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Sample records for 2r optical regenerator

  1. Calibrating FGS2R2 Optical Field Angle Distortion {OFAD}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelan, Edmund

    2009-07-01

    This proposal gathers the data needed to calibrate the optical field angle distortions in FGS2r2 to the level of accuracy { 40 mas} required for guiding HST. In addition, careful selection of guide star pairs allows calibration of the FGS2r2-FGS alignment. Selected stars from the galactic cluster M35 are repeatedly observed in POSITION mode by FGS2r2 with PUPIL element at a variety of spacecraft pointings and telescope roll angles. These stars and guide stars have absolute positions known to an accuracy of about 30 mas based upon the UCAC-3 and McNamara proper motions. In each of the 5 orbits there is also a single Transfer mode observation of a bright star with the PUPIL element to obtain reference S-curves at five different FOV locations. These S-curves are needed by the OTA group to facilitate analysis of guide star acquisition issues {binary stars, K-factor settings, etc}.

  2. Systemic colchicine inhibits goldfish optic nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Davis, R E; Schlumpf, B E; Klinger, P D

    1984-04-01

    Experiments were carried out to further investigate the regenerating goldfish optic nerve as a preparation for screening drugs or environmental toxins for adverse effects on neuronal circuit development. Regeneration was induced by unilateral retrobulbar optic nerve crush, and the opposite eye was kept intact. The time to recovery of vision was measured, as an index of regeneration and neurotoxicity, by an improved behavioral technique. The visual stimulus was changed to eliminate extraretinal photoresponding and to permit testing for vision with the right or left eye independently in a trial. Visual recovery occurred within 14 to 25 days. Colchicine, a potent inhibitor of microtubules and axonal transport, was administered semiweekly by ip injection, as in earlier experiments, to study the efficacy of the protocol. The drug resulted in an inhibition of regeneration at doses up to 0.2 micrograms/g body wt which did not impair responding with the control eye. Administration of beta-lumicolchicine, a photoisomer of colchicine that is a weak inhibitor of microtubules or axonal transport, up to 2.0 micrograms/g body wt, had no effect on regeneration or maintenance of visual responding. The results support the thesis that regenerating circuits are more sensitive indicators of neurotoxicity than are established circuits and confirm that the regenerating optic nerve can be used to screen molecules that may impair neuronal circuit development in vivo and to measure their relative potency.

  3. Protein phosphorylation: Localization in regenerating optic axons

    SciTech Connect

    Larrivee, D. )

    1990-09-01

    A number of axonal proteins display changes in phosphorylation during goldfish optic nerve regeneration. (1) To determine whether the phosphorylation of these proteins was closely linked to their synthesis in the retinal ganglion cell body, cycloheximide was injected intraocularly into goldfish whose optic nerves had been regenerating for 3 weeks. Cycloheximide reduced the incorporation of (3H)proline and 32P orthophosphate into total nerve protein by 84% and 46%, respectively. Of the 20 individual proteins examined, 17 contained less than 15% of the (3H)proline label measured in corresponding controls, whereas 18 proteins contained 50% or more of the 32P label, suggesting that phosphorylation was largely independent of synthesis. (2) To determine whether the proteins were phosphorylated in the ganglion cell axons, axonal transport of proteins was blocked by intraocular injection of vincristine. Vincristine reduced (3H)proline labeling of total protein by 88% and 32P labeling by 49%. Among the individual proteins (3H)proline labeling was reduced by 90% or more in 18 cases but 32P labeling was reduced only by 50% or less. (3) When 32P was injected into the cranial cavity near the ends of the optic axons, all of the phosphoproteins were labeled more intensely in the optic tract than in the optic nerve. These results suggest that most of the major phosphoproteins that undergo changes in phosphorylation in the course of regeneration are phosphorylated in the optic axons.

  4. Fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Sepaniak, Michael J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1993-01-01

    A fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor. The biosensor is particularly suitable for use in microscale work in situ. In one embodiment, the biosensor comprises a reaction chamber disposed adjacent the distal end of a waveguide and adapted to receive therein a quantity of a sample containing an analyte. Leading into the chamber is a plurality of capillary conduits suitable for introducing into the chamber antibodies or other reagents suitable for selective interaction with a predetermined analyte. Following such interaction, the contents of the chamber may be subjected to an incident energy signal for developing fluorescence within the chamber that is detectable via the optical fiber and which is representative of the presence, i.e. concentration, of the selected analyte. Regeneration of the biosensor is accomplished by replacement of the reagents and/or the analyte, or a combination of these, at least in part via one or more of the capillary conduits. The capillary conduits extend from their respective terminal ends that are in fluid communication with the chamber, away from the chamber to respective location(s) remote from the chamber thereby permitting in situ location of the chamber and remote manipulation and/or analysis of the activity with the chamber.

  5. Regenerable fiber-optic-based immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Bright, F V; Betts, T A; Litwiler, K S

    1990-05-15

    An immunosensor is described that is based on fluorescently labeled F(ab') anti-human serum albumin antibody fragments covalently immobilized to the distal end of a fiber-optic probe. When human serum albumin is present, it is bound to the sensor and shields the fluorescent label from the solvent water, and a significant increase in the label fluorescence results. The sensor can be regenerated by simply immersing the sensing tip in chaotropic media. Under these conditions the antigen-antibody complex is selectively disrupted without adversely affecting the sensor. In the present configuration, the same sensor can be recycled over 50 times before the immunosurface inactivates significantly. With proper storage the sensor can last for up to 4 months.

  6. Characterization of optic nerve regeneration using transgenic zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Diekmann, Heike; Kalbhen, Pascal; Fischer, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), fish are able to functionally regenerate severed axons upon injury. Although the zebrafish is a well-established model vertebrate for genetic and developmental studies, its use for anatomical studies of axon regeneration has been hampered by the paucity of appropriate tools to visualize re-growing axons in the adult CNS. On this account, we used transgenic zebrafish that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a GAP-43 promoter. In adult, naïve retinae, GFP was restricted to young retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons. Within the optic nerve, these fluorescent axons congregated in a distinct strand at the nerve periphery, indicating age-related order. Upon optic nerve crush, GFP expression was markedly induced in RGC somata and intra-retinal axons at 4 to at least 14 days post injury. Moreover, individual axons were visualized in their natural environment of the optic nerve using wholemount tissue clearing and confocal microscopy. With this novel approach, regenerating axons were clearly detectable beyond the injury site as early as 2 days after injury and grew past the optic chiasm by 4 days. Regenerating axons in the entire optic nerve were labeled from 6 to at least 14 days after injury, thereby allowing detailed visualization of the complete regeneration process. Therefore, this new approach could now be used in combination with expression knockdown or pharmacological manipulations to analyze the relevance of specific proteins and signaling cascades for axonal regeneration in vivo. In addition, the RGC-specific GFP expression facilitated accurate evaluation of neurite growth in dissociated retinal cultures. This fast in vitro assay now enables the screening of compound and expression libraries. Overall, the presented methodologies provide exciting possibilities to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying successful CNS regeneration in zebrafish. PMID

  7. Optical coherence tomography: a new strategy to image planarian regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Chin-Chou; Lin, Jen-Jen; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2014-09-10

    The planarian is widely used as a model for studying tissue regeneration. In this study, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the real-time, high-resolution imaging of planarian tissue regeneration. Five planaria were sliced transversely to produce 5 head and 5 tail fragments. During a 2-week regeneration period, OCT images of the planaria were acquired to analyze the signal attenuation rates, intensity ratios, and image texture features (including contrast, correlation, homogeneity, energy, and entropy) to compare the primitive and regenerated tissues. In the head and tail fragments, the signal attenuation rates of the regenerated fragments decreased from -0.2 dB/μm to -0.05 dB/μm, between Day 1 and Day 6, and then increased to -0.2 dB/μm on Day 14. The intensity ratios decreased to approximately 0.8 on Day 6, and increased to between 0.8 and 0.9 on Day 14. The texture parameters of contrast, correlation, and homogeneity exhibited trends similar to the signal attenuation rates and intensity ratios during the planarian regeneration. The proposed OCT parameters might provide biological information regarding cell apoptosis and the formation of a mass of new cells during planarian regeneration. Therefore, OCT imaging is a potentially effective method for planarian studies.

  8. Optical and magneto-optical properties of single crystals of RFe{sub 2} (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, and Lu) and GdCo{sub 2} intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.J.

    1999-02-12

    The author has studied the diagonal and off-diagonal optical conductivity of RFe{sub 2}(R = Gd, Tb, Ho, Lu) and GdCo{sub 2} single crystals grown by the flux method. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry the author has measured the dielectric function from 1.5 to 5.5 eV. The magneto-optical Kerr spectrometer at temperatures between 7 and 295 K and applied magnetic fields between 0.5 to 1.6 T. The apparatus and calibration method are described in detail. Using magneto-optical data and optical constants he derives the experimental value of the off-diagonal conductivity components. Theoretical calculations of optical conductivities and magneto-optical parameters were performed using the tight binding-linear muffin tin orbitals method within the local spin density approximation. He applied this TB-LMTO method to LuFe{sub 2}. The theoretical results obtained agree well with the experimental data. The oxidation effects on the diagonal part of the optical conductivity were considered using a three-phase model. The oxidation effects on the magneto-optical parameters were also considered by treating the oxide layer as a nonmagnetic thin transparent layer. These corrections change not only the magnitude but also the shape of the optical conductivity and the magneto-optical parameters.

  9. Reducing bit-error rate with optical phase regeneration in multilevel modulation formats.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Graham; Horak, Peter

    2013-12-15

    We investigate theoretically the benefits of using all-optical phase regeneration in a long-haul fiber optic link. We also introduce a design for a device capable of phase regeneration without phase-to-amplitude noise conversion. We simulate numerically the bit-error rate of a wavelength division multiplexed optical communication system over many fiber spans with periodic reamplification and compare the results obtained with and without phase regeneration at half the transmission distance when using the new design or an existing design. Depending on the modulation format, our results suggest that all-optical phase regeneration can reduce the bit-error rate by up to two orders of magnitude and that the amplitude preserving design offers a 50% reduction in bit-error rate relative to existing technology.

  10. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors strongly regulate postsynaptic activity levels during optic nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kolls, Brad J; Meyer, Ronald L

    2013-10-01

    During development, neuronal activity is used as a cue to guide synaptic rearrangements to refine connections. Many studies, especially in the visual system, have shown that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) plays a key role in mediating activity-dependent refinement through long-term potentiation (LTP)-like processes. Adult goldfish can regenerate their optic nerve and utilize neuronal activity to generate precise topography in their projection onto tectum. Although the NMDAr has been implicated in this process, its precise role in regeneration has not been extensively studied. In examining NMDAr function during regeneration, we found salient differences compared with development. By using field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) recordings, the contribution of the NMDAr at the primary optic synapse was measured. In contrast to development, no increase in NMDAr function was detectable during synaptic refinement. Unlike development, LTP could not be reliably elicited during regeneration. Unexpectedly, we found that NMDAr exerted a major effect on regulating ongoing tectal (postsynaptic) activity levels during regeneration. Blocking NMDAr strongly suppressed spontaneous activity during regeneration but had no significant effect in the normal projection. This difference could be attributed to an occlusion effect of strong optic drive in the normal projection, which dominated ongoing tectal activity. During regeneration, this optic drive is largely absent. Optic nerve stimulation further indicated that the NMDAr had little effect on the ability of optic fibers to evoke early postsynaptic impulse activity but was important for late network activity. These results indicate that, during regeneration, the NMDAr may play a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of ongoing activity and network excitability. PMID:23873725

  11. Kepler Observations of Rapid Optical Variability in the BL Lac Object W2r192+42

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    R.Edelson; Mushotzky, R.; Vaughn, S.; Scargle, J.; Gandhi, P.; Malkan, M.; Baumgartner, W.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first Kepler monitoring of a strongly variable BL Lac, W2R1926+42. The light curve covers 181 days with approx. 0.2% errors, 30 minute sampling and >90% duty cycle, showing numerous delta-I/I > 25% flares over timescales as short as a day. The flux distribution is highly skewed and non-Gaussian. The variability shows a strong rms-flux correlation with the clearest evidence to date for non-linearity in this relation. We introduce a method to measure periodograms from the discrete autocorrelation function, an approach that may be well-suited to a wide range of Kepler data. The periodogram is not consistent with a simple power-law, but shows a flattening at frequencies below 7x10(exp -5) Hz. Simple models of the power spectrum, such as a broken power law, do not produce acceptable fits, indicating that the Kepler blazar light curve requires more sophisticated mathematical and physical descriptions than currently in use.

  12. KEPLER OBSERVATIONS OF RAPID OPTICAL VARIABILITY IN THE BL LACERTAE OBJECT W2R1926+42

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, R.; Mushotzky, R.; Vaughan, S.; Scargle, J.; Gandhi, P.; Malkan, M.; Baumgartner, W.

    2013-03-20

    We present the first Kepler monitoring of a strongly variable BL Lac, W2R1926+42. The light curve covers 181 days with {approx}0.2% errors, 30 minute sampling and >90% duty cycle, showing numerous {delta}I/I > 25% flares over timescales as short as a day. The flux distribution is highly skewed and non-Gaussian. The variability shows a strong rms-flux correlation with the clearest evidence to date for nonlinearity in this relation. We introduce a method to measure periodograms from the discrete autocorrelation function, an approach that may be well-suited to a wide range of Kepler data. The periodogram is not consistent with a simple power-law, but shows a flattening at frequencies below 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Hz. Simple models of the power spectrum, such as a broken power law, do not produce acceptable fits, indicating that the Kepler blazar light curve requires more sophisticated mathematical and physical descriptions than currently in use.

  13. Design of all-optical multi-level regenerators based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangjian; Wu, Baojian; Zhou, Xingyu; Wan, Qingyao; Jiang, Shanglong; Wen, Feng; Qiu, Kun

    2016-12-01

    We propose a design method for all-optical multi-level regenerators by mimicking the normalized power transfer function (PTF) in the first-order approximation to the ideal step-like PTF, in which a key step is to appropriately select the amplitude and phase conditions of Mach-Zehnder-interferometer (MZI)-based regenerators. As an example, we describe the design process of the self-phase-modulation (SPM)-based MZI regenerator constructed by a section of nonlinear fiber and an optical phase shifter (OPS). It is shown that the parameter of reference power level (RPL) can be regarded as the upper limit of input power, which is useful for the measure of the multi-level regeneration performance. The number of regenerative power levels increases with the RPL parameter. For 4-level pulse amplitude modulated (4PAM) optical signals degraded by the Gaussian noises with the standard deviation of 0.02, the SPM-based MZI regenerator has an average noise reduction ratio (NRR) of 6.5 dB, better than that of 1st-order regenerator by about 5 dB.

  14. RZ-DQPSK Signal Amplitude Regeneration Using a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Han; Huang, Xi; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xin-Liang

    2012-04-01

    An all-optical return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift keying (RZ-DQPSK) signal regeneration scheme is experimentally demonstrated. Thanks to the gain saturation effect, common quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers have the ability to regenerate the amplitude distorted RZ-DQPSK signal, so amplitude noise can be reduced while phase information will not be distorted. A significant eye-opening improvement and a negative power penalty of about 1 dB can be achieved for an 80 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK signal.

  15. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Benowitz, L.I.; Shashoua, V.E.; Yoon, M.G.

    1981-03-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with (3H)-, the other with (14C)proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain.

  16. Axonal regeneration of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons studied by an optical nano-surgery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difato, F.; Tsushima, H.; Pesce, M.; Guiggiani, A.; Benfenati, F.; Blau, A.; Basso, M.; Vassalli, M.; Chieregatti, E.

    2012-02-01

    During development, the axons of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system lose their ability to regenerate after injury. In order to study the regeneration process, we developed a system integrating an optical tweezers and a laser dissector to manipulate the sample. A sub-nanosecond pulsed UVA laser was used to inflict a partial damage to the axon of mouse hippocampal neurons at early days in vitro. Partial axonal transections were performed in a highly controlled and reproducible way without affecting the regeneration process. Force spectroscopy measurements, during and after the ablation of the axon, were performed by optical tweezers with a bead attached to the neuronal membrane. Thus, the release of tension in the neurite could be analyzed in order to quantify the inflicted damage. After dissection, we monitored the viscoelastic properties of the axonal membrane, the cytoskeleton reorganization, and the dynamics of the newly formed growth cones during regeneration. In order to follow cytoskeleton dynamics in a long time window by tracking a bead attached to the neuron, we developed a real-time control of the microscope stage position with sub-millisecond and nanometer resolution. Axonal regeneration was documented by long-term (24-48 hours) bright-field live imaging using an optical microscope equipped with a custom-built cell culture incubator.

  17. Report on the National Eye Institute Audacious Goals Initiative: Regenerating the Optic Nerve.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Guido, William

    2016-03-01

    The National Eye Institute (NEI) hosted a workshop on November 19, 2014, as part of the Audacious Goals Initiative (AGI), an NEI-led effort to rapidly expand therapies for eye diseases through coordinated research funding. The central audacious goal aims to demonstrate by 2025 the restoration of usable vision in humans through the regeneration of neurons and neural connections in the eye and visual system. This workshop focused on identifying promising strategies for optic nerve regeneration. Its principal objective was to solicit input on future AGI-related funding announcements, and specifically to ask, where are we now in our scientific progress, and what progress should we reach for in the coming years? A full report was generated as a white paper posted on the NEI Web site; this report summarizes the discussion and outcomes from the meeting and serves as guidance for future funding of research that focuses on optic nerve regeneration. PMID:26990163

  18. A new type of Schwann cell graft transplantation to promote optic nerve regeneration in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Mo, Xiaofen; Guo, Wenyi; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Peihua; Wang, Yan; Rong, Xianfang; Tian, Jie; Sun, Xinghuai

    2010-12-01

    Like other parts of the central nervous system, the adult mammalian optic nerve is difficult to regenerate after injury. Transplantation of the peripheral nerve or a Schwann cell (SC) graft can promote injured axonal regrowth. We tried to develop a new type of tissue-engineered SC graft that consisted of SCs seeded onto a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduit. Meanwhile, SCs were transfected along the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene in vitro by electroporation to increase their neurotrophic effect. Four weeks after transplantation, GAP-43 labelled regenerating axons were found in the SC grafts, and axons in the CNTF-SC graft were longer than those in the SC graft. Tissue-engineered SC grafts can provide a feasible environment for optic nerve regeneration and may become an alternative for bridging damaged nerves and repairing nerve defects in the future.

  19. Report on the National Eye Institute Audacious Goals Initiative: Regenerating the Optic Nerve.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Guido, William

    2016-03-01

    The National Eye Institute (NEI) hosted a workshop on November 19, 2014, as part of the Audacious Goals Initiative (AGI), an NEI-led effort to rapidly expand therapies for eye diseases through coordinated research funding. The central audacious goal aims to demonstrate by 2025 the restoration of usable vision in humans through the regeneration of neurons and neural connections in the eye and visual system. This workshop focused on identifying promising strategies for optic nerve regeneration. Its principal objective was to solicit input on future AGI-related funding announcements, and specifically to ask, where are we now in our scientific progress, and what progress should we reach for in the coming years? A full report was generated as a white paper posted on the NEI Web site; this report summarizes the discussion and outcomes from the meeting and serves as guidance for future funding of research that focuses on optic nerve regeneration.

  20. Evidence that multiple species of aminoacylated transfer RNA are present in regenerating optic axons of goldfish

    SciTech Connect

    Zanakis, M.F.; Eskin, B.; Ingoglia, N.A.

    1984-02-01

    This study reports that 4S RNA present in regenerating optic axons of goldfish is likely to be transfer RNA. Evidence is also presented which indicates that this transfer RNA is similar to transfer RNA found in tectal cells and that its aminoacylation is likely to occur both in retinal ganglion cells prior to axonal transport as well as in the axon itself. Fish with regenerating optic nerves received intraocular injections of (/sup 3/H)uridine followed 4 days later by intracranial injections of (/sup 14/C)uridine. Radioactive tectal 4S RNA was isolated 6 days after (/sup 3/H)uridine injections and chromatographed by BD cellulose chromatography. Optical density as well as radioactivity profiles for both (/sup 14/C)4S RNA (from tectal cells) and (/sup 3/H)4S RNA (90% of which originated from regenerating optic axons) were found to be similar to E. coli transfer RNA optical density profiles, indicating that the intra-axonal 4S RNA is likely to be transfer RNA. Moreover, comparisons of /sup 3/H//sup 14/C suggest that intra-axonal and cellular 4S RNAs are composed of similar species of transfer RNA. Results of other experiments indicate that aminoacylation of axonally transported tRNA occurs both in the retina and in optic axons subsequent to axonal transport.

  1. All optical wavelength multicaster and regenerator based on four-mode phase-sensitive parametric mixer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lan; Temprana, Eduardo; Ataie, Vahid; Wiberg, Andreas O J; Kuo, Bill P-P; Myslivets, Evgeny; Alic, Nikola; Radic, Stojan

    2015-11-30

    Four-mode phase-sensitive (4MPS) process has been employed in a parametric mixer based wavelength multicaster, enhancing the multicasting conversion efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the 4MPS parametric multicaster is an outstanding candidate for all-optical regeneration, owing to its inherent capabilities to clamp amplitude fluctuations by the saturated parametric effect and to squeeze phase distortions by the phase sensitive process. The investigation in this paper focuses on the 4MPS multicaster operated in the saturation gain regime, including theoretical simulations and experimental demonstrations on amplitude and phase noise regeneration over 20 multicasting signal copies. PMID:26698727

  2. All-optical non-conjugated wavelength multicasting of QPSK signal with capability of phase regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lian, Junzi; Fu, Songnian; Meng, Yan; Tang, Ming; Shum, Perry; Liu, Deming

    2014-09-22

    We propose all-optical one-to-three non-conjugated wavelength multicasting of QPSK signal with capability of phase regeneration, using dual-conjugated-pump phase sensitive amplification (PSA). Based on the seven-wave model, we can obtain phase transfer functions of individual multicasting channel. Different from two multicasting copies, the phase regeneration performance of input signal is determined by the nonlinear phase shift. Moreover, the optimal squeezing points of three multicasting channels have a deviation. Thus, there exists a regeneration performance trade-off among three multicasting channels. Our numerical simulation shows that the error vector magnitude (EVM) of 50 Gb/s QPSK signal can be successfully improved when both nonlinear phase shift and four-state position in its constellation are optimized. The calculated BER curves verify that the OSNR penalties of three multicasting channels are improved by around 1dB at BER = 10(-3).

  3. Axon regeneration across the site of injury in the optic nerve of the newt Triturus pyrrhogaster.

    PubMed

    Stensaas, L J; Feringa, E R

    1977-04-29

    The process by which axons regenerate following a freeze injury to the optic nerve of the newt was analyzed by light and electron microscopy. Freezing destroys cellular constituents in a one millimeter segment of the nerve, leaving intact the basal lamina and the blood supply to the eye. No axons are seen at the site of injury one to seven days post lesion. This contrasts with the persistence of normal-appearing but severed unmyelinated axons within the cranial stump which thus give a false appearance of early regeneration. The first axon sprouts traverse the lesion and enter the cranial strump by ten days. The number of regenerating axons increases rapidly thereafter with no signs of random growth at the site of injury. These axon sprouts tend to be somewhat larger than normal unmyelinated axons and contain dense core vesicles and abnormal organelles similar to those in growing axons in tissue culture. The persisting basal lamina inside the optic sheath appears to provide continuity across the site of injury, to orient axon sprouts, and to favor an orderly process of axon regeneration without neuroma formation.

  4. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patricia J.; Jones, Laura N.; Mulligan, Amanda; Goolsby, William; Wilhelm, Jennifer C.; English, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation) that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2), we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555) was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour), one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-). We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons. PMID:27152611

  5. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ward, Patricia J; Jones, Laura N; Mulligan, Amanda; Goolsby, William; Wilhelm, Jennifer C; English, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation) that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2), we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555) was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour), one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-). We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons. PMID:27152611

  6. Performance analysis of a micro-scale pulse tube cryocooler based on optical fiber regenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, T.; Huang, J. L.; Tang, K.; Wu, M. X.

    2013-05-01

    The newly-developed holey optical fiber in photo-communication technology is introduced to the pulse tube cryocooler (PTC), exploring its feasibility as the regenerator. The influences of regenerative materials, as well as the influences of regenerator geometry, frequency, working pressure and input power were analyzed by calculating with a model based on thermoacoustic theory. The results from the simulation demonstrate that compared with the conventional stacked stainless steel screen, the utilization of optical fiber has the potential in increasing the coefficient of performance (COP) of a micro-scale PTC, as large as 0.136 at 80 K. Further calculation shows the influence of working parameters on the performance of a micro-scale PTC with the optimized geometries.

  7. Jak/Stat Signaling Stimulates Zebrafish Optic Nerve Regeneration and Overcomes the Inhibitory Actions of Socs3 and Sfpq

    PubMed Central

    Elsaeidi, Fairouz; Bemben, Michael A.; Zhao, Xiao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative failure of mammalian optic axons is partly mediated by Socs3-dependent inhibition of Jak/Stat signaling (Smith et al., 2009, 2011). Whether Jak/Stat signaling is part of the normal regenerative response observed in animals that exhibit an intrinsic capacity for optic nerve regeneration, such as zebrafish, remains unknown. Nor is it known whether the repression of regenerative inhibitors, such as Socs3, contributes to the robust regenerative response of zebrafish to optic nerve damage. Here we report that Jak/Stat signaling stimulates optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish. We found that IL-6 family cytokines, acting via Gp130-coupled receptors, stimulate Jak/Stat3 signaling in retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury. Among these cytokines, we found that CNTF, IL-11, and Clcf1/Crlf1a can stimulate optic axon regrowth. Surprisingly, optic nerve injury stimulated the expression of Socs3 and Sfpq (splicing factor, proline/glutamine rich) that attenuate optic nerve regeneration. These proteins were induced in a Jak/Stat-dependent manner, stimulated each other's expression and suppressed the expression of regeneration-associated genes. In vivo, the injury-dependent induction of Socs3 and Sfpq inhibits optic nerve regeneration but does not block it. We identified a robust induction of multiple cytokine genes in zebrafish retinal ganglion cells that may contribute to their ability to overcome these inhibitory factors. These studies not only identified mechanisms underlying optic nerve regeneration in fish but also suggest new molecular targets for enhancing optic nerve regeneration in mammals. PMID:24523552

  8. Aligned Nanofibers from Polypyrrole/Graphene as Electrodes for Regeneration of Optic Nerve via Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lu; Zhao, Bingxin; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Xuan; Zeng, Chao; Shi, Haiyan; Xu, Xiaoxue; Lin, Tong; Dai, Liming; Liu, Yong

    2016-03-23

    The damage of optic nerve will cause permanent visual field loss and irreversible ocular diseases, such as glaucoma. The damage of optic nerve is mainly derived from the atrophy, apoptosis or death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Though some progress has been achieved on electronic retinal implants that can electrically stimulate undamaged parts of RGCs or retina to transfer signals, stimulated self-repair/regeneration of RGCs has not been realized yet. The key challenge for development of electrically stimulated regeneration of RGCs is the selection of stimulation electrodes with a sufficient safe charge injection limit (Q(inj), i.e., electrochemical capacitance). Most traditional electrodes tend to have low Q(inj) values. Herein, we synthesized polypyrrole functionalized graphene (PPy-G) via a facile but efficient polymerization-enhanced ball milling method for the first time. This technique could not only efficiently introduce electron-acceptor nitrogen to enhance capacitance, but also remain a conductive platform-the π-π conjugated carbon plane for charge transportation. PPy-G based aligned nanofibers were subsequently fabricated for guided growth and electrical stimulation (ES) of RGCs. Significantly enhanced viability, neurite outgrowth and antiaging ability of RGCs were observed after ES, suggesting possibilities for regeneration of optic nerve via ES on the suitable nanoelectrodes. PMID:26926578

  9. Multiple-channel optical signal processing with wavelength-waveform conversions, pulsewidth tunability, and signal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Tan, Hung; Matsuura, Motoharu; Katafuchi, Tomoya; Kishi, Naoto

    2009-12-01

    A multiple-channel multiple-function optical signal processor (MCMF-OSP) including wavelength-waveform conversions, pulsewidth tunability, and signal regeneration is realized through AND logic gate based on optical parametric processing with a pulsewidth-tunable RZ clock pump. The proposed scheme simultaneously offers four signal processing functions which are useful in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems, and at network nodes with the necessity for multiple-channel data processing. After the discussions on the concept of MCMF-OSP, a proof-of concept experiment is demonstrated on four 10 Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) data format channels using nonlinearities in semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). A wavelength and waveform conversions to return-to-zero (RZ) modulation format are obtained together with pulsewidth-tunable range from 20% to 80% duty cycles for all input signals. The converted signals inherit the timing and waveform of the RZ clock pump, thus resulting in a time regeneration and large tolerance to narrow-band optical filtering (NAOF) and fiber accumulated chromatic dispersion (CD). PMID:20052222

  10. Direct-detection optical OFDM superchannel for long-reach PON using pilot regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Yang, Qi; Xiao, Xiao; Gui, Tao; Li, Zhaohui; Luo, Ming; Yu, Shaohua; You, Shanhong

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate a novel long-reach PON downstream scheme based on the regenerated pilot assisted direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) superchannel transmission. We use the optical comb source to form DDO-OFDM superchannel, and reserve the center carrier as a seed pilot. The seed pilot is further tracked and reused to generate multiple optical carriers at the local exchange. Each regenerated pilot carrier is selected to beat with an adjacent OFDM sub-band at ONU, so that the electrical bandwidth limitation can be much released compared to the conventional DDO-OFDM superchannel detection. With the proposed proof-of-concept architecture, we experimentally demonstrated a 116.7 Gb/s superchannel OFDM-PON system with transmission reach of 100 km, and 1:64 splitting ratio. We analyze the impact of carrier-to-sideband power ratio (CSPR) on system performance. The experiment result shows that, 5 dB power margin is still remained at ONU using such technique.

  11. Monitoring the gingival regeneration after aesthetic surgery with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luana O.; Graça, Natalia D. R. L.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Silva, Claudio H. V.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique working in spectral domain (Swept Source OCT at 1325 nm, Thorlabs, New Jersey, USA) to monitor the tissue repair in patients undergoing periodontal plastic surgery. The evaluations were done over a period of 60 days. It was observed that 15 days after periodontal surgery the gum was still in different healing process as compared to the observation after 60 days. Thus it is clear that, despite some technical limitations, the OCT is an efficient method in the evaluation of regeneration gingival.

  12. A molecular mechanism of optic nerve regeneration in fish: the retinoid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kato, Satoru; Matsukawa, Toru; Koriyama, Yoshiki; Sugitani, Kayo; Ogai, Kazuhiro

    2013-11-01

    The fish optic nerve regeneration process takes more than 100 days after axotomy and comprises four stages: neurite sprouting (1-4 days), axonal elongation (5-30 days), synaptic refinement (35-80 days) and functional recovery (100-120 days). We screened genes specifically upregulated in each stage from axotomized fish retina. The mRNAs for heat shock protein 70 and insulin-like growth factor-1 rapidly increased in the retinal ganglion cells soon after axotomy and function as cell-survival factors. Purpurin mRNA rapidly and transiently increased in the photoreceptors and purpurin protein diffusely increased in all nuclear layers at 1-4 days after injury. The purpurin gene has an active retinol-binding site and a signal peptide. Purpurin with retinol functions as a sprouting factor for thin neurites. This neurite-sprouting effect was closely mimicked by retinoic acid and blocked by its inhibitor. We propose that purpurin works as a retinol transporter to supply retinoic acid to damaged RGCs which in turn activates target genes. We also searched for genes involved in the second stage of regeneration. The mRNA of retinoid-signaling molecules increased in retinal ganglion cells at 7-14 days after injury and tissue transglutaminase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNAs, RA-target genes, increased in retinal ganglion cells at 10-30 days after injury. They function as factors for the outgrowth of thick, long neurites. Here we present a retinoid-signaling hypothesis to explain molecular events during the early stages of optic nerve regeneration in fish. PMID:23994437

  13. Optically active antifungal azoles. IV. Synthesis and antifungal activity of (2R,3R)-3-azolyl-2-(substituted phenyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-butanols.

    PubMed

    Tasaka, A; Tamura, N; Matsushita, Y; Kitazaki, T; Hayashi, R; Okonogi, K; Itoh, K

    1995-03-01

    (2R,3R)-3-Azolyl-2-(substituted phenyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-butanols (III) were prepared from (2R,3S)-3-methyl-2-(substituted phenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyloxiranes (21a-f) by a ring-opening reaction with 1H-1,2,3-triazole and 1H-tetrazole and evaluated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo. The optically active oxiranes (21a--f) which serve as the key synthetic intermediates, were synthesized from 1-[(2R)-2-(3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxypropanoyl]morpholin e (24) and substituted phenylmagnesium bromide (23) via six steps in a stereocontrolled manner. The 3-(1H-1,2,3,-triazol-1-yl)-(IIIa) and 3-(2H-2-tetrazolyl)-2-butanol (IIId) derivatives showed strong protective effects against candidosis in mice.

  14. Combinatorial therapy stimulates long-distance regeneration, target reinnervation, and partial recovery of vision after optic nerve injury in mice.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Silmara; Habboub, Ghaith; Benowitz, Larry I

    2012-01-01

    The optic nerve has been widely studied for insights into mechanisms that suppress or promote axon regeneration after central nervous system injury. Following optic nerve damage in adult mammals, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) normally fail to regenerate their axons, resulting in blindness in patients who suffer from neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma or who have sustained traumatic injury to the optic nerve. Over the past several decades, many groups have investigated the basis of regenerative failure in the hope of developing strategies to stimulate the regrowth of axons and restore visual function. New findings show that a combination of therapies that act synergistically to activate RGCs' intrinsic growth state enables these cells to regenerate their axons the full length of the optic nerve, across the optic chiasm, and into the brain, where they establish synapses in appropriate target zones and restore limited visual responses. These treatments involve the induction of a limited inflammatory response in the eye to increase levels of oncomodulin and other growth factors; elevation of intracellular cAMP; and deletion of the pten gene in RGCs. Although these methods cannot be applied in the clinic, they point to strategies that might be.

  15. Influence of pre-annealing on the thermal regeneration of fiber Bragg gratings in standard optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Patrik; Laurell, Fredrik; Fokine, Michael

    2015-10-19

    A detailed study of the dynamics during thermal regeneration of fiber Bragg gratings, written in hydrogen-loaded standard single-mode fibers using a ns pulsed 213 nm UV laser, is reported. Isothermal pre-annealing performed in the range 85 °C to 1100 °C, with subsequent grating regeneration at 1100 °C, resulted in a maximum refractive index modulation, Δn(m) ~1.4⋅10(-4), for gratings pre-annealed near 900 °C while a minimum value of Δn(m) ~2⋅10(-5) was achieved irrespective of pre-annealing temperature. This optimum denote an inflection point between opposing thermally triggered processes, which we ascribe to the reaction-diffusion mechanism of molecular water and hydroxyl species in silica. The results shed new light on the mechanisms underlying thermal grating regeneration in optical fibers. PMID:26480412

  16. Viral Vector Based Improvement of Optic Nerve Regeneration: Characterization of Individual Axons’ Growth Patterns and Synaptogenesis in a Visual Target

    PubMed Central

    Yungher, Benjamin J.; Luo, Xueting; Salgueiro, Yadira; Blackmore, Murray G.; Park, Kevin K.

    2015-01-01

    Lack of axon growth ability in the central nervous system poses a major barrier to achieving functional connectivity after injury. Thus, a non-transgenic regenerative approach to reinnervating targets has important implications in clinical and research settings. Previous studies using knockout (KO) mice have demonstrated long distance axon regeneration. Using an optic nerve injury model, here we evaluate the efficacy of viral, RNAi and pharmacological approaches that target the PTEN and STAT3 pathways to improve long distance axon regeneration in wild type (WT) mice. Our data show that adeno-associated virus (AAV) expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against PTEN (shPTEN) enhances retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration after crush injury. However, compared to the previous data in PTEN KO mice, AAV-shRNA results in a lesser degree of regeneration, likely due to incomplete gene silencing inherent to RNAi. In comparison, an extensive enhancement in regeneration is seen when AAV-shPTEN is coupled to AAV encoding ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and to a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analogue, allowing axons to travel long distances and reach their target. We apply whole tissue imaging that facilitates three-dimensional visualization of single regenerating axons and document heterogeneous terminal patterns in the targets. This shows that some axonal populations generate extensive arbors and make synapses with the target neurons. Collectively, we show a combinatorial viral RNAi and pharmacological strategy that improves long distance regeneration in WT animals and provide single fiber projection data that indicates a degree of preservation of target recognition. PMID:26005861

  17. Sustained effect of bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy in axonal regeneration in a model of optic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Zaverucha-do-Valle, Camila; Mesentier-Louro, Louise; Gubert, Fernanda; Mortari, Nicoli; Padilha, Ana Beatriz; Paredes, Bruno D; Mencalha, Andre; Abdelhay, Eliana; Teixeira, Camila; Ferreira, Fernanda G M; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; de Souza, Sergio Augusto L; Gutfilen, Bianca; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F

    2014-10-31

    In adult mammals, the regeneration of the optic nerve is very limited and at the moment there are several groups trying different approaches to increase retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axonal outgrowth. One promising approach is cell therapy. In previous work, we performed intravitreal transplantation of bone-marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) after optic nerve crush in adult rats and we demonstrated an increase in RGC survival and axon outgrowth 14 days after injury. In the present work, we investigated if these results could be sustained for a longer period of time. Optic nerve crush was performed in Lister-hooded adult rats and BMMC or saline injections were performed shortly after injury. Neuronal survival and regeneration were evaluated in rats׳ retina and optic nerve after 28 days. We demonstrated an increase of 5.2 fold in the axon outgrowth 28 days after lesion, but the BMMCs had no effect on RGC survival. In an attempt to prolong RGC survival, we established a new protocol with two BMMC injections, the second one 7 days after the injury. Untreated animals received two injections of saline. We observed that although the axonal outgrowth was still increased after the second BMMC injection, the RGC survival was not significantly different from untreated animals. These results demonstrate that BMMCs transplantation promotes neuroregeneration at least until 28 days after injury. However, the effects on RGC survival previously observed by us at 14 days were not sustained at 28 days and could not be prolonged with a second dose of BMMC.

  18. Promotion of axon regeneration and inhibition of astrocyte activation by alpha A-crystallin on crushed optic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wei-Yang; Liu, Xiao; Gu, Xian-Liang; Ying, Xi; Wu, Nan; Xu, Hai-Wei; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the effects of αA-crystallin in astrocyte gliosis after optic nerve crush (ONC) and the mechanism of α-crystallin in neuroprotection and axon regeneration. METHODS ONC was established on the Sprague-Dawley rat model and αA-crystallin (10−4 g/L, 4 µL) was intravitreously injected into the rat model. Flash-visual evoked potential (F-VEP) was examined 14d after ONC, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in the retina and crush site were analyzed 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14d after ONC by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot respectively. The levels of beta Tubulin (TUJ1), growth-associated membrane phosphoprotein-43 (GAP-43), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and neurocan were also determined by IHC 14d after ONC. RESULTS GFAP level in the retina and the optic nerve significantly increased 1d after ONC, and reached the peak level 7d post-ONC. Injection of αA-crystallin significantly decreased GFAP level in both the retina and the crush site 3d after ONC, and induced astrocytes architecture remodeling at the crush site. Quantification of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons indicated αA-crystallin markedly promoted axon regeneration in ONC rats and enhanced the regenerated axons penetrated into the glial scar. CSPGs and neurocan expression also decreased 14d after αA-crystallin injection. The amplitude (N1-P1) and latency (P1) of F-VEP were also restored. CONCLUSION Our results suggest α-crystallin promotes the axon regeneration of RGCs and suppresses the activation of astrocytes. PMID:27500100

  19. Ultrahigh-Temperature Regeneration of Long Period Gratings (LPGs) in Boron-Codoped Germanosilicate Optical Fibre

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Cook, Kevin; Canning, John

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of UV-written long period gratings (LPG) in boron-codoped germanosilicate “W” fibre is demonstrated and studied. They survive temperatures over 1000 °C. Compared with regenerated FBGs fabricated in the same type of fibre, the evolution curves of LPGs during regeneration and post-annealing reveal even more detail of glass relaxation. Piece-wise temperature dependence is observed, indicating the onset of a phase transition of glass in the core and inner cladding at ~500 °C and ~250 °C, and the melting of inner cladding between 860 °C and 900 °C. An asymmetric spectral response with increasing and decreasing annealing temperature points to the complex process dependent material system response. Resonant wavelength tuning by adjusting the dwell temperature at which regeneration is undertaken is demonstrated, showing a shorter resonant wavelength and shorter time for stabilisation with higher dwell temperatures. All the regenerated LPGs are nearly strain-insensitive and cannot be tuned by applying loads during annealing as done for regenerated FBGs. PMID:26307991

  20. Axonal degeneration, regeneration and ganglion cell death in a rodent model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Guo, Yan; Slater, Bernard J; Miller, Neil R; Bernstein, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Using laser-induced photoactivation of intravenously administered rose Bengal in rats, we generated an ischemic infarction of the intrascleral portion of the optic nerve (ON) comparable to that which occurs in humans to investigate optic nerve axon degenerative events following optic nerve infarct and the potential for axon re-growth. Animals were euthanized at different times post infarct. Axon degeneration was evaluated with SMI312 immunolabeling, and GAP-43 immunostaining was used to identify axon regeneration. Terminal dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to evaluate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. There was significant axon structural disruptinot ion at the anterior intrascleral portion of the ON by 3d post-infarct, extending to the posterior ON by 7d post-stroke. Destruction of normal axon structure and massive loss of axon fibers occurred by 2 weeks. GAP-43 immunoreactivity occurred in the anterior ON by 7d post-infarct, lasting 3-4 weeks, without extension past the primary ischemic lesion. TUNEL-positive cells in the RGC layer appeared by 7d post-insult. These results indicate that following induction of ischemic optic neuropathy, significant axon damage occurs by 3d post-infarct, with later neuronal death. Post-stroke adult rat retinal ganglion cells attempt to regenerate their axons, but this effort is restricted to the unmyelinated region of the anterior ON. These responses are important in understanding pathologic process that underlies human non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and may guide both the appropriate treatment of NAION and the window of opportunity for such treatment. PMID:20621651

  1. Survival of ganglion cells which form the retino-retinal projection during optic nerve regeneration in the frog.

    PubMed

    Tennant, M; Bruce, S R; Beazley, L D

    1993-01-01

    During optic nerve regeneration in the frog, axons transiently grow along the opposite optic nerve forming a retino-retinal projection. In the present study, we crushed the left optic nerve in the frog Litoria (Hyla) moorei and later applied horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or diamidino yellow (DY) to the right optic nerve. In one series, retinae were examined 3 days after application of the tracer. The retino-retinal projection was found to be maximal at 5 weeks, fell significantly by 7 weeks, and returned to close-to-normal levels by 24 weeks. In a second series, we applied DY at 5 weeks as before but did not sacrifice the frogs until 7 weeks. Numbers of labeled ganglion cells were not significantly different from those frogs in the first series labeled and examined at 5 weeks. We conclude that ganglion cells giving rise to the retino-retinal projection had not died in appreciable numbers, presumably being sustained by collateral axons in the brain.

  2. Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration scheme with improved scalability using TOAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Shankar, Raji; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2006-10-01

    A novel re-timing, re-amplifying, and re-shaping (3R) regeneration system is proposed to process multiple WDM (wavelengthdivision-multiplexing) channels simultaneously. Its re-timing capability is investigated by both simulation and experiment with polarizationscrambling method at 10 Gb/s bit rate. Jitter tolerance up to 0.8 UIpp is demonstrated with BER improvement and floor breaking ability.

  3. Optical methods for diagnostics and feedback control in laser-induced regeneration of spine disc and joint cartilages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, Emil; Sviridov, Alexander; Omeltchenko, Alexander; Baum, Olga; Baskov, Andrey; Borchshenko, Igor; Golubev, Vladimir; Baskov, Vladimir

    2011-03-01

    In 1999 we have introduced a new approach for treatment of spine diseases based on the mechanical effect of nondestructive laser radiation on the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. Laser reconstruction of spine discs (LRD) involves puncture of the disc and non-destructive laser irradiation of the nucleus pulposus to activate reparative processes in the disc tissues. In vivo animal study has shown that LRD allows activate the growth of hyaline type cartilage in laser affected zone. The paper considers physical processes and mechanisms of laser regeneration, presents results of investigations aimed to optimize laser settings and to develop feedback control system for laser reparation in cartilages of spine and joints. The results of laser reconstruction of intervertebral discs for 510 patients have shown substantial relief of back pain for 90% of patients. Laser technology has been experimentally tested for reparation of traumatic and degenerative diseases in joint cartilage of 20 minipigs. It is shown that laser regeneration of cartilage allows feeling large (more than 5 mm) defects which usually never repair on one's own. Optical techniques have been used to promote safety and efficacy of the laser procedures.

  4. Output characterization of a self-pulsating and aperiodic optical fiber source based on cascaded regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, K; Rochette, M; Chen, L R

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the properties of a self-pulsating fiber cavity based on cascaded regeneration. The mechanisms that govern the number of oscillating pulses in the cavity, the pulse peak power, the pulse width, the wavelength tunability as well as the generation of sub-picosecond pulses are identified, analyzed and quantified. We find that the described self-pulsating cavity enables the oscillation of quasi transform-limited pulses with a pulsewidth of 4.8 ps at 1540.0 nm when using 0.4 nm non-Gaussian bandpass filters. Sub-picosecond pulses with an autocorrelation width of 471 fs are generated from the same self-pulsating source with modified bandpass filters and the addition of a chromatic dispersion compensator. The number of eigenpulses that oscillate simultaneously in the cavity can be adjusted from 0 up to 29,500 with proper cavity adjustment. This source has dual-wavelength output and can be tuned throughout the gain band of the amplifiers. PMID:19506697

  5. Neuritin 1 promotes retinal ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration following optic nerve crush

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, T P; Liu, Y; Wordinger, R J; Pang, I-H; Clark, A F

    2015-01-01

    Neuritin 1 (Nrn1) is an extracellular glycophosphatidylinositol-linked protein that stimulates axonal plasticity, dendritic arborization and synapse maturation in the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective and axogenic properties of Nrn1 on axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in vitro and on the in vivo optic nerve crush (ONC) mouse model. Axotomized cultured RGCs treated with recombinant hNRN1 significantly increased survival of RGCs by 21% (n=6–7, P<0.01) and neurite outgrowth in RGCs by 141% compared to controls (n=15, P<0.05). RGC transduction with AAV2-CAG–hNRN1 prior to ONC promoted RGC survival (450%, n=3–7, P<0.05) and significantly preserved RGC function by 70% until 28 days post crush (dpc) (n=6, P<0.05) compared with the control AAV2-CAG–green fluorescent protein transduction group. Significantly elevated levels of RGC marker, RNA binding protein with multiple splicing (Rbpms; 73%, n=5–8, P<0.001) and growth cone marker, growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43; 36%, n=3, P<0.01) were observed 28 dpc in the retinas of the treatment group compared with the control group. Significant increase in Gap43 (100%, n=5–6, P<0.05) expression was observed within the optic nerves of the AAV2–hNRN1 group compared to controls. In conclusion, Nrn1 exhibited neuroprotective, regenerative effects and preserved RGC function on axotomized RGCs in vitro and after axonal injury in vivo. Nrn1 is a potential therapeutic target for CNS neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25719245

  6. Neuritin 1 promotes retinal ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration following optic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Sharma, T P; Liu, Y; Wordinger, R J; Pang, I-H; Clark, A F

    2015-01-01

    Neuritin 1 (Nrn1) is an extracellular glycophosphatidylinositol-linked protein that stimulates axonal plasticity, dendritic arborization and synapse maturation in the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective and axogenic properties of Nrn1 on axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in vitro and on the in vivo optic nerve crush (ONC) mouse model. Axotomized cultured RGCs treated with recombinant hNRN1 significantly increased survival of RGCs by 21% (n=6-7, P<0.01) and neurite outgrowth in RGCs by 141% compared to controls (n=15, P<0.05). RGC transduction with AAV2-CAG-hNRN1 prior to ONC promoted RGC survival (450%, n=3-7, P<0.05) and significantly preserved RGC function by 70% until 28 days post crush (dpc) (n=6, P<0.05) compared with the control AAV2-CAG-green fluorescent protein transduction group. Significantly elevated levels of RGC marker, RNA binding protein with multiple splicing (Rbpms; 73%, n=5-8, P<0.001) and growth cone marker, growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43; 36%, n=3, P<0.01) were observed 28 dpc in the retinas of the treatment group compared with the control group. Significant increase in Gap43 (100%, n=5-6, P<0.05) expression was observed within the optic nerves of the AAV2-hNRN1 group compared to controls. In conclusion, Nrn1 exhibited neuroprotective, regenerative effects and preserved RGC function on axotomized RGCs in vitro and after axonal injury in vivo. Nrn1 is a potential therapeutic target for CNS neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25719245

  7. Peripheral nerve explants grafted into the vitreous body of the eye promote the regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons severed in the optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Berry, M; Carlile, J; Hunter, A

    1996-02-01

    We have conducted experiments in the adult rat visual system to assess the relative importance of an absence of trophic factors versus the presence of putative growth inhibitory molecules for the failure of regeneration of CNS axons after injury. The experiments comprised three groups of animals in which all optic nerves were crushed intra-orbitally: an optic nerve crush group had a sham implant-operation on the eye; the other two groups had peripheral nerve tissue introduced into the vitreous body; in an acellular peripheral nerve group, a frozen/thawed teased sciatic nerve segment was grafted, and in a cellular peripheral nerve group, a predegenerate teased segment of sciatic nerve was implanted. The rats were left for 20 days and their optic nerves and retinae prepared for immunohistochemical examination of both the reaction to injury of axons and glia in the nerve and also the viability of Schwann cells in the grafts. Anterograde axon tracing with rhodamine-B provided unequivocal qualitative evidence of regeneration in each group, and retrograde HRP tracing gave a measure of the numbers of axons growing across the lesion by counting HRP filled retinal ganglion cells in retinal whole mounts after HRP injection into the optic nerve distal to the lesion. No fibres crossed the lesion in the optic nerve crush group and dense scar tissue was formed in the wound site. GAP-43-positive and rhodamine-B filled axons in the acellular peripheral nerve and cellular peripheral nerve groups traversed the lesion and grew distally. There were greater numbers of regenerating fibres in the cellular peripheral nerve compared to the acellular peripheral nerve group. In the former, 0.6-10% of the retinal ganglion cell population regenerated axons at least 3-4 mm into the distal segment. In both the acellular peripheral nerve and cellular peripheral nerve groups, no basal lamina was deposited in the wound. Thus, although astrocyte processes were stacked around the lesion edge, a glia

  8. Concise Synthesis of (2R,4R)-Monatin.

    PubMed

    Amino, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Monatin, 4-hydroxy-4-(3-indolylmethyl)-glutamic acid, is a naturally occurring sweet amino acid. The (2R,4R)-monatin isomer has been found to be the sweetest among its four stereoisomers. A concise and efficient synthesis of (2R,4R)-monatin was accomplished by the alkylation of (4R)-N-tert-butoxycarbonyl (tBoc)-4-tert-butyldimethylsilyoxy-D-pyroglutamic acid methyl ester with tert-butyl 3-(bromomethyl)-1H-indole-1-carboxylate to give (4R)-N-tBoc-4-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-4-(N-tBoc-3-indolylmethyl)-D-pyroglutamic acid methyl ester, i.e., the lactam form of (2R,4R)-monatin with protecting groups. This was followed by the hydrolysis of the lactam ring and deprotection. The 4-hydroxyl D-pyroglutamic acid derivative was demonstrated to be a suitable precursor for the efficient preparation of (2R,4R)-monatin in high optical purity because the alkylation proceeded in regioselective and stereoselective manners at C4 to form appropriate asymmetric tetra-substituted carbon center; the resulting alkylated pyroglutamic acid derivative was then easily converted into the linear form of monatin. PMID:27477667

  9. Comprehensive Evaluation of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in the Acute Healing Phase Using Tissue Clearing and Optical Microscopy in a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Cameron P.; Senthil-Kumar, Prabhu; Zhao, Jie; Randolph, Mark A.; Winograd, Jonathan M.; Evans, Conor L.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI), a common injury in both the civilian and military arenas, is usually associated with high healthcare costs and with patients enduring slow recovery times, diminished quality of life, and potential long-term disability. Patients with PNI typically undergo complex interventions but the factors that govern optimal response are not fully characterized. A fundamental understanding of the cellular and tissue-level events in the immediate postoperative period is essential for improving treatment and optimizing repair. Here, we demonstrate a comprehensive imaging approach to evaluate peripheral nerve axonal regeneration in a rodent PNI model using a tissue clearing method to improve depth penetration while preserving neural architecture. Sciatic nerve transaction and end-to-end repair were performed in both wild type and thy-1 GFP rats. The nerves were harvested at time points after repair before undergoing whole mount immunofluorescence staining and tissue clearing. By increasing the optic depth penetration, tissue clearing allowed the visualization and evaluation of Wallerian degeneration and nerve regrowth throughout entire sciatic nerves with subcellular resolution. The tissue clearing protocol did not affect immunofluorescence labeling and no observable decrease in the fluorescence signal was observed. Large-area, high-resolution tissue volumes could be quantified to provide structural and connectivity information not available from current gold-standard approaches for evaluating axonal regeneration following PNI. The results are suggestive of observed behavioral recovery in vivo after neurorrhaphy, providing a method of evaluating axonal regeneration following repair that can serve as an adjunct to current standard outcomes measurements. This study demonstrates that tissue clearing following whole mount immunofluorescence staining enables the complete visualization and quantitative evaluation of axons throughout nerves in a PNI model

  10. Regeneration inducers in limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Akira; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Makanae, Aki

    2015-08-01

    Limb regeneration ability, which can be observed in amphibians, has been investigated as a representative phenomenon of organ regeneration. Recently, an alternative experimental system called the accessory limb model was developed to investigate early regulation of amphibian limb regeneration. The accessory limb model contributed to identification of limb regeneration inducers in urodele amphibians. Furthermore, the accessory limb model may be applied to other species to explore universality of regeneration mechanisms. This review aims to connect the insights recently gained to emboss universality of regeneration mechanisms among species. The defined molecules (BMP7 (or2) + FGF2 + FGF8) can transform skin wound healing to organ (limb) regeneration responses. The same molecules can initiate regeneration responses in some species. PMID:26100345

  11. Axonal regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Becker, Thomas; Becker, Catherina G

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to mammals, fish and amphibia functionally regenerate axons in the central nervous system (CNS). The strengths of the zebrafish model, that is, transgenics and mutant availability, ease of gene expression analysis and manipulation and optical transparency of larvae lend themselves to the analysis of successful axonal regeneration. Analyses in larval and adult zebrafish suggest a high intrinsic capacity for axon regrowth, yet signaling pathways employed in axonal growth and pathfinding are similar to those in mammals. However, the lesioned CNS environment in zebrafish shows remarkably little scarring or expression of inhibitory molecules and regenerating axons use molecular cues in the environment to successfully navigate to their targets. Future zebrafish research, including screening techniques, will complete our picture of the mechanisms behind successful CNS axon regeneration in this vertebrate model organism.

  12. Limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Simon, András; Tanaka, Elly M

    2013-01-01

    Limb regeneration is observed in certain members of the animal phyla. Some animals keep this ability during their entire life while others lose it at some time during development. How do animals regenerate limbs? Is it possible to find unifying, conserved mechanisms of limb regeneration or have different species evolved distinct means of replacing a lost limb? How is limb regeneration similar or different to limb development? Studies on many organisms, including echinoderms, arthropods, and chordates have provided significant knowledge about limb regeneration. In this focus article, we concentrate on tetrapod limb regeneration as studied in three model amphibians: newts, axolotls, and frogs. We review recent progress on tissue interactions during limb regeneration, and place those findings into an evolutionary context. PMID:24009038

  13. Liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shennen A; Glorioso, Jaime M; Nyberg, Scott L

    2014-04-01

    The liver is unique in its ability to regenerate in response to injury. A number of evolutionary safeguards have allowed the liver to continue to perform its complex functions despite significant injury. Increased understanding of the regenerative process has significant benefit in the treatment of liver failure. Furthermore, understanding of liver regeneration may shed light on the development of cancer within the cirrhotic liver. This review provides an overview of the models of study currently used in liver regeneration, the molecular basis of liver regeneration, and the role of liver progenitor cells in regeneration of the liver. Specific focus is placed on clinical applications of current knowledge in liver regeneration, including small-for-size liver transplant. Furthermore, cutting-edge topics in liver regeneration, including in vivo animal models for xenogeneic human hepatocyte expansion and the use of decellularized liver matrices as a 3-dimensional scaffold for liver repopulation, are proposed. Unfortunately, despite 50 years of intense study, many gaps remain in the scientific understanding of liver regeneration.

  14. Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shennen A; Glorioso, Jaime M; Nyberg, Scott L

    2014-01-01

    The liver is unique in its ability to regenerate in response to injury. A number of evolutionary safeguards have allowed the liver to continue to perform its complex functions despite significant injury. Increased understanding of the regenerative process has significant benefit in the treatment of liver failure. Furthermore, understanding of liver regeneration may shed light on the development of cancer within the cirrhotic liver. This review will provide an overview of the models of study currently utilized in liver regeneration, the molecular basis of liver regeneration, and the role of liver progenitor cells in regeneration of the liver. Specific focus will be placed on clinical applications of current knowledge in liver regeneration including small for size liver transplant. Furthermore, cutting edge topics in liver regeneration including in vivo animal models for xenogeneic human hepatocyte expansion and the use of decellularized liver matrices as a three dimensional scaffold for liver repopulation will be proposed. Unfortunately, despite 50 years of intense study, many gaps remain in the scientific understanding of liver regeneration. PMID:24495569

  15. Optical coherence tomography imaging for evaluating the photo biomodulation effects on tissue regeneration in the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimbel, Craig B.

    2008-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method for imaging dental microstructure which has the potential of evaluating the health of periodontal tissue. OCT provides an "optical biopsy" of tissue 2-3 mm in depth. Optical biopsy is a measurement of the localized optical properties based on tissue type and pathology. This sixth modality of imaging was pioneered at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. OCT is based on the optical scattering signatures within tissue structure. With the use of a broad spectrum bandwidth light source, high resolution images, 10 times the resolution of radiographs, can detect important tissue interfaces within the periodontal sulcus and its' relationship to the attachment apparatus of the tooth. Multiple cross-sectional tomograms can be stacked to create two and three dimensional images providing information as to health of periodontal tissue important to both the clinician and researcher.

  16. Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, George K.

    2009-01-01

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a very complex and well-orchestrated phenomenon. It is carried out by the participation of all mature liver cell types. The process is associated with signaling cascades involving growth factors, cytokines, matrix remodeling, and several feedbacks of stimulation and inhibition of growth related signals. Liver manages to restore any lost mass and adjust its size to that of the organism, while at the same time providing full support for body homeostasis during the entire regenerative process. In situations when hepatocytes or biliary cells are blocked from regeneration, these cell types can function as facultative stem cells for each other. PMID:17559071

  17. Neural Stem Cell-based Intraocular Administration of Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor Promotes Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival and Axon Regeneration after Optic Nerve Crush Injury in Rat: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Gao, Yan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is regarded as a multifunctional protein possessing neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. PEDF has a very short half-life, and it would require multiple injections to maintain a therapeutically relevant level without a delivery system. However, multiple injections are prone to cause local damage or infection. To overcome this, we chose a cell-based system that provided sustained delivery of PEDF and compared the effect of weekly injections of PEDF and neural stem cell (NSC)-based intraocular administration of PEDF on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. Methods: Seventy-two rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: group with injections of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (n=24), group with weekly injections of PEDF (n=24), and group with NSC-based administration of PEDF (n=24). Western blot was used to analyze the PEDF protein level 2 weeks after injection. Retinal flat mounts and immunohistochemistry were employed to analyze RGC survival and axon regeneration 2 weeks and 4 weeks after injection. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA in SPSS (version 19.0). A P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The PEDF protein level in the group with NSC-based administration of PEDF increased compared with that in the groups with injections of PEDF and PBS (P<0.05). The PEDF-modified NSCs differentiated into GFAP-positive astrocytes andβ-tubulin-III-positive neurons. NSC-based administration of PEDF effectively increased RGC survival and improved the axon regeneration of the optic nerve compared with weekly injections of PEDF. Conclusion: Subretinal space transplantation of PEDF-secreting NSCs sustained high concentrations of PEDF, differentiated into neurons and astrocytes, and significantly promoted RGC survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. PMID:27582587

  18. Insights into cyclostome phylogenomics: pre-2R or post-2R.

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro

    2008-10-01

    Interest in understanding the transition from prevertebrates to vertebrates at the molecular level has resulted in accumulating genomic and transcriptomic sequence data for the earliest groups of extant vertebrates, namely, hagfishes (Myxiniformes) and lampreys (Petromyzontiformes). Molecular phylogenetic studies on species phylogeny have revealed the monophyly of cyclostomes and the deep divergence between hagfishes and lampreys (more than 400 million years). In parallel, recent molecular phylogenetic studies have shed light on the complex evolution of the cyclostome genome. This consists of whole genome duplications, shared at least partly with gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), and cyclostome lineage-specific secondary modifications of the genome, such as gene gains and losses. Therefore, the analysis of cyclostome genomes requires caution in distinguishing between orthology and paralogy in gene molecular phylogeny at the gene family scale, as well as between apomorphic and plesiomorphic genomic traits in larger-scale analyses. In this review, we propose possible ways of improving the resolvability of these evolutionary events, and discuss probable scenarios for cyclostome genome evolution, with special emphasis on the hypothesis that two-round (2R) genome duplication events occurred before the divergence between cyclostomes and gnathostomes, and therefore that a post-2R state is a genomic synapomorphy for all extant vertebrates. PMID:19267631

  19. (2R,1'S,2'R)- and (2S,1'S,2'R)-3-[2-Mono(di,tri)fluoromethylcyclopropyl]alanines and their incorporation into hormaomycin analogues

    PubMed Central

    Kozhushkov, Sergei I; Yufit, Dmitrii S; Grosse, Christian; Kaiser, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Efficient and scalable syntheses of enantiomerically pure (2R,1'S,2'R)- and (2S,1'S,2'R)-3-[2-mono(di,tri)fluoromethylcyclopropyl]alanines 9a–c, as well as allo-D-threonine (4) and (2S,3R)-β-methylphenylalanine (3), using the Belokon' approach with (S)- and (R)-2-[(N-benzylprolyl)amino]benzophenone [(S)- and (R)-10] as reusable chiral auxiliaries have been developed. Three new fluoromethyl analogues of the naturally occurring octadepsipeptide hormaomycin (1) with (fluoromethylcyclopropyl)alanine moieties have been synthesized and subjected to preliminary tests of their antibiotic activity. PMID:25550751

  20. Regenerator seal

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Leonard C.; Pacala, Theodore; Sippel, George R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for manufacturing a hot side regenerator cross arm seal assembly having a thermally stablilized wear coating with a substantially flat wear surface thereon to seal between low pressure and high pressure passages to and from the hot inboard side of a rotary regenerator matrix includes the steps of forming a flat cross arm substrate member of high nickel alloy steel; fixedly securing the side edges of the substrate member to a holding fixture with a concave surface thereacross to maintain the substrate member to a slightly bent configuration on the fixture surface between the opposite ends of the substrate member to produce prestress therein; applying coating layers on the substrate member including a wear coating of plasma sprayed nickel oxide/calcium flouride material to define a wear surface of slightly concave form across the restrained substrate member between the free ends thereon; and thereafter subjecting the substrate member and the coating thereon to a heat treatment of 1600.degree. F. for sixteen hours to produce heat stabilizing growth in the coating layers on the substrate member and to produce a thermally induced growth stress in the wear surface that substantially equalizes the prestress in the substrate whereby when the cross arm is removed from the fixture surface following the heat treatment step a wear face is formed on the cross arm assembly that will be substantially flat between the ends.

