older, but they're often not prepared for some of the challenges that come with growing up. Physical and emotional changes, evolving relationships, and increased expectations at school can all make for some major adjustments. "Too Old for This, Too Young for…

  13. Surviving Your Adolescents: How To Manage and Let Go of Your 13-18 Year Olds. Revised 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Thomas W.

    Noting that parents raising adolescents need to know when to be quiet and when to act, as well as what to do when something needs to be done, this guide for parents offers guidelines for handling the complex situations and dilemmas that teenagers often present. Topics covered include managing teenage risk-taking, the relationship between…

  14. Exploring First-Year Undergraduate Medical Students' Self-Directed Learning Readiness to Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Fisher, Murray; Kamath, Asha; Izzati, T. Aizan; Nabila, Saidatul; Atikah, Nik Nur

    2011-01-01

    Medical students are expected to possess self-directed learning skills to pursue lifelong learning. Previous studies have reported that the readiness for self-directed learning depends on personal attributes as well as the curriculum followed in institutions. Melaka Manipal Medical College of Manipal University (Karnataka, India) offers a Bachelor…

  15. Datagram: Applications Versus Acceptances to 1976-77 First-Year Medical School Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    1977-01-01

    As part of a forthcoming national study of the medical school admissions process, data on the number of applications for admission and acceptances were obtained from the AAMC Medical Student Information System. The data showed an average 8.83 applications per person, the reduction of which might save anxiety, time, effort, and money. (Author/LBH)

  16. A comprehensive medical student career development program improves medical student satisfaction with career planning.

    PubMed

    Zink, Brian J; Hammoud, Maya M; Middleton, Eric; Moroney, Donney; Schigelone, Amy

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) initiated a new career development program (CDP). The CDP incorporates the 4-phase career development model described by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Careers in Medicine (CiM). The CDP offers self-assessment exercises with guidance from trained counselors for 1st- and 2nd-year medical students. Career exploration experiences include Career Seminar Series luncheons, shadow experiences with faculty, and a shadow program with second-year (M2) and fourth-year (M4) medical students. During the decision-making phase, students work with trained faculty career advisors (FCA). Mandatory sessions are held on career selection, preparing the residency application, interviewing, and program evaluation. During the implementation phase, students meet with deans or counselors to discuss residency application and matching. An "at-risk plan" assists students who may have difficulty matching. The CiM Web site is extensively used during the 4 stages. Data from the AAMC and UMMS Graduation Questionnaires (GQ) show significant improvements for UMMS students in overall satisfaction with career planning services and with faculty mentoring, career assessment activities, career information, and personnel availability. By 2003, UMMS students had significantly higher satisfaction in all measured areas of career planning services when compared with all other U.S. medical students.

  17. Impact of psychiatry training on attitude of medical students toward mental illness and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Prannay; Das, Subhash; Chavan, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attitude of fresh graduates toward psychiatric patients is important to bridge the treatment gap due to mental illness. Psychiatry as a subject has been neglected in the undergraduates of MBBS. Aims: (1) To compare the attitude of medical students and interns in a medical college toward mental illness and psychiatry. (2) To assess the impact of psychiatric training on attitude toward the mentally ill person and mental illness. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, single assessment study conducted at a tertiary hospital. Subjects and Methods: Participants consisted of medical students of 1st and 2nd year who didn’t have any exposure to psychiatry and interns, who had completed their compulsory 2 week clinical posting in psychiatry. Participants were individually administered sociodemographic proforma, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), opinion about mental illness (OMI) scale, and attitude to psychiatry-29 (ATP-29) scale. Statistical Analysis: Standard descriptive statistics (mean, percentage), Chi-square test. Results: A total of 135 participants formed the study sample, with 48, 47, and 40 participants from 1st year, 2nd year and interns, respectively. Mean GHQ score was 14.03 for the entire sample. There was better outlook of interns toward psychiatry and patients with mental disorders in comparison to fresh graduate students in some areas. Overall, negative attitude toward mental illness and psychiatry was reflected. Conclusions: Exposure to psychiatry as per the current curriculum seems to have a limited influence in bringing a positive change in OMI and psychiatry. PMID:25316938

  18. The standard of medical care under the Australian Civil Liability Acts: ten years on.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    It has been more than a decade since the modified Bolam test was legislatively enacted.by the Australian States following the medical indemnity crisis. Since its implementation, the modified Bolam test has been configured by judges as a defence to the common law standard of care in medical diagnosis and treatment. The article argues against this interpretation and suggests an alternative way of implementing this statutory test. It is proposed that the modified Bolam test ought to have been applied as a single yardstick to determine the required standard of care in diagnosis and treatment. Changes are also recommended to reform the test with a view to striking a balance between the interests of patients and doctors in medical disputes, and strengthening judicial supervision of the medical profession. These proposed reforms could resolve the shortcomings of the common law more effectively. They may also enhance the standard of medical care in Australia in the long run.

  19. The UNAM M. Sc. program in Medical Physics enters its teen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandan, María-Ester

    2010-12-01

    The M.Sc. (Medical Physics) program at the National Autonomous University of Mexico UNAM, created in 1997, has graduated a substantial number of medical physicists who constitute today about 30% of the medical physics clinical workforce in the country. Up to present date (May 2010) more than 60 students have graduated, 60% of them hold clinical jobs, 20% have completed or study a Ph.D., and 15% perform activities related to this specialization. In addition to strengthening the clinical practice of medical physics, the program has served as an incentive for medical physics research in UNAM and other centers. We report the circumstances of the program origin, the evolution of its curriculum, the main achievements, and the next challenges.

  20. Alpha omega alpha election and medical school thesis publication: relationship to subsequent publication rate over a twenty-year period.

    PubMed

    Chusid, M J; Havens, P L; Coleman, C N

    1993-01-01

    To determine the importance of academic and research success during medical school upon subsequent academic activity, a computerized literature search was performed using the names of the 79 surviving members of the Yale Medical School Class of 1970. Individuals elected to Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) during the third year of school had significantly more publications (mean 101.7 +/- 69.6) between 1970 and 1990 than those elected during the fourth year (mean 28.3 +/- 48.0, p = 0.01). Both had significantly more publications than non-AOA members (mean 11.1 +/- 19.4, p = 0.02). Publication of the student's medical school thesis was also associated with a greater number of publications than thesis non-publication (mean 22.1 +/- 37.5 vs 14.4 +/- 30.0, p = 0.005). These studies demonstrate that, at least at the institution studied, election to AOA and publication of the results of a research project were associated with increased publication rates in the medical field over the 20-year period following medical school graduation.

  1. Eleven-year descriptive analysis of closed court verdicts on medical errors in Spain and Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Priscila; Sato, Luke; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Comas, Mercè; Dwyer, Kathy; Sala, Maria; Castells, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate and compare the characteristics of court verdicts on medical errors allegedly harming patients in Spain and Massachusetts from 2002 to 2012. Design, setting and participants We reviewed 1041 closed court verdicts obtained from data on litigation in the Thomson Reuters Aranzadi Westlaw databases in Spain (Europe), and 370 closed court verdicts obtained from the Controlled Risk and Risk Management Foundation of Harvard Medical Institutions (CRICO/RMF) in Massachusetts (USA). We included closed court verdicts on medical errors. The definition of medical errors was based on that of the Institute of Medicine (USA). We excluded any agreements between parties before a judgement. Results Medical errors were involved in 25.9% of court verdicts in Spain and in 74% of those in Massachusetts. The most frequent cause of medical errors was a diagnosis-related problem (25.1%; 95% CI 20.7% to 31.1% in Spain; 35%; 95% CI 29.4% to 40.7% in Massachusetts). The proportion of medical errors classified as high severity was 34% higher in Spain than in Massachusetts (p=0.001). The most frequent factors contributing to medical errors in Spain were surgical and medical treatment (p=0.001). In Spain, 98.5% of medical errors resulted in compensation awards compared with only 6.9% in Massachusetts. Conclusions This study reveals wide differences in litigation rates and the award of indemnity payments in Spain and Massachusetts; however, common features of both locations are the high rates of diagnosis-related problems and the long time interval until resolution. PMID:27577585

  2. Measuring the ambiguity tolerance of medical students: a cross-sectional study from the first to sixth academic years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tolerance of ambiguity, or the extent to which ambiguous situations are perceived as desirable, is an important component of the attitudes and behaviors of medical students. However, few studies have compared this trait across the years of medical school. General practitioners are considered to have a higher ambiguity tolerance than specialists. We compared ambiguity tolerance between general practitioners and medical students. Methods We designed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the ambiguity tolerance of 622 medical students in the first to sixth academic years. We compared this with the ambiguity tolerance of 30 general practitioners. We used the inventory for measuring ambiguity tolerance (IMA) developed by Reis (1997), which includes three measures of ambiguity tolerance: openness to new experiences, social conflicts, and perception of insoluble problems. Results We obtained a total of 564 complete data sets (return rate 90.1%) from medical students and 29 questionnaires (return rate 96.7%) from general practitioners. In relation to the reference groups defined by Reis (1997), medical students had poor ambiguity tolerance on all three scales. No differences were found between those in the first and the sixth academic years, although we did observe gender-specific differences in ambiguity tolerance. We found no differences in ambiguity tolerance between general practitioners and medical students. Conclusions The ambiguity tolerance of the students that we assessed was below average, and appeared to be stable throughout the course of their studies. In contrast to our expectations, the general practitioners did not have a higher level of ambiguity tolerance than the students did. PMID:24405525

  3. Near-peer role modeling: Can fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, enhance reflection among second-year students in a physical diagnosis course?

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Mimi; Pollack, Staci; Dyche, Lawrence; Burton, William

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Humanism is cultivated through reflection and self-awareness. We aimed to employ fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, to facilitate reflective sessions for second-year medical students with the intention of positively influencing reflective process toward humanistic development. Methods/Analysis A total of 186 students were randomly assigned to one of three comparison arms: eight groups of eight students (64 students) were facilitated by a fourth-year student who was a Gold Humanism Honor Society member (GHHS); eight groups (64 students) by a volunteer non-GHHS student; and seven groups (58 students) were non-facilitated. Before sessions, second-year students set learning goals concerning interactions with patients; fourth-year students received training materials on facilitation. Groups met twice during their 10 clinical site visits. At the last session, students completed a reflective assignment on their goal progress. Comparative mixed method analyses were conducted among the three comparison arms on reflection (reflective score on in-session assignment) and session satisfaction (survey) in addition to a thematic analysis of responses on the in-session assignment. Results We found significant differences among all three comparison arms on students’ reflective scores (p=0.0003) and satisfaction (p=0.0001). T-tests comparing GHHS- and non-GHHS-facilitated groups showed significantly higher mean reflective scores for GHHS-facilitated groups (p=0.033); there were no differences on session satisfaction. Thematic analysis of students’ reflections showed attempts at self-examination, but lacked depth in addressing emotions. There was a common focus on achieving comfort and confidence in clinical skills performance. Discussion/Conclusions Near peers, recognized for their humanism, demonstrated significant influence in deepening medical students’ reflections surrounding patient interactions or humanistic development. Overall

  4. Near-peer role modeling: Can fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, enhance reflection among second-year students in a physical diagnosis course?

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Mimi; Pollack, Staci; Dyche, Lawrence; Burton, William

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Humanism is cultivated through reflection and self-awareness. We aimed to employ fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, to facilitate reflective sessions for second-year medical students with the intention of positively influencing reflective process toward humanistic development. Methods/Analysis A total of 186 students were randomly assigned to one of three comparison arms: eight groups of eight students (64 students) were facilitated by a fourth-year student who was a Gold Humanism Honor Society member (GHHS); eight groups (64 students) by a volunteer non-GHHS student; and seven groups (58 students) were non-facilitated. Before sessions, second-year students set learning goals concerning interactions with patients; fourth-year students received training materials on facilitation. Groups met twice during their 10 clinical site visits. At the last session, students completed a reflective assignment on their goal progress. Comparative mixed method analyses were conducted among the three comparison arms on reflection (reflective score on in-session assignment) and session satisfaction (survey) in addition to a thematic analysis of responses on the in-session assignment. Results We found significant differences among all three comparison arms on students' reflective scores (p=0.0003) and satisfaction (p=0.0001). T-tests comparing GHHS- and non-GHHS-facilitated groups showed significantly higher mean reflective scores for GHHS-facilitated groups (p=0.033); there were no differences on session satisfaction. Thematic analysis of students' reflections showed attempts at self-examination, but lacked depth in addressing emotions. There was a common focus on achieving comfort and confidence in clinical skills performance. Discussion/Conclusions Near peers, recognized for their humanism, demonstrated significant influence in deepening medical students' reflections surrounding patient interactions or humanistic development. Overall, students

  5. Radiation survey on Fukushima Medical University premises about four years after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Omori, Yasutaka; Wakamatsu, Hiroaki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted on the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) premises (in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture) about four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Its objectives were (1) to create a map of the ambient gamma dose rate (air-kerma rate) distribution, (2) to evaluate the air-kerma rate originating from natural radionuclides, and (3) to investigate the effects of snow cover on changes in the air-kerma rate. This man-borne survey revealed that the air-kerma rate varies widely, ranging from 0.038 μGy h-1 to 0.520 μGy h-1, and is higher on grass than on the other investigated surface types, such as soil, asphalt, and bricks. In this area, the mean air-kerma rate from natural radiation was evaluated to be 0.03 ± 0.01 μGy h-1, which is close to 0.04 μGy h-1, which was measured in central Fukushima City by a local authority.Furthermore, snowfall was found to reduce the air-kerma rate by 5%-30%. This reduction was attributed to attenuation of the primary radiation while passing through the snow cover, and the measured contribution of scattered radiation to the air-kerma rate reduction was small. The reduction rate was found to depend on the initial snow depth but to maintain a similar value for a couple of days, after the snow had partially melted and its depth had decreased. Finally, analysis of the daily dose due to external exposure received on the FMU premises revealed that no further health effects due to chronic radiation exposure at this site are to be expected. PMID:26911302

  6. [Israel Naval Medical Institute: 20 years of applied research, and future goals].

    PubMed

    Arieli, R; Shupak, A

    2000-05-01

    The Israel Naval Medical Institute (INMI) is unique as a research center located in a naval base and having close inter-relations with naval underwater units. It is ideal for applied research, and for mutual exchange of needs and of ideas and instructions. Factors making this institute so suitable for applied research include: direct personal communication with combat divers, professional naval divers, submariners, civilian recreational divers and professional civilian divers, as well as naval vessel crews prone to seasickness; hyperbaric oxygen therapy is administered in cooperation with a large neighboring hospital. Close spatial and personal relations with an academic institution (the Technion, with its Faculties of Medicine, Biology and Biophysics) provide a basis for cooperative research which expands research capabilities, and allows access to extensive expertise, instrumentation and equipment. Close ties with physicians who served at the INMI in the past also bring them into this research community. During their specialization, physicians may spend up to 6 months working with us on a research project. Undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate students may complete their research at our institute with the agreement of their parent academic institutions. Much of the research can be released to the international community. However, some is classified, serves only internal needs or is not of public interest. The number of published papers has stabilized since 1991 at about 16 a year. Studies of gas exchange and oxygen toxicity originate mainly in the Hyperbaric Research Unit, research on motion sickness in the Motion Sickness and Human Performance Laboratory, and work on hyperbaric and diving medicine in the Clinical Section of the INMI.