  1. Temporal regulation of planarian eye regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Deochand, Michelle E.; Birkholz, Taylor R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract While tissue regeneration is typically studied using standard injury models, in nature injuries vary greatly in the amount and location of tissues lost. Planarians have the unique ability to regenerate from many different injuries (including from tiny fragments with no brain), allowing us to study the effects of different injuries on regeneration timelines. We followed the timing of regeneration for one organ, the eye, after multiple injury types that involved tissue loss (single‐ and double‐eye ablation, and decapitation) in Schmidtea mediterranea. Our data reveal that the timing of regeneration remained constant despite changing injury parameters. Optic tissue regrowth, nerve re‐innervation, and functional recovery were similar between injury types (even when the animal was simultaneously regrowing its brain). Changes in metabolic rate (i.e., starving vs. fed regenerates) also had no effect on regeneration timelines. In addition, our data suggest there may exist a role for optic nerve degeneration following eye ablation. Our results suggest that the temporal regulation of planarian eye regeneration is tightly controlled and resistant to variations in injury type. PMID:27800171

  2. Heart regeneration.

    PubMed

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  3. 2R and remodeling of vertebrate signal transduction engine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whole genome duplication (WGD) is a special case of gene duplication, observed rarely in animals, whereby all genes duplicate simultaneously through polyploidisation. Two rounds of WGD (2R-WGD) occurred at the base of vertebrates, giving rise to an enormous wave of genetic novelty, but a systematic analysis of functional consequences of this event has not yet been performed. Results We show that 2R-WGD affected an overwhelming majority (74%) of signalling genes, in particular developmental pathways involving receptor tyrosine kinases, Wnt and transforming growth factor-β ligands, G protein-coupled receptors and the apoptosis pathway. 2R-retained genes, in contrast to tandem duplicates, were enriched in protein interaction domains and multifunctional signalling modules of Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. 2R-WGD had a fundamental impact on the cell-cycle machinery, redefined molecular building blocks of the neuronal synapse, and was formative for vertebrate brains. We investigated 2R-associated nodes in the context of the human signalling network, as well as in an inferred ancestral pre-2R (AP2R) network, and found that hubs (particularly involving negative regulation) were preferentially retained, with high connectivity driving retention. Finally, microarrays and proteomics demonstrated a trend for gradual paralog expression divergence independent of the duplication mechanism, but inferred ancestral expression states suggested preferential subfunctionalisation among 2R-ohnologs (2ROs). Conclusions The 2R event left an indelible imprint on vertebrate signalling and the cell cycle. We show that 2R-WGD preferentially retained genes are associated with higher organismal complexity (for example, locomotion, nervous system, morphogenesis), while genes associated with basic cellular functions (for example, translation, replication, splicing, recombination; with the notable exception of cell cycle) tended to be excluded. 2R-WGD set the stage

  4. Investigation on the magnetocaloric effect in RNi2 (R: Dy, tb) melt-spun ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    We report a theoretical and experimental investigation on the magnetocaloric properties of the rare earth RNi2 (R=Dy,Tb) in melt-spun ribbon and bulk form. The theoretical calculations were performed using a Hamiltonian model including the Zeeman-exchange interactions and the crystalline electrical field. Thus the magnetocaloric potential was calculated in the easy magnetic axes, in order an average over all of the possible directions. The isothermal entropy-change dependence on temperature calculated was compared with available experimental data for melt-spun ribbon and bulk material. We also investigated, theoretically and experimentally, the behavior of a DyNi2 and TbNi2 composite with optimized molar proportions and discussed this in the context of the optimum regeneration Ericsson cycle.

  5. Paleomagnetic results from a reconnaissance study of Santiago (Cape Verde Islands): Identification of cryptochron C2r.2r-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Holm, Paul Martin; Abrahamsen, Niels

    2009-04-01

    New paleomagnetic data from three lava sequences on Santiago, Cape Verde Islands, are presented. The paleomagnetic data are coupled with Ar 40/Ar39-age determinations, allowing detailed correlations between the three profiles and the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS). The younger of the profiles, the Ribeira da Barca profile, recorded flows of normal polarity that correlate with the Brunhes Chron, whereas the Porto Formosa profile of reverse polarity correlates with the lower Matuyama Chron. The São Gonçalo profile consists of both reverse- and normal-polarity flows that belong to the Matuyama and Gauss Chron, respectively. Virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) from a sequence of flow units in the São Gonçalo profile classify as transitional, and we interpret it as a geomagnetic event (SG-I). Well-defined Ar40/Ar39 ages bound the occurrence of event SG-I to the interval 2.37-2.43 Ma ( ±2σ), which is synchronous with the timing of cryptochron C2r.2r-1 in the marine magnetic anomaly record. This study therefore confirms the existence of cryptochron C2r.2r-1 and indicates that it was a global-scale phenomenon. The VGPs indicate that the field was in a meta-stable transitional state during cryptochron C2r.2r-1, and that it spent some time in or around the paleomagnetic transitional VGP-cluster patch close to Australia.

  6. Engineered Serratia marcescens for efficient (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fangmin; Dai, Lu; Fan, Jiying; Truong, Ngoctu; Rao, Ben; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Shen, Yaling

    2015-05-01

    (3R)-Acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol are important pharmaceutical intermediates. However, until now, the quantity of natural microorganisms with the ability to produce single configuration of optically pure (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol is rare. In this study, a meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by the slaC gene from Serratia marcescens MG1 was identified for meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. Inactivation of the slaC gene could significantly decrease meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol and result in a large quantity of (3R)-acetoin accumulation. Furthermore, a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by the bdhA gene from Bacillus subtilis 168 was introduced into the slaC mutant strain of Serratia marcescens MG1. Excess (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase could accelerate the reaction from (3R)-acetoin to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and lead to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol accumulation. In fed-batch fermentation, the excess (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase expression strain could produce 89.81 g/l (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol with a productivity of 1.91 g/l/h at 48 h. These results provided potential applications for (3R)-acetoin and (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol production.

  7. Reduced shedding regenerator and method

    DOEpatents

    Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, John E.; Erbeznik, Raymond M.

    2007-05-22

    A reduced shedding regenerator and method are disclosed with regenerator surfaces to minimize shedding of particles from the regenerator thereby alleviating a source of potential damage and malfunction of a thermal regenerative machine using the regenerator.

  8. Solvothermal fabrication of activated semi-coke supported TiO2-rGO nanocomposite photocatalysts and application for NO removal under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiwei; Li, Chunhu; Wang, Liang; Sun, ShengNan; Yan, Xin

    2015-10-01

    The photocatalysts of activated semi-coke supported TiO2-rGO nanocomposite (TiO2-rGO/ASC) with different contents of reduced graphene oxide were fabricated by one-step solvothermal method for NO removal under visible light irradiation. It was confirmed that 8% content of reduced graphene oxide presented the best NO photooxidation performance under visible light irradiation at 70 °C with 350-400 mg/m3 NO,5% O2 and 5% relative humidity. The reasons for improved activity were discussed, alloyed with the mechanism of producing CO. Detailed structural information of TiO2-rGO/ASC photocatalysts was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS) and photoluminescence (PL), which indicated that the introduction of rGO was responsible for well dispersion, smaller crystalline size, red shift of absorption band and suppressing quick photo-induced charges recombination of TiO2-rGO/ASC photocatalysts. Optimization of operational parameters with 70 °C, 8% O2 and 8% relative humidity were also obtained. Deactivation of TiO2-rGO/ASC photocatalysts for NO removal was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Regeneration experiments showed that thermal vapor regeneration would be optimal method owing to excellent regenerative capacity and inexpensive procedure.

  9. Active magnetic regenerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  10. A high-speed photonic clock and carrier regenerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. S.; Lutes, G.

    1995-01-01

    As data communications rates climb toward 10 Gbits/s, clock recovery and synchronization become more difficult, if not impossible, using conventional electronic circuits. The high-speed photonic clock regenerator described in this article may be more suitable for such use. This photonic regenerator is based on a previously reported photonic oscillator capable of fast acquisition and synchronization. With both electrical and optical clock inputs and outputs, the device is easily interfaced with fiber-optic systems. The recovered electrical clock can be used locally and the optical clock can be used anywhere within a several kilometer radius of the clock/carrier regenerator.

  11. Transient up-regulation of retinal EphA3 and EphA5, but not ephrin-A2, coincides with re-establishment of a topographic map during optic nerve regeneration in goldfish.

    PubMed

    King, Carolyn E; Wallace, Amy; Rodger, Jennifer; Bartlett, Carole; Beazley, Lyn D; Dunlop, Sarah A

    2003-10-01

    Eph tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligands, the ephrins, play a key role in the establishment of retinotectal topography during development. Tectal up-regulation of ephrin-A2 in goldfish, coincident with the reestablishment of a retinotectal map, suggests a similar role during optic nerve regeneration. Here we report a complementary study of EphA3, EphA5 and ephrin-A2 expression in the retina. EphA3 and EphA5 are transiently up-regulated as ascending naso-temporal gradients, whereas ephrin-A2 remains uniform. The expression profiles differ from those in developing chick and mouse, suggesting that different combinations of retinal Eph receptors and ligands can generate topographic guidance information.

  12. Guided bone regeneration using individualized ceramic sheets.

    PubMed

    Malmström, J; Anderud, J; Abrahamsson, P; Wälivaara, D-Å; Isaksson, S G; Adolfsson, E

    2016-10-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) describes the use of membranes to regenerate bony defects. A membrane for GBR needs to be biocompatible, cell-occlusive, non-toxic, and mouldable, and possess space-maintaining properties including stability. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe a new method of GBR using individualized ceramic sheets to perfect bone regeneration prior to implant placement; bone regeneration was assessed using traditional histology and three-dimensional (3D) volumetric changes in the bone and soft tissue. Three patients were included. After full-thickness flap reflection, the individualized ceramic sheets were fixed. The sites were left to heal for 7 months. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 7 months postoperative using cone beam computed tomography and 3D optical equipment. Samples of the regenerated bone and soft tissue were collected and analyzed. The bone regenerated in the entire interior volume of all sheets. Bone biopsies revealed newly formed trabecular bone with a lamellar structure. Soft tissue biopsies showed connective tissue with no signs of an inflammatory response. This was considered to be newly formed periosteum. Thus ceramic individualized sheets can be used to regenerate large volumes of bone in both vertical and horizontal directions independent of the bone defect and with good biological acceptance of the material. PMID:27364369

  13. Study of Opacity Effects on Emission Lines at EXTRAP T2R RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancalie, Viorica; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    We have investigated the influence of opacity on hydrogen (H-α and Ly-β) and Li-like oxygen emission lines from the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. We used the Atomic Data Analysis System (AzDAS) based on the escape factor approximation for radiative transfer to calculate metastable and excited population densities via a collisional-radiative model. Population escape factor, emergent escape factor and modified line profiles are plotted vs. optical depth. The simulated emission line ratios in the density/temperature plane are in good agreement with experimental data for electron density and temperature measurements.

  14. Programmable Iterative Optical Image And Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed method of iterative optical image and data processing overcomes limitations imposed by loss of optical power after repeated passes through many optical elements - especially, beam splitters. Involves selective, timed combination of optical wavefront phase conjugation and amplification to regenerate images in real time to compensate for losses in optical iteration loops; timing such that amplification turned on to regenerate desired image, then turned off so as not to regenerate other, undesired images or spurious light propagating through loops from unwanted reflections.

  15. Membranous nephropathy PLA2R+ associated with Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vanessa dos Santos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) — a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi — is a major health problem in Latin America. The immune response against the parasite is responsible for chronic CD lesions. Currently, there are no reports of an association between CD and membranous nephropathy (MN). The detection of the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) as a target antigen in idiopathic MN can improve the differential diagnosis of primary and secondary forms of MN. The authors report the case of a male patient with positive serology for CD who presented sudden death and underwent autopsy. Histological sections of the heart showed multifocal inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of mononuclear cells, leading to myocardiocytes necrosis and interstitial fibrosis. The kidneys showed a MN with positive expression for PLA2R. As far as we know, this is the first report of a case of primary MN in a patient with CD, with severe chronic cardiomyopathy and heart failure. PMID:26558244

  16. Membranous nephropathy PLA2R+ associated with Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Xavier-Júnior, José Cândido Caldeira; Silva, Vanessa Dos Santos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) - a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi - is a major health problem in Latin America. The immune response against the parasite is responsible for chronic CD lesions. Currently, there are no reports of an association between CD and membranous nephropathy (MN). The detection of the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) as a target antigen in idiopathic MN can improve the differential diagnosis of primary and secondary forms of MN. The authors report the case of a male patient with positive serology for CD who presented sudden death and underwent autopsy. Histological sections of the heart showed multifocal inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of mononuclear cells, leading to myocardiocytes necrosis and interstitial fibrosis. The kidneys showed a MN with positive expression for PLA2R. As far as we know, this is the first report of a case of primary MN in a patient with CD, with severe chronic cardiomyopathy and heart failure.

  17. Oligomerization of TAS2R bitter taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Christina; Bufe, Bernd; Batram, Claudia; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    A family of 25 G protein-coupled receptors, TAS2Rs, mediates bitter taste in humans. Many of the members of this family are coexpressed in a subpopulation of taste receptor cells on the tongue, thereby allowing the possibility of receptor-receptor interactions with potential influences on their function. In this study, we used several experimental approaches to investigate whether TAS2Rs can form oligomers and if this has an effect on receptor function. Coimmunoprecipitations clearly demonstrated that TAS2Rs can physically interact in HEK293T cells. Further bioluminescence resonance energy transfer analysis of all 325 possible binary combinations of TAS2Rs established that the vast majority of TAS2R pairs form oligomers, both homomers and heteromers. Subsequent screenings of coexpressed bitter receptors with 104 different tastants did not reveal any heteromer-specific agonists. Additional studies also showed no obvious influence of TAS2R hetero-oligomerization on plasma membrane localization or pharmacological properties of the receptors. Thus, our results show that receptor oligomerization occurs between TAS2R bitter taste receptors; however, functional consequences of hetero-oligomerization were not obvious.

  18. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  19. Regeneration Heat Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    J. Lin

    2003-07-30

    The original project goals were to establish the viability of the proposed gas turbine regenerator concept by performing the following tasks: (1) Perform detailed design of a working model of the regenerator concept. (2) Construct a ''bench-top'' model of the regenerator concept based upon the detail design. (3) Test the bench-top model and gather data to support the concept's viability. The project funding was used to acquire the tools and material to perform the aforementioned tasks.

  20. Spreading of hemiretinal projections in the ipsilateral tectum following unilateral enucleation: a study of optic nerve regeneration in Xenopus with one compound eye.

    PubMed

    Straznicky, C; Tay, D

    1981-02-01

    Right compound eyes were formed in Xenopus embryos at stages 32-33 by the fusion of two nasal (NN), two ventral (VV) or two temporal (TT) halves. Shortly after metamorphosis the optic nerve from the compound eye was sectioned and the left intact eye removed. The retinotectal projections from the compound eye to the contralateral and ipsilateral tecta were studied by [3H]proline autoradiography and electrophysiological mapping between 6 weeks and 5 months after the postmetamorphic surgery. The results showed that NN and VV eyes projected to the entire extent of both tecta. In contrast, optic fibre projection from TT eyes, although more extensive than the normal temporal hemiretinal projection, failed to cover the caudomedial portion of the tecta. The visuotectal projections in all three combinations corresponded to typical reduplicated maps to be expected from such compound eyes, where each of the hemiretinae projected across the contralateral and ipsilateral tecta in an overlapping fashion. The rapid expansion of the hemiretinal projections of the compound eyes in the ipsilateral tectum following the removal of the resident optic fibre projection suggests that tectal markers may be carried and deployed by the incoming optic fibres themselves.

  1. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) localization and antagonist-mediated inhibition of capsaicin responses and neurite outgrowth in human and rat sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Anand, U; Facer, P; Yiangou, Y; Sinisi, M; Fox, M; McCarthy, T; Bountra, C; Korchev, YE; Anand, P

    2013-01-01

    Background The angiotensin II (AngII) receptor subtype 2 (AT2R) is expressed in sensory neurons and may play a role in nociception and neuronal regeneration. Methods We used immunostaining with characterized antibodies to study the localization of AT2R in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and a range of human tissues. The effects of AngII and AT2R antagonist EMA401 on capsaicin responses in cultured human and rat (DRG) neurons were measured with calcium imaging, on neurite length and density with Gap43 immunostaining, and on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) expression using immunofluorescence. Results AT2R expression was localized in small-/medium-sized cultured neurons of human and rat DRG. Treatment with the AT2R antagonist EMA401 resulted in dose-related functional inhibition of capsaicin responses (IC50 = 10 nmol/L), which was reversed by 8-bromo-cAMP, and reduced neurite length and density; AngII treatment significantly enhanced capsaicin responses, cAMP levels and neurite outgrowth. The AT1R antagonist losartan had no effect on capsaicin responses. AT2R was localized in sensory neurons of human DRG, and nerve fibres in peripheral nerves, skin, urinary bladder and bowel. A majority sub-population (60%) of small-/medium-diameter neuronal cells were immunopositive in both control post-mortem and avulsion-injured human DRG; some very small neurons appeared to be intensely immunoreactive, with TRPV1 co-localization. While AT2R levels were reduced in human limb peripheral nerve segments proximal to injury, they were preserved in painful neuromas. Conclusions AT2R antagonists could be particularly useful in the treatment of chronic pain and hypersensitivity associated with abnormal nerve sprouting. PMID:23255326

  2. Ceramic regenerator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Jerrold E.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating an Air Turbo Ramjet (ATR) regenerator containing intricate hydraulic passages from a ceramic material in order to allow operation with high temperature combustion gas and to reduce weight as compared with metallic materials was demonstrated. Platelet technology, ceramic tape casting, and multilayer ceramic packaging techniques were used in this fabrication of subscale silicon nitride components. Proof-of-concept demonstrations were performed to simulate a methane cooled regenerator for an ATR engine. The regenerator vane was designed to operate at realistic service conditions, i.e., 600 psi in a 3500 R (3040 F), 500 fps combustion gas environment. A total of six regenerators were fabricated and tested. The regenerators were shown to be able to withstand internal pressurization to 1575 psi. They were subjected to testing in 500 fps, 3560 R (3100 F) air/propane combustion products and were operated satisfactorily for an excess of 100 hr and 40 thermal cycles which exceeded 2460 R (2000 F).

  3. Specialized progenitors and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Reddien, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Planarians are flatworms capable of regenerating all body parts. Planarian regeneration requires neoblasts, a population of dividing cells that has been studied for over a century. Neoblast progeny generate new cells of blastemas, which are the regenerative outgrowths at wounds. If the neoblasts comprise a uniform population of cells during regeneration (e.g. they are all uncommitted and pluripotent), then specialization of new cell types should occur in multipotent, non-dividing neoblast progeny cells. By contrast, recent data indicate that some neoblasts express lineage-specific transcription factors during regeneration and in uninjured animals. These observations raise the possibility that an important early step in planarian regeneration is the specialization of neoblasts to produce specified rather than naïve blastema cells. PMID:23404104

  4. Nucleus accumbens D2R cells signal prior outcomes and control risky decision-making.

    PubMed

    Zalocusky, Kelly A; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Lerner, Talia N; Davidson, Thomas J; Knutson, Brian; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-03-31

    A marked bias towards risk aversion has been observed in nearly every species tested. A minority of individuals, however, instead seem to prefer risk (repeatedly choosing uncertain large rewards over certain but smaller rewards), and even risk-averse individuals sometimes opt for riskier alternatives. It is not known how neural activity underlies such important shifts in decision-making--either as a stable trait across individuals or at the level of variability within individuals. Here we describe a model of risk-preference in rats, in which stable individual differences, trial-by-trial choices, and responses to pharmacological agents all parallel human behaviour. By combining new genetic targeting strategies with optical recording of neural activity during behaviour in this model, we identify relevant temporally specific signals from a genetically and anatomically defined population of neurons. This activity occurred within dopamine receptor type-2 (D2R)-expressing cells in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), signalled unfavourable outcomes from the recent past at a time appropriate for influencing subsequent decisions, and also predicted subsequent choices made. Having uncovered this naturally occurring neural correlate of risk selection, we then mimicked the temporally specific signal with optogenetic control during decision-making and demonstrated its causal effect in driving risk-preference. Specifically, risk-preferring rats could be instantaneously converted to risk-averse rats with precisely timed phasic stimulation of NAc D2R cells. These findings suggest that individual differences in risk-preference, as well as real-time risky decision-making, can be largely explained by the encoding in D2R-expressing NAc cells of prior unfavourable outcomes during decision-making. PMID:27007845

  5. Nucleus accumbens D2R cells signal prior outcomes and control risky decision-making.

    PubMed

    Zalocusky, Kelly A; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Lerner, Talia N; Davidson, Thomas J; Knutson, Brian; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-03-31

    A marked bias towards risk aversion has been observed in nearly every species tested. A minority of individuals, however, instead seem to prefer risk (repeatedly choosing uncertain large rewards over certain but smaller rewards), and even risk-averse individuals sometimes opt for riskier alternatives. It is not known how neural activity underlies such important shifts in decision-making--either as a stable trait across individuals or at the level of variability within individuals. Here we describe a model of risk-preference in rats, in which stable individual differences, trial-by-trial choices, and responses to pharmacological agents all parallel human behaviour. By combining new genetic targeting strategies with optical recording of neural activity during behaviour in this model, we identify relevant temporally specific signals from a genetically and anatomically defined population of neurons. This activity occurred within dopamine receptor type-2 (D2R)-expressing cells in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), signalled unfavourable outcomes from the recent past at a time appropriate for influencing subsequent decisions, and also predicted subsequent choices made. Having uncovered this naturally occurring neural correlate of risk selection, we then mimicked the temporally specific signal with optogenetic control during decision-making and demonstrated its causal effect in driving risk-preference. Specifically, risk-preferring rats could be instantaneously converted to risk-averse rats with precisely timed phasic stimulation of NAc D2R cells. These findings suggest that individual differences in risk-preference, as well as real-time risky decision-making, can be largely explained by the encoding in D2R-expressing NAc cells of prior unfavourable outcomes during decision-making.

  6. Anti-Phospholipase A2 Receptor (PLA2R) Antibody and Glomerular PLA2R Expression in Japanese Patients with Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Shohei; Iseri, Ken; Saito, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Taihei; Wada, Yukihiro; Matsumoto, Kei; Shibata, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is the major target antigen (Ag) in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Recently, several types of immunoassay systems for anti-PLA2R antibody (Ab) have been developed. However, the correlation of serum anti-PLA2R Abs and glomerular expression of PLA2R Ag, and their association with clinicopathological characteristics have yet to be proven in Japanese patients. We examined serum anti-PLA2R Abs by both ELISA and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (CIIFA), and glomerular PLA2R expression by immunofluorescence (IF) in 59 biopsy-proven MN patients including IMN (n = 38) and secondary MN (SMN) (n = 21). In this study, anti-PLA2R Abs were present in 50% of IMN patients, but was absent in SMN patients. The concordance rate between ELISA and CIIFA was 100%. Serum IgG levels were significantly lower in anti-PLA2R Ab-positive patients. Serum albumin levels correlated inversely with serum anti-PLA2R Ab titers. The prevalence and intensity of glomerular staining for IgG4 by IF were significantly higher in anti-PLA2R Ab-positive patients than in -negative patients. Glomerular PLA2 Ag expression evaluated by IF was positive in 52.6% of IMN patients, but was absent in SMN patients. The concordance rate between the prevalence of glomerular PLA2R Ag expression and anti-PLA2R Ab was 84.2%. The prevalence of anti-PLA2R Abs measured by ELISA/CIIFA was equivalent to previous Japanese studies evaluated using Western blotting. These analyses showed an excellent specificity for the diagnosis of IMN, and anti-PLA2R positivity was associated with some clinicopathological features, especially glomerular IgG4-dominant deposition. PMID:27355365

  7. Interaction between PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1 variants associates with anti-PLA2R antibodies and membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jicheng; Hou, Wanyin; Zhou, Xujie; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Fude; Zhao, Na; Hou, Ping; Zhao, Minghui; Zhang, Hong

    2013-07-01

    Risk alleles at genome loci containing phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1) and HLA-DQA1 closely associate with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) in the European population, but it is unknown whether a similar association exists in the Chinese population and whether high-risk alleles promote the development of anti-PLA2R antibodies. Here, we genotyped 2132 Chinese individuals, including 1112 patients with IMN and 1020 healthy controls, for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within PLA2R1 and three SNPs within HLA genes. We also selected 71 patients, with varying genotypes, to assess for circulating anti-PLA2R antibody and for PLA2R expression in glomeruli. Three SNPs within PLA2R1 and one SNP within HLA-DQA1 strongly associated with IMN, and we noted gene-gene interactions involving these SNPs. Furthermore, these risk alleles strongly associated with the presence of anti-PLA2R antibodies and glomerular PLA2R expression. Among individuals who carried risk alleles for both genes, 73% had anti-PLA2R antibodies and 75% expressed PLA2R in glomeruli. In contrast, among individuals who carried protective genotypes of both genes, none had anti-PLA2R antibodies and glomerular expression of PLA2R was weak or absent. In conclusion, the interaction between PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1 risk alleles associates with the development of IMN in the Chinese population. Individuals carrying risk alleles are predisposed to the generation of circulating anti-PLA2R autoantibodies, which may contribute to the development of IMN.

  8. Anti-Phospholipase A2 Receptor (PLA2R) Antibody and Glomerular PLA2R Expression in Japanese Patients with Membranous Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Hihara, Kei; Iyoda, Masayuki; Tachibana, Shohei; Iseri, Ken; Saito, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Taihei; Wada, Yukihiro; Matsumoto, Kei; Shibata, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is the major target antigen (Ag) in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Recently, several types of immunoassay systems for anti-PLA2R antibody (Ab) have been developed. However, the correlation of serum anti-PLA2R Abs and glomerular expression of PLA2R Ag, and their association with clinicopathological characteristics have yet to be proven in Japanese patients. We examined serum anti-PLA2R Abs by both ELISA and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (CIIFA), and glomerular PLA2R expression by immunofluorescence (IF) in 59 biopsy-proven MN patients including IMN (n = 38) and secondary MN (SMN) (n = 21). In this study, anti-PLA2R Abs were present in 50% of IMN patients, but was absent in SMN patients. The concordance rate between ELISA and CIIFA was 100%. Serum IgG levels were significantly lower in anti-PLA2R Ab-positive patients. Serum albumin levels correlated inversely with serum anti-PLA2R Ab titers. The prevalence and intensity of glomerular staining for IgG4 by IF were significantly higher in anti-PLA2R Ab-positive patients than in -negative patients. Glomerular PLA2 Ag expression evaluated by IF was positive in 52.6% of IMN patients, but was absent in SMN patients. The concordance rate between the prevalence of glomerular PLA2R Ag expression and anti-PLA2R Ab was 84.2%. The prevalence of anti-PLA2R Abs measured by ELISA/CIIFA was equivalent to previous Japanese studies evaluated using Western blotting. These analyses showed an excellent specificity for the diagnosis of IMN, and anti-PLA2R positivity was associated with some clinicopathological features, especially glomerular IgG4-dominant deposition.

  9. Current profile modification experiments in EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Spizzo, G.; Chapman, B. E.; Gravestjin, R. M.; Franz, P.; Piovesan, P.; Martin, P.; Drake, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    Pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) experiments have been conducted in the resistive shell EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. During the current profile modification phase, the fluctuation level of the m = 1 internally resonant tearing modes decreases, and the velocity of these modes increases. The m = 0 modes are not affected during PPCD, although termination occurs with a burst in the m = 0 amplitude. The PPCD phase is characterized by an increase in the central electron temperature (up to 380 eV) and in the soft x-ray signal. Spectroscopic observations confirm an increase in the central electron temperature. During PPCD, the plasma poloidal beta increases to 14%, and the estimated energy confinement time doubles, reaching 380 µs. The reduction in the fluctuation level and the corresponding increase in the energy confinement time are qualitatively consistent with a reduction in parallel transport along stochastic magnetic field lines.

  10. Heat transport modelling in EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2009-02-01

    A model to estimate the heat transport in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch (RFP) is described. The model, based on experimental and theoretical results, divides the RFP electron heat diffusivity χe into three regions, one in the plasma core, where χe is assumed to be determined by the tearing modes, one located around the reversal radius, where χe is assumed not dependent on the magnetic fluctuations and one in the extreme edge, where high χe is assumed. The absolute values of the core and of the reversal χe are determined by simulating the electron temperature and the soft x-ray and by comparing the simulated signals with the experimental ones. The model is used to estimate the heat diffusivity and the energy confinement time during the flat top of standard plasmas, of deep F plasmas and of plasmas obtained with the intelligent shell.

  11. GPS Block 2R Time Standard Assembly (TSA) architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Anthony P.

    1990-01-01

    The underlying philosophy of the Global Positioning System (GPS) 2R Time Standard Assembly (TSA) architecture is to utilize two frequency sources, one fixed frequency reference source and one system frequency source, and to couple the system frequency source to the reference frequency source via a sample data loop. The system source is used to provide the basic clock frequency and timing for the space vehicle (SV) and it uses a voltage controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) with high short term stability. The reference source is an atomic frequency standard (AFS) with high long term stability. The architecture can support any type of frequency standard. In the system design rubidium, cesium, and H2 masers outputting a canonical frequency were accommodated. The architecture is software intensive. All VCXO adjustments are digital and are calculated by a processor. They are applied to the VCXO via a digital to analog converter.

  12. PLA2R-associated membranous glomerulopathy is modulated by common variants in PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1 genes.

    PubMed

    Saeed, M; Beggs, M L; Walker, P D; Larsen, C P

    2014-12-01

    Membranous glomerulopathy (MG) is most commonly caused by autoantibodies directed against the podocyte phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) and common variants in this gene are associated with MG. Here for the first time, we carried out a large case-control association study (n=1512) of PLA2R-positive and -negative MG to determine the extent of association in these pathologic subtypes. We performed four separate sets of analyses to determine significance of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes followed by joint analysis and trans-ethnic mapping to increase power. The PLA2R1 SNP rs35771982 was most strongly associated with PLA2R-positive MG (P=1.4 × 10(-14), odds ratio (ORGG)=1.98). The associations of other SNPs in PLA2R1 could be explained because of linkage disequilibrium with the G-allele. Haplotypes in PLA2R1 did not exceed the significance of rs35771982 even after 10 000 permutations. PLA2R1 variants were only associated with PLA2R-positive MG and predominantly in Caucasians. PLA2R1 variants did not associate with MG in African Americans (AA). There was strong epistasis between HLA-DQA1 SNP rs2187668 and the PLA2R1 variant rs35771982. Thus, common variants in the PLA2R1, particularly rs35771982, modulate PLA2R-positive MG with HLA-DQA1 in Caucasians. PLA2R-negative MG especially in AA, may provide a novel opportunity to discover new genes underlying MG.

  13. Synthesis of methyl (13(2)R/S)-alkyl-pyropheophorbide a and a non-epimerized chlorophyll a mimic.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Shin; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2015-10-15

    The (13(2)R/S)-methoxycarbonyl group of methyl pheophorbides a/a' (chlorophyll a/a' derivatives) was converted to methyl, ethyl, propyl, and isopropyl groups through the C13(2)-alkylation under basic conditions followed by pyrolysis in 2,4,6-collidine with lithium iodide. All the resulting products, methyl 13(2)-alkyl-pyropheophorbides a, predominantly gave the (13(2)R)-stereoisomers with about one tenth of the (13(2)S)-epimers. Their stereochemistry was determined by 1D/2D NMR and their optical properties were characterized by visible absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Methyl (13(2)R)-propyl-pyropheophorbide a was converted to (13(2)R)-propyl-pyrochlorophyll a by ester exchanging and magnesium chelating reactions. The synthetic chlorophyll a analogue showed non-epimerization at the 13(2)-position in pyridine-d5 at 40°C, while naturally occurring chlorophyll a was easily epimerized under the same conditions to give its epimeric mixture.

  14. Chemical genetics and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sumitra; Zhang, Liyun; Mumm, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration involves interactions between multiple signaling pathways acting in a spatially and temporally complex manner. As signaling pathways are highly conserved, understanding how regeneration is controlled in animal models exhibiting robust regenerative capacities should aid efforts to stimulate repair in humans. One way to discover molecular regulators of regeneration is to alter gene/protein function and quantify effect(s) on the regenerative process: dedifferentiation/reprograming, stem/progenitor proliferation, migration/remodeling, progenitor cell differentiation and resolution. A powerful approach for applying this strategy to regenerative biology is chemical genetics, the use of small-molecule modulators of specific targets or signaling pathways. Here, we review advances that have been made using chemical genetics for hypothesis-focused and discovery-driven studies aimed at furthering understanding of how regeneration is controlled.

  15. Nanomaterials and bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tao; Xie, Jing; Liao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Shiyu; Lin, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has been increasing. Bone is a nanomaterials composed of organic (mainly collagen) and inorganic (mainly nano-hydroxyapatite) components, with a hierarchical structure ranging from nanoscale to macroscale. In consideration of the serious limitation in traditional therapies, nanomaterials provide some new strategy in bone regeneration. Nanostructured scaffolds provide a closer structural support approximation to native bone architecture for the cells and regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, which results in the formation of functional tissues. In this article, we focused on reviewing the classification and design of nanostructured materials and nanocarrier materials for bone regeneration, their cell interaction properties, and their application in bone tissue engineering and regeneration. Furthermore, some new challenges about the future research on the application of nanomaterials for bone regeneration are described in the conclusion and perspectives part. PMID:26558141

  16. Current profile control experiments in EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, P.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.; Franz, P.; Malmberg, J. A.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Spizzo, G.

    2002-11-01

    EXTRAP T2R is a high aspect ratio (R=1.24 m, a = 0.183 m) reversed-field pinch device, characterised by a double, thin shell system. The simultaneous presence of many m=1, |n| > 11 tearing modes is responsible for a magnetic field turbulence, which is believed to produce the rather high energy and particle transport that is observed in this type of magnetic configuration. In this paper first results from current profile control experiments (PPCD) in a thin shell device are shown. When an edge poloidal electric field is transiently applied, an increase of the electron temperature and of the electron density is seen, which is consistent with an increase of the thermal content of the plasma. At the same time, the soft x-ray emission, measured with a newly installed miniaturised camera, shows a peaking of the profile in the core. Furthermore, the amplitudes of the m=1 tearing modes are reduced and and the rotation velocities increase during PPCD, which is also consistent with a reduction of magnetic turbulence and a heating of the plasma

  17. EGFR Activation Mediates Inhibition of Axon Regeneration by Myelin and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprivica, Vuk; Cho, Kin-Sang; Park, Jong Bae; Yiu, Glenn; Atwal, Jasvinder; Gore, Bryan; Kim, Jieun A.; Lin, Estelle; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Chen, Dong Feng; He, Zhigang

    2005-10-01

    Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in inhibiting neurite outgrowth. In addition, regeneration inhibitors trigger the phosphorylation of EGFR in a calcium-dependent manner. Local administration of EGFR inhibitors promotes significant regeneration of injured optic nerve fibers, pointing to a promising therapeutic avenue for enhancing axon regeneration after CNS injury.

  18. 49 CFR 178.360 - Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 2R; inside containment vessel. 178.360 Section 178.360 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... Specification 2R; inside containment vessel....

  19. 49 CFR 178.360 - Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 2R; inside containment vessel. 178.360 Section 178.360 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... Specification 2R; inside containment vessel....

  20. 49 CFR 178.360 - Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 2R; inside containment vessel. 178.360 Section 178.360 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... Specification 2R; inside containment vessel....

  1. 49 CFR 178.360 - Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification 2R; inside containment vessel. 178.360 Section 178.360 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specification 2R; inside containment vessel....

  2. Muscle regeneration after sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bouglé, Adrien; Rocheteau, Pierre; Sharshar, Tarek; Chrétien, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Severe critical illness is often complicated by intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW), which is associated with increased ICU and post-ICU mortality, delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation and long-term functional disability. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the pathophysiology of ICU-AW, but muscle regeneration has not been investigated to any extent in this context, even though its involvement is suggested by the protracted functional consequences of ICU-AW. Recent data suggest that muscle regeneration could be impaired after sepsis, and that mesenchymal stem cell treatment could improve the post-injury muscle recovery. PMID:27193340

  3. Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

  4. Supercritical fluid regeneration of adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defilippi, R. P.; Robey, R. J.

    1983-05-01

    The results of a program to perform studies supercritical (fluid) carbon dioxide (SCF CO2) regeneration of adsorbents, using samples of industrial wastewaters from manufacturing pesticides and synthetic solution, and to estimate the economics of the specific wastewater treatment regenerations, based on test data are given. Processing costs for regenerating granular activated carbon GAC) for treating industrial wastewaters depend on stream properties and regeneration throughput.

  5. The cell biology of regeneration

    PubMed Central

    King, Ryan S.

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration of complex structures after injury requires dramatic changes in cellular behavior. Regenerating tissues initiate a program that includes diverse processes such as wound healing, cell death, dedifferentiation, and stem (or progenitor) cell proliferation; furthermore, newly regenerated tissues must integrate polarity and positional identity cues with preexisting body structures. Gene knockdown approaches and transgenesis-based lineage and functional analyses have been instrumental in deciphering various aspects of regenerative processes in diverse animal models for studying regeneration. PMID:22391035

  6. Regeneration: rewarding, but potentially risky.

    PubMed

    Egger, Bernhard

    2008-12-01

    Some bilaterally symmetric animals, such as flatworms, annelids, and nemerteans, are renowned for their outstanding regeneration capacity-even a fraction of the body can give rise to a complete new animal. However, not all species of these taxa can regenerate equally well-some cannot regenerate at all. If regeneration was purely beneficial, why cannot all of members of the flat, round, and ribbon worms regenerate? At that, why cannot all other bilaterians, including humans, regenerate as well? Regeneration capacity is an obvious advantage in accidental, predatory, and parasitic loss of body parts and is also closely intertwined with asexual reproduction strategies. Regeneration is suspected to play a role in life span extension or even rejuvenation. An answer for reduced or missing regeneration capacity in many species may be found in limitations of the body plan, high costs, and inherent dangers of regeneration. Defects in adults and juveniles are shown, and similarities between development and regeneration are pointed out. With a focus on some worms, but also highlighting comparisons with other animal taxa, putative reasons for a limited and an advanced regeneration capacity are discussed in this article. PMID:19067421

  7. Tibetan medicine and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dhondup, Lobsang; Husted, Cynthia

    2009-08-01

    An overview of the concept of regeneration in Tibetan medicine is presented with descriptions of detoxification and tonification longevity protocols. The body must be fortified before receiving stronger treatments for regeneration. All disease is brought into balance with understanding of the interplay of the five elements, three humors, and their qualities and locations. The example of multiple sclerosis (MS) is given. The macroscopic three-humor interpretation of MS agrees with the microscopic three-humor description of demyelination, providing a new framework for the understanding and treatment of MS. Treatments for MS and other chronic conditions are based on age, season, time of day, and the individual's three-humor and hot (excess) and cold (deficiency) balance. Treatments to promote regeneration include nutrition, gentle exercise, herbal formulas, accessory therapies such as herbal baths and oils, and meditation. It is built into the theory of Tibetan medicine to have predictions about outcome and distinguish different disease patterns in patients with MS and other disorders. Taking into account daily and seasonal variations coupled with the changing nature of MS, it is critical to frequently evaluate people with MS and other chronic conditions for monitoring and adjustment of treatment for regeneration.

  8. Regenerator seal design

    DOEpatents

    Eckart, Francis H.

    1982-01-01

    A rotary regenerator disc matrix has a face seal with a cross arm and arcuate rim segments joined by prestress clamps to prestrain the arcuate rim seals so as to compensate seal rim twisting or coning and resultant disc face seal leakage as produced by operating thermal gradients across the seal.

  9. Regenerated Fe is tasty!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuester, J.; Twining, B. S.

    2012-12-01

    Bioavailability of nutrients is an essential factor controlling primary productivity in the ocean. In addition to macronutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous, availability of the trace element iron unequivocally affects growth rates and community structure of phytoplankton and thereby primary productivity in many ocean regions. External sources of iron such as Aeolian dust, upwelling of Fe-rich waters, and hydrothermal are reduced in high-nutrient low-chlorophyll regions, and most Fe used by phytoplankton has been regenerated by zooplankton. While zooplankton regeneration of Fe was first shown two decades ago, major factors controlling this process such as chemical composition of prey and grazer taxonomy are not well constrained. As pH varies significantly in digestive systems between protozoa and mesozooplankton, we hypothesize that the extent and the bioavailability of regenerated Fe is a function of the digestive physiology. Furthermore, major element components such as silica for diatoms and calcium carbonate for cocolithophores may be able to buffer the pH of digestive systems of different grazer taxa. Such effects may further influence the magnitude and bioavailability of regenerated Fe. In order to constrain the effect of grazer taxonomy and chemical composition of prey on Fe bioavailability, 55Fe-labeled phytoplankton were fed to different grazers and unlabeled phytoplankton were subsequently inoculated to the filtrate of the grazing experiment in the regrowth phase of the experiment, and the uptake of 55Fe into the phytoplankton biomass was monitored over time. A parallel uptake experiment using inorganic 55Fe was used to compare the bioavailability of regenerated and inorganic Fe to the same phytoplankton species. Furthermore, some samples of the inorganic and the regenerated uptake experiments were treated with an oxalate rinse to remove any adsorbed Fe. This allowed us to estimate the adsorption of 55Fe from either source to the cell walls of

  10. Bradykinin inhibits oxidative stress-induced senescence of endothelial progenitor cells through the B2R/AKT/RB and B2R/EGFR/RB signal pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Cong; Li, Bing; Sun, Yuning; Ma, Genshan; Yao, Yuyu

    2015-01-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have multiple protective effects that facilitate repair of damage to tissues and organs. However, while various stressors are known to impair EPC function, the mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced EPC senescence remains unknown. We demonstrated that B2 receptor (B2R) expression on circulating CD34+ cells was significantly reduced in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) as compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, CD34+ cell B2R expression in patients with DM was inversely correlated with plasma myeloperoxidase concentrations. Bradykinin (BK) treatment decreased human EPC (hEPC) senescence and intracellular oxygen radical production, resulting in reduced retinoblastoma 1 (RB) RNA expression in H2O2-induced senescent hEPCs and a reversal of the B2R downregulation that is normally observed in senescent cells. Furthermore, BK treatment of H2O2-exposed cells leads to elevated phosphorylation of RB, AKT, and cyclin D1 compared with H2O2-treatment alone. Antagonists of B2R, PI3K, and EGFR signaling pathways and B2R siRNA blocked BK protective effects. In summary, this study demonstrates that BK significantly inhibits oxidative stress-induced hEPC senescence though B2R-mediated activation of PI3K and EGFR signaling pathways. PMID:26360782

  11. Tales of regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Poss, Kenneth D; Keating, Mark T; Nechiporuk, Alex

    2003-02-01

    Complex tissue regeneration involves exquisitely coordinated proliferation and patterning of adult cells after severe injury or amputation. Certain lower vertebrates such as urodele amphibians and teleost fish have a greater capacity for regeneration than mammals. However, little is known about molecular mechanisms of regeneration, and cellular mechanisms are incompletely defined. To address this deficiency, we and others have focused on the zebrafish model system. Several helpful tools and reagents are available for use with zebrafish, including the potential for genetic approaches to regeneration. Recent studies have shed light on the remarkable ability of zebrafish to regenerate fins. PMID:12557199

  12. Identification of a major epitope recognized by PLA2R autoantibodies in primary membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Fresquet, Maryline; Jowitt, Thomas A; Gummadova, Jennet; Collins, Richard; O'Cualain, Ronan; McKenzie, Edward A; Lennon, Rachel; Brenchley, Paul E

    2015-02-01

    Phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R) is a target autoantigen in 70% of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. We describe the location of a major epitope in the N-terminal cysteine-rich ricin domain of PLA2R that is recognized by 90% of human anti-PLA2R autoantibodies. The epitope was sensitive to reduction and SDS denaturation in the isolated ricin domain and the larger fragment containing the ricin, fibronectin type II, first and second C-type lectin domains (CTLD). However, in nondenaturing conditions the epitope was protected against reduction in larger fragments, including the full-length extracellular region of PLA2R. To determine the composition of the epitope, we isolated immunoreactive tryptic fragments by Western blotting and analyzed them by mass spectrometry. The identified peptides were tested as inhibitors of autoantibody binding to PLA2R by surface plasmon resonance. Two peptides from the ricin domain showed strong inhibition, with a longer sequence covering both peptides (31-mer) producing 85% inhibition of autoantibody binding to PLA2R. Anti-PLA2R antibody directly bound this 31-mer peptide under nondenaturing conditions and binding was sensitive to reduction. Analysis of PLA2R and the PLA2R-anti-PLA2R complex using electron microscopy and homology-based representations allowed us to generate a structural model of this major epitope and its antibody binding site, which is independent of pH-induced conformational change in PLA2R. Identification of this major PLA2R epitope will enable further therapeutic advances for patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, including antibody inhibition therapy and immunoadsorption of circulating autoantibodies.

  13. Identification of a Major Epitope Recognized by PLA2R Autoantibodies in Primary Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Fresquet, Maryline; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Gummadova, Jennet; Collins, Richard; O’Cualain, Ronan; McKenzie, Edward A.; Brenchley, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R) is a target autoantigen in 70% of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. We describe the location of a major epitope in the N-terminal cysteine-rich ricin domain of PLA2R that is recognized by 90% of human anti-PLA2R autoantibodies. The epitope was sensitive to reduction and SDS denaturation in the isolated ricin domain and the larger fragment containing the ricin, fibronectin type II, first and second C-type lectin domains (CTLD). However, in nondenaturing conditions the epitope was protected against reduction in larger fragments, including the full-length extracellular region of PLA2R. To determine the composition of the epitope, we isolated immunoreactive tryptic fragments by Western blotting and analyzed them by mass spectrometry. The identified peptides were tested as inhibitors of autoantibody binding to PLA2R by surface plasmon resonance. Two peptides from the ricin domain showed strong inhibition, with a longer sequence covering both peptides (31-mer) producing 85% inhibition of autoantibody binding to PLA2R. Anti-PLA2R antibody directly bound this 31-mer peptide under nondenaturing conditions and binding was sensitive to reduction. Analysis of PLA2R and the PLA2R-anti-PLA2R complex using electron microscopy and homology-based representations allowed us to generate a structural model of this major epitope and its antibody binding site, which is independent of pH-induced conformational change in PLA2R. Identification of this major PLA2R epitope will enable further therapeutic advances for patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, including antibody inhibition therapy and immunoadsorption of circulating autoantibodies. PMID:25288605

  14. Quinine Bitterness and Grapefruit Liking Associate with Allelic Variants in TAS2R31.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Nolden, Alissa A; McGeary, John E

    2015-07-01

    Multiple psychophysical gene-association studies suggest a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the bitter receptor gene TAS2R19 on chromosome 12 may be functional. Previously, the Arg299Cys SNP (rs10772420) has been associated with differential bitterness of quinine and differential liking for grapefruit juice. However, quinine does not activate TAS2R19 in vitro; likewise, limonin and naringin, bitter compounds in grapefruit, do not activate TAS2R19 in vitro. Here, we examined quinine bitterness (whole-mouth swish-and-spit stimuli and regionally delivered quinine across 4 loci) and remembered liking for grapefruit juice to test whether they associate with SNPs in another nearby gene, TASR2R31. We observed SNP-phenotype associations between whole-mouth quinine bitterness and self-reported liking for grapefruit juice with SNPs in TAS2R31, and regional quinine bitterness followed a similar trend, but did not reach significance. Present data provide independent replication of prior associations reported for TAS2R19. However, we also observed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between TAS2R19 and TAS2R31 SNPs. When present data are considered in light of existing functional expression data, this suggests phenotypic associations reported previously for rs10772420 may potentially be due to LD between this SNP and polymorphism(s) in, or closer to, TAS2R31. If confirmed, this would reduce the number of TAS2Rs with putatively functional polymorphisms to 5.

  15. Quinine Bitterness and Grapefruit Liking Associate with Allelic Variants in TAS2R31

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Emma L.; Nolden, Alissa A.; McGeary, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple psychophysical gene-association studies suggest a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the bitter receptor gene TAS2R19 on chromosome 12 may be functional. Previously, the Arg299Cys SNP (rs10772420) has been associated with differential bitterness of quinine and differential liking for grapefruit juice. However, quinine does not activate TAS2R19 in vitro; likewise, limonin and naringin, bitter compounds in grapefruit, do not activate TAS2R19 in vitro. Here, we examined quinine bitterness (whole-mouth swish-and-spit stimuli and regionally delivered quinine across 4 loci) and remembered liking for grapefruit juice to test whether they associate with SNPs in another nearby gene, TASR2R31. We observed SNP–phenotype associations between whole-mouth quinine bitterness and self-reported liking for grapefruit juice with SNPs in TAS2R31, and regional quinine bitterness followed a similar trend, but did not reach significance. Present data provide independent replication of prior associations reported for TAS2R19. However, we also observed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between TAS2R19 and TAS2R31 SNPs. When present data are considered in light of existing functional expression data, this suggests phenotypic associations reported previously for rs10772420 may potentially be due to LD between this SNP and polymorphism(s) in, or closer to, TAS2R31. If confirmed, this would reduce the number of TAS2Rs with putatively functional polymorphisms to 5. PMID:26024668

  16. Quinine Bitterness and Grapefruit Liking Associate with Allelic Variants in TAS2R31.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Nolden, Alissa A; McGeary, John E

    2015-07-01

    Multiple psychophysical gene-association studies suggest a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the bitter receptor gene TAS2R19 on chromosome 12 may be functional. Previously, the Arg299Cys SNP (rs10772420) has been associated with differential bitterness of quinine and differential liking for grapefruit juice. However, quinine does not activate TAS2R19 in vitro; likewise, limonin and naringin, bitter compounds in grapefruit, do not activate TAS2R19 in vitro. Here, we examined quinine bitterness (whole-mouth swish-and-spit stimuli and regionally delivered quinine across 4 loci) and remembered liking for grapefruit juice to test whether they associate with SNPs in another nearby gene, TASR2R31. We observed SNP-phenotype associations between whole-mouth quinine bitterness and self-reported liking for grapefruit juice with SNPs in TAS2R31, and regional quinine bitterness followed a similar trend, but did not reach significance. Present data provide independent replication of prior associations reported for TAS2R19. However, we also observed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between TAS2R19 and TAS2R31 SNPs. When present data are considered in light of existing functional expression data, this suggests phenotypic associations reported previously for rs10772420 may potentially be due to LD between this SNP and polymorphism(s) in, or closer to, TAS2R31. If confirmed, this would reduce the number of TAS2Rs with putatively functional polymorphisms to 5. PMID:26024668

  17. Impurity identifications, concentrations and particle fluxes from spectral measurements of the EXTRAP T2R plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menmuir, S.; Kuldkepp, M.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-10-01

    An absolute intensity calibrated 0.5 m spectrometer with optical multi-channel analyser detector was used to observe the visible-UV radiation from the plasma in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Spectral lines were identified indicating the presence of oxygen, chromium, iron and molybdenum impurities in the hydrogen plasma. Certain regions of interest were examined in more detail and at different times in the plasma discharge. Impurity concentration calculations were made using the absolute intensities of lines of OIV and OV measured at 1-2 ms into the discharge generating estimates of the order of 0.2% of ne in the central region rising to 0.7% of ne at greater radii for OIV and 0.3% rising to 0.6% for OV. Edge electron temperatures of 0.5-5 eV at electron densities of 5-10×1011 cm-3 were calculated from the measured relative intensities of hydrogen Balmer lines. The absolute intensities of hydrogen lines and of multiplets of neutral chromium and molybdenum were used to determine particle fluxes (at 4-5 ms into the plasma) of the order 1×1016, 7×1013 and 3×1013 particles cm-2 s-1, respectively.

  18. V2R mutations and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria, with hyposthenuria, and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. Nephrogenic failure to concentrate urine maximally may be due to a defect in vasopressin-induced water permeability of the distal tubules and collecting ducts, to insufficient buildup of the corticopapillary interstitial osmotic gradient, or to a combination of these two factors. Thus, the broadest definition of the term NDI embraces any antidiuretic hormone-resistant urinary-concentrating defect, including medullary disease with low interstitial osmolality, renal failure, and osmotic diuresis. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked recessive NDI (OMIM 304800)(1) and have mutations in the AVP receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene that codes for the vasopressin V(2) receptor; the gene is located in chromosome region Xq28. In about 10% of the families studied, congenital NDI has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance (OMIM 222000 and 125800)(1). Mutations have been identified in the aquaporin-2 gene (AQP2, OMIM 107777)(1), which is located in chromosome region 12q13 and codes for the vasopressin-sensitive water channel. NDI is clinically distinguishable from neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (OMIM 125700(1); also referred to as central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus) by a lack of response to exogenous AVP and by plasma levels of AVP that rise normally with increase in plasma osmolality. Hereditary neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is secondary to mutations in the gene encoding AVP (OMIM 192340)(1). Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is also a component of autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome 1 or DIDMOAD syndrome (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness) (OMIM

  19. Tissue regeneration with photobiomodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Elieza G.; Arany, Praveen R.

    2013-03-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) has been widely reported to reduce pain and inflammation and enhance wound healing and tissue regeneration in various settings. LLLT has been noted to have both stimulatory and inhibitory biological effects and these effects have been termed Photobiomodulation (PBM). Several elegant studies have shown the key role of Cytochrome C oxidase and ROS in initiating this process. The downstream biological responses remain to be clearly elucidated. Our work has demonstrated activation of an endogenous latent growth factor complex, TGF-β1, as one of the major biological events in PBM. TGF-β1 has critical roles in various biological processes especially in inflammation, immune responses, wound healing and stem cell biology. This paper overviews some of the studies demonstrating the efficacy of PBM in promoting tissue regeneration.

  20. Regenerable adsorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Subir (Inventor); Perry, Jay (Inventor); Walsh, Dennis (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method for regenerable adsorption includes providing a substrate that defines at least one layer of ultra short channel length mesh capable of conducting an electrical current therethrough, coating at least a portion of the substrate with a desired sorbent for trace contaminant control or CO.sub.2 sorption, resistively heating the substrate, and passing a flowstream through the substrate and in contact with the sorbent.

  1. Expression of bitter taste receptor Tas2r105 in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Gu, Fu; Jiang, Li; Chen, Fuxue; Li, Feng

    2015-03-20

    The kidney is the most important excretory organ in the body and plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in vivo by conserving body fluid and electrolytes and removing metabolic waste. In this study, three types of transgenic system were used to investigate the expression of the bitter taste receptor Tas2r105 in mouse renal tissue (Tas2r105-GFP/Cre, Tas2r105-GFP/Cre-DTA and Tas2r105-GFP/Cre-LacZ). The results suggest that bitter taste receptors Tas2r105 and Tas2r106 are expressed in the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule, including the proximal tubule and distal tubule. Expression of α-gustducin, an important component of taste signal transduction, was also detected in mouse kidney. Meanwhile, conditional diphtheria toxin (DTA) expression in Tas2r105+ cells caused an increase in size of the glomerulus and renal tubule, accompanied by a decrease in cell density in the glomerulus. This indicates that Tas2r105+ cells play an important role in maintaining the structure of the glomerulus and renal tubules. Overall, the current study collectively demonstrates that cells labeled by bitter taste receptor expression may play a critical role in controlling human health, and have properties far beyond the original concept of taste perception.

  2. Expression of bitter taste receptor Tas2r105 in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Gu, Fu; Jiang, Li; Chen, Fuxue; Li, Feng

    2015-03-20

    The kidney is the most important excretory organ in the body and plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in vivo by conserving body fluid and electrolytes and removing metabolic waste. In this study, three types of transgenic system were used to investigate the expression of the bitter taste receptor Tas2r105 in mouse renal tissue (Tas2r105-GFP/Cre, Tas2r105-GFP/Cre-DTA and Tas2r105-GFP/Cre-LacZ). The results suggest that bitter taste receptors Tas2r105 and Tas2r106 are expressed in the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule, including the proximal tubule and distal tubule. Expression of α-gustducin, an important component of taste signal transduction, was also detected in mouse kidney. Meanwhile, conditional diphtheria toxin (DTA) expression in Tas2r105+ cells caused an increase in size of the glomerulus and renal tubule, accompanied by a decrease in cell density in the glomerulus. This indicates that Tas2r105+ cells play an important role in maintaining the structure of the glomerulus and renal tubules. Overall, the current study collectively demonstrates that cells labeled by bitter taste receptor expression may play a critical role in controlling human health, and have properties far beyond the original concept of taste perception. PMID:25681767

  3. Expansion and diversification of the Populus R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Olivia; Nahal, Hardeep; Foong, Justin; Provart, Nicholas J; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2009-02-01

    The R2R3-MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. R2R3-MYB family members regulate plant-specific processes, such as the elaboration of specialized cell types, including xylem, guard cells, trichomes, and root hairs, and the biosynthesis of specialized branches of metabolism, including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. As such, R2R3-MYB family members are hypothesized to contribute to the emergence of evolutionary innovations that have arisen in specific plant lineages. As a first step in determining the role played by R2R3-MYB family members in the emergence of lineage-specific innovations in the genus Populus, the entire Populus trichocarpa R2R3-MYB family was characterized. The Populus R2R3-MYB complement is much larger than that found in other angiosperms with fully sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses, together with chromosome placement, showed that the expansion of the Populus R2R3-MYB family was not only attributable to whole genome duplication but also involved selective expansion of specific R2R3-MYB clades. Expansion of the Populus R2R3-MYB family prominently involved members with expression patterns that suggested a role in specific components of Populus life history, including wood formation and reproductive development. An expandable compendium of microarray-based expression data (PopGenExpress) and associated Web-based tools were developed to better enable within- and between-species comparisons of Populus R2R3-MYB gene expression. This resource, which includes intuitive graphic visualization of gene expression data across multiple tissues, organs, and treatments, is freely available to, and expandable by, scientists wishing to better understand the genome biology of Populus, an ecologically dominant and economically important forest tree genus. PMID:19091872

  4. Diversification of R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors in the Tomato Family Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Gates, Daniel J; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Olson, Bradley J S C; Smith, Stacey D

    2016-08-01

    MYB transcription factors play an important role in regulating key plant developmental processes involving defense, cell shape, pigmentation, and root formation. Within this gene family, sequences containing an R2R3 MYB domain are the most abundant type and exhibit a wide diversity of functions. In this study, we identify 559 R2R3 MYB genes using whole genome data from four species of Solanaceae and reconstruct their evolutionary relationships. We compare the Solanaceae R2R3 MYBs to the well-characterized Arabidopsis thaliana sequences to estimate functional diversity and to identify gains and losses of MYB clades in the Solanaceae. We identify numerous R2R3 MYBs that do not appear closely related to Arabidopsis MYBs, and thus may represent clades of genes that have been lost along the Arabidopsis lineage or gained after the divergence of Rosid and Asterid lineages. Despite differences in the distribution of R2R3 MYBs across functional subgroups and species, the overall size of the R2R3 subfamily has changed relatively little over the roughly 50 million-year history of Solanaceae. We added our information regarding R2R3 MYBs in Solanaceae to other data and performed a meta-analysis to trace the evolution of subfamily size across land plants. The results reveal many shifts in the number of R2R3 genes, including a 54 % increase along the angiosperm stem lineage. The variation in R2R3 subfamily size across land plants is weakly positively correlated with genome size and strongly positively correlated with total number of genes. The retention of such a large number of R2R3 copies over long evolutionary time periods suggests that they have acquired new functions and been maintained by selection. Discovering the nature of this functional diversity will require integrating forward and reverse genetic approaches on an -omics scale.

  5. Expansion and diversification of the Populus R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Olivia; Nahal, Hardeep; Foong, Justin; Provart, Nicholas J; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2009-02-01

    The R2R3-MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. R2R3-MYB family members regulate plant-specific processes, such as the elaboration of specialized cell types, including xylem, guard cells, trichomes, and root hairs, and the biosynthesis of specialized branches of metabolism, including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. As such, R2R3-MYB family members are hypothesized to contribute to the emergence of evolutionary innovations that have arisen in specific plant lineages. As a first step in determining the role played by R2R3-MYB family members in the emergence of lineage-specific innovations in the genus Populus, the entire Populus trichocarpa R2R3-MYB family was characterized. The Populus R2R3-MYB complement is much larger than that found in other angiosperms with fully sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses, together with chromosome placement, showed that the expansion of the Populus R2R3-MYB family was not only attributable to whole genome duplication but also involved selective expansion of specific R2R3-MYB clades. Expansion of the Populus R2R3-MYB family prominently involved members with expression patterns that suggested a role in specific components of Populus life history, including wood formation and reproductive development. An expandable compendium of microarray-based expression data (PopGenExpress) and associated Web-based tools were developed to better enable within- and between-species comparisons of Populus R2R3-MYB gene expression. This resource, which includes intuitive graphic visualization of gene expression data across multiple tissues, organs, and treatments, is freely available to, and expandable by, scientists wishing to better understand the genome biology of Populus, an ecologically dominant and economically important forest tree genus.

  6. Regenerating Water-Sterilizing Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine-dispensing resin can be regenerated after iodine content has been depleted, without being removed from water system. Resin is used to make water potable by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Regeneration technique may be come basis of water purifier for very long space missions. Enough crystalline iodine for multiple regenerations during mission can be stored in one small cartridge. Cartridge could be inserted in waterline as necessary on signal from iodine monitor or timer.

  7. Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road.

    PubMed

    Jao, Dave; Mou, Xiaoyang; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world's best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration.

  8. Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road.

    PubMed

    Jao, Dave; Mou, Xiaoyang; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world's best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration. PMID:27527229

  9. Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road

    PubMed Central

    Jao, Dave; Mou, Xiaoyang; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world’s best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration. PMID:27527229

  10. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  11. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Merzlyak, Anna; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2014-01-01

    Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy. PMID:24991085

  12. An Alternative Laboratory Designed to Address Ethical Concerns Associated with Traditional "TAS2R38" Student Genotyping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBonte, Michelle L.; Beers, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The "TAS2R38" alleles that code for the PAV/AVI T2R38 proteins have long been viewed as benign taste receptor variants. However, recent studies have demonstrated an expanding and medically relevant role for "TAS2R38." The AVI variant of T2R38 is associated with an increased risk of both colorectal cancer and "Pseudomonas…

  13. An ODIP Effort to Map R2R Ocean Data Terms to International Vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, R.; Stocks, K. I.; Arko, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The diverseness of terminology used in describing ocean data creates a barrier to efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a U.S. program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S. academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed within R2R or are specific to the U.S. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international ones, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO), and R2R chief scientist names to well known professional identifiers such as ORCID, Research Gate, Linkedin, etc. Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. All ports are successfully mapped. Both organizations and device models have initial mappings and R2R has added new terms to EDMO and SeaVoX Device Catalog vocabularies allowing for nearly complete coverage of

  14. Closed end regeneration method

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Arthur Jing-Min; Zhang, Yuehua

    2006-06-27

    A nanoporous reactive adsorbent incorporates a relatively small number of relatively larger reactant, e.g. metal, enzyme, etc. particles (10) forming a discontinuous or continuous phase interspersed among and surrounded by a continuous phase of smaller adsorbent particles (12) and connected interstitial pores (14) therebetween. The reactive adsorbent can effectively remove inorganic or organic impurities in a liquid by causing the liquid to flow through the adsorbent. For example, silver ions may be adsorbed by the adsorbent particles (12) and reduced to metallic silver by reducing metal, such as irons, as the reactant particles (10). The column can be regenerated by backwashing with the liquid effluent containing, for example, acetic acid.

  15. Regenerable solid imine sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahan; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Fauth, Daniel; Beckman, Eric

    2013-09-10

    Two new classes of amine-based sorbents are disclosed. The first class comprises new polymer-immobilized tertiary amine sorbents; the second class new polymer-bound amine sorbents. Both classes are tailored to facilitate removal of acid anhydrides, especially carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2), from effluent gases. The amines adsorb acid anhydrides in a 1:1 molar ratio. Both classes of amine sorbents adsorb in the temperature range from about 20.degree. C. upwards to 90.degree. C. and can be regenerated by heating upwards to 100.degree. C.

  16. [Anti-NEP and anti-PLA2R antibodies in membranous nephropathy: an update].

    PubMed

    Pozdzik, A A; Debiec, H; I Brochériou; Husson, C; Rorive, S; Broeders, N; Le Moine, A; Ronco, P; Nortier, J

    2015-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) is the most common cause for nephrotic syndrome in adults and occurs as an idiopathic (primary) or secondary disease. Since the early 2000's, substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular bases of MN. The neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and the receptor for secretory phospholipase A2 (PLA2R) have been identified as target antigens for circulating and deposited antibodies in allo-immune neonatal and adult " idiopathic " MN, respectively. These antibodies recognize specific antigens of podocytes, precipitate as subepithelial immune complexes and activate complement leading to proteinuria. Anti-PLA2R antibodies are of particular clinical importance. Indeed, they are detected in approximately 70% of primary MN in adults, demonstrating that MN actually is an autoimmune condition specific to the kidney. In Europeans, genome-wide studies have shown an association between alleles of PLA2R1 and HLA DQA1 (class II genes of tissue histocompatibility complex) genes and idiopathic MN. Newly developed diagnostic tests detecting circulating anti-PLA2R antibody and PLA2R antigen in glomerular deposits have induced a change in paradigm in the diagnostic approach of idiopathic MN. Measurement of circulating anti-PLA2R antibody is also very useful for the monitoring of MN activity. However, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of anti-PLA2R antibodies as well as those involved in the progression of MN to end-stage renal disease remain to be defined.

  17. Rituximab-induced depletion of anti-PLA2R autoantibodies predicts response in membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Beck, Laurence H; Fervenza, Fernando C; Beck, David M; Bonegio, Ramon G B; Malik, Fahim A; Erickson, Stephen B; Cosio, Fernando G; Cattran, Daniel C; Salant, David J

    2011-08-01

    Autoantibodies to the M-type phospholipase A(2) receptor (PLA(2)R) are sensitive and specific for idiopathic membranous nephropathy. The anti-B cell agent rituximab is a promising therapy for this disease, but biomarkers of early response to treatment currently do not exist. Here, we investigated whether levels of anti-PLA(2)R correlate with the immunological activity of membranous nephropathy, potentially exhibiting a more rapid response to treatment than clinical parameters such as proteinuria. We measured the amount of anti-PLA(2)R using Western blot immunoassay in serial serum samples from a total of 35 patients treated with rituximab for membranous nephropathy in two distinct cohorts. Pretreatment samples from 25 of 35 (71%) patients contained anti-PLA(2)R, and these autoantibodies declined or disappeared in 17 (68%) of these patients within 12 months after rituximab. Those who demonstrated this immunologic response fared better clinically: 59% and 88% attained complete or partial remission by 12 and 24 months, respectively, compared with 0% and 33% among those with persistent anti-PLA(2)R levels. Changes in antibody levels preceded changes in proteinuria. One subject who relapsed during follow-up had a concomitant return of anti-PLA(2)R. In summary, measuring anti-PLA(2)R levels by immunoassay may be a method to follow and predict response to treatment with rituximab in membranous nephropathy.

  18. Rituximab-Induced Depletion of Anti-PLA2R Autoantibodies Predicts Response in Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Fervenza, Fernando C.; Beck, David M.; Bonegio, Ramon G.B.; Malik, Fahim A.; Erickson, Stephen B.; Cosio, Fernando G.; Cattran, Daniel C.; Salant, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) are sensitive and specific for idiopathic membranous nephropathy. The anti-B cell agent rituximab is a promising therapy for this disease, but biomarkers of early response to treatment currently do not exist. Here, we investigated whether levels of anti-PLA2R correlate with the immunological activity of membranous nephropathy, potentially exhibiting a more rapid response to treatment than clinical parameters such as proteinuria. We measured the amount of anti-PLA2R using Western blot immunoassay in serial serum samples from a total of 35 patients treated with rituximab for membranous nephropathy in two distinct cohorts. Pretreatment samples from 25 of 35 (71%) patients contained anti-PLA2R, and these autoantibodies declined or disappeared in 17 (68%) of these patients within 12 months after rituximab. Those who demonstrated this immunologic response fared better clinically: 59% and 88% attained complete or partial remission by 12 and 24 months, respectively, compared with 0% and 33% among those with persistent anti-PLA2R levels. Changes in antibody levels preceded changes in proteinuria. One subject who relapsed during follow-up had a concomitant return of anti-PLA2R. In summary, measuring anti-PLA2R levels by immunoassay may be a method to follow and predict response to treatment with rituximab in membranous nephropathy. PMID:21784898

  19. Chemical genetic analysis reveals the effects of NMU2R on the expression of peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liyan; Zhang, Mancang; Li, Chunxia; Dong, Suzhen; Hu, Yinghe

    2006-08-14

    Neuromedin U 2 receptor (NMU2R) plays important roles for the regulation of food intake and body weight. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the action of NMU2R has not been clearly defined. We have taken chemical genetic approach to examine the involvement of peptides in the regulation of NMU2R effects. A cell-based reporter gene assay has been developed and used for the screening of human NMU2R agonist. Three natural product compounds, EUK2010, EUK2011 and EUK2012, were identified that could activate the reporter gene expression in the cell-based functional assay. Although these compounds showed high EC50 at hundreds micro-molar range, in vitro pharmacological analysis suggested that they were specific agonists for the human NMU2R. The natural compounds could decrease food intake and lead to the reduction of body weight in different animal models. To understand the molecular basis of the NMU2R regulation of food intake and body weight, we examined the expression of a number of key genes in hypothalamus and adipose tissues after oral administration of EUK2010 in mice. Our results demonstrated that the expression levels of a number of neuropeptide genes were altered after the treatment of EUK2010. Interestingly, EUK2010 increased the expression of Leptin in white fat. These results suggested that these peptides may participate in the regulation of NMU2R effects in mice. PMID:16781063

  20. Clinical Significance of sIL-2R Levels in B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Noriaki; Oda, Miyo; Kuroda, Yoshiaki; Katayama, Yuta; Okikawa, Yoshiko; Masunari, Taro; Fujiwara, Megumu; Nishisaka, Takashi; Sasaki, Naomi; Sadahira, Yoshito; Mihara, Keichiro; Asaoku, Hideki; Matsui, Hirotaka; Seto, Masao; Kimura, Akiro; Arihiro, Koji; Sakai, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Elevated soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in sera is observed in patients with malignant lymphoma (ML). Therefore, sIL-2R is commonly used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for ML, but the mechanisms responsible for the increase in sIL-2R levels in patients with B-cell lymphomas have not yet been elucidated. We first hypothesized that lymphoma cells expressing IL-2R and some proteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the tumor microenvironment can give rise to increased sIL-2R in sera. However, flow cytometric studies revealed that few lymphoma cells expressed IL-2R α chain (CD25) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL), and most CD25-expressing cells in the tumor were T-cells. Distinct correlations between CD25 expression on B-lymphoma cells and sIL-2R levels were not observed. We then confirmed that MMP-9 plays an important role in producing sIL-2R in functional studies. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis also revealed that MMP-9 is mainly derived from tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). We therefore evaluated the number of CD68 and CD163 positive macrophages in the tumor microenvironment using IHC analysis. A positive correlation between the levels of sIL-2R in sera and the numbers of CD68 positive macrophages in the tumor microenvironment was confirmed in FL and extranodal DLBCL. These results may be useful in understanding the pathophysiology of B-cell lymphomas. PMID:24236041

  1. Three-dimensional evaluation of retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration and pathfinding in whole mouse tissue after injury.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xueting; Salgueiro, Yadira; Beckerman, Samuel R; Lemmon, Vance P; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Park, Kevin K

    2013-09-01

    Injured retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons do not regenerate spontaneously, causing loss of vision in glaucoma and after trauma. Recent studies have identified several strategies that induce long distance regeneration in the optic nerve. Thus, a pressing question now is whether regenerating RGC axons can find their appropriate targets. Traditional methods of assessing RGC axon regeneration use histological sectioning. However, tissue sections provide fragmentary information about axonal trajectory and termination. To unequivocally evaluate regenerating RGC axons, here we apply tissue clearance and light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to image whole optic nerve and brain without physical sectioning. In mice with PTEN/SOCS3 deletion, a condition known to promote robust regeneration, axon growth followed tortuous paths through the optic nerve, with many axons reversing course and extending towards the eye. Such aberrant growth was prevalent in the proximal region of the optic nerve where strong astroglial activation is present. In the optic chiasms of PTEN/SOCS3 deletion mice and PTEN deletion/Zymosan/cAMP mice, many axons project to the opposite optic nerve or to the ipsilateral optic tract. Following bilateral optic nerve crush, similar divergent trajectory is seen at the optic chiasm compared to unilateral crush. Centrally, axonal projection is limited predominantly to the hypothalamus. Together, we demonstrate the applicability of LSFM for comprehensive assessment of optic nerve regeneration, providing in-depth analysis of the axonal trajectory and pathfinding. Our study indicates significant axon misguidance in the optic nerve and brain, and underscores the need for investigation of axon guidance mechanisms during optic nerve regeneration in adults. PMID:23510761

  2. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alissa L.; McGeary, John E.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce calories in foods and beverages, the food industry routinely uses non-nutritive sweeteners. Unfortunately, many are synthetically derived, and many consumers have a strong preference for natural sweeteners, irrespective of the safety data on synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. Additionally, many non-nutritive sweeteners elicit aversive side tastes such as bitter and metallic in addition to sweetness. Bitterness thresholds of acesulfame-K (AceK) and saccharin are known to vary across bitter taste receptors polymorphisms in TAS2R31. RebA has shown to activate hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14 in vitro. Here we examined bitterness and sweetness perception of natural and synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. In a follow-up to a previous gene-association study, participants (n=122) who had been genotyped previously rated sweet, bitter and metallic sensations from rebaudioside A (RebA), rebaudioside D (RebD), aspartame, sucrose and gentiobiose in duplicate in a single session. For comparison, we also present sweet and bitter ratings of AceK collected in the original experiment for the same participants. At similar sweetness levels, aspartame elicited less bitterness than RebD, which was significantly less bitter than RebA. The bitterness of RebA and RebD showed wide variability across individuals, and bitterness ratings for these compounds were correlated. However, RebA and RebD bitterness did not covary with AceK bitterness. Likewise, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shown previously to explain variation in the suprathreshold bitterness of AceK (rs3741845 in TAS2R9 and rs10772423 in TAS2R31) did not explain variation in RebA and RebD bitterness. Because RebA activates hT2R4 and hT2R14, a SNP in TAS2R4 previously associated with variation in bitterness perception was included here; there are no known functional SNPs for TAS2R14. In present data, a putatively functional SNP (rs2234001) in TAS2R4 did not explain variation in RebA or RebD bitterness. Collectively

  3. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alissa L; McGeary, John E; Hayes, John E

    2013-09-01

    In order to reduce calories in foods and beverages, the food industry routinely uses non-nutritive sweeteners. Unfortunately, many are synthetically derived, and many consumers have a strong preference for natural sweeteners, irrespective of the safety data on synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. Additionally, many non-nutritive sweeteners elicit aversive side tastes such as bitter and metallic in addition to sweetness. Bitterness thresholds of acesulfame-K (AceK) and saccharin are known to vary across bitter taste receptors polymorphisms in TAS2R31. RebA has shown to activate hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14 in vitro. Here we examined bitterness and sweetness perception of natural and synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. In a follow-up to a previous gene-association study, participants (n=122) who had been genotyped previously rated sweet, bitter and metallic sensations from rebaudioside A (RebA), rebaudioside D (RebD), aspartame, sucrose and gentiobiose in duplicate in a single session. For comparison, we also present sweet and bitter ratings of AceK collected in the original experiment for the same participants. At similar sweetness levels, aspartame elicited less bitterness than RebD, which was significantly less bitter than RebA. The bitterness of RebA and RebD showed wide variability across individuals, and bitterness ratings for these compounds were correlated. However, RebA and RebD bitterness did not covary with AceK bitterness. Likewise, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shown previously to explain variation in the suprathreshold bitterness of AceK (rs3741845 in TAS2R9 and rs10772423 in TAS2R31) did not explain variation in RebA and RebD bitterness. Because RebA activates hT2R4 and hT2R14, a SNP in TAS2R4 previously associated with variation in bitterness perception was included here; there are no known functional SNPs for TAS2R14. In present data, a putatively functional SNP (rs2234001) in TAS2R4 did not explain variation in RebA or RebD bitterness. Collectively

  4. An ODIP effort to map R2R ocean data terms to international vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Renata; Stocks, Karen; Arko, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The heterogeneity of terminology used in describing data creates a barrier to the efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a US program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving the interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access international ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed locally or are specific to the US. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international vocabularies, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: R2R science party names to ORCID person identifiers, UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, and R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO). Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships only, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. The majority of ports were successfully mapped. Differences in the character sets (i.e. whether diacritic marks were used) caused automated matching to fail occasionally, but the number of ports was small enough that these could be manually

  5. Genotype-specific regulation of oral innate immunity by T2R38 taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Gil, Sucheol; Coldwell, Susan; Drury, Jeanie L; Arroyo, Fabiola; Phi, Tran; Saadat, Sanaz; Kwong, Danny; Chung, Whasun Oh

    2015-12-01

    The bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been shown to regulate mucosal innate immune responses in the upper airway epithelium. Furthermore, SNPs in T2R38 influence the sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and are associated with caries risk/protection. However, no study has been reported on the role of T2R38 in the innate immune responses to oral bacteria. We hypothesize that T2R38 regulates oral innate immunity and that this regulation is genotype-specific. Primary gingival epithelial cells carrying three common genotypes, PAV/PAV (PROP super-taster), AVI/PAV (intermediate) and AVI/AVI (non-taster) were stimulated with cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis or non-pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum. QRT-PCR analyzed T2R38 mRNA, and T2R38-specific siRNA and ELISA were utilized to evaluate induction of hBD-2 (antimicrobial peptide), IL-1α and IL-8 in various donor-lines. Experiments were set up in duplicate and repeated three times. T2R38 mRNA induction in response to S. mutans was highest in PAV/PAV (4.3-fold above the unstimulated controls; p<0.05), while lowest in AVI/AVI (1.2-fold). In PAV/PAV, hBD-2 secretion in response to S. mutans was decreased by 77% when T2R38 was silenced. IL-1α secretion was higher in PAV/PAV compared to AVI/PAV or AVI/AVI with S. mutans stimulation, but it was reduced by half when T2R38 was silenced (p<0.05). In response to P. gingivalis, AVI/AVI showed 4.4-fold increase (p<0.05) in T2R38 expression, whereas the levels in PAV/PAV and AVI/PAV remained close to that of the controls. Secretion levels of IL-1α and IL-8 decreased in AVI/AVI in response to P. gingivalis when T2R38 was silenced (p<0.05), while the changes were not significant in PAV/PAV. Our data suggest that the regulation of gingival innate immunity by T2R38 is genotype-dependent and that the ability to induce a high level of hBD-2 by PAV/PAV carriers may be a reason for protection against caries in this group. PMID

  6. Regeneration in insects.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J L; Theisen, H

    1999-08-01

    @9cIntroduction@21T issues exhibit an impressive ability to respond to a myriad of insults by repairing and regenerating complex structures. The elegant and orderly process of regeneration provides clues to the mechanisms of pattern formation but also offers the hope that the process might one day be manipulated to replace damaged body parts. To manipulate the process, it will be necessary to understand the genetic basis of the process. In the case of the insect leg, we are coming close to such a level of understanding and many of the lessons learned are relevant to vertebrate systems. A dynamic web of gene regulatory networks appears to create a robust self-organizing system that is at once extremely intricate but also perhaps simple in its reliance on a few key signaling pathways and a few simple processes, e.g. autoactivation and lateral inhibition. Here we will summarize what has been learned about the networks of gene regulation present in the Drosophila leg discs and then we will explore how the regenerative responses to different insults can be understood as predictable responses to these networks. Each of the regulatory networks could themselves serve as the subject of a detailed review and that is beyond the scope of this discussion. Here we will focus on the interplay between the regulatory networks in patterning the tissue.

  7. [Histological aspects of posttraumatic regeneration].

    PubMed

    Truupyl'd Aiu

    1976-02-01

    A number of histological aspects (regeneration capacity, origins of regeneration, means of reparation) are discussed on the example of the reparative regeneration of the adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex is found to possess high regeneration capacity after a traumatic injury of the organ. Realization of this capacity is dependent on general and local conditions, the character and the volume of the injury and the degree of involvment of cambial zones being of substantial significance. Among these zones are the glomerular zone and the external part of the bundle zone, whose proliferating cells are the source of the reparative regeneration of the cortical substance. The reparation of the functioning mass of the adrenal cortex is performed by the type of regenerative hypertrophy or the reparative regeneration depending on the character of the trauma. After the first type, the division of cells and their differentiation occur within the limits of the available structural elements, after the second type- of the newly formed ones. Both types are evolutionally conditioned and are definitely similar eather to postnatal growth and physiological regeneration (regenerative hypertrophy), or to the embryonic histogenesis of the definitive adrenal cortex (reparative regeneration).

  8. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle manually controlled readily automated to start and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is bed provides highly concentrated biocide source when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  9. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of R2R3MYB Family in Cucumis sativus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Cunjia; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2012-01-01

    Background The R2R3MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been carried out in some species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Principal Findings This study has identified 55 R2R3MYB genes in the latest cucumber genome and the CsR2R3MYB family contained the smallest number of identified genes compared to other species that have been studied due to the absence of recent gene duplication events. These results were also supported by genome distribution and gene duplication analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they could be classified into 11 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intron - exon organizations that showed similarities with Arabidopsis, Vitis and Glycine R2R3MYB proteins were also analyzed and suggested strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the evolution of the plant species. In addition, we found that 8 out of 55 (∼14.54%) cucumber R2R3MYB genes underwent alternative splicing events, producing a variety of transcripts from a single gene, which illustrated the extremely high complexity of transcriptome regulation. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 50 cucumber R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues and the other 5 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, which suggested that cucumber R2R3MYB genes took part in many cellular processes. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, ABA and low temperature treatments) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or more treatments. Conclusions This study has produced a comparative genomics analysis of the cucumber R2R3MYB gene family and has provided the first steps towards the selection of CsR2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection that can be used in further studies to uncover their roles in cucumber growth and

  10. Amino Acid Derivatives as Bitter Taste Receptor (T2R) Blockers*

    PubMed Central

    Pydi, Sai P.; Sobotkiewicz, Tyler; Billakanti, Rohini; Bhullar, Rajinder P.; Loewen, Michele C.; Chelikani, Prashen

    2014-01-01

    In humans, the 25 bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are activated by hundreds of structurally diverse bitter compounds. However, only five antagonists or bitter blockers are known. In this study, using molecular modeling guided site-directed mutagenesis, we elucidated the ligand-binding pocket of T2R4. We found seven amino acids located in the extracellular side of transmembrane 3 (TM3), TM4, extracellular loop 2 (ECL2), and ECL3 to be involved in T2R4 binding to its agonist quinine. ECL2 residues Asn-173 and Thr-174 are essential for quinine binding. Guided by a molecular model of T2R4, a number of amino acid derivatives were screened for their ability to bind to T2R4. These predictions were tested by calcium imaging assays that led to identification of γ-aminobutryic acid (GABA) and Nα,Nα-bis(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine (BCML) as competitive inhibitors of quinine-activated T2R4 with an IC50 of 3.2 ± 0.3 μm and 59 ± 18 nm, respectively. Interestingly, pharmacological characterization using a constitutively active mutant of T2R4 reveals that GABA acts as an antagonist, whereas BCML acts as an inverse agonist on T2R4. Site-directed mutagenesis confirms that the two novel bitter blockers share the same orthosteric site as the agonist quinine. The signature residues Ala-90 and Lys-270 play important roles in interacting with BCML and GABA, respectively. This is the first report to characterize a T2R endogenous antagonist and an inverse agonist. The novel bitter blockers will facilitate physiological studies focused on understanding the roles of T2Rs in extraoral tissues. PMID:25059668

  11. R2R - software to speed the depiction of aesthetic consensus RNA secondary structures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With continuing identification of novel structured noncoding RNAs, there is an increasing need to create schematic diagrams showing the consensus features of these molecules. RNA structural diagrams are typically made either with general-purpose drawing programs like Adobe Illustrator, or with automated or interactive programs specific to RNA. Unfortunately, the use of applications like Illustrator is extremely time consuming, while existing RNA-specific programs produce figures that are useful, but usually not of the same aesthetic quality as those produced at great cost in Illustrator. Additionally, most existing RNA-specific applications are designed for drawing single RNA molecules, not consensus diagrams. Results We created R2R, a computer program that facilitates the generation of aesthetic and readable drawings of RNA consensus diagrams in a fraction of the time required with general-purpose drawing programs. Since the inference of a consensus RNA structure typically requires a multiple-sequence alignment, the R2R user annotates the alignment with commands directing the layout and annotation of the RNA. R2R creates SVG or PDF output that can be imported into Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape or CorelDRAW. R2R can be used to create consensus sequence and secondary structure models for novel RNA structures or to revise models when new representatives for known RNA classes become available. Although R2R does not currently have a graphical user interface, it has proven useful in our efforts to create 100 schematic models of distinct noncoding RNA classes. Conclusions R2R makes it possible to obtain high-quality drawings of the consensus sequence and structural models of many diverse RNA structures with a more practical amount of effort. R2R software is available at http://breaker.research.yale.edu/R2R and as an Additional file. PMID:21205310

  12. Anti-PLA2R Antibodies in Chinese Patients with Membranous Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wei, Dong; Zhou, Zhanmei; Wang, Baoguo; Xu, Ya; Pan, Jie; Yang, Chunli; Lu, Jie; Qiu, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    BACKROUND ~This study used two standardized methods to evaluate anti-PLA2R antibody in serum of primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) among Chinese patients to determine  Anti-PLA2R antibody distribution and whether immunological reactivity reflected by antibody titer correlates with kidney function parameters. MATERIAL AND METHOD ~Overall, 82 subjects with biopsy-proven primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) , 22 cases with secondary membranous nephropathy (SMN), 40 non-MN patients with established glomerulonephritis, 20 healthy volunteers were recruited from the Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, China. Anti-PLA2R antibody in the serum of each patient was evaluated by both recombinant cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (RC-IFA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney function was assessed by proteinuria for 24 hours, serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatine, serum cystatin C. We assessed the correlation between anti-PLA2R antibody levels and clinical parameter in the PMN patients. RESULTS ~ Fifty-three patients with PMN (64.6%) were positive for anti-PLA2R antibody. The level of antibody determined by RC-IFA ranged from 1:10 to 1:1000 and 0 to 1423 RU/ml by ELISA. The two anti-PLA2R test systems correlated very well with each other and reached an agreement of 95.7% for PMN patients. The level of antibody detected by ELISA in patients with PMN also significantly correlated with proteinuria and nephritic-range proteinuria (> 3.5g/day) . CONCLUSIONS ~Anti-PLA2R antibody is sensitive and extremely specific for diagnosis of Chinese patients with primary membranous nephropathy. Concentration of autoantibody against PLA2R is an ideal marker for monitoring the activity of immunological disease.

  13. Implication of two different regeneration systems in limb regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Makanae, Aki; Mitogawa, Kazumasa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Limb regeneration is a representative phenomenon of organ regeneration in urodele amphibians, such as an axolotl. An amputated limb starts regenerating from a remaining stump (proximal) to lost finger tips (distal). In the present case, proximal−distal (PD) reorganization takes place in a regenerating tissue, called a blastema. It has been a mystery how an induced blastema recognizes its position and restores an exact replica of missing parts. Recently, a new experimental system called the accessory limb model (ALM) has been established. The gained ALM phenotypes are demanding to reconsider the reorganization PD positional values. Based on the ALM phenotype, it is reasonable to hypothesize that reorganization of positional values has a certain discontinuity and that two different regeneration systems cooperatively reorganize the PD axis to restore an original structure. In this review, PD axis reestablishments are focused on limb regeneration. Knowledge from ALM studies in axolotls and Xenopus is providing a novel concept of PD axis reorganization in limb regeneration. PMID:27499860

  14. Metoprolol restores expression and vasodilatation function of AT2R in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Hong

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) is thought as an important regulatory target during antihypertensive treatment but its role in vasomotor regulation remains controversial. The interactional relationship between the sympathetic nervous systems and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) has been revealed but poorly investigated. This work was designed to explore the effect of metoprolol (MET) treatment on the RAS, especially the expression and vasomotor function of AT2R, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The results showed that upregulated renin activity and Ang II concentration of plasma in SHR were inhibited by MET treatment. In isolated superior mesenteric arteries from both Wistar-Kyoto rats and SHR, Ang II perfusion induced vasodilatation after AT1R inhibition by telmisartan, although the vasodilatation was harmed in SHR. Furthermore, AT2R inhibitor PD123319 arrested the vasodilatation induced by Ang II. SHR received MET exerted improved vasodilatation mediated by AT2R (47.29% ± 5.16% vs. 24.99% ± 4.93% for MET and SHR, respectively; P < 0.05). Western blot analysis showed that MET restored expression of AT2R in SHR, which may contribute to MET's antihypertensive effect. These results suggested an impact of β-adrenergic blocker on RAS and supported an important role of AT2R in antihypertensive treatment.

  15. An exon splice enhancer primes IGF2:IGF2R binding site structure and function evolution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher; Hoppe, Hans-Jürgen; Rezgui, Dellel; Strickland, Madeleine; Forbes, Briony E; Grutzner, Frank; Frago, Susana; Ellis, Rosamund Z; Wattana-Amorn, Pakorn; Prince, Stuart N; Zaccheo, Oliver J; Nolan, Catherine M; Mungall, Andrew J; Jones, E Yvonne; Crump, Matthew P; Hassan, A Bassim

    2012-11-30

    Placental development and genomic imprinting coevolved with parental conflict over resource distribution to mammalian offspring. The imprinted genes IGF2 and IGF2R code for the growth promoter insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and its inhibitor, mannose 6-phosphate (M6P)/IGF2 receptor (IGF2R), respectively. M6P/IGF2R of birds and fish do not recognize IGF2. In monotremes, which lack imprinting, IGF2 specifically bound M6P/IGF2R via a hydrophobic CD loop. We show that the DNA coding the CD loop in monotremes functions as an exon splice enhancer (ESE) and that structural evolution of binding site loops (AB, HI, FG) improved therian IGF2 affinity. We propose that ESE evolution led to the fortuitous acquisition of IGF2 binding by M6P/IGF2R that drew IGF2R into parental conflict; subsequent imprinting may then have accelerated affinity maturation. PMID:23197533

  16. A potent antibrowning agent from pine needles of Cedrus deodara: 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue; Wu, Yan-Ping; Qiu, Jing-Hong; Zhong, Kai; Gao, Hong

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on finding the novel antibrowning agents from the pine needles of Cedrus deodara and studying its antibrowning effect. By bioassay guide of tyrosinase inhibitory activity, the main active compound was isolated and purified from 50% methanol extract of pine needles of C. deodara through macroporous resin Diaion HP-20 column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on mass and nuclear magnetic resonance data, the active compound was identified as 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin, which showed the potent monophenolase and diphenolase inhibitory activities. Moreover, 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin exhibited a strong ABTS radical scavenging activity with a dose-dependent manner. The antibrowning efficacy of 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was evaluated by monitoring the changes of L*, a*, and b* values and total color difference (△E) on fresh-cut apple slices. It was found that 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was effective in inhibiting the browning of apple slices treated with a concentration as low as 0.05% at 25 °C for 24 h. Its antibrowning effect was significantly better than ascorbic acid (0.5%) alone. Furthermore, 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin showed a good synergistic antibrowning effect with ascorbic acid. This is the first report that 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin from pine needles of C. deodara may be used as a potential antibrowning agent in protecting against food browning. PMID:25163933

  17. PPP2R5C Couples Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yong-Sheng; Seibert, Oksana; Klöting, Nora; Dietrich, Arne; Straßburger, Katrin; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Vendrell, Joan J.; Zorzano, Antonio; Blüher, Matthias; Herzig, Stephan; Berriel Diaz, Mauricio; Teleman, Aurelio A.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the liver plays a central role in maintaining carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis by acting both as a major source and a major sink of glucose and lipids. In particular, when dietary carbohydrates are in excess, the liver converts them to lipids via de novo lipogenesis. The molecular checkpoints regulating the balance between carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis, however, are not fully understood. Here we identify PPP2R5C, a regulatory subunit of PP2A, as a novel modulator of liver metabolism in postprandial physiology. Inactivation of PPP2R5C in isolated hepatocytes leads to increased glucose uptake and increased de novo lipogenesis. These phenotypes are reiterated in vivo, where hepatocyte specific PPP2R5C knockdown yields mice with improved systemic glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but elevated circulating triglyceride levels. We show that modulation of PPP2R5C levels leads to alterations in AMPK and SREBP-1 activity. We find that hepatic levels of PPP2R5C are elevated in human diabetic patients, and correlate with obesity and insulin resistance in these subjects. In sum, our data suggest that hepatic PPP2R5C represents an important factor in the functional wiring of energy metabolism and the maintenance of a metabolically healthy state. PMID:26440364

  18. Conservation of a maternal-specific methylation signal at the human IGF2R locus.

    PubMed

    Smrzka, O W; Faé, I; Stöger, R; Kurzbauer, R; Fischer, G F; Henn, T; Weith, A; Barlow, D P

    1995-10-01

    The human IGF2R gene has been reported to be either biallelically or very rarely monoallelically expressed, in contrast to the maternally expressed mouse counterpart. We describe here an analysis of the 5' portion of the human IGF2R gene and show that it contains a maternally methylated CpG island in the second intron. A similar maternally methylated intronic element has been proposed to be the imprinting box for the mouse gene and although the relevance of this element has yet to be directly demonstrated, methylation has been reported to be essential to maintain allele-specific expression of imprinted genes. Allelic expression analysis of human IGF2R in 70 lymphoblastoid cell lines identified only one line showing monoallelic expression. Thus, in this tissue monoparental methylation of the IGF2R gene does not correlate with allele-specific expression. We also confirm here that the human IGF2R gene is located in an asynchronously replicating chromosomal region, as are all other imprinted genes so far analyzed. The mouse and human IGF2R intronic CpG islands both contain numerous large direct repeats that are methylated following maternal, but not paternal, transmittance. Thus features that attract maternal-specific methylation are conserved between the mouse and human genes. Since these intronic CpG islands share organizational rather than sequence homology, this suggests that secondary DNA structure may play a role in attracting a maternal methylation imprint.

  19. A potent antibrowning agent from pine needles of Cedrus deodara: 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue; Wu, Yan-Ping; Qiu, Jing-Hong; Zhong, Kai; Gao, Hong

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on finding the novel antibrowning agents from the pine needles of Cedrus deodara and studying its antibrowning effect. By bioassay guide of tyrosinase inhibitory activity, the main active compound was isolated and purified from 50% methanol extract of pine needles of C. deodara through macroporous resin Diaion HP-20 column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on mass and nuclear magnetic resonance data, the active compound was identified as 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin, which showed the potent monophenolase and diphenolase inhibitory activities. Moreover, 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin exhibited a strong ABTS radical scavenging activity with a dose-dependent manner. The antibrowning efficacy of 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was evaluated by monitoring the changes of L*, a*, and b* values and total color difference (△E) on fresh-cut apple slices. It was found that 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin was effective in inhibiting the browning of apple slices treated with a concentration as low as 0.05% at 25 °C for 24 h. Its antibrowning effect was significantly better than ascorbic acid (0.5%) alone. Furthermore, 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin showed a good synergistic antibrowning effect with ascorbic acid. This is the first report that 2R,3R-dihydromyricetin from pine needles of C. deodara may be used as a potential antibrowning agent in protecting against food browning.

  20. R2R-printed inverted OPV modules - towards arbitrary patterned designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Välimäki, M.; Apilo, P.; Po, R.; Jansson, E.; Bernardi, A.; Ylikunnari, M.; Vilkman, M.; Corso, G.; Puustinen, J.; Tuominen, J.; Hast, J.

    2015-05-01

    We describe the fabrication of roll-to-roll (R2R) printed organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules using gravure printing and rotary screen-printing processes. These two-dimensional printing techniques are differentiating factors from coated OPVs enabling the direct patterning of arbitrarily shaped and sized features into visual shapes and, increasing the freedom to connect the cells in modules. The inverted OPV structures comprise five layers that are either printed or patterned in an R2R printing process. We examined the rheological properties of the inks used and their relationship with the printability, the compatibility between the processed inks, and the morphology of the R2R-printed layers. We also evaluate the dimensional accuracy of the printed pattern, which is an important consideration in designing arbitrarily-shaped OPV structures. The photoactive layer and top electrode exhibited excellent cross-dimensional accuracy corresponding to the designed width. The transparent electron transport layer extended 300 µm beyond the designed values, whereas the hole transport layer shrank 100 µm. We also examined the repeatability of the R2R fabrication process when the active area of the module varied from 32.2 cm2 to 96.5 cm2. A thorough layer-by-layer optimization of the R2R printing processes resulted in realization of R2R-printed 96.5 cm2 sized modules with a maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.1% (mean 1.8%) processed with high functionality.

  1. PPP2R5C Couples Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yong-Sheng; Seibert, Oksana; Klöting, Nora; Dietrich, Arne; Straßburger, Katrin; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Vendrell, Joan J; Zorzano, Antonio; Blüher, Matthias; Herzig, Stephan; Berriel Diaz, Mauricio; Teleman, Aurelio A

    2015-10-01

    In mammals, the liver plays a central role in maintaining carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis by acting both as a major source and a major sink of glucose and lipids. In particular, when dietary carbohydrates are in excess, the liver converts them to lipids via de novo lipogenesis. The molecular checkpoints regulating the balance between carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis, however, are not fully understood. Here we identify PPP2R5C, a regulatory subunit of PP2A, as a novel modulator of liver metabolism in postprandial physiology. Inactivation of PPP2R5C in isolated hepatocytes leads to increased glucose uptake and increased de novo lipogenesis. These phenotypes are reiterated in vivo, where hepatocyte specific PPP2R5C knockdown yields mice with improved systemic glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but elevated circulating triglyceride levels. We show that modulation of PPP2R5C levels leads to alterations in AMPK and SREBP-1 activity. We find that hepatic levels of PPP2R5C are elevated in human diabetic patients, and correlate with obesity and insulin resistance in these subjects. In sum, our data suggest that hepatic PPP2R5C represents an important factor in the functional wiring of energy metabolism and the maintenance of a metabolically healthy state.

  2. Regenerable biocide delivery unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is used on the Space Shuttle to impart an iodine residual to the drinking water to maintain microbial control. Approximately twenty MCV locations have been identified in the Space Station Freedom design, each with a 90-day life. This translates to 2400 replacement units in 30 years of operation. An in situ regeneration concept has been demonstrated that will reduce this replacement requirement to less than 300 units based on data to date. A totally automated system will result in significant savings in crew time, resupply requirements, and replacement costs. An additional feature of the device is the ability to provide a concentrated biocide source (200 mg/liter of I2) that can be used to superiodinate systems routinely or after a microbial upset.

  3. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    Summary The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological principles of osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduction. Several techniques combine these principles with different results, due to the condition of the bone base on which we operate changes, the surgical technique that we use, and finally for the bone metabolic conditions of the patient who can be in a state of systemic osteopenia or osteoporosis; these can also affect the result of jaw bone reconstruction. PMID:22461825

  4. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  5. Mutations in the PP2A regulatory subunit B family genes PPP2R5B, PPP2R5C and PPP2R5D cause human overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Chey; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Clarke, Matthew; Westwood, Isaac; Renwick, Anthony; Ramsay, Emma; Nemeth, Andrea; Campbell, Jennifer; Joss, Shelagh; Gardner, McKinlay; Zachariou, Anna; Elliott, Anna; Ruark, Elise; van Montfort, Rob; Rahman, Nazneen

    2015-09-01

    Overgrowth syndromes comprise a group of heterogeneous disorders characterised by excessive growth parameters, often in association with intellectual disability. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we have been undertaking trio-based exome sequencing studies in overgrowth patients and their unaffected parents. Prioritisation of functionally relevant genes with multiple unique de novo mutations revealed four mutations in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B family genes protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', beta (PPP2R5B); protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', gamma (PPP2R5C); and protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', delta (PPP2R5D). This observation in 3 related genes in 111 individuals with a similar phenotype is greatly in excess of the expected number, as determined from gene-specific de novo mutation rates (P = 1.43 × 10(-10)). Analysis of exome-sequencing data from a follow-up series of overgrowth probands identified a further pathogenic mutation, bringing the total number of affected individuals to 5. Heterozygotes shared similar phenotypic features including increased height, increased head circumference and intellectual disability. The mutations clustered within a region of nine amino acid residues in the aligned protein sequences (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)). We mapped the mutations onto the crystal structure of the PP2A holoenzyme complex to predict their molecular and functional consequences. These studies suggest that the mutations may affect substrate binding, thus perturbing the ability of PP2A to dephosphorylate particular protein substrates. PP2A is a major negative regulator of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT). Thus, our data further expand the list of genes encoding components of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signalling cascade that are disrupted in human overgrowth conditions.

  6. Mutations in the PP2A regulatory subunit B family genes PPP2R5B, PPP2R5C and PPP2R5D cause human overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Chey; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Clarke, Matthew; Westwood, Isaac; Renwick, Anthony; Ramsay, Emma; Nemeth, Andrea; Campbell, Jennifer; Joss, Shelagh; Gardner, McKinlay; Zachariou, Anna; Elliott, Anna; Ruark, Elise; van Montfort, Rob; Rahman, Nazneen

    2015-09-01

    Overgrowth syndromes comprise a group of heterogeneous disorders characterised by excessive growth parameters, often in association with intellectual disability. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we have been undertaking trio-based exome sequencing studies in overgrowth patients and their unaffected parents. Prioritisation of functionally relevant genes with multiple unique de novo mutations revealed four mutations in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B family genes protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', beta (PPP2R5B); protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', gamma (PPP2R5C); and protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', delta (PPP2R5D). This observation in 3 related genes in 111 individuals with a similar phenotype is greatly in excess of the expected number, as determined from gene-specific de novo mutation rates (P = 1.43 × 10(-10)). Analysis of exome-sequencing data from a follow-up series of overgrowth probands identified a further pathogenic mutation, bringing the total number of affected individuals to 5. Heterozygotes shared similar phenotypic features including increased height, increased head circumference and intellectual disability. The mutations clustered within a region of nine amino acid residues in the aligned protein sequences (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)). We mapped the mutations onto the crystal structure of the PP2A holoenzyme complex to predict their molecular and functional consequences. These studies suggest that the mutations may affect substrate binding, thus perturbing the ability of PP2A to dephosphorylate particular protein substrates. PP2A is a major negative regulator of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT). Thus, our data further expand the list of genes encoding components of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signalling cascade that are disrupted in human overgrowth conditions. PMID:25972378

  7. Cardiac Regeneration and Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Mignone, John; MacLellan, W Robb

    2015-10-01

    After decades of believing the heart loses the ability to regenerate soon after birth, numerous studies are now reporting that the adult heart may indeed be capable of regeneration, although the magnitude of new cardiac myocyte formation varies greatly. While this debate has energized the field of cardiac regeneration and led to a dramatic increase in our understanding of cardiac growth and repair, it has left much confusion in the field as to the prospects of regenerating the heart. Studies applying modern techniques of genetic lineage tracing and carbon-14 dating have begun to establish limits on the amount of endogenous regeneration after cardiac injury, but the underlying cellular mechanisms of this regeneration remained unclear. These same studies have also revealed an astonishing capacity for cardiac repair early in life that is largely lost with adult differentiation and maturation. Regardless, this renewed focus on cardiac regeneration as a therapeutic goal holds great promise as a novel strategy to address the leading cause of death in the developed world.

  8. FLAGELLAR REGENERATION IN PROTOZOAN FLAGELLATES

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Joel L.; Child, F. M.

    1967-01-01

    The flagella of populations of three protozoan species (Ochromonas, Euglena, and Astasia) were amputated and allowed to regenerate. The kinetics of regeneration in all species were characterized by a lag phase during which there was no apparent flagellar elongation; this phase was followed by elongation at a rate which constantly decelerated as the original length was regained. Inhibition by cycloheximide applied at the time of flagellar amputation showed that flagellar regeneration was dependent upon de novo protein synthesis. This was supported by evidence showing that a greater amount of leucine was incorporated into the proteins of regenerating than nonregenerating flagella. The degree of inhibition of flagellar elongation observed with cycloheximide depended on how soon after flagellar amputation it was applied: when applied to cells immediately following amputation, elongation was almost completely inhibited, but its application at various times thereafter permitted considerable elongation to occur prior to complete inhibition of flagellar elongation. Hence, a sufficient number of precursors were synthesized and accumulated prior to addition of cycloheximide so that their assembly (elongation) could occur for a time under conditions in which protein synthesis had been inhibited. Evidence that the site of this assembly may be at the tip of the elongating flagellum was obtained from radioautographic studies in which the flagella of Ochromonas were permitted to regenerate part way in the absence of labeled leucine and to complete their regeneration in the presence of the isotope. Possible mechanisms which may be operating to control flagellar regeneration are discussed in light of these and other observations. PMID:6033540

  9. Biomaterial selection for tooth regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Lili; Mao, Jeremy J

    2011-10-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth.

  10. Cardiac Regeneration and Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Mignone, John; MacLellan, W. Robb

    2015-01-01

    After decades of believing the heart loses the ability to regenerate soon after birth, numerous studies are now reporting that the adult heart may indeed be capable of regeneration, although the magnitude of new cardiac myocyte formation varies greatly. While this debate has energized the field of cardiac regeneration and led to a dramatic increase in our understanding of cardiac growth and repair, it has left much confusion in the field as to the prospects of regenerating the heart. Studies applying modern techniques of genetic lineage tracing and carbon-14 dating have begun to establish limits on the amount of endogenous regeneration after cardiac injury, but the underlying cellular mechanisms of this regeneration remained unclear. These same studies have also revealed an astonishing capacity for cardiac repair early in life that is largely lost with adult differentiation and maturation. Regardless, this renewed focus on cardiac regeneration as a therapeutic goal holds great promise as a novel strategy to address the leading cause of death in the developed world. PMID:26269526

  11. Proximodistal patterning during limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Echeverri, Karen; Tanaka, Elly M

    2005-03-15

    Regeneration is an ability that has been observed extensively throughout metazoan phylogeny. Amongst vertebrates, the urodele amphibians stand out for their exceptional capacity to regenerate body parts such as the limb. During this process, only the missing portion of the limb is precisely replaced--amputation in the upper arm results in regeneration of the entire limb, while amputation at the wrist produces a hand. Limb regeneration occurs through the formation of a local proliferative zone called the blastema. Here, we examine how proximodistal identity is established in the blastema. Using cell marking and transplantation experiments, we show that distal identities have already been established in the earliest stages of blastemas examined. Transplantation of cells into new environments is not sufficient to respecify cell identity. However, overexpression of the CD59, a cell surface molecule previously implicated in proximodistal identity during limb regeneration, causes distal blastema cells to translocate to a more proximal location and causes defects in the patterning of the distal elements of the regenerate. We suggest a model for the limb regeneration blastema where by 4 days post-amputation the blastema is already divided into distinct growth zones; the cells of each zone are already specified to give rise to upper arm, lower arm, and hand. PMID:15733667

  12. Biomaterial Selection for Tooth Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y.; Zhou, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth. PMID:21699433

  13. Evaluation of advanced regenerator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J. A.; Fucinari, C. A.; Lingscheit, J. N.; Rahnke, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    The major considerations are discussed which will affect the selection of a ceramic regenerative heat exchanger for an improved 100 HP automotive gas turbine engine. The regenerator considered for this application is about 36cm in diameter. Regenerator comparisons are made on the basis of material, method of fabrication, cost, and performance. A regenerator inlet temperature of 1000 C is assumed for performance comparisons, and laboratory test results are discussed for material comparisons at 1100 and 1200 C. Engine test results using the Ford 707 industrial gas turbine engine are also discussed.

  14. Copy Number Variation in TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptor Genes: Structure, Origin, and Population Genetics.

    PubMed

    Roudnitzky, Natacha; Risso, Davide; Drayna, Dennis; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Wooding, Stephen P

    2016-10-01

    Bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) harbor extensive diversity, which is broadly distributed across human populations and strongly associated with taste response phenotypes. The majority of TAS2R variation is composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, 2 closely positioned loci at 12p13, TAS2R43 and -45, harbor high-frequency deletion (Δ) alleles in which genomic segments are absent, resulting in copy number variation (CNV). To resolve their chromosomal structure and organization, we generated maps using long-range contig alignments and local sequencing across the TAS2R43-45 region. These revealed that the deletion alleles (43Δ and 45Δ) are 37.8 and 32.2kb in length, respectively and span the complete coding region of each gene (~1kb) along with extensive up- and downstream flanking sequence, producing separate CNVs at the 2 loci. Comparisons with a chimpanzee genome, which contained intact homologs of TAS2R43, -45, and nearby TAS2Rs, indicated that the deletions evolved recently, through unequal recombination in a cluster of closely related loci. Population genetic analyses in 946 subjects from 52 worldwide populations revealed that copy number ranged from 0 to 2 at both TAS2R43 and TAS2R45, with 43Δ and 45Δ occurring at high global frequencies (0.33 and 0.18). Estimated recombination rates between the loci were low (ρ = 2.7×10(-4); r = 6.6×10(-9)) and linkage disequilibrium was high (D' = 1.0), consistent with their adjacent genomic positioning and recent origin. Geographic variation pointed to an African origin for the deletions. However, no signatures of natural selection were found in population structure or integrated haplotype scores spanning the region, suggesting that patterns of diversity at TAS2R43 and -45 are primarily due to genetic drift.

  15. Copy Number Variation in TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptor Genes: Structure, Origin, and Population Genetics.

    PubMed

    Roudnitzky, Natacha; Risso, Davide; Drayna, Dennis; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Wooding, Stephen P

    2016-10-01

    Bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) harbor extensive diversity, which is broadly distributed across human populations and strongly associated with taste response phenotypes. The majority of TAS2R variation is composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, 2 closely positioned loci at 12p13, TAS2R43 and -45, harbor high-frequency deletion (Δ) alleles in which genomic segments are absent, resulting in copy number variation (CNV). To resolve their chromosomal structure and organization, we generated maps using long-range contig alignments and local sequencing across the TAS2R43-45 region. These revealed that the deletion alleles (43Δ and 45Δ) are 37.8 and 32.2kb in length, respectively and span the complete coding region of each gene (~1kb) along with extensive up- and downstream flanking sequence, producing separate CNVs at the 2 loci. Comparisons with a chimpanzee genome, which contained intact homologs of TAS2R43, -45, and nearby TAS2Rs, indicated that the deletions evolved recently, through unequal recombination in a cluster of closely related loci. Population genetic analyses in 946 subjects from 52 worldwide populations revealed that copy number ranged from 0 to 2 at both TAS2R43 and TAS2R45, with 43Δ and 45Δ occurring at high global frequencies (0.33 and 0.18). Estimated recombination rates between the loci were low (ρ = 2.7×10(-4); r = 6.6×10(-9)) and linkage disequilibrium was high (D' = 1.0), consistent with their adjacent genomic positioning and recent origin. Geographic variation pointed to an African origin for the deletions. However, no signatures of natural selection were found in population structure or integrated haplotype scores spanning the region, suggesting that patterns of diversity at TAS2R43 and -45 are primarily due to genetic drift. PMID:27340135

  16. Anti-PLA2R Antibodies in Chinese Patients with Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Wei, Dong; Zhou, Zhanmei; Wang, Baoguo; Xu, Ya; Pan, Jie; Yang, Chunli; Lu, Jie; Qiu, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    Background This study used 2 standardized methods to evaluate anti-PLA2R antibody in sera of Chinese patients with primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) and to determine whether immunological reactivity reflected by antibody titer correlates with kidney function parameters. Material/Methods Overall, 82 subjects with biopsy-proven primary membranous nephropathy (PMN), 22 cases with secondary membranous nephropathy (SMN), 40 non-MN patients with established glomerulonephritis, and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited from the Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, China. Anti-PLA2R antibody in the serum of each patient was evaluated by both recombinant cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (RC-IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Kidney function was assessed by proteinuria for 24 hours, serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatine, and serum cystatin C. We assessed the correlation between anti-PLA2R antibody levels and clinical parameters in the PMN patients. Results Fifty-three patients with PMN (64.6%) were positive for anti-PLA2R antibody. The level of antibody determined by RC-IFA ranged from 1: 10 to 1: 1000 and 0 to 1423 RU/ml by ELISA. The 2 anti-PLA2R test systems correlated very well with each other and reached an agreement of 95.7% for PMN patients. The level of antibody detected by ELISA in patients with PMN was also significantly correlated with proteinuria and nephritic-range proteinuria (>3.5 g/day). Conclusions Anti-PLA2R antibody is sensitive and extremely specific for diagnosis of Chinese patients with primary membranous nephropathy. Concentration of autoantibody against PLA2R may be an ideal marker for monitoring the activity of immunological disease. PMID:27179439

  17. Mest but Not MiR-335 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hiramuki, Yosuke; Sato, Takahiko; Furuta, Yasuhide; Surani, M Azim; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    When skeletal muscle fibers are injured, they regenerate and grow until their sizes are adjusted to surrounding muscle fibers and other relevant organs. In this study, we examined whether Mest, one of paternally expressed imprinted genes that regulates body size during development, and miR-335 located in the second intron of the Mest gene play roles in muscle regeneration. We generated miR-335-deficient mice, and found that miR-335 is a paternally expressed imprinted microRNA. Although both Mest and miR-335 are highly expressed during muscle development and regeneration, only Mest+/- (maternal/paternal) mice show retardation of body growth. In addition to reduced body weight in Mest+/-; DMD-null mice, decreased muscle growth was observed in Mest+/- mice during cardiotoxin-induced regeneration, suggesting roles of Mest in muscle regeneration. Moreover, expressions of H19 and Igf2r, maternally expressed imprinted genes were affected in tibialis anterior muscle of Mest+/-; DMD-null mice compared to DMD-null mice. Thus, Mest likely mediates muscle regeneration through regulation of imprinted gene networks in skeletal muscle.

  18. Accurate predictions of C-SO2R bond dissociation enthalpies using density functional theory methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Zhu; Fu, Fang; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Yao; Dang, Zhi-Min; Shi, Jing

    2014-10-14

    The dissociation of the C-SO2R bond is frequently involved in organic and bio-organic reactions, and the C-SO2R bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) are potentially important for understanding the related mechanisms. The primary goal of the present study is to provide a reliable calculation method to predict the different C-SO2R bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs). Comparing the accuracies of 13 different density functional theory (DFT) methods (such as B3LYP, TPSS, and M05 etc.), and different basis sets (such as 6-31G(d) and 6-311++G(2df,2p)), we found that M06-2X/6-31G(d) gives the best performance in reproducing the various C-S BDEs (and especially the C-SO2R BDEs). As an example for understanding the mechanisms with the aid of C-SO2R BDEs, some primary mechanistic studies were carried out on the chemoselective coupling (in the presence of a Cu-catalyst) or desulfinative coupling reactions (in the presence of a Pd-catalyst) between sulfinic acid salts and boryl/sulfinic acid salts.

  19. SL(2,R) duality-symmetric action for electromagnetic theory with electric and magnetic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonkyu; Min, Hyunsoo

    2013-12-15

    For the SL(2,R) duality-invariant generalization of Maxwell electrodynamics in the presence of both electric and magnetic sources, we formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, Zwanziger-type action by introducing a pair of four-potentials A{sup μ} and B{sup μ} in a judicious way. On the two potentials A{sup μ} and B{sup μ} the SL(2,R) duality transformation acts in a simple linear manner. In quantum theory including charged source fields, this action can be recast as a SL(2,Z)-invariant action. Also given is a Zwanziger-type action for SL(2,R) duality-invariant Born–Infeld electrodynamics which can be important for D-brane dynamics in string theory. -- Highlights: •We formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, Zwanziger-type action. •Maxwell electrodynamics is generalized to include dilaton and axion fields. •SL(2,R) symmetry is manifest. •We formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, nonlinear Born–Infeld action with SL(2,R) symmetry.

  20. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend its useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle was manually controlled in demonstration, readily automated to start and stop according to signals and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is that regeneration bed provides highly concentrated biocide source (200 mg/L) when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  1. Regeneration in Alfalfa Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Skokut, Thomas A.; Manchester, Jill; Schaefer, Jacob

    1985-01-01

    The production of somatic embryos in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., cv Regen S) is increased 5- to 10-fold by alanine and proline. However, utilization of nitrogen for synthesis of protein from alanine, proline, glutamate, and glycine is not qualitatively different, even though the latter two amino acids do not increase somatic embryo formation. These determinations were made by 15N labeling with detection by nuclear magnetic resonance. Overall metabolism of the nitrogen of proline, alanine, glutamate, and glycine is also similar in two regenerating and nonregenerating genotypes with similar germplasm, except that the levels of free amino acids are consistently higher in the nonregenerating line. In addition, when regeneration is suppressed in either of the two regenerating lines, the level of intracellular free amino acids increases. This increased level of metabolites is the only direct evidence provided by analysis of nitrogen metabolism of differences between the regenerating and nonregenerating states in alfalfa. PMID:16664455

  2. Control of growth during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gongping; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration is a process by which organisms replace damaged or amputated organs to restore normal body parts. Regeneration of many tissues or organs requires proliferation of stem cells or stem cell-like blastema cells. This regenerative growth is often initiated by cell death pathways induced by damage. The executors of regenerative growth are a group of growth-promoting signaling pathways, including JAK/STAT, EGFR, Hippo/YAP, and Wnt/β-catenin. These pathways are also essential to developmental growth, but in regeneration, they are activated in distinct ways and often at higher strengths, under the regulation by certain stress-responsive signaling pathways, including JNK signaling. Growth suppressors are important in termination of regeneration to prevent unlimited growth and also contribute to the loss of regenerative capacity in nonregenerative organs. Here, we review cellular and molecular growth regulation mechanisms induced by organ damage in several models with different regenerative capacities. PMID:24512707

  3. Hydrogen-doping stabilized metallic VO{sub 2} (R) thin films and their application to suppress Fabry-Perot resonances in the terahertz regime

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yong; Pan, Xuan; Bernussi, Ayrton A.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Karaoglan-Bebek, Gulten; Holtz, Mark

    2014-06-16

    We demonstrate that catalyst-assisted hydrogen spillover doping of VO{sub 2} thin films significantly alters the metal-insulator transition characteristics and stabilizes the metallic rutile phase at room temperature. With hydrogen inserted into the VO{sub 2} lattice, high resolution X-ray diffraction reveals expansion of the V-V chain separation when compared to the VO{sub 2}(R) phase. The donated free electrons, possibly from O-H bond formation, stabilize the VO{sub 2}(R) to low temperatures. By controlling the amount of dopants to obtain mixed insulating and metallic phases, VO{sub 2} resistivity can be continuously tuned until a critical condition is achieved that suppresses Fabry-Perot resonances. Our results demonstrate that hydrogen spillover is an effective technique to tune the electrical and optical properties of VO{sub 2} thin films.

  4. Thymic generation and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jason; Malin, Mark; Sutherland, Jayne; Gray, Daniel; Hollander, George; Boyd, Richard

    2003-10-01

    The thymus is a complex epithelial organ in which thymocyte development is dependent upon the sequential contribution of morphologically and phenotypically distinct stromal cell compartments. It is these microenvironments that provide the unique combination of cellular interactions, cytokines, and chemokines to induce thymocyte precursors to undergo a differentiation program that leads to the generation of functional T cells. Despite the indispensable role of thymic epithelium in the generation of T cells, the mediators of this process and the differentiation pathway undertaken by the primordial thymic epithelial cells are not well defined. There is a lack of lineage-specific cell-surface-associated markers, which are needed to characterize putative thymic epithelial stem cell populations. This review explores the role of thymic stromal cells in T-cell development and thymic organogenesis, as well as the molecular signals that contribute to the growth and expansion of primordial thymic epithelial cells. It highlights recent advances in these areas, which have allowed for a lineage relationship amongst thymic epithelial cell subsets to be proposed. While many fundamental questions remain to be addressed, collectively these works have broadened our understanding of how the thymic epithelium becomes specialized in the ability to support thymocyte differentiation. They should also facilitate the development of novel, rationally based therapeutic strategies for the regeneration and manipulation of thymic function in the treatment of many clinical conditions in which defective T cells have an important etiological role.

  5. Regenerable biocide delivery unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Colombo, Gerald V. (Inventor); Jolly, Clifford D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for maintaining continuous, long-term microbial control in the water supply for potable, hygiene, and experimental water for space activities, as well as treatment of water supplies on Earth. The water purification is accomplished by introduction of molecular iodine into the water supply to impart a desired iodine residual. The water is passed through an iodinated anion exchange resin bed. The iodine is bound as I-(sub n) at the anion exchange sites and releases I(sub 2) into the water stream flowing through the bed. The concentration of I(sub 2) in the flowing water gradually decreases and, in the prior art, the ion-exchange bed has had to be replaced. In a preferred embodiment, a bed of iodine crystals is provided with connections for flowing water therethrough to produce a concentrated (substantially saturated) aqueous iodine solution which is passed through the iodinated resin bed to recharge the bed with bound iodine. The bed of iodine crystals is connected in parallel with the iodinated resin bed and is activated periodically (e.g., by timer, by measured flow of water, or by iodine residual level) to recharge the bed. Novelty resides in the capability of inexpensively and repeatedly regenerating the ion-exchange bed in situ.

  6. Biomaterials for periodontal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shue, Li; Yufeng, Zhang; Mony, Ullas

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. Various methods of regenerative periodontal therapy, including the use of barrier membranes, bone replacement grafts, growth factors and the combination of these procedures have been investigated. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering has considerably improved the available treatment options above. They fall into two broad classes: ceramics and polymers. The available ceramic-based materials include calcium phosphate (eg, tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite), calcium sulfate and bioactive glass. The bioactive glass bonds to the bone with the formation of a layer of carbonated hydroxyapatite in situ. The natural polymers include modified polysaccharides (eg, chitosan,) and polypeptides (collagen and gelatin). Synthetic polymers [eg, poly(glycolic acid), poly(L-lactic acid)] provide a platform for exhibiting the biomechanical properties of scaffolds in tissue engineering. The materials usually work as osteogenic, osteoconductive and osteoinductive scaffolds. Polymers are more widely used as a barrier material in guided tissue regeneration (GTR). They are shown to exclude epithelial downgrowth and allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect. An attempt to overcome the problems related to a collapse of the barrier membrane in GTR or epithelial downgrowth is the use of a combination of barrier membranes and grafting materials. This article reviews various biomaterials including scaffolds and membranes used for periodontal treatment and their impacts on the experimental or clinical management of periodontal defect. PMID:23507891

  7. Metal impurity fluxes and plasma-surface interactions in EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsåker, H.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.; Brunsell, P. R.; Frassinetti, L.; Drake, J. R.