  7. The impact of gross anatomy laboratory on first year medical students' interest in a surgical career.

    PubMed

    Pulcrano, Marisa E; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Kumar, Anagha

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of gross anatomy laboratory (GA) on first year medical students' (M1) interest in a surgical career. Secondary objectives included identifying other influences in M1s' career decision making. This prospective study included surveys before and after GA. All M1s enrolled in GA were invited to participate. Sixty students completed both the pre- and post-test surveys. A 5-point Likert-type scale surveyed participants' interests, specific personality traits, experience during the course of GA, and likelihood of pursuing a surgical career. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and (Polychotomous) Ordinal Logistic Regression Model. Students' desire to work with their hands increased (50 vs. 33.3%) and enjoyment working with instruments and tools similarly increased (50 vs. 41.7%). Likelihood of pursuing a surgical career after gross anatomy increased in 31.7% of students, decreased in 16.7%, and was unchanged in 51.7%. Over 75% of students with a prior interest in surgery and 21% of those who previously felt neutral agreed that they were likely to pursue a career in surgery at the conclusion of the laboratory. Students with a surgeon family member were 0.1976 times as likely to exhibit a positive change in interest (P values 0.024). Gross anatomy may influence up to a third of the class to consider a surgical career, especially those with a prior interest in surgery and those previously feeling ambivalent. Students with a surgeon family member became less likely to enter a surgical career after gross anatomy. Clin. Anat. 29:691-695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Blunt Liver Trauma at Sunnybrook Medical Centre: A 13 Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarello, G.; Taylor, G.; Miller, H.; Scarth, H. M. C.; Brenneman, F.

    1991-01-01

    Between June 1, 1976 and June 30, 1989 The Regional Trauma Unit at Sunnybrook Medical Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada received 3730 patients. Of these 335 (9%) sustained a liver injury, 95% being due to blunt trauma. Open peritoneal lavage was performed on 80% of liver trauma patients (267/335), 99% being true positive. A laparotomy was performed on 97% of patients (324/335). Major surgical treatment was required in 132 patients (41%) and minor treatment in 192 patients (59%). The remaining 11 patients were treated conservatively (n = 3) or died during resuscitation (n = 8). Morbidity directly related to the liver injury was seen in 29 of 249 surviving patients (11%) although overall morbidity was 27% (67/249). Reoperation was required in 6% (14/249) with abscess or hematoma accounting for 11 of 14 operations. The overall mortality rate was 26% (86/335). Eighty two percent of patients (n = 276) had a grade I, II or III liver trauma according to Moore’s classification with a mortality of 12% (n = 32). The remaining 18% of patients (n = 59) had a grade IV or V liver trauma with a mortality of 44% (n = 26). Of the 86 deaths, head injury accounted for 48 (56% of deaths); liver hemorrhage for 17 (20%), liver sepsis for (1%) and other causes for 20 deaths (23%). Thus death due to the liver injury itself (hemorrhage and sepsis) occurred in 18 out of 335 patients (5% overall). Head injury accounted for the death of 48 out of 335 patients (14% overall). Over the past 13 years a trend has occurred at our institution whereby we are seeing less liver trauma in our population of multiply injured patients from 12% (1976–1983) down to 7% (1985–1989); with a gradual decline in overall mortality from 32% (1976–1983) to 19% (1985–1989), whereas the precentage of deaths due to head injuries and liver injury have increased. PMID:1911476

  9. Radiation survey on Fukushima Medical University premises about four years after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasutaka; Wakamatsu, Hiroaki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-06-08

    This study was conducted on the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) premises (in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture) about four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Its objectives were (1) to create a map of the ambient gamma dose rate (air-kerma rate) distribution, (2) to evaluate the air-kerma rate originating from natural radionuclides, and (3) to investigate the effects of snow cover on changes in the air-kerma rate. This man-borne survey revealed that the air-kerma rate varies widely, ranging from 0.038 μGy h(-1) to 0.520 μGy h(-1), and is higher on grass than on the other investigated surface types, such as soil, asphalt, and bricks. In this area, the mean air-kerma rate from natural radiation was evaluated to be 0.03 ± 0.01 μGy h(-1), which is close to 0.04 μGy h(-1), which was measured in central Fukushima City by a local authority.Furthermore, snowfall was found to reduce the air-kerma rate by 5%-30%. This reduction was attributed to attenuation of the primary radiation while passing through the snow cover, and the measured contribution of scattered radiation to the air-kerma rate reduction was small. The reduction rate was found to depend on the initial snow depth but to maintain a similar value for a couple of days, after the snow had partially melted and its depth had decreased. Finally, analysis of the daily dose due to external exposure received on the FMU premises revealed that no further health effects due to chronic radiation exposure at this site are to be expected.

  10. Genital prolapse: A 5-year review at Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Southeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oraekwe, Obinna Izuchukwu; Udensi, Maduabuchi Amagh; Nwachukwu, Kelechi Chiemela; Okali, Uka Kalu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Genital prolapse is an important cause of morbidity among postmenopausal and multiparous women especially in our environment where a high premium is placed on large family size. This study was done to determine the prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation, and management options of genital prolapse. Patients and Methods: Data of those diagnosed with genital prolapse were retrieved from records in the clinic, wards, theater, and from patients' folders in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 with P < 0.05. Results: Genital prolapse accounted for 0.8% of gynecological clinic attendances and 5.2% of major gynecological operations. The mean age of patients was 56.7 ± 15.5 years. Farmers constituted 60.7% of the patients while 72.1% and 70.5% were postmenopausal and grandmultiparous women, respectively. The sensation of something coming down the vagina was the most common symptom noted in 98.4% of the patients. Most (23.0%) of the patients had unsupervised delivery at home. Uterovaginal prolapse was the most common (70.5%) type of genital prolapse, and third-degree uterovaginal prolapse was its most frequent presentation. Majority of the patients (44.4%) were managed expectantly while the most common surgery performed was vaginal hysterectomy with pelvic floor repair (33.3%). Conclusion: Widespread availability of antenatal services especially in the rural communities and limitation on family size can significantly reduce the burden of this disease. PMID:27833248

  11. A third world international health elective for U.S. medical students: the 25-year experience of the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2004-10-01

    The Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center instituted a 6-8 weeks third world international health elective for fourth year medical students in 1980. Since that time, some 217 students have participated in a score of third world countries. However, the most popular sites have been India, Kenya and Thailand. The purposes of this elective are to provide fourth year medical students with an opportunity to observe and study the structure and functions of a health care delivery system in a third world country, to provide medical service, and to have a cross-cultural experience. The emphasis in this elective is on public health, preventive medicine and primary care. There are high levels of student competition for this elective. However, interest in it has been affected by world events such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the recent outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Asia. Recent annual applications for this elective have been twenty-five and more out of a class of two hundred students. Annual acceptance rates vary considerably, ranging from as low as 27.2% in 1995-1996 to a high of 81.8% in 1987-1988. Careful screening, including an examination of academic records and personal interviews, has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable, and dedicated students who overall have performed well at overseas sites. Student rated satisfaction levels with this elective are extremely high, with most rating it the best experience of their medical school years. Students undergo extensive preparation prior to going overseas. This includes individual health and safety issues, travel and lodging, and the nature of the host country culture, health care system, and assignment site. Our students are especially experienced in cross-cultural understanding because of the unusual diversity of the patients they treat in Brooklyn, and the ethnic diversity of local

  12. Healing Childhood Ear Infections: Prevention, Home Care, and Alternative Treatment. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Michael A.

    This book describes current controversy in medical journals over existing treatments for chronic childhood earaches. It suggests that the causes of otitis media are a series of events which flourish when poor nutrition occurs, noting that careful attention to diet and nutrition to prevent food allergies, and the use of acupressure, homeopathic…

  13. Electrical Properties and Superconductivity of MSr2Nd2-xCexCu2O10-δ (M=Ta, Nb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Qian, Yitai; Li, Rukang; Wang, Shiwei; Chen, Zuyao; Chen, Zhaojia; Wang, Nanling; Zhou, Guien

    1992-09-01

    A new series of layered cuprate compounds MSr2Nd2-xCexCu2O10-δ (M=Ta, Nb) have been synthesized. The structure of the compounds is similar to that of T1-1222. A peak in the R-T curve for the sample of TaSr2Nd1.3Ce0.7Cu2O10-δ has been observed at about 50 K. For the sample of NbSr2Nd1.45Ce0.55Cu2O10-δ, metal-like conductivity behaviour has been observed. We have found superconductivity at about 13.2 K in the samples of NbSr2Nd2-xCexCu2O10-δ (x=0.49, 0.50, 0.51, 0.52).

  14. Preparing the Ground: Contributions of the Preclinical Years to Medical Education for Care Near the End of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, David; Quill, Timothy; Hafferty, Frederic W.; Arnold, Robbert; Plumb, James; Bulger, Roger; Field, Marilyn

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group on the Pre-Clinical Years of the 1997 National Consensus Conference on Medical Education for Care Near the End of Life identifies promising settings and suggests how they might be used for maximum benefit in end-of-life education. Basic-care competencies are in five domains: psychological/social/cultural/spiritual issues;…

  15. Using a High-Fidelity Patient Simulator with First-Year Medical Students to Facilitate Learning of Cardiovascular Function Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David M.; Ryan, Kathleen; Rabuck, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Students are relying on technology for learning more than ever, and educators need to adapt to facilitate student learning. High-fidelity patient simulators (HFPS) are usually reserved for the clinical years of medical education and are geared to improve clinical decision skills, teamwork, and patient safety. Finding ways to incorporate HFPS into…

  16. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/ Austria | November 28th - 29th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation. PMID:25713602

  17. Comparison of the large scale structure of the ISM in the 2nd and 3rd Galactic Quadrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; Kiss, Cs.

    2002-05-01

    In this paper we are questing the large scale structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) using IRAS/ISSA 60 and 100 mum maps in the 3rd Galactic Quadrant (GQ). Here we identified 41 loop-like intensity enhancements and analysed their far-infrared (FIR) properties. We found major differences in the distribution and characteristics of these features when comparing the results of the 2nd and the 3rd GQs. This discrepancy can be satisfactorily explained by basic differences of the structure of the ISM in these two Galactic Quadrants.

  18. THE 2nd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 10–14 APRIL 2010, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Baharnoori, Moogeh; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Boucher, Aurelie A.; Buchy, Lisa; Chaddock, Christopher; Chiliza, Bonga; Föcking, Melanie; Fornito, Alex; Gallego, Juan A.; Hori, Hiroaki; Huf, Gisele; Jabbar, Gul A.; Kang, Shi Hyun; El Kissi, Yousri; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Modinos, Gemma; Abdel-Fadeel, Nashaat A.M.; Neubeck, Anna-Karin; Ng, Hsiao Piau; Novak, Gabriela; Owolabi, Olasunmbo.O.; Prata, Diana P.; Rao, Naren P.; Riecansky, Igor; Smith, Darryl C.; Souza, Renan P.; Thienel, Renate; Trotman, Hanan D.; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Woodberry, Kristen A.; O'Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, was held in Florence, Italy, April 10–15, 2010. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs of each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged from each session and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these reviews. It is hoped that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:20934307

  19. 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery (ISCN 2013) Salzburg/Austria|November 28th-29th, 2013.

    PubMed

    Brainin, M; Muresanu, D; Slavoaca, D

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Salzburg Conference on Neurorecovery was held on the 28th and 29th of November, 2013, in Salzburg, one of the most beautiful cities in Austria, which is well known for its rich cultural heritage, world-famous music and beautiful surrounding landscapes. The aim of the conference was to discuss the progress in the field of neurorecovery. The conference brought together internationally renowned scientists and clinicians, who described the clinical and therapeutic relevance of translational research and its applications in neurorehabilitation.

  20. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS < 0), where the entropy is a degree of uniformity. What is the entropy? Loosely speaking, sand on the beach is more uniform at a higher entropy value than the rocks composing a mountain - the internal binding energy tells the paleontologists the existence of information. To a politician, landside voting results has only the winning information but more entropy, while a non-uniform voting distribution record has more information. For the human's effortless brain at constant temperature, we can solve the minimum of Helmholtz free energy (H = E - TS) by computing BSS, and then their pairwise-entropy source correlation function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (

  1. A comparison of outcome of medical and surgical treatment of migraine headache: In 1 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Omranifard, Mahmood; Abdali, Hossein; Ardakani, Mehdi Rasti; Talebianfar, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to compare the efficacy of the medical treatment versus the surgical treatment approach to decompression of trigger point nerves in patients with migraine headaches. Materials and Methods: Fifty volunteers were randomly assigned to the medical treatment group (n = 25) or the surgical treatment group (n = 25) after examination by the team neurologist to ensure a diagnosis of migraine headache. All patients received botulinum toxin type A to confirm the trigger sites. The surgical treatment group underwent surgical deactivation of the trigger site(s). The medical treatment group underwent prophylactic pharmacologic interventions by the neurologist. Pretreatment and 12-month posttreatment migraine headache frequency, duration, and intensity were analyzed and compared to determine the success of the treatments. Results: Nineteen of the 25 patients (76%) in the surgical treatment group and 10 of the 25 patients (40%) in the medical treatment group experienced a successful outcome (at least a 50% decrease in migraine frequency, duration, or intensity) after 1 year from surgery. Surgical treatment had a significantly higher success rate than medical treatment (P < 0.001). Nine patients (36%) in the surgical treatment group and one patient (4%) in the medical treatment group experienced cessation of migraine headaches. The elimination rate was significantly higher in the surgical treatment group than in the medical treatment group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Based on the 1-year follow-up data, there is strong evidence that surgical manipulation of one or more migraine trigger sites can successfully eliminate or reduce the frequency, duration, and intensity of migraine headaches in a lasting manner. PMID:27563631

  2. Why Medical Schools Should Embrace Wikipedia: Final-Year Medical Student Contributions to Wikipedia Articles for Academic Credit at One School

    PubMed Central

    Bresler, David; Leon, Armando; Maggio, Lauren; Whitaker, Evans; Heilman, James; Orlowitz, Jake; Swisher, Valerie; Rasberry, Lane; Otoide, Kingsley; Trotter, Fred; Ross, Will; McCue, Jack D.