    2008-03-01

    The EXTRAP T2R is a large aspect ratio Reversed Field Pinch device. The main focus of interest for the experiments is the active feedback control of resistive wall modes [1]. With feedback it has been possible to prolong plasma discharges in T2R from about 20 ms to nearly 100 ms. In a series of experiments in T2R, in H- and D- plasmas with and without feedback, quantitative spectroscopy and passive collector probes have been used to study the flux of metal impurities. Time resolved spectroscopic measurements of Cr and Mo lines showed large metal release towards discharge termination without feedback. Discharge integrated fluxes of Cr, Fe, Ni and Mo were also measured with collector probes at wall position. Reasonable quantitative agreement was found between the spectroscopic and collector probe measurements. The roles of sputtering, thermal evaporation and arcing in impurity production are evaluated based on the composition of the measured impurity flux.

  8. Implementation of model predictive control for resistive wall mode stabilization on EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiadi, A. C.; Brunsell, P. R.; Frassinetti, L.

    2015-10-01

    A model predictive control (MPC) method for stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch is presented. The system identification technique is used to obtain a linearized empirical model of EXTRAP T2R. MPC employs the model for prediction and computes optimal control inputs that satisfy performance criterion. The use of a linearized form of the model allows for compact formulation of MPC, implemented on a millisecond timescale, that can be used for real-time control. The design allows the user to arbitrarily suppress any selected Fourier mode. The experimental results from EXTRAP T2R show that the designed and implemented MPC successfully stabilizes the RWM.

  9. Cross-reactivity of anti-PLA2R1 autoantibodies to rabbit and mouse PLA2R1 antigens and development of two novel ELISAs with different diagnostic performances in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Seitz-Polski, Barbara; Dolla, Guillaume; Payré, Christine; Tomas, Nicola M; Lochouarn, Marine; Jeammet, Louise; Mariat, Christophe; Krummel, Thierry; Burtey, Stéphane; Courivaud, Cécile; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Zorzi, Kévin; Benzaken, Sylvia; Bernard, Ghislaine; Esnault, Vincent L M; Lambeau, Gérard

    2015-11-01

    About 70% of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) have autoantibodies to the phospholipase A2 receptor PLA2R1. We screened sera from iMN patients for their cross-reactivity to human (h), rabbit (rb) and mouse (m) PLA2R1 by western blot (WB) and antigen-specific ELISAs. All iMN patients recognized hPLA2R1 and rbPLA2R1 by WB, and a rbPLA2R1 ELISA was as sensitive as the standardized hPLA2R1 ELISA to monitor anti-PLA2R1 in patients with active disease or in drug-induced remission. In contrast, only 51% of patients were reactive to mPLA2R1 by WB, and a maximum of 78% were weakly to highly positive in the mPLA2R1 ELISA, suggesting that iMN patients exhibit different subsets of anti-PLA2R1 autoantibodies against epitopes that are shared or not among PLA2R1 orthologs. In a cohort of 41 patients with a mean follow-up of 42 months from anti-PLA2R1 assay, the detection of anti-mPLA2R1 autoantibodies was an independent predictor of clinical outcome in multivariate analysis (p = 0.009), and a ROC curve analysis identified a threshold of 605 RU/mL above which 100% of patients (12 patients) had a poor renal outcome (p < 0.001). A similar threshold could not be defined in hPLA2R1 and rbPLA2R1 ELISAs. We conclude that rbPLA2R1 is an alternative antigen to hPLA2R1 to measure anti-PLA2R1 in active disease while mPLA2R1 is a unique antigen that can detect a subset of anti-PLA2R1 autoantibodies present at high levels (>605 RU/mL) only in iMN patients at risk of poor prognosis, and is thus useful to predict iMN outcome. PMID:26296473

  10. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Standards and Semantics for Open Access to Research Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, a growing number of funding agencies and professional societies have issued policies calling for open access to research data. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working to ensure open access to the environmental sensor data routinely acquired by the U.S. academic research fleet. Currently 25 vessels deliver 7 terabytes of data to R2R each year, acquired from a suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. R2R is working to ensure these data are preserved in trusted repositories, discoverable via standard protocols, and adequately documented for reuse. R2R maintains a master catalog of cruises for the U.S. academic research fleet, currently holding essential documentation for over 3,800 expeditions including vessel and cruise identifiers, start/end dates and ports, project titles and funding awards, science parties, dataset inventories with instrument types and file formats, data quality assessments, and links to related content at other repositories. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is published for 1) each cruise, 2) each original field sensor dataset, 3) each post-field data product such as quality-controlled shiptrack navigation produced by the R2R program, and 4) each document such as a cruise report submitted by the science party. Scientists are linked to personal identifiers, such as the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), where known. Using standard global identifiers such as DOIs and ORCIDs facilitates linking with journal publications and generation of citation metrics. Since its inception, the R2R program has worked in close collaboration with other data repositories in the development of shared semantics for oceanographic research. The R2R cruise catalog uses community-standard terms and definitions hosted by the NERC Vocabulary Server, and publishes ISO metadata records for each cruise that use community-standard profiles developed with the NOAA Data

  11. Epitope Spreading of Autoantibody Response to PLA2R Associates with Poor Prognosis in Membranous Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Seitz-Polski, Barbara; Dolla, Guillaume; Payré, Christine; Girard, Christophe A; Polidori, Joel; Zorzi, Kevin; Birgy-Barelli, Eléonore; Jullien, Perrine; Courivaud, Cécile; Krummel, Thierry; Benzaken, Sylvia; Bernard, Ghislaine; Burtey, Stéphane; Mariat, Christophe; Esnault, Vincent L M; Lambeau, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) is the major autoantigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, the value of anti-PLA2R1 antibody titers in predicting patient outcomes is unknown. Here, we screened serum samples from 50 patients positive for PLA2R1 for immunoreactivity against a series of PLA2R1 deletion mutants covering the extracellular domains. We identified reactive epitopes in the cysteine-rich (CysR), C-type lectin domain 1 (CTLD1), and C-type lectin domain 7 (CTLD7) domains and confirmed the reactivity with soluble forms of each domain. We then used ELISAs to stratify 69 patients positive for PLA2R1 by serum reactivity to one or more of these domains: CysR (n=23), CysRC1 (n=14), and CysRC1C7 (n=32). Median ELISA titers measured using the full-length PLA2R1 antigens were not statistically different between subgroups. Patients with anti-CysR-restricted activity were younger (P=0.008), had less nephrotic range proteinuria (P=0.02), and exhibited a higher rate of spontaneous remission (P=0.03) and lower rates of renal failure progression (P=0.002) and ESRD (P=0.01) during follow-up. Overall, 31 of 69 patients had poor renal prognosis (urinary protein/creatinine ratio >4 g/g or eGFR<45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at end of follow-up). High anti-PLA2R1 activity and epitope spreading beyond the CysR epitope were independent risk factors of poor renal prognosis in multivariable Cox regression analysis. Epitope spreading during follow-up associated with disease worsening (n=3), whereas reverse spreading from a CysRC1C7 profile back to a CysR profile associated with favorable outcome (n=1). We conclude that analysis of the PLA2R1 epitope profile and spreading is a powerful tool for monitoring disease severity and stratifying patients by renal prognosis.

  12. In vitro activation of T lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive blood donors. I. Soluble interleukin 2 receptor (IL2R) production parallels cellular IL2R expression and DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Prince, H E; Kleinman, S H; Maino, V C; Jackson, A L

    1988-03-01

    We investigated the relationship of soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL2R) production to cellular IL2R expression and DNA synthesis by mitogen-stimulated mononuclear cells from blood donors seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). SIL2R was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which employed 2 anti-IL2R monoclonal antibodies recognizing distinct IL2R epitopes. Decreased phytohemagglutinin-induced DNA synthesis and cellular IL2R expression were accompanied by decreased levels of sIL2R in cell culture supernatants. Similar findings were observed for pokeweed mitogen-induced responses. There was no detectable spontaneous secretion of sIL2R into culture supernatants by unstimulated mononuclear cells from either HIV-seropositive or control seronegative donors. These findings indicate that the in vitro T-cell activation defects which characterize HIV infection include decreased sIL2R production, as well as decreased cellular IL2R expression and DNA synthesis. Further, they show that assessment of supernatant sIL2R levels can be used as a valid, reliable assay for T-cell activation.

  13. Cementum and Periodontal Ligament Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Menicanin, Danijela; Hynes, K; Han, J; Gronthos, S; Bartold, P M

    2015-01-01

    The unique anatomy and composition of the periodontium make periodontal tissue healing and regeneration a complex process. Periodontal regeneration aims to recapitulate the crucial stages of wound healing associated with periodontal development in order to restore lost tissues to their original form and function and for regeneration to occur, healing events must progress in an ordered and programmed sequence both temporally and spatially, replicating key developmental events. A number of procedures have been employed to promote true and predictable regeneration of the periodontium. Principally, the approaches are based on the use of graft materials to compensate for the bone loss incurred as a result of periodontal disease, use of barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration and use of bioactive molecules. More recently, the concept of tissue engineering has been integrated into research and applications of regenerative dentistry, including periodontics, to aim to manage damaged and lost oral tissues, through reconstruction and regeneration of the periodontium and alleviate the shortcomings of more conventional therapeutic options. The essential components for generating effective cellular based therapeutic strategies include a population of multi-potential progenitor cells, presence of signalling molecules/inductive morphogenic signals and a conductive extracellular matrix scaffold or appropriate delivery system. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered suitable candidates for cell-based tissue engineering strategies owing to their extensive expansion rate and potential to differentiate into cells of multiple organs and systems. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from multiple tissue sources have been investigated in pre-clinical animal studies and clinical settings for the treatment and regeneration of the periodontium.

  14. 6-Methoxyflavanones as Bitter Taste Receptor Blockers for hTAS2R39

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Wibke S. U.; Gouka, Robin J.; Gruppen, Harry; Driesse, Marianne; van Buren, Leo; Smit, Gerrit; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many (dietary) bitter compounds, e.g. flavonoids, activate bitter receptor hTAS2R39 in cell-based assays. Several flavonoids, amongst which some flavanones, are known not to activate this receptor. As certain flavanones are known to mask bitter taste sensorially, flavanones might act as bitter receptor antagonists. Fourteen flavanones were investigated for their potential to reduce activation of hTAS2R39 by epicatechin gallate (ECG), one of the main bitter compounds occurring in green tea. Three flavanones showed inhibitory behavior towards the activation of hTAS2R39 by ECG: 4′-fluoro-6-methoxyflavanone, 6,3′-dimethoxyflavanone, and 6-methoxyflavanone (in order of decreasing potency). The 6-methoxyflavanones also inhibited activation of hTAS2R14 (another bitter receptor activated by ECG), though to a lesser extent. Dose-response curves of ECG at various concentrations of the full antagonist 4′-fluoro-6-methoxyflavanone and wash-out experiments indicated reversible insurmountable antagonism. The same effect was observed for the structurally different agonist denatonium benzoate. PMID:24722342

  15. New integrable sl (2, R) -generalization of the classical Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Yu, Shuimeng; Shen, Shoufeng; Ma, Wen-Xiu

    2015-05-01

    With the aid of symbolic computation by Maple, a new integrable generalization of the classical Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa hierarchy is derived from a corresponding matrix spectral problem associated with the Lie algebra sl (2, R) . Each equation in the resulting hierarchy has a bi-Hamiltonian structure furnished by the trace identity, and possesses infinitely many independent commuting symmetries and conservation laws.

  16. Evaluation of Mecp2(R308/Y) mutant mice as a model to study fetal programming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA (CpG) methylation is altered at candidate loci after prenatal modification of dietary methyl donor supply. Mecp2(R308/Y) mutant mice, with a truncating mutation of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene which models Rett syndrome, have increased weight gain on a high methyl donor diet. Rett syndr...

  17. Genome-wide identification and characterization of R2R3MYB family in Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    González, Máximo; Carrasco, Basilio; Salazar, Erika

    2016-09-01

    Transcription factors R2R3MYB family have been associated with the control of secondary metabolites, development of structures, cold tolerance and response to biotic and abiotic stress, among others. In recent years, genomes of Rosaceae botanical family are available. Although this information has been used to study the karyotype evolution of these species from an ancestral genome, there are no studies that treat the evolution and diversity of gene families present in these species or in the botanical family. Here we present the first comparative study of the R2R3MYB subfamily of transcription factors in three species of Rosaceae family (Malus domestica, Prunus persica and Fragaria vesca). We described 186, 98 and 86 non-redundant gene models for apple, peach and strawberry, respectively. In this research, we analyzed the intron-exon structure and genomic distribution of R2R3MYB families mentioned above. The phylogenetic comparisons revealed putative functions of some R2R3MYB transcription factors. This analysis found 44 functional subgroups, seven of which were unique for Rosaceae. In addition, our results showed a highly collinearity among some genes revealing the existence of conserved gene models between the three species studied. Although some gene models in these species have been validated under several approaches, more research in the Rosaceae family is necessary to determine gene expression patterns in specific tissues and development stages to facilitate understanding of the regulatory and biochemical mechanism in this botanical family. PMID:27408811

  18. Global diversity in the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor: revisiting a classic evolutionary PROPosal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risso, Davide S.; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Pagani, Luca; Robino, Antonietta; Morini, Gabriella; Tofanelli, Sergio; Carrai, Maura; Campa, Daniele; Barale, Roberto; Caradonna, Fabio; Gasparini, Paolo; Luiselli, Donata; Wooding, Stephen; Drayna, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    The ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a polymorphic trait mediated by the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor gene. It has long been hypothesized that global genetic diversity at this locus evolved under pervasive pressures from balancing natural selection. However, recent high-resolution population genetic studies of TAS2Rs suggest that demographic events have played a critical role in the evolution of these genes. We here utilized the largest TAS2R38 database yet analyzed, consisting of 5,589 individuals from 105 populations, to examine natural selection, haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium to estimate the effects of both selection and demography on contemporary patterns of variation at this locus. We found signs of an ancient balancing selection acting on this gene but no post Out-Of-Africa departures from neutrality, implying that the current observed patterns of variation can be predominantly explained by demographic, rather than selective events. In addition, we found signatures of ancient selective forces acting on different African TAS2R38 haplotypes. Collectively our results provide evidence for a relaxation of recent selective forces acting on this gene and a revised hypothesis for the origins of the present-day worldwide distribution of TAS2R38 haplotypes.

  19. Global diversity in the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor: revisiting a classic evolutionary PROPosal

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Davide S.; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Pagani, Luca; Robino, Antonietta; Morini, Gabriella; Tofanelli, Sergio; Carrai, Maura; Campa, Daniele; Barale, Roberto; Caradonna, Fabio; Gasparini, Paolo; Luiselli, Donata; Wooding, Stephen; Drayna, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a polymorphic trait mediated by the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor gene. It has long been hypothesized that global genetic diversity at this locus evolved under pervasive pressures from balancing natural selection. However, recent high-resolution population genetic studies of TAS2Rs suggest that demographic events have played a critical role in the evolution of these genes. We here utilized the largest TAS2R38 database yet analyzed, consisting of 5,589 individuals from 105 populations, to examine natural selection, haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium to estimate the effects of both selection and demography on contemporary patterns of variation at this locus. We found signs of an ancient balancing selection acting on this gene but no post Out-Of-Africa departures from neutrality, implying that the current observed patterns of variation can be predominantly explained by demographic, rather than selective events. In addition, we found signatures of ancient selective forces acting on different African TAS2R38 haplotypes. Collectively our results provide evidence for a relaxation of recent selective forces acting on this gene and a revised hypothesis for the origins of the present-day worldwide distribution of TAS2R38 haplotypes. PMID:27138342

  20. Global diversity in the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor: revisiting a classic evolutionary PROPosal.

    PubMed

    Risso, Davide S; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Pagani, Luca; Robino, Antonietta; Morini, Gabriella; Tofanelli, Sergio; Carrai, Maura; Campa, Daniele; Barale, Roberto; Caradonna, Fabio; Gasparini, Paolo; Luiselli, Donata; Wooding, Stephen; Drayna, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a polymorphic trait mediated by the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor gene. It has long been hypothesized that global genetic diversity at this locus evolved under pervasive pressures from balancing natural selection. However, recent high-resolution population genetic studies of TAS2Rs suggest that demographic events have played a critical role in the evolution of these genes. We here utilized the largest TAS2R38 database yet analyzed, consisting of 5,589 individuals from 105 populations, to examine natural selection, haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium to estimate the effects of both selection and demography on contemporary patterns of variation at this locus. We found signs of an ancient balancing selection acting on this gene but no post Out-Of-Africa departures from neutrality, implying that the current observed patterns of variation can be predominantly explained by demographic, rather than selective events. In addition, we found signatures of ancient selective forces acting on different African TAS2R38 haplotypes. Collectively our results provide evidence for a relaxation of recent selective forces acting on this gene and a revised hypothesis for the origins of the present-day worldwide distribution of TAS2R38 haplotypes. PMID:27138342

  1. The M-type receptor PLA2R regulates senescence through the p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Augert, Arnaud; Payré, Christine; de Launoit, Yvan; Gil, Jesus; Lambeau, Gérard; Bernard, David

    2009-03-01

    Senescence is a stable proliferative arrest induced by various stresses such as telomere erosion, oncogenic or oxidative stress. Compelling evidence suggests that it acts as a barrier against tumour development. Describing new mechanisms that favour an escape from senescence can thus reveal new insights into tumorigenesis. To identify new genes controlling the senescence programme, we performed a loss-of-function genetic screen in primary human fibroblasts. We report that knockdown of the M-type receptor PLA2R (phospholipase A2 receptor) prevents the onset of replicative senescence and diminishes stress-induced senescence. Interestingly, expression of PLA2R increases during replicative senescence, and its ectopic expression results in premature senescence. We show that PLA2R regulates senescence in a reactive oxygen species-DNA damage-p53-dependent manner. Taken together, our study identifies PLA2R as a potential new tumour suppressor gene crucial in the induction of cellular senescence through the activation of the p53 pathway.

  2. The M-type receptor PLA2R regulates senescence through the p53 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Augert, Arnaud; Payré, Christine; de Launoit, Yvan; Gil, Jesus; Lambeau, Gérard; Bernard, David

    2009-01-01

    Senescence is a stable proliferative arrest induced by various stresses such as telomere erosion, oncogenic or oxidative stress. Compelling evidence suggests that it acts as a barrier against tumour development. Describing new mechanisms that favour an escape from senescence can thus reveal new insights into tumorigenesis. To identify new genes controlling the senescence programme, we performed a loss-of-function genetic screen in primary human fibroblasts. We report that knockdown of the M-type receptor PLA2R (phospholipase A2 receptor) prevents the onset of replicative senescence and diminishes stress-induced senescence. Interestingly, expression of PLA2R increases during replicative senescence, and its ectopic expression results in premature senescence. We show that PLA2R regulates senescence in a reactive oxygen species–DNA damage–p53-dependent manner. Taken together, our study identifies PLA2R as a potential new tumour suppressor gene crucial in the induction of cellular senescence through the activation of the p53 pathway. PMID:19197340

  3. Subspecialization of R2R3-MYB Repressors for Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Regulation in Forage Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nick W.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of anthocyanin pigments and proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) is regulated by MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes in all angiosperms studied to date. Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 were isolated from Trifolium repens and encode R2R3-MYBs that antagonize the activity of MBW activation complexes. These two genes are conserved in other legume species, and form two sub-clades within the larger anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin clade of MYB repressors. However, unlike petunia and Arabidopsis, these R2R3-MYB repressors do not prevent ectopic accumulation of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins. Instead, they are expressed when anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins are being synthesized, and provide feedback regulation to MBW complexes. This feedback occurs because Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 are themselves regulated by MBW complexes. Tr-MYB133 is regulated by MBW complexes containing anthocyanin-related R2R3-MYB proteins (Tr-RED LEAF), while Tr-MYB134 is regulated by complexes containing the proanthocyanidin R2R3-MYBs (Tr-MYB14). Other features of the MBW gene regulation networks are also conserved within legumes, including the ability for the anthocyanin MBW complexes to activate the expression of the AN1/TT8 clade bHLH factor. The regulation of Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 by distinct, pathway-specific MBW complexes has resulted in subspecialization for controlling anthocyanin or proanthocyanidin synthesis. PMID:26779194

  4. Cataloging with AACR2R and USMARC: For Books, Computer Files, Serials, Sound Recordings, Videorecordings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah A.

    Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC) is the dominant format for the bibliographic cataloging of all types of library materials. This source cross references "Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed., 1988 revision" (AACR2R), MARC tags/subfields, and interpretations for Library of Congress rules for each of the major media categories. This book…

  5. R2R Eventlogger: Community-wide Recording of Oceanographic Cruise Science Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Stolp, L.; Lerner, S.; Avery, J.; Thiel, T.

    2012-12-01

    Methods used by researchers to track science events during a science research cruise - and to note when and where these occur - varies widely. Handwritten notebooks, printed forms, watch-keeper logbooks, data-logging software, and customized software have all been employed. The quality of scientific results is affected by the consistency and care with which such events are recorded and integration of multi-cruise results is hampered because recording methods vary widely from cruise to cruise. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has developed an Eventlogger system that will eventually be deployed on most vessels in the academic research fleet. It is based on the open software package called ELOG (http://midas.psi.ch/elog/) originally authored by Stefan Ritt and enhanced by our team. Lessons have been learned in its development and use on several research cruises. We have worked hard to find approaches that encourage cruise participants to use tools like the eventlogger. We examine these lessons and several eventlogger datasets from past cruises. We further describe how the R2R Science Eventlogger works in concert with the other R2R program elements to help coordinate research vessels into a coordinated mobile observing fleet. Making use of data collected on different research cruises is enabled by adopting common ways of describing science events, the science instruments employed, the data collected, etc. The use of controlled vocabularies and the practice of mapping these local vocabularies to accepted oceanographic community vocabularies helps to bind shipboard research events from different cruises into a more cohesive set of fleet-wide events that can be queried and examined in a cross-cruise manner. Examples of the use of the eventlogger during multi-cruise oceanographic research programs along with examples of resultant eventlogger data will be presented. Additionally we will highlight the importance of vocabulary use strategies to the success of the

  6. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A great numbers of cardiovascular disease patients all over the world are suffering in the poor outcomes. Under this situation, cardiac regeneration therapy to reorganize the postnatal heart that is defined as a terminal differentiated-organ is a very important theme and mission for human beings. However, the temporary success of several clinical trials using usual cell types with uncertain cell numbers has provided the transient effect of cell therapy to these patients. We therefore should redevelop the evidence of cell-based cardiovascular regeneration therapy, focusing on targets (disease, patient’s status, cardiac function), materials (cells, cytokines, genes), and methodology (transplantation route, implantation technology, tissue engineering). Meanwhile, establishment of the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is an extremely innovative technology which should be proposed as embryonic stem (ES) cellularization of post natal somatic cells, and this application have also showed the milestones of the direct conversion to reconstruct cardiomyocyte from the various somatic cells, which does not need the acquisition of the re-pluripotency. This review discusses the new advance in cardiovascular regeneration therapy from cardiac regeneration to cardiac re-organization, which is involved in recent progress of on-going clinical trials, basic research in cardiovascular regeneration, and the possibility of tissue engineering technology. PMID:23825492

  7. Hindlimb suspension reduces muscle regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Truong, Q.; Macius, A.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of juvenile skeletal muscle to a weightless environment reduces growth and satellite cell mitotic activity. However, the effect of a weightless environment on the satellite cell population during muscle repair remains unknown. Muscle injury was induced in rat soleus muscles using the myotoxic snake venom, notexin. Rats were placed into hindlimb-suspended or weightbearing groups for 10 days following injury. Cellular proliferation during regeneration was evaluated using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) regenerated muscle mass, regenerated myofiber diameter, uninjured muscle mass, and uninjured myofiber diameter compared to weightbearing rats. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) BrdU labeling in uninjured soleus muscles compared to weight-bearing muscles. However, hindlimb suspension did not abolish muscle regeneration because myofibers formed in the injured soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended rats, and BrdU labeling was equivalent (P > 0.10) on myofiber segments isolated from the soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended and weightbearing rats following injury. Thus, hindlimb suspension (weightlessness) does not suppress satellite cell mitotic activity in regenerating muscles before myofiber formation, but reduces growth of the newly formed myofibers.

  8. Involvement of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) signaling in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC): a novel AT2R agonist effectively attenuates growth of PDAC grafts in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Susumu; Yoshimura, Kiyoshi; Tsunedomi, Ryouichi; Oka, Masaaki; Takao, Sonshin; Inui, Makoto; Kawabata, Atsushi; Wall, Terrahn; Magafa, Vassiliki; Cordopatis, Paul; Tzakos, Andreas G; Tamura, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We have recently discovered the potential involvement of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) signaling in pancreatic cancer using AT2R deficient mice. To examine the involvement of AT2R expression in human PDAC, expressions of AT2R as well as the major angiotensin II receptor (type 1 receptor, AT1R) in human PDAC and adjacent normal tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real time PCR using surgically dissected human PDAC specimens. In immunohistochemical analysis, relatively strong AT1R expression was detected consistently in both normal pancreas and PDAC areas, whereas moderate AT2R expression was detected in 78.5% of PDAC specimens and 100% of normal area of the pancreas. AT1R, but not AT2R, mRNA levels were significantly higher in the PDAC area than in the normal pancreas. AT2R mRNA levels showed a negative correlation trend with overall survival. In cell cultures, treatment with a novel AT2R agonist significantly attenuated both murine and human PDAC cell growth with negligible cytotoxicity in normal epithelial cells. In a mouse study, administrations of the AT2R agonist in tumor surrounding connective tissue markedly attenuated growth of only AT2R expressing PAN02 murine PDAC grafts in syngeneic mice. The AT2R agonist treatment induced apoptosis primarily in tumor cells but not in stromal cells. Taken together, our findings offer clinical and preclinical evidence for the involvement of AT2R signaling in PDAC development and pinpoint that the novel AT2R agonist could serve as an effective therapeutic for PDAC treatment.

  9. Self-regenerating column chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Park, Woo K.

    1995-05-30

    The present invention provides a process for treating both cations and anions by using a self-regenerating, multi-ionic exchange resin column system which requires no separate regeneration steps. The process involves alternating ion-exchange chromatography for cations and anions in a multi-ionic exchange column packed with a mixture of cation and anion exchange resins. The multi-ionic mixed-charge resin column works as a multi-function column, capable of independently processing either cationic or anionic exchange, or simultaneously processing both cationic and anionic exchanges. The major advantage offered by the alternating multi-function ion exchange process is the self-regeneration of the resins.

  10. Cardiac regeneration: epicardial mediated repair

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The hearts of lower vertebrates such as fish and salamanders display scarless regeneration following injury, although this feature is lost in adult mammals. The remarkable capacity of the neonatal mammalian heart to regenerate suggests that the underlying machinery required for the regenerative process is evolutionarily retained. Recent studies highlight the epicardial covering of the heart as an important source of the signalling factors required for the repair process. The developing epicardium is also a major source of cardiac fibroblasts, smooth muscle, endothelial cells and stem cells. Here, we examine animal models that are capable of scarless regeneration, the role of the epicardium as a source of cells, signalling mechanisms implicated in the regenerative process and how these mechanisms influence cardiomyocyte proliferation. We also discuss recent advances in cardiac stem cell research and potential therapeutic targets arising from these studies. PMID:26702046

  11. Ceramic regenerator systems development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucinari, C. A.; Rahnke, C. J.; Rao, V. D. N.; Vallance, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Ceramic Regenerator Design and Reliability Program aims to develop ceramic regenerator cores that can be used in passenger car and industrial/truck gas turbine engines. The major cause of failure of early gas turbine regenerators was found to be chemical attack of the ceramic material. Improved materials and design concepts aimed at reducing or eliminating chemical attack were placed on durability test in Ford 707 industrial gas turbine engines late in 1974. Results of 53,065 hours of turbine engine durability testing are described. Two materials, aluminum silicate and magnesium aluminum silicate, show promise. Five aluminum silicate cores attained the durability objective of 10,000 hours at 800 C (1472 F). Another aluminum silicate core shows minimal evidence of chemical attack after 8071 hours at 982 C (1800 F). Results obtained in ceramic material screening tests, aerothermodynamic performance tests, stress analysis, cost studies, and material specifications are included.

  12. Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Nasise, J.E.; Anderson, J.L. ); Naruse, Y. )

    1992-01-01

    A Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS) was added to the existing Tritium Waste Treatment system (TWT) within the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Department of Energy (DOE) no longer allows inventory by difference'' for radioactive wastes that are to be buried. The MSRS was designed and built to comply with this requirement. Within the TWT, water is generated by the catalytic conversion of hydrogen isotopes and removed by molecular sieve trapping prior to release to the environment. Molecular sieve regeneration is required to remove the trapped water and to rejuvenate the beds. The MSRS permits the collection and direct tritium assay of regenerated tritiated water from molecular sieve beds. This paper describes the MSRS in detail and how it is interfaced with the TWT.

  13. Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Nasise, J.E.; Anderson, J.L.; Naruse, Y.

    1992-03-01

    A Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS) was added to the existing Tritium Waste Treatment system (TWT) within the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Department of Energy (DOE) no longer allows ``inventory by difference`` for radioactive wastes that are to be buried. The MSRS was designed and built to comply with this requirement. Within the TWT, water is generated by the catalytic conversion of hydrogen isotopes and removed by molecular sieve trapping prior to release to the environment. Molecular sieve regeneration is required to remove the trapped water and to rejuvenate the beds. The MSRS permits the collection and direct tritium assay of regenerated tritiated water from molecular sieve beds. This paper describes the MSRS in detail and how it is interfaced with the TWT.

  14. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  15. Catalyst regeneration with flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes an integrated once through reactor system for regenerating acidic medium pore zeolite olefin or oxygenate feedstock conversion catalyst with flue gas. It comprises in combination: fluid catalytic cracking catalyst regenerator means for providing the flue gas containing oxygen; at least two fixed bed reactor means for containing the zeolite catalyst, the reactor means receivably connected to the regenerator means for alternately receiving the flue gas therefrom; feedstock conduit means connected to the reactor means for alternately transferring the feedstock thereto; conversion product conduit means receivably connected to the reactor means for alternately transferring the product therefrom; flue gas conduit means receivably connected to the reactor means for alternately transferring flue gas therefrom.

  16. An alternative laboratory designed to address ethical concerns associated with traditional TAS2R38 student genotyping.

    PubMed

    LaBonte, Michelle L; Beers, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    The TAS2R38 alleles that code for the PAV/AVI T2R38 proteins have long been viewed as benign taste receptor variants. However, recent studies have demonstrated an expanding and medically relevant role for TAS2R38. The AVI variant of T2R38 is associated with an increased risk of both colorectal cancer and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-associated sinus infection and T2R38 variants have been implicated in off-target drug responses. To address ethical concerns associated with continued student TAS2R38 gene testing, we developed an alternative to the traditional laboratory genotyping exercise. Instead of determining their own genotype, introductory level students isolated plasmid DNA containing a section of the human TAS2R38 gene from Escherichia coli. Following PCR-mediated amplification of a section of the TAS2R38 gene spanning the SNP at position 785, students determined their assigned genotype by restriction enzyme digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the course wide genotype and phenotype data, students found that there was an association between TAS2R38 genotype and the age of persistent P. aeruginosa acquisition in cystic fibrosis "patients." Assessment data demonstrated that students taking part in this new TAS2R38 laboratory activity made clear learning gains.

  17. Repression of PLA2R1 by c-MYC and HIF-2alpha promotes cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Vindrieux, David; Devailly, Guillaume; Augert, Arnaud; Calvé, Benjamin Le; Ferrand, Mylène; Pigny, Pascal; Payen, Léa; Lambeau, Gérard; Perrais, Michael; Aubert, Sébastien; Simonnet, Hélène; Dante, Robert; Bernard, David

    2014-01-01

    Loss of secreted phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) has recently been found to render human primary cells more resistant to senescence whereas increased PLA2R1 expression is able to induce cell cycle arrest, cancer cell death or blockage of cancer cell transformation in vitro, suggesting that PLA2R1 displays tumor suppressive activities. Here we report that PLA2R1 expression strongly decreases in samples of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Knockdown of PLA2R1 increases renal cancer cell tumorigenicity supporting a role of PLA2R1 loss to promote in vivo RCC growth. Most RCC result from Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor loss-of-function and subsequent gain-of-function of the oncogenic HIF-2alpha/c-MYC pathway. Here, by genetically manipulating VHL, HIF-2alpha and c-MYC, we demonstrate that loss of VHL, stabilization of HIF-2alpha and subsequent increased c-MYC activity, binding and transcriptional repression, through induction of PLA2R1 DNA methylation closed to PLA2R1 transcriptional start site, results in decreased PLA2R1 transcription. Our results describe for the first time an oncogenic pathway leading to PLA2R1 transcriptional repression and the importance of this repression for tumor growth. PMID:24657971

  18. Ceramic regenerator systems development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J. A.; Fucinari, C. A.; Lingscheit, J. N.; Rahnke, C. J.; Rao, V. D.

    1978-01-01

    Ceramic regenerator cores are considered that can be used in passenger car gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, and industrial/truck gas turbine engines. Improved materials and design concepts aimed at reducing or eliminating chemical attack were placed on durability tests/in industrial gas turbine engines. A regenerator core made from aluminum silicate shows minimal evidence of chemical attack damage after 7804 hours of engine test at 800 C and another showed little distress after 4983 hours at 982 C. The results obtained in ceramic material screening tests, aerothermodynamic performance tests, stress analysis, cost studies, and material specifications are also included.

  19. Modifying lipid rafts promotes regeneration and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Tassew, Nardos G; Mothe, Andrea J; Shabanzadeh, Alireza P; Banerjee, Paromita; Koeberle, Paulo D; Bremner, Rod; Tator, Charles H; Monnier, Philippe P

    2014-08-21

    Ideal strategies to ameliorate CNS damage should promote both neuronal survival and axon regeneration. The receptor Neogenin promotes neuronal apoptosis. Its ligand prevents death, but the resulting repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa)-Neogenin interaction also inhibits axonal growth, countering any prosurvival benefits. Here, we explore strategies to inhibit Neogenin, thus simultaneously enhancing survival and regeneration. We show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and RGMa-dependent recruitment of Neogenin into lipid rafts requires an interaction between RGMa and Neogenin subdomains. RGMa or Neogenin peptides that prevent this interaction, BMP inhibition by Noggin, or reduction of membrane cholesterol all block Neogenin raft localization, promote axon outgrowth, and prevent neuronal apoptosis. Blocking Neogenin raft association influences axonal pathfinding, enhances survival in the developing CNS, and promotes survival and regeneration in the injured adult optic nerve and spinal cord. Moreover, lowering cholesterol disrupts rafts and restores locomotor function after spinal cord injury. These data reveal a unified strategy to promote both survival and regeneration in the CNS. PMID:25127134

  20. Regulation of crustacean molting and regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, D.M.; Graham, D.E.; Holland, C.A.; Soumoff, C.; Mykles, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The regulation of molting and regeneration by two antagonistic hormones is discussed. The time course of ecdysteroid titers in crustacean tissues has been followed during molt and regeneration cycles. (ACR)

  1. A model regenerator for a Stirling cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carolan, James

    2001-05-01

    An essential feature of the engine patented by Robert Stirling in 1817 was the careful description of the idea of regeneration. In the standard thermodynamic cycle representation of the engine, regeneration is the storing and the reusing of the thermal energy released in the constant volume cooling part of the cycle. Due to the difficulty in treating regeneration quantitatively, introductory physics texts generally either ignore the concept or assume the regeneration to be perfect. As a result students obtain little or no understanding of regeneration. In addition there seem to be differing views in various texts about the efficiency of Stirling engines. In this work a simple finite element model regenerator is presented with which one can do simple calculations. The model does not accurately represent actual regeneration in a practical engine. But the model might help students gain better insight into Stirling engine efficiency and the idea of regeneration.

  2. Glugacon-like peptide-2: broad receptor expression, limited therapeutic effect on intestinal inflammation and novel role in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    El-Jamal, Noura; Erdual, Edmone; Neunlist, Michel; Koriche, Dine; Dubuquoy, Caroline; Maggiotto, Francois; Chevalier, Julien; Berrebi, Dominique; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Boulanger, Eric; Cortot, Antoine; Desreumaux, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    The glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is an intestinotrophic hormone with growth promoting and anti-inflammatory actions. However, the full biological functions of GLP-2 and the localization of its receptor (GLP-2R) remain controversial. Among cell lines tested, the expression of GLP-2R transcript was detected in human colonic myofibroblasts (CCD-18Co) and in primary culture of rat enteric nervous system but not in intestinal epithelial cell lines, lymphocytes, monocytes, or endothelial cells. Surprisingly, GLP-2R was expressed in murine (GLUTag), but not human (NCI-H716) enteroendocrine cells. The screening of GLP-2R mRNA in mice organs revealed an increasing gradient of GLP-2R toward the distal gut. An unexpected expression was detected in the mesenteric fat, mesenteric lymph nodes, bladder, spleen, and liver, particularly in hepatocytes. In two mice models of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)- and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, the colonic expression of GLP-2R mRNA was decreased by 60% compared with control mice. Also, GLP-2R mRNA was significantly downregulated in intestinal tissues of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Therapeutically, GLP-2 showed a weak restorative effect on intestinal inflammation during TNBS-induced colitis as assessed by macroscopic score and inflammatory markers. Finally, GLP-2 treatment accelerated mouse liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy as assessed by histological and molecular analyses. In conclusion, the limited therapeutic effect of GLP-2 on colonic inflammation dampens its utility in the management of severe inflammatory intestinal disorders. However, the role of GLP-2 in liver regeneration is a novelty that might introduce GLP-2 into the management of liver diseases and emphasizes on the importance of elucidating other extraintestinal functions of GLP-2. PMID:24875097

  3. Cryogenic regenerator including sarancarbon heat conduction matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Petrick, S. Walter (Inventor); Britcliffe, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A saran carbon matrix is employed to conduct heat through the heat storing volume of a cryogenic regenerator. When helium is adsorbed into the saran carbon matrix, the combination exhibits a volumetric specific heat much higher than previously used lead balls. A helium adsorbed saran regenerator should allow much lower refrigerator temperatures than those practically obtainable with lead based regenerators for regenerator type refrigeration systems.

  4. Patterned substrates and methods for nerve regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Heath, Carole; Shanks, Howard; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija

    2004-01-13

    Micropatterned substrates and methods for fabrication of artificial nerve regeneration conduits and methods for regenerating nerves are provided. Guidance compounds or cells are seeded in grooves formed on the patterned substrate. The substrates may also be provided with electrodes to provide electrical guidance cues to the regenerating nerve. The micropatterned substrates give physical, chemical, cellular and/or electrical guidance cues to promote nerve regeneration at the cellular level.

  5. Spectroscopic investigations and ab initio computations of the dye Chromotrope 2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehalatha, M.; Ravikumar, C.; Hubert Joe, I.

    2009-07-01

    Detailed analysis of the NIR FT-Raman, FT-IR and UV-visible spectra of the dye Chromotrope 2R (C2R) has been performed. The optimized geometry of the dye is theoretically computed with the HF and DFT levels using the standard 6-31G(d) and LANL2DZ basis sets. Optimized geometry and vibrational spectra indicate that the major species in the solid state are the trans form of hydrogen bonded hydrazone tautomer. The effect of H-bonding in stabilizing a particular type of structure is also discussed. The most preferred trans-configuration for its photochemical activity has been demonstrated on the basis of torsional potential energy surface (PES) scan studies. The optimized geometries and calculated vibrational wavenumbers are evaluated via comparison with experimental values. Electronic spectra are in accordance with the nature of the electronic transitions predicted by time-dependent B3LYP/DZ calculations.

  6. Electrostatic Fluxes and Plasma Rotation in the Edge Region of EXTRAP-T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bergsåker, H.; Brunsell, P.; Drake, J. R.; Spolaore, M.; Sätherblom, H. E.; Vianello, N.

    2001-10-01

    The EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch has undergone a significant reconstruction into the new T2R device. This paper reports the first measurements performed with Langmuir probes in the edge region of EXTRAP-T2R. The radial profiles of plasma parameters like electron density and temperature, plasma potential, electrical fields and electrostatic turbulence-driven particle flux are presented. These profiles are interpreted in a momentum balance model where finite Larmor radius losses occur over a distance of about two Larmor radii from the limiter position. The double shear layer of the E×B drift velocity is discussed in terms of the Biglari-Diamond-Terry theory of turbulence decorrelation.

  7. Multitasking case study on the Cray-2: The Q2R cellular automaton

    SciTech Connect

    Zabolitzky, J.G.; Herrmann, H.J.

    1988-06-01

    The Q2R cellular automation which may be used for microcanonical simulation of the Ising model is implemented in parallel on the four processors of a Cray-2 supercomputer. The simulation speed is 4.3 GHz as opposed to 670 MHz for the previously fastest reported implementation using one processor of a Cray--XMP. We also simulated the largest Ising system ever studied, 15, 130, 968, 192 spins. A number of subtleties in implementing and optimizing the parallel algorithm are discussed, as well as problems in defining performance measurements. Performance and results from the Q2R algorithm are compared to those from the standard Metropolis algorithm, and a number of dynamic exponents are measured for the first time. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  8. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Collaborative Development of Linked Data for Oceanographic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Stocks, Karen; Smith, Shawn; Clark, Paul; Shepherd, Adam; Moore, Carla; Beaulieu, Stace

    2013-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from U.S. academic oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. The entire R2R Catalog is published online as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage discovery and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by publishing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation; 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to journal articles and global syntheses, by publishing Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for datasets and encoding them directly into our Linked Data resources; and 3.) We facilitate federation with other repositories such as the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO), InterRidge Vents Database, and Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS), by reciprocal linking between RDF resources and supporting the RDF Query Language. R2R participates in the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), a joint European-U.S.-Australian partnership to facilitate the sharing of data and documentation across international borders. We publish our controlled vocabularies as a Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concept collection, and are working toward alignment with SeaDataNet and other community-standard terms using the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). http://rvdata.us/

  9. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

  10. Cholinergic chemosensory cells of the thymic medulla express the bitter receptor Tas2r131.

    PubMed

    Soultanova, Aichurek; Voigt, Anja; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Boehm, Ulrich; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    The thymus is the site of T cell maturation which includes positive selection in the cortex and negative selection in the medulla. Acetylcholine is locally produced in the thymus and cholinergic signaling influences the T cell development. We recently described a distinct subset of medullary epithelial cells in the murine thymus which express the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and components of the canonical taste transduction cascade, i.e. transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), phospholipase Cβ(2), and Gα-gustducin. Such a chemical phenotype is characteristic for chemosensory cells of mucosal surfaces which utilize bitter receptors for detection of potentially hazardous compounds and cholinergic signaling to initiate avoidance reflexes. We here demonstrate mRNA expression of bitter receptors Tas2r105, Tas2r108, and Tas2r131 in the murine thymus. Using a Tas2r131-tauGFP reporter mouse we localized the expression of this receptor to cholinergic cells expressing the downstream elements of the taste transduction pathway. These cells are distinct from the medullary thymic epithelial cells which promiscuously express tissue-restricted self-antigens during the process of negative selection, since double-labeling immunofluorescence showed no colocalization of autoimmune regulator (AIRE), the key mediator of negative selection, and TRPM5. These data demonstrate the presence of bitter taste-sensing signaling in cholinergic epithelial cells in the thymic medulla and opens a discussion as to what is the physiological role of this pathway.

  11. Low expression of D2R and Wntless correlates with high motivation for heroin.

    PubMed

    Tacelosky, Diana M; Alexander, Danielle N; Morse, Megan; Hajnal, Andras; Berg, Arthur; Levenson, Robert; Grigson, Patricia S

    2015-12-01

    Drug overdose now exceeds car accidents as the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. Of those drug overdoses, a large percentage of the deaths are due to heroin and/or pharmaceutical overdose, specifically misuse of prescription opioid analgesics. It is imperative, then, that we understand the mechanisms that lead to opioid abuse and addiction. The rewarding actions of opioids are mediated largely by the mu-opioid receptor (MOR), and signaling by this receptor is modulated by various interacting proteins. The neurotransmitter dopamine also contributes to opioid reward, and opioid addiction has been linked to reduced expression of dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the brain. That said, it is not known if alterations in the expression of these proteins relate to drug exposure and/or to the "addiction-like" behavior exhibited for the drug. Here, we held total drug self-administration constant across acquisition and showed that reduced expression of the D2R and the MOR interacting protein, Wntless, in the medial prefrontal cortex was associated with greater addiction-like behavior for heroin in general and with a greater willingness to work for the drug in particular. In contrast, reduced expression of the D2R in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus was correlated with greater seeking during signaled nonavailability of the drug. Taken together, these data link reduced expression of both the D2R and Wntless to the explicit motivation for the drug rather than to differences in total drug intake per se.

  12. Low expression of D2R and Wntless correlates with high motivation for heroin.

    PubMed

    Tacelosky, Diana M; Alexander, Danielle N; Morse, Megan; Hajnal, Andras; Berg, Arthur; Levenson, Robert; Grigson, Patricia S

    2015-12-01

    Drug overdose now exceeds car accidents as the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. Of those drug overdoses, a large percentage of the deaths are due to heroin and/or pharmaceutical overdose, specifically misuse of prescription opioid analgesics. It is imperative, then, that we understand the mechanisms that lead to opioid abuse and addiction. The rewarding actions of opioids are mediated largely by the mu-opioid receptor (MOR), and signaling by this receptor is modulated by various interacting proteins. The neurotransmitter dopamine also contributes to opioid reward, and opioid addiction has been linked to reduced expression of dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the brain. That said, it is not known if alterations in the expression of these proteins relate to drug exposure and/or to the "addiction-like" behavior exhibited for the drug. Here, we held total drug self-administration constant across acquisition and showed that reduced expression of the D2R and the MOR interacting protein, Wntless, in the medial prefrontal cortex was associated with greater addiction-like behavior for heroin in general and with a greater willingness to work for the drug in particular. In contrast, reduced expression of the D2R in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus was correlated with greater seeking during signaled nonavailability of the drug. Taken together, these data link reduced expression of both the D2R and Wntless to the explicit motivation for the drug rather than to differences in total drug intake per se. PMID:26501177

  13. Cholinergic chemosensory cells of the thymic medulla express the bitter receptor Tas2r131.

    PubMed

    Soultanova, Aichurek; Voigt, Anja; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Boehm, Ulrich; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    The thymus is the site of T cell maturation which includes positive selection in the cortex and negative selection in the medulla. Acetylcholine is locally produced in the thymus and cholinergic signaling influences the T cell development. We recently described a distinct subset of medullary epithelial cells in the murine thymus which express the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and components of the canonical taste transduction cascade, i.e. transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), phospholipase Cβ(2), and Gα-gustducin. Such a chemical phenotype is characteristic for chemosensory cells of mucosal surfaces which utilize bitter receptors for detection of potentially hazardous compounds and cholinergic signaling to initiate avoidance reflexes. We here demonstrate mRNA expression of bitter receptors Tas2r105, Tas2r108, and Tas2r131 in the murine thymus. Using a Tas2r131-tauGFP reporter mouse we localized the expression of this receptor to cholinergic cells expressing the downstream elements of the taste transduction pathway. These cells are distinct from the medullary thymic epithelial cells which promiscuously express tissue-restricted self-antigens during the process of negative selection, since double-labeling immunofluorescence showed no colocalization of autoimmune regulator (AIRE), the key mediator of negative selection, and TRPM5. These data demonstrate the presence of bitter taste-sensing signaling in cholinergic epithelial cells in the thymic medulla and opens a discussion as to what is the physiological role of this pathway. PMID:26102274

  14. A Subset of Mouse Colonic Goblet Cells Expresses the Bitter Taste Receptor Tas2r131

    PubMed Central

    Prandi, Simone; Bromke, Marta; Hübner, Sandra; Voigt, Anja; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Behrens, Maik

    2013-01-01

    The concept that gut nutrient sensing involves taste receptors has been fueled by recent reports associating the expression of taste receptors and taste-associated signaling molecules in the gut and in gut-derived cell lines with physiological responses induced by known taste stimuli. However, for bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs), direct evidence for their functional role in gut physiology is scarce and their cellular expression pattern remained unknown. We therefore investigated Tas2r expression in mice. RT-PCR experiments assessed the presence of mRNA for Tas2rs and taste signaling molecules in the gut. A gene-targeted mouse strain was established to visualize and identify cell types expressing the bitter receptor Tas2r131. Messenger RNA for various Tas2rs and taste signaling molecules were detected by RT-PCR in the gut. Using our knock-in mouse strain we demonstrate that a subset of colonic goblet cells express Tas2r131. Cells that express this receptor are absent in the upper gut and do not correspond to enteroendocrine and brush cells. Expression in colonic goblet cells is consistent with a role of Tas2rs in defense mechanisms against potentially harmful xenobiotics. PMID:24367558

  15. Antiausterity activity of arctigenin enantiomers: importance of (2R,3R)-absolute configuration.

    PubMed

    Awale, Suresh; Kato, Mamoru; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Li, Feng; Miyoshi, Chika; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    From a MeOH extract of powdered roots of Wikstroemia indica, six dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration [(+)-arctigenin (1), (+)-matairesinol (2), (+)-trachelogenin (3), (+)-nortrachelogenin (4), (+)-hinokinin (5), and (+)-kusunokinin (6)] were isolated, whereas three dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration [(-)-arctigenin (1*), (-)-matairesinol (2*), (-)-trachelogenin (3*)] were isolated from Trachelospermum asiaticum. The in vitro preferential cytotoxic activity of the nine compounds was evaluated against human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM), but none of the six lignans (1-6) with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration showed preferential cytotoxicity. On the other hand, three lignans (1*-3*) with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration exhibited preferential cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner with PC50 values of 0.54, 6.82, and 5.85 microM, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of (-)- and (+)-arctigenin was evaluated against the activation of Akt, which is a key process in the tolerance to nutrition starvation. Interestingly, only (-)-arctigenin (1*) strongly suppressed the activation of Akt. These results indicate that the (2R,3R)-absolute configuration of (-)-enantiomers should be required for the preferential cytotoxicity through the inhibition of Akt activation.

  16. Antiausterity activity of arctigenin enantiomers: importance of (2R,3R)-absolute configuration.

    PubMed

    Awale, Suresh; Kato, Mamoru; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Li, Feng; Miyoshi, Chika; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    From a MeOH extract of powdered roots of Wikstroemia indica, six dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration [(+)-arctigenin (1), (+)-matairesinol (2), (+)-trachelogenin (3), (+)-nortrachelogenin (4), (+)-hinokinin (5), and (+)-kusunokinin (6)] were isolated, whereas three dibenzyl-gamma-butyrolactone-type lignans with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration [(-)-arctigenin (1*), (-)-matairesinol (2*), (-)-trachelogenin (3*)] were isolated from Trachelospermum asiaticum. The in vitro preferential cytotoxic activity of the nine compounds was evaluated against human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium (NDM), but none of the six lignans (1-6) with (2S,3S)-absolute configuration showed preferential cytotoxicity. On the other hand, three lignans (1*-3*) with (2R,3R)-absolute configuration exhibited preferential cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner with PC50 values of 0.54, 6.82, and 5.85 microM, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of (-)- and (+)-arctigenin was evaluated against the activation of Akt, which is a key process in the tolerance to nutrition starvation. Interestingly, only (-)-arctigenin (1*) strongly suppressed the activation of Akt. These results indicate that the (2R,3R)-absolute configuration of (-)-enantiomers should be required for the preferential cytotoxicity through the inhibition of Akt activation. PMID:24660468

  17. Screening Effect of Plasma Flow on RMP Penetration in EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, Lorenzo; Olofsson, Erik; Brunsell, Per; Menmuir, Sheena; Drake, James

    2011-10-01

    The penetration of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) can be screened by plasma flow and the understanding of this phenomenon is important for ELM mitigation techniques. This work studies the screening effect in EXTRAP T2R. EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a feedback system able to suppress all error fields and to produce one or more external perturbations in a controlled fashion. The EXTRAP T2R feedback system is used to generate a RMP that interacts with the dynamics of its corresponding tearing mode (TM). The level of RMP penetration is quantified by analyzing the RMP effect on the TM amplitude and velocity. To study the screening effect, the flow is changed by applying a second perturbation that is non resonant (non-RMP). This produces the flow reduction without perturbing significantly the other parameters. By modifying the amplitude of the non-RMP, an experimental study of the flow effect on the RMP penetration is performed. Experimental results are compared with the model described in [Fitzpatrick R et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 4489 (2001)].

  18. MHD control experiments in the Extrap T2R Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrelli, L.; Bolzonella, T.; Brunsell, P.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.; Franz, P.; Gregoratto, D.; Manduchi, G.; Martin, P.; Ortolani, S.; Paccagnella, R.; Piovesan, P.; Spizzo, G.; Yadikin, D.; Zanca, P.

    2004-11-01

    We report here on MHD active control experiments performed in the Extrap T2R device, which has been recently equipped with a set of 32 feedback controlled saddle coils couples. Experiments aiming at selectively exciting a resonant resistive instability in order to actively induce Quasi Single Helicity states will be presented. Open loop experiments have in fact shown that a spectrum with one dominant mode can be excited in a high aspect ratio device like T2R. In addition, evidences of controlled braking of tearing modes, which spontaneously rotate in T2R, have been gathered, allowing the determination of a threshold for mode wall locking. Different feedback control schemes have been implemented. In particular, mode suppression schemes proved successful in delaying resistive wall modes growth and in increasing the discharge duration: this suggests a hybrid mode control scenario, in which RWM are suppressed and QSH is induced. Radiation imaging and internal magnetic field reconstructions performed with the ORBIT code will be presented.

  19. Advanced feedback control methods in EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadikin, D.; Brunsell, P. R.; Paccagnella, R.

    2006-07-01

    Previous experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch device have shown the possibility of suppression of multiple resistive wall modes (RWM). A feedback system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R having 100% coverage of the toroidal surface by the active coil array. Predictions based on theory and the previous experimental results show that the number of active coils should be sufficient for independent stabilization of all unstable RWMs in the EXTRAP T2R. Experiments using different feedback schemes are performed, comparing the intelligent shell, the fake rotating shell, and the mode control with complex feedback gains. Stabilization of all unstable RWMs throughout the discharge duration of td≈10τw is seen using the intelligent shell feedback scheme. Mode rotation and the control of selected Fourier harmonics is obtained simultaneously using the mode control scheme with complex gains. Different sensor signals are studied. A feedback system with toroidal magnetic field sensors could have an advantage of lower feedback gain needed for the RWM suppression compared to the system with radial magnetic field sensors. In this study, RWM suppression is demonstrated, using also the toroidal field component as a sensor signal in the feedback system.

  20. Regeneration: New Neurons Wire Up.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Pamela A

    2016-09-12

    Functional repair of damage in the nervous system requires re-establishment of precise patterns of synaptic connectivity. A new study shows that after selective ablation, zebrafish retinal neurons regenerate and reconstruct some, although not all, of their stereotypic wiring. PMID:27623258

  1. Stem cells and kidney regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Pan, Szu-Yu; Yang, Chian-Huei; Lin, Shuei-Liong

    2014-04-01

    Kidney disease is an escalating burden all over the world. In addition to preventing kidney injury, regenerating damaged renal tissue is as important as to retard the progression of chronic kidney disease to end stage renal disease. Although the kidney is a delicate organ and has only limited regenerative capacity compared to the other organs, an increasing understanding of renal development and renal reprogramming has kindled the prospects of regenerative options for kidney disease. Here, we will review the advances in the kidney regeneration including the manipulation of renal tubular cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages in renal disease. Several types of stem cells, such as bone marrow-derived cells, adipocyte-derived mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells are also applied for renal regeneration. Endogenous or lineage reprogrammed renal progenitor cells represent an attractive possibility for differentiation into multiple renal cell types. Angiogenesis can ameliorate hypoxia and renal fibrosis. Based on these studies and knowledge, we hope to innovate more reliable pharmacological or biotechnical methods for kidney regeneration medicine.

  2. Stem Cells and Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    DUNCAN, ANDREW W.; DORRELL, CRAIG; GROMPE, MARKUS

    2011-01-01

    One of the defining features of the liver is the capacity to maintain a constant size despite injury. Although the precise molecular signals involved in the maintenance of liver size are not completely known, it is clear that the liver delicately balances regeneration with overgrowth. Mammals, for example, can survive surgical removal of up to 75% of the total liver mass. Within 1 week after liver resection, the total number of liver cells is restored. Moreover, liver overgrowth can be induced by a variety of signals, including hepatocyte growth factor or peroxisome proliferators; the liver quickly returns to its normal size when the proliferative signal is removed. The extent to which liver stem cells mediate liver regeneration has been hotly debated. One of the primary reasons for this controversy is the use of multiple definitions for the hepatic stem cell. Definitions for the liver stem cell include the following: (1) cells responsible for normal tissue turnover, (2) cells that give rise to regeneration after partial hepatectomy, (3) cells responsible for progenitor-dependent regeneration, (4) cells that produce hepatocyte and bile duct epithelial phenotypes in vitro, and (5) transplantable liver-repopulating cells. This review will consider liver stem cells in the context of each definition. PMID:19470389

  3. Increasing FCC regenerator catalyst level

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.F. )

    1993-11-01

    A Peruvian FCC unit's operations were improved by increasing the regenerator's catalyst level. This increase resulted in lower stack losses, an improved temperature profile, increased catalyst activity and a lower catalyst consumption rate. A more stable operation saved this Peruvian refiner over $131,000 per year in catalyst alone. These concepts and data may be suitable for your FCC unit as well.

  4. Aging and regeneration in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sousounis, Konstantinos; Baddour, Joelle A; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2014-01-01

    Aging is marked by changes that affect organs and resident stem cell function. Shorting of telomeres, DNA damage, oxidative stress, deregulation of genes and proteins, impaired cell-cell communication, and an altered systemic environment cause the eventual demise of cells. At the same time, reparative activities also decline. It is intriguing to correlate aging with the decline of regenerative abilities. Animal models with strong regenerative capabilities imply that aging processes might not be affecting regeneration. In this review, we selectively present age-dependent changes in stem/progenitor cells that are vital for tissue homeostasis and repair. In addition, the aging effect on regeneration following injury in organs such as lung, skeletal muscle, heart, nervous system, cochlear hair, lens, and liver are discussed. These tissues are also known for diseases such as heart attack, stroke, cognitive impairment, cataract, and hearing loss that occur mostly during aging in humans. Conclusively, vertebrate regeneration declines with age with the loss of stem/progenitor cell function. Future studies on improving the function of stem cells, along with studies in fish and amphibians where regeneration does not decline with age, will undoubtedly provide insights into both processes. PMID:24512711

  5. Identification of 2R-ohnologue gene families displaying the same mutation-load skew in multiple cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tinti, Michele; Dissanayake, Kumara; Synowsky, Silvia; Albergante, Luca; MacKintosh, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of signalling pathways was boosted at the origin of the vertebrates, when two rounds of whole genome duplication (2R-WGD) occurred. Those genes and proteins that have survived from the 2R-WGD—termed 2R-ohnologues—belong to families of two to four members, and are enriched in signalling components relevant to cancer. Here, we find that while only approximately 30% of human transcript-coding genes are 2R-ohnologues, they carry 42–60% of the gene mutations in 30 different cancer types. Across a subset of cancer datasets, including melanoma, breast, lung adenocarcinoma, liver and medulloblastoma, we identified 673 2R-ohnologue families in which one gene carries mutations at multiple positions, while sister genes in the same family are relatively mutation free. Strikingly, in 315 of the 322 2R-ohnologue families displaying such a skew in multiple cancers, the same gene carries the heaviest mutation load in each cancer, and usually the second-ranked gene is also the same in each cancer. Our findings inspire the hypothesis that in certain cancers, heterogeneous combinations of genetic changes impair parts of the 2R-WGD signalling networks and force information flow through a limited set of oncogenic pathways in which specific non-mutated 2R-ohnologues serve as effectors. The non-mutated 2R-ohnologues are therefore potential therapeutic targets. These include proteins linked to growth factor signalling, neurotransmission and ion channels. PMID:24806839

  6. Identification of 2R-ohnologue gene families displaying the same mutation-load skew in multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Tinti, Michele; Dissanayake, Kumara; Synowsky, Silvia; Albergante, Luca; MacKintosh, Carol

    2014-05-01

    The complexity of signalling pathways was boosted at the origin of the vertebrates, when two rounds of whole genome duplication (2R-WGD) occurred. Those genes and proteins that have survived from the 2R-WGD—termed 2R-ohnologues—belong to families of two to four members, and are enriched in signalling components relevant to cancer. Here, we find that while only approximately 30% of human transcript-coding genes are 2R-ohnologues, they carry 42–60% of the gene mutations in 30 different cancer types. Across a subset of cancer datasets, including melanoma, breast, lung adenocarcinoma, liver and medulloblastoma, we identified 673 2R-ohnologue families in which one gene carries mutations at multiple positions, while sister genes in the same family are relatively mutation free. Strikingly, in 315 of the 322 2R-ohnologue families displaying such a skew in multiple cancers, the same gene carries the heaviest mutation load in each cancer, and usually the second-ranked gene is also the same in each cancer. Our findings inspire the hypothesis that in certain cancers, heterogeneous combinations of genetic changes impair parts of the 2R-WGD signalling networks and force information flow through a limited set of oncogenic pathways in which specific non-mutated 2R-ohnologues serve as effectors. The non-mutated 2R-ohnologues are therefore potential therapeutic targets. These include proteins linked to growth factor signalling, neurotransmission and ion channels.

  7. Identification of 2R-ohnologue gene families displaying the same mutation-load skew in multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Tinti, Michele; Dissanayake, Kumara; Synowsky, Silvia; Albergante, Luca; MacKintosh, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of signalling pathways was boosted at the origin of the vertebrates, when two rounds of whole genome duplication (2R-WGD) occurred. Those genes and proteins that have survived from the 2R-WGD-termed 2R-ohnologues-belong to families of two to four members, and are enriched in signalling components relevant to cancer. Here, we find that while only approximately 30% of human transcript-coding genes are 2R-ohnologues, they carry 42-60% of the gene mutations in 30 different cancer types. Across a subset of cancer datasets, including melanoma, breast, lung adenocarcinoma, liver and medulloblastoma, we identified 673 2R-ohnologue families in which one gene carries mutations at multiple positions, while sister genes in the same family are relatively mutation free. Strikingly, in 315 of the 322 2R-ohnologue families displaying such a skew in multiple cancers, the same gene carries the heaviest mutation load in each cancer, and usually the second-ranked gene is also the same in each cancer. Our findings inspire the hypothesis that in certain cancers, heterogeneous combinations of genetic changes impair parts of the 2R-WGD signalling networks and force information flow through a limited set of oncogenic pathways in which specific non-mutated 2R-ohnologues serve as effectors. The non-mutated 2R-ohnologues are therefore potential therapeutic targets. These include proteins linked to growth factor signalling, neurotransmission and ion channels.

  8. Pre- and Postsynaptic Role of Dopamine D2 Receptor DD2R in Drosophila Olfactory Associative Learning.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cheng; Lee, Daewoo

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila play critical roles in diverse brain functions such as motor control, arousal, learning, and memory. Using genetic and behavioral approaches, it has been firmly established that proper dopamine signaling is required for olfactory classical conditioning (e.g., aversive and appetitive learning). Dopamine mediates its functions through interaction with its receptors. There are two different types of dopamine receptors in Drosophila: D1-like (dDA1, DAMB) and D2-like receptors (DD2R). Currently, no study has attempted to characterize the role of DD2R in Drosophila learning and memory. Using a DD2R-RNAi transgenic line, we have examined the role of DD2R, expressed in dopamine neurons (i.e., the presynaptic DD2R autoreceptor), in larval olfactory learning. The function of postsynaptic DD2R expressed in mushroom body (MB) was also studied as MB is the center for Drosophila learning, with a function analogous to that of the mammalian hippocampus. Our results showed that suppression of presynaptic DD2R autoreceptors impairs both appetitive and aversive learning. Similarly, postsynaptic DD2R in MB neurons appears to be involved in both appetitive and aversive learning. The data confirm, for the first time, that DD2R plays an important role in Drosophila olfactory learning. PMID:25422852

  9. Anti-PLA2R-associated membranous nephropathy: a review with emphasis on diagnostic testing methods.

    PubMed

    VanBeek, Christine; Haas, Mark

    2015-07-01

    The majority of cases of primary membranous nephropathy (MN) are associated with auto-antibodies against the podocyte antigen M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R). This particular subset of MN can be diagnosed by identifying anti-PLA2R within patient sera or by detecting PLA2R antigen within glomerular immune complexes in renal biopsy tissue. Since the discovery of anti-PLA2R in 2009, there has been an abundance of literature regarding PLA2R testing as a tool in the diagnosis and management of MN, and these tests are increasingly being implemented in clinical practice. However, questions still remain about a variety of issues such as PLA2R testing in the setting of presumably secondary MN and the significance of PLA2R negative primary MN. The goal of this review is to summarize the current PLA2R testing methods and highlight special features of anti- PLA2R-associated MN.

  10. Pre- and Postsynaptic Role of Dopamine D2 Receptor DD2R in Drosophila Olfactory Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Cheng; Lee, Daewoo

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila play critical roles in diverse brain functions such as motor control, arousal, learning, and memory. Using genetic and behavioral approaches, it has been firmly established that proper dopamine signaling is required for olfactory classical conditioning (e.g., aversive and appetitive learning). Dopamine mediates its functions through interaction with its receptors. There are two different types of dopamine receptors in Drosophila: D1-like (dDA1, DAMB) and D2-like receptors (DD2R). Currently, no study has attempted to characterize the role of DD2R in Drosophila learning and memory. Using a DD2R-RNAi transgenic line, we have examined the role of DD2R, expressed in dopamine neurons (i.e., the presynaptic DD2R autoreceptor), in larval olfactory learning. The function of postsynaptic DD2R expressed in mushroom body (MB) was also studied as MB is the center for Drosophila learning, with a function analogous to that of the mammalian hippocampus. Our results showed that suppression of presynaptic DD2R autoreceptors impairs both appetitive and aversive learning. Similarly, postsynaptic DD2R in MB neurons appears to be involved in both appetitive and aversive learning. The data confirm, for the first time, that DD2R plays an important role in Drosophila olfactory learning. PMID:25422852

  11. Spontaneous Regeneration of Human Photoreceptor Outer Segments.

    PubMed

    Horton, Jonathan C; Parker, Alicia B; Botelho, James V; Duncan, Jacque L

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptors are damaged in many common eye diseases, such as macular degeneration, retinal detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa. The development of methods to promote the repair or replacement of affected photoreceptors is a major goal of vision research. In this context, it would be useful to know whether photoreceptors are capable of undergoing some degree of spontaneous regeneration after injury. We report a subject who lost retinal function in a wide zone around the optic disc, giving rise to massive enlargement of the physiological blind spot. Imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) showed depletion of cone outer segments in the affected retina. A year later visual function had improved, with shrinkage of the enlarged blind spot. AOSLO imaging showed repopulation of cone outer segments, although their density remained below normal. There was a one-to-one match between sites of formerly missing outer segments and new outer segments that had appeared over the course of the year's recovery. This correspondence provided direct morphological evidence that damaged cones are capable, under some circumstances, of generating new outer segments. PMID:26213154

  12. Spontaneous Regeneration of Human Photoreceptor Outer Segments

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Jonathan C.; Parker, Alicia B.; Botelho, James V.; Duncan, Jacque L.

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptors are damaged in many common eye diseases, such as macular degeneration, retinal detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa. The development of methods to promote the repair or replacement of affected photoreceptors is a major goal of vision research. In this context, it would be useful to know whether photoreceptors are capable of undergoing some degree of spontaneous regeneration after injury. We report a subject who lost retinal function in a wide zone around the optic disc, giving rise to massive enlargement of the physiological blind spot. Imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) showed depletion of cone outer segments in the affected retina. A year later visual function had improved, with shrinkage of the enlarged blind spot. AOSLO imaging showed repopulation of cone outer segments, although their density remained below normal. There was a one-to-one match between sites of formerly missing outer segments and new outer segments that had appeared over the course of the year’s recovery. This correspondence provided direct morphological evidence that damaged cones are capable, under some circumstances, of generating new outer segments. PMID:26213154

  13. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Research Cruise Event Logger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Stolp, L.; Dubois, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific event logs, used by the science party to record scientific sampling events that occur during a research cruise, have been used in various ways for decades. An event log is very important for documenting the occurrence of a sampling event and its location, time, relative sequence, and related details. Event logging, done well, can provide important documentation about scientific data collected during a cruise, and enable more efficient use of those data by cruise participants and future researchers. When the resultant event log is a digital data file, with content generated programmatically and controlled by term vocabularies, it becomes an even more valuable addition to the full complement of data sets generated during the cruise. However, such a tool is only effective if it is used. Through field testing, several key factors were identified that encourage the use of such a tool: the ability to customize the tool to represent the science implementation plan, proposed sampling scheme, cruise personnel and instrumentation; the ability to retrieve date, time and location data automatically from the shipboard network and the ability to enter events quickly and from any location on the ship. This presentation provides an overview of both the current version 1 and soon to be released version 2 of the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) research cruise Event Logger system. The R2R Event Logger application is built upon a pre-existing, open-source, weblog product called ELOG (ELOG URL: http://midas.psi.ch/elog/). We provide an oceanographer's view of the full process by which: 1) the R2R Event Logger application is configured and tested to meet the unique needs of a research cruise; 2) the R2R project works with the ship operator to install the Event Logger on the ship designated for the cruise, 3) the Event Logger is configured to automatically retrieve location, time, and other pertinent information from the shipboard network; 4) a copy of the event log file is

  14. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Technical Design - Experiences and Lessons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Miller, S. P.; Chandler, C. L.; Ferrini, V.; Stocks, K.; Maffei, A. R.; Smith, S. R.; Bourassa, M. A.; McLean, S. J.; Alberts, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project envisions the academic research fleet as an integrated global observing system, with routine “underway” sensor data flowing directly from research vessels to a central shore-side repository. It is a complex endeavor involving many stakeholders - technicians at sea, data managers on shore, ship schedulers, clearance officers, funding agencies, National Data Centers, data synthesis projects, the science community, and the public - working toward a common goal of acquiring, documenting, archiving, evaluating, and disseminating high-quality scientific data. The technical design for R2R is guided by several key principles: 1) The data pipeline is modular, so that initial stages (e.g. inventory and review of data shipments, posting of catalog records and track maps) may proceed routinely for every cruise, while later stages (e.g. quality assessment and production of file-level metadata) may proceed at different rates for different data types; 2) Cruise documentation (e.g. sailing orders, review/release of data inventories, vessel profiles) is gathered primarily via an authenticated Web portal, linked with the UNOLS scheduling database to synchronize vocabularies and eliminate redundancies; and 3) Every data set will be documented and delivered to the appropriate National Data Center for long-term archiving and dissemination after proprietary holds are cleared, while R2R maintains a master cruise catalog that links all the data sets together. This design accommodates the diversity of instrument types, data volumes, and shipment schedules among fleet operators. During its pilot development period, R2R has solicited feedback at community workshops, UNOLS meetings, and conference presentations, including fleet-wide surveys of current practices and instrument inventories. Several vessel operators began submitting cruise data and documentation during the pilot, providing a test bed for database development and Web

  15. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor from Epimedium sagittatum regulates the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenjun; Sun, Wei; Lv, Haiyan; Luo, Ming; Zeng, Shaohua; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling; Wang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Herba epimedii (Epimedium), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used as a kidney tonic and antirheumatic medicine for thousands of years. The bioactive components in herba epimedii are mainly prenylated flavonol glycosides, end-products of the flavonoid pathway. Epimedium species are also used as garden plants due to the colorful flowers and leaves. Many R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) have been identified to regulate the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways. However, little is known about the R2R3-MYB TFs involved in regulation of the flavonoid pathway in Epimedium. Here, we reported the isolation and functional characterization of the first R2R3-MYB TF (EsMYBA1) from Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. Et Zucc.) Maxim. Conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis showed that EsMYBA1 belonged to the subgroup 6 clade (anthocyanin-related MYB clade) of R2R3-MYB family, which includes Arabidopsis AtPAP1, apple MdMYB10 and legume MtLAP1. EsMYBA1 was preferentially expressed in leaves, especially in red leaves that contain higher content of anthocyanin. Alternative splicing of EsMYBA1 resulted in three transcripts and two of them encoded a MYB-related protein. Yeast two-hybrid and transient luciferase expression assay showed that EsMYBA1 can interact with several bHLH regulators of the flavonoid pathway and activate the promoters of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). In both transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis, overexpression of EsMYBA1 induced strong anthocyanin accumulation in reproductive and/or vegetative tissues via up-regulation of the main flavonoid-related genes. Furthermore, transient expression of EsMYBA1 in E. sagittatum leaves by Agrobacterium infiltration also induced anthocyanin accumulation in the wounded area. This first functional characterization of R2R3-MYB TFs in Epimedium species will promote further studies of the flavonoid biosynthesis and regulation in medicinal plants. PMID:23936468

  16. Promoting axon regeneration in the adult CNS by modulation of the melanopsin/GPCR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songshan; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xin; Wang, Xuejie; Liu, Wen; Wang, Yuqi; Jiang, Songshan; Wong, Yung Hou; Zhang, Yifeng; Liu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Cell-type–specific G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling regulates distinct neuronal responses to various stimuli and is essential for axon guidance and targeting during development. However, its function in axonal regeneration in the mature CNS remains elusive. We found that subtypes of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in mice maintained high mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) levels after axotomy and that the light-sensitive GPCR melanopsin mediated this sustained expression. Melanopsin overexpression in the RGCs stimulated axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush by up-regulating mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). The extent of the regeneration was comparable to that observed after phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) knockdown. Both the axon regeneration and mTOR activity that were enhanced by melanopsin required light stimulation and Gq/11 signaling. Specifically, activating Gq in RGCs elevated mTOR activation and promoted axonal regeneration. Melanopsin overexpression in RGCs enhanced the amplitude and duration of their light response, and silencing them with Kir2.1 significantly suppressed the increased mTOR signaling and axon regeneration that were induced by melanopsin. Thus, our results provide a strategy to promote axon regeneration after CNS injury by modulating neuronal activity through GPCR signaling. PMID:26831088

  17. Method And Apparatus For Regenerating Nox Adsorbers

    DOEpatents

    Driscoll, J. Joshua; Endicott, Dennis L.; Faulkner, Stephen A.; Verkiel, Maarten

    2006-03-28

    Methods and apparatuses for regenerating a NOx adsorber coupled with an exhaust of an engine. An actuator drives a throttle valve to a first position when regeneration of the NOx adsorber is desired. The first position is a position that causes the regeneration of the NOx adsorber. An actuator drives the throttle valve to a second position while regeneration of the NOx adsorber is still desired. The second position being a position that is more open than the first position and operable to regenerate a NOx adsorber.

  18. Retinal Regeneration is Facilitated by the Presence of Surviving Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sherpa, Tshering; Lankford, Tyler; McGinn, Tim E.; Hunter, Samuel S.; Frey, Ruth A.; Sun, Chi; Ryan, Mariel; Robison, Barrie D.; Stenkamp, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Teleost fish regenerate their retinas after damage, in contrast to mammals. In zebrafish subjected to an extensive ouabain-induced lesion that destroys all neurons and spares Müller glia, functional recovery and restoration of normal optic nerve head (ONH) diameter take place at 100 days post-injury. Subsequently, regenerated retinas overproduce cells in the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer, and the ONH becomes enlarged. Here we test the hypothesis that a selective injury, which spares photoreceptors and Müller glia, results in faster functional recovery and fewer long-term histological abnormalities. Following this selective retinal damage, recovery of visual function required 60 days, consistent with this hypothesis. In contrast to extensively damaged retinas, selectively damaged retinas showed fewer histological errors and did not overproduce neurons. Extensively damaged retinas had RGC axons that were delayed in pathfinding to the ONH, and showed misrouted axons within the ONH, suggesting that delayed functional recovery following an extensive lesion is related to defects in RGC axons exiting the eye and/or reaching their central targets. The atoh7, fgf8a, shha, and netrin-1 genes were differentially expressed, and the distribution of Hh protein was disrupted following extensive damage as compared with selective damage. Confirming a role for Shh signaling in supporting rapid regeneration, shhat4+/− zebrafish showed delayed functional recovery following selective damage. We suggest that surviving retinal neurons provide structural/molecular information to regenerating neurons, and that this patterning mechanism regulates factors such as Shh. These factors in turn control neuronal number, retinal lamination, and RGC axon pathfinding during retinal regeneration. PMID:24488694

  19. Development of parallel wire regenerator for cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes development of a novel regenerator geometry for cryocoolers. Parallel wire type is a wire bundle stacked in parallel with the flow in the housing, which is similar to a conventional parallel plate or tube. Simple and unique fabrication procedure is developed and fully depicted in this paper. Hydrodynamic and thermal experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the parallel wire regenerator. First, pressure drop characteristic of the parallel wire regenerator is compared to that of the screen mesh regenerator. Experimental result shows that the steady flow friction factor of the parallel wire type is three to five times smaller than that of the screen mesh type. Second, thermal ineffectiveness is determined by measuring the instantaneous pressure, the flow rate and the gas temperature at the warm and cold ends of the regenerator. The measured ineffectiveness of the parallel wire regenerator is larger than that of the screen regenerator due to the excessive axial conduction loss. To alleviate the intrinsic axial conduction loss of the parallel wire regenerator, segmentation is introduced and the experimental results reveal the favorable effect of the segmentation. Entropy generation calculation is adopted to compare the total losses between the screen regenerator and the parallel wire regenerator for various operating ranges. Simulation results show that the parallel wire regenerator can be an attractive candidate to improve cryocooler performance especially for the case of smaller NTU and lower cold-end temperature.

  20. 77 FR 33748 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on S2(R1) Genotoxicity Testing and Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ...) Genotoxicity Testing and Data Interpretation for Pharmaceuticals Intended for Human Use; Availability AGENCY... announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``S2(R1) Genotoxicity Testing and Data Interpretation for... Genotoxicity Testing of Pharmaceuticals.'' ICH S2(R1) provides guidance to drug sponsors on which tests...

  1. Genetic Variation in the TAS2R38 Bitter Taste Receptor and Gastric Cancer Risk in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    The human TAS2R38 gene encodes a bitter taste receptor that regulates the bitterness perception and differentiation of ingested nutritional/poisonous compounds in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. TAS2R38 gene variants are associated with alterations in individual sensitivity to bitter taste and food intake; hence, these genetic variants may modify the risk for diet-related diseases, including cancer. However, little is known about the association between TAS2R38 polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility. The present case-control study examined the influence of TAS2R38 polymorphisms on food intake and determined whether they predict gastric cancer risk in Koreans. A total of 1,580 subjects, including 449 gastric cancer cases, were genotyped for TAS2R38 A49P, V262A, I296V and diplotypes. Dietary data were analysed to determine the total consumption of energy, fibre, vegetables, fruits, sweets, fats, alcohol and cigarettes. TAS2R38 diplotype was not associated with food, alcohol or cigarette consumption, either independent or dependent of gastric cancer phenotype. However, the PAV/AVI diplotype significantly increased gastric cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio: 1.513; 95% confidence interval: 1.148–1.994) independent of dietary intake. Findings suggest that TAS2R38 may be associated with the risk for gastric cancer in Koreans, although the TAS2R38 diplotype did not influence dietary intake. PMID:27245112

  2. Bitter taste receptor T2R1 activities were compatible with behavioral sensitivity to bitterness in chickens.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Nozomi; Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2015-05-01

    Clarification of the mechanism of the sense of taste in chickens will provide information useful for creating and improving new feedstuffs for chickens, because the character of the taste receptors in oral tissues affects feeding behavior in animals. In this study, we focused on the sensitivity to bitterness in chickens. We cloned one of the bitter taste receptors, T2R1, from the chicken palate, constructed several biosensor-cells expressing chicken T2R1 (cT2R1), and determined a highly sensitive biosensor of cT2R1 among them. By using Ca(2+) imaging methods, we identified two agonists of cT2R1, dextromethorphan (Dex) and diphenidol (Dip). Dex was a new agonist of cT2R1 that was more potent than Dip. In a behavioral drinking study, the intake volumes of solutions of these compounds were significantly lower than that of water in chickens. These aversive concentrations were identical to the concentrations that could activate cT2R1 in a cell-based assay. These results suggest that the cT2R1 activities induced by these agonists are linked to behavioral sensitivity to bitterness in chickens.

  3. Genetic Variation in the TAS2R38 Bitter Taste Receptor and Gastric Cancer Risk in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    The human TAS2R38 gene encodes a bitter taste receptor that regulates the bitterness perception and differentiation of ingested nutritional/poisonous compounds in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. TAS2R38 gene variants are associated with alterations in individual sensitivity to bitter taste and food intake; hence, these genetic variants may modify the risk for diet-related diseases, including cancer. However, little is known about the association between TAS2R38 polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility. The present case-control study examined the influence of TAS2R38 polymorphisms on food intake and determined whether they predict gastric cancer risk in Koreans. A total of 1,580 subjects, including 449 gastric cancer cases, were genotyped for TAS2R38 A49P, V262A, I296V and diplotypes. Dietary data were analysed to determine the total consumption of energy, fibre, vegetables, fruits, sweets, fats, alcohol and cigarettes. TAS2R38 diplotype was not associated with food, alcohol or cigarette consumption, either independent or dependent of gastric cancer phenotype. However, the PAV/AVI diplotype significantly increased gastric cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio: 1.513; 95% confidence interval: 1.148-1.994) independent of dietary intake. Findings suggest that TAS2R38 may be associated with the risk for gastric cancer in Koreans, although the TAS2R38 diplotype did not influence dietary intake. PMID:27245112

  4. The regeneration capacity of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano—on repeated regeneration, rejuvenation, and the minimal size needed for regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ladurner, P.; Nimeth, K.; Gschwentner, R.; Rieger, R.

    2006-01-01

    The lion’s share of studies on regeneration in Plathelminthes (flatworms) has been so far carried out on a derived taxon of rhabditophorans, the freshwater planarians (Tricladida), and has shown this group’s outstanding regeneration capabilities in detail. Sharing a likely totipotent stem cell system, many other flatworm taxa are capable of regeneration as well. In this paper, we present the regeneration capacity of Macrostomum lignano, a representative of the Macrostomorpha, the basal-most taxon of rhabditophoran flatworms and one of the most basal extant bilaterian protostomes. Amputated or incised transversally, obliquely, and longitudinally at various cutting levels, M. lignano is able to regenerate the anterior-most body part (the rostrum) and any part posterior of the pharynx, but cannot regenerate a head. Repeated regeneration was observed for 29 successive amputations over a period of almost 12 months. Besides adults, also first-day hatchlings and older juveniles were shown to regenerate after transversal cutting. The minimum number of cells required for regeneration in adults (with a total of 25,000 cells) is 4,000, including 160 neoblasts. In hatchlings only 1,500 cells, including 50 neoblasts, are needed for regeneration. The life span of untreated M. lignano was determined to be about 10 months. PMID:16604349

  5. Selection on the human bitter taste gene, TAS2R16, in Eurasian populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Pakstis, Andrew J; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2011-06-01

    Bitter taste is one of the most important senses alerting humans to noxious foods. In gatherer communities, sensitivity to bitterness is presumably advantageous because of various noxious plants. TAS2R16 is the gene coding the taste receptor molecules for some of the most common toxins in plants. A previous study of this gene indicated selection has increased the frequency of a derived allele in this gene that arose before the human expansion out of Africa. We have applied a different methodology for detecting selection, the Long Range Haplotype (LRH) analysis, to TAS2R16 in a larger sampling of populations from around the world. The haplotype with the derived alleles at both the functional polymorphism and a polymorphism in the regulatory region of TAS2R16 showed evidence for recent positive selection in most of the Eurasian populations, though the highest selection signal occurs in Mbuti Pygmies, an African hunter-gatherer group. In Eurasia, only populations of Mesopotamia and the southeast coast of China have no signals of selection. The evidence of recent selection found in most Eurasian populations differs from the geographic pattern seen in the earlier study of selection. One can speculate that the difference may result from a gathering lifestyle extending into the most recent 10,000 yrs and the need to recognize newly encountered bitter natural toxins as populations expanded into new environments and the biota changes with the ending of the most recent ice age. Alternatively, the promoter region variant may be a marker for altered function beyond what the derived amino acid allele conferred. PMID:21740153

  6. Magnetocaloric Effect of RCo2 (R: Er, Ho, Dy) Compounds for Regenerative Magnetic Refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Kouen, Takaaki; Nishida, Ryouhei; Abe, Satoshi; Kamiya, Koji; Numazawa, Takenori

    2006-09-01

    Because of its high density, liquid hydrogen is one of the most promising forms of hydrogen for efficient, economic transport and storage. Magnetic refrigeration, which is based on the magnetocaloric effect of magnetic solids, has the potential to achieve high thermal efficiency and reduce the cost of hydrogen liquefaction. Magnetic properties of some candidate materials among RCo2 (R: rare earth) compounds have been studied. These materials have been found to have large magnetocaloric effects and suitable phase transition temperatures. Because the magnetocaloric effect is large only around the magnetic transition temperature, a series of magnetic materials with carefully designed transition temperatures is required.

  7. Degradation and stability of R2R manufactured polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrman, Kion; Krebs, Frederik C.

    2009-08-01

    Polymer solar cells have many advantages such as light weight, flexibility, environmental friendliness, low thermal budget, low cost and most notably very fast modes of production by printing techniques. Production experiments have shown that it is highly feasible with existing technology to mass produce polymer solar cells at a very low cost. We have employed state-of-the-art analytical techniques to address the challenging issues of degradation and stability of R2R manufactured devices. We have specifically studied the relative effect of oxygen and water on the operational devices in regard to degradation.

  8. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Linking and Integrating Data for Oceanographic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Shepherd, A.; Moore, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. We have published the entire R2R Catalog as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage linking and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by providing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation. We are leveraging or adopting existing community-standard concepts and vocabularies, particularly concepts from the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) ontology and terms from the pan-European SeaDataNet vocabularies, and continually re-publish resources as new concepts and terms are mapped. 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire data lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to (ultimately) global syntheses and journal articles. We are implementing globally unique and persistent identifiers at the collection, dataset, and granule levels, and encoding these citable identifiers directly into the Linked Data resources. 3.) We facilitate linking and integration with other repositories that publish Linked Data collections for the U.S. academic fleet, such as BCO-DMO and the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS). We are initially mapping datasets at the resource level, and plan to eventually implement rule-based mapping at the concept level. We work collaboratively with partner repositories to develop best practices for URI patterns and consensus on shared vocabularies. The R2R Linked Data collection is implemented as a

  9. Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E × B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport.

  10. Genetic Variation in the TAS2R38 Bitter Taste Receptor and Smoking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Davide S.; Kozlitina, Julia; Sainz, Eduardo; Gutierrez, Joanne; Wooding, Stephen; Getachew, Betelihem; Luiselli, Donata; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Common TAS2R38 taste receptor gene variants specify the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and structurally related compounds. Tobacco smoke contains a complex mixture of chemical substances of varying structure and functionality, some of which activate different taste receptors. Accordingly, it has been suggested that non-taster individuals may be more likely to smoke because of their inability to taste bitter compounds present in tobacco smoke, but results to date have been conflicting. We studied three cohorts: 237 European-Americans from the state of Georgia, 1,353 European-Americans and 2,363 African-Americans from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), and 4,973 African-Americans from the Dallas Biobank. Tobacco use data was collected and TAS2R38 polymorphisms were genotyped for all participants, and PTC taste sensitivity was assessed in the Georgia population. In the Georgia group, PTC tasters were less common among those who smoke: 71.5% of smokers were PTC tasters while 82.5% of non-smokers were PTC tasters (P = 0.03). The frequency of the TAS2R38 PAV taster haplotype showed a trend toward being lower in smokers (38.4%) than in non-smokers (43.1%), although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.31). In the DHS European-Americans, the taster haplotype was less common in smokers (37.0% vs. 44.0% in non-smokers, P = 0.003), and conversely the frequency of the non-taster haplotype was more common in smokers (58.7% vs. 51.5% in non-smokers, P = 0.002). No difference in the frequency of these haplotypes was observed in African Americans in either the Dallas Heart Study or the Dallas Biobank. We conclude that TAS2R38 haplotypes are associated with smoking status in European-Americans but not in African-American populations. PTC taster status may play a role in protecting individuals from cigarette smoking in specific populations. PMID:27711175

  11. Cell migration during heart regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Naoyuki; Brush, Michael; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2016-07-01

    Zebrafish possess the remarkable ability to regenerate injured hearts as adults, which contrasts the very limited ability in mammals. Although very limited, mammalian hearts do in fact have measurable levels of cardiomyocyte regeneration. Therefore, elucidating mechanisms of zebrafish heart regeneration would provide information of naturally occurring regeneration to potentially apply to mammalian studies, in addition to addressing this biologically interesting phenomenon in itself. Studies over the past 13 years have identified processes and mechanisms of heart regeneration in zebrafish. After heart injury, pre-existing cardiomyocytes dedifferentiate, enter the cell cycle, and repair the injured myocardium. This process requires interaction with epicardial cells, endocardial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Epicardial cells envelope the heart, while endocardial cells make up the inner lining of the heart. They provide paracrine signals to cardiomyocytes to regenerate the injured myocardium, which is vascularized during heart regeneration. In addition, accumulating results suggest that local migration of these major cardiac cell types have roles in heart regeneration. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of various heart injury methods used in the research community and regeneration of the major cardiac cell types. Then, we discuss local migration of these cardiac cell types and immune cells during heart regeneration. Developmental Dynamics 245:774-787, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27085002

  12. Age modifies the genotype-phenotype relationship for the bitter receptor TAS2R38

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of TAS2R38 haplotypes and age on human bitter taste perception. Results Children (3 to 10 yrs), adolescents (11 to 19 yrs) and adults (mostly mothers, 20 to 55 yrs (N = 980) were measured for bitter taste thresholds for 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and genotyped for three polymorphisms of the AS2R38 gene (A49P, V262A, I296V). Subjects were grouped by haplotype and age, as well as sex and race/ethnicity, and compared for PROP thresholds. Subjects with the same haplotype were similar in bitter threshold regardless of race/ethnicity (all ages) or sex (children and adolescents; all p-values > 0.05) but age was a modifier of the genotype-phenotype relationship. Specifically, AVI/PAV heterozygous children could perceive a bitter taste at lower PROP concentrations than could heterozygous adults, with the thresholds of heterozygous adolescents being intermediate (p < 0.001). Similar age effects were not observed for subjects with the PAV/PAV or AVI/AVI homozygous haplotypes (p > 0.05) perhaps because there is less variation in taste perception among these homozygotes. Conclusions These data imply that the change in PROP bitter sensitivity which occurs over the lifespan (from bitter sensitive to less so) is more common in people with a particular haplotype combination, i.e., AVI/PAV heterozygotes. PMID:20594349

  13. Topological charges in SL(2,R) covariant massive 11-dimensional and type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callister, Andrew K.; Smith, Douglas J.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we construct closed expressions that correspond to the topological charges of the various 1/2-BPS states of the maximal 10- and 11-dimensional supergravity theories. These expressions are related to the structure of the supersymmetry algebras in curved spacetimes. We mainly focus on IIB supergravity and 11-dimensional supergravity in a double M9-brane background, with an emphasis on the SL(2,R) multiplet structure of the charges and how these map between theories. This includes the charges corresponding to the multiplets of 7- and 9-branes in IIB. We find that examining the possible multiplet structures of the charges provides another tool for exploring the spectrum of BPS states that appear in these theories. As a prerequisite to constructing the charges we determine the field equations and multiplet structure of the 11-dimensional gauge potentials, extending previous results on the subject. The massive gauge transformations of the fields are also discussed. We also demonstrate how these massive gauge transformations are compatible with the construction of an SL(2,R) covariant kinetic term in the 11-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole worldvolume action.

  14. Spontaneous quasi single helicity regimes in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.

    2007-11-01

    In recent years, good progress toward a better understanding and control of the plasma performance in reversed-field pinch devices has been made. These improvements consist both of the discovery of spontaneous plasma regimes, termed the quasi single helicity (QSH) regime, in which part of the plasma core is no longer stochastic, and of the development of techniques for active control of plasma instabilities. In this paper, a systematic study of spontaneous QSH in the EXTRAP T2R device [P. R. Brunsell, H. Bergsaker, M. Cecconello et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] is presented. In this device, QSH states can occur spontaneously and it is associated with magnetic and thermal structures. A statistical analysis to determine the most favorable experimental conditions to have a transition to the QSH regime will be presented. The results described here are useful to understand the underlying properties of QSH regimes in view of future applications of the QSH active control in EXTRAP T2R; they are also important to have a comparison with the QSH studied in other devices.

  15. Radiated Power and Impurity Concentrations in the EXTRAP-T2R Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corre, Y.; Rachlew, E.; Cecconello, M.; Gravestijn, R. M.; Hedqvist, A.; Pégourié, B.; Schunke, B.; Stancalie, V.

    2005-01-01

    A numerical and experimental study of the impurity concentration and radiation in the EXTRAP-T2R device is reported. The experimental setup consists of an 8-chord bolometer system providing the plasma radiated power and a vacuum-ultraviolet spectrometer providing information on the plasma impurity content. The plasma emissivity profile as measured by the bolometric system is peaked in the plasma centre. A one dimensional Onion Skin Collisional-Radiative model (OSCR) has been developed to compute the density and radiation distributions of the main impurities. The observed centrally peaked emissivity profile can be reproduced by OSCR simulations only if finite particle confinement time and charge-exchange processes between plasma impurities and neutral hydrogen are taken into account. The neutral hydrogen density profile is computed with a recycling code. Simulations show that recycling on metal first wall such as in EXTRAP-T2R (stainless steel vacuum vessel and molybdenum limiters) is compatible with a rather high neutral hydrogen density in the plasma centre. Assuming an impurity concentration of 10% for oxygen and 3% for carbon compared with the electron density, the OSCR calculation including lines and continuum emission reproduces about 60% of the total radiated power with a similarly centrally peaked emissivity profile. The centrally peaked emissivity profile is due to low ionisation stages and strongly radiating species in the plasma core, mainly O4+ (Be-like) and C3+ Li-like.

  16. Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J. R.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-11-01

    Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size.

  17. Synthesis of neoalkanes. [R/sub 1/R/sub 2/R/sub 3/CCOOH

    SciTech Connect

    Butter, S.A.; Stoll, I.

    1986-06-03

    A process is described for the synthesis of an alkyl-substituted 1,1,1-trialkylalkane of the formula R/sub 1/R/sub 2/R/sub 3/CCH/sub 3/ by hydrogenation, wherein R/sub 1/, R/sub 2/ and R/sub 3/ are the same or different alkyl of 1-10 carbon atoms in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen, the improvement which comprises hydrogenating a feed of a neoacid of the formula R/sub 1/R/sub 2/R/sub 3/CCOOH, at a temperature from about 325/sup 0/C to about 375/sup 0/C; a hydrogen feed rate of 1500 to 8000 m1/g catalyst/h; a neoacid feed rate of 0.2 to 4.9 mM/g catlyst/h and a hydrogen pressure of 35-140 Kg/cm/sup 2/ over a copper oxide/zinc oxide catalyst comprising 80-95% by weight of copper oxide/zinc oxide in an 8:1 to 1:1 weight ratio and 20-5% by weight alumina to obtain substantially complete conversion of the neoacid and recovering a product containing at least about 15 mol % yield of neoalkane based on the neoacid feed.

  18. Structural synthesis of a class of 2R2T hybrid mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chunxu; Fang, Yuefa; Guo, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Conventional overconstrained parallel manipulators have been widely studied both in industry and academia, however the structural synthesis of hybrid mechanisms with additional constraints is seldom studied, especially for the four degrees of freedom(DOF) hybrid mechanisms. In order to develop a manipulator with additional constraints, a class of important spatial mechanisms with coupling chains(CCs) whose motion type is two rotations and two translations(2R2T) is presented. Based on screw theory, the combination of different types of limbs which are used to construct parallel mechanisms and coupling chains is proposed. The basic types of the general parallel mechanisms and geometric conditions of the kinematic chains are given using constraint synthesis method. Moreover, the 2R2T motion pattern hybrid mechanisms which are derived by adding coupling chains between different serial kinematic chains(SKCs) of the corresponding parallel mechanisms are presented. According to the constraint analysis of the mechanisms, the movement relationship of the moving platform and the kinematic chains is derived by disassembling the coupling chains. At last, fourteen novel hybrid mechanisms with two or three serial kinematic chains are presented. The proposed novel hybrid mechanisms and construction method enrich the family of the spatial mechanisms and provide an instruction to design more complex hybrid mechanisms.

  19. Active mechanistic target of rapamycin plays an ancillary rather than essential role in zebrafish CNS axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Diekmann, Heike; Kalbhen, Pascal; Fischer, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    The developmental decrease of the intrinsic regenerative ability of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is associated with reduced activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in mature neurons such as retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). While mTOR activity is further decreased upon axonal injury, maintenance of its pre-injury level, for instance by genetic deletion of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), markedly promotes axon regeneration in mammals. The current study now addressed the question whether active mTOR might generally play a central role in axon regeneration by analyzing its requirement in regeneration-competent zebrafish. Remarkably, regulation of mTOR activity after optic nerve injury in zebrafish is fundamentally different compared to mammals. Hardly any activity was detected in naïve RGCs, whereas it was markedly increased upon axotomy in vivo as well as in dissociated cell cultures. After a short burst, mTOR activity was quickly attenuated, which is contrary to the requirements for axon regeneration in mammals. Surprisingly, mTOR activity was not essential for axonal growth per se, but correlated with cytokine- and PTEN inhibitor-induced neurite extension in vitro. Moreover, inhibition of mTOR using rapamycin significantly reduced axon regeneration in vivo and compromised functional recovery after optic nerve injury. Therefore, axotomy-induced mTOR activity is involved in CNS axon regeneration in zebrafish similar to mammals, although it plays an ancillary rather than essential role in this regeneration-competent species. PMID:26217179

  20. Composition of primary fluid and melt inclusions in regenerated olivines from hypabyssal kimberlites of the Malokuonapskaya pipe (Yakutia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomilenko, A. A.; Kuzmin, D. V.; Bulbak, T. A.; Timina, T. Yu.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    The primary fluid and melt inclusions in regenerated zonal crystals of olivine from kimberlites of the Malokuonapskaya pipe were first examined by means of microthermometry, optic and scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The high-pressure genesis of homogenous central parts of the olivines was revealed, probably under intense metasomatism at early hypogene stages with subsequent regeneration in the kimberlitic melt. The olivine crystals were regenerated from silicate-carbonate melts at about 1100°C. The composition of the kimberlitic melt was changed by way of an increase in the calcium content.

  1. Study of the in vivo role of Mce2R, the transcriptional regulator of mce2 operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of mortality throughout the world. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis, has developed strategies involving proteins and other compounds called virulence factors to subvert human host defences and damage and invade the human host. Among these virulence-related proteins are the Mce proteins, which are encoded in the mce1, mce2, mce3 and mce4 operons of M. tuberculosis. The expression of the mce2 operon is negatively regulated by the Mce2R transcriptional repressor. Here we evaluated the role of Mce2R during the infection of M. tuberculosis in mice and macrophages and defined the genes whose expression is in vitro regulated by this transcriptional repressor. Results We used a specialized transduction method for generating a mce2R mutant of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Although we found equivalent replication of the MtΔmce2R mutant and the wild type strains in mouse lungs, overexpression of Mce2R in the complemented strain (MtΔmce2RComp) significantly impaired its replication. During in vitro infection of macrophages, we observed a significantly increased association of the late endosomal marker LAMP-2 to MtΔmce2RComp-containing phagosomes as compared to MtΔmce2R and the wild type strains. Whole transcriptional analysis showed that Mce2R regulates mainly the expression of the mce2 operon, in the in vitro conditions studied. Conclusions The findings of the current study indicate that Mce2R weakly represses the in vivo expression of the mce2 operon in the studied conditions and argue for a role of the proteins encoded in Mce2R regulon in the arrest of phagosome maturation induced by M. tuberculosis. PMID:24007602

  2. IGF2R Genetic Variants, Circulating IGF2 Concentrations and Colon Cancer Risk in African Americans and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Vidal, Adriana C.; Skaar, David; Millikan, Robert C.; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert S.; Jirtle, Randy; Keku, Temitope

    2012-01-01

    The Mannose 6 Phosphate/Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor-2 (IGF2R) encodes a type-1 membrane protein that modulates availability of the potent mitogen, IGF2. We evaluated the associations between IGF2R non-synonymous genetic variants (c.5002G>A, Gly1619Arg(rs629849), and c.901C>G, Leu252Val(rs8191754)), circulating IGF2 levels, and colon cancer (CC) risk among African American and White participants enrolled in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study (NCCCS). Generalized linear models were used to compare circulating levels of IGF2 among 298 African American and 518 White controls. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of IGF2R genetic variants and CC risk. Women homozygous for the IGF2R c.5002 G>A allele, had higher mean levels of circulating IGF2, 828 (SD=321) ng/ml compared to non-carriers, 595 (SD=217) ng/ml (p-value=0.01). This pattern was not apparent in individuals homozygous for the IGF2R c.901 C>G variant. Whites homozygous for the IGF2R c.901 C>G variant trended towards a higher risk of CC, OR=2.2 [95% CI(0.9–5.4)], whereas carrying the IGF2R c.5002 G>A variant was not associated with CC risk. Our findings support the hypothesis that being homozygous for the IGF2R c.5002 G>A modulates IGF2 circulating levels in a sex-specific manner, and while carrying the IGF2R c.901 C>G may increase cancer risk, the mechanism may not involve modulation of circulating IGF2. PMID:22377707

  3. CYP2R1 Mutations Impair Generation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Cause an Atypical Form of Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Philip R.; Singh, Ravinder J.; Roizen, Jeffrey; Levine, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Production of the active vitamin D hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D requires hepatic 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D. The CYP2R1 gene encodes the principal vitamin D 25-hydroxylase in humans. Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CYP2R1 mutations in Nigerian children with familial rickets and vitamin D deficiency and assess the functional effect on 25-hydroxylase activity. Design and Participants: We sequenced the CYP2R1 gene in subjects with sporadic rickets and affected subjects from families in which more than one member had rickets. Main Outcome Measures: Function of mutant CYP2R1 genes as assessed in vivo by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D values after administration of vitamin D and in vitro by analysis of mutant forms of the CYP2R1. Results: CYP2R1 sequences were normal in 27 children with sporadic rickets, but missense mutations were identified in affected members of 2 of 12 families, a previously identified L99P, and a novel K242N. In silico analyses predicted that both substitutions would have deleterious effects on the variant proteins, and in vitro studies showed that K242N and L99P had markedly reduced or complete loss of 25-hydroxylase activity, respectively. Heterozygous subjects were less affected than homozygous subjects, and oral administration of vitamin D led to significantly lower increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in heterozygous than in control subjects, whereas homozygous subjects showed negligible increases. Conclusion: These studies confirm that CYP2R1 is the principal 25-hydroxylase in humans and demonstrate that CYP2R1 alleles have dosage-dependent effects on vitamin D homeostasis. CYP2R1 mutations cause a novel form of genetic vitamin D deficiency with semidominant inheritance. PMID:25942481

  4. Neurosurgery: Functional regeneration after laser axotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih; Cinar, Hulusi; Cinar, Hediye Nese; Chisholm, Andrew D.; Jin, Yishi; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2004-12-01

    Understanding how nerves regenerate is an important step towards developing treatments for human neurological disease, but investigation has so far been limited to complex organisms (mouse and zebrafish) in the absence of precision techniques for severing axons (axotomy). Here we use femtosecond laser surgery for axotomy in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and show that these axons functionally regenerate after the operation. Application of this precise surgical technique should enable nerve regeneration to be studied in vivo in its most evolutionarily simple form.

  5. A quantitative metabolomics peek into planarian regeneration.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Nivedita; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Lakshmanan, Vairavan; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi; Rangiah, Kannan

    2015-05-21

    The fresh water planarian species Schmidtea mediterranea is an emerging stem cell model because of its capability to regenerate a whole animal from a small piece of tissue. It is one of the best model systems to address the basic mechanisms essential for regeneration. Here, we are interested in studying the roles of various amines, thiols and nucleotides in planarian regeneration, stem cell function and growth. We developed mass spectrometry based quantitative methods and validated the differential enrichment of 35 amines, 7 thiol metabolites and 4 nucleotides from both intact and regenerating planarians. Among the amines, alanine in sexual and asparagine in asexual are the highest (>1000 ng/mg) in the intact planarians. The levels of thiols such as cysteine and GSH are 651 and 1107 ng mg(-1) in planarians. Among the nucleotides, the level of cGMP is the lowest (0.03 ng mg(-1)) and the level of AMP is the highest (187 ng mg(-1)) in both of the planarian strains. We also noticed increasing levels of amines in both anterior and posterior regenerating planarians. The blastema from day 3 regenerating planarians also showed higher amounts of many amines. Interestingly, the thiol (cysteine and GSH) levels are well maintained during planarian regeneration. This suggests an inherent and effective mechanism to control induced oxidative stress because of the robust regeneration and stem cell proliferation. Like in intact planarians, the level of cGMP is also very low in regenerating planarians. Surprisingly, the levels of amines and thiols in head regenerating blastemas are ∼3 times higher compared to those for tail regenerating blastemas. Thus our results strongly indicate the potential roles of amines, thiols and nucleotides in planarian regeneration.

  6. A quantitative metabolomics peek into planarian regeneration.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Nivedita; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Lakshmanan, Vairavan; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi; Rangiah, Kannan

    2015-05-21

    The fresh water planarian species Schmidtea mediterranea is an emerging stem cell model because of its capability to regenerate a whole animal from a small piece of tissue. It is one of the best model systems to address the basic mechanisms essential for regeneration. Here, we are interested in studying the roles of various amines, thiols and nucleotides in planarian regeneration, stem cell function and growth. We developed mass spectrometry based quantitative methods and validated the differential enrichment of 35 amines, 7 thiol metabolites and 4 nucleotides from both intact and regenerating planarians. Among the amines, alanine in sexual and asparagine in asexual are the highest (>1000 ng/mg) in the intact planarians. The levels of thiols such as cysteine and GSH are 651 and 1107 ng mg(-1) in planarians. Among the nucleotides, the level of cGMP is the lowest (0.03 ng mg(-1)) and the level of AMP is the highest (187 ng mg(-1)) in both of the planarian strains. We also noticed increasing levels of amines in both anterior and posterior regenerating planarians. The blastema from day 3 regenerating planarians also showed higher amounts of many amines. Interestingly, the thiol (cysteine and GSH) levels are well maintained during planarian regeneration. This suggests an inherent and effective mechanism to control induced oxidative stress because of the robust regeneration and stem cell proliferation. Like in intact planarians, the level of cGMP is also very low in regenerating planarians. Surprisingly, the levels of amines and thiols in head regenerating blastemas are ∼3 times higher compared to those for tail regenerating blastemas. Thus our results strongly indicate the potential roles of amines, thiols and nucleotides in planarian regeneration. PMID:25815385

  7. Facilitating Semantic Interoperability Among Ocean Data Systems: ODIP-R2R Student Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, K. I.; Chen, Y.; Shepherd, A.; Chandler, C. L.; Dockery, N.; Elya, J. L.; Smith, S. R.; Ferreira, R.; Fu, L.; Arko, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    With informatics providing an increasingly important set of tools for geoscientists, it is critical to train the next generation of scientists in information and data techniques. The NSF-supported Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) Program works with the academic fleet community to routinely document, assess, and preserve the underway sensor data from U.S. research vessels. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) is an EU-US-Australian collaboration fostering interoperability among regional e-infrastructures through workshops and joint prototype development. The need to align terminology between systems is a common challenge across all of the ODIP prototypes. Five R2R students were supported to address aspects of semantic interoperability within ODIP. Developing a vocabulary matching service that links terms from different vocabularies with similar concept. The service implements Google Refine reconciliation service interface such that users can leverage Google Refine application as a friendly user interface while linking different vocabulary terms. Developing Resource Description Framework (RDF) resources that map Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies. Each SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described as an RDF resource page. These RDF resources allow for enhanced discoverability and retrieval of SAMOS data by enabling data searches based on parameter. Improving data retrieval and interoperability by exposing data and mapped vocabularies using Semantic Web technologies. We have collaborated with ODIP participating organizations in order to build a generalized data model that will be used to populate a SPARQL endpoint in order to provide expressive querying over our data files. Mapping local and regional vocabularies used by R2R to those used by ODIP partners. This work is described more fully in a companion poster. Making published Linked Data

  8. Planar waveguide optical immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Steven J.; Locascio-Brown, Laurie E.; Durst, Richard A.

    1991-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were covalently bonded to the surfaces of planar waveguides to confer immunoreacth''ity. Silver-ion diffused waveguides were used to measure theophylline concentrations in a fluorescence immunoassay and silicon nitride waveguides were used to detect theophylline in an absorbance-based immunoassay. Liposomes were employed in both assays as the optically detectable label in a competitive reaction to monitor antigen-antibody complexation. Regeneration of the active antibody site will be discussed.

  9. Myomaker is essential for muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Millay, Douglas P.; Sutherland, Lillian B.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of injured adult skeletal muscle involves fusion of activated satellite cells to form new myofibers. Myomaker is a muscle-specific membrane protein required for fusion of embryonic myoblasts, but its potential involvement in adult muscle regeneration has not been explored. We show that myogenic basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors induce myomaker expression in satellite cells during acute and chronic muscle regeneration. Moreover, genetic deletion of myomaker in adult satellite cells completely abolishes muscle regeneration, resulting in severe muscle destruction after injury. Myomaker is the only muscle-specific protein known to be absolutely essential for fusion of embryonic and adult myoblasts. PMID:25085416

  10. Unraveling tissue regeneration pathways using chemical genetics.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Lijoy K; Sengupta, Sumitra; Kawakami, Atsushi; Andreasen, Eric A; Löhr, Christiane V; Loynes, Catherine A; Renshaw, Stephen A; Peterson, Randall T; Tanguay, Robert L

    2007-11-30

    Identifying the molecular pathways that are required for regeneration remains one of the great challenges of regenerative medicine. Although genetic mutations have been useful for identifying some molecular pathways, small molecule probes of regenerative pathways might offer some advantages, including the ability to disrupt pathway function with precise temporal control. However, a vertebrate regeneration model amenable to rapid throughput small molecule screening is not currently available. We report here the development of a zebrafish early life stage fin regeneration model and its use in screening for small molecules that modulate tissue regeneration. By screening 2000 biologically active small molecules, we identified 17 that specifically inhibited regeneration. These compounds include a cluster of glucocorticoids, and we demonstrate that transient activation of the glucocorticoid receptor is sufficient to block regeneration, but only if activation occurs during wound healing/blastema formation. In addition, knockdown of the glucocorticoid receptor restores regenerative capability to nonregenerative, glucocorticoid-exposed zebrafish. To test whether the classical anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids is responsible for blocking regeneration, we prevented acute inflammation following amputation by antisense repression of the Pu.1 gene. Although loss of Pu.1 prevents the inflammatory response, regeneration is not affected. Collectively, these results indicate that signaling from exogenous glucocorticoids impairs blastema formation and limits regenerative capacity through an acute inflammation-independent mechanism. These studies also demonstrate the feasibility of exploiting chemical genetics to define the pathways that govern vertebrate regeneration. PMID:17848559

  11. The cellular basis for animal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Elly; Reddien, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of animals to regenerate missing parts is a dramatic and poorly understood aspect of biology. The sources of new cells for these regenerative phenomena have been sought for decades. Recent advances involving cell fate tracking in complex tissues have shed new light on the cellular underpinnings of regeneration in Hydra, planarians, zebrafish, Xenopus, and Axolotl. Planarians accomplish regeneration with use of adult pluripotent stem cells, whereas several vertebrates utilize a collection of lineage-restricted progenitors from different tissues. Together, an array of cellular strategies—from pluripotent stem cells to tissue-specific stem cells and dedifferentiation—are utilized for regeneration. PMID:21763617

  12. [Regeneration of planarians: experimental object].

    PubMed

    Sheĭman, I M; Kreshchenko, I D

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the expediency of using invertebrates, such as flatworms and planarians, as experimental objects. Free-living planarian flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes, class Turbellaria) are invertebrate animals in which a bilateral symmetry appears for the first time in evolution and organs and tissues form. As the highest ecological link of the food chain--predators--these animals are characterized by a set of behavioral reactions controlled by a differentiated central nervous system. Planarians have unsurpassed ability to regenerate lost or damaged body parts. Owing to the ease of their breeding and their convenience for manipulations, these animals are used to study the influence of chemical and physical factors on the processes of life, growth, and reproduction. Currently, planarians are recognized as a model for biological research in the field of regeneration, stem cell biology, study of their proliferation and differentiation, as well as the regulatory mechanisms of morphogenetic processes. The genome of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea was fully sequenced, which opened up the opportunity to work with this object at the molecular biological level. Furthermore, planarians are used in neurobiological and toxicological studies, in studying the evolutionary aspects of centralization of the nervous system, mechanisms of muscle contraction, and in the development of new antiparasitic drugs. This review aims to demonstrate the relevance and diversity of research conducted on simple biological objects--planarians--to awider audience to show the historical continuity of these studies and their wide geographical distribution and to focus on the studies carried out in Russia, which, as a rule, are not included in the foreign reviews on planarian regeneration.

  13. Towards Regeneration of Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Masahiro; Ohta, Yoichi; Larmour, Colleen; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage is classified into permanent hyaline cartilage and has significant differences in structure, extracelluar matrix components, gene expression profile, and mechanical property from transient hyaline cartilage found in growth plate. In the process of synovial joint development, articular cartilage is originated from the interzone, developing at the edge of the cartilaginous anlagen, it establishes zonal structure over time and supports smooth movement of the synovial joint through life. The cascade actions of key regulators such as Wnts, GDF5, Erg, and PTHLH coordinate sequential steps of articular cartilage formation. Articular chondrocytes are restrictedly controlled not to differentiate into a hypertrophic stage by autocrine and paracrine factors and extracerllular matrix microenvironment, but retain potential to undergo hypertrophy. The basal calcified zone of articular cartilage is connected with subchondral bone, but not invaded by blood vessels nor replaced by bone, which is highly contrasted with the growth plate. Articular cartilage has limited regenerative capacity, but likely possesses and potentially uses intrinsic stem cell source in the superficial layer, Ranvier’s groove, the intra-articular tissues such as synovium and fat pad, and marrow below the subchondral bone. Considering the biological views on articular cartilage, several important points are raised for regeneration of articular cartilage. We should evaluate the nature of regenerated cartilage as permanent hyaline cartilage and not just hyaline cartilage. We should study how a hypertrophic phenotype of transplanted cells can be lastingly suppressed in regenerating tissue. Further, we should develop the methods and reagents to activate recruitment of intrinsic stem/progenitor cells into the damaged site. PMID:24078496

  14. Integrable spin chain for the SL(2,R)/U(1) black hole sigma model.

    PubMed

    Ikhlef, Yacine; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert

    2012-02-24

    We introduce a spin chain based on finite-dimensional spin-1/2 SU(2) representations but with a non-Hermitian "Hamiltonian" and show, using mostly analytical techniques, that it is described at low energies by the SL(2,R)/U(1) Euclidian black hole conformal field theory. This identification goes beyond the appearance of a noncompact spectrum; we are also able to determine the density of states, and show that it agrees with the formulas in [J. Maldacena, H. Ooguri, and J. Son, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 42, 2961 (2001)] and [A. Hanany, N. Prezas, and J. Troost, J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2002) 014], hence providing a direct "physical measurement" of the associated reflection amplitude. PMID:22463514

  15. Tissue diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis using the chromotrope-2R modified trichrome stain.

    PubMed

    Giang, T T; Kotler, D P; Garro, M L; Orenstein, J M

    1993-12-01

    Light microscopic diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis is difficult with the use of routine histologic stains. This has led to an overreliance on transmission electron microscopic diagnosis. It was previously demonstrated that a modification of the standard Gomori one-step trichrome stain, using a 10-fold higher concentration of chromotrope-2R, can be used to detect microsporidial spores in stool. The use of the stain has now been extended to the detection of spores in sections of formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded intestinal biopsy specimens. Positive identification can be made of both intestinal species seen in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Septata intestinalis, when the diagnosis is inapparent or questionable on routine histologic analysis. The use of this simple stain should increase the sensitivity for diagnosing microsporidiosis by light microscopy, further obviating the need for transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Controlled Vocabularies and Ontologies for Oceanographic Data: The R2R Eventlogger Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Raymond, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Research vessels coordinated by the United States University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (US-UNOLS) collect data which is considered an important oceanographic resource. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project aims to improve access to this data and diminish the barriers to use. One aspect of the R2R project has been to develop a shipboard scientific event logging system, Eventlogger, that incorporates best practice guidelines, controlled vocabularies, a cruise metadata schema, and a scientific event log. This will facilitate the eventual ingestion of datasets into oceanographic data repositories for subsequent integration and synthesis by investigators. One important aspect of this system is the careful use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies. Existing ontologies, where available, will be used and others will be developed. The use of internationally-informed, consensus-driven controlled vocabularies will make datasets more interoperable, and discoverable. The R2R Eventlogger project is led by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and the management of the controlled vocabularies and mapping of these vocabularies to authoritative community vocabularies are led by the Data Librarian in the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library. The first target vocabulary is oceanographic instruments. Management of this vocabulary has thus far consisted of reconciling local community terms with the more widely used SeaDataNet Device Vocabulary terms. Rather than adopt existing terms, often the local terms are mapped by data managers in the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to the existing terms as they are given by investigators and often provide important information and meaning. New terms (often custom, or modified instruments) are submitted for review to the SeaDataNet community listserv for discussion and eventual incorporation into the Device

  17. Sensing developing biofilms: the bitter receptor T2R38 on myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Gaida, Matthias Martin; Dapunt, Ulrike; Hänsch, Gertrud Maria

    2016-04-01

    Quorum-sensing molecules, also known as autoinducer, are essential for bacterial biofilm formation. Our focus is on N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (AHL-12), because it is also known as an 'interkingdom signalling molecule', which means that it also interacts with mammalian cells. AHL-12 activates defence-relevant functions of phagocytic cells, including enhancement of phagocytosis, increased expression of adhesion receptors and induction of chemotaxis. This leads to the hypothesis that early recognition of developing biofilms might be the key to a successful host defence against biofilm infection. In that context we studied activation of phagocytic cells by AHL-12, and found that phagocytes are activated via a rather specialized receptor that was not previously described on myeloid cells, the bitter taste receptor T2R38. Taste receptors are commonly associated with cells of the gustatory system. The extragustatory expression, however, suggests an additional role, namely the sensing of the onset of bacterial biofilm infection. PMID:26782143

  18. D-branes and extended characters in SL(2,R)/U(1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotopoulos, Angelos; Niarchos, Vasilis; Prezas, Nikolaos

    2005-03-01

    We present a detailed study of D-branes in the axially gauged SL(2/U(1) coset conformal field theory for integer level k. Our analysis is based on the modular bootstrap approach and utilizes the extended SL(2,R)/U(1) characters and the embedding of the parafermionic coset algebra in the N=2 superconformal algebra. We propose three basic classes of boundary states corresponding to D0-, D1- and D2-branes. We verify that these boundary states satisfy the Cardy consistency conditions and discuss their physical properties. The D0- and D1-branes agree with those found in earlier work by Ribault and Schomerus using different methods (descent from the Euclidean AdS model). The D2-branes are new. They are not, in general, space-filling but extend from the asymptotic circle at infinity up to a minimum distance ρ⩾0 from the tip of the cigar.

  19. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles.

    PubMed

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (emission of benzenoid II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles. PMID:25931522

  20. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles.

    PubMed

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (emission of benzenoid II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles.

  1. Regenerator matrix physical property data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucinari, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Among several cellular ceramic structures manufactured by various suppliers for regenerator application in a gas turbine engine, three have the best potential for achieving durability and performance objectives for use in gas turbines, Stirling engines, and waste heat recovery systems: (1) an aluminum-silicate sinusoidal flow passage made from a corrugated wate paper process; (2) an extruded isosceles triangle flow passage; and (3) a second generation matrix incorporating a square flow passage formed by an embossing process. Key physical and thermal property data for these configurations presented include: heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics, compressive strength, tensile strength and elasticity, thermal expansion characteristics, chanical attack, and thermal stability.

  2. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A; Baldini, N; Cenni, E; Gomez-Barrena, E; Granchi, D; Kassem, M; Konttinen, Y T; Mustafa, K; Pioletti, D P; Sillat, T; Finne-Wistrand, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed. PMID:21129153

  3. The bitter taste receptor T2R38 is an independent risk factor for chronic rhinosinusitis requiring sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adappa, Nithin D.; Zhang, Zi; Palmer, James N.; Kennedy, David W.; Doghramji, Laurel; Lysenko, Anna; Reed, Danielle R.; Scott, Thomas; Zhao, Nina W.; Owens, David; Lee, Robert J.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The bitter taste receptor T2R38 was recently described to play a role in upper airway innate mucosal defense. When activated by bacterial quorum-sensing molecules, T2R38 stimulates the ciliated epithelial cells to produce nitric oxide (NO), resulting in bactericidal activity and an increase in mucociliary clearance (MCC). Polymorphisms within the T2R38 gene (TAS2R38) confer variability in activation of the receptor yielding dramatic differences in upper airway defensive responses (NO production and accelerated MCC) to microbial stimulation based on genotype. Our objective was to determine whether the non protective TAS2R38 polymorphisms, which render the receptor inactive, correlate with medically recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) necessitating surgical intervention in the context of known risk factors, and thus identify whether the TAS2R38 genotype is an independent risk factor for patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Methods CRS patients undergoing primary FESS were prospectively genotyped for TAS2R38. Chi-square analysis was performed on the genotype distribution with respect to other risk factors, including allergies, asthma, nasal polyposis, aspirin sensitivity, diabetes, and smoking exposure. Results Seventy primary FESS patients were genotyped demonstrating a statistically significant skewing from the expected distribution of the general population (p < 0.0383). CRS patients with a particular polymorphism seemed less likely to have allergies, asthma, nasal polyposis, aspirin sensitivity, and diabetes, but this did not demonstrate statistical significance. Conclusion Our investigation suggests that TAS2R38 genotype is an independent risk factor for patients failing medical therapy, necessitating surgical intervention. PMID:24302675

  4. [Stem cells and cardiac regeneration].

    PubMed

    Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Lorenti, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by virtue of their functional attributes: absence of tissue specific differentitated markers, capable of proliferation, able to self-maintain the population, able to produce a large number of differentiated, functional progeny, able to regenerate the tissue after injury. Cell therapy is an alternative for the treatment of several diseases, like cardiac diseases (cell cardiomyoplasty). A variety of stem cells could be used for cardiac repair: from cardiac and extracardiac sources. Each cell type has its own profile of advantages, limitations, and practicability issues in specific clinical settings. Differentiation of bone marrow stem cells to cardiomyocyte-like cells have been observed under different culture conditions. The presence of resident cardiac stem cell population capable of differentiation into cardiomyocyte or vascular lineage suggests that these cells could be used for cardiac tissue repair, and represent a great promise for clinical application. Stem cells mobilization by cytokines may also offer a strategy for cardiac regeneration. The use of stem cells (embryonic and adult) may hold the key to replacing cells lost in many devastating diseases. This potential benefit is a major focus for stem cell research.

  5. Collagen for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana Marina; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Chiono, Valeria; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2012-09-01

    In the last decades, increased knowledge about the organization, structure and properties of collagen (particularly concerning interactions between cells and collagen-based materials) has inspired scientists and engineers to design innovative collagen-based biomaterials and to develop novel tissue-engineering products. The design of resorbable collagen-based medical implants requires understanding the tissue/organ anatomy and biological function as well as the role of collagen's physicochemical properties and structure in tissue/organ regeneration. Bone is a complex tissue that plays a critical role in diverse metabolic processes mediated by calcium delivery as well as in hematopoiesis whilst maintaining skeleton strength. A wide variety of collagen-based scaffolds have been proposed for different tissue engineering applications. These scaffolds are designed to promote a biological response, such as cell interaction, and to work as artificial biomimetic extracellular matrices that guide tissue regeneration. This paper critically reviews the current understanding of the complex hierarchical structure and properties of native collagen molecules, and describes the scientific challenge of manufacturing collagen-based materials with suitable properties and shapes for specific biomedical applications, with special emphasis on bone tissue engineering. The analysis of the state of the art in the field reveals the presence of innovative techniques for scaffold and material manufacturing that are currently opening the way to the preparation of biomimetic substrates that modulate cell interaction for improved substitution, restoration, retention or enhancement of bone tissue function. PMID:22705634

  6. Extracellular Control of Limb Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calve, S.; Simon, H.-G.

    Adult newts possess the ability to completely regenerate organs and appendages. Immediately after limb loss, the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergoes dramatic changes that may provide mechanical and biochemical cues to guide the formation of the blastema, which is comprised of uncommitted stem-like cells that proliferate to replace the lost structure. Skeletal muscle is a known reservoir for blastema cells but the mechanism by which it contributes progenitor cells is still unclear. To create physiologically relevant culture conditions for the testing of primary newt muscle cells in vitro, the spatio-temporal distribution of ECM components and the mechanical properties of newt muscle were analyzed. Tenascin-C and hyaluronic acid (HA) were found to be dramatically upregulated in the amputated limb and were co-expressed around regenerating skeletal muscle. The transverse stiffness of muscle measured in situ was used as a guide to generate silicone-based substrates of physiological stiffness. Culturing newt muscle cells under different conditions revealed that the cells are sensitive to both matrix coating and substrate stiffness: Myoblasts on HA-coated soft substrates display a rounded morphology and become more elongated as the stiffness of the substrate increases. Coating of soft substrates with matrigel or fibronectin enhanced cell spreading and eventual cell fusion.