    2017-01-01

    Problem Most medical students use Wikipedia as an information source, yet medical schools do not train students to improve Wikipedia or use it critically. Approach Between November 2013 and November 2015, the authors offered fourth-year medical students a credit-bearing course to edit Wikipedia. The course was designed, delivered, and evaluated by faculty, medical librarians, and personnel from WikiProject Medicine, Wikipedia Education Foundation, and Translators Without Borders. The authors assessed the effect of the students’ edits on Wikipedia’s content, the effect of the course on student participants, and readership of students’ chosen articles. Outcomes Forty-three enrolled students made 1,528 edits (average 36/student), contributing 493,994 content bytes (average 11,488/student). They added higher-quality and removed lower-quality sources for a net addition of 274 references (average 6/student). As of July 2016, none of the contributions of the first 28 students (2013, 2014) have been reversed or vandalized. Students discovered a tension between comprehensiveness and readability/translatability, yet readability of most articles increased. Students felt they improved their articles, enjoyed giving back “specifically to Wikipedia,” and broadened their sense of physician responsibilities in the socially networked information era. During only the “active editing months,” Wikipedia traffic statistics indicate that the 43 articles were collectively viewed 1,116,065 times. Subsequent to students’ efforts, these articles have been viewed nearly 22 million times. Next Steps If other schools replicate and improve on this initiative, future multi-institution studies could more accurately measure the effect of medical students on Wikipedia, and vice versa. PMID:27627633

  3. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Medical University of South Carolina. Sector: Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  4. The 1st and the 2nd Italian Consensus Conferences on low-density lipoprotein-apheresis. A practical synopsis and update

    PubMed Central

    Stefanutti, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The clinical indications and guidelines for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis set by the 1st Italian Consensus Conference held in Ostuni in 1990 and completed in 1992, but never published, are reported schematically. In 1994, within the Project “Prevention and control of the factors of the disease (FATMA)” by the Italian National Research Council, subproject 8 “Control of cardiovascular disease”, a “Hearing on therapeutic apheresis: need for a target-oriented project” was organised. The meeting was the last scientific initiative on LDL-apheresis supported by public funds in Italy. After roughly two decades of use of LDL-apheresis, new guidelines were required based on the latest scientific evidence. In 2006, the Italian multicentre study on LDL-apheresis Working Group (IMSLDLa-WP), a scientific initiative at national level, was developed. It initially gathered together 19 Italian centres qualified for the application of lipid apheresis and LDL-apheresis (2007–2008), then 23 in 2010, located in the north, south, centre of Italy and in Sicily and Sardinia. The multicentre study aimed to validate the protocol for selecting patients and to create a network between the Italian centres. A secondary objective was the creation of a database of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia and other severe forms of dyslipidaemia undergoing treatment with LDL-apheresis using the available techniques. Since LDL-apheresis has multidisciplinary treatment indications, the agreement on the new guidelines was reached through a panel of experts, of different medical and surgical specialties, with scientific and medical interest in the treatment indications, application and development of LDL-apheresis. The initiatives of the IMSLDLa-WP led to the 2nd Italian Consensus Conference on LDL-apheresis held in Rome in 2009. The previous and most recent guidelines are reported here synoptically. PMID:27416576

  5. Using SurveyMonkey® to teach safe social media strategies to medical students in their clinical years.

    PubMed

    Bramstedt, Katrina A; Ierna, Ben N; Woodcroft-Brown, Victoria K

    2014-01-01

    Social media is a valuable tool in the practice of medicine, but it can also be an area of 'treacherous waters' for medical students. Those in their upper years of study are off-site and scattered broadly, undertaking clinical rotations; thus, in-house (university lecture) sessions are impractical. Nonetheless, during these clinical years students are generally high users of social media technology, putting them at risk of harm if they lack appropriate ethical awareness. We created a compulsory session in social media ethics (Doctoring and Social Media) offered in two online modes (narrated PowerPoint file or YouTube video) to fourth- and fifth-year undergraduate medical students. The novelty of our work was the use of SurveyMonkey® to deliver the file links, as well as to take attendance and deliver a post-session performance assessment. All 167 students completed the course and provided feedback. Overall, 73% Agreed or Strongly Agreed the course session would aid their professionalism skills and behaviours, and 95% supported delivery of the curriculum online. The most frequent areas of learning occurred in the following topics: email correspondence with patients, medical photography, and awareness of medical apps. SurveyMonkey® is a valuable and efficient tool for curriculum delivery, attendance taking, and assessment activities.

  6. Significance of Literacy in the Performance of Students in the First Year of the Nottingham Medical Course

    PubMed Central

    Olson, I. A.; Diack, H.; Harrold, Pamela J.

    1973-01-01

    The “literacy” of a fresh intake of medical students as measured by standardized vocabulary tests has been measured and correlated with examination performance during the first year. Although most students lacked an upper social class upbringing, medical parents, or a classical education, the group performed to a high standard in the tests, comparable with an English honours intake. On the other hand, there appears to be no correlation between an extensive working vocabulary and the ability to perform well in any aspect of the course, apart from the community studies. A qualification in Latin confers no advantage at all on the aspiring doctor. PMID:4685320

  7. Imaging system QA of a medical accelerator, Novalis Tx, for IGRT per TG 142: our 1 year experience.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Bowsher, James; Cai, Jing; Yoo, Sua; Wang, Zhiheng; Adamson, Justus; Ren, Lei; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2012-07-05

    American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) task group (TG) 142 has recently published a report to update recommendations of the AAPM TG 40 report and add new recommendations concerning medical accelerators in the era of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The recommendations of AAPM TG 142 on IGRT are timely. In our institute, we established a comprehensive imaging QA program on a medical accelerator based on AAPM TG 142 and implemented it successfully. In this paper, we share our one-year experience and performance evaluation of an OBI capable linear accelerator, Novalis Tx, per TG 142 guidelines.

  8. Monitoring one-year compliance to antihypertension medication in the Seychelles.

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Madeleine, George; Waeber, Bernard; Paccaud, Fred

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the compliance to medication among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients screened from the general population of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country. METHODS: Among the 1067 participants to a population-based survey for cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension was discovered in 50 (previously unaware of having hypertension and having blood pressure > or = 160/95 mmHg over 3 visits). These 50 patients were placed on a daily one-pill regimen of medication (bendrofluazide, atenolol, or a combination of hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol) and compliance to the regimen was assessed over 12 months using electronic pill containers. Satisfactory compliance was defined as taking the medication on 6 or 7 days a week on average (which corresponds to a mean compliance level of > or = 86%). FINDINGS: In the first month, fewer than half (46%) of the new hypertension patients achieved satisfactory compliance, and only about one-quarter (26%) achieved this level by the twelfth month. Compliance was better among the 23 participants who regularly attended medical follow-up, with nearly three-quarters of these patients (74%) achieving satisfactory compliance during the first month and over one-half (55%) by the twelfth month. There was a direct association between mean 12-month compliance level and having a highly skilled occupation; having good health awareness; and regularly attending medical appointments. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between mean compliance level and heavy drinking. CONCLUSION: The low proportion of people selected from the general population who were capable of sustaining satisfactory compliance to antihypertension medication may correspond to the maximum effectiveness of medication interventions based on a screening and treatment strategy in the general population. The results stress the need for both high-risk and population approaches to improve hypertension control. PMID:11884971

  9. Introduction of structured physical examination skills to second year undergraduate medical students

    PubMed Central

    Piryani, Rano M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Effective learning of physical examination skills (PES) requires suitable teaching and learning techniques and assessment methods. The Tribhuvan University (Nepal) curriculum recommends involving the departments of Medicine and Surgery in PES training (PEST) for second year students as a part of early clinical exposure. The project was developed to make teaching/learning of PES structured, involving eight clinical sciences departments and using appropriate methods for teaching and assessment in KIST Medical College, Nepal. Methods: Irby’s three stages of clinical teaching model (Preparation, Teaching, Reflection), was applied for teaching. Skill acquisition was based on Millers’ learning pyramid at “show how level” and Dreyfus’ competency model at “competent level”. Teaching/learning was conducted in small groups. A tutorial, demonstration and practice (TDS) model was developed for teaching/learning techniques based on a simple five-step method for teaching clinical skills. Assessment of effectiveness of training was done at “reaction level” as per Kirkpatrick’s model based on students’ feedback, “shows how level” as per Miller’s pyramid of learning by OSCE and “competent level” as per Dreyfus’ model using retro-pre questionnaire. Results: The analysis of retro-pre questionnaire based on the Dreyfus model found the average skill score (max score 184), before the introduction of the project module as 15.9 (median = 13.5) and after as 116.5 (median = 116). A paired t-test showed the difference to be statistically significant (100.5±23 and 95% CI 95.45 – 105.59). The average overall feedback score for the students on PES training based on seven items on a five point Likert scale was found to be 4.30. The mean total objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) score was 3.77 (SD+/- 0.33) out of 5; 80% of students scored more than 70%. Conclusion: Students learned most of the skills with the implementation of the

  10. Results-Based Financing in Mozambique’s Central Medical Store: A Review After 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    Spisak, Cary; Morgan, Lindsay; Eichler, Rena; Rosen, James; Serumaga, Brian; Wang, Angela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Public health commodity supply chains are typically weak in low-income countries, partly because they have many disparate yet interdependent functions and components. Approaches to strengthening supply chains in such settings have often fallen short—they address technical weaknesses, but not the incentives that motivate staff to perform better. Methods: We reviewed the first year of a results-based financing (RBF) program in Mozambique, which began in January 2013. The program aimed to improve the performance of the central medical store—Central de Medicamentos e Artigos Medicos (CMAM)—by realigning incentives. We completed in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 33 key informants, including representatives from CMAM and donor agencies, and collected quantitative data on performance measures and use of funds. Implementation: The RBF agreement linked CMAM performance payments to quarterly results on 5 performance indicators related to supply planning, distribution planning, and warehouse management. RBF is predicated on the theory that a combination of carrot and stick—i.e., shared financial incentives, plus increased accountability for results—will spur changes in behavior. Important design elements: (1) indicators were measured against quarterly targets, and payments were made only for indicators that met those targets; (2) targets were set based on documented performance, at levels that could be reasonably attained, yet pushed for improvement; (3) payment was shared with and dependent on all staff, encouraging teamwork and collaboration; (4) results were validated by verifiable data sources; and (5) CMAM had discretion over how to use the funds. Findings: We found that CMAM’s performance continually improved over baseline and that CMAM achieved many of its performance targets, for example, timely submission of quarterly supply and distribution planning reports. Warehouse indicators, such as inventory management and

  11. Influence of Nd dopant amount on microstructure and photoluminescence of TiO2:Nd thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcieszak, Damian; Mazur, Michal; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Morgiel, Jerzy; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Misiewicz, Jan

    2015-10-01

    TiO2 and TiO2:Nd thin films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering process from mosaic Ti-Nd targets with various Nd concentration. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopic techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) in the near infrared obtained upon 514.5 nm excitation was also examined. The relationship between the Nd concentration, structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of prepared thin films was investigated and discussed. XRD and TEM measurements showed that an increase in the Nd concentration in the thin films hinders the crystal growth in the deposited coatings. Depending on the Nd amount in the thin films, TiO2 with the rutile, mixed rutile-amorphous or amorphous phase was obtained. Transmittance measurements revealed that addition of Nd dopant to titania matrix did not deteriorate optical transparency of the coatings, however it influenced on the position of the fundamental absorption edge and therefore on the width of optical band gap energy. All TiO2:Nd thin films exhibited PL emission that occurred at ca. 0.91, 1.09 and 1.38 μm. Finally, results obtained for deposited coatings showed that titania with the rutile structure and 1.0 at.% of Nd was the most efficient in VIS to NIR photon conversion.

  12. Efficacy and Safety of rAAV2-ND4 Treatment for Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xing; Pei, Han; Zhao, Min-jian; Yang, Shuo; Hu, Wei-kun; He, Heng; Ma, Si-qi; Zhang, Ge; Dong, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Dao-wen; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited disease leading to blindness. A mitochondrial DNA point mutation at the 11778 nucleotide site of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene is the most common cause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) carrying ND4 (rAAV2-ND4) in LHON patients carrying the G11778A mutation. Nine patients were administered rAAV2-ND4 by intravitreal injection to one eye and then followed for 9 months. Ophthalmologic examinations of visual acuity, visual field, and optical coherence tomography were performed. Physical examinations included routine blood and urine. The visual acuity of the injected eyes of six patients improved by at least 0.3 log MAR after 9 months of follow-up. In these six patients, the visual field was enlarged but the retinal nerve fibre layer remained relatively stable. No other outcome measure was significantly changed. None of the nine patients had local or systemic adverse events related to the vector during the 9-month follow-up period. These findings support the feasible use of gene therapy for LHON. PMID:26892229

  13. Physics and Industrial Development - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Physics and Industrial Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzinelli, R.; Moreira, R. L.; Rodrigues, W. N.

    1997-04-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Sponsors * Committees * Opening Lecture * Relations between Science and Industry in Brazil * Technological Change and Economic Development * Science and Economic Development * Recent Technological Change and Industrial Dynamics * Technology and Economic Development: Suitability of the Institutional System of Minais Gerais * Bridging the Gap * Transfer of Scientific Results into Industry: A Controversial Problem in Central and Eastern Europe * Bridging the Gap Between Basic Research and Industrial Development at the J. STEFAN Institute * Liquid Crystals: A Case Study of the Interaction Between Science and Application * Role of Physics in the Modern Industrialization Process of Korea * Research in Industry * A Theoretical Physicist's 21-Year Experience in the Argentine Industry * Four Characters in Search of a Profession * Status and Prospects for the Use of Renewable Sources of Energy in Minas Gerais State-Brazil * University-Industry Cooperation I * Development and Industrialization of Fiber Optics Metrology Equipment * Finnish Experiences on University-Industry Collaboration in Materials Science and Physical Metallurgy * A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Interaction between Academic Research and Industry * Technological Modernization of the Alkaline Cooking Process for the Production of Masa and Tortilla * The Fapergs Program on University Versus Private Enterprise * Integral Development Centers: Tying Mexican Industry With the National Polytechnic Institute * Materials Characterization and Applied Physics * Imaging Manganese Sulfide Inclusions in Grain Oriented Silicon Steels * Electrical Resistivity Changes Associated to Static Strain Aging in High Carbon Steel * PVD Hard Coatings for Wear Applications * Scanning Acoustic Microscopy: Application to Porous Materials * Indentation Testing of Thennal Sprayed WC-Co * Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis with Laserinduced

  14. The debate about physician assistance in dying: 40 years of unrivalled progress in medical ethics?

    PubMed

    Holm, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Some issues in medical ethics have been present throughout the history of medicine, and thus provide us with an opportunity to ascertain: (1) whether there is progress in medical ethics; and (2) what it means to do good medical ethics. One such perennial issue is physician assistance in dying (PAD). This paper provides an account of the PAD debate in this journal over the last 40 years. It concludes that there is some (but limited) progress in the debate. The distinctions, analogies and hypothetical examples have proliferated, as have empirical studies, but very little has changed in terms of the basic arguments. The paper further argues that many of the contributions to the debate fail to engage fully with the concerns people have about the legal introduction of PAD in the healthcare system, perhaps because many of the contributions sit on the borderline between academic analysis and social activism.

  15. Physician assisted suicide: knowledge and views of fifth-year medical students in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schildmann, Jan; Herrmann, Eva; Burchardi, Nicole; Schwantes, Ulrich; Vollmann, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and assisted suicide are not criminal acts in Germany. However, attempting suicide may create a legal duty for physicians to try to save a patient's life. This study presents data on medical students' legal knowledge and ethical views regarding physician assisted suicide (PAS). The majority of 85 respondents held PAS to be illegal. More than a third of the students viewed PAS in certain situations to be ethically acceptable whereas a smaller proportion thought that it should be legal. Compared with German physicians the medical students taking part in this study were less opposed to PAS. The majority perceived the undergraduate training concerning ethical aspect of assisted death as deficient.

  16. Elliott, C. D. (2007). "Differential Ability Scales" (2nd Ed.). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Tanya N.

    2007-01-01

    "Differential Ability Scales," Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007), was developed to measure the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents from age 2 years, 6 months to 17 years, 11 months. The test is designed to be individually administered, measuring general conceptual and reasoning ability ("g") as well as specific…

  17. 76 FR 29750 - Filing Dates for the Nevada Special Election in the 2nd Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ...-General Report on October 13, 2011. (See chart below for the closing date for each report). Note that these reports are in addition to the campaign committee's year-end filing in January 2012. (See chart... 10/13/11 October Quarterly ----WAIVED---- Year-End 12/31/11 01/31/12 01/31/12 SEMI-ANNUAL...

  18. Student failures on first-year medical basic science courses and the USMLE step 1: a retrospective study over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Burns, E Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, solely or in combination, have previously been found to be predictors of achievement in the basic science years and/or on the Step 1. The purposes of this retrospective study were to: (1) determine if our statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between preadmission variables (MCAT, uGPA, and applicant pool size), and (2) study correlates of the number of failures in five M1 courses with those preadmission variables and failures on Step 1. Statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between all preadmission variables. Only one course, Microscopic Anatomy, demonstrated significant correlations with all variables studied including the Step 1 failures. Physiology correlated with three of the four variables studied, but not with the Step 1 failures. Analyses such as these provide a tool by which administrators will be able to identify what courses are or are not responding in appropriate ways to changes in the preadmissions variables that signal student performance on the Step 1.

  19. Medical Student–Reported Outcomes of a Radiation Oncologist–Led Preclinical Course in Oncology: A Five-Year Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Ankit; Koottappillil, Brian; Shah, Bhartesh; Ahuja, Divya; Hirsch, Ariel E.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: There is a recognized need for more robust training in oncology for medical students. At our institution, we have offered a core dedicated oncology block, led by a radiation oncologist course director, during the second year of the medical school curriculum since the 2008-2009 academic year. Herein, we report the outcomes of the oncology block over the past 5 years through an analysis of student perceptions of the course, both immediately after completion of the block and in the third year. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 2 separate surveys. The first assessed student impressions of how well the course met each of the course's learning objectives through a survey that was administered to students immediately after the oncology block in 2012. The second was administered after students completed the oncology block during the required radiology clerkship in the third year. All questions used a 5-level Likert scale and were analyzed by use of a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Of the 169 students who took the oncology course in 2012, 127 (75.1%) completed the course feedback survey. Over 73% of students agreed or strongly agreed that the course met its 3 learning objectives. Of the 699 medical students who took the required radiology clerkship between 2010 and 2013, 538 participated in the second survey, for a total response rate of 77%. Of these students, 368 (68.4%) agreed or strongly agreed that the course was effective in contributing to their overall medical education. Conclusion: Student perceptions of the oncology block are favorable and have improved across multiple categories since the inception of the course. Students self-reported that a dedicated preclinical oncology block was effective in helping identify the basics of cancer therapy and laying the foundation for clinical electives in oncology, including radiation oncology.

  20. 10 years experience with pioneering open access publishing in health informatics: the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR).

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    Peer-reviewed journals remain important vehicles for knowledge transfer and dissemination in health informatics, yet, their format, processes and business models are changing only slowly. Up to the end of last century, it was common for individual researchers and scientific organizations to leave the business of knowledge transfer to professional publishers, signing away their rights to the works in the process, which in turn impeded wider dissemination. Traditional medical informatics journals are poorly cited and the visibility and uptake of articles beyond the medical informatics community remain limited. In 1999, the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR; http://www.jmir.org) was launched, featuring several innovations including 1) ownership and copyright retained by the authors, 2) electronic-only, "lean" non-for-profit publishing, 3) openly accessible articles with a reversed business model (author pays instead of reader pays), 4) technological innovations such as automatic XML tagging and reference checking, on-the-fly PDF generation from XML, etc., enabling wide distribution in various bibliographic and full-text databases. In the past 10 years, despite limited resources, the journal has emerged as a leading journal in health informatics, and is presently ranked the top journal in the medical informatics and health services research categories by impact factor. The paper summarizes some of the features of the Journal, and uses bibliometric and access data to compare the influence of the Journal on the discipline of medical informatics and other disciplines. While traditional medical informatics journals are primarily cited by other Medical Informatics journals (33%-46% of citations), JMIR papers are to a more often cited by "end-users" (policy, public health, clinical journals), which may be partly attributable to the "open access advantage".

  1. Physician Assisted Suicide: Knowledge and Views of Fifth-Year Medical Students in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildmann, Jan; Herrmann, Eva; Burchardi, Nicole; Schwantes, Ulrich; Vollmann, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and assisted suicide are not criminal acts in Germany. However, attempting suicide may create a legal duty for physicians to try to save a patient's life. This study presents data on medical students' legal knowledge and ethical views regarding physician assisted suicide (PAS). The majority of 85 respondents held PAS to be illegal. More…

  2. 77 FR 45359 - Medical Device User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... certain medical device submissions, and annual fees both for certain periodic reports and for... collectively as ``submissions'' or ``applications''); for periodic reporting on class III devices; and for the... document establishes FY 2013 fee rates for other types of submissions, and for periodic reporting,...

  3. What Is New in Medical Student and Resident Education?: Best Articles From the Past Year.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nathan S

    2016-07-01

    This month we focus on current research in medical student and resident education. Dr. Fox discusses four recent publications, which are concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The complete reference for each can be found in Box 1 on this page, along with direct links to the abstracts.

  4. The Integration of Behavioral Science Theory and Clinical Experience for Second-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A program is described that relates behavioral science research to cancer care, encourages frank discussion and objective analysis of oncology practice, and attempts to dispell the myth that cancer patients are not medically manageable. A wide range of teaching methods are used. (MSE)

  5. 35 years of the Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research.

    PubMed

    Rego, E M; Pereira Leite, J; Bensenor, I; Chammas, R; Nogueira de Francischi, J; da Luz, P L

    2017-02-06

    The authors pay homage to the three founders of the Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research Profs. Lewis Joel Greene, Sérgio Henrique Ferreira and Eduardo Moacyr Krieger for their vision and commitment to divulge the scientific production of developing countries.

  6. Evaluation of a Basic Science, Peer Tutorial Program for First- and Second-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Fernando M.; Eiland, D. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A peer tutorial program in the basic sciences implemented at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston is evaluated. The grades of students receiving peer tutorials were analyzed and questionnaires were mailed to each participant soliciting their evaluation of services received. Future cost-benefit evaluations are planned. (Author/MLW)

  7. Introducing Community-Oriented Primary Care to First-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Kay A.; Magill, Michael K.

    1986-01-01

    Students at the University of Arizona College of Medicine participated in an exercise in community-oriented primary care. They learned basic principles of health risk analysis and community-oriented care and then designed hypothetical, comprehensive health care services for medical students by using knowledge of health risks specific to their…

  8. NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIGMS researchers that helps extend our overall medical knowledge. Jeremy M. Berg, Ph.D. NIGMS Director Photo courtesy of NIH/ NIGMS True or False One of the valuable aspects of basic research is the discovery of new, previously unimagined scientific connections. For example: ...

  9. Association of Classroom Participation and Examination Performance in a First-Year Medical School Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Richard M.; Dyson, Sharon; Cannon, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    The advent of internet-based delivery of basic medical science lectures may unintentionally lead to decreased classroom attendance and participation, thereby creating a distance learning paradigm. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that classroom attendance/participation may be positively correlated with performance on a written examination…

  10. 35 years of the Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

    PubMed Central

    Rego, E.M.; Pereira Leite, J.; Bensenor, I.; Chammas, R.; Nogueira de Francischi, J.; da Luz, P.L.

    2017-01-01

    The authors pay homage to the three founders of the Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research Profs. Lewis Joel Greene, Sérgio Henrique Ferreira and Eduardo Moacyr Krieger for their vision and commitment to divulge the scientific production of developing countries. PMID:28177038

  11. [Physicians, books and medical knowledge in Norway around the year 1700].

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gina

    2009-12-17

    Development of medicine in the early modern period (1500-1800) formed the basis for modern medicine, in that iatrochemical and mechanistic perceptions of the human body gradually became more influential. Several different medical theories prevailed and were tested in parallel, and perceptual changes developed over time. Few studies have looked into the knowledge universe that Norwegian doctors were part of in this period. I have examined book collections owned by the physicians Jacob Woldenberg, Georg Blumenthal and Paul Dons, in order to discern how physicians practicing in Norway around 1700 responded to this particular situation of "complexity". In general, these book collections covered antique medical theories and more recent debates within the medical profession at the time. Most of the books are from Germany and the Netherlands, which means the three doctors were part of firstly a German and secondly a Dutch medical tradition. The article is based on the authors' doctoral thesis about doctors' and clergymens' book collections in the period 1650-1750.

  12. Exploring Factors Affecting Undergraduate Medical Students' Study Strategies in the Clinical Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Kadri, Hanan M. F.; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Elzubair, Margaret; Magzoub, Mohi Eldien; AlMutairi, Abdulrahman; Roberts, Christopher; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi…

  13. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  14. Improving diversity through strategic planning: a 10-year (2002-2012) experience at theMedical University of South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Deas, Deborah; Pisano, Etta D; Mainous, Arch G; Johnson, Natalie G; Singleton, Myra Haney; Gordon, Leonie; Taylor, Wanda; Hazen-Martin, Debra; Burnham, Willette S; Reves, J G

    2012-11-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina launched a systematic plan to infuse diversity among its students, resident physicians, and faculty in 2002. The dean and stakeholders of the College of Medicine (COM) embraced the concept that a more population-representative physician workforce could contribute to the goals of providing quality medical education and addressing health care disparities in South Carolina. Diversity became a central component of the COM's strategic plan, and all departments developed diversity plans consistent with the overarching plan of the COM. Liaisons from the COM diversity committee facilitated the development of the department's diversity plans. By 2011, the efforts resulted in a doubling of the number of underrepresented-in-medicine (URM, defined as African American, Latino, Native American) students (21% of student body); matriculation of 10 African American males as first-year medical students annually for four consecutive years; more than a threefold increase in URM residents/fellows; expansion of pipeline programs; expansion of mentoring programs; almost twice as many URM faculty; integration of cultural competency throughout the medical school curriculum; advancement of women and URM individuals into leadership positions; and enhanced learning for individuals from all backgrounds. This article reports the implementation of an institutional plan to create a more racially representative workforce across the academic continuum. The authors emphasize the role of the stakeholders in promoting diversity, the value of annual assessment to evaluate outcomes, and the positive benefits for individuals of all backgrounds.

  15. A Comparison of the Mental Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual First-Year Medical Students: A Report From Medical Student CHANGES

    PubMed Central

    Przedworski, Julia M.; Dovidio, John F.; Hardeman, Rachel R.; Phelan, Sean M.; Burke, Sara E.; Ruben, Mollie A.; Perry, Sylvia P.; Burgess, Diana J.; Nelson, David B.; Yeazel, Mark W.; Knudsen, John M.; van Ryn, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Research is lacking on psychological distress and disorder among sexual minority medical students (students who identify as non-heterosexual). If left unaddressed, distress may result in academic and professional difficulties and undermine workforce diversity goals. The authors compared depression, anxiety, and self-rated health among sexual minority and heterosexual medical students. Method This study included 4,673 first-year students with self-reported sexual orientation data in the fall 2010 baseline survey of the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation Study, a national longitudinal cohort study. The authors used items from published scales to measure depression, anxiety, self-rated health, and social stressors. They conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to estimate the association between sexual identity and depression, anxiety, and self-rated health. Results Of the 4,673 students, 232 (5.0%) identified as a sexual minority. Compared with heterosexual students, after adjusting for relevant covariates, sexual minority students had greater risk of depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk [ARR] =1.59 [95% CI, 1.24–2.04]) anxiety symptoms (ARR = 1.64 [1.08–2.49]), and low self-rated health (ARR = 1.77 [1.15–2.60]). Sexual minority students were more likely to report social stressors, including harassment (22.7% vs 12.7%, P < .001) and isolation (53.7% vs 42.8%, P = .001). Exposure to social stressors attenuated but did not eliminate the observed association between minority sexual identity and mental and self-reported health measures. Conclusions First-year sexual minority students experience significantly greater risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-rated health than heterosexual students. Targeted interventions are needed to improve mental health and well-being. PMID:25674912

  16. Women in surgery: little change in gender equality in Japanese medical societies over the past 3 years.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-10-01

    Japan lags behind other industrialized nations in terms of gender equality. To improve the work environment for surgeons, the opinions of female surgeons must be respected. The Committee on Women Surgeons of the Japan Surgical Society (JSS) conducted two surveys 3 years apart of the numbers of female councilors and directors in the member societies of the Japanese Association of Medical Sciences. In the nonsurgical medical societies, although there was an increase in the number of female councilors, only one female director was named over the past 3 years. On the other hand, there were no female directors in any of the 12 surgical societies in 2011. The JSS was founded in 1899. No female surgeon has ever been elected as director and there are currently no female councilors due to the new election system. The Gender Equality Bureau of the Cabinet Office should therefore provide greater support to improve gender equality in Japan.

  17. Medication-related factors associated with health-related quality of life in patients older than 65 years with polypharmacy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In the current public health framework, the importance of medication as a determinant of citizens’ health has emerged as a factor warranting special attention. Most studies investigating the relationship between medication and quality of life do so from the perspective of adherence. However, other medication-related factors identified at home visits may be associated with health-related quality of life. Methods and design Objective: To describe the relationship between medication-related factors and the health-related quality of life in patients older than 65 years who use multiple medications (polypharmacy). Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Primary care. Participants: Patients older than 65 years who use multiple medications (n = 375). Measurements: The main outcome measure was health-related quality of life according to the EuroQol-5D instrument. Sociodemographic, clinical and medication-related variables were recorded during home interviews. Results Mean age was 74.72 ± 5.59 years, and 65.5% of our participants were women. The global level of health-related quality of life according to the EQ-5D visual analog scale was 59.25 ± 20.92. Of the five EuroQol dimensions, anxiety/depression and pain were the most frequently reported, while mobility and self-care were the dimensions with the greatest impact on self-reported quality of life. Multivariate analysis indicated that functional independence was the factor most strongly associated (β = 14.27 p < 0.001) with better health-related quality of life, while illiteracy (β = −13.58 p < 0.001), depression (β = −10.13 p < 0.001), social risk (β = −7.23 p = 0.004) and using more than 10 medicines (β = −4.85 p = 0.009) were strongly associated with a poorer health-related quality of life. Conclusions Factors inherent within the patient such as functional incapacity, cognitive impairment and social and emotional problems were the main constraints to quality of life in our study population

  18. Transferable skills of incoming medical students and their development over the first academic year: The United Arab Emirates experience.

    PubMed

    McLean, Michelle; Shaban, Sami; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, it is being recognised in higher and medical education that learners should be adequately prepared for the unpredictable nature of professional practice. Several generic or transferable skills or capabilities (e.g., communication, information handling) that will enable graduates to function in an ever-changing professional world have been identified. Using a validated inventory comprising six categories of transferable skills, three cohorts of incoming male and female medical students at a Gulf university documented their level of practice and confidence for 31 skills. The exercise was repeated a year later. New medical students identified computer and organisational skills and the ability to manage their learning as strengths, but scores for technical and numeracy, information handling and presentation and communication skills suggested that learners generally required guidance. A year later, despite considerable self-reported information handling and communication skills development, learners generally did not consider themselves self-sufficient. A significant gender difference emerged, with incoming males reporting less experience and confidence in many skills. This gap was reduced but did not disappear over the first academic year. An audit such as this may be useful for identifying individual skills levels as well as providing insight into shortcomings in the academic programme in terms of opportunities for transferable skills development.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NEOWISE reactivation mission: 2nd yr data (Nugent+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Sonnett, S.; Wright, E. L.

    2016-09-01

    We present diameters and albedos of asteroids from the second year of the Near-Earth Object Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) mission following the reactivation of the spacecraft from hibernation in late 2013. Diameters and albedos of asteroids from the first year of the NEOWISE mission following reactivation are given in Nugent et al. 2015 (Cat. J/ApJ/814/117). NEOWISE is a space-based infrared telescope that obtains an image of the sky every 11 seconds simultaneously in two bands, W1 (3.4μm) and W2 (4.6μm). After successfully completing its prime mission in 2011, the WISE spacecraft was placed into hibernation for 32 months before being reactivated and renamed NEOWISE in late 2013. The goals of the NEOWISE mission are to discover, track, and characterize minor planets. Images and extracted source lists from all phases of the WISE and NEOWISE missions have been delivered to the public via the Infrared Science Archive (Cutri et al. 2012, http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/allsky/expsup/sec8_1.html; Cutri et al. 2015, http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/neowise/expsup/), NASA's designated archive for infrared astronomical data. This second year of data provides multi-epoch observational data of uniform quality that can be used to better constrain the sizes, shapes, rotation state, and thermophysical properties of the 9092 asteroids in the reactivation Year 2 sample. We present preliminary diameters and albedos calculated from NEOWISE Year 2 Reactivation mission observations, which spanned 2014 December 13 to 2015 December 13. Diameters and albedos calculated from NEOWISE Year 2 Reactivation mission observations will be submitted to the Planetary Data System. NEOWISE discovered 198 Near-Earth Asteroid (NEAs) and comets during Years 1 and 2 of the Reactivation mission. In addition to observing 175 NEAs that had not had diameters measured previously from NEOWISE data, the Year 2 Reactivation mission obtained thermal infrared observations at

  20. [Seventy five years of the Medical School of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile].