  7. Nonventing, Regenerable, Lightweight Heat Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, regenerable heat absorber (RHA), developed for rejecting metabolic heat from a space suit, may also be useful on Earth for short-term cooling of heavy protective garments. Unlike prior space-suit-cooling systems, a system that includes this RHA does not vent water. The closed system contains water reservoirs, tubes through which water is circulated to absorb heat, an evaporator, and an absorber/radiator. The radiator includes a solution of LiCl contained in a porous material in titanium tubes. The evaporator cools water that circulates through a liquid-cooled garment. Water vapor produced in the evaporator enters the radiator tubes where it is absorbed into the LiCl solution, releasing heat. Much of the heat of absorption is rejected to the environment via the radiator. After use, the RHA is regenerated by heating it to a temperature of 100 C for about 2 hours to drive the absorbed water back to the evaporator. A system including a prototype of the RHA was found to be capable of maintaining a temperature of 20 C while removing heat at a rate of 200 W for 6 hours.

  8. Catalytic regeneration of mercury sorbents.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Mark; Fan, Maohong; Dutcher, Bryce; Tang, Mingchen; Argyle, Morris D; Russell, Armistead G; Zhang, Yulong; Sharma, M P; Swapp, Susan M

    2013-11-15

    Traditionally, mercury sorbents are disposed of in landfills, which may lead to contamination of soil and groundwater. In this work, the regeneration of activated carbon (AC) as a mercury sorbent was investigated. The decomposition of HgCl2 on the surface of pure AC was studied, as well as sorbent which has been treated with FeCl3 or NaCl. In all cases, the sorbent is found to be structurally stable through a single regeneration, which is verified through BET, XRD, and XPS analysis. The desorption of mercury from the sorbent is found to follow Henry's law. Additionally, a kinetic analysis suggests that although the presence of activated carbon lowers the energy requirement for the desorption of mercury, it significantly decreases the rate by decreasing the concentration of the HgCl2. FeCl3 and NaCl both promoted the decomposition of HgCl2, but FeCl3 did so more significantly, increasing the rate constants by a factor of 10 and decreasing the activation energy for the decomposition of HgCl2 by 14% to 40%.

  9. Microwave Regenerable Air Purification Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Holtsnider, John T.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of using microwave power to thermally regenerate sorbents loaded with water vapor, CO2, and organic contaminants has been rigorously demonstrated. Sorbents challenged with air containing 0.5% CO2, 300 ppm acetone, 50 ppm trichloroethylene, and saturated with water vapor have been regenerated, singly and in combination. Microwave transmission, reflection, and phase shift has also been determined for a variety of sorbents over the frequency range between 1.3-2.7 GHz. This innovative technology offers the potential for significant energy savings in comparison to current resistive heating methods because energy is absorbed directly by the material to be heated. Conductive, convective and radiative losses are minimized. Extremely rapid heating is also possible, i.e., 1400 C in less than 60 seconds. Microwave powered thermal desorption is directly applicable to the needs of Advance Life Support in general, and of EVA in particular. Additionally, the applicability of two specific commercial applications arising from this technology have been demonstrated: the recovery for re-use of acetone (and similar solvents) from industrial waste streams using a carbon based molecular sieve; and the separation and destruction of trichloroethylene using ZSM-5 synthetic zeolite catalyst, a predominant halocarbon environmental contaminant. Based upon these results, Phase II development is strongly recommended.

  10. Viral vector-mediated downregulation of RhoA increases survival and axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Jan Christoph; Tönges, Lars; Michel, Uwe; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Rho/ROCK pathway is a promising therapeutic target in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases. Pharmacological inhibition of various pathway members has been shown to promote neuronal regeneration and survival. However, because pharmacological inhibitors are inherently limited in their specificity, shRNA-mediated approaches can add more information on the function of each single kinase involved. Thus, we generated adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) to specifically downregulate Ras homologous member A (RhoA) via shRNA. We found that specific knockdown of RhoA promoted neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) grown on the inhibitory substrate chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) as well as neurite regeneration of primary midbrain neurons (PMN) after scratch lesion. In the rat optic nerve crush (ONC) model in vivo, downregulation of RhoA significantly enhanced axonal regeneration compared to control. Moreover, survival of RGC transduced with AAV expressing RhoA-shRNA was substantially increased at 2 weeks after optic nerve axotomy. Compared to previous data using pharmacological inhibitors to target RhoA, its upstream regulator Nogo or its main downstream target ROCK, the specific effects of RhoA downregulation shown here were most pronounced in regard to promoting RGC survival but neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration were also increased significantly. Taken together, we show here that specific knockdown of RhoA substantially increases neuronal survival after optic nerve axotomy and modestly increases neurite outgrowth in vitro and axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush. PMID:25249936

  11. Effects of a novel SNP of IGF2R gene on growth traits and expression rate of IGF2R and IGF2 genes in gluteus medius muscle of Egyptian buffalo.

    PubMed

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Abo-Al-Ela, Haitham G; El-Nahas, Abeer; Saleh, Ayman A; Mansour, Ali A

    2014-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) is responsible for degradation of the muscle development initiator, IGF2, and thus it can be used as a marker for selection strategies in the farm animals. The aim of this study was to search for polymorphisms in three coding loci of IGF2R, and to analyze their effect on the growth traits and on the expression levels of IGF2R and IGF2 genes in the gluteus medius muscle of Egyptian buffaloes. A novel A266C SNP was detected in the coding sequences of the third IGF2R locus (at nucleotide number 51 of exon 23) among Egyptian water buffaloes. This SNP was non-synonymous mutation and led to replacement of Y (tyrosine) amino acid (aa) by D (aspartic acid) aa. Three different single-strand conformation polymorphism patterns were observed in the third IGF2R locus: AA, AC, and CC with frequencies of 0.555, 0.195, and 0.250, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the homozygous AA genotype significantly associated with the average daily gain than AC and CC genotypes from birth to 9 mo of age. Expression analysis showed that the A266C SNP was correlated with IGF2, but not with IGF2R, mRNA levels in the gluteus medius muscle of Egyptian buffaloes. The highest IGF2 mRNA level was estimated in the muscle of animals with the AA homozygous genotype as compared to the AC heterozygotes and CC homozygotes. We conclude that A266C SNP at nucleotide number 51 of exon 23 of the IGF2R gene is associated with the ADG during the early stages of life (from birth to 9 mo of age) and this effect is accompanied by, and may be caused by, increased expression levels of the IGF2 gene.

  12. Enzymatic regeneration of adenosine triphosphate cofactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Regenerating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by enzymatic process which utilizes carbamyl phosphate as phosphoryl donor is technique used to regenerate expensive cofactors. Process allows complex enzymatic reactions to be considered as candidates for large-scale continuous processes.

  13. Bile acid signaling and liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingjie; Wang, Xichun; Xu, Ganyu; Yan, Qingfeng; Huang, Wendong

    2015-02-01

    The liver is able to regenerate itself in response to partial hepatectomy or liver injury. This is accomplished by a complex network of different cell types and signals both inside and outside the liver. Bile acids (BAs) are recently identified as liver-specific metabolic signals and promote liver regeneration by activating their receptors: Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) and G-protein-coupled BA receptor 1 (GPBAR1, or TGR5). FXR is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. FXR promotes liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) or liver injury. Moreover, activation of FXR is able to alleviate age-related liver regeneration defects. Both liver- and intestine-FXR are activated by BAs after liver resection or injury and promote liver regeneration through distinct mechanism. TGR5 is a membrane-bound BA receptor and it is also activated during liver regeneration. TGR5 regulates BA hydrophobicity and stimulates BA excretion in urine during liver regeneration. BA signaling thus represents a novel metabolic pathway during liver regeneration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development.

  14. Clinical implications of advances in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Jin; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Choi, Dongho

    2015-03-01

    Remarkable advances have been made recently in the area of liver regeneration. Even though liver regeneration after liver resection has been widely researched, new clinical applications have provided a better understanding of the process. Hepatic damage induces a process of regeneration that rarely occurs in normal undamaged liver. Many studies have concentrated on the mechanism of hepatocyte regeneration following liver damage. High mortality is usual in patients with terminal liver failure. Patients die when the regenerative process is unable to balance loss due to liver damage. During disease progression, cellular adaptations take place and the organ microenvironment changes. Portal vein embolization and the associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy are relatively recent techniques exploiting the remarkable progress in understanding liver regeneration. Living donor liver transplantation is one of the most significant clinical outcomes of research on liver regeneration. Another major clinical field involving liver regeneration is cell therapy using adult stem cells. The aim of this article is to provide an outline of the clinical approaches being undertaken to examine regeneration in liver diseases.

  15. Scaffolds in vascular regeneration: current status

    PubMed Central

    Thottappillil, Neelima; Nair, Prabha D

    2015-01-01

    An ideal vascular substitute, especially in <6 mm diameter applications, is a major clinical essentiality in blood vessel replacement surgery. Blood vessels are structurally complex and functionally dynamic tissue, with minimal regeneration potential. These have composite extracellular matrix (ECM) and arrangement. The interplay between ECM components and tissue specific cells gives blood vessels their specialized functional attributes. The core of vascular tissue engineering and regeneration relies on the challenges in creating vascular conduits that match native vessels and adequately regenerate in vivo. Out of numerous vascular regeneration concerns, the relevance of ECM emphasizes much attention toward appropriate choice of scaffold material and further scaffold development strategies. The review is intended to be focused on the various approaches of scaffold materials currently in use in vascular regeneration and current state of the art. Scaffold of choice in vascular tissue engineering ranges from natural to synthetic, decellularized, and even scaffold free approach. The applicability of tubular scaffold for in vivo vascular regeneration is under active investigation. A patent conduit with an ample endothelial luminal layer that can regenerate in vivo remains an unanswered query in the field of small diameter vascular tissue engineering. Besides, scaffolds developed for vascular regeneration, should aim at providing functional substitutes for use in a regenerative approach from the laboratory bench to patient bedside. PMID:25632236

  16. Complement components of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid influence the microenvironment of nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang-shuai; Li, Qing-feng; Dong, Ming-min; Zan, Tao; Ding, Shuang; Liu, Lin-bo

    2016-01-01

    Nerve regeneration conditioned fluid is secreted by nerve stumps inside a nerve regeneration chamber. A better understanding of the proteinogram of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid can provide evidence for studying the role of the microenvironment in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, we used cylindrical silicone tubes as the nerve regeneration chamber model for the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics technology and western blot analysis confirmed that there were more than 10 complement components (complement factor I, C1q-A, C1q-B, C2, C3, C4, C5, C7, C8β and complement factor D) in the nerve regeneration conditioned fluid and each varied at different time points. These findings suggest that all these complement components have a functional role in nerve regeneration. PMID:27212935

  17. Current Bioengineering Methods for Whole Kidney Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Kidney regeneration is likely to provide an inexhaustible source of tissues and organs for immunosuppression-free transplantation. It is currently garnering considerable attention and might replace kidney dialysis as the ultimate therapeutic strategy for renal failure. However, anatomical complications make kidney regeneration difficult. Here, we review recent advances in the field of kidney regeneration, including (i) the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells/embryonic stem cells into kidney cells; (ii) blastocyst decomplementation; (iii) use of a decellularized cadaveric scaffold; (iv) embryonic organ transplantation; and (v) use of a nephrogenic niche for growing xenoembryos for de novo kidney regeneration from stem cells. All these approaches represent potentially promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Although many obstacles to kidney regeneration remain, we hope that innovative strategies and reliable research will ultimately allow the restoration of renal function in patients with end-stage kidney disease. PMID:26089921

  18. Tityus: a forgotten myth of liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tiniakos, Dina G; Kandilis, Apostolos; Geller, Stephen A

    2010-08-01

    The ancient Greek myth of Tityus is related to liver regeneration in the same way as the well known myth of Prometheus is. Depictions of the punishment of Prometheus are frequently used by lecturers on liver regeneration; however, Tityus remains unknown despite the fact that he received the same punishment and his myth could also be used as a paradigm for the organ's extraordinary ability to regenerate. Nevertheless, there is no convincing evidence that ancient Greeks had any specific knowledge about liver regeneration, a concept introduced in the early 19th century. We describe and analyze the myth of Tityus and compare it to the myth of Prometheus. We also explore artistic and literary links and summarize recent scientific data on the mechanisms of liver regeneration. Finally, we highlight links of the legend of Tityus with other sciences.

  19. NOx adsorber and method of regenerating same

    DOEpatents

    Endicott, Dennis L.; Verkiel, Maarten; Driscoll, James J.

    2007-01-30

    New technologies, such as NOx adsorber catalytic converters, are being used to meet increasingly stringent regulations on undesirable emissions, including NOx emissions. NOx adsorbers must be periodically regenerated, which requires an increased fuel consumption. The present disclosure includes a method of regenerating a NOx adsorber within a NOx adsorber catalytic converter. At least one sensor positioned downstream from the NOx adsorber senses, in the downstream exhaust, at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations a plurality of times during a regeneration phase. The sensor is in communication with an electronic control module that includes a regeneration monitoring algorithm operable to end the regeneration phase when a time rate of change of the at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations is after an expected plateau region begins.

  20. Tityus: a forgotten myth of liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tiniakos, Dina G; Kandilis, Apostolos; Geller, Stephen A

    2010-08-01

    The ancient Greek myth of Tityus is related to liver regeneration in the same way as the well known myth of Prometheus is. Depictions of the punishment of Prometheus are frequently used by lecturers on liver regeneration; however, Tityus remains unknown despite the fact that he received the same punishment and his myth could also be used as a paradigm for the organ's extraordinary ability to regenerate. Nevertheless, there is no convincing evidence that ancient Greeks had any specific knowledge about liver regeneration, a concept introduced in the early 19th century. We describe and analyze the myth of Tityus and compare it to the myth of Prometheus. We also explore artistic and literary links and summarize recent scientific data on the mechanisms of liver regeneration. Finally, we highlight links of the legend of Tityus with other sciences. PMID:20472318

  1. Characterization of glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor (GLP2R) gene in chickens: functional analysis, tissue distribution, and developmental expression profile of GLP2R in embryonic intestine.

    PubMed

    Mo, C; Zhong, Y; Wang, Y; Yan, Z; Li, J

    2014-07-01

    This study characterized the glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor (GLP2R) gene of chickens because relatively little is known about the underlying mechanism of GLP2 actions in nonmammalian species. With the use of reverse transcription PCR, we first cloned the chicken GLP2R (cGLP2R) from adult intestine, which was predicted to encode a 529-amino acid receptor precursor. With the use of a pGL3-CRE luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated that cGLP2R expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells could be potently activated by cGLP2 (half maximal effective concentration, 1.06 nM) but not by its structurally related peptides, including the newly identified glucagon-like peptide, indicating that cGLP2R is a functional receptor specific to cGLP2. Reverse transcription PCR assay revealed that cGLP2R mRNA was widely expressed in adult chicken tissues, including pancreas and various parts of the gastrointestinal tract. With the use of quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assays, we further investigated the mRNA expression of cGLP2R and its potential downstream mediators, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands (heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, epiregulin, and amphiregulin), in the distal duodenum of developing embryos. The mRNA expression levels of GLP2R and EGFR ligands (heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and amphiregulin) were shown to increase (P < 0.05 or 0.01) during the late embryonic stages (E16 and E20), implying a potential coordinated action of GLP2 and EGFR ligands on embryonic intestine development. Taken together, our findings not only establish a molecular basis to explore the physiological roles of GLP2 in birds, but they also provide comparative insights into the roles of GLP2R and its ligand in vertebrates, such as its roles in embryonic intestine development.

  2. Molecular cloning and evolutionary analysis of captive forest musk deer bitter taste receptor gene T2R16.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G J; Wu, N; Li, D Y; Zeng, D J; Chen, Q; Lu, L; Feng, X L; Zhang, C L; Zheng, C L; Jie, H

    2015-12-08

    Sensing bitter tastes is crucial for most animals because it can prevent them from ingesting harmful food. This process is mainly mediated by the bitter taste receptors (T2R) that are largely expressed in the taste buds. Previous studies have identified some T2R gene repertoires. Marked variation in repertoire size has been noted among species. However, research on T2Rs is still limited and the mechanisms underlying the evolution of vertebrate T2Rs remain poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed the structure and features of the protein encoded by the forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) T2R16 and submitted the gene sequence to NCBI GenBank. The results showed that the full coding DNA sequence (CDS) of musk deer T2R16 (GenBank accession No. KP677279) was 906 bp, encoding 301 amino acids, which contained ATG start codon and TGA stop codon, with a calculated molecular weight of 35.03 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.56. The T2R16 protein receptor had seven conserved transmembrane regions. Hydrophobicity analysis showed that most amino acid residues in T2R16 protein were hydrophobic, and the grand average of hydrophobicity (GRAVY) was 0.657. Phylogenetic analysis based on this gene revealed that forest musk deer had the closest association with sheep (Ovis aries), as compared to cow (Bos taurus), Tursiops truncatus, and other species, whereas it was genetically farthest from humans (Homo sapiens). We hope these results would complement the existing data on T2R16 and encourage further research in this respect.

  3. MeCP2 R168X male and female mutant mice exhibit Rett-like behavioral deficits.

    PubMed

    Schaevitz, L R; Gómez, N B; Zhen, D P; Berger-Sweeney, J E

    2013-10-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a regressive developmental disorder characterized by motor and breathing abnormalities, anxiety, cognitive dysfunction and seizures. Approximately 95% of RTT cases are caused by more than 200 different mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). While numerous transgenic mice have been created modeling common mutations in MeCP2, the behavioral phenotype of many of these male and, especially, female mutant mice has not been well characterized. Thorough phenotyping of additional RTT mouse models will provide valuable insight into the effects of Mecp2 mutations on behavior and aid in the selection of appropriate models, ages, sexes and outcome measures for preclinical trials. In this study, we characterize the phenotype of male and female mice containing the early truncating MeCP2 R168X nonsense point mutation, one of the most common in RTT individuals, and compare the phenotypes to Mecp2 null mutants. Mecp2(R168X) mutants mirror many clinical features of RTT. Mecp2(R168X/y) males exhibit impaired motor and cognitive function and reduced anxiety. The behavioral phenotype is less severe and with later onset in Mecp2(R168X/+) females. Seizures were noted in 3.7% of Mecp2(R168X) mutant females. The phenotype in Mecp2(R168X/y) mutant males is remarkably similar to our previous characterizations of Mecp2 null males, whereas Mecp2(R168X/+) females exhibit a number of phenotypic differences from females heterozygous for a null Mecp2 mutation. This study describes a number of highly robust behavioral paradigms that can be used in preclinical drug trials and underscores the importance of including Mecp2 mutant females in preclinical studies.

  4. High speed optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Michael Y.; Livas, Jeff

    2005-02-01

    This overview will discuss core network technology and cost trade-offs inherent in choosing between "analog" architectures with high optical transparency, and ones heavily dependent on frequent "digital" signal regeneration. The exact balance will be related to the specific technology choices in each area outlined above, as well as the network needs such as node geographic spread, physical connectivity patterns, and demand loading. Over the course of a decade, optical networks have evolved from simple single-channel SONET regenerator-based links to multi-span multi-channel optically amplified ultra-long haul systems, fueled by high demand for bandwidth at reduced cost. In general, the cost of a well-designed high capacity system is dominated by the number of optical to electrical (OE) and electrical to optical (EO) conversions required. As the reach and channel capacity of the transport systems continued to increase, it became necessary to improve the granularity of the demand connections by introducing (optical add/drop multiplexers) OADMs. Thus, if a node requires only small demand connectivity, most of the optical channels are expressed through without regeneration (OEO). The network costs are correspondingly reduced, partially balanced by the increased cost of the OADM nodes. Lately, the industry has been aggressively pursuing a natural extension of this philosophy towards all-optical "analog" core networks, with each demand touching electrical digital circuitry only at the in/egress nodes. This is expected to produce a substantial elimination of OEO costs, increase in network capacity, and a notionally simpler operation and service turn-up. At the same time, such optical "analog" network requires a large amount of complicated hardware and software for monitoring and manipulating high bit rate optical signals. New and more complex modulation formats that provide resiliency to both optical noise and nonlinear propagation effects are important for extended

  5. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. PMID:26377817

  6. Initial results from the rebuilt EXTRAP T2R RFP device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Gravestijn, R. M.; Hedqvist\\ad{2 }, A.; Malmberg, J.-A.

    2001-11-01

    The EXTRAP T2R thin shell reversed-field pinch (RFP) device has recently resumed operation after a major rebuild including the replacement of the graphite armour with molybdenum limiters, a fourfold increase of the shell time constant, and the replacement of the helical coil used for the toroidal field with a conventional solenoid-type coil. Wall-conditioning using hydrogen glow discharge cleaning was instrumental for successful RFP operation. Carbon was permanently removed from the walls during the first week of operation. The initial results from RFP operation with relatively low plasma currents in the range Ip = 70-100 kA are reported. RFP discharges are sustained for more than three shell times. Significant improvements in plasma parameters are observed, compared to operation before the rebuild. There is a substantial reduction in the carbon impurity level. The electron density behaviour is more shot-to-shot reproducible. The typical density is ne = 0.5-1×1019 m-3. Monitors of Hα line radiation indicate that the plasma wall interaction is more toroidally symmetric and that there is less transient gas release from the wall. The minimum loop voltage is in the range Vt = 28-35 V, corresponding to a reduction by a factor of two to three compared to the value before the rebuild.

  7. Resistive wall modes in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Yadikin, D.; Cecconello, M.

    2003-10-01

    Resistive wall modes (RWM) in the reversed field pinch are studied and a detailed comparison of experimental growth rates and linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory is made. RWM growth rates are experimentally measured in the thin shell device EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1 (2001)]. Linear MHD calculations of RWM growth rates are based on experimental equilibria. Experimental and linear MHD RWM growth rate dependency on the equilibrium profiles is investigated experimentally by varying the pinch parameter Θ=Bθ(a)/ in the range Θ=1.5-1.8. Quantitative agreement between experimental and linear MHD growth rates is seen. The dominating RWMs are the internal on-axis modes (having the same helicity as the central equilibrium field). At high Θ, external nonresonant modes are also observed. For internal modes experimental growth rates decrease with Θ while for external modes, growth rates increase with Θ. The effect of RWMs on the reversed-field pinch plasma performance is discussed.

  8. The oil palm VIRESCENS gene controls fruit colour and encodes a R2R3-MYB.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Marjuni, Marhalil; Chan, Pek-Lan; Ithnin, Maizura; Manaf, Mohd Arif Abdul; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Rosli, Rozana; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lakey, Nathan; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Hogan, Michael; He, Dong; MacDonald, Jill D; Smith, Steven W; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm, a plantation crop of major economic importance in Southeast Asia, is the predominant source of edible oil worldwide. We report the identification of the virescens (VIR) gene, which controls fruit exocarp colour and is an indicator of ripeness. VIR is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor with homology to Lilium LhMYB12 and similarity to Arabidopsis production of anthocyanin pigment1 (PAP1). We identify five independent mutant alleles of VIR in over 400 accessions from sub-Saharan Africa that account for the dominant-negative virescens phenotype. Each mutation results in premature termination of the carboxy-terminal domain of VIR, resembling McClintock's C1-I allele in maize. The abundance of alleles likely reflects cultural practices, by which fruits were venerated for magical and medicinal properties. The identification of VIR will allow selection of the trait at the seed or early-nursery stage, 3-6 years before fruits are produced, greatly advancing introgression into elite breeding material. PMID:24978855

  9. The oil palm VIRESCENS gene controls fruit colour and encodes a R2R3-MYB

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Marjuni, Marhalil; Chan, Pek-Lan; Ithnin, Maizura; Manaf, Mohd Arif Abdul; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Rosli, Rozana; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Budiman, Muhammad A.; Lakey, Nathan; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Hogan, Michael; He, Dong; MacDonald, Jill D.; Smith, Steven W.; Ordway, Jared M.; Martienssen, Robert A.; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm, a plantation crop of major economic importance in Southeast Asia, is the predominant source of edible oil worldwide. We report the identification of the VIRESCENS (VIR) gene, which controls fruit exocarp colour and is an indicator of ripeness. VIR is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor with homology to Lilium LhMYB12 and similarity to Arabidopsis PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP1). We identify five independent mutant alleles of VIR in over 400 accessions from sub-Saharan Africa that account for the dominant-negative virescens phenotype. Each mutation results in premature termination of the carboxy-terminal domain of VIR, resembling McClintock’s C1-I allele in maize. The abundance of alleles likely reflects cultural practices, by which fruits were venerated for magical and medicinal properties. The identification of VIR will allow selection of the trait at the seed or early-nursery stage, 3-6 years before fruits are produced, greatly advancing introgression into elite breeding material. PMID:24978855

  10. Modified gravity with f(R)={radical}(R{sup 2}-R{sub 0}{sup 2})

    SciTech Connect

    Baghram, Shant; Farhang, Marzieh; Rahvar, Sohrab

    2007-02-15

    In this work we propose a modified gravity with the action f(R)={radical}(R{sup 2}-R{sub 0}{sup 2}) instead of the Einstein-Hilbert action to describe the late time acceleration of the Universe. We obtain the equation of the modified gravity both in the metric and Palatini formalisms. An asymptotic solution of gravity equations corresponding to a constant Ricci scalar causes a late time acceleration of the Universe. We do a conformal transformation in the action of the modified gravity and obtain the equivalent minimally coupled scalar-tensor gravity. The equivalent Brans-Dicke gravity of this model is also studied. To examine this model with observation, the perihelion precession of the Mercury is compared with our prediction and we put an upper constraint of R{sub 0}

  11. Herbicide tolerant regenerates of potato.

    PubMed

    Wersuhn, G; Kirsch, K; Gienapp, R

    1987-08-01

    Culture-derived plants and cell cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) respond to the application of the herbicides SYS 67 ME (MCPA) and OMNIDEL (Na-2,2-dichloropropionate) in a comparable fashion. By gradually increasing the herbicide concentration, cell lines were developed which tolerated 50 mg/l of ME or 300 mg/l of OMNIDEL. Any further increase in concentration resulted in the death of all cell cultures. From cell cultures that had been able to grow on media supplemented with 30 mg/l of ME, regenerate plants were obtained that were also tolerant to this concentration. This new trait was retained even after repeated vegetative propagation of the plants.

  12. Solar-regenerated desiccant dehumidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haves, P.

    1982-02-01

    The dehumidification requirements of buildings are discussed, and the most suitable desiccant material is identified as silica gel. Several conceptual designs for solar regenerated desiccant dehumidifiers using a solid desiccant are described. The construction and operation of a laboratory experiment to determine the performance of a packed bed of silica gel at low flow rate is described. The experimental results are presented and compared to the predictions of a simple computer model which assumes local equilibrium between the desiccant and the airstream. The simulations used to predict desiccant bed performance and the integration of the desiccant bed simulation with a simulation of the thermal performance of a passively cooled residence are described. Results for an average July day are presented. Sizing relationships derived from the simulation are described, and an economic analysis and recommendations for further work are presented.

  13. Animal models of skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Grabowska, Anna; Kopcewicz, Marta; Kur, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Cutaneous injury in the majority of vertebrate animals results in the formation of a scar in the post-injured area. Scar tissues, although beneficial for maintaining integrity of the post-wounded region often interferes with full recovery of injured tissues. The goal of wound-healing studies is to identify mechanisms to redirect reparative pathways from debilitating scar formation to regenerative pathways that lead to normal functionality. To perform such studies models of regeneration, which are rare in mammals, are required. In this review we discussed skin regenerative capabilities present in lower vertebrates and in models of skin scar-free healing in mammals, e.g. mammalian fetuses. However, we especially focused on the attributes of two unusual models of skin scar-free healing capabilities that occur in adult mammals, that is, those associated with nude, FOXN1-deficient mice and in wild-type African spiny mice.

  14. Regenerator for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Lewakowski, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A rotary disc-type counterflow regenerator for a gas turbine engine includes a disc-shaped ceramic core surrounded by a metal rim which carries a coaxial annular ring gear. Bonding of the metal rim to the ceramic core is accomplished by constructing the metal rim in three integral portions: a driving portion disposed adjacent the ceramic core which carries the ring gear, a bonding portion disposed further away from the ceramic core and which is bonded thereto by elastomeric pads, and a connecting portion connecting the bonding portion to the driving portion. The elastomeric pads are bonded to radially flexible mounts formed as part of the metal rim by circumferential slots in the transition portion and lateral slots extending from one end of the circumferential slots across the bonding portion of the rim.

  15. MHD seed recovery and regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-10-01

    The TRW Econoseed MHD Seed Regeneration Process is based on the reaction of calcium formate with potassium sulfate spent seed from an MHD electric power generation plant. The process was tested at bench scale, design a proof of concept (POC) test plant, plan and cost a Phase 2 project for a POC plant evaluation and prepare a conceptual design of a 300 MW (t) commercial plant. The results of the project are as follows: (1) each of the unit operations is demonstrated, and (2) the data are incorporated into a POC plant design and project cost, as well as a 300 MW (t) commercial retrofit plant design and cost estimate. Specific results are as follows: (1) calcium formate can be produced at 100 percent yield in a total retention time of less than 5 minutes, (2) utilizing the calcium formate, spent seed can quantitatively be converted to potassium formate, potassium carbonate or mixtures of these with potassium sulfate as per the commercial design without measurable loss of potassium to insolubles at a total retention time under 20 minutes and ambient pressure, (3) the solid rejects form the process meet RCRA EP Toxicity requirements for safe disposal, and (4) filtration and evaporation data, as well as reaction data cited above, show that the Econoseed technology is ready for scale up to POC plant scale. Economics forecast studies show that the total cost per unit of potassium for seed regeneration by the Econoseed Process is in the range of $0.23 to $0.27/lb, a cost which is less than half the potassium cost of $0.63/lb for purchasing new potassium carbonate.

  16. Association of Anti-PLA2R Antibodies with Outcomes after Immunosuppressive Therapy in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hofstra, Julia M.; Brenchley, Paul E.; Wetzels, Jack F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimal timing and duration of immunosuppressive therapy for idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) have been debated. This study aimed to evaluate whether measuring the antibody against the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R-ab) at start and end of therapy predicts long-term outcome and therefore may inform this debate. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This observational study included all consecutive high-risk patients with progressive iMN observed from 1997 to 2005 and treated with oral cyclophosphamide (CP) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in combination with corticosteroids for 12 months. Patients were prospectively followed, and outcome was ascertained up to 5 years after completion of immunosuppressive therapy. Serum samples were collected before and after completion of therapy. PLA2R antibodies were determined retrospectively in stored samples using ELISA. Results In total, 48 patients (37 men) were included. The median age was 55 years (range, 34–75), and the median serum creatinine level was 1.60 mg/dl (range, 0.98–3.37 mg/dl). Twenty-two patients received MMF and 26 received CP. At baseline, PLA2R-abs were present in 34 patients (71%). Baseline characteristics and outcome did not significantly differ between patients negative or positive for PLA2R-ab. In PLA2R-ab–positive patients, treatment resulted in a rapid decrease of antibodies: median anti–PLA2R-ab, 428 U/ml (range, 41–16,260 U/ml) at baseline and 24 U/ml (range, 0–505 U/ml) after 2 months. The PLA2R-ab levels at baseline did not predict initial response, but antibody status at end of therapy predicted long-term outcome: After 5 years, 14 of 24 (58%) antibody-negative patients were in persistent remission compared with 0 of 9 (0%) antibody-positive patients (P=0.003). Conclusions These data suggest that in PLA2R-ab–positive patients, measuring PLA2R-abs at the end of therapy predicts the subsequent course. PMID:25035272

  17. The Evolutionary History of R2R3-MYB Proteins Across 50 Eukaryotes: New Insights Into Subfamily Classification and Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hai; Liang, Zhe; Zhao, Sen; Nan, Ming-Ge; Phan Tran, Lam-Son; Lu, Kun; Huang, Yu-Bi; Li, Jia-Na

    2015-01-01

    R2R3-MYB proteins (2R-MYBs) are one of the main transcription factor families in higher plants. Since the evolutionary history of this gene family across the eukaryotic kingdom remains unknown, we performed a comparative analysis of 2R-MYBs from 50 major eukaryotic lineages, with particular emphasis on land plants. A total of 1548 candidates were identified among diverse taxonomic groups, which allowed for an updated classification of 73 highly conserved subfamilies, including many newly identified subfamilies. Our results revealed that the protein architectures, intron patterns, and sequence characteristics were remarkably conserved in each subfamily. At least four subfamilies were derived from early land plants, 10 evolved from spermatophytes, and 19 from angiosperms, demonstrating the diversity and preferential expansion of this gene family in land plants. Moreover, we determined that their remarkable expansion was mainly attributed to whole genome and segmental duplication, where duplicates were preferentially retained within certain subfamilies that shared three homologous intron patterns (a, b, and c) even though up to 12 types of patterns existed. Through our integrated distributions, sequence characteristics, and phylogenetic tree analyses, we confirm that 2R-MYBs are old and postulate that 3R-MYBs may be evolutionarily derived from 2R-MYBs via intragenic domain duplication. PMID:26047035

  18. The Evolutionary History of R2R3-MYB Proteins Across 50 Eukaryotes: New Insights Into Subfamily Classification and Expansion.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Liang, Zhe; Zhao, Sen; Nan, Ming-Ge; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Lu, Kun; Huang, Yu-Bi; Li, Jia-Na

    2015-06-05

    R2R3-MYB proteins (2R-MYBs) are one of the main transcription factor families in higher plants. Since the evolutionary history of this gene family across the eukaryotic kingdom remains unknown, we performed a comparative analysis of 2R-MYBs from 50 major eukaryotic lineages, with particular emphasis on land plants. A total of 1548 candidates were identified among diverse taxonomic groups, which allowed for an updated classification of 73 highly conserved subfamilies, including many newly identified subfamilies. Our results revealed that the protein architectures, intron patterns, and sequence characteristics were remarkably conserved in each subfamily. At least four subfamilies were derived from early land plants, 10 evolved from spermatophytes, and 19 from angiosperms, demonstrating the diversity and preferential expansion of this gene family in land plants. Moreover, we determined that their remarkable expansion was mainly attributed to whole genome and segmental duplication, where duplicates were preferentially retained within certain subfamilies that shared three homologous intron patterns (a, b, and c) even though up to 12 types of patterns existed. Through our integrated distributions, sequence characteristics, and phylogenetic tree analyses, we confirm that 2R-MYBs are old and postulate that 3R-MYBs may be evolutionarily derived from 2R-MYBs via intragenic domain duplication.

  19. Genome-Wide Identification of R2R3-MYB Genes and Expression Analyses During Abiotic Stress in Gossypium raimondii

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiuling; Jones, Don C.; Li, Wei; Xie, Fuliang; Ma, Jun; Sun, Runrun; Wang, Qinglian; Zhu, Shuijin; Zhang, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    The R2R3-MYB is one of the largest families of transcription factors, which have been implicated in multiple biological processes. There is great diversity in the number of R2R3-MYB genes in different plants. However, there is no report on genome-wide characterization of this gene family in cotton. In the present study, a total of 205 putative R2R3-MYB genes were identified in cotton D genome (Gossypium raimondii), that are much larger than that found in other cash crops with fully sequenced genomes. These GrMYBs were classified into 13 groups with the R2R3-MYB genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The amino acid motifs and phylogenetic tree were predicted and analyzed. The sequences of GrMYBs were distributed across 13 chromosomes at various densities. The results showed that the expansion of the G. Raimondii R2R3-MYB family was mainly attributable to whole genome duplication and segmental duplication. Moreover, the expression pattern of 52 selected GrMYBs and 46 GaMYBs were tested in roots and leaves under different abiotic stress conditions. The results revealed that the MYB genes in cotton were differentially expressed under salt and drought stress treatment. Our results will be useful for determining the precise role of the MYB genes during stress responses with crop improvement. PMID:27009386

  20. Weak Evidence of Regeneration Habitat but Strong Evidence of Regeneration Niche for a Leguminous Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Michalet, Richard; Pellerin, Sylvain; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ecological niche specific to the regeneration phase has mobilised significant attention. However, the importance of the regeneration niche concept remains unclear. Our main objective was to study the existence of such a regeneration niche for a leguminous shrub, Ulex europaeus. This study was carried out in southwest France in the context of water and nutrient stresses (mainly phosphorus limitation) due to the presence of nutrient-poor sandy soils. We analysed the regeneration of the species from the germination of seeds and emergence of new seedlings until the seedlings reached young shrub size. Our design included a P fertilisation treatment. We also investigated microsite characteristics (micro-topography and vegetation development) as they can interact with meteorological conditions and determine water availability for seeds and seedlings. We found that P availability controlled seedling growth and the time necessary to reach young shrub size. Water availability appeared to impact the species germination and seedlings survival. We also found that P and water availability depended on the interactions between microsite characteristics and climatic variations. Finally we found evidence that P and water availability are important ecological factors shaping the regeneration niche of the species, but we found weak evidence that any microsite would be appropriate for the regeneration of the species in the long term. Future studies regarding regeneration niches need to distinguish more clearly the ecological factors important for regeneration (the regeneration niche per se) and the physical world where the seedlings appear and develop (the regeneration habitat). PMID:26098877

  1. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal−distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal−distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure. PMID:27499865

  2. What makes a RAG regeneration associated?

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Thong C.; Willis, Dianna E.

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative failure remains a significant barrier for functional recovery after central nervous system (CNS) injury. As such, understanding the physiological processes that regulate axon regeneration is a central focus of regenerative medicine. Studying the gene transcription responses to axon injury of regeneration competent neurons, such as those of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), has provided insight into the genes associated with regeneration. Though several individual “regeneration-associated genes” (RAGs) have been identified from these studies, the response to injury likely regulates the expression of functionally coordinated and complementary gene groups. For instance, successful regeneration would require the induction of genes that drive the intrinsic growth capacity of neurons, while simultaneously downregulating the genes that convey environmental inhibitory cues. Thus, this view emphasizes the transcriptional regulation of gene “programs” that contribute to the overall goal of axonal regeneration. Here, we review the known RAGs, focusing on how their transcriptional regulation can reveal the underlying gene programs that drive a regenerative phenotype. Finally, we will discuss paradigms under which we can determine whether these genes are injury-associated, or indeed necessary for regeneration. PMID:26300725

  3. Muscle Cells Provide Instructions for Planarian Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Witchley, Jessica N.; Mayer, Mirjam; Wagner, Daniel E.; Owen, Jared H.; Reddien, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration requires both potential and instructions for tissue replacement. In planarians, pluripotent stem cells have the potential to produce all new tissue. The identities of the cells that provide regeneration instructions are unknown. Here, we report that position control genes (PCGs) that control regeneration and tissue turnover are expressed in a subepidermal layer of nonneoblast cells. These subepidermal cells coexpress many PCGs. We propose that these subepidermal cells provide a system of body coordinates and positional information for regeneration, and identify them to be muscle cells of the planarian body wall. Almost all planarian muscle cells express PCGs, suggesting a dual function: contraction and control of patterning. PCG expression is dynamic in muscle cells after injury, even in the absence of neoblasts, suggesting that muscle is instructive for regeneration. We conclude that planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of any body region. PMID:23954785

  4. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27014076

  5. RSK1 protects P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 against ubiquitin–proteasomal degradation by downregulating the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 R1

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Chiaki; Noguchi, Kohji; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a critical determinant of multidrug resistance in cancer. We previously reported that MAPK inhibition downregulates P-gp expression and that P-gp undergoes ubiquitin–proteasomal degradation regulated by UBE2R1 and SCFFbx15. Here, we investigated the crosstalk between MAPK inhibition and the ubiquitin–proteasomal degradation of P-gp. Proteasome inhibitors or knockdown of FBXO15 and/or UBE2R1 cancelled MEK inhibitor-induced P-gp downregulation. RSK1 phosphorylated Thr162 on UBE2R1 but did not phosphorylate FBXO15. MEK and RSK inhibitors increased UBE2R1-WT but not UBE2R1-T162D and -T162A expression. UBE2R1-T162D showed higher self-ubiquitination and destabilisation than UBE2R1-WT and -T162A. Unlike UBE2R1-WT and -T162A, UBE2R1-T162D did not induce P-gp ubiquitination. UBE2R1-WT or -T162A downregulated P-gp expression and upregulated rhodamine 123 level and sensitivity to vincristine and doxorubicin. However, UBE2R1-T162D did not confer any change in P-gp expression, rhodamine 123 accumulation and sensitivity to the drugs. These results suggest that RSK1 protects P-gp against ubiquitination by reducing UBE2R1 stability. PMID:27786305

  6. Chemistry of Durable and Regenerable Biocidal Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gang; Worley, S. Dave

    2005-01-01

    Unlike the widely used slow-releasing biocidal mechanism now employed in biocidal textiles, a novel regenerable process, based on a regeneration principle and halamine chemistry, has been developed in antimicrobial finishing of textiles. Halamine-modified textile materials demonstrate durable and regenerable antimicrobial functions and execute rapid inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms by contact without yielding drug resistance. The unique properties of the products render them useful materials for medical-use and hygienic textiles. The chemistry of the biocidal materials is be discussed. See Featured Molecules .

  7. Reparative inflammation takes charge of tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Karin, Michael; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-21

    Inflammation underlies many chronic and degenerative diseases, but it also mitigates infections, clears damaged cells and initiates tissue repair. Many of the mechanisms that link inflammation to damage repair and regeneration in mammals are conserved in lower organisms, indicating that it is an evolutionarily important process. Recent insights have shed light on the cellular and molecular processes through which conventional inflammatory cytokines and Wnt factors control mammalian tissue repair and regeneration. This is particularly important for regeneration in the gastrointestinal system, especially for intestine and liver tissues in which aberrant and deregulated repair results in severe pathologies.

  8. Reparative inflammation takes charge of tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Karin, Michael; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-21

    Inflammation underlies many chronic and degenerative diseases, but it also mitigates infections, clears damaged cells and initiates tissue repair. Many of the mechanisms that link inflammation to damage repair and regeneration in mammals are conserved in lower organisms, indicating that it is an evolutionarily important process. Recent insights have shed light on the cellular and molecular processes through which conventional inflammatory cytokines and Wnt factors control mammalian tissue repair and regeneration. This is particularly important for regeneration in the gastrointestinal system, especially for intestine and liver tissues in which aberrant and deregulated repair results in severe pathologies. PMID:26791721

  9. Cardiac muscle regeneration: lessons from development

    PubMed Central

    Mercola, Mark; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Schneider, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The adult human heart is an ideal target for regenerative intervention since it does not functionally restore itself after injury yet has a modest regenerative capacity that could be enhanced by innovative therapies. Adult cardiac cells with regenerative potential share gene expression signatures with early fetal progenitors that give rise to multiple cardiac cell types, suggesting that the evolutionarily conserved regulatory networks that drive embryonic heart development might also control aspects of regeneration. Here we discuss commonalities of development and regeneration, and the application of the rich developmental biology heritage to achieve therapeutic regeneration of the human heart. PMID:21325131

  10. Mechanisms of Guided Bone Regeneration: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Kerns, David G

    2014-01-01

    Post-extraction crestal bone resorption is common and unavoidable which can lead to significant ridge dimensional changes. To regenerate enough bone for successful implant placement, Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) is often required. GBR is a surgical procedure that uses barrier membranes with or without particulate bone grafts or/and bone substitutes. There are two approaches of GBR in implant therapy: GBR at implant placement (simultaneous approach) and GBR before implant placement to increase the alveolar ridge or improve ridge morphology (staged approach). Angiogenesis and ample blood supply play a critical role in promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24894890

  11. Peripheral Axons of the Adult Zebrafish Maxillary Barbel Extensively Remyelinate During Sensory Appendage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alex C.; Mark, Tiffany E.; Hogan, Ann K.; Topczewski, Jacek; LeClair, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    Myelination is a cellular adaptation allowing rapid conduction along axons. We have investigated peripheral axons of the zebrafish maxillary barbel (ZMB), an optically clear sensory appendage. Each barbel carries taste buds, solitary chemosensory cells, and epithelial nerve endings, all of which regenerate after amputation (LeClair and Topczewski [2010] PLoS One 5:e8737). The ZMB contains axons from the facial nerve; however, myelination within the barbel itself has not been established. Transcripts of myelin basic protein (mbp) are expressed in normal and regenerating adult barbels, indicating activity in both maintenance and repair. Myelin was confirmed in situ by using toluidine blue, an anti-MBP antibody, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The adult ZMB contains ~180 small-diameter axons (<2 μm), approximately 60% of which are myelinated. Developmental myelination was observed via whole-mount immunohistochemistry 4-6 weeks postfertilization, showing myelin sheaths lagging behind growing axons. Early-regenerating axons (10 days postsurgery), having no or few myelin layers, were disorganized within a fibroblast-rich collagenous scar. Twenty-eight days postsurgery, barbel axons had grown out several millimeters and were organized with compact myelin sheaths. Fiber types and axon areas were similar between normal and regenerated tissue; within 4 weeks, regenerating axons restored ~85% of normal myelin thickness. Regenerating barbels express multiple promyelinating transcription factors (sox10, oct6 = pou3f1; krox20a/b = egr2a/b) typical of Schwann cells. These observations extend our understanding of the zebrafish peripheral nervous system within a little-studied sensory appendage. The accessible ZMB provides a novel context for studying axon regeneration, Schwann cell migration, and remyelination in a model vertebrate. PMID:22592645

  12. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  13. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels. PMID:26501253

  14. Multiple charge density wave transitions in the antiferromagnets R NiC2 (R =Gd ,Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, S.; Hayashi, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Ohnuma, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Nakao, H.; Mizumaki, M.; Onodera, H.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray scattering and electrical resistivity measurements were performed on GdNiC2 and TbNiC2. We found a set of satellite peaks characterized by q1=(0.5 ,η ,0 ) below T1, at which the resistivity shows a sharp inflection, suggesting the charge density wave (CDW) formation. The value of η decreases with decreasing temperature below T1, and then a transition to a commensurate phase with q1 C=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0 ) takes place. The diffuse scattering observed above T1 indicates the presence of soft phonon modes associated with CDW instabilities at q1 and q2=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0.5 ) . The long-range order given by q2 is developed in addition to that given by q1 C in TbNiC2, while the short-range correlation with q2 persists even at 6 K in GdNiC2. The amplitude of the q1 C lattice modulation is anomalously reduced below an antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN in GdNiC2. In contrast, the q2 order vanishes below TN in TbNiC2. We demonstrate that R NiC2 (R = rare earth) compounds exhibit similarities with respect to their CDW phenomena, and discuss the effects of magnetic transitions on CDWs. We offer a possible displacement pattern of the modulated structure characterized by q1 C and q2 in terms of frustration.

  15. Photoemission Study of the Rare Earth Intermetallic Compounds: RNi2Ge2 (R=Eu, Gd)

    SciTech Connect

    Jongik Park

    2004-12-19

    EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} are two members of the RT{sub 2}X{sub 2} (R = rare earth, T = transition metal and X = Si, Ge) family of intermetallic compounds, which has been studied since the early 1980s. These ternary rare-earth intermetallic compounds with the tetragonal ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure are known for their wide variety of magnetic properties, Extensive studies of the RT{sub 2}X{sub 2} series can be found in Refs [ 1,2,3]. The magnetic properties of the rare-earth nickel germanides RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} were recently studied in more detail [4]. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the electronic structure (both valence band and shallow core levels) of single crystals of EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and to check the assumptions that the f electrons are non-interacting and, consequently, the rigid-band model for these crystals would work [11], using synchrotron radiation because, to the best of our knowledge, no photoemission measurements on those have been reported. Photoemission spectroscopy has been widely used to study the detailed electronic structure of metals and alloys, and especially angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has proven to be a powerful technique for investigating Fermi surfaces (FSs) of single-crystal compounds.

  16. Kepler light-curve analysis of the blazar W2R 1926+42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, P.; Gupta, Alok C.; Bachev, Rumen; Strigachev, Anton

    2016-02-01

    We study the long term Kepler light curve of the blazar W2R 1926+42 (˜1.6 yr) which indicates a variety of variability properties during different intervals of observation. The normalized excess variance, Fvar ranges from 1.8 per cent in the quiescent phase and 43.3 per cent in the outburst phase. We find no significant deviation from linearity in the Fvar-flux relation. Time series analysis is conducted using the Fourier power spectrum and the wavelet analysis methods to study the power spectral density (PSD) shape, infer characteristic time-scales and statistically significant quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). A bending power law with an associated time-scale of T_B = 6.2^{+6.4}_{-3.1} hours is inferred in the PSD analysis. We obtain a black hole mass of M• = (1.5-5.9) × 107 M⊙ for the first time using Fvar and the bend time-scale for this source. From a mean outburst lifetime of days, we infer a distance from the jet base r ≤ 1.75 pc indicating that the outburst originates due to a shock. A possible QPO peaked at 9.1 d and lasting 3.4 cycles is inferred from the wavelet analysis. Assuming that the QPO is a true feature, r = (152-378)GM•/c2 and supported by the other timing analysis products such as a weighted mean PSD slope of -1.5 ± 0.2 from the PSD analysis, we argue that the observed variability and the weak and short duration QPO could be due to jet based processes including orbital features in a relativistic helical jet and others such as shocks and turbulence.

  17. Three R2R3-MYB transcription factors regulate distinct floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chen, You-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2015-05-01

    Orchidaceae are well known for their fascinating floral morphologic features, specialized pollination, and distinctive ecological strategies. With their long-lasting flowers of various colors and pigmentation patterning, Phalaenopsis spp. have become important ornamental plants worldwide. In this study, we identified three R2R3-MYB transcription factors PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12. Their expression profiles were concomitant with red color formation in Phalaenopsis spp. flowers. Transient assay of overexpression of three PeMYBs verified that PeMYB2 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation, and these PeMYBs could activate the expression of three downstream structural genes Phalaenopsis spp. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase5, Phalaenopsis spp. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase1, and Phalaenopsis spp. Anthocyanidin synthase3. In addition, these three PeMYBs participated in the distinct pigmentation patterning in a single flower, which was revealed by virus-induced gene silencing. In the sepals/petals, silencing of PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12 resulted in the loss of the full-red pigmentation, red spots, and venation patterns, respectively. Moreover, different pigmentation patterning was regulated by PeMYBs in the sepals/petals and lip. PeMYB11 was responsive to the red spots in the callus of the lip, and PeMYB12 participated in the full pigmentation in the central lobe of the lip. The differential pigmentation patterning was validated by RNA in situ hybridization. Additional assessment was performed in six Phalaenopsis spp. cultivars with different color patterns. The combined expression of these three PeMYBs in different ratios leads to a wealth of complicated floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

  18. Haplotypes at the Tas2r locus on distal chromosome 6 vary with quinine taste sensitivity in inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Theodore M; Munger, Steven D; Boughter, John D

    2005-01-01

    Background The detection of bitter-tasting compounds by the gustatory system is thought to alert animals to the presence of potentially toxic food. Some, if not all, bitter stimuli activate specific taste receptors, the T2Rs, which are expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells on the tongue and palate. However, there is evidence for both receptor-dependent and -independent transduction mechanisms for a number of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride (QHCl) and denatonium benzoate (DB). Results We used brief-access behavioral taste testing of BXD/Ty recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to map the major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for taste sensitivity to QHCl. This QTL is restricted to a ~5 Mb interval on chromosome 6 that includes 24 genes encoding T2Rs (Tas2rs). Tas2rs at this locus display in total 307 coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the two BXD/Ty RI parental strains, C57BL/6J (quinine-sensitive) and DBA/2J (quinine insensitive); approximately 50% of these mutations are silent. Individual RI lines contain exclusively either C57BL/6J or DBA/2J Tas2r alleles at this locus, and RI lines containing C57BL/6J Tas2r alleles are more sensitive to QHCl than are lines containing DBA/2J alleles. Thus, the entire Tas2r cluster comprises a large haplotype that correlates with quinine taster status. Conclusion These studies, the first using a taste-salient assay to map the major QTL for quinine taste, indicate that a T2R-dependent transduction cascade is responsible for the majority of strain variance in quinine taste sensitivity. Furthermore, the large number of polymorphisms within coding exons of the Tas2r cluster, coupled with evidence that inbred strains exhibit largely similar bitter taste phenotypes, suggest that T2R receptors are quite tolerant to variation. PMID:15938754

  19. Hypothalamic orexin, OX1, alphaMSH, NPY and MCRs expression in dopaminergic D2R knockout mice.

    PubMed

    García-Tornadú, I; Díaz-Torga, G; Risso, G S; Silveyra, P; Cataldi, N; Ramirez, M C; Low, M J; Libertun, C; Becu-Villalobos, D

    2009-08-01

    In 5-month-old male and female dopamine receptor 2 (D2R) knockout mice food intake per animal was unaltered while food per g BW was increased. We wished to evaluate the effect of D2R disruption on different components of energy balance and food intake regulation. We determined hypothalamic orexin precursor (PPO) expression, its receptor OX1, serum leptin levels, hypothalamic leptin receptor (OBR), circulating and pituitary alpha MSH levels, as well as central MC3 and MC4 receptors and NPY mRNA in wildtype and D2R knockout mice (KO). Loss of D2R caused a marked increase in serum prolactin levels, to higher levels in females compared to male KO mice. On the other hand, it produced a female-specific increase in circulating alphaMSH, and hypothalamic alphaMSH content, while neurointermediate alphaMSH content was decreased in both sexes. No differences were found in hypothalamic NPY, MC3R or MC4R concentration. Hypothalamic PPO mRNA expression was significantly decreased only in female KOs, while OX1 mRNA was not different between genotypes. Serum leptin levels were also similar in both genotypes. Our results show that in female and not in male mice disruption of the D2R produces two potentially anorexigenic events: an increase in serum and hypothalamic alphaMSH, and a decrease in hypothalamic orexin expression. Very high prolactin levels, which are orexigenic, probably counterbalance these effects, so that food intake is slightly altered. In males, on the other hand, hypothalamic PPO, and serum or hypothalamic alphaMSH are not modified, and increased prolactin levels may account for increased food intake per g BW. These results suggest a sexually dimorphic participation of the D2R in food intake regulation.

  20. Regulation of axon regeneration by the RNA repair/splicing pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuanquan; Sretavan, David; Salegio, Ernesto A; Berg, Jim; Huang, Xi; Cheng, Tong; Xiong, Xin; Meltzer, Shan; Han, Chun; Nguyen, Trong-Tuong; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Beattie, Michael S.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms governing a neuron’s regenerative ability are important but not well understood. We identified Rtca, RNA 3′-terminal phosphate cyclase, as an inhibitor for axon regeneration. Removal of dRtca cell-autonomously enhanced axon regrowth in the Drosophila central nervous system, whereas its overexpression reduced axon regeneration in the periphery. Rtca along with the RNA ligase Rtcb and its catalyst Archease operate in the RNA repair/splicing pathway important for stress induced mRNA splicing, including that of Xbp1, a cellular stress sensor. dRtca and dArchease had opposing effects on Xbp1 splicing, and deficiency of dArchease or Xbp1 impeded axon regeneration in Drosophila. Moreover, overexpressing mammalian Rtca in cultured rodent neurons reduced axonal complexity in vitro, whereas reducing its function promoted retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration after optic nerve crush in mice. Our study thus links axon regeneration to cellular stress and RNA metabolism, revealing new potential therapeutic targets for treating nervous system trauma. PMID:25961792

  1. A Chemical Screen Identifies Novel Compounds That Overcome Glial-Mediated Inhibition Of Neuronal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Lynn C.; Johnstone, Andrea; Ertürk, Ali; Hu, Ying; Strikis, Dinara; Wanner, Ina B.; Moorman, Sanne; Lee, Jae-Wook; Min, Jaeki; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Duan, Yuanli; Hoffman, Stanley; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.; Bradke, Frank; Chang, Young-Tae; Lemmon, Vance P.; Bixby, John L.

    2010-01-01

    A major barrier to regeneration of central nervous system (CNS) axons is the presence of growth-inhibitory proteins associated with myelin and the glial scar. To identify chemical compounds with the ability to overcome the inhibition of regeneration, we screened a novel triazine library, based on the ability of compounds to increase neurite outgrowth from cerebellar neurons on inhibitory myelin substrates. The screen produced 4 “hit compounds”, which act with nM potency on several different neuronal types, and on several distinct substrates relevant to glial inhibition. Moreover, the compounds selectively overcome inhibition rather than promote growth in general. The compounds do not affect neuronal cAMP levels, PKC activity, or EGFR activation. Interestingly, one of the compounds alters microtubule dynamics and increases microtubule density in both fibroblasts and neurons. This same compound promotes regeneration of dorsal column axons after acute lesions, and potentiates regeneration of optic nerve axons after nerve crush in vivo. These compounds should provide insight into the mechanisms through which glial-derived inhibitors of regeneration act, and could lead to the development of novel therapies for CNS injury. PMID:20357120

  2. Urodelean amphibians in studies on microgravity: effects upon organ and tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, E. N.; Mitashov, V. I.; Anton, H. J.

    Results obtained from nine experiments performed onboard Russian biosatellites have shown that microgravity promotes tissue regeneration in the newt, Pleurodeles waltl. The effect has been reproduced in all flights and on a clinostat as well for eye tissues (lens and retina), limbs and tail. The effect was demonstrated in 1.5- to 2 -fold increase in cell proliferation in the early stages of regeneration in space flight. Animals "flown" intact and operated after flight regenerated faster than control ones and showed long-lasting micro-"g" effect. The most recent experiment flew aboard the Bion-11 biosatellite. This test was performed for study on microgravity effect on neural retina regeneration after optic nerve lesioning in the newt. Obtained results confirmed our previous information about intensification of regenerative processes in detached neural retina in urodela exposed to simulated weightlessness (Grigoryan et al., 1998). In particular, we found the increase and activation of cell populations participating in neural retina restoration and maintenance of retinal structure. Our findings suggest that promoting effect of microgravity upon regeneration could be influenced by several factors, largely influenced by a response of the whole organism to changed gravity vector. We hypothesized the synthesis of the specific range of stress proteins induced by micro-"g" and their regulative role in cell proliferation. Such a hypothesis for the existence of "altered gravity stress proteins" is discussed.

  3. The Effect of Plasma Exposure on Tail Regeneration of Tadpoles Xenopus Laevis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    June, Joyce; Rivie, Adonis; Ezuduemoih, Raphael; Menon, Jaishri; Martus, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Wound healing requires a balanced combination of nutrients and growth factors for healing and tissue regeneration. The effect of plasma exposure on tail regeneration of tadpoles, Xenopus laevis is investigated. The exposure of the wound to the helium plasma immediately followed the amputation of 40% of the tail. Amputation of the tail initiates regeneration of spinal cord, muscle, notochord, skin and connective tissues. By 24 h, the wound was covered by wound epithelium and blastema was formed by day 5. There was increased angiogenesis in plasma exposed tail regenerate compared to the control following 5 d post amputation. Observed was an increase in NO production in the regenerate of plasma exposed tadpoles was derived from increased activity of nNOS and iNOS. Western blot analysis for vascular endothelial growth factor showed stronger bands for the protein in amputated tadpoles of both the groups. Analysis of the composition and characteristics of the plasma using optical emission spectroscopy indicates excited state species consisting of N2, N2+,and OH is present in the plasma. This study was supported, in part, by the NSF Grant 1040108.

  4. Urodelean amphibians in studies on microgravity: effects upon organ and tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Grigoryan, E N; Mitashov, V I; Anton, H J

    2002-01-01

    Results obtained from nine experiments performed onboard Russian biosatellites have shown that microgravity promotes tissue regeneration in the newt, Pleurodeles waltl. The effect has been reproduced in all flights and on a clinostat as well for eye tissues (lens and retina), limbs and tail. The effect was demonstrated in 1.5- to 2-fold increase in cell proliferation in the early stages of regeneration in space flight. Animals "flown" intact and operated after flight regenerated faster than control ones and showed long-lasting micro-"g" effect. The most recent experiment flew aboard the Bion-11 biosatellite. This test was performed for study on microgravity effect on neural retina regeneration after optic nerve lesioning in the newt. Obtained results confirmed our previous information about intensification of regenerative processes in detached neural retina in urodela exposed to simulated weightlessness (Grigoryan et al., 1998). In particular, we found the increase and activation of cell populations participating in neural retina restoration and maintenance of retinal structure. Our findings suggest that promoting effect of microgravity upon regeneration could be influenced by several factors, largely influenced by a response of the whole organism to changed gravity vector. We hypothesized the synthesis of the specific range of stress proteins induced by micro-"g" and their regulative role in cell proliferation. Such a hypothesis for the existence of "altered gravity stress proteins" is discussed.

  5. Elucidating the metabolic regulation of liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiansheng; Rudnick, David A

    2014-02-01

    The regenerative capability of liver is well known, and the mechanisms that regulate liver regeneration are extensively studied. Such analyses have defined general principles that govern the hepatic regenerative response and implicated specific extracellular and intracellular signals as regulated during and essential for normal liver regeneration. Nevertheless, the most proximal events that stimulate liver regeneration and the distal signals that terminate this process remain incompletely understood. Recent data suggest that the metabolic response to hepatic insufficiency might be the proximal signal that initiates regenerative hepatocellular proliferation. This review provides an overview of the data in support of a metabolic model of liver regeneration and reflects on the clinical implications and areas for further study suggested by these findings.

  6. Organic solvent regeneration of granular activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, W. H.; Suidan, M. T.; Roller, M. A.; Kim, B. R.; Gould, J. P.

    1982-09-01

    The use of activated carbon for the treatment of industrial waste-streams was shown to be an effective treatment. The high costs associated with the replacement or thermal regeneration of the carbon have prohibited the economic feasibility of this process. The in situ solvent regeneration of activated carbon by means of organic solvent extraction was suggested as an economically alternative to thermal regeneration. The important aspects of the solvent regeneration process include: the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, the pore size distribution and energy of adsorption associated with the activated carbon; the degree of solubility of the adsorbate in the organic solvent; the miscibility of the organic solvent in water; and the temperature at which the generation is performed.

  7. Regenerable hydrogen storage in lithium amidoborane.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ziwei; Tan, Yingbin; Chen, Xiaowei; Yu, Xuebin

    2012-09-25

    Regenerable hydrogen storage of lithium amidoborane is firstly achieved through the routes of direct thermal dehydrogenation and subsequent chemical hydrogenation of its dehydrogenated products by treatment with hydrazine in liquid ammonia. PMID:22875287

  8. Composite Matrix Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    This project concerns the design, fabrication and testing of carbon regenerators for use in Stirling power convertors. Radial fiber design with nonmetallic components offers a number of potential advantages over conventional steel regenerators: reduced conduction and pressure drop losses, and the capability for higher temperature, higher frequency operation. Diverse composite fabrication methods are explored and lessons learned are summarized. A pulsed single-blow test rig has been developed that has been used for generating thermal effectiveness data for different flow velocities. Carbon regenerators have been fabricated by carbon vapor infiltration of electroflocked preforms. Performance data in a small Stirling engine are obtained. Prototype regenerators designed for the BP-1000 power convertor were fabricated and delivered to NASA-Lewis.

  9. Homeobox genes expressed during echinoderm arm regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ben Khadra, Yousra; Said, Khaled; Thorndyke, Michael; Martinez, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    Regeneration in echinoderms has proved to be more amenable to study in the laboratory than the more classical vertebrate models, since the smaller genome size and the absence of multiple orthologs for different genes in echinoderms simplify the analysis of gene function during regeneration. In order to understand the role of homeobox-containing genes during arm regeneration in echinoderms, we isolated the complement of genes belonging to the Hox class that are expressed during this process in two major echinoderm groups: asteroids (Echinaster sepositus and Asterias rubens) and ophiuroids (Amphiura filiformis), both of which show an extraordinary capacity for regeneration. By exploiting the sequence conservation of the homeobox, putative orthologs of several Hox genes belonging to the anterior, medial, and posterior groups were isolated. We also report the isolation of a few Hox-like genes expressed in the same systems. PMID:24309817

  10. How-To-Do-It: Plant Regeneration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietraface, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a procedure for the growth of tobacco plants in flasks. Demonstrates plant tissue culture manipulation, totipotency, and plant regeneration in approximately 12 weeks. Discusses methods, materials, and expected results. (CW)

  11. An electrocaloric refrigerator without external regenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Haiming; Qian, Xiao-Shi; Ye, Hui-Jian; Zhang, Q. M.

    2014-10-01

    Regeneration processes are commonly used in cooling devices to improve the device performance. However, irreversible heat loss within the regenerators in many earlier designs of magnetocaloric and electrocaloric (EC) based cooling devices reduces the device performance. In this paper, an electrocaloric based refrigerator without external regenerators is proposed and studied. The regeneration process in this device is realized by direct heat exchange between contacting EC elements which are moving in opposite directions with different applied fields. Simulation results show that a 37 W/cm3 cooling power density is obtained for a Tspan of 20 K while the refrigerator still maintains 57% of Carnot efficiency for a cooling device made of an EC polymer.

  12. Degeneration and regeneration of ganglion cell axons.

    PubMed

    Weise, J; Ankerhold, R; Bähr, M

    2000-01-15

    The retino-tectal system has been used to study developmental aspects of axon growth, synapse formation and the establishment of a precise topographic order as well as degeneration and regeneration of adult retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons after axonal lesion. This paper reviews some novel findings that provide new insights into the mechanisms of developmental RGC axon growth, pathfinding, and target formation. It also focuses on the cellular and molecular cascades that underlie RGC degeneration following an axonal lesion and on some therapeutic strategies to enhance survival of axotomized RGCs in vivo. In addition, this review deals with problems related to the induction of regeneration after axonal lesion in the adult CNS using the retino-tectal system as model. Different therapeutic approaches to promote RGC regeneration and requirements for specific target formation of regenerating RGCs in vitro and in vivo are discussed. PMID:10649506

  13. Hyperbaric Oxygen Promotes Proximal Bone Regeneration and Organized Collagen Composition during Digit Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sammarco, Mimi C.; Simkin, Jennifer; Cammack, Alexander J.; Fassler, Danielle; Gossmann, Alexej; Marrero, Luis; Lacey, Michelle; Van Meter, Keith; Muneoka, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is critical for optimal bone regeneration. While axolotls and salamanders have retained the ability to regenerate whole limbs, mammalian regeneration is restricted to the distal tip of the digit (P3) in mice, primates, and humans. Our previous study revealed the oxygen microenvironment during regeneration is dynamic and temporally influential in building and degrading bone. Given that regeneration is dependent on a dynamic and changing oxygen environment, a better understanding of the effects of oxygen during wounding, scarring, and regeneration, and better ways to artificially generate both hypoxic and oxygen replete microenvironments are essential to promote regeneration beyond wounding or scarring. To explore the influence of increased oxygen on digit regeneration in vivo daily treatments of hyperbaric oxygen were administered to mice during all phases of the entire regenerative process. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) and histological analysis showed that the daily application of hyperbaric oxygen elicited the same enhanced bone degradation response as two individual pulses of oxygen applied during the blastema phase. We expand past these findings to show histologically that the continuous application of hyperbaric oxygen during digit regeneration results in delayed blastema formation at a much more proximal location after amputation, and the deposition of better organized collagen fibers during bone formation. The application of sustained hyperbaric oxygen also delays wound closure and enhances bone degradation after digit amputation. Thus, hyperbaric oxygen shows the potential for positive influential control on the various phases of an epimorphic regenerative response. PMID:26452224

  14. Hyperbaric Oxygen Promotes Proximal Bone Regeneration and Organized Collagen Composition during Digit Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Mimi C; Simkin, Jennifer; Cammack, Alexander J; Fassler, Danielle; Gossmann, Alexej; Marrero, Luis; Lacey, Michelle; Van Meter, Keith; Muneoka, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is critical for optimal bone regeneration. While axolotls and salamanders have retained the ability to regenerate whole limbs, mammalian regeneration is restricted to the distal tip of the digit (P3) in mice, primates, and humans. Our previous study revealed the oxygen microenvironment during regeneration is dynamic and temporally influential in building and degrading bone. Given that regeneration is dependent on a dynamic and changing oxygen environment, a better understanding of the effects of oxygen during wounding, scarring, and regeneration, and better ways to artificially generate both hypoxic and oxygen replete microenvironments are essential to promote regeneration beyond wounding or scarring. To explore the influence of increased oxygen on digit regeneration in vivo daily treatments of hyperbaric oxygen were administered to mice during all phases of the entire regenerative process. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) and histological analysis showed that the daily application of hyperbaric oxygen elicited the same enhanced bone degradation response as two individual pulses of oxygen applied during the blastema phase. We expand past these findings to show histologically that the continuous application of hyperbaric oxygen during digit regeneration results in delayed blastema formation at a much more proximal location after amputation, and the deposition of better organized collagen fibers during bone formation. The application of sustained hyperbaric oxygen also delays wound closure and enhances bone degradation after digit amputation. Thus, hyperbaric oxygen shows the potential for positive influential control on the various phases of an epimorphic regenerative response.

  15. Two-mode injection-locked FP laser receiver: a regenerator for long-distance stable fiber delivery of radio-frequency standards.

    PubMed

    Nikas, Thomas; Bogris, Adonis; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2015-03-15

    We propose and experimentally validate a new cost-effective optical receiver-regenerator scheme for long-distance microwave-frequency standard dissemination, based on the properties of dual-wavelength injection locked Fabry-Perot (FP) lasers. The regenerator FP laser is injection locked to one of its longitudinal modes by the incoming intensity-modulated light carrying the microwave-frequency standard. The light of a local CW laser is also injected in the regenerator FP, locking it to an adjacent mode. The dual-injection locked laser reproduces the sinusoidal microwave-frequency standard on both wavelengths. The regenerated original signal is transmitted to the next node, whilst the local wavelength is fed back to the previous node for phase error extraction and link compensation. The performance of the proposed regenerator is demonstrated with Allan deviation and phase-noise measurements. PMID:25768138

  16. The nuclear events guiding successful nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kiryu-Seo, Sumiko; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons survive and regenerate after nerve injury, whereas central nervous system (CNS) neurons lack the capacity to do so. The inability of the CNS to regenerate presumably results from a lack of intrinsic growth activity and a permissive environment. To achieve CNS regeneration, we can learn from successful nerve regeneration in the PNS. Neurons in the PNS elicit dynamic changes in gene expression in response to permissive environmental cues following nerve injury. To switch gene expression on and off in injured neurons, transcription factors and their networks should be carefully orchestrated according to the regeneration program. This is the so-called “intrinsic power of axonal growth.” There is an increasing repertoire of candidate transcription factors induced by nerve injury. Some of them potentiate the survival and axonal regeneration of damaged neurons in vivo; however, our knowledge of transcriptional events in injured neurons is still limited. How do these transcription factors communicate with each other? How does the transcriptional machinery regulate the wide variety of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) in the properly coordinated manner? In this review, we describe our current understanding of the injury-inducible transcriptional factors that enhance the intrinsic growth capacity, and propose a potential role for specificity protein 1 (Sp1), which provides a platform to recruit injury-inducible transcription factors, in simultaneous gene regulation. Finally, we discuss an additional mechanism that is involved in epigenetic modifications in damaged neurons. A comprehensive understanding of the nuclear events in injured neurons will provide clues to clinical interventions for successful nerve regeneration. PMID:22180737

  17. Cell healing: calcium, repair and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Alison; Golding, Adriana E.; Bement, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell repair is attracting increasing attention due to its conservation, its importance to health, and its utility as a model for cell signaling and cell polarization. However, some of the most fundamental questions concerning cell repair have yet to be answered. Here we consider three such questions: 1) How are wound holes stopped? 2) How is cell regeneration achieved after wounding? 3) How is calcium inrush linked to wound stoppage and cell regeneration? PMID:26514621

  18. Straight-Pore Microfilter with Efficient Regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.; McCallum. Thomas J.; Schmitt, Edwin W.

    2010-01-01

    A novel, high-efficiency gas particulate filter has precise particle size screening, low pressure drop, and a simple and fast regeneration process. The regeneration process, which requires minimal material and energy consumption, can be completely automated, and the filtration performance can be restored within a very short period of time. This filter is of a novel material composite that contains the support structure and a novel coating.

  19. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    1992-01-01

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases.

  20. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  1. Emdogain--periodontal regeneration based on biomimicry.

    PubMed

    Gestrelius, S; Lyngstadaas, S P; Hammarström, L

    2000-06-01

    Biomimicry has been introduced as a term for innovations inspired by nature [1]. Such innovations may appear in almost every part of modern society. This review on the effects of enamel matrix proteins on the formation of cementum and the development of emdogain for regeneration of periodontal tissues lost due to periodontitis shows an example of biomimicry in dentistry. Findings from clinical and laboratory investigations are summarized and the biological basis for enamel matrix-induced periodontal regeneration is discussed.

  2. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  3. On-line regeneration of hydrodesulfurization catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Preston, Jr., John L.

    1980-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is regenerated as it concurrently hydrotreats a hydrocarbon fuel by introducing a low concentration of oxygen into the catalyst bed either continuously or periodically. At low oxygen concentrations the carbon deposits on the catalyst are burned off without harming the catalyst and without significantly affecting the hydrotreating process. In a preferred embodiment the hydrotreating process is hydrodesulfurization, and regenerating is done periodically with oxygen concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 volume percent.

  4. Solid electrolyte oxygen regeneration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumar, J. W.; See, G. G.; Schubert, F. H.; Powell, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A program to design, develop, fabricate and assemble a one-man, self-contained, solid electrolyte oxygen regeneration system (SX-1) incorporating solid electrolyte electrolyzer drums was completed. The SX-1 is a preprototype engineering model designed to produce 0.952 kg (2.1 lb)/day of breathable oxygen (O2) from the electrolysis of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor. The CO2 supply rate was established based on the metabolic CO2 generation rate for one man of 0.998 kg (2.2 lb)/day. The water supply rate (0.254 kg (0.56 lb)/day) was designed to be sufficient to make up the difference between the 0.952 kg (2.1 lb)/day O2 generation specification and the O2 available through CO2 electrolysis, 0.726 kg (1.6 lb)/day. The SX-1 was successfully designed, fabricated and assembled. Design verification tests (DVT) or the CO Disproportionators, H2 separators, control instrumentation, monitor instrumentation, water feed mechanism were successfully completed. The erratic occurrence of electrolyzer drum leakage prevented the completion of the CO2 electrolyzer module and water electrolyzer module DVT's and also prevented the performance of SX-1 integrated testing. Further development work is required to improve the solid electrolyte cell high temperature seals.

  5. Scaffold Design for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Polo-Corrales, Liliana; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Ramirez-Vick, Jaime E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of bone grafts is the standard to treat skeletal fractures, or to replace and regenerate lost bone, as demonstrated by the large number of bone graft procedures performed worldwide. The most common of these is the autograft, however, its use can lead to complications such as pain, infection, scarring, blood loss, and donor-site morbidity. The alternative is allografts, but they lack the osteoactive capacity of autografts and carry the risk of carrying infectious agents or immune rejection. Other approaches, such as the bone graft substitutes, have focused on improving the efficacy of bone grafts or other scaffolds by incorporating bone progenitor cells and growth factors to stimulate cells. An ideal bone graft or scaffold should be made of biomaterials that imitate the structure and properties of natural bone ECM, include osteoprogenitor cells and provide all the necessary environmental cues found in natural bone. However, creating living tissue constructs that are structurally, functionally and mechanically comparable to the natural bone has been a challenge so far. This focus of this review is on the evolution of these scaffolds as bone graft substitutes in the process of recreating the bone tissue microenvironment, including biochemical and biophysical cues. PMID:24730250

  6. Engineered matrices for bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, Shelley R.; Hu, Yunhua; Pugh, Amy; Brown, Leanna; Nguyen, Jesse T.; Hollinger, Jeffrey O.

    2000-06-01

    Traditional therapies of autografts and allogeneic banked bone can promote reasonable clinical outcome to repair damaged bone. However, under certain conditions the success of these traditional approaches plummets, providing the incentive for researchers to develop clinical alternatives. The evolving field of tissue engineering in the musculoskeletal system attempts to mimic many of the components from the intact, healthy subject. Those components consist of a biologic scaffold, cells, extracellular matrix, and signaling molecules. The bone biomimetic, i.e., an engineered matrix, provides a porous structural architecture for the regeneration and ingrowth of osseous tissue at the site of injury. To further enhance the regenerative cascade, our strategy has involved porous biodegradable scaffolds containing and releasing signaling molecules and providing a suitable environment for cell attachment, growth and differentiation. In addition, the inclusion of genetically modified osteogenic precursor cells has brought the technology closer to developing a tissue-engineered equivalent. The presentation will describe various formulations and the methods utilized to evaluate the clinical utility of these biomimetics.

  7. MHD seed recovery/regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task 1 calls for the design, procurement, construction, and installation of the Seed Regeneration Proof-of-Concept Facility (SRPF) that will produce tonnage quantities of recyclable potassium formate seed at a design rate of 250 lb/hr for testing in the channel at the CDIF while collecting data that will be used to upgrade the design of a 300 MW(sub t) system. Approximately 12 tons of KCOOH (dry basis) as 70-75 wt percent solution were produced. The front end of the plant (potassium sulfate reaction and solids separation/washing units) was operated for five days in March. Most of the operations were conducted at a spent seed feed rate of 250 pounds/hour. A total of 8,500 gallons of dilute KCOOH solution was generated containing approximately 2.6 tons of potassium formate (dry basis). The average KCOOH content of this solution was 7 wt percent. The design KCOOH solution concentration for the front end of the plant is 8.5 wt percent. The evaporation unit was operated for a total of six days during March. Approximately 2.5 tons of potassium formate (dry basis) were processed through the evaporator and concentrated to greater then 7 wt percent.

  8. Optic glioma

    MedlinePlus

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  9. Patient derived mutation W257G of PPP2R1A enhances cancer cell migration through SRC-JNK-c-Jun pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ae Lee; Han, Sora; Lee, Sunyi; Su Park, Jeong; Lu, Yiling; Yu, Shuangxing; Li, Jane; Chun, Kyung-Hee; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Young

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of PPP2R1A has been observed at high frequency in endometrial serous carcinomas but at low frequency in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. However, the biological role of mutation of PPP2R1A in ovarian and endometrial cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we found that PPP2R1A expression is elevated in high-grade primary tumor patients with papillary serous tumors of the ovary. To determine whether increased levels or mutation of PPP2R1A might contribute to cancer progression, the effects of overexpression or mutation of PPP2R1A on cell proliferation, migration, and PP2A phosphatase activity were investigated using ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines. Among the mutations, PPP2R1A-W257G enhanced cell migration in vitro through activating SRC-JNK-c-Jun pathway. Overexpression of wild type (WT) PPP2R1A increased its binding ability with B56 regulatory subunits, whereas PPP2R1A-mutations lost the ability to bind to most B56 subunits except B56δ. Total PP2A activity and PPP2R1A-associated PP2Ac activity were significantly increased in cells overexpressing PPP2R1A-WT. In addition, overexpression of PPP2R1A-WT increased cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. PMID:27272709

  10. Hedgehog Signaling during Appendage Development and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhairab N; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Donaldson, Andrew; Weaver, Cyprian V; Garry, Mary G; Garry, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory networks that govern embryonic development have been well defined. While a common hypothesis supports the notion that the embryonic regulatory cascades are reexpressed following injury and tissue regeneration, the mechanistic regulatory pathways that mediate the regenerative response in higher organisms remain undefined. Relative to mammals, lower vertebrates, including zebrafish and newts, have a tremendous regenerative capacity to repair and regenerate a number of organs including: appendages, retina, heart, jaw and nervous system. Elucidation of the pathways that govern regeneration in these lower organisms may provide cues that will enhance the capacity for the regeneration of mammalian organs. Signaling pathways, such as the hedgehog pathway, have been shown to play critical functions during development and during regeneration in lower organisms. These signaling pathways have been shown to modulate multiple processes including cellular origin, positional identity and cellular maturation. The present review will focus on the cellular and molecular regulation of the hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway and its interaction with other signaling factors during appendage development and regeneration. PMID:26110318

  11. The art of fin regeneration in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferli, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish fin provides a valuable model to study the epimorphic type of regeneration, whereby the amputated part of the appendage is nearly perfectly replaced. To accomplish fin regeneration, two reciprocally interacting domains need to be established at the injury site, namely a wound epithelium and a blastema. The wound epithelium provides a supporting niche for the blastema, which contains mesenchyme‐derived progenitor cells for the regenerate. The fate of blastemal daughter cells depends on their relative position with respect to the fin margin. The apical compartment of the outgrowth maintains its undifferentiated character, whereas the proximal descendants of the blastema progressively switch from the proliferation program to the morphogenesis program. A delicate balance between self‐renewal and differentiation has to be continuously adjusted during the course of regeneration. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of blastema formation, and discusses several studies related to the regulation of growth and morphogenesis during fin regeneration. A wide range of canonical signaling pathways has been implicated during the establishment and maintenance of the blastema. Epigenetic mechanisms play a crucial role in the regulation of cellular plasticity during the transition between differentiation states. Ion fluxes, gap‐junctional communication and protein phosphatase activity have been shown to coordinate proliferation and tissue patterning in the caudal fin. The identification of the downstream targets of the fin regeneration signals and the discovery of mechanisms integrating the variety of input pathways represent exciting future aims in this fascinating field of research. PMID:27499869

  12. Hedgehog Signaling during Appendage Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhairab N.; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Donaldson, Andrew; Weaver, Cyprian V.; Garry, Mary G.; Garry, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory networks that govern embryonic development have been well defined. While a common hypothesis supports the notion that the embryonic regulatory cascades are reexpressed following injury and tissue regeneration, the mechanistic regulatory pathways that mediate the regenerative response in higher organisms remain undefined. Relative to mammals, lower vertebrates, including zebrafish and newts, have a tremendous regenerative capacity to repair and regenerate a number of organs including: appendages, retina, heart, jaw and nervous system. Elucidation of the pathways that govern regeneration in these lower organisms may provide cues that will enhance the capacity for the regeneration of mammalian organs. Signaling pathways, such as the hedgehog pathway, have been shown to play critical functions during development and during regeneration in lower organisms. These signaling pathways have been shown to modulate multiple processes including cellular origin, positional identity and cellular maturation. The present review will focus on the cellular and molecular regulation of the hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway and its interaction with other signaling factors during appendage development and regeneration. PMID:26110318

  13. Cell-based strategies for vascular regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tongqiang; Fan, Jiabing; Fartash, Armita; Liu, Haifeng; Fan, Yubo

    2016-05-01

    Vascular regeneration is known to play an essential role in the repair of injured tissues mainly through accelerating the repair of vascular injury caused by vascular diseases, as well as the recovery of ischemic tissues. However, the clinical vascular regeneration is still challenging. Cell-based therapy is thought to be a promising strategy for vascular regeneration, since various cells have been identified to exert important influences on the process of vascular regeneration such as the enhanced endothelium formation on the surface of vascular grafts, and the induction of vessel-like network formation in the ischemic tissues. Here are a vast number of diverse cell-based strategies that have been extensively studied in vascular regeneration. These strategies can be further classified into three main categories, including cell transplantation, construction of tissue-engineered grafts, and surface modification of scaffolds. Cells used in these strategies mainly refer to terminally differentiated vascular cells, pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, and unipotent stem cells. The aim of this review is to summarize the reported research advances on the application of various cells for vascular regeneration, yielding insights into future clinical treatment for injured tissue/organ. PMID:26864677

  14. Implantable, multifunctional, bioresorbable optics

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hu; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Siebert, Sean M.; Pritchard, Eleanor M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Panilaitis, Bruce J. B.; Brenckle, Mark A.; Amsden, Jason J.; Levitt, Jonathan; Fantini, Sergio; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in personalized medicine are symbiotic with the development of novel technologies for biomedical devices. We present an approach that combines enhanced imaging of malignancies, therapeutics, and feedback about therapeutics in a single implantable, biocompatible, and resorbable device. This confluence of form and function is accomplished by capitalizing on the unique properties of silk proteins as a mechanically robust, biocompatible, optically clear biomaterial matrix that can house, stabilize, and retain the function of therapeutic components. By developing a form of high-quality microstructured optical elements, improved imaging of malignancies and of treatment monitoring can be achieved. The results demonstrate a unique family of devices for in vitro and in vivo use that provide functional biomaterials with built-in optical signal and contrast enhancement, demonstrated here with simultaneous drug delivery and feedback about drug delivery with no adverse biological effects, all while slowly degrading to regenerate native tissue. PMID:23150544

  15. Implantable, multifunctional, bioresorbable optics.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hu; Kainerstorfer, Jana M; Siebert, Sean M; Pritchard, Eleanor M; Sassaroli, Angelo; Panilaitis, Bruce J B; Brenckle, Mark A; Amsden, Jason J; Levitt, Jonathan; Fantini, Sergio; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2012-11-27

    Advances in personalized medicine are symbiotic with the development of novel technologies for biomedical devices. We present an approach that combines enhanced imaging of malignancies, therapeutics, and feedback about therapeutics in a single implantable, biocompatible, and resorbable device. This confluence of form and function is accomplished by capitalizing on the unique properties of silk proteins as a mechanically robust, biocompatible, optically clear biomaterial matrix that can house, stabilize, and retain the function of therapeutic components. By developing a form of high-quality microstructured optical elements, improved imaging of malignancies and of treatment monitoring can be achieved. The results demonstrate a unique family of devices for in vitro and in vivo use that provide functional biomaterials with built-in optical signal and contrast enhancement, demonstrated here with simultaneous drug delivery and feedback about drug delivery with no adverse biological effects, all while slowly degrading to regenerate native tissue. PMID:23150544

  16. Expression of bitter taste receptors of the T2R family in the gastrointestinal tract and enteroendocrine STC-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S. Vincent; Rozengurt, Nora; Yang, Moon; Young, Steven H.; Sinnett-Smith, James; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    Although a role for the gastric and intestinal mucosa in molecular sensing has been known for decades, the initial molecular recognition events that sense the chemical composition of the luminal contents has remained elusive. Here we identified putative taste receptor gene transcripts in the gastrointestinal tract. Our results, using reverse transcriptase–PCR, demonstrate the presence of transcripts corresponding to multiple members of the T2R family of bitter taste receptors in the antral and fundic gastric mucosa as well as in the lining of the duodenum. In addition, cDNA clones of T2R receptors were detected in a rat gastric endocrine cell cDNA library, suggesting that these receptors are expressed, at least partly, in enteroendocrine cells. Accordingly, expression of multiple T2R receptors also was found in STC-1 cells, an enteroendocrine cell line. The expression of α subunits of G proteins implicated in intracellular taste signal transduction, namely Gαgust, and Gαt-2, also was demonstrated in the gastrointestinal mucosa as well as in STC-1 cells, as revealed by reverse transcriptase–PCR and DNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Furthermore, addition of compounds widely used in bitter taste signaling (e.g., denatonium, phenylthiocarbamide, 6-n-propil-2-thiouracil, and cycloheximide) to STC-1 cells promoted a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These results demonstrate the expression of bitter taste receptors of the T2R family in the mouse and rat gastrointestinal tract. PMID:11854532

  17. Characterization of a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are important phenylpropanoid metabolites in plants. In this study, we isolated and characterized a citrus R2R3-MYB transcription factor CsMYBF1, encoding a protein belonging to the flavonol-specific MYB subgroup. Ectopic expression of CsMYBF1 in tomato led to an ...

  18. Maxwell's Handbook for AACR2R: Explaining and Illustrating the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules and the 1993 Amendments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Robert L.; Maxwell, Margaret F.

    This handbook is designed to assist experienced catalogers and library school students in the application of the most commonly used rules for bibliographic description, choice of access points, and form of headings in accordance with the revised Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2R). The book is intended as a supplement to the text of the…

  19. VS{sub 2}/rGO hybrid nanosheets prepared by annealing of VS{sub 4}/rGO

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, Pandurangan; Yang, Jieun; Jena, Anirudha; Suk Shin, Hyeon

    2015-04-15

    Layered transition metal dichalcogenides and their hybrids with reduced grpahene oxide (rGO) have attracted much interest due to many potential applications for electrode materials in Li ion batteries and supercapacitors and electro-catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction. Among them, synthesis of VS{sub 2} sheets and VS{sub 4}/rGO hybrid via a hydrothermal reaction was recently reported, whereas VS{sub 2}/rGO hybrid sheets have not been reported. In this study, we report VS{sub 2}/rGO hybrid sheets after annealing VS{sub 4}/rGO hybrid materials at 350 °C. The conversion of VS{sub 4} to VS{sub 2} on rGO sheets after annealing is attributed to a thermal cleavage of VS{sub 4}. - Highlights: • VS2/rGO hybrid sheets were obtained by annealing of VS4/rGO at 350 °C. • The phase transition from monoclinic to hexagonal is occurred. • The HER performance of VS2/rGO is investigated.

  20. Association of age at onset in Huntington disease with functional promoter variations in NPY and NPY2R.

    PubMed

    Kloster, Eugen; Saft, Carsten; Akkad, Denis A; Epplen, Jörg T; Arning, Larissa

    2014-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat within exon 1 of the HTT gene. Although the variation in age at onset (AO) is partly explained by the lengths of the expanded repeats, the unexplained variation is highly heritable, emphasizing the role of the so-called genetic background on disease expression. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated in the modulation of neuroprotection, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in order to test the possibility that genetic variation in NPY or three of its receptor genes (NPY1R, NPY2R, and NPY5R) may explain some of the variation in AO of HD motor manifestations, in a comprehensive cohort of 487 German HD patients. We found modest association of the AO with two NPY promoter variations and a highly significant association with a NPY2R promoter SNP (rs2234759; p = 0.0004). Investigating the functional impact of rs2234759 by luciferase assays revealed that the high-expression NPY2R genotypes were associated with later AO in HD. Additionally, treatment of PC12 cells expressing mutant huntingtin (htt) exon 1 with NPY and the NPY2R agonist NPY(3-36) has a protective effect against mutant htt-induced cell death. Thus, NPY might act through Y2 receptors to slow down the course of HD, and hence, this peptide could be of interest as a possible therapeutic agent.

  1. Comparative MD Simulations Indicate a Dual Role for Arg1323.50 in Dopamine-Dependent D2R Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Ralf C.; Clark, Timothy; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Residue Arg3.50 belongs to the highly conserved DRY-motif of class A GPCRs, which is located at the bottom of TM3. On the one hand, Arg3.50 has been reported to help stabilize the inactive state of GPCRs, but on the other hand has also been shown to be crucial for stabilizing active receptor conformations and mediating receptor-G protein coupling. The combined results of these studies suggest that the exact function of Arg3.50 is likely to be receptor-dependent and must be characterized independently for every GPCR. Consequently, we now present comparative molecular-dynamics simulations that use our recently described inactive-state and Gα-bound active-state homology models of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), which are either bound to dopamine or ligand-free, performed to identify the function of Arg1323.50 in D2R. Our results are consistent with a dynamic model of D2R activation in which Arg1323.50 adopts a dual role, both by stabilizing the inactive-state receptor conformation and enhancing dopamine-dependent D2R-G protein coupling. PMID:26741139

  2. The Eucalyptus grandis R2R3-MYB transcription factor family: evidence for woody growth-related evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Soler, Marçal; Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Carocha, Victor; Cassan-Wang, Hua; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Hefer, Charles A; Paiva, Jorge A Pinto; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The R2R3-MYB family, one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants, controls a wide variety of plant-specific processes including, notably, phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall formation. We performed a genome-wide analysis of this superfamily in Eucalyptus, one of the most planted hardwood trees world-wide. A total of 141 predicted R2R3-MYB sequences identified in the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence were subjected to comparative phylogenetic analyses with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera. We analysed features such as gene structure, conserved motifs and genome location. Transcript abundance patterns were assessed by RNAseq and validated by high-throughput quantitative PCR. We found some R2R3-MYB subgroups with expanded membership in E. grandis, V. vinifera and P. trichocarpa, and others preferentially found in woody species, suggesting diversification of specific functions in woody plants. By contrast, subgroups containing key genes regulating lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation are more conserved across all of the species analysed. In Eucalyptus, R2R3-MYB tandem gene duplications seem to disproportionately affect woody-preferential and woody-expanded subgroups. Interestingly, some of the genes belonging to woody-preferential subgroups show higher expression in the cambial region, suggesting a putative role in the regulation of secondary growth.

  3. Mobility Prediction Progressive Routing (MP2R), a Cross-Layer Design for Inter-Vehicle Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Suhua; Kadowaki, Naoto; Obana, Sadao

    In this paper we analyze the characteristics of vehicle mobility and propose a novel Mobility Prediction Progressive Routing (MP2R) protocol for Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) that is based on crosslayer design. MP2R utilizes the additional gain provided by the directional antennas to improve link quality and connectivity; interference is reduced by the directional transmission. Each node learns its own position and speed and that of other nodes, and performs position prediction. (i) With the predicted progress and link quality, the forwarding decision of a packet is locally made, just before the packet is actually transmitted. In addition the load at the forwarder is considered in order to avoid congestion. (ii) The predicted geographic direction is used to control the beam of the directional antenna. The proposed MP2R protocol is especially suitable for forwarding burst traffic in highly mobile environments. Simulation results show that MP2R effectively reduces Packet Error Ratio (PER) compared with both topology-based routing (AODV [1], FSR [2]) and normal progressive routing (NADV [18]) in the IVC scenarios.

  4. Association between exonic polymorphism (rs629849, Gly1619Arg) of IGF2R gene and obesity in Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seung-Ae

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to obesity. A previous study suggested that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) may affect obesity and that IGFs regulate cellular signals by receptors that include the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R). In this research, the rs3743262 and rs2229765 SNPs of IGF1R gene and rs629849 and rs1805075 SNPs of IG-F2R gene were genotyped in 120 overweight and obese patients with a BMI≥23 kg/m2 (Body Mass Index) and 123 healthy controls with a BMI of 18.5–23.0 kg/m2. Genotyping of each SNP was performed by direct sequencing. Among tested SNPs in IGF1R and IGF2R genes, rs629849 SNP of IGF2R gene showed significant association with obesity (OR=1.86, 95% CI=1.02–3.40, P=0.044 in codominant1 model; OR=1.99, 95% CI=1.10–3.57, P=0.020 in dominant model; OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.13–3.31, P=0.013 in log-additive model). And allele distribution between the control group and overweight/obese group also showed significant difference (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.14–3.28, P=0.015). In conclusion, these results indicate that rs629849 SNP of IGF2R might be contributed to development of obesity in the Korean population. PMID:26535220

  5. Experiments towards establishing of design rules for R2R-UV-NIL with polymer working shims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nees, Dieter; Ruttloff, Stephan; Palfinger, Ursula; Stadlober, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Roll-to-Roll-UV-nanoimprint lithography (R2R-UV-NIL) enables high resolution large area patterning of flexible substrates and is therefore of increasing industrial interest. We have set up a custom-made R2R-UV-NIL pilot machine which is able to convert 10 inch wide web with velocities of up to 30 m/min. In addition, we have developed self-replicable UV-curable resins with tunable surface energy and Young's modulus for UV-imprint material as well as for polymer working stamp/shim manufacturing. Now we have designed test patterns for the evaluation of the impact of structure shape, critical dimension, pitch, depth, side wall angle and orientation relative to the web movement onto the imprint fidelity and working shim life time. We have used female (recessed structures) silicon masters of that design with critical dimensions between CD = 200 nm and 1600 nm, and structure depths of d = 500 nm and 1000 nm - all with vertical as well as inclined side walls. These entire master patterns have been transferred onto single male (protruding structures) R2R polymer working shims. The polymer working shims have been used for R2R-UV-NIL runs of several hundred meters and the imprint fidelity and process stability of the various test patterns have been compared. This study is intended as a first step towards establishing of design rules and developing of nanoimprint proximity correction strategies for industrial R2R-UV-NIL processes using polymer working shims.

  6. Quantitation of [5-CH3]-(2R, 4'R, 8'R)-α-Tocopherol in Humans123

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Jennifer C.; Matel, Hosea D.; Nambiar, Krishnan P.; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Fadel, James G.; Holstege, Dirk M.; Clifford, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Half-lives of α-tocopherol in plasma have been reported as 2–3 d, whereas the Elgin Study required >2 y to deplete α-tocopherol, so gaps exist in our quantitative understanding of human α-tocopherol metabolism. Therefore, 6 men and 6 women aged 27 ± 6 y (mean ± SD) ingested 1.81 nmol, 3.70 kBq of [5-14CH3]-(2R, 4'R, 8'R)-α-tocopherol. The levels of 14C in blood plasma and washed RBC were monitored frequently from 0 to 460 d while the levels of 14C in urine and feces were monitored from 0 to 21 d. Total fecal elimination (fecal + metabolic fecal) was 23.24 ± 5.81% of the 14C dose, so feces over urine was the major route of elimination of the ingested [5-14CH3]-(2R, 4′R, 8′R)-α-tocopherol, consistent with prior estimates. The half-life of α-tocopherol varied in plasma and RBC according to the duration of study. The minute dose coupled with frequent monitoring over 460 d and 21 d for blood, urine, and feces ensured the [5-14CH3]-(2R, 4'R, 8'R)-α-tocopherol (the tracer) had the chance to fully mix with the endogenous [5-14CH3]-(2R, 4'R, 8'R)-α-tocopherol (the tracee). The 14C levels in neither plasma nor RBC had returned to baseline by d 460, indicating that the t1/2 of [5-CH3]-(2R, 4′R, 8′R)-α-tocopherol in human blood was longer than prior estimates. PMID:21715470

  7. Tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis, regeneration and functions.

    PubMed Central

    Thöny, B; Auerbach, G; Blau, N

    2000-01-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) cofactor is essential for various processes, and is present in probably every cell or tissue of higher organisms. BH(4) is required for various enzyme activities, and for less defined functions at the cellular level. The pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of BH(4) from GTP involves GTP cyclohydrolase I, 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase and sepiapterin reductase. Cofactor regeneration requires pterin-4a-carbinolamine dehydratase and dihydropteridine reductase. Based on gene cloning, recombinant expression, mutagenesis studies, structural analysis of crystals and NMR studies, reaction mechanisms for the biosynthetic and recycling enzymes were proposed. With regard to the regulation of cofactor biosynthesis, the major controlling point is GTP cyclohydrolase I, the expression of which may be under the control of cytokine induction. In the liver at least, activity is inhibited by BH(4), but stimulated by phenylalanine through the GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein. The enzymes that depend on BH(4) are the phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases, the latter two being the rate-limiting enzymes for catecholamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) biosynthesis, all NO synthase isoforms and the glyceryl-ether mono-oxygenase. On a cellular level, BH(4) has been found to be a growth or proliferation factor for Crithidia fasciculata, haemopoietic cells and various mammalian cell lines. In the nervous system, BH(4) is a self-protecting factor for NO, or a general neuroprotecting factor via the NO synthase pathway, and has neurotransmitter-releasing function. With regard to human disease, BH(4) deficiency due to autosomal recessive mutations in all enzymes (except sepiapterin reductase) have been described as a cause of hyperphenylalaninaemia. Furthermore, several neurological diseases, including Dopa-responsive dystonia, but also Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, autism and depression, have been suggested to be

  8. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Supporting Global Data Access Through the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Stocks, K.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.; Miller, S. P.; Maffei, A. R.; Glaves, H. M.; Carbotte, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. National Science Foundation supports a fleet of academic research vessels operating throughout the world's oceans. In addition to supporting the mission-specific goals of each expedition, these vessels routinely deploy a suite of underway environmental sensors, operating like mobile observatories. Recognizing that the data from these instruments have value beyond each cruise, NSF funded R2R in 2009 to ensure that these data are routinely captured, cataloged and described, and submitted to the appropriate national repository for long-term public access. In 2013, R2R joined the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP; http://odip.org/). The goal of ODIP is to remove barriers to the effective sharing of data across scientific domains and international boundaries, by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional systems. To advance this goal, ODIP organizes international workshops to foster the development of common standards and develop prototypes to evaluate and test potential standards and interoperability solutions. ODIP includes major organizations engaged in ocean data stewardship in the EU, US, and Australia, supported by the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE). Within the broad scope of ODIP, R2R focuses on contributions in 4 key areas: ● Implement a 'Linked Open Data' approach to disseminate data and documentation, using existing World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications and machine-readable formats. Exposing content as Linked Open Data will provide a simple mechanism for ODIP collaborators to browse and compare data sets among repositories. ● Map key vocabularies used by R2R to their European and Australian counterparts. The existing heterogeneity among terms inhibits data discoverability, as a user searching on the term with which s/he is familiar may not find all data of interest. Mapping key terms across the different ODIP partners, relying on the backbone thesaurus provided by the NERC Vocabulary Server

  9. TISSUE REGENERATION. Inhibition of the prostaglandin-degrading enzyme 15-PGDH potentiates tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongyou; Desai, Amar; Yang, Sung Yeun; Bae, Ki Beom; Antczak, Monika I; Fink, Stephen P; Tiwari, Shruti; Willis, Joseph E; Williams, Noelle S; Dawson, Dawn M; Wald, David; Chen, Wei-Dong; Wang, Zhenghe; Kasturi, Lakshmi; Larusch, Gretchen A; He, Lucy; Cominelli, Fabio; Di Martino, Luca; Djuric, Zora; Milne, Ginger L; Chance, Mark; Sanabria, Juan; Dealwis, Chris; Mikkola, Debra; Naidoo, Jacinth; Wei, Shuguang; Tai, Hsin-Hsiung; Gerson, Stanton L; Ready, Joseph M; Posner, Bruce; Willson, James K V; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2015-06-12

    Agents that promote tissue regeneration could be beneficial in a variety of clinical settings, such as stimulating recovery of the hematopoietic system after bone marrow transplantation. Prostaglandin PGE2, a lipid signaling molecule that supports expansion of several types of tissue stem cells, is a candidate therapeutic target for promoting tissue regeneration in vivo. Here, we show that inhibition of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a prostaglandin-degrading enzyme, potentiates tissue regeneration in multiple organs in mice. In a chemical screen, we identify a small-molecule inhibitor of 15-PGDH (SW033291) that increases prostaglandin PGE2 levels in bone marrow and other tissues. SW033291 accelerates hematopoietic recovery in mice receiving a bone marrow transplant. The same compound also promotes tissue regeneration in mouse models of colon and liver injury. Tissues from 15-PGDH knockout mice demonstrate similar increased regenerative capacity. Thus, 15-PGDH inhibition may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for tissue regeneration in diverse clinical contexts.

  10. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of (-)-β-D-(2R,4R) 1,3-dioxolane 2,6-diamino purine (DAPD) (Amdoxovir) and (-)-β-D-(2R,4R) 1,3-dioxolane guanosine (DXG) prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Narayanasamy, Janarthanan; Pullagurla, Manik R.; Sharon, Ashoke; Wang, Jianing; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Chu, Chung K.

    2007-01-01

    Prodrugs of (-)-β-D-(2R,4R)-1,3-dioxolane-2,6-diamino purine (DAPD), organic salts of DAPD, 5′-l-valyl DAPD and N-1 substituted (-)-β-D-(2R,4R)-1,3-dioxolane guanosine (DXG) have been synthesized with the objective of finding molecules which might be superior to DAPD and DXG in solubility as well as pharmacologic profiles. Synthesized prodrugs were evaluated for anti-HIV activity against HIV-1LAI in primary human lymphocytes (PBM cells) as well as their cytotoxicity in PBM, CEM and Vero cells. DAPD prodrugs, modified at the C6 position of the purine ring, demonstrated several folds of enhanced anti-HIV activity in comparison to the parent compound DAPD without increasing the toxicity. The presence of alkyl amino groups at the C6 position of the purine ring increased the antiviral potency several folds, and the most potent compound (-)-β-D-(2R,4R)-1,3-dioxolane-2-amino-6-aminoethyl purine (8) was 17 times more potent than that of DAPD. 5′-l-Valyl DAPD 20 and organic acid salts 21-24 also exhibited enhanced anti-HIV activity in comparison to DAPD, while DXG prodrugs 16-17 exhibited lower potency than that of DXG or DAPD. PMID:17532483

  11. Telocytes in liver regeneration: possible roles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Song, Yang; Bei, Yihua; Zhao, Yingying; Xiao, Junjie; Yang, Changqing

    2014-09-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of interstitial cells which are potentially involved in tissue regeneration and repair (www.telocytes.com). Previously, we documented the presence of TCs in liver. However, the possible roles of TCs in liver regeneration remain unknown. In this study, a murine model of partial hepatectomy (PH) was used to induce liver regeneration. The number of TCs detected by double labelling immunofluorescence methods (CD34/PDGFR-α, CD34/PDGFR-ß and CD34/Vimentin) was significantly increased when a high level of hepatic cell proliferation rate (almost doubled) as shown by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) immunostaining and Western Blot of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was found at 48 and 72 hrs post-PH. Meanwhile, the number of CK-19 positive-hepatic stem cells peaked at 72 hrs post-PH, co-ordinating with the same time-point, when the number of TCs was most significantly increased. Taken together, the results indicate a close relationship between TCs and the cells essentially involved in liver regeneration: hepatocytes and stem cells. It remains to be determined how TCs affect hepatocytes proliferation and/or hepatic stem cell differentiation in liver regeneration. Besides intercellular junctions, we may speculate a paracrine effect via ectovesicles.

  12. A conceptual model of morphogenesis and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tosenberger, A.; Bessonov, N.; Levin, M.; Reinberg, N.; Volpert, V.; Morozova, N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to computer modelling of the development and regeneration of multicellular biological structures. Some species (e.g., planaria and salamanders) are able to regenerate parts of their body after amputation damage, but the global rules governing cooperative cell behaviour during morphogenesis are not known. Here, we consider a simplified model organism, which consists of tissues formed around special cells that can be interpreted as stem cells. We assume that stem cells communicate with each other by a set of signals, and that the values of these signals depend on the distance between cells. Thus the signal distribution characterizes location of stem cells. If the signal distribution is changed, then the difference between the initial and the current signal distribution affects the behaviour of stem cells – e.g. as a result of an amputation of a part of tissue the signal distribution changes which stimulates stem cells to migrate to new locations, appropriate for regeneration of the proper pattern. Moreover, as stem cells divide and form tissues around them, they control the form and the size of regenerating tissues. This two-level organization of the model organism, with global regulation of stem cells and local regulation of tissues, allows its reproducible development and regeneration. PMID:25822060

  13. Equine model for soft-tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Evangelia; Rollins, Amanda; Moreau, Jodie E; Lo, Tim; Quinn, Kyle P; Fourligas, Nicholas; Georgakoudi, Irene; Leisk, Gary G; Mazan, Melissa; Thane, Kristen E; Taeymans, Olivier; Hoffman, A M; Kaplan, D L; Kirker-Head, C A

    2015-08-01

    Soft-tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft-tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft-tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over 6 months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation.

  14. Microwave-assisted regeneration of activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-09-01

    Microwave heating was used in the regeneration of methylene blue-loaded activated carbons produced from fibers (PFAC), empty fruit bunches (EFBAC) and shell (PSAC) of oil palm. The dye-loaded carbons were treated in a modified conventional microwave oven operated at 2450 MHz and irradiation time of 2, 3 and 5 min. The virgin properties of the origin and regenerated activated carbons were characterized by pore structural analysis and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The surface chemistry was examined by zeta potential measurement and determination of surface acidity/basicity, while the adsorptive property was quantified using methylene blue (MB). Microwave irradiation preserved the pore structure, original active sites and adsorption capacity of the regenerated activated carbons. The carbon yield and the monolayer adsorption capacities for MB were maintained at 68.35-82.84% and 154.65-195.22 mg/g, even after five adsorption-regeneration cycles. The findings revealed the potential of microwave heating for regeneration of spent activated carbons.

  15. Equine Model for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, J.E.; Lo, T.; Quinn, K.P.; Fourligas, N.; Georgakoudi, I.; Leisk, G.G.; Mazan, M.; Thane, K.E.; Taeymans, O.; Hoffman, A.M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kirker-Head, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over six months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation. PMID:25350377

  16. New insights into vertebrate skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ashley W; Maden, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration biology has experienced a renaissance as clinicians, scientists, and engineers have combined forces to drive the field of regenerative medicine. Studies investigating the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in adult mammals have led to a good understanding of the stereotypical processes that lead to scarring. Despite comparative studies of fetal wound healing in which no scar is produced, the fact remains that insights from this work have failed to produce therapies that can regenerate adult human skin. In this review, we analyze past and contemporary accounts of wound healing in a variety of vertebrates, namely, fish, amphibians, and mammals, in order to demonstrate how examples of skin regeneration in adult organisms can impact traditional wound-healing research. When considered together, these studies suggest that inflammation and reepithelialization are necessary events preceding both scarring and regeneration. However, the extent to which these processes may direct one outcome over another is likely weaker than currently accepted. In contrast, the extent to which newly deposited extracellular matrix in the wound bed can be remodeled into new skin, and the intrinsic ability of new epidermis to regenerate appendages, appears to underlie the divergence between scar-free healing and the persistence of a scar. We discuss several ideas that may offer areas of overlap between researchers using these different model organisms and which may be of benefit to the ultimate goal of scar-free human wound healing. PMID:24725426

  17. Evolutionary history of regeneration in crinoids (Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Gahn, Forest J; Baumiller, Tomasz K

    2010-10-01

    The fossil record indicates that crinoids have exhibited remarkable regenerative abilities since their origin in the Ordovician, abilities that they likely inherited from stem-group echinoderms. Regeneration in extant and fossil crinoids is recognized by abrupt differences in the size of abutting plates, aberrant branching patterns, and discontinuities in carbon isotopes. While recovery is common, not all lost body parts can be regenerated; filling plates and overgrowths are evidence of non-regenerative healing. Considering them as a whole, Paleozoic crinoids exhibit the same range of regenerative and non-regenerative healing as Recent crinoids. For example, Paleozoic and extant crinoids show evidence of crown regeneration and stalk regrowth, which can occur only if the entoneural nerve center (chambered organ) remains intact. One group of Paleozoic crinoids, the camerates, may be an exception in that they probably could not regenerate their complex calyx-plating arrangements, including arm facets, but their calyxes could be healed with reparative plates. With that exception, and despite evidence for increases in predation pressure, there is no compelling evidence that crinoids have changed though time in their ability to recover from wounds. Finally, although crinoid appendages may be lost as a consequence of severe abiotic stress and through ontogenetic development, spatiotemporal changes in the intensity and frequency of biotic interactions, especially direct attacks, are the most likely explanation for observed patterns of regeneration and autotomy in crinoids.

  18. Effects of Aging on Thyroarytenoid Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyungah; Kletzien, Heidi; Connor, Nadine P.; Schultz, Edward; Chamberlain, Connie S.; Bless, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/hypotheses Regenerative properties of age-associated changes in the intrinsic laryngeal muscles following injury are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regenerative properties of the thyroarytenoid muscle (TA) in an aging rat model. The hypothesis was that, following myotoxic injury, old animals would exhibit a decrease in mitotic activities of muscle satellite cells when compared with younger rats, suggesting reduced regenerative potential in the aging rat TA. Study Design Animal group comparison. Method Regeneration responses following injury to the TA were examined in 18 young adult, middle-aged, and old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats. TA muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA), satellite cell mitosis (number/fiber), and regeneration index (CSA injured side/CSA non-injured side) were measured and compared across age groups. Results Young animals had a significantly higher regeneration index than the middle-aged and old groups. Within the lateral region of the TA (LTA), the regeneration index was significantly higher in the young animals than in the middle-aged and old animals. The regeneration index of the medial TA (MTA) was significantly higher than the LTA across all age groups. Conclusions The regenerative capacity of the TA muscle is impaired with increasing age. Evidence N/A PMID:22965923

  19. Process for catalyst regeneration with flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a continuous, once through process using a hot flue gas stream from a fluid catalytic cracking catalyst regenerator to regenerate deactivated zeolite catalysts having carbonaceous deposits thereon in catalytic conversion processes employing multiple fixed bed reactors operatively connected for sequential conversion and catalyst regeneration. It comprises withdrawing a first portion of the hot flue gas stream to provide an oxidizing flue gas stream containing a substantial amount of water; partially cooling the oxidizing flue gas stream by indirect heat exchange to preheat the catalytic conversion process feedstock stream; contacting the heated feedstock with active zeolite catalyst under conversion conditions in a first fixed bed reactor to produce hydrocarbon products; separating the hydrocarbon products; contacting a particulate free first portion of partially cooled, oxidizing flue gas stream containing a substantial amount of water at a temperature between about 700{degrees} to 100{degrees}F and a pressure of between about 15 to 35 psig with deactivated zeolite catalyst having carboneous deposits thereon in a second fixed bed reactor under catalyst oxidative regenerating conditions at a temperature substantially lower than the fluid catalytic cracking catalyst regenerator; cooling the consolidated streams comprising the effluent gas streams from the second reactor, the remaining portion of partially cooled oxidizing flue gas stream and the remaining portion of hot flue gas stream; and discharging the cooled consolidated streams without recycling.

  20. The Molecular and Cellular Choreography of Appendage Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Elly M

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in limb regeneration are revealing the molecular events that integrate growth control, cell fate programming, and positional information to yield the exquisite replacement of the amputated limb. Parallel progress in several invertebrate and vertebrate models has provided a broader context for understanding the mechanisms and the evolution of regeneration. Together, these discoveries provide a foundation for describing the principles underlying regeneration of complex, multi-tissue structures. As such these findings should provide a wealth of ideas for engineers seeking to reconstitute regeneration from constituent parts or to elicit full regeneration from partial regeneration events. PMID:27315477

  1. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Organizing Datasets from Heterogeneous Shipboard Data into an Integrated Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. D.; Arko, R. A.; Sweeney, A.; Fischman, D.; Miller, S. P.; Stocks, K.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; rvdata.us) program is to develop and implement a fleet-wide information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S. academic research vessels. One of the program’s primary challenges is to develop a workflow for routinely gathering data from a fleet with heterogeneous instrumentation and file systems, breaking out the data into discrete data sets, and transferring the data to the appropriate National Data Center. Because R2R expects to receive 300-400 cruises per year from a wide range of vessel classes and at least two dozen major device types, this workflow must be highly automated. R2R has developed and implemented a workflow for processing underway data: - Collection: data are provided at the end of a cruise as a cruise distribution using the mechanism preferred by the vessel operator. - Inventory: a complete inventory of each cruise distribution is created, listing the filename, date, size, and checksum. This inventory is published online by R2R. - Raw Archive: the entire original cruise distribution is transmitted securely to the National Geophysical Data Center for deep archive. - Data Breakout: data from each device are extracted from the cruise distribution according to a vessel profile yielding a discrete data set. Once a data set is broken out and any proprietary holds are cleared, it is delivered to the appropriate National Data Center for archiving and dissemination. It may also be processed further for quality assessment/quality control and/or publication of standard products. Data sets sent to a National Data Center will have unique and persistent R2R identifiers, which link to parent cruise information on the R2R site. The site will include the URL link to each data set at the National Data Center, allowing a user browsing the R2R cruise catalog to download it. Because each vessel operator typically has a customized system for naming and organizing

  2. Braking due to non-resonant magnetic perturbations and comparison with neoclassical toroidal viscosity torque in EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Sun, Y.; Fridström, R.; Menmuir, S.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Liang, Y.; Drake, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    The non-resonant magnetic perturbation (MP) braking is studied in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (RFP) and the experimental braking torque is compared with the torque expected by the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) theory. The EXTRAP T2R active coils can apply magnetic perturbations with a single harmonic, either resonant or non-resonant. The non-resonant MP produces velocity braking with an experimental torque that affects a large part of the core region. The experimental torque is clearly related to the plasma displacement, consistent with a quadratic dependence as expected by the NTV theory. The work show a good qualitative agreement between the experimental torque in a RFP machine and NTV torque concerning both the torque density radial profile and the dependence on the non-resonant MP harmonic.

  3. Improved model predictive control of resistive wall modes by error field estimator in EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiadi, A. C.; Brunsell, P. R.; Frassinetti, L.

    2016-12-01

    Many implementations of a model-based approach for toroidal plasma have shown better control performance compared to the conventional type of feedback controller. One prerequisite of model-based control is the availability of a control oriented model. This model can be obtained empirically through a systematic procedure called system identification. Such a model is used in this work to design a model predictive controller to stabilize multiple resistive wall modes in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch. Model predictive control is an advanced control method that can optimize the future behaviour of a system. Furthermore, this paper will discuss an additional use of the empirical model which is to estimate the error field in EXTRAP T2R. Two potential methods are discussed that can estimate the error field. The error field estimator is then combined with the model predictive control and yields better radial magnetic field suppression.

  4. Optic neuritis

    MedlinePlus

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  5. Vegetable Intake in College-Aged Adults Is Explained by Oral Sensory Phenotypes and TAS2R38 Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Davidson, Andrew C.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Taste and oral sensations vary in humans. Some of this variation has a genetic basis, and two commonly measured phenotypes are the bitterness of propylthiouracil (PROP) and the number of fungiform papillae on the anterior tongue. While the genetic control of fungiform papilla is unclear, PROP bitterness associates with allelic variation in the taste receptor gene, TAS2R38. The two common alleles are AVI and PAV (proline, alanine, valine, and isoleucine); AVI/AVI homozygotes taste PROP as less bitter than heterozygous or homozygous PAV carriers. In this laboratory-based study, we determined whether taste of a bitter probe (quinine) and vegetable intake varied by taste phenotypes and TAS2R38 genotype in healthy adults (mean age=26 years). Vegetable intake was assessed via two validated, complementary methods: food records (Food Pyramid servings standardized to energy intake) and food frequency questionnaire (general intake question and composite vegetable groups). Quinine bitterness varied with phenotypes but not TAS2R38; quinine was more bitter to those who tasted PROP as more bitter or had more papillae. Nontasters by phenotype or genotype reported greater consumption of vegetables, regardless of type (i.e., the effect generalized to all vegetables and was not restricted to those typically thought of as being bitter). Furthermore, nontasters with more papillae reported greater vegetable consumption than nontasters with fewer papillae, suggesting that when bitterness does not predominate, more papillae enhance vegetable liking. These findings suggest that genetic variation in taste, measured by multiple phenotypes or TAS2R38 genotype, can explain differences in overall consumption of vegetables, and this was not restricted to vegetables that are predominantly bitter. PMID:21157576

  6. The Diagnosis Accuracy of PLA2R-AB in the Diagnosis of Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yu; Li, Junhua; He, Fan; Lv, Yongman; Liu, Wei; Wu, Ping; Huang, Jiao; Wei, Sheng; Gao, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of antibodies against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R-AB) is considered to be a promising serological diagnostic biomarker of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN). However, controversy remains about the diagnostic accuracy of serum PLA2R-AB testing. Here, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to assess the overall diagnostic value of serum PLA2R-AB testing in iMN detection. Methods PubMed, Embase, and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched for relevant original articles through January 31, 2014. The summary sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were estimated using the bivariate model. The heterogeneity among studies was explored by subgroup and meta-regression analysis. Results 9 articles, including 15 studies, were eventually identified with a total of 2212 patients. The summary sensitivity of all studies is 78% (95% CI: 66% to 87%) and the specificity is 99% (95% CI: 96% to 100%). The summary positive and negative likelihood ratios are 96.1 (95% CI, 19.5 to 472.1) and 0.22 (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.35), respectively. The DOR is 437 (95%CI, 74 to 2592). The subgroup analysis and meta-regression suggest the test interval is the main source of heterogeneity. Conclusions Serum PLA2R-AB testing is a useful tool to detect iMN. In addition, considering the high heterogeneity and potential publication bias, further high quality studies are needed in the future. PMID:25136841

  7. DNA Sequence and Comparative Genomics of pAPEC-O2-R, an Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Transmissible R Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Siek, Kylie E.; Johnson, Sara J.; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a 101-kb IncF plasmid from an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain (APEC O2) was sequenced and analyzed, providing the first completed APEC plasmid sequence. This plasmid, pAPEC-O2-R, has functional transfer and antimicrobial resistance-encoding regions. The resistance-encoding region encodes resistance to eight groups of antimicrobial agents, including silver and other heavy metals, quaternary ammonium compounds, tetracycline, sulfonamides, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim, and beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. This region of the plasmid is unique among previously described IncF plasmids in that it possesses a class 1 integron that harbors three gene cassettes and a heavy metal resistance operon. This region spans 33 kb and is flanked by the RepFII plasmid replicon and an assortment of plasmid maintenance genes. pAPEC-O2-R also contains a 32-kb transfer region that is nearly identical to that found in the E. coli F plasmid, rendering it transferable by conjugation to plasmid-less strains of bacteria, including an APEC strain, a fecal E. coli strain from an apparently healthy bird, a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain, and a uropathogenic E. coli strain from humans. Differences in the G+C contents of individual open reading frames suggest that various regions of pAPEC-O2-R had dissimilar origins. The presence of pAPEC-O2-R-like plasmids that encode resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents and that are readily transmissible from APEC to other bacteria suggests the possibility that such plasmids may serve as a reservoir of resistance genes for other bacteria of animal and human health significance. PMID:16251312

  8. miR-29a Participated in Nacre Formation and Immune Response by Targeting Y2R in Pinctada martensii

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Rongrong; Zheng, Zhe; Huang, Ronglian; Jiao, Yu; Du, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    miR-29a is a conserved miRNA that participates in bone formation and immune response in vertebrates. miR-29a of Pinctada martensii (Pm-miR-29a) was identified in the previous research though deep sequencing. In this report, the precise sequence of mature Pm-miR-29a was validated using miRNA rapid amplification of cDNA ends (miR-RACE) technology. The precursor sequence of Pm-miR-29a was predicted to have 87 bp. Stem loop qRT-PCR analysis showed that Pm-miR-29a was easily detected in all the tissues, although expressions in the mantle and gill were low. The microstructure showed the disrupted growth of the nacre after Pm-miR-29a over-expression, which was induced by mimic injection into P. martensii. Results of the target analysis indicated that neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 (Y2R) was the potential target of Pm-miR-29a. Meanwhile, Pm-miR-29a mimics could obviously inhibit the relative luciferase activity of the reporter containing 3′ UTR (Untranslated Regions) of the Y2R gene. Furthermore, the expression of Y2R was downregulated whereas expressions of interleukin 17 (IL-17) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were upregulated after Pm-miR-29a over-expression in the mantle and gill, thereby suggesting that Pm-miR-29a could activate the immune response of the pearl oyster. Results showed that Pm-miR-29a was involved in nacre formation and immune response by regulating Y2R in pearl oyster P. martensii. PMID:26690410

  9. miR-29a Participated in Nacre Formation and Immune Response by Targeting Y2R in Pinctada martensii.

    PubMed

    Tian, Rongrong; Zheng, Zhe; Huang, Ronglian; Jiao, Yu; Du, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    miR-29a is a conserved miRNA that participates in bone formation and immune response in vertebrates. miR-29a of Pinctada martensii (Pm-miR-29a) was identified in the previous research though deep sequencing. In this report, the precise sequence of mature Pm-miR-29a was validated using miRNA rapid amplification of cDNA ends (miR-RACE) technology. The precursor sequence of Pm-miR-29a was predicted to have 87 bp. Stem loop qRT-PCR analysis showed that Pm-miR-29a was easily detected in all the tissues, although expressions in the mantle and gill were low. The microstructure showed the disrupted growth of the nacre after Pm-miR-29a over-expression, which was induced by mimic injection into P. martensii. Results of the target analysis indicated that neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 (Y2R) was the potential target of Pm-miR-29a. Meanwhile, Pm-miR-29a mimics could obviously inhibit the relative luciferase activity of the reporter containing 3' UTR (Untranslated Regions) of the Y2R gene. Furthermore, the expression of Y2R was downregulated whereas expressions of interleukin 17 (IL-17) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were upregulated after Pm-miR-29a over-expression in the mantle and gill, thereby suggesting that Pm-miR-29a could activate the immune response of the pearl oyster. Results showed that Pm-miR-29a was involved in nacre formation and immune response by regulating Y2R in pearl oyster P. martensii. PMID:26690410

  10. Clinical usefulness of autoantibodies to M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) for monitoring disease activity in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN).