    PubMed

    Grebe, Gonzalo; Dagnino, Jorge; Sánchez, Ignacio

    2005-10-01

    Aiming to join academic excellence and an ethical and Christian approach to medical profession, the Medical School of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile initiated its activities in 1930. Since then, the associated Health Care Network has incorporated all the technological breakthroughs in medicine and developed all the specialties. Undergraduate teaching is oriented to promote creativity and innovation. There is also a special concern about humanity of Medicine, throught the Program of Humanistic Medical Studies and the Bioethics Center. Post graduate education is also an important activity of the School, through specialty training, Master and Doctorate programs. Researchers have also obtained important grants and generated a great number of publications in high impact journals. Our University is defined as "complex", meaning that we must take important challenges, be creative and lead knowledge generation. We must also improve ourselves to serve in the best possible way our students and the Country. Paraphrasing the words of our founder, Monsignor Carlos Casanueva, we must train physicians that will serve our community not only with science but also with humanity.

  1. Old news: why the 90-year crisis in medical elder care?

    PubMed

    Diachun, Laura L; Charise, Andrea; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-07-01

    North American and European demographic projections indicate that by 2030, persons aged 65 and older will outnumber those younger than 15 by a ratio of 2:1. Curiously, principles of geriatric care have not taken strong hold among nongeriatric specialties, even as we approach the time of greatest need. To explore historical precedents for the current crisis in elder care, this article revisits the prescriptions of G. Stanley Hall's Senescence: The Last Half of Life (1922), a text widely recognized as one of the founding texts in the medicalized study of aging. It presents in brief three of Hall's major concerns-paucity of knowledge of nongeriatric specialists, the need for individualized care of elderly adults, and the prevalence of attitudinal obstacles in medical professionals caring for older persons-to demonstrate how little the language and content of modern appraisals have evolved since 1922. This disconcerting sense of paralysis is presented as an opportunity to advance important questions aimed at stimulating a more-comprehensive research agenda for addressing the future of medical elder care.

  2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of 3D vascular stereoscopic models in anatomy instruction for first year medical students.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongmei; Wilson, Timothy D; Rockhold, Robin W; Lehman, Michael N; Lynch, James C

    2017-01-01

    The head and neck region is one of the most complex areas featured in the medical gross anatomy curriculum. The effectiveness of using three-dimensional (3D) models to teach anatomy is a topic of much discussion in medical education research. However, the use of 3D stereoscopic models of the head and neck circulation in anatomy education has not been previously studied in detail. This study investigated whether 3D stereoscopic models created from computed tomographic angiography (CTA) data were efficacious teaching tools for the head and neck vascular anatomy. The test subjects were first year medical students at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. The assessment tools included: anatomy knowledge tests (prelearning session knowledge test and postlearning session knowledge test), mental rotation tests (spatial ability; presession MRT and postsession MRT), and a satisfaction survey. Results were analyzed using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test and linear regression analysis. A total of 39 first year medical students participated in the study. The results indicated that all students who were exposed to the stereoscopic 3D vascular models in 3D learning sessions increased their ability to correctly identify the head and neck vascular anatomy. Most importantly, for students with low-spatial ability, 3D learning sessions improved postsession knowledge scores to a level comparable to that demonstrated by students with high-spatial ability indicating that the use of 3D stereoscopic models may be particularly valuable to these students with low-spatial ability. Anat Sci Educ 10: 34-45. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Relationship Between Different Types and Forms of Anti-Asthmatic Medications and Dental Caries in Three to 12 Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Alireza; Seraj, Bahman; Shahrabi, Mahdi; Maghsoodi, Hamideh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Zarabian, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Asthma is a common chronic disease. Asthma and anti-asthmatic medications have been suggested as risk factors for increased susceptibility to caries. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different types and forms of antihistaminic medications and the duration of drug consumption on the severity of dental caries in asthmatic children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Asthma and Allergy Department of Children’s Medical Center in Tehran, Iran. Eighty-five children between three to 12 years who had been diagnosed with asthma, by means of taking medical history, clinical examination and spirometry were chosen by non-simple random sampling. The participants and their parents were interviewed. Oral examination was performed by a qualified dentist. The data were collected by use of questionnaires and analyzed by the stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, using SPSS version 16. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was a significant correlation between the number of cetirizine and ketotifen tablets taken and decayed/missing/filled (dmf/DMF) teeth score (P=0.006). There were no correlations between the number of consumed sprays and dmf/DMF score (P=0.923), the duration of drug therapy (P=0.907) or the type of medication taken including ß2 agonists, antihistamines, steroids or a combination of them (P=0.907). Conclusions: The present study showed that the tablet form of medications significantly increased the severity of dental caries even in presence of confounders (sex, age, duration of disease, tooth brushing, sugar consumption, fluoride therapy, mouth dryness). PMID:28127315

  4. The communication skills course for second year medical students at Hannover Medical School: An evaluation study based on students' self-assessments.

    PubMed

    von Lengerke, Thomas; Kursch, Angelika; Lange, Karin

    2011-01-01

    In the model medical curriculum HannibaL at Hannover Medical School (MHH, Hannover, Germany), communication skills in taking case histories and disclosing diagnoses (breaking bad news) are assessed through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). This is part of the examinations which at the MHH represent the equivalent to the First Part of the Medical Examinations. The second year doctor-patient communication course preparing for these examinations was evaluated during the 2009/10 academic year.Using questionnaires specific to the learning objectives, learning needs were assessed, pre-post comparisons of self-assessed competencies were performed and key teaching methods were evaluated (5-point Likert scales, "5"=fully agree). At T0 (start of the course) 267 students participated (response rate: 93.7%), of which 180 filled out the T1 questionnaire during the last session of the course (67.4%). Within-subject analyses of variance and paired t-tests were conducted.The highest learning needs were found for the "to show how"-items regarding history taking and disclosing diagnoses (M=4.4). The T1-T0 comparisons showed the greatest improvements for history taking ("to know how": mean difference = +1.7, "to show how": +1.8, p<.0001 as with all tests) and the "to know how"-item regarding the disclosure of diagnoses (+1.6), followed by the "to show how"-items on disclosing a diagnosis (+1.4), shared decision making (+1.2), self-assessing one's own strengths/weaknesses (+1.0) and confidently approaching new patients (+0.7). Students with T0 values of 1 or 2 on the respective scales improved on average by 2.2 points across all items, students with the value of 3 by 1.1, and from 4 or 5 by 0.1. Methodically, the use of simulated patients was rated the most helpful (M=4.8, 87% with the scale value 5). This doctor-patient communication course is associated with substantial improvements regarding all key learning objectives. Regarding methods, the deployed simulated

  5. The communication skills course for second year medical students at Hannover Medical School: An evaluation study based on students' self-assessments

    PubMed Central

    von Lengerke, Thomas; Kursch, Angelika; Lange, Karin

    2011-01-01

    In the model medical curriculum HannibaL at Hannover Medical School (MHH, Hannover, Germany), communication skills in taking case histories and disclosing diagnoses (breaking bad news) are assessed through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). This is part of the examinations which at the MHH represent the equivalent to the First Part of the Medical Examinations. The second year doctor-patient communication course preparing for these examinations was evaluated during the 2009/10 academic year. Using questionnaires specific to the learning objectives, learning needs were assessed, pre-post comparisons of self-assessed competencies were performed and key teaching methods were evaluated (5-point Likert scales, “5”=fully agree). At T0 (start of the course) 267 students participated (response rate: 93.7%), of which 180 filled out the T1 questionnaire during the last session of the course (67.4%). Within-subject analyses of variance and paired t-tests were conducted. The highest learning needs were found for the “to show how”-items regarding history taking and disclosing diagnoses (M=4.4). The T1-T0 comparisons showed the greatest improvements for history taking (“to know how”: mean difference = +1.7, “to show how”: +1.8, p<.0001 as with all tests) and the “to know how”-item regarding the disclosure of diagnoses (+1.6), followed by the “to show how”-items on disclosing a diagnosis (+1.4), shared decision making (+1.2), self-assessing one’s own strengths/weaknesses (+1.0) and confidently approaching new patients (+0.7). Students with T0 values of 1 or 2 on the respective scales improved on average by 2.2 points across all items, students with the value of 3 by 1.1, and from 4 or 5 by 0.1. Methodically, the use of simulated patients was rated the most helpful (M=4.8, 87% with the scale value 5). This doctor-patient communication course is associated with substantial improvements regarding all key learning objectives. Regarding

  6. A Human Development View of Learning Disabilities: From Theory to Practice. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, Corrine E.; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a human development model for understanding and treating age related deficits that seem to be characteristic of individuals with learning disabilities. It is the culmination of years of clinical experience, qualitative research, and scholarship in the search for a framework that would be useful for the treatment of learning…

  7. Inspiring Active Learning: A Complete Handbook for Today's Teachers, Expanded 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmin, Merrill; Toth, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    A new handbook for every teacher's desk. Years of research and experience distilled into practical options for handling the teachers' many tasks: from beginning a class to maintaining engagement, from motivating slackers to managing disrupters, from building efficient routines to cushioning student anxiety, from individualizing instruction to…

  8. Survey in the Emergency Department of Parents’ Understanding of Cough and Cold Medication Use in Children Younger Than 2 Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Survey in the Emergency Department of Parents’ Understanding of Cough and Cold Medication Use in Children Younger Than 2 Years Shawn M. Varney, MD...Administration (FDA) released a public health advisory recommending that over-the-counter cough and cold medications (CCMs) not be used in children...CCM use in children younger than 2 years. Most thought CCMs were safe and effective. KeyWords: cough and cold medications, Food and Drug

  9. The Departmental Technical Curriculum Instructional Costs of Emergency Medical Technician-Paramedic Programs in Two-Year Public Colleges in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruple, Judith A.

    This dissertation surveys, analyzes and reports the comparison of direct departmental costs associated with the technical core curriculum of emergency medical technology programs at nine public two-year community colleges for the academic years of 1989-90, 1990-91, and 1991-92. Data were collected using The Emergency Medical Training Technology…

  10. Use of Curricular and Extracurricular Assessments to Predict Performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1: A Multi-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy, Robyn A.; Herial, Nabeel A.; Khuder, Sadik A.; Metting, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies student performance predictions based on the United States Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE) Step 1. Subjects were second-year medical students from academic years of 2002 through 2006 (n = 711). Three measures of basic science knowledge (two curricular and one extracurricular) were evaluated as predictors of USMLE Step 1 scores.…

  11. 2nd Congress on applied synthetic biology in Europe (Málaga, Spain, November 2013).

    PubMed

    Vetter, Beatrice V; Pantidos, Nikolaos; Edmundson, Matthew

    2014-05-25

    The second meeting organised by the EFB on the advances of applied synthetic biology in Europe was held in Málaga, Spain in November 2013. The potential for the broad application of synthetic biology was reflected in the five sessions of this meeting: synthetic biology for healthcare applications, tools and technologies for synthetic biology, production of recombinant proteins, synthetic plant biology, and biofuels and other small molecules. Outcomes from the meeting were that synthetic biology offers methods for rapid development of new strains that will result in decreased production costs, sustainable chemical production and new medical applications. Additionally, it also introduced novel ways to produce sustainable energy and biofuels, to find new alternatives for bioremediation and resource recovery, and environmentally friendly foodstuff production. All the above-mentioned advances could enable biotechnology to solve some of the major problems of Society. However, while there are still limitations in terms of lacking tools, standardisation and suitable host organisms, this meeting has laid a foundation providing cutting-edge concepts and techniques to ultimately convert the potential of synthetic biology into practice.

  12. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  13. Effect of the nanocrystalline structure type on the optical properties of TiO2:Nd (1 at.%) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Michal; Wojcieszak, Damian; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Zatryb, Grzegorz; Misiewicz, Jan; Morgiel, Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films, each doped with the same amount of neodymium (1 at.%) were deposited by Low Pressure Hot Target Reactive Sputtering and High Energy Reactive Magnetron Sputtering processes in order to obtain anatase and rutile thin film structures respectively. The microstructure and phase composition were analyzed using the transmission electron microscopy method including high resolution electron microscopy imaging. The measurements of the optical properties showed, that both prepared thin films were transparent in the visible light range and had a low extinction coefficient of ca. 3 ṡ 10-3. The thin film with the anatase structure had a lower cut-off wavelength and refractive index and a higher value of optical energy band gap as-compared to the TiO2:Nd coating with the rutile structure. Simultaneously, more efficient photoluminescence emission was observed for the rutile thin films.

  14. 2nd ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer: locally advanced stage III non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, W E E; De Ruysscher, D; Weder, W; Le Péchoux, C; De Leyn, P; Hoffmann, H; Westeel, V; Stahel, R; Felip, E; Peters, S

    2015-08-01

    To complement the existing treatment guidelines for all tumour types, ESMO organises consensus conferences to focus on specific issues in each type of tumour. The 2nd ESMO Consensus Conference on Lung Cancer was held on 11-12 May 2013 in Lugano. A total of 35 experts met to address several questions on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in each of four areas: pathology and molecular biomarkers, first-line/second and further lines of treatment in advanced disease, early-stage disease and locally advanced disease. For each question, recommendations were made including reference to the grade of recommendation and level of evidence. This consensus paper focuses on locally advanced disease.

  15. International collaborative study for establishment of the 2nd WHO International Standard for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Dougall, Thomas; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    In this report we present the results of a collaborative study for the preparation and calibration of a replacement International Standard (IS) for Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate; 5-d-ribitol-(1 → 1)-β-d-ribose-3-phosphate; PRP). Two candidate preparations were evaluated. Thirteen laboratories from 9 different countries participated in the collaborative study to assess the suitability and determine the PRP content of two candidate standards. On the basis of the results from this study, Candidate 2 (NIBSC code 12/306) has been established as the 2nd WHO IS for PRP by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation with a content of 4.904 ± 0.185mg/ampoule, as determined by the ribose assays carried out by 11 of the participating laboratories.

  16. The 2nd Order Focusing by Energy for TOF Sector Field Mass Analyzer with an Orthogonal Acceleration: Theory, Modeling, Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poteshin, S. S.; Chernyshev, D. M.; Sysoev, Alexey A.; Sysoev, Alexander A.

    Currently axially symmetric type of analyzer with an electrostatic sector fields (AESF) is rarely used to construct time-of-flight mass spectrometers. The main drawback, hindering the wider use of the analyzers of this type, is the lack of chromatic second-order focusing by energy. However, the configuration of AESF in combination with orthogonal accelerator (OA) allows to achieved it through compensation of energy aberrations of the analyzer in the system of orthogonal input of the ion beam. In the presented work the results of theoretical calculation, simulation and experimentally obtained data are compared. Characteristics of the analyzer with OA in a large extent depend on the parameters of the incoming ion beam. Data of modeling the 2nd stage of gas-dynamic interface, which have the greatest influence on the parameters of the ion beam, is provided.

  17. Characterization of γ and γ' phases in 2nd and 4th generation single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietara, Maciej; Neumeier, Steffen; Göken, Mathias; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    A Ni based single crystal superalloy from the 2nd generation, PWA 1484, and one from the 4th generation, PWA 1497, were comparatively studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and nanoindentation technique in an atomic force microscope (NI-AFM) after high temperature creep deformation. During primary creep of both generations of superalloys, γ' precipitates start to coalesce and grow directionally. Further creep deformation leads to the topological inversion and coarsening of the rafted microstructure. The NI-AFM technique was used for measurements of the hardness of the γ and γ' phases in as-received and creep deformed samples in various conditions. The g matrix of the PWA 1497 superalloy is on average 0.8 GPa harder than that of PWA 1484 that can be explained by higher content of Re and Ru, since they partition predominantly to the matrix phase.

  18. Assessment of first-year medical students' perceptions of teaching and learning through team-based learning sessions.

    PubMed

    Obad, Adam S; Peeran, Ahmed A; Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Alsheikh, Wissal J; Kalagi, Dana A; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A; Khan, Tehreem A; Shaikh, Abdul Ahad; Ganguly, Paul; Yaqinuddin, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an emerging teaching and learning strategy being employed in medical schools. The College of Medicine at Alfaisal University has adopted a TBL approach as an instructional method for first-year medical students. The aim of the present study was to describe the TBL method employed at Alfaisal University College of Medicine and to assess first-year medical students' perceptions of this learning modality for the anatomy- and physiology-based blocks/courses in organ systems form of curriculum. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was structured based on Kirkpatrick's theory and assessed three major domains: reaction, learning, and behavior. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Cronbach's α-coefficient tests were used to assess the validity and reliability of the construct, respectively. CFA showed an adequate validity of the survey and Cronbach's α revealed an acceptable internal uniformity (0.69). A total of 185 respondents rated reaction, learning, and behavior toward introduction of TBL as 3.53 ± 1.01, 3.59 ± 1.12, and 3.57 ± 1.12, respectively. Excellent students rated TBL highly in all major domains compared with borderline students (reaction, behavior, and learning domains with P values of <0.049, <0.035, and <0.031, respectively). Students who had prior teamwork experience rated TBL higher in terms of their learning experience compared with those who were rarely involved in team work. This study demonstrated that Alfaisal University first-year medical students perceived TBL positively as a teaching and learning strategy for functional anatomy, and prior involvement in teamwork and academic performance correlates with higher ratings of TBL.

  19. Combined effects of prenatal medication use and delivery type are associated with eczema at age 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Zoratti, Edward M.; KimMD, Haejin; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2015-01-01

    Background Separately, prenatal antibiotics and cesarian delivery have been found to be associated with increased risk of allergic diseases. It is not clear if these factors may modify the effect of each other. Objective Assess whether the associations between delivery types and eczema, sensitization and total IgE at age 2 years were modified by maternal use of prenatal medications. Methods Prenatal charts of women enrolled in the WHEALS birth cohort were reviewed for delivery mode and medications prescribed and administered throughout their entire pregnancy, including systemic antibiotics and vaginally applied antifungal medications. The associations between the delivery mode and select medications and eczema, sensitization (≥1 of 10 allergen specific IgE ≥0.35 IU/ml) and total IgE at age 2 years were assessed. Results There was a lower risk of eczema among vaginally versus c-section born children (relative risk adjusted for race=aRR=0.77., 95% CI 0.56, 1.05). Although not statistically significantly different, this association was stronger among the subset of children born vaginally to a mother who did not use systemic antibiotics or vaginal antifungal medications (aRR=0.69, 95% CI 0.44, 1.08) compared to those born vaginally to mothers who used systemic antibiotics or vaginal antifungals (aRR=0.81, 95% CI 0.57, 1.14). A protective association between vaginal birth and sensitization (aRR=0.86, 95% CI 0.72, 1.03) was similar for those children born vaginally to a mother who did not (aRR=0.87, 95% CI 0.69, 1.10) and who did (RR=0.85, 95% CI 0.70, 1.04) use systemic antibiotics or vaginal antifungal medications. There were no associations with total IgE. Conclusions Children born vaginally had lower risk of eczema and sensitization compared with those born via c-section; however, the protective association with eczema may be slightly weakened when mothers took systemic antibiotics or vaginally applied medications during pregnancy. PMID:25469564

  20. CO2 dynamics in nested catchments: a longitudinal perspective from soil to 1st and 2nd order streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Lehmann, J.; Riha, S. J.; Couto, E. G.

    2005-12-01

    Fluxes of CO2 from terrestrial to aquatic environments were investigated in a nested catchment study in the seasonally-dry southern Amazon. Dissolved CO2 concentrations in groundwater springs, four 1st order streams and one 2nd order stream were determined via routine sampling and in-situ monitoring. CO2 concentrations were monitored in the soil atmosphere to 8m. Belowground, the seasonal trend in soil CO2 concentrations at depth lagged that of seasonal water table dynamics, with peak concentrations (8.7% CO2 vol/vol at 4m) occurring one month after maximum water table height, indicating a shift in root respiration and plant water uptake to deeper soil layers during the dry season. Peak dissolved CO2 concentrations in springs and streams lagged the soil CO2 maximum by an additional month. During storm events, streamflow CO2 concentrations were found to decrease initially, reflecting the initial contribution of low-CO2 direct precipitation and surface runoff. Streamwater CO2 then increased as the contribution of pre-event water to storm flow increased. Dissolved CO2 in springs was also found to increase during storm events. Diurnal fluctuations in dissolved CO2 of springs were also observed, indicating the connectivity of the biosphere, pedosphere and hydrosphere for headwater catchments. The dissolved CO2 concentration within 1st order streams decreases rapidly downstream from stream sources, with spring CO2 concentration 3.3 times that at headwater catchment outlets. This initial outgassing of CO2 within 1st order streams was found to be accompanied by a corresponding increase in the pH of stream water. However, dissolved CO2 concentrations were not found to be significantly different between 1st and 2nd order streams. This suggests a discontinuity between some processes at the terrestrial-aquatic interface in headwater catchments and those of larger-order watersheds.

  1. Gender correlation of stress levels and sources of stress among first year students in a medical college.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Yogesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Singhi, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Medical courses in India are very demanding for the students thus making career in medical education very stressful. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of stress levels in 100 first year medical students and to explore the sources of stress & it's relationship across the male and female students. Demographic information and Qualitative data from investigator tailored Medical Student Stress Questionnaire (MSSQ) by self rating under supervision of investigators were subjected to a thematic analysis. Stress perceived was more in males students (82.2%) as compared to females (61.8%) and their MSSQ index score was significantly different (U=985; P=0.02). Moderate to high academic stress was present among 79% of students more so in males with the academic domain score significantly different from that of females (U=883; P=0.007). Females perceived more stress in inter personal domain (12.7%) with the score significantly different from males (U=953.5; P=0.02). Group and Teaching stress was equally present in males and females.

  2. Risk factor control, adherence to medication and follow up visit, five years after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Arsalan; Hasandokht, Tolou; Mahdavi-Roshan, Marjan; Kheirkhah, Jalal; Gholipour, Mahboueh; Pouradollah Tootkaoni, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Inadequate adherence to medication and follow up visits were proposed correlated with cardiovascular mortality and complications. This study was planned to evaluate medication and follow up adherence and risk factor control in patients with coronary artery disease 5 years after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, adult patients who underwent CABG in 2010 were enrolled. Conventional and probable risk factor control and adherence to medication and follow up visits were assessed. Results: 196 patients were recruited to the study. Uncontrolled blood pressure, blood glucose and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)were reported in 48%, 61% and 32% of patients, respectively. More than 63% of former smokers restarted smoking during 6-12 months after bypass. Poor medication adherence was present in 10.7% in the study population. The last follow up visit time for 30% of patients was later than 12 months after CABG. Conclusion: Poor risk factors control and adherence to follow up visits was common among patients undergoing CABG. PMID:28210470

  3. Evaluation of self-perception of mechanical ventilation knowledge among Brazilian final-year medical students, residents and emergency physicians

    PubMed Central

    Tallo, Fernando Sabia; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; de Andrade Negri, Alexandre Jorgi; Filho, Paulo Cesar; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Lopes, Antônio Carlos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present self-assessments of knowledge about mechanical ventilation made by final-year medical students, residents, and physicians taking qualifying courses at the Brazilian Society of Internal Medicine who work in urgent and emergency settings. METHODS: A 34-item questionnaire comprising different areas of knowledge and training in mechanical ventilation was given to 806 medical students, residents, and participants in qualifying courses at 11 medical schools in Brazil. The questionnaire’s self-assessment items for knowledge were transformed into scores. RESULTS: The average score among all participants was 21% (0-100%). Of the total, 85% respondents felt they did not receive sufficient information about mechanical ventilation during medical training. Additionally, 77% of the group reported that they would not know when to start noninvasive ventilation in a patient, and 81%, 81%, and 89% would not know how to start volume control, pressure control and pressure support ventilation modes, respectively. Furthermore, 86.4% and 94% of the participants believed they would not identify the basic principles of mechanical ventilation in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respectively, and would feel insecure beginning ventilation. Finally, 77% said they would fear for the safety of a patient requiring invasive mechanical ventilation under their care. CONCLUSION: Self-assessment of knowledge and self-perception of safety for managing mechanical ventilation were deficient among residents, students and emergency physicians from a sample in Brazil. PMID:28273238

  4. Relationship between anxiety and medical disorders among compulsory military service candidates between the years 1998-2013.

    PubMed

    Shelef, Leah; Dotan, Shron; Kaminsky, Dan; Kedem, Ron; Margulis, Alexander; Hassidim, Ayal

    2016-10-30

    One of the most common psychiatric diagnoses among adolescents is anxiety disorder. Many of the anxiety symptoms are expressed physiologically, and therefore can mimic other medical conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the association between anxiety disorders and other medical conditions sharing common symptoms with anxiety (MDSCSA: Irritable Bowel Syndrome, asthma, migraine and hyperhidrosis). The study was based on the national database of the candidates for military service in Israel. Data for the years 1998-2013 was retrieved to create the study dataset. The final cohort population was comprised of 1,229,461 military service candidates. Anxiety prevalence and its association with other medical conditions sharing the same symptoms was examined in the cohort. The results showed significant statistical association between anxiety and IBS, asthma, migraine and hyperhidrosis. These findings support the fact that there is a clear association between anxiety disorder and the examined medical conditions. Moreover, in the military setting, the primary care physician has an important role in giving a correct diagnosis for soldiers presenting with symptoms that can be regarded both to anxiety and to other physical illnesses.

  5. Do MCAT scores predict USMLE scores? An analysis on 5 years of medical student data

    PubMed Central

    Gauer, Jacqueline L.; Wolff, Josephine M.; Jackson, J. Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine the associations and predictive values of Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) component and composite scores prior to 2015 with U.S. Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores, with a focus on whether students scoring low on the MCAT were particularly likely to continue to score low on the USMLE exams. Method Multiple linear regression, correlation, and chi-square analyses were performed to determine the relationship between MCAT component and composite scores and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores from five graduating classes (2011–2015) at the University of Minnesota Medical School (N=1,065). Results The multiple linear regression analyses were both significant (p<0.001). The three MCAT component scores together explained 17.7% of the variance in Step 1 scores (p<0.001) and 12.0% of the variance in Step 2 CK scores (p<0.001). In the chi-square analyses, significant, albeit weak associations were observed between almost all MCAT component scores and USMLE scores (Cramer's V ranged from 0.05 to 0.24). Discussion Each of the MCAT component scores was significantly associated with USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores, although the effect size was small. Being in the top or bottom scoring range of the MCAT exam was predictive of being in the top or bottom scoring range of the USMLE exams, although the strengths of the associations were weak to moderate. These results indicate that MCAT scores are predictive of student performance on the USMLE exams, but, given the small effect sizes, should be considered as part of the holistic view of the student. PMID:27702431

  6. Do MCAT scores predict USMLE scores? An analysis on 5 years of medical student data.

    PubMed

    Gauer, Jacqueline L; Wolff, Josephine M; Jackson, J Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine the associations and predictive values of Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) component and composite scores prior to 2015 with U.S. Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores, with a focus on whether students scoring low on the MCAT were particularly likely to continue to score low on the USMLE exams. Method Multiple linear regression, correlation, and chi-square analyses were performed to determine the relationship between MCAT component and composite scores and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores from five graduating classes (2011-2015) at the University of Minnesota Medical School (N=1,065). Results The multiple linear regression analyses were both significant (p<0.001). The three MCAT component scores together explained 17.7% of the variance in Step 1 scores (p<0.001) and 12.0% of the variance in Step 2 CK scores (p<0.001). In the chi-square analyses, significant, albeit weak associations were observed between almost all MCAT component scores and USMLE scores (Cramer's V ranged from 0.05 to 0.24). Discussion Each of the MCAT component scores was significantly associated with USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores, although the effect size was small. Being in the top or bottom scoring range of the MCAT exam was predictive of being in the top or bottom scoring range of the USMLE exams, although the strengths of the associations were weak to moderate. These results indicate that MCAT scores are predictive of student performance on the USMLE exams, but, given the small effect sizes, should be considered as part of the holistic view of the student.

  7. Respiratory function measurements in a cohort of medical students: a ten-year follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Lawther, P J; Brooks, A G; Waller, R E

    1978-01-01

    A cohort of medical students first seen in 1962 has now been examined for a third time. The prevalence of symptoms of cough, phlegm, and breathlessness among them has remained low, and smoking habits have been light in comparison with those of the general population. Results of the three successive sets of measurements of lung function indicate that, in general, optimum values were reached in the early 20s, with little further change up to age 29. There was some evidence of reduced ventilatory capacity in subjects with histories of acute chest illnesses. PMID:746504

  8. Deafness and liver disease in a 57-year-old man: a medical history of Beethoven.

    PubMed

    Hui, A C; Wong, S M

    2000-12-01

    Ludwig van Beethoven had a number of medical conditions, including deafness and chronic liver disease, for which there are contemporary descriptions. An autopsy was performed on the day after his death. Physicians and historians have tried to reinterpret original sources to determine the causes of his deafness and systemic illnesses. We have reviewed the differential diagnoses that have been proposed by otologists and physicians. Clinical and post-mortem findings point to renal papillary necrosis and liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology. In the absence of further histological examination, there is no definitive answer to the cause of his deafness and gastro-intestinal symptoms.

  9. [Ninety years of education in Social Medicine at the Medical Faculty of Masaryk University in Brno].

    PubMed

    Holčík, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Social Medicine at the Medical Faculty of Masaryk University was founded by Prof. Dr František Hamza. Prof. Dr Adolf Žáček, who worked in the World Health Organization in Geneva in 1961-1963, uses his knowledge and experiences to remarkable increasing quality of education and research at this department. Present situation in health care system in the Czech Republic demonstrates that there are great challenges for education and research in the field of Social Medicine.

  10. International Medical Mission Facing Global Increase of Chronic Disease: 2-Year Experience in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Specialists of developing countries are facing the epidemic growth of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). From 2011 to 2013, I, as a Korean volunteer doctor, had been working in a local primary healthcare center in Bangladesh, assessing rates of NCDs. Proportion of patients with NCDs was increased from 74.96% in 1999 to 83.05% in 2012, particularly due to the spreading of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and tuberculosis. To succeed in medical mission in developing countries, volunteer doctors have to take measures for preventing chronic diseases along with proper treatment. PMID:26839491

  11. Consensus Report: 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Ramseier, Christoph A; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Needleman, Ian G; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Lahtinen, Aira; Ainamo, Anja; Alajbeg, Ivan; Albert, David; Al-Hazmi, Nadia; Antohé, Magda Ecaterina; Beck-Mannagetta, Johann; Benzian, Habib; Bergström, Jan; Binnie, Viv; Bornstein, Michael; Büchler, Silvia; Carr, Alan; Carrassi, Antonio; Casals Peidró, Elias; Chapple, Ian; Compton, Sharon; Crail, Jon; Crews, Karen; Davis, Joan Mary; Dietrich, Thomas; Enmark, Birgitta; Fine, Jared; Gallagher, Jennifer; Jenner, Tony; Forna, Doriana; Fundak, Angela; Gyenes, Monika; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Kinnunen, Taru; Knevel, Ron; Koerber, Anne; Labella, Roberto; Lulic, Martina; Mattheos, Nikos; McEwen, Andy; Ohrn, Kerstin; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Preshaw, Philip; Radley, Nicki; Rosseel, Josine; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta; Suvan, Jean; Ulbricht, Sabina; Verstappen, Petra; Walter, Clemens; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Wennström, Jan; Wickholm, Seppo; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-02-01

    Tobacco use has been identified as a major risk factor for oral disorders such as cancer and periodontal disease. Tobacco use cessation (TUC) is associated with the potential for reversal of precancer, enhanced outcomes following periodontal treatment, and better periodontal status compared to patients who continue to smoke. Consequently, helping tobacco users to quit has become a part of both the responsibility of oral health professionals and the general practice of dentistry. TUC should consist of behavioural support, and if accompanied by pharmacotherapy, is more likely to be successful. It is widely accepted that appropriate compensation of TUC counselling would give oral health professionals greater incentives to provide these measures. Therefore, TUC-related compensation should be made accessible to all dental professionals and be in appropriate relation to other therapeutic interventions. International and national associations for oral health professionals are urged to act as advocates to promote population, community and individual initiatives in support of tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) counselling, including integration in undergraduate and graduate dental curricula. In order to facilitate the adoption of TUPAC strategies by oral health professionals, we propose a level of care model which includes 1) basic care: brief interventions for all patients in the dental practice to identify tobacco users, assess readiness to quit, and request permission to re-address at a subsequent visit, 2) intermediate care: interventions consisting of (brief) motivational interviewing sessions to build on readiness to quit, enlist resources to support change, and to include cessation medications, and 3) advanced care: intensive interventions to develop a detailed quit plan including the use of suitable pharmacotherapy. To ensure that the delivery of effective TUC becomes part of standard care, continuing education courses and updates should be implemented and

  12. Medical Lasers At The Crossroads: Directions For The Next Five Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Fritz A.