    PubMed

    Radice, Antonella; Trezzi, Barbara; Maggiore, Umberto; Pregnolato, Francesca; Stellato, Tiziana; Napodano, Pietro; Rolla, Davide; Pesce, Gianpaola; D'Amico, Marco; Santoro, Domenico; Londrino, Francesco; Ravera, Federica; Ortisi, Giuseppe; Sinico, Renato Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Autoantibodies to M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) are specific markers of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). They can differentiate IMN from other glomerular diseases and primary from secondary forms of MN. Preliminary data suggest that anti-PLA2R antibody titer correlates with disease activity but more solid evidence is needed. To evaluate the performance of anti-PLA2R antibody for monitoring nephropathy activity, 149 anti-PLA2R antibody measurements were performed during the follow-up of 42 biopsy proven IMN consecutive patients. Patients were enrolled either at time of diagnosis (33 cases, inception cohort) or after diagnosis (9 patients, non-inception cohort). Anti-PLA2R detection was performed using the highly sensitive transfected cell-based indirect immunofluorescence (IIFT). Over the follow-up there was a linear time-trend of decreasing proteinuria (P<0.001), increasing serum albumin (P<0.001) and decreasing PLA2R antibody levels (P=0.002). There was a statistically significant association between changes in PLA2R antibody levels and the clinical course of PLA2R-positive IMN. The positive PLA2R serum antibody status was linearly associated with increasing proteinuria and decreasing serum albumin over time, compared with negative antibody status. Moreover, the strong correlation between the clinical conditions and PLA2R antibody levels allowed the prediction of prevalence distribution of patients with active disease, partial and complete remission. Over the course of the follow-up, the probability of halving proteinuria increased 6.5 times after disappearance of PLA2R antibodies. Our data suggest that the serial evaluation of anti-PLA2R antibodies could help in optimal timing and duration of the immunosuppressive therapy, reducing over(under)-treatment and associated side-effects.

  11. [Regeneration and fibrosis of corneal tissues].

    PubMed

    Simirskiĭ, V N

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the features of the regeneration of corneal tissue and its disorders leading to the development of fibrosis are considered. The data on the presence of stem (clonogenic) cell pool in the corneal tissues (epithelium, endothelium, stroma) are given; these cells can serve as a source for regeneration of the tissues at injury or various diseases. The main steps of regeneration of corneal tissues and their disorders that lead to outstripping proliferation of myofibroblasts and secretion of extracellular matrix in the wound area and eventually cause the formation of connective tissue scar and corneal opacity are considered. Particular attention is given to the successes of translational medicine in the treatment of corneal tissue fibrosis. The methods of cell therapy aimed at the restoration of stem cell pool of corneal tissues are the most promising. Gene therapy provides more opportunities; one of its main objectives is the suppression of the myofibroblast proliferation responsible for the development of fibrosis.

  12. Medicinal Chemistry Approaches to Heart Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schade, Dennis; Plowright, Alleyn T

    2015-12-24

    Because of the minimal and clearly insufficient ability of the adult heart to regenerate after ischemic injury, there is a great opportunity to identify biological mechanisms, substances, and factors that enhance this process. Hence, innovative therapeutic management of heart failure following infarction requires a paradigm shift in pharmacotherapy. Spurred by tremendous progress in the field of stem cell and cardiac biology, several attractive approaches for regeneration of lost cardiomyocytes and supporting vasculature have emerged. Research in this area focuses on restoring the hearts' original function via proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells, proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, and reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts. In this review, we outline these principal strategies, putative biological targets or signaling pathways and chemical agents, with a focus on small molecules, to achieve therapeutic heart regeneration. We also point out the many remaining questions and challenges, particularly for translating in vitro discoveries to in vivo application.

  13. Platelet Rich Fibrin in Periodontal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Muthukumaraswamy; Pulikkotil, Shaju J.; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection resulting in destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth. Regeneration of the lost tissues has faced difficulties primarily due to the lack of support during the intricate healing processes. A surgical additive which can ‘jump start’ the healing process to a more predictable regenerative process is always on the wish list of any periodontist. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a second generation platelet concentrate that has been considered to be an important, easy to obtain, predictable surgical additive for periodontal regeneration. This autologous scaffold provides the much needed bio-chemical mediators which has the potential for enhancing reconstruction of the periodontium. This review article tries to understand as to why PRF would be an important link to reach predictable periodontal regeneration. PMID:27386002

  14. The multicellular complexity of peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cattin, Anne-Laure; Lloyd, Alison C

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral nerves show a remarkable ability to regenerate following a transection injury. Downstream of the cut, the axons degenerate and so to regenerate the nerve, the severed axons need to regrow back to their targets and regain function. This requires the axons to navigate through two different environments. (1) The bridge of new tissue that forms between the two nerve stumps and (2) the distal stump of the nerve that remains associated with the target tissues. This involves distinct, complex multicellular responses that guide and sustain axonal regrowth. These processes have important implications for our understanding of the regeneration of an adult tissue and have parallels to aspects of tumour formation and spread. PMID:27128880

  15. Heat engine regenerators: Research status and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    The rapidly oscillating, variable density flows of regenerative heat engines provide a class of poorly understood unsteady flow and heat transfer problems. These problems are not currently amenable to direct experimental resolution. Experiences in engine development and test programs and efforts to develop analysis tools point to the regenerator as a key area of insufficient understanding. Focusing on flow and heat transfer in regenerators, this report discusses similarity parameters for the flows and reviews the experimental data currently available for Stirling analysis. Then a number of experimental results are presented from recent fundamental fluid mechanical and thermal investigations that shed additional light on the functioning of heat engine regenerators. Suggestions are made for approaches for further measurement and analysis efforts.

  16. Platelet Rich Fibrin in Periodontal Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Muthukumaraswamy; Pulikkotil, Shaju J; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection resulting in destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth. Regeneration of the lost tissues has faced difficulties primarily due to the lack of support during the intricate healing processes. A surgical additive which can 'jump start' the healing process to a more predictable regenerative process is always on the wish list of any periodontist. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a second generation platelet concentrate that has been considered to be an important, easy to obtain, predictable surgical additive for periodontal regeneration. This autologous scaffold provides the much needed bio-chemical mediators which has the potential for enhancing reconstruction of the periodontium. This review article tries to understand as to why PRF would be an important link to reach predictable periodontal regeneration. PMID:27386002

  17. A complex interplay of three R2R3 MYB transcription factors determines the profile of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sønderby, Ida Elken; Burow, Meike; Rowe, Heather C; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2010-05-01

    While R2R3 MYB transcription factors are a large gene family of transcription factors within plants, comprehensive functional data in planta are still scarce. A model for studying R2R3 MYB control of metabolic networks is the glucosinolates (GLSs), secondary metabolites that control plant resistance against insects and pathogens and carry cancer-preventive properties. Three related members of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor family within Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), MYB28, MYB29, and MYB76, are the commonly defined regulators of aliphatic GLS biosynthesis. We utilized new genotypes and systems analysis techniques to test the existing regulatory model in which MYB28 is the dominant regulator, MYB29 plays a minor rheostat role, and MYB76 is largely uninvolved. We unequivocally show that MYB76 is not dependent on MYB28 and MYB29 for induction of aliphatic GLSs and that MYB76 plays a role in determining the spatial distribution of aliphatic GLSs within the leaf, pointing at a potential role of MYB76 in transport regulation. Transcriptional profiling of knockout mutants revealed that GLS metabolite levels are uncoupled from the level of transcript accumulation for aliphatic GLS biosynthetic genes. This uncoupling of chemotypes from biosynthetic transcripts suggests revising our view of the regulation of GLS metabolism from a simple linear transcription factor-promoter model to a more modular system in which transcription factors cause similar chemotypes via nonoverlapping regulatory patterns. Similar regulatory networks might exist in other secondary pathways.

  18. Implementation of advanced feedback control algorithms for controlled resonant magnetic perturbation physics studies on EXTRAP T2R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    The EXTRAP T2R feedback system (active coils, sensor coils and controller) is used to study and develop new tools for advanced control of the MHD instabilities in fusion plasmas. New feedback algorithms developed in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch allow flexible and independent control of each magnetic harmonic. Methods developed in control theory and applied to EXTRAP T2R allow a closed-loop identification of the machine plant and of the resistive wall modes growth rates. The plant identification is the starting point for the development of output-tracking algorithms which enable the generation of external magnetic perturbations. These algorithms will then be used to study the effect of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the tearing mode (TM) dynamics. It will be shown that the stationary RMP can induce oscillations in the amplitude and jumps in the phase of the rotating TM. It will be shown that the RMP strongly affects the magnetic island position.

  19. Modulation of behavior by the histaminergic system: lessons from H(1)R-and H(2)R-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Erich H; Neumann, Detlef; Seifert, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Besides acting in the immune system, histamine is also a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The H1R causes central side effects, e.g. of first generation antihistamines, antidepressants or antipsychotics and represents the component of the central histaminergic system most extensively studied in behavior experiments with knock-out mice. Central effects of H2R are similar, but only few behavioral results from knockout models are available. We summarize the behavior phenotype of H1R- and H2R-deficient mice, revealing histaminergic modulation of behaviors like locomotor activity, cognition, emotional states, arousal, sleep and wakefulness, circadian rhythm, pain perception, food intake and energy consumption, respiration and susceptibility to seizures. Knock-out models demonstrate several central effects of H1R and H2R that are not clinically and therapeutically exploited to date. We critically discuss problems and pitfalls of both the knock-out mouse technique and the pharmacological approach with receptor-selective ligands. The behavioral characterization of Hrh1(-/-)- and Hrh2(-/-)-mice is crucial, because many pharmacological agents lack the required selectivity to unequivocally address the functions of a single histamine receptor subtype.

  20. Orexins and receptor OX2R in the gastroenteric apparatus of two teleostean species: Dicentrarchus labrax and Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Livia; Castaldo, Luciana; de Girolamo, Paolo; Lucini, Carla; Paolucci, Marina; Pelagalli, Alessandra; Varricchio, Ettore; Arcamone, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    Orexin A and B peptides and the receptor OX2R were studied in sea bass and goldfish gastroenteric tract by immunoblotting combined with densitometric analysis using NIH Image J software and immunohistochemical techniques. These teleost species present a different gut organization and diverse feeding habits. Immunoblotting experiments showed one band of 16 kDa corresponding to prepro-orexin, and one band of 38 kDa corresponding to the OX2R receptor. Immunohistochemical localization of OXA and OXB was observed in the enteric nervous system throughout the gastroenteric tract of both species. OXA and OXB immunoreactive cells were found in the gastric and intestinal regions of sea bass, and were mainly found in the basal region of folds in intestinal bulb, and in the midgut and hindgut of goldfish. The distribution of OX2R was mainly detected in the mucosa of the gastroenteric tract of sea bass and goldfish. This distribution suggests an endocrine action of OXA and OXB in the gastrointestinal tract as well as involvement in the peripheral control of food intake and digestive processes in both species. This study might also serve to determine the productive factors in breeding and as a baseline for future experimental studies on the regulation of the gastroenteric functions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Anat Rec, 299:1121-1129, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27223125

  1. De Novo Missense Variants in PPP2R5D Are Associated with Intellectual Disability, Macrocephaly, Hypotonia, and Autism

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Linshan; Henderson, Lindsay B.; Cho, Megan T.; Petrey, Donald S.; Fong, Chin-To; Haude, Katrina M.; Shur, Natasha; Lundberg, Julie; Hauser, Natalie; Carmichael, Jason; Innis, Jeffrey; Schuette, Jane; Wu, Yvonne W.; Asaikar, Shailesh; Pearson, Margaret; Folk, Leandra; Retterer, Kyle; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Chung, Wendy K.

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric protein serine/threonine phosphatase and is involved in a broad range of cellular processes. PPP2R5D is a regulatory B subunit of PP2A and plays an important role in regulating key neuronal and developmental regulation processes such as PI3K/AKT and GSK3β-mediated cell growth, chromatin remodeling and gene transcriptional regulation. Using WES, we identified four de novo variants in PPP2R5D in a total of seven unrelated individuals with ID and other shared clinical characteristics, including autism spectrum disorder, macrocephaly, hypotonia, seizures and dysmorphic features. Among the four variant, two have been previously reported, and two are novel. All four amino acids are highly conserved among the PP2A subunit family, and all change a negatively charged acidic glutamic acid (E) to a positively charged basic lysine (K), and are predicted to disrupt the PP2A subunits binding and impair the dephosphorylation capacity. Our data provides further support for PPP2R5D as a genetic cause of ID. PMID:26576547

  2. De novo missense variants in PPP2R5D are associated with intellectual disability, macrocephaly, hypotonia, and autism.

    PubMed

    Shang, Linshan; Henderson, Lindsay B; Cho, Megan T; Petrey, Donald S; Fong, Chin-To; Haude, Katrina M; Shur, Natasha; Lundberg, Julie; Hauser, Natalie; Carmichael, Jason; Innis, Jeffrey; Schuette, Jane; Wu, Yvonne W; Asaikar, Shailesh; Pearson, Margaret; Folk, Leandra; Retterer, Kyle; Monaghan, Kristin G; Chung, Wendy K

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric protein serine/threonine phosphatase and is involved in a broad range of cellular processes. PPP2R5D is a regulatory B subunit of PP2A and plays an important role in regulating key neuronal and developmental regulation processes such as PI3K/AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β)-mediated cell growth, chromatin remodeling, and gene transcriptional regulation. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified four de novo variants in PPP2R5D in a total of seven unrelated individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and other shared clinical characteristics, including autism spectrum disorder, macrocephaly, hypotonia, seizures, and dysmorphic features. Among the four variants, two have been previously reported and two are novel. All four amino acids are highly conserved among the PP2A subunit family, and all change a negatively charged acidic glutamic acid (E) to a positively charged basic lysine (K) and are predicted to disrupt the PP2A subunit binding and impair the dephosphorylation capacity. Our data provides further support for PPP2R5D as a genetic cause of ID.

  3. Flagellar regeneration in the scaly green flagellate Tetraselmis striata (Prasinophyceae): regeneration kinetics and effect of inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reize, I. B.; Melkonian, M.

    1987-06-01

    Flagellar regeneration after experimental amputation was studied in synchronized axenic cultures of the scaly green flagellate Tetraselmis striata (Prasinophyceae). After removal of flagella by mechanical shearing, 95% of the cells regrow all four flagella (incl. the scaly covering) to nearly full length with a linear velocity of 50 nm/min under standard conditions. Flagellar regeneration is independent of photosynthesis (no effect of DCMU; the same regeneration rate in the light or in the dark), but depends on de novo protein synthesis: cycloheximide at a low concentration (0.35 μM) blocks flagellar regeneration reversibly. No pool of flagellar precursors appears to be present throughout the flagellated phase of the cell cycle. A transient pool of flagellar precursors, sufficient to generate 2.5 μm of flagellar length, however, develops during flagellar regeneration. Tunicamycin (2 μg/ml) inhibits flagellar regeneration only after a second flagellar amputation, when flagella reach only one third the length of the control. Flagellar regeneration in T. striata differs considerably from that of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and represents an excellent model system for the study of synchronous Golgi apparatus (GA) activation, and transport and exocytosis of GA-derived macromolecules (scales).

  4. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, Richard D.; Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  5. Cooling exothermic regenerator with endothermic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sapre, A.V.

    1993-06-01

    A fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) process is described wherein a heavy hydrocarbon feed having a boiling point above about 650 F is catalytically cracked in an FCC unit by direct contact with an inventory of hot regenerated cracking catalyst to lighter products and spent catalyst which is regenerated to produce hot regenerated catalyst, by: a. catalytically cracking the feed in a catalytic cracking reactor operating at conditions to produce a cracking reactor effluent mixture comprising cracked products and spent catalyst containing coke and strippable hydrocarbons; b. separating the cracking reactor effluent mixture into a cracked product rich vapor phase and a solids rich spent catalyst phase comprising strippable hydrocarbons and coked catalyst; c. stripping at least a portion of the spent catalyst phase to produce stripped coked catalyst; d. regenerating at least a portion of the stripped coked catalyst in a catalyst regeneration means to produce hot regenerated catalyst which is recycled to the catalytic cracking reactor; the process characterized by cooling at least a portion of the FCC catalyst inventory by indirect heat exchange against an endothermic chemical reaction in an endothermic cooler having two isolated sections, an FCC catalyst side section and an endothermic cooler reactant side section by: e. removing at least a portion of the FCC catalyst from the FCC unit and charging same to an inlet of the endothermic cooler; f. charging an endothermically reactive reactant selected from the group of ethane, propane, butane, light naphtha, and heavy naphtha to an inlet of the endothermic cooler reactant side of the heat exchange means; g. heating the endothermically reactive reactant, by indirect heat exchange with the FCC catalyst, to a temperature sufficient to drive the endothermic reaction and produce endothermic reaction products which are removed as a product and simultaneously remove heat from the FCC catalyst and produce cooled FCC catalyst.

  6. Allelic Variation in TAS2R Bitter Receptor Genes Associates with Variation in Sensations from and Ingestive Behaviors toward Common Bitter Beverages in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Wallace, Margaret R.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Herbstman, Deborah M.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The 25 human bitter receptors and their respective genes (TAS2Rs) contain unusually high levels of allelic variation, which may influence response to bitter compounds in the food supply. Phenotypes based on the perceived bitterness of single bitter compounds were first linked to food preference over 50 years ago. The most studied phenotype is propylthiouracil bitterness, which is mediated primarily by the TAS2R38 gene and possibly others. In a laboratory-based study, we tested for associations between TAS2R variants and sensations, liking, or intake of bitter beverages among healthy adults who were primarily of European ancestry. A haploblock across TAS2R3, TAS2R4, and TAS2R5 explained some variability in the bitterness of espresso coffee. For grapefruit juice, variation at a TAS2R19 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with increased bitterness and decreased liking. An association between a TAS2R16 SNP and alcohol intake was identified, and the putative TAS2R38–alcohol relationship was confirmed, although these polymorphisms did not explain sensory or hedonic responses to sampled scotch whisky. In summary, TAS2R polymorphisms appear to influence the sensations, liking, or intake of common and nutritionally significant beverages. Studying perceptual and behavioral differences in vivo using real foods and beverages may potentially identify polymorphisms related to dietary behavior even in the absence of known ligands. PMID:21163912

  7. Anti-PLA2R antibodies measured by ELISA predict long-term outcome in a prevalent population of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kanigicherla, Durga; Gummadova, Jennet; McKenzie, Edward A; Roberts, Stephen A; Harris, Shelley; Nikam, Milind; Poulton, Kay; McWilliam, Lorna; Short, Colin D; Venning, Michael; Brenchley, Paul E

    2013-05-01

    Antibodies to the phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1) have been reported in 70% of cases of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). The genetic susceptibility of IMN has been accounted for by HLA DQA1 and PLA2R1 genes. Here we retrospectively quantified PLA2R antibodies by ELISA, and genotyped DQ alleles and PLA2R1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association with clinical criteria for disease activity at the time of first sample and with outcome over a median total follow-up of 90 months. In 90 prevalent patients with biopsy-proven IMN, anti-PLA2R antibodies were present in 75% of patients with IMN with active disease and were significantly higher than in patients in partial or complete remission at the time of antibody measurement. There was a differential IgG subclass response (4>2>3>1) at an early stage, i.e., within 6 months of biopsy. Levels of PLA2R antibodies were significantly linked to DQA1*05:01 and DQB1*02:01. Survival analysis of patients with IMN showed that PLA2R antibodies are significantly linked with outcome. Thus, high levels of PLA2R antibodies are linked with active disease and a higher risk of declining renal function during follow-up. Future therapeutic trials in IMN should monitor anti-PLA2R, as patients with a high antibody burden may benefit from earlier therapeutic intervention.

  8. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and quantum mechanical studies of 3t-pentyl-2r,6c-diphenylpiperidin-4-one thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Savithiri, S; Arockia doss, M; Rajarajan, G; Thanikachalam, V; Bharanidharan, S; Saleem, H

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 3t-pentyl2r,6c-diphenylpiperidin-4-one thiosemicarbazone (PDPOTSC) were studied. The ground-state molecular geometry was ascertained by using the density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP method using 6-31++G(d,p) as a basis set. The vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra of PDPOTSC were computed using DFT/B3LYP and HF methods with 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED⩾10%) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) methods PQS program. The electrical dipole moment (μ) and first hyperpolarizability (βo) values have been computed using DFT/B3LYP and HF methods. The calculated result (βo) shows that the title molecule might have nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior. Atomic charges of C, N, S and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated using B3LYP/6-31G++(d,p). The HOMO-LUMO energies were calculated and natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis has also been carried out. PMID:25448976

  9. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and quantum mechanical studies of 3t-pentyl-2r,6c-diphenylpiperidin-4-one thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savithiri, S.; Arockia doss, M.; Rajarajan, G.; Thanikachalam, V.; Bharanidharan, S.; Saleem, H.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 3t-pentyl2r,6c-diphenylpiperidin-4-one thiosemicarbazone (PDPOTSC) were studied. The ground-state molecular geometry was ascertained by using the density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP method using 6-31++G(d,p) as a basis set. The vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra of PDPOTSC were computed using DFT/B3LYP and HF methods with 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED ⩾ 10%) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) methods PQS program. The electrical dipole moment (μ) and first hyperpolarizability (βo) values have been computed using DFT/B3LYP and HF methods. The calculated result (βo) shows that the title molecule might have nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior. Atomic charges of C, N, S and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated using B3LYP/6-31G++(d,p). The HOMO-LUMO energies were calculated and natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis has also been carried out.

  10. High temperature regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal agents

    DOEpatents

    Copeland, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A system for high temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases using regenerable sorbents. One sorbent is stannic oxide (tin oxide, SnO.sub.2), the other sorbent is a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide such as zinc ferrite (ZnFe.sub.2 O.sub.4). Certain otherwise undesirable by-products, including hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) are reused by the system, and elemental sulfur is produced in the regeneration reaction. A system for refabricating the sorbent pellets is also described.

  11. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  12. Effects of pesticides on crab cheliped regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Costlow, J.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The mud crab cheliped regeneration bioassay has proven to be a sensitive and reliable bioassay in studies of the potential sublethal effects of pesticides, including teratogenesis, spontaneous autotomy, and duration of the various stages of development. The assay has also been demonstated to be a useful indication of mortality associated with the impact of these chemicals of anthropogenic origin during the megalopal and early postlarval stages of development. Four pesticides were tested here using the cheliped regeneration bioassay technique. Although carbofuran is approximately 5--6 times more toxic than methomyl, both compounds yield very similar results in terms of sublethal effects.

  13. The mammalian blastema: regeneration at our fingertips

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Jennifer; Sammarco, Mimi C.; Dawson, Lindsay A.; Schanes, Paula P.; Yu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the mouse, digit tip regeneration progresses through a series of discrete stages that include inflammation, histolysis, epidermal closure, blastema formation, and redifferentiation. Recent studies reveal how each regenerative stage influences subsequent stages to establish a blastema that directs the successful regeneration of a complex mammalian structure. The focus of this review is on early events of healing and how an amputation wound transitions into a functional blastema. The stepwise formation of a mammalian blastema is proposed to provide a model for how specific targeted treatments can enhance regenerative performance in humans. PMID:27499871

  14. [Own Chemiluminescence of Planarian Neoblasts during Regeneration].

    PubMed

    Tiras, H P; Gudkov, S V; Emelyanenko, V I; Aslanidi, K B

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the kinetics of the luminescence induced by reactive oxygen species in planarians during regeneration process. It was found that regeneration is accompanied with changes in the concentration of reactive oxygen species correlating with energy-intensive processes such as oxidative stress, caused by damage to cell membranes in the dissection of the planarian, phagocytosis of dying cells and mitosis of neoblasts. We showed for the first time that there is an opportunity of registering the physiological state of pluripotent stem cells at the level of the organism in vivo. PMID:26591608

  15. [Progress on matrix metalloproteinase in axonal regeneration].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Ying; Ding, Yue-Min; Zhang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases. MMPs can degrade and remodel extracellular matrix, also active or inactive many molecules attaching to matrix including receptors, growth factors and cytokines, so that injury-induced MMPs can change the extracellular environment to affect the axonal regeneration in central nervous system. In this review, with spinal cord injury (SCI) as an example we discuss the effects of MMPs on inflammation, neuronal viability, extracellular molecules, glial scar and axonal remyelination, which are all important to axonal regeneration.

  16. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    DOEpatents

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  17. [Progress on matrix metalloproteinase in axonal regeneration].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Ying; Ding, Yue-Min; Zhang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases. MMPs can degrade and remodel extracellular matrix, also active or inactive many molecules attaching to matrix including receptors, growth factors and cytokines, so that injury-induced MMPs can change the extracellular environment to affect the axonal regeneration in central nervous system. In this review, with spinal cord injury (SCI) as an example we discuss the effects of MMPs on inflammation, neuronal viability, extracellular molecules, glial scar and axonal remyelination, which are all important to axonal regeneration. PMID:25851983

  18. Membrane reactors for continuous coenzyme regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandrey, C.; Wichmann, R.

    1982-12-01

    The importance of continuous coenzyme regeneration is discussed with respect to chemical reaction engineering. The benefit of coenzymes covalently bound to water soluble polymers is especially stressed. The performance of membrane reactors for coenzyme regeneration is discussed in comparison with other reactor concepts. The coenzyme dependent production of L-amino acids from the corresponding alpha-keto acids is used to illustrate how precise turnover numbers as a function of enzyme/coenzyme ratio, initial substrate concentration, and conversion are obtained. Thus, it becomes possible to develop a concept for optimal operating points with respect to enzyme, coenzyme, and substrate costs per unit weight of product.

  19. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A "Linked Data" Approach for the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R.; Chandler, C.; Clark, P.; Milan, A.; Mize, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; http://rvdata.us/) program is developing infrastructure to routinely document, assess, and preserve the underway sensor data from U.S. academic research vessels. The R2R master catalog of vessels, instrument systems, operating institutions, cruises, personnel, data sets, event logs, and field reports has grown to over 2,200 cruises in less than two years, and is now accessible via Web services. This catalog is of great value to peer data systems, ranging from large inter/national data centers to small disciplinary data offices, as an aid in quality controlling their own collections and finding related data from authoritative sources. R2R breaks with the tradition of stovepipe portals built around complex search interfaces tightly bound to backend databases. Instead, we have adopted a Linked Data approach to publish our catalog content, based on the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Our data model is published as a collection of W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concepts, mapped to partner vocabularies such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the pan-European SeaDataNet partnership, and our catalog content is published as collections of RDF resources with globally unique and persistent identifiers. The combination of exposing our data model, mapping local terms to community-wide vocabularies, and using reliable identifiers improves interoperability and reduces ambiguity. R2R's metric of success is the degree to which peer data systems harvest and reuse our content. R2R is working collaboratively with the NOAA National Data Centers and the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) on a range of Linked Data pilot applications, including production of ISO-compliant metadata and deployment of a RDF Query Language (SPARQL) interface. Our objective is to support a distributed, loosely federated network of

  20. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A "Linked Data" Approach for the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Milan, A.; Mize, J.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. academic research fleet is an essential mobile observing platform for ocean science. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working with the fleet community to routinely document, assess, and preserve data from the underway sensor systems on each vessel.
    The R2R facility maintains a master catalog of vessels, instrument systems, operating institutions, cruises, personnel, and data sets. In less than two years, the catalog has grown to over 2,000 cruises including unique identifiers for vessel deployments, project titles, chief scientists, dates, ports, survey targets, and navigation tracks. This master catalog is of great value to peer data systems, ranging from large national data centers to small disciplinary data offices, as an aid in organizing, extending, and quality controlling their own collections and finding related data from authoritative sources.
    R2R breaks with the tradition of stovepipe portals built around complex search interfaces tightly bound to backend databases. Instead, we have adopted a Linked Data approach to publish our catalog content, based on the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Our data model is published as a collection of W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concepts, mapped to partner vocabularies such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the pan-European SeaDataNet partnership, and our catalog content is published as collections of RDF resources with globally unique and persistent identifiers. The combination of exposing our data model, mapping local terms to community-wide vocabularies, and using reliable identifiers improves interoperability and reduces ambiguity. R2R's metric of success is the degree to which peer data systems routinely harvest and reuse our content.
    R2R is working collaboratively with the NOAA National Data Centers and the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data

  1. The substituent effect of 2-R-o-carborane on the photophysical properties of iridium(III) cyclometalates.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihyun; Lee, Young Hoon; Ryu, Ji Yeon; Lee, Junseong; Lee, Min Hyung

    2016-04-01

    A family of heteroleptic iridium(iii) cyclometalates, [4-(2-RCB)ppy]2Ir(acac) (3c-3g; CB = o-carboran-1-yl; ppy = 2-phenylpyridinato-C(2),N; acac = acetylacetonate; R = (i)Pr (3c), (i)Bu (3d), Ph (3e), CF3C6H4 (3f), C6F5 (3g)) with various 2-R substituted o-carboranes at the 4-position in the phenyl ring of the ppy ligand, were prepared. The X-ray crystal structure of all complexes, including 3a (R = H) and 3b (R = Me), showed that while the carboranyl C-C bond distance increases with the increasing steric effect of the 2-R substituent (3a-3d), the bond distance is more likely to be influenced by the electronic effect of the substituent for the 2-aryl substituted complexes (3e-3g). The absorption and emission bands of all complexes were red-shifted with respect to those of the parent (ppy)2Ir(acac) (4). While 3a-3d exhibited intense green phosphorescence with good quantum efficiency in toluene (ΦPL = 0.17-0.47), the complexes were poorly emissive in THF (ΦPL < 0.004). In a PMMA film, however, 3a-3d became substantially emissive (ΦPL = 0.11-0.14, 8 wt% Ir), albeit less emissive than 4 (ΦPL = 0.15). In contrast, the 2-aryl substituted 3e-3g were almost non-emissive in both the solution and solid states. All complexes underwent facile carborane-centered, electrochemical reduction (Eonset = -2.01 to -1.22 V). The potential values of these reductions increased with increases in the electron accepting ability of the 2-R group (H < alkyl < aryl) and were largely shifted anodically with respect to those of 4 and 5-carborane substituted complexes. This reduction behavior of 3a-3g implies that the LUMO contribution of 2-R-o-carborane units increases through the substitution at the 4-position of the ppy ligand and is influenced by the nature of the 2-R group, which may be responsible for facile carboranyl C-C bond variation leading to efficient quenching of the emissive excited states. PMID:26923990

  2. Intravital imaging of hair-cell development and regeneration in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Teixeira, Filipe; Muzzopappa, Mariana; Swoger, Jim; Mineo, Alessandro; Sharpe, James; López-Schier, Hernán

    2013-01-01

    Direct videomicroscopic visualization of organ formation and regeneration in toto is a powerful strategy to study cellular processes that often cannot be replicated in vitro. Intravital imaging aims at quantifying changes in tissue architecture or subcellular organization over time during organ development, regeneration or degeneration. A general feature of this approach is its reliance on the optical isolation of defined cell types in the whole animals by transgenic expression of fluorescent markers. Here we describe a simple and robust method to analyze sensory hair-cell development and regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line by high-resolution intravital imaging using laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM). The main advantage of studying hair-cell regeneration in the lateral line is that it occurs throughout the life of the animal, which allows its study in the most natural context. We detail protocols to achieve continuous videomicroscopy for up to 68 hours, enabling direct observation of cellular behavior, which can provide a sensitive assay for the quantitative classification of cellular phenotypes and cell-lineage reconstruction. Modifications to this protocol should facilitate pharmacogenetic assays to identify or validate otoprotective or reparative drugs for future clinical strategies aimed at preserving aural function in humans. PMID:24130521

  3. Patterns of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and neuropeptide immunoreactivity during arm regeneration in the starfish Asterias rubens

    PubMed Central

    Moss, C.

    1998-01-01

    Regeneration of the arm of the starfish, Asterias rubens (L.) (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) was examined using two preparations. The first involved regeneration of the entire arm tip and its associated sensory structures and the second examined regeneration of a small section of radial nerve cord in the mid-arm region. Cell cycle activity was investigated by incorporation of the thymidine analogue, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Details of neuroanatomy were obtained by immunocytochemistry (ICC) using an antiserum to the recently isolated starfish neuropeptide, GFNSALMFamide (S1). BrdU labelling indicated that initial events occur by morphallaxis, with cell cycle activity first apparent after formation of a wound epidermis. As regeneration proceeded, BrdU immunoreactive (IR) nuclei revealed cell cycle activity in cells at the distal ends of the radial nerve cord epidermis, in the coelomic epithelium, the perihaemal and water vascular canal epithelia, and in the forming tube feet of both preparations. By varying the time between BrdU pulses and tissue fixation, the possible migration or differentiation of labelled cells was investigated. Neuropeptide ICC indicated the extension of S1-IR nerve fibres into the regenerating area, soon after initial wound healing processes were complete. These fibres were varicose and disorganized in appearance, when compared to the normal pattern of S1-IR in the radial nerve. S1-IR was also observed in cell bodies, which reappeared in the reforming optic cushion and radial nerve at later stages of regeneration. Double labelling studies with anti-BrdU and anti-S1 showed no co-localization in these cell bodies, in all the stages examined. It appeared that S1-IR cells were not undergoing, and had not recently undergone, cell cycle activity. It cannot be confirmed whether S1-IR neurons were derived from proliferating cells of epithelial origin, or from transdifferentiation of epithelial cells, although the former mechanism is suggested

  4. Regeneration of hair cells in the mammalian vestibular system.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyan; You, Dan; Chen, Yan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-06-01

    Hair cells regenerate throughout the lifetime of non-mammalian vertebrates, allowing these animals to recover from hearing and balance deficits. Such regeneration does not occur efficiently in humans and other mammals. Thus, balance deficits become permanent and is a common sensory disorder all over the world. Since Forge and Warchol discovered the limited spontaneous regeneration of vestibular hair cells after gentamicininduced damage in mature mammals, significant efforts have been exerted to trace the origin of the limited vestibular regeneration in mammals after hair cell loss. Moreover, recently many strategies have been developed to promote the hair cell regeneration and subsequent functional recovery of the vestibular system, including manipulating the Wnt, Notch and Atoh1. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in hair cell regeneration in mammalian vestibular epithelia. Furthermore, this review highlights the current limitations of hair cell regeneration and provides the possible solutions to regenerate functional hair cells and to partially restore vestibular function.

  5. Sustainable Regeneration of Nanoparticle Enhanced Activated Carbon in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The regeneration and reuse of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC) is an appropriate method for lowering operational and environmental costs. Advanced oxidation is a promising environmental friendly technique for GAC regeneration. The main objective of this research was to ...

  6. Regeneration in spiralians: evolutionary patterns and developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Bely, Alexandra E; Zattara, Eduardo E; Sikes, James M

    2014-01-01

    Animals differ markedly in their ability to regenerate, yet still little is known about how regeneration evolves. In recent years, important advances have been made in our understanding of animal phylogeny and these provide new insights into the phylogenetic distribution of regeneration. The developmental basis of regeneration is also being investigated in an increasing number of groups, allowing commonalities and differences across groups to become evident. Here, we focus on regeneration in the Spiralia, a group that includes several champions of animal regeneration, as well as many groups with more limited abilities. We review the phylogenetic distribution and developmental processes of regeneration in four major spiralian groups: annelids, nemerteans, platyhelminths, and molluscs. Although comparative data are still limited, this review highlights phylogenetic and developmental patterns that are emerging regarding regeneration in spiralians and identifies important avenues for future research. PMID:25690976

  7. Recent Progress in Magntic Regenerator Materials and Their Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Takasu

    Our group have investigated applications of magnetic materials to refrigeration technology since 1978. We have verified that the heavy rare earth magnetic materials are very effective and useful as the regenerator material. Therefore, in the present articles I will describe the developing process of the magnetic regenerator materials briefly and will show the recenttopics. First,I will present the guideline for selecting the magnetic materials and show some typical examples of the specific heats of the promising materials. Next, I will indicate the superiority of the magnetic material from the comparison between the characteristics of the Pb regenerator and the Er3Ni magnetic regenerator. Then, in order to obtain the large refrigeration power at low temperature we have developed two layer type of magnetic regenerators which is the simplest model of the multi-layered magnetic regenerator. We will explain the developing process of those regenerators and their characteristics. Last, we will discuss briefly the advaning way of magnetic regenerator.

  8. FENTON-DRIVEN CHEMICAL REGENERATION OF MTBE-SPENT GAC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) was chemically regenerated utilizing the Fenton mechanism. Two successive GAC regeneration cycles were performed involving iterative adsorption and oxidation processes: MTBE was adsorbed to the GAC, oxidized, r...

  9. Experiments and Analysis of DPF Loading and Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishnan, Krishnan

    2000-08-20

    Particulate filter system consists of a filter and a regeneration strategy Commercial filters are very effective at removing PM, but regeneration is a challenge. In addition to removal of PM if is important to reduce other pollutants including NO, from diesel engine exhaust Particulate filter regeneration strategy can include catalysts, fuel additives, engine control, and fuel injection Regeneration 5M?-500 C without catalyst Near 350 C with fuel additive or catalyst coated DPF

  10. Advanced regenerator testing in the Raytheon dual-use cryocoolerr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Significant progress has been made on the Raytheon low cost space cryocooler called the Dual-Use Cryocooler (DUC). Most notably, the DUC has been integrated and tested with an advanced regenerator. The advanced regenerator is a drop-in replacement for stainless steel screens and has shown significant thermodynamic performance improvements. This paper will compare the performance of two different regenerators and explain the benefits of the advanced regenerator.

  11. Advanced regenerator testing in the Raytheon dual-use cryocoolerr

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2014-01-29

    Significant progress has been made on the Raytheon low cost space cryocooler called the Dual-Use Cryocooler (DUC). Most notably, the DUC has been integrated and tested with an advanced regenerator. The advanced regenerator is a drop-in replacement for stainless steel screens and has shown significant thermodynamic performance improvements. This paper will compare the performance of two different regenerators and explain the benefits of the advanced regenerator.

  12. Method for modifying trigger level for adsorber regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ruth, Michael J.; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2010-05-25

    A method for modifying a NO.sub.x adsorber regeneration triggering variable. Engine operating conditions are monitored until the regeneration triggering variable is met. The adsorber is regenerated and the adsorbtion efficiency of the adsorber is subsequently determined. The regeneration triggering variable is modified to correspond with the decline in adsorber efficiency. The adsorber efficiency may be determined using an empirically predetermined set of values or by using a pair of oxygen sensors to determine the oxygen response delay across the sensors.

  13. Regenerating America: Opportunities To Build On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, PA.

    Many communities are unaware of the power they have and are therefore unfamiliar with how to use it. This document, by the Regeneration Project in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, is directed toward helping community leaders identify and develop opportunities that will help them expand their businesses, employment, and tax base, and improve their overall…

  14. Human stem cells and articular cartilage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Inui, Atsuyuki; Iwakura, Takashi; Reddi, A Hari

    2012-11-05

    The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  15. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  16. Method and apparatus for PM filter regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Opris, Cornelius N.; Verkiel, Maarten

    2006-01-03

    A method and apparatus for initiating regeneration of a particulate matter (PM) filter in an exhaust system in an internal combustion engine. The method and apparatus includes determining a change in pressure of exhaust gases passing through the PM filter, and responsively varying an opening of an intake valve in fluid communication with a combustion chamber.

  17. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Husson, Scott M.

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  18. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  19. The Role of Schools in Area Regeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Colleen; Dyson, Alan

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence in recent Government policy in England of the emergence of a wider role for schools in relation to the neighbourhoods they serve. In particular, the National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal in England sets the work of schools within the context of an overarching regeneration strategy. The study reported here, sponsored by the…

  20. Entrepreneurship Education: Ireland's Solution to Economic Regeneration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John; Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2012-01-01

    The significance of entrepreneurship has come into sharper focus as enterprise and innovation are being flagged as solutions to regenerate the Irish economy. The Irish Innovation Task Force believes that Ireland could become an "innovation hub", attracting foreign risk capital and international and indigenous entrepreneurs to start and grow…

  1. Expression and localization of regenerating gene I in a rat liver regeneration model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jingshu; Koyota, Souichi; Zhou, Xiaoping; Ueno, Yasuharu; Ma Li; Kawagoe, Masami; Koizumi, Yukio; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro

    2009-03-13

    Regenerating gene (Reg) I has been identified as a regenerative/proliferative factor for pancreatic islet cells. We examined Reg I expression in the regenerating liver of a rat model that had been administered 2-acetylaminofluorene and treated with 70% partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH model), where hepatocyte and cholangiocyte proliferation was suppressed and the hepatic stem cells and/or hepatic progenitor cells were activated. In a detailed time course study of activation of hepatic stem cells in the 2-AAF/PH model, utilizing immunofluorescence staining with antibodies of Reg I and other cell-type-specific markers, we found that Reg I-expressing cells are present in the bile ductules and increased during regeneration. Reg I-expressing cells were colocalized with CK19, OV6, and AFP. These results demonstrate that Reg I is significantly upregulated in the liver of the 2-AAF/PH rat model, accompanied by the formation of bile ductules during liver regeneration.

  2. Demonstration and characterisation of a non-inverting all-optical read/write regenerative memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. C.; Harrison, J. A.; Blow, K. J.

    2008-09-01

    An all-optical regenerative memory device using a single loop mirror and a semiconductor optical amplifier is experimentally demonstrated. This configuration has potential for a low power all-optical stable memory device with non-inverting characteristics where packets are stored by continuously injecting the regenerated data back into the loop.

  3. Genome-wide identification of cassava R2R3 MYB family genes related to abscission zone separation after environmental-stress-induced abscission.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenbin; Yang, Yiling; Li, Yayun; Wang, Gan; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resist environmental stresses by shedding leaves in leaf pulvinus abscission zones (AZs), thus leading to adaptation to new environmental conditions. Little is known about the roles of cassava R2R3 MYB factors in regulating AZ separation. Herein, 166 cassava R2R3 MYB genes were identified. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the 166 R2R3 MYB genes could be divided into 11 subfamilies. Transcriptome analysis indicated that 26 R2R3 MYB genes were expressed in AZs across six time points during both ethylene- and water-deficit stress-induced leaf abscission. Comparative expression profile analysis of similar SOTA (Self Organizing Tree Algorithm) clusters demonstrated that 10 R2R3 MYB genes had similar expression patterns at six time points in response to both treatments. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation confirmed that all 10 R2R3 MYB genes participated in the responses to stress and ethylene and auxin stimuli. Analysis of the putative 10 R2R3 MYB promoter regions showed that those genes primarily contained ethylene- and stress-related cis-elements. The expression profiles of the genes acting downstream of the selected MYBs were confirmed to be involved in cassava abscission zone separation. All these results indicated that R2R3 MYB plays an important regulatory role in AZ separation. PMID:27573926

  4. CREB Negatively Regulates IGF2R Gene Expression and Downstream Pathways to Inhibit Hypoxia-Induced H9c2 Cardiomyoblast Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Kung; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Chang, Hsin-Nung; Pai, Pei-Ying; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Pan, Lung-Fa; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    During hypoxia, gene expression is altered by various transcription factors. Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF2) is known to be induced by hypoxia, which binds to IGF2 receptor IGF2R that acts like a G protein-coupled receptor, might cause pathological hypertrophy or activation of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is central to second messenger-regulated transcription and plays a critical role in the cardiomyocyte survival pathway. In this study, we found that IGF2R level was enhanced in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts exposed to hypoxia in a time-dependent manner but was down-regulated by CREB expression. The over-expression of CREB in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts suppressed the induction of hypoxia-induced IGF2R expression levels and reduced cell apoptosis. Gel shift assay results further indicated that CREB binds to the promoter sequence of IGF2R. With a luciferase assay method, we further observed that CREB represses IGF2R promoter activity. These results suggest that CREB plays an important role in the inhibition of IGF2R expression by binding to the IGF2R promoter and further suppresses H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell apoptosis induced by IGF2R signaling under hypoxic conditions. PMID:26610485

  5. Deletion of the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) reduces adipose cell size and protects from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Even, Patrick; Bloch-Faure, May; Guerre-Millo, Michèle; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima; Ferre, Pascal; Quignard-Boulange, Annie

    2005-04-01

    The renin-angiotensin system with its active metabolite angiotensin (Ang) II has been related not only to hypertension but also to obesity and insulin resistance. Recent evidence obtained in vitro suggests that the type 2 Ang II receptor (AT2R) mediates the trophic action of Ang II on adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis. We used AT2R(y/-) mice to delineate a potential role of AT2R in adipose tissue development and metabolism. AT2R(y/-) mice had a normal adiposity but displayed a striking adipose tissue phenotype characterized by small adipocytes and an increase in cell number. In muscle, the expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism, including fatty acid translocase, uncoupling protein-3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (alpha, delta), and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, was increased in AT2R-deficient mice. In response to high-fat feeding, these mice were protected against obesity and obesity-related glucose intolerance, as assessed by glucose tolerance tests. Moreover, lipid oxidation assessed by indirect calorimetry was higher in AT2R-deficient mice than in wild-type mice, irrespective of the diet. This suggests that AT2R-dependent signaling exerts a direct or indirect negative control on lipid utilization in muscles. These data support the idea that AT2R-dependent Ang II signaling increases adipose cell mass and glucose intolerance and thus could participate to the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet.

  6. Genome-wide identification of cassava R2R3 MYB family genes related to abscission zone separation after environmental-stress-induced abscission.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenbin; Yang, Yiling; Li, Yayun; Wang, Gan; Peng, Ming

    2016-08-30

    Cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resist environmental stresses by shedding leaves in leaf pulvinus abscission zones (AZs), thus leading to adaptation to new environmental conditions. Little is known about the roles of cassava R2R3 MYB factors in regulating AZ separation. Herein, 166 cassava R2R3 MYB genes were identified. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the 166 R2R3 MYB genes could be divided into 11 subfamilies. Transcriptome analysis indicated that 26 R2R3 MYB genes were expressed in AZs across six time points during both ethylene- and water-deficit stress-induced leaf abscission. Comparative expression profile analysis of similar SOTA (Self Organizing Tree Algorithm) clusters demonstrated that 10 R2R3 MYB genes had similar expression patterns at six time points in response to both treatments. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation confirmed that all 10 R2R3 MYB genes participated in the responses to stress and ethylene and auxin stimuli. Analysis of the putative 10 R2R3 MYB promoter regions showed that those genes primarily contained ethylene- and stress-related cis-elements. The expression profiles of the genes acting downstream of the selected MYBs were confirmed to be involved in cassava abscission zone separation. All these results indicated that R2R3 MYB plays an important regulatory role in AZ separation.

  7. Genome-wide identification of cassava R2R3 MYB family genes related to abscission zone separation after environmental-stress-induced abscission

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wenbin; Yang, Yiling; Li, Yayun; Wang, Gan; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) resist environmental stresses by shedding leaves in leaf pulvinus abscission zones (AZs), thus leading to adaptation to new environmental conditions. Little is known about the roles of cassava R2R3 MYB factors in regulating AZ separation. Herein, 166 cassava R2R3 MYB genes were identified. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the 166 R2R3 MYB genes could be divided into 11 subfamilies. Transcriptome analysis indicated that 26 R2R3 MYB genes were expressed in AZs across six time points during both ethylene- and water-deficit stress-induced leaf abscission. Comparative expression profile analysis of similar SOTA (Self Organizing Tree Algorithm) clusters demonstrated that 10 R2R3 MYB genes had similar expression patterns at six time points in response to both treatments. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation confirmed that all 10 R2R3 MYB genes participated in the responses to stress and ethylene and auxin stimuli. Analysis of the putative 10 R2R3 MYB promoter regions showed that those genes primarily contained ethylene- and stress-related cis-elements. The expression profiles of the genes acting downstream of the selected MYBs were confirmed to be involved in cassava abscission zone separation. All these results indicated that R2R3 MYB plays an important regulatory role in AZ separation. PMID:27573926

  8. Seed regeneration system integration issues and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, J.R.

    1993-12-31

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79668 funded by U.S. DOE/PETC, is conducting a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and future economic viability of an MHD system operating within an electric utility environment. The objective of this study is to prepare a site-specific conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD system or retrofit to the Scholz Generating Station, Sneads, Florida. The objective of this technical paper is to document continuing seed regeneration system application studies and the definition of seed system integration requirements for the Scholz MHD retrofit plant design. Development of a seed regeneration process with the DOE MHD Proof-of-Concept program is being accomplished by the TRW Applied Technology Division. This TRW program included the definition of a design basis for an ECONOSEED process suitable for a 300 MWt coal-fired MHD power plant. The 300 MWt ECONOSEED design basis was used to prepare a mathematical model for quantifying interface requirements between the Scholz MHD retrofit plant design and an integrated ECONOSEED regeneration system. The mathematical model was validated by comparison with the ECONOSEED 300 MWt design basis and includes: (1) Capital, operating, maintenance, and consumable cost, (2) Cost algorithms for the seed regeneration system and the seed injection system to permit evaluations of capital and operating costs as a function of plant size and operating conditions. As expected, the most significant cost driver for the seed regeneration system is the coal sulfur content and therefore the amount of sulfur that the seed system removes from the process. The seed system operating cost in mills/kWh is also sensitive to the overall power plant efficiency.

  9. Circulating Extracellular RNA Markers of Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Irene K.; Wang, Xue; Asmann, Yan W.; Haga, Hiroaki; Patel, Tushar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Although a key determinant of hepatic recovery after injury is active liver regeneration, the ability to detect ongoing regeneration is lacking. The restoration of liver mass after hepatectomy involves systemic changes with coordinated changes in gene expression guiding regenerative responses, activation of progenitor cells, and proliferation of quiescent hepatocytes. We postulated that these responses involve intercellular communication involving extracellular RNA and that these could represent biomarkers of active regenerative responses. Methods RNA sequencing was performed to identify temporal changes in serum extracellular non-coding RNA after partial hepatectomy in C57BL/6 male mice. Tissue expression of selected RNA was performed by microarray analysis and validated using qRT-PCR. Digital PCR was used to detect and quantify serum expression of selected RNA. Results A peak increase in extracellular RNA content occurred six hours after hepatectomy. RNA sequencing identified alterations in several small non-coding RNA including known and novel microRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNA, antisense and repeat elements after partial hepatectomy. Combinatorial effects and network analyses identified signal regulation, protein complex assembly, and signal transduction as the most common biological processes targeted by miRNA that altered. miR-1A and miR-181 were most significantly altered microRNA in both serum and in hepatic tissues, and their presence in serum was quantitated using digital PCR. Conclusions Extracellular RNA selectively enriched during acute regeneration can be detected within serum and represent biomarkers of ongoing liver regeneration in mice. The ability to detect ongoing active regeneration would improve the assessment of hepatic recovery from liver injury. PMID:27415797

  10. Tissue regeneration after bark girdling: an ideal research tool to investigate plant vascular development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Jing; He, Xin-Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Regeneration is a common strategy for plants to survive the intrinsic and extrinsic challenges they face through their life cycle, and it may occur upon wounding. Bark girdling is applied to improve fruit production or harvest bark as medicinal material. When tree bark is removed, the cambium and phloem will be peeled off. After a small strip of bark is removed from trees, newly formed periderm and wound cambium develop from the callus on the surface of the trunk, and new phloem is subsequently derived from the wound cambium. However, after large-scale girdling, the newly formed sieve elements (SEs) appear earlier than the regenerated cambium, and both of them derive from differentiating xylem cells rather than from callus. This secondary vascular tissue regeneration mainly involves three key stages: callus formation and xylem cell dedifferentiation; SEs appearance and wound cambium formation. The new bark is formed within 1 month in poplar, Eucommia; thus, it provides high temporal resolution of regenerated tissues at different stages. In this review, we will illustrate the morphology, gene expression and phytohormone regulation of vascular tissue regeneration after large-scale girdling in trees, and also discuss the potential utilization of the bark girdling system in studies of plant vascular development and tissue regeneration.

  11. Lizard tail skeletal regeneration combines aspects of fracture healing and blastema-based regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lozito, Thomas P; Tuan, Rocky S

    2016-08-15

    Lizards are amniotes with the remarkable ability to regenerate amputated tails. The early regenerated lizard tail forms a blastema, and the regenerated skeleton consists of a cartilage tube (CT) surrounding the regenerated spinal cord. The proximal, but not distal, CT undergoes hypertrophy and ossifies. We hypothesized that differences in cell sources and signaling account for divergent cartilage development between proximal and distal CT regions. Exogenous spinal cord implants induced ectopic CT formation in lizard (Anolis carolinensis) blastemas. Regenerated spinal cords expressed Shh, and cyclopamine inhibited CT induction. Blastemas containing vertebrae with intact spinal cords formed CTs with proximal hypertrophic regions and distal non-hypertrophic regions, whereas removal of spinal cords resulted in formation of proximal CT areas only. In fate-mapping studies, FITC-labeled vertebra periosteal cells were detected in proximal, but not distal, CT areas. Conversely, FITC-labeled blastema cells were restricted to distal CT regions. Proximal cartilage formation was inhibited by removal of periosteum and could be recapitulated in vitro by periosteal cells treated with Ihh and BMP-2. These findings suggest that proximal CTs are directly derived from vertebra periosteal cells in response to BMP and Ihh signaling, whereas distal CTs form from blastema cells in response to Shh signals from regenerated spinal cords. PMID:27387871

  12. The Transient Regeneration in the Patchy Cleaning of Rigid Gas Filters--Comparison of Modeling to Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ferer, M.V.; Dittler, A.; Kasper, G.; Smith, D.H.

    2002-09-19

    The experimental investigations performed within the scope of the present contribution are carried out in a lab scale filter test rig, which is built according to German VDI guideline 3926. The filter coupon (15 cm diameter) under investigation is mounted parallel to the crude gas channel which enables cross flow filtration as experienced in filter housings. Besides the photometric concentration monitor and the control device, an optical measuring system is mounted on the filter test rig opposite the filter coupon. This measuring system enables the full-field in situ measurement of the dust cake height distribution on the surface of the filter medium. From these measurements, we obtain the overall frequency of regeneration as well as the local frequencies of regeneration and the patch size distribution, as discussed later. In addition, we investigate the influence of the regeneration behavior on the filtration performance (time dependence of filtration cycle times and residual pressure drop) of the filter medium.

  13. Both Ox1R and Ox2R orexin receptors contribute to the cardiorespiratory response evoked from the perifornical hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Beig, Mirza I; Horiuchi, Jouji; Dampney, Roger A L; Carrive, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Orexin/hypocretin neurons are located in and around the perifornical hypothalamus. Disinhibition of this area in the anaesthetized preparation evokes cardiorespiratory changes that can be reduced to nearly half or more by systemic Almorexant, a dual receptor antagonist of the two known orexin receptors, Ox1R and Ox2R. It is not clear if these reductions result from the blockade of one receptor or both. To determine the contribution of the two receptors, we compared the effects of Almorexant to those of the selective Ox1R antagonist ACT335827 and the selective Ox2R antagonists EMPA and TCS-OX2-29. Bicuculline (20 pmol) was injected in the perifornical hypothalamus of urethane-anaesthetized rats before and after administration of the drugs (all 15 mg/kg, intravenously). The pressor, tachycardic and tachypneic responses to bicuculline were attenuated/reduced by ACT335827 (by 19%, ns; 10%, ns and 24%, P < 0.01, respectively), EMPA (by 35% P < 0.01; 6%, ns; and 26% P < 0.05) and TCS-OX2-29 (by 13%, ns; 10%, ns and 42%, P < 0.001). These reductions represented only a fraction of the reduction after Almorexant (by 43%, P < 0.001; 42%, P < 0.001 and 65% P < 0.001). However, when the selective Ox1R and Ox2R antagonists were given in combination, the reductions were greater and closer to those of Almorexant (ACT335827 + EMPA, by 26%, P < 0.05; 24%, P < 0.05 and 47%, P < 0.001; ACT335827 + TCS-OX2-29, by 40%, P < 0.01; 26%, P < 0.001 and 59%, P < 0.0001). This was particularly clear with the tachypneic response. These results suggest that both orexin receptors contribute to the cardiorespiratory response evoked from the hypothalamus under anaesthesia. They are consistent with our previous study in the conscious animal.

  14. Differential expression of TLP, ERF1, and R2R3MYB in annual Medicago species under salinity conditions.

    PubMed

    Gharaghani, F; Rafiei, F; Mirakhorli, N; Ebrahimie, E

    2015-08-21

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the responses of three annual Medicago species (M. truncatula, M. laciniata, and M. polymorpha) to salinity. We analyzed publicly available microarray data in NCBI pertaining to salinity-response genes in M. truncatula. Our data search identified Tubby C2 (TLP) and ethylene responsive transcription factor 1 (ERF1) as genes that potentially respond to salinity. We evaluated morpho-physiological traits and the expression of the genes in three Medicago species that had been maintained under control and saline conditions. The analysis of morpho-physiological traits showed that M. polymorpha and M. laciniata were more tolerant to salinity than M. truncatula, as they had lower reductions in biomass and dry root weight and lower increases in anthocyanin concentration. The saline conditions caused a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the expression of TLP in all Medicago species, but caused a significant decrease in the expression of ERF1. Considerable variation in anthocyanin concentrations was found among the three Medicago species. To investigate the cause of this variation, we examined the expression of R2R3MYB, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Our analysis showed that saline conditions induced high over-expression of R2R3MYB in all three Medicago spp. The high efficiency of the primer pairs used in qRT-PCR enabled us to compare the expression levels of each gene in the three species. We concluded that the more salt tolerant species showed higher expression of TLP and R2R3MYB under both control and salinity conditions.

  15. Multiple R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors Involved in the Regulation of Anthocyanin Accumulation in Peach Flower

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Peng, Qian; Zhao, Jianbo; Owiti, Albert; Ren, Fei; Liao, Liao; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Jiang, Quan; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin accumulation is responsible for flower coloration in peach. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of eight flavonoid-related R2R3-MYB transcription factors, designated PpMYB10.2, PpMYB9, PpMYBPA1, Peace, PpMYB17, PpMYB18, PpMYB19, and PpMYB20, respectively, in peach flower transcriptome. PpMYB10.2 and PpMYB9 are able to activate transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, whilst PpMYBPA1 and Peace have a strong activation on the promoters of proanthocyanin (PA) biosynthetic genes. PpMYB17-20 show a strong repressive effect on transcription of flavonoid pathway genes such as dihydroflavonol 4-reductase. These results indicate that anthocyanin accumulation in peach flower is coordinately regulated by a set of R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, PpMYB9 and PpMYB10.2 are closely related but separated into two groups, designated MYB9 and MYB10, respectively. PpMYB9 shows a strong activation on the PpUGT78A2 promoter, but with no effect on the promoter of PpUGT78B (commonly called PpUFGT in previous studies). In contrast, PpMYB10.2 is able to activate the PpUFGT promoter, but not for the PpUGT78A2 promoter. Unlike the MYB10 gene that is universally present in plants, the MYB9 gene is lost in most dicot species. Therefore, the PpMYB9 gene represents a novel group of anthocyanin-related MYB activators, which may have diverged in function from the MYB10 genes. Our study will aid in understanding the complex mechanism regulating floral pigmentation in peach and functional divergence of the R2R3-MYB gene family in plants.

  16. Protein phosphatase complex PP5/PPP2R3C dephosphorylates P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 and down-regulates the expression and function.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Miho; Noguchi, Kohji; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2014-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/ABCB1 is a key molecule of multidrug resistance in cancer. Protein phosphatase (PP) 2A, regulatory subunit B, gamma (PPP2R3C), which is a regulatory subunit of PP2A and PP5, was identified as a binding candidate to P-gp. Immunoprecipitation-western blotting revealed that PP5 and PPP2R3C were coprecipitated with P-gp, while PP2A was not. PP5/PPP2R3C dephosphorylated protein kinase A/protein kinase C-phosphorylation of P-gp. Knockdown of PP5 and/or PPP2R3C increased P-gp expression and lowered the sensitivity to vincristine and doxorubicin. Consequently, our results indicate that PP5/PPP2R3C negatively regulates P-gp expression and function.

  17. Dynamical analysis of R 1/□2 R cosmology: Impact of initial conditions and constraints from supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nersisyan, Henrik; Akrami, Yashar; Amendola, Luca; Koivisto, Tomi S.; Rubio, Javier

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the cosmological implications of the R □-2R nonlocal modification to standard gravity. We relax the assumption of special initial conditions in the local formulation of the theory, perform a full phase-space analysis of the system, and show that the late-time cosmology of the model exhibits two distinct evolution paths, on which a large range of values for the present equation of state can be reached. We then compare the general solutions to supernovae data and place constraints on the parameters of the model. In particular, we find that the mass parameter of the theory should be smaller than 1.2 in Hubble units.

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of RTiNO{sub 2} (R=Ce, Pr, Nd) perovskite nitride oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Spencer H.; Huang, Zhenguo; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Avdeev, Maxim; Chen, Zhixin; Dou, Shixue; Woodward, Patrick M.

    2015-03-15

    Neutron powder diffraction indicates that CeTiNO{sub 2} and PrTiNO{sub 2} crystallize with orthorhombic Pnma symmetry (Ce: a=5.5580(5), b=7.8369(7), and c=5.5830(4) Å; Pr: a=5.5468(5), b=7.8142(5), and c=5.5514(5) Å) as a result of a{sup –}b{sup +}a{sup –} tilting of the titanium-centered octahedra. Careful examination of the NPD data, confirms the absence of long range anion order in both compounds, while apparent superstructure reflections seen in electron diffraction patterns provide evidence for short range anion order. Inverse magnetic susceptibility plots reveal that the RTiNO{sub 2} (R=Ce, Pr, Nd) compounds are paramagnetic with Weiss constants that vary from −28 to −42 K. Effective magnetic moments for RTiNO{sub 2} (R=Ce, Pr, Nd) are 2.43 μ{sub B}, 3.63 μ{sub B}, and 3.47 μ{sub B}, respectively, in line with values expected for free rare-earth ions. Deviations from Curie–Weiss behavior that occur below 150 K for CeTiNO{sub 2} and below 30 K for NdTiNO{sub 2} are driven by magnetic anisotropy, spin–orbit coupling, and crystal field effects. - Graphical abstract: The structure and magnetism of the oxide nitride perovskites RTiNO{sub 2} (R=Ce, Pr, Nd) have been explored. The average symmetry is shown to be Pnma with a random distribution of oxide and nitride ions and a{sup −}b{sup +}a{sup −} tilting of the titanium-centered octahedra, but electron diffraction shows evidence for short range anion order. All three compounds are paramagnetic but deviations from the Curie Weiss law are seen below 150 K for R=Ce and below 30 K for R=Nd. - Highlights: • The oxide nitride perovskites RTiNO{sub 2} (R=Ce, Pr) have been prepared and their structures determined. • Diffraction measurements indicate short range cis-order of O and N, but no long range order. • Compounds are paramagnetic with Weiss constants that vary from −28 to −42 K. • CeTiO{sub 2}N and NdTiO{sub 2}N deviate from Curie–Weiss