    1988-09-01

    Of course, much can be attributed to our relative youth - the sheer number and scope of the opportunities have distorted focus and strained resources. However, I believe that we have reached a point - a crossroads - where the topography is more clearly defined and where some discernible trends point to the direction this industry will take over the next five years. These will be important years - investors, especially, expect signs of maturity to replace unbounded youthful optimism. How many of us can look back on the business plans we wrote five years ago and not feel chastened (or depressed). Our excuse is that we got everything right except the timing. Well, the "timing" is the next five years! So my talk today will center upon my personal view of these next five years. I wish to emphasize the personal aspect of my discussion: this is my prescription for future happiness.

  13. The impact of self-concept and college involvement on the first-year success of medical students in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying-Xue; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Wan, Cheng-Song; Guo, Cui; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-03-01

    Students' first-year academic success plays a critical role on their overall development in college, which implies the need to concentrate on identifying ways to improve students' first-year academic success. Different from most research on the subject, this study attempted to combine the sociological perspective of college impact with a psychological perspective to synthetically explore the causal relationship of specific types of self-concept and college involvement with academic success of medical students. A longitudinal study was conducted using 519 matriculates at a medical university in mainland China. We conducted the Cooperative Institutional Research Program freshmen survey and the Your First College Year survey to collect data of the pre-college and college academic and social self-concept, college involvement components, and some input characteristics. The academic success was measured by the first-year grade point average. A pathway analysis was conducted and showed the following results. Having high academic self-concept, being engaged in class and putting effort in homework or study directly contributes to increasing college achievement. Students' pre-college achievement and self-concept, faculty interaction, and homework involvement positively affected students' college academic self-concept development, which indirectly improved average grade point. These findings contribute to our understanding of a student's ability to interact with his or her collegiate environment and to experience academic success.

  14. 25th RCOphth Congress, President's Session paper: 25 years of progress in medical retina

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, J M

    2014-01-01

    The quarter century since the foundation of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists has coincided with immense change in the subspecialty of medical retina, which has moved from being the province of a few dedicated enthusiasts to being an integral, core part of ophthalmology in every eye department. In age-related macular degeneration, there has been a move away from targeted, destructive laser therapy, dependent on fluorescein angiography to intravitreal injection therapy of anti-growth factor agents, largely guided by optical coherence tomography. As a result of these changes, ophthalmologists have witnessed a marked improvement in visual outcomes for their patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), while at the same time developing and enacting entirely novel ways of delivering care. In the field of diabetic retinopathy, this period also saw advances in laser technology and a move away from highly destructive laser photocoagulation treatment to gentler retinal laser treatments. The introduction of intravitreal therapies, both steroids and anti-growth factor agents, has further advanced the treatment of diabetic macular oedema. This era has also seen in the United Kingdom the introduction of a coordinated national diabetic retinopathy screening programme, which offers an increasing hope that the burden of blindness from diabetic eye disease can be lessened. Exciting future advances in retinal imaging, genetics, and pharmacology will allow us to further improve outcomes for our patients and for ophthalmologists specialising in medical retina, the future looks very exciting but increasingly busy. PMID:24993325

  15. 2ND FEASIBILITY STUDY OF A MUON STORAGE RING NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    OZAKI,S.; PALMER,R.B.; ZISMAN,M.S.

    2001-06-18

    The design and simulated performance of a second feasibility study are presented. The efficiency of producing muons is {approx} 0.17 {micro}/p with 24 GeV protons. This study was sponsored by the BNL Director, with BNL site specific driver and layout. It was a follow on to the First Study[2] sponsored by the Fermilab Director, with Fermilab site specific driver and layout, and was the main US collaboration conceptual effort during the past year. Other studies, and technical work by the collaboration is reported in other papers.

  16. European Software Engineering Process Group Conference (2nd Annual), EUROPEAN SEPG󈨥. Delegate Material, Tutorials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-17

    improvements European SEPG 1997 - Measurement Symposium [-chumer ier i Schtumberger Retail Petroleum Systems e Capture definitions, assumptions and 0 models ...Yellow Technology 񓃅 systems , 13,000 modules, I5MLOC "Analysis took 10 people 3 months "*The total estimate is 150 to 200 programmer years c • S...fml7 e Mt~ e .. , ~ Th. Ye A ’• P Some Examples - 2 A Cap Gemini study of 3 organizations *financial services -40 systems -6.5 MLOC -89,535 dates to

  17. Directional fidelity of nanoscale motors and particles is limited by the 2nd law of thermodynamics--via a universal equality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhisong; Hou, Ruizheng; Efremov, Artem

    2013-07-21

    Directional motion of nanoscale motors and driven particles in an isothermal environment costs a finite amount of energy despite zero work as decreed by the 2nd law, but quantifying this general limit remains difficult. Here we derive a universal equality linking directional fidelity of an arbitrary nanoscale object to the least possible energy driving it. The fidelity-energy equality depends on the environmental temperature alone; any lower energy would violate the 2nd law in a thought experiment. Real experimental proof for the equality comes from force-induced motion of biological nanomotors by three independent groups - for translational as well as rotational motion. Interestingly, the natural self-propelled motion of a biological nanomotor (F1-ATPase) known to have nearly 100% energy efficiency evidently pays the 2nd law decreed least energy cost for direction production.

  18. The experience of final year medical students undertaking a general practice run with a distance education component.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Steven; Gibbons, Veronique; Lawrenson, Ross

    2010-01-01

    In recognition of the difficulties posed for New Zealand medical students by travel during rural general practice attachments, a system of distance teaching was devised for final year medical students at the Waikato Clinical School. In place of weekly small group teaching using reflection on practice at the central campus led by a tutor, students participated in reflective learning via an electronic web based message board and once weekly brief individual discussion with a tutor. Moodle and Skype, both freeware applications, were used as the methods of facilitating asynchronous and synchronous learning environments. Students experienced significantly less travel time as a result of the innovation. They also reported enthusiasm for the modes of teaching and the technology. A small increase in tutor time commitment was necessary. Distance education initiatives can be undertaken with minimal expense in the general practice setting. The educational opportunities it offers can be similar to, but not identical to small group teaching.

  19. Twenty-two survivors over the age of 1 year with full trisomy 18: presenting and current medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah; Campbell, Emily

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to provide data about 22 survivors over the age of 1 year with full trisomy 18 (12-59 months). Mothers completed the online, mixed method Tracking Rare Incidence Syndrome (TRIS) Survey provides data on birth information (e.g., gestational age, birth weight) and medical conditions identified at birth and at the time of survey completion. Data indicate similar birth characteristics to other studies and presence of syndrome related medical conditions including cardiac conditions, use of a variety of feeding methods, apnea, respiratory difficulties, and kidney issues. Associated interventions, sometimes considered "aggressive" or "intensive" treatments including cardiac surgeries were noted in the sample. Implications for treatment are provided and the need for additional research with this clinical subgroup is needed.

  20. Interventional Pain Management in Rheumatological Diseases - A Three Years Physiatric Experience in a Tertiary Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Suzon Al; Das, Gautam; Khan, Amin Uddin A

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventional pain management (IPM) is a branch of medical science that deals with management of painful medical conditions using specially equipped X-ray machines and anatomical landmarks. Interventional physiatry is a branch of physical medicine and rehabilitation that treats painful conditions through intervention in peripheral joints, the spine, and soft tissues. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using three years of hospital records (2006 to 2008) from the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department at Chittagong Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh, with a view toward highlighting current interventional pain practice in a tertiary medical college hospital. Results The maximum amount of intervention was done in degenerative peripheral joint disorders (600, 46.0%), followed by inflammatory joint diseases (300, 23.0%), soft tissue rheumatism (300, 23.0%), and radicular or referred lower back conditions (100, 8.0%). Of the peripheral joints, the knee was the most common site of intervention. Motor stimulation-guided intralesional injection of methylprednisolone into the piriformis muscle was given in 10 cases of piriformis syndrome refractory to both oral medications and therapeutic exercises. Soft tissue rheumatism of unknown etiology was most common in the form of adhesive capsulitis (90, 64.3%), and is discussed separately. Epidural steroid injection was practiced for various causes of lumbar radiculopathy, with the exception of infective discitis. Conclusions All procedures were performed using anatomical landmarks, as there were no facilities for the C-arm/diagnostic ultrasound required for accurate and safe intervention. A dedicated IPM setup should be a requirement in all PMR departments, to provide better pain management and to reduce the burden on other specialties. PMID:22220242

  1. Highlights from AGU's 2nd virtual session: New magnetic field satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convenors, S.; Olsen, N.; Luehr, H.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past 150 years, the axial dipole component of the Earth's magnetic field has decayed by nearly 10%. This is ten times faster than if the dynamo that generates the field were switched off completely. The current decay rate is characteristic of magnetic reversals, which paleomagnetic data sets have shown occur on average about once every half million years. Three new geomagnetic field satellites have recently been placed in low-earth orbits and are investigating questions such as this rapid decay. Geographically, this decay is largely due to changes in the field in the South Atlantic region, where the expanding and deepening South Atlantic anomaly has serious implications for low-Earth orbit satellite operations. The magnetic field measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of contributions from a variety of sources: the fluid core,the magnetization of rocks in the Earth's crust, electric currents flowing in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, currents induced in the Earth by the time variations of the field, and electric currents induced by the oceanic circulation. The scientific challenge is the sophisticated separation of these various sources and the accurate determination of the spatial and temporal structure of them all. Multi-point measurements from high-precision satellites are a pre-requisite for such characterizations. With the launch of Oersted (1999), CHAMP and the Oersted-2 experiment onboard SAC-C (2000), there are now three satellites in near-Earth orbit measuring the scalar and vector magnetic fields at the nT accuracy level. In order to improve the utilization of these unique data sets, representatives of these projects publicly released simultaneous observations of data from all three satellites at www.dsri.dk/multimagsatellites. The data selection spanned a variety of viewing geometries, local times, and magnetic disturbance levels. Descriptive models and indices were also included. Presentations described the utility

  2. Detection of 1st- and 2nd-order temporal-envelope cues in a patient with left superior cortical damage.

    PubMed

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Maillet, Didier; Moroni, Christine; Belin, Catherine; Lorenzi, Christian

    2004-06-01

    This psychophysical study explores the extent to which the auditory cortex is necessary for various aspects of temporal-envelope perception, that is, perception of the slow temporal modulations in amplitude known to be crucial for sound identification. The ability to detect 1st- and 2nd-order sinusoidal amplitude modulation (AM) is evaluated in a single patient showing left-hemisphere damage encroaching the primary and secondary auditory cortices. Here, 1st- and 2nd-order AM refer to (1) sinusoidal variation in the amplitude of a 2 kHz pure tone, and (2) sinusoidal variation in the depth of a 64 Hz AM applied to the 2 kHz pure tone, respectively. The results replicate previous findings by showing that damage to the left auditory cortex results in a selective deficit in auditory sensitivity to the lowest 1St-order AM (i.e., 1st-order AM frequencies < 16 Hz). Moreover, a dissociation is apparent between the ability to detect 1st- and 2nd-order temporal-envelope cues. The patient shows poorer than normal ability to detect 2nd-order AM at low frequencies ranging from 4-23 Hz, but normal ability to detect the high (64 Hz) 1st-order AM carrying these 2nd-order modulations. This result indicates that damage to the left primary and secondary auditory cortices affects the ability to detect temporal variations in the local properties of sounds(such as AM depth). It is also consistent with the idea that, as in vision, central nonlinear mechanisms are involved in the computation of such local (or 2nd-order) temporal properties.

  3. Performance of 2nd Generation BaBar Resistive Plate Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Anulli, F.; Baldini, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Piccolo, M.; Zallo, A.; Cheng, C.H.; Lange, D.J.; Wright, D.M.; Messner, R.; Wisniewski, William J.; Pappagallo, M.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Capra, R.; /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Oregon U. /UC, Riverside /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-07-12

    The BaBar detector has operated nearly 200 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), constructed as part of an upgrade of the forward endcap muon detector, for the past two years. The RPCs experience widely different background and luminosity-driven singles rates (0.01-10 Hz/cm{sup 2}) depending on position within the endcap. Some regions have integrated over 0.3 C/cm{sup 2}. RPC efficiency measured with cosmic rays is high and stable. The average efficiency measured with beam is also high. However, a few of the highest rate RPCs have suffered efficiency losses of 5-15%. Although constructed with improved techniques and minimal use of linseed oil, many of the RPCs, which are operated in streamer mode, have shown increased dark currents and noise rates that are correlated with the direction of the gas flow and the integrated current. Studies of the above aging effects are presented and correlated with detector operating conditions.

  4. The 2nd International Workshop on Discrete Time Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Fields and Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    Due to advances in different areas of microwave and millimeter-wave techniques, demand for efficient CAD tools has grown. This statement is today as true as it was at our last workshop held two years ago in Munich on this topic. The numerical analysis in time domain is attractive since it describes the evolution of physical quantities in a natural way. The two basic concepts, the modelling of fields and networks, are more closely related than it seems at first glance. In the TLM method, for example, the network model is the basis for modelling electromagnetic fields. Another example is the application of generalized S-matrix methods and diacoptics in field theory. The purpose of this conference is to stimulate synoptic considerations of field theory and to promote a lively exchange between researchers engaged in these fields

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Francis Turbine and CAD used to Optimized the Runner Design (2nd).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutikno, Priyono

    2010-06-01

    Hydro Power is the most important renewable energy source on earth. The water is free of charge and with the generation of electric energy in a Hydroelectric Power station the production of green house gases (mainly CO2) is negligible. Hydro Power Generation Stations are long term installations and can be used for 50 years and more, care must be taken to guarantee a smooth and safe operation over the years. Maintenance is necessary and critical parts of the machines have to be replaced if necessary. Within modern engineering the numerical flow simulation plays an important role in order to optimize the hydraulic turbine in conjunction with connected components of the plant. Especially for rehabilitation and upgrading existing Power Plants important point of concern are to predict the power output of turbine, to achieve maximum hydraulic efficiency, to avoid or to minimize cavitations, to avoid or to minimized vibrations in whole range operation. Flow simulation can help to solve operational problems and to optimize the turbo machinery for hydro electric generating stations or their component through, intuitive optimization, mathematical optimization, parametric design, the reduction of cavitations through design, prediction of draft tube vortex, trouble shooting by using the simulation. The classic design through graphic-analytical method is cumbersome and can't give in evidence the positive or negative aspects of the designing options. So it was obvious to have imposed as necessity the classical design methods to an adequate design method using the CAD software. There are many option chose during design calculus in a specific step of designing may be verified in ensemble and detail form a point of view. The final graphic post processing would be realized only for the optimal solution, through a 3 D representation of the runner as a whole for the final approval geometric shape. In this article it was investigated the redesign of the hydraulic turbine's runner

  6. Peer-led Stress Prevention Seminars in the First Year of Medical School – A Project Report

    PubMed Central

    Bugaj, Till Johannes; Mücksch, Christine; Schmid, Carolin; Junne, Florian; Erschens, Rebecca; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning “on an equal footing”, the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL) is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation. Project description: With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students) in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree). Results: 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years). The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory) in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors’ competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale). Discussion: The seminar sessions’ importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective. Conclusion: PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking. PMID:26958651

  7. Fifty years after: some experiences of the medical care of prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Girdwood, R H

    1993-08-01

    Mention is made of Italian prisoners-of-war treated in Catterick military hospital but in October 1943 Italy joined the Allied side. An account is given of the medical condition of 78 Japanese POWs and of 228 members of the Japanese Indian Forces (JIFs) in a transit hospital in eastern India (now Bangladesh). Tropical sprue appeared to occur in an epidemic form each June and July in Burma and eastern India, but did not seem to have affected the Japanese or JIFs. A brief account is given of the condition of 180 European or Australian service men who had survived harsh conditions in Japanese POW camps until liberation in September 1945, then being admitted to a military hospital in Rangoon en route for home. Some had suffered from blindness as a result of malnutrition, the precise reason being uncertain, but there was some improvement after the injection of crude liver extract.

  8. The Learning Styles and the Preferred Teaching—Learning Strategies of First Year Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kharb, Poonam; Samanta, Prajna Paramita; Jindal, Manisha; Singh, Vishram

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning and to encourage the learners to learn more effectively. The learning style is an individual’s consistent way of perceiving, processing and retaining new information. Educational researchers have shown an increasing interest in the learning styles, the related instructional methods and the andrgogical teaching techniques. This interest is spurred by a desire to help the students to become capable and successful learners. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the preferred learning styles of medical students as well as their preferences of specific teaching-learning methods. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted on 100 first semester medical students who were enrolled at SMS & R, Sharda University, India. The VARK questionnaire, version 7.1 was used to categorize the learning preferences/modes as visual (V), auditory (A), read and write (R) and kinaesthetic (K). The students were also asked to rank the various teaching methodologies viz. lectures, tutorials, demonstrations and practicals/dissections from the most preferred choice to the least preferred one. Results: The majority (61%) of the students had multimodal VARK preferences. Among them, 41%, 14% and 6% preferred the bimodal, trimodal and the quadrimodal ways of information presentation. 39% of the respondents had one strong (unimodal) learning preference. The most common unimodal preference was kinaesthetic, followed by visual, auditory and read and write. The most preferred teaching methodology was practical/dissection (39%) and tutorial was the least preferred one (12%). Conclusion: One single approach to teaching does not work for every student or even for most of the students. The educators’ awareness of the various learning styles of the students and their efforts towards matching the teaching and learning styles may help in creating an effective learning environment for all the students. PMID:23905110

  9. OIFITS 2: the 2nd version of the data exchange standard for optical interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvert, Gilles; Young, John; Hummel, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes version 2 of the Optical Interferometry exchange Format (OIFITS), the standard for exchanging calibrated data from optical (visible or infrared) interferometers. This IAU-endorsed standard has been in use for 10 years at most of the past and current optical interferometer projects, including COAST, NPOI, IOTA, CHARA, VLTI, PTI and the Keck interferometer. Software is available for reading, writing and merging OIFITS files. This version 2 provides definitions of additional data tables (for example for polarisation measurements), addressing the needs of future interferometric instruments. Also included are data columns for a more rigorous description of measurement errors and their correlations. In that, this document is a step towards the design of a common data model for optical interferometry. Finally, the main OIFITS header is expanded with several new keywords summarising the content to allow doing data base searches. We request that comments and suggestions related to OIFITS be directed to the OLBIN email list. (See http://www.jmmc.fr/olbin-forum for information on how to subscribe and post to the list.)

  10. Enhancing Feedback On Case Reports To Third Year Medical Students On Clinical Attachment

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Preparation of case reports during student attachments has the attraction of reflecting real life clinical practice, but lacks standardisation when used in summative assessment. This study examined the occurrence and nature of feedback after the introduction of a new system of formative case reports in Third Year clinical attachments. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to compare the new system to previous practice. Comparison of questionnaire responses demonstrated more and earlier feedback in the New Third Year, which was likely to be delivered at a meeting rather than as written comment. In the New Third Year, the quality of feedback was better and several markers of high quality feedback were rated more highly. There was no difference, however, in students’ confidence in their ability to assess patients. The qualitative data from the New Third Year documented much excellent feedback but also examples of poor practice as well as inconsistency of advice. In conclusion, a relatively simple intervention effected radical changes to feedback practice and attitudes, although it is not known if the clinical skills of students improved. PMID:28298712

  11. Integrating Basic Science and Clinical Teaching for Third-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croen, Lila G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A 2-month program for third-year students at Yeshiva's Albert Einstein College of Medicine that provides a model for integrating basic sciences and clinical training is described. It demonstrates the importance of lifelong learning in a field that constantly changes. (Author/MLW)

  12. Medications for type 2 diabetes: how will we be treating patients in 50 years?

    PubMed Central

    Buse, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen the development of many new options for treating and preventing type 2 diabetes. Despite this success, the individual and societal burden of the disease continues unabated. Thus, the next 50 years will be critical if we are going to quell the major non-communicable disease of our time. The knowledge we will gain in the next few years from clinical studies will inform treatment guidelines with regard to which agents to use in whom and whether more aggressive approaches can slow the development of hyperglycaemia in those at high risk. Beyond that, we anticipate identification of novel targets and techniques for therapeutic intervention. These advances will lead to more personalised approaches to treatment. Most importantly, we will need to focus our political and economic efforts on enhancing and implementing public health approaches aimed at prevention of diabetes and its co-morbidities. This is one of a series of commentaries under the banner ‘50 years forward’, giving personal opinions on future perspectives in diabetes, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Diabetologia (1965–2015). PMID:25773402

  13. Evaluation of a Communication Skills Course for Second-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Deborah J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A five-year evaluation and redesign of the communication skills component of the Introduction to Clinical Medicine course was undertaken at the State University of New York Health Science Center at Syracuse College of Medicine. One of the changes was the introduction of simulated patients for practicing interviewing skills. (Author/MLW)

  14. Dog bite-related fatalities: a 15-year review of Kentucky medical examiner cases.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Bernstein, Mark L; Hunsaker, John C; Stewart, Donna M

    2009-09-01

    A human dog bite-related fatality generally refers to death proximately caused by trauma from a dog's teeth and jaws. According to The Humane Society of the United States, more than 300 individuals died of dog attacks in the United States between 1979 and 1996. Children <12 and elders >70 years represent the typical victims. Pit bull-type dogs, Rottweilers, and German Shepherds constitute the majority of canines implicated in these fatalities.This is a 15-year (1991-2005) retrospective review of dog bite-related fatalities undergoing medicolegal investigation in Kentucky. Of the 11 deaths, 10 consisted of multiple bite marks and blunt force injuries of the head and neck, trunk, and extremities. In 1 case, an asplenic victim's immediate cause of death was bacterial sepsis secondary to a dog bite. Individuals ranged between 14 months and 87 years; 7 (63.6%) were < or =6 years; 10 (90.9%) individuals were white, and 8 (72.7%) were male. Forensic odontological examinations were performed on the dogs in 4 cases. The requisite multidisciplinary investigation includes a detailed assessment of the scene, the victim, and dog or dogs suspected in the attack.

  15. Thirty-year risk of cardiovascular disease in senior medical students – based on the StudHeart study

    PubMed Central

    Morawiec, Robert; Janikowski, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Long-term risk functions highlight the need of prophylaxis in youth before the first symptoms of cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur. Aim On the basis of data obtained in the StudHeart study, the aim of this report was to evaluate the 30-year risk of CVD based on the risk scale developed by the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Material and methods Seven hundred and one students aged 22–27 (mean age: 24 ±1.42) from the 5th and 6th year of the medical faculties of the Medical University of Lodz were included in the study. The StudHeart study was based on an anonymous survey comprising 12 questions. Based on the answers the authors evaluated the 30-year risk of CVD in each respondent using an on-line calculator that allows one to evaluate: general CVD risk including coronary death, myocardial infarction, coronary insufficiency, angina, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, transient ischemic attack, peripheral artery disease, heart failure and hard CVD risk including coronary death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Results Elevated general 30-year CVD risk occurred in 23.18% of students, while hard CVD risk was elevated in 16.91% of respondents. In both cases elevated risk occurred more often in men (general CVD risk: 43.46% male vs. 8.93% female, p < 0.001 and hard CVD risk: 29.33% male vs. 8.19% female, p < 0.001). Elevation of the risk was mainly caused by overweight, obesity and smoking cigarettes. Conclusions Based on FHS 30-Year CVD risk, elevated risk occurred in almost one-fourth of students. Prophylactic actions should be performed, especially in men. PMID:27516798

  16. A 37-year medical follow-up of Manhattan Project Pu workers.

    PubMed

    Voelz, G L; Grier, R S; Hempelmann, L H

    1985-03-01

    Twenty-six male subjects, who worked with Pu during World War II under extraordinarily crude conditions, have been given medical examinations periodically over the past 37 y to identify potential health effects. Inhalation was the primary mode of the Pu exposures. Current estimates of the systemic Pu depositions in these individuals range from 2 to 95 nCi with a mean of 26 nCi. Seven individuals have depositions of 40 nCi or more, often considered the lifetime maximum permissible body burden for workers. Two individuals have died compared to 6.6 expected deaths based on U.S. adjusted rates for white males. The causes of death were myocardial infarction and accidental trauma. Examinations completed in 1981-82 revealed no cases of cancer in the group except for a history of skin cancers in three individuals. The diseases and physical changes noted in these individuals are characteristic of a male population in their upper 50s or 60s. This study yields no evidence suggesting that adverse health effects have resulted from the 37 y of exposure to internally deposited Pu.

  17. Training medical students in human rights: a fifteen-year experience in Geneva

    PubMed Central

    Chastonay, Philippe; Zesiger, Véronique; Ferreira, Jackeline; Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele

    2012-01-01

    Background Training health professionals in the field of human rights has long been advocated by the United Nations. Over the past decade some medical schools have introduced health and human rights courses, yet by far not all. This paper describes the objectives and the content of the Health and Human Rights program developed at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva. Methods The health and human rights program was developed through the identification of the course objectives, contents, and educational modalities using consensus techniques, and through a step by step implementation procedure integrating multiple evaluation processes. Results Defined objectives included the familiarization with the concepts, instruments and mechanisms of human rights, the links between health and human rights, and the role of health professionals in promoting human rights. The content ultimately adopted focused on the typology of human rights, their mechanisms of protection, their instruments, as well as social inequalities and vulnerable groups of the population. The implementation proceeded through a step by step approach. Evaluation showed high satisfaction of students, good achievement of learning objectives, and some academic and community impact. Conclusions High interest of students for a human rights course is encouraging. Furthermore, the community projects initiated and implemented by students may contribute to the social responsibility of the academic institution. PMID:26451186

  18. Using VARK Approach for Assessing Preferred Learning Styles of First Year Medical Sciences Students: A Survey from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Peyman, Hadi; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Yasemi, Masood; Rasool, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Yasemi Monireh; Nahal, Monireh Mohammad Hassan; Karim, Hemati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preferred learning styles of learners are different, which depend on tastes, mentality preparedness, as well as physical condition, in terms of sensory modalities. Identifying and employing appropriate learning styles could play an important role in selecting teaching styles, which can improve education ultimately. Aim: The present study aimed to assess the diversity of learning styles amongst medical students of a medical sciences university which was located west of Iran, in 2010. Methods: A cross-sectional study which employed VARK learning style’s questionnaire was done on 141 first year medical sciences students at Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2010. Data was collected with use of VARK questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed on basis of experts’ views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α=0.86). Data were analysed by using SPSS software and Chi-square test. Results: Overall, 41.6% of the samples preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 17.7% preferred the Aural style, 17% preferred Reading and Writing, 6.4% preferred Kinesthetic style and 0.7% preferred Visual styles. Among the rest of the 82 students who preferred more than one style (multimodal), 17% chose two modes (bimodal), 13.5% chose three modes (tri-modal), and 27.6% chose four modes (quad-modal). There was a significant difference between educational levels and majors on one hand and choice of quad modal of VARK styles on the other hand (p=0.008). A significant association was also found between participants’ genders and selection of visual and reading/writing styles (p=0.03). Conclusion: The preferred learning styles of medical students in the present study were aural and reading/writing. It is suggested that all medical students must be tested to determine their desired learning styles by using VARK questionnaire, also to choose appropriate teaching methods and to improve educational

  19. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30

    This primer is intended for people interested in environmental problems of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. The second edition of the primer incorporates recent findings by researchers in DOE's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on the physical-chemical environment, microbial communities, and nature of the contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through the addition of nutrients (biostimulation) or inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation). Over the past few years, interest in bioremediation has increased. It has become clear that many organic contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels can be degraded to relatively harmless products such as CO{sub 2} (the end result of the degradation process). Waste water managers and scientists have also found that microorganisms can interact with metals and convert them from one chemical form to another. Laboratory tests and ex situ bioremediation applications have shown that microorganisms can change the valence, or oxidation state, of some heavy metals (e.g., chromium and mercury) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium) by using them as electron acceptors. In some cases, the solubility of the altered species decreases and the contaminant is immobilized in situ, i.e., precipitated into an

  20. Roles of doping ions in afterglow properties of blue CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wako, A. H.; Dejene, B. F.; Swart, H. C.

    2014-04-01

    Eu2+ doped and Nd3+ co-doped calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+) phosphor was prepared by a urea-nitrate solution combustion method at furnace temperatures as low as 500 °C. The produced CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ powder was investigated in terms of phase composition, morphology and luminescence by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Photoluminescence (PL) techniques respectively. XRD analysis depicts a dominant monoclinic phase that indicates no change in the crystalline structure of the phosphor with varying concentration of Eu2+ and Nd3+. SEM results show agglomerates with non-uniform shapes and sizes with a number of irregular network structures having lots of voids and pores. The Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and (FTIR) spectra confirm the expected chemical components of the phosphor. PL measurements indicated one broadband excitation spectra from 200 to 300 nm centered around 240 nm corresponding to the crystal field splitting of the Eu2+ d-orbital and an emission spectrum in the blue region with a maximum on 440 nm. This is a strong indication that there was dominantly one luminescence center, Eu2+ which represents emission from transitions between the 4f7 ground state and the 4f6-5d1 excited state configuration. High concentrations of Eu2+ and Nd3+ generally reduce both intensity and lifetime of the phosphor powders. The optimized content of Eu2+ is 1 mol% and for Nd3+ is 1 mol% for the obtained phosphors with excellent optical properties. The phosphor also emits visible light at around 587 and 616 nm. Such emissions can be ascribed to the 5D0-7F1 and 5D0-7F2 intrinsic transition of Eu3+ respectively. The decay characteristics exhibit a significant rise in initial intensity with increasing Eu2+ doping concentration while the decay time increased with Nd3+ co-doping. The observed afterglow can be ascribed to the generation of suitable traps due to the presence of the Nd